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Sample records for mutations uncouple reproductive

  1. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  2. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    PubMed

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction.

  3. Excitation–contraction uncoupling by a human central core disease mutation in the ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Guillermo; O'Brien, Jennifer J.; Dirksen, Robert T.

    2001-01-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is a human congenital myopathy characterized by fetal hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness that is linked to mutations in the gene encoding the type-1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1). CCD is thought to arise from Ca2+-induced damage stemming from mutant RyR1 proteins forming “leaky” sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels. A novel mutation in the C-terminal region of RyR1 (I4898T) accounts for an unusually severe and highly penetrant form of CCD in humans [Lynch, P. J., Tong, J., Lehane, M., Mallet, A., Giblin, L., Heffron, J. J., Vaughan, P., Zafra, G., MacLennan, D. H. & McCarthy, T. V. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 4164–4169]. We expressed in skeletal myotubes derived from RyR1-knockout (dyspedic) mice the analogous mutation engineered into a rabbit RyR1 cDNA (I4897T). Here we show that homozygous expression of I4897T in dyspedic myotubes results in a complete uncoupling of sarcolemmal excitation from voltage-gated SR Ca2+ release without significantly altering resting cytosolic Ca2+ levels, SR Ca2+ content, or RyR1-mediated enhancement of dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) channel activity. Coexpression of both I4897T and wild-type RyR1 resulted in a 60% reduction in voltage-gated SR Ca2+ release, again without altering resting cytosolic Ca2+ levels, SR Ca2+ content, or DHPR channel activity. These findings indicate that muscle weakness suffered by individuals possessing the I4898T mutation involves a functional uncoupling of sarcolemmal excitation from SR Ca2+ release, rather than the expression of overactive or leaky SR Ca2+ release channels. PMID:11274444

  4. Familial melanoma-associated mutations in p16 uncouple its tumor suppressor functions

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Noah C.; Jung, Jae; Liu, Tong; Wilde, Megan; Holmen, Sheri L.; Grossman, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Familial melanoma is associated with point mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p16INK4A (p16). We recently reported that p16 regulates intracellular oxidative stress in a cell cycle-independent manner. Here, we constructed 12 different familial melanoma-associated point mutants spanning the p16 coding region and analyzed their capacity to regulate cell-cycle phase and suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS). Compared to wild-type p16 which fully restored both functions in p16-deficient fibroblasts, various p16 mutants differed in their capacity to normalize ROS and cell cycle profiles. While some mutations did not impair either function, others impaired both. Interestingly, several impaired cell-cycle (R24Q, R99P, V126D) or oxidative function (A36P, A57V, P114S) selectively, indicating that these two functions of p16 can be uncoupled. Similar activities were confirmed with selected mutants in human melanoma cells. Many mutations impairing both cell-cycle and oxidative functions, or only cell cycle function, localize to the third ankyrin repeat of the p16 molecule. Alternatively, most mutations impairing oxidative but not cell-cycle function, or those not impairing either function, lie outside this region. These results demonstrate that particular familial melanoma-associated mutations in p16 can selectively compromise these two independent tumor-suppressor functions, which may be mediated by distinct regions of the protein. PMID:23190892

  5. A Kinesin Mutation That Uncouples Motor Domains and Desensitizes the γ-Phosphate Sensor*

    PubMed Central

    Brendza, Katherine M.; Sontag, Christopher A.; Saxton, William M.; Gilbert, Susan P.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional kinesin is a processive, microtubule-based motor protein that drives movements of membranous organelles in neurons. Amino acid Thr291 of Drosophila kinesin heavy chain is identical in all superfamily members and is located in α-helix 5 on the microtubule-binding surface of the catalytic motor domain. Substitution of methionine at Thr291 results in complete loss of function in vivo. In vitro, the T291M mutation disrupts the ATPase cross-bridge cycle of a kinesin motor/neck construct, K401-4 (Brendza, K. M., Rose, D. J., Gilbert, S. P., and Saxton, W. M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 31506–31514). The pre-steady-state kinetic analysis presented here shows that ATP binding is weakened significantly, and the rate of ATP hydrolysis is increased. The mutant motor also fails to distinguish ATP from ADP, suggesting that the contacts important for sensing the γ-phosphate have been altered. The results indicate that there is a signaling defect between the motor domains of the T291M dimer. The ATPase cycles of the two motor domains appear to become kinetically uncoupled, causing them to work more independently rather than in the strict, coordinated fashion that is typical of kinesin. PMID:10767290

  6. Endocrine uncoupling of the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance in eusocial insects.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marisa A; Flatt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In most animals reproduction trades off with somatic maintenance and survival. Physiologically this trade-off is mediated by hormones with opposite effects on reproduction and maintenance. In many insects, this regulation is achieved by an endocrine network that integrates insulin-like/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), juvenile hormone (JH), and the yolk precursor vitellogenin (Vg) (or, more generally, yolk proteins [YPs]). Downregulation of this network promotes maintenance and survival at the expense of reproduction. Remarkably, however, queens of highly eusocial social insects exhibit both enormous reproductive output and longevity, thus escaping the trade-off. Here we argue - based on recent evidence - that the proximate reason for why eusocial insects can decouple this trade-off is that they have evolved a different 'wiring' of the IIS-JH-Vg/YP circuit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutation-selection balance and mixed mating with asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Marriage, Tara N; Orive, Maria E

    2012-09-07

    The effects of asexual reproduction on both the number of deleterious mutations per gamete and the mean fitness under mutation-selection balance are investigated. We use two simulation models, considering both finite and infinite populations. The two models incorporate asexual reproduction with varying levels of outcrossing and selfing, degrees of dominance and selection coefficients. The values for mean fitness and number of deleterious mutations per gamete are compared within and among finite and infinite populations to identify the effect of asexual reproduction on levels of load, and how asexual reproduction may interact with genetic drift (population size). Increasing asexual reproduction resulted in an increase in mean fitness and a decrease in the average number of deleterious mutations per gamete for both nearly recessive and additive alleles in both the infinite and finite simulations. Increased mean fitness with increasing asexuality is possibly due to two interacting forces: a greater opportunity for selection to act on heterozygous versus homozygous mutations and the shielding of a proportion of the population from meiotic mutations due to asexual reproduction. The results found here highlight the need to consider asexual reproduction along with mixed mating in models of genetic load and mutation-selection balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutation Load under Vegetative Reproduction and Cytoplasmic Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashov, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    For reasons that remain unclear, even multicellular organisms usually originate from a single cell. Here I consider the balance between deleterious mutations and selection against them in a population with obligate vegetative reproduction, when every offspring is initiated by more than one cell of a parent. The mutation load depends on the genomic deleterious mutation rate U, strictness of selection, number of cells which initiate an offspring n, and the relatedness among the initial cells. The load grows with increasing U, n and strictness of selection, and declines when an offspring is initiated by more closely related cells. If Un >> 1, the load under obligate vegetative reproduction may be substantially higher than under sexual or asexual reproduction, which may account for its rarity. In nature obligate vegetative reproduction seems to be more common and long term in taxa whose cytological features ensure a relatively low load under it. The same model also describes the mutation load under two other modes of inheritance: (1) uniparental transmission of organelles and (2) reproduction by division of multinuclear cells, where each daughter cell receives many nuclei. The load declines substantially when the deleterious mutation rate per organelle genome gets lower or when the number of nuclei in a cell sometimes drops. This may explain the small sizes of organelle genomes in sexual lineages and the presence of karyonic cycles in asexual unicellular multinuclear eukaryotes. PMID:8056318

  9. Insulin resistance uncoupled from dyslipidemia due to C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Tomlinson, Patsy; Payne, Felicity; Gast, Alexandra; Sleigh, Alison; Bottomley, William; Harris, Julie; Daly, Allan; Rocha, Nuno; Rudge, Simon; Clark, Jonathan; Kwok, Albert; Romeo, Stefano; McCann, Emma; Müksch, Barbara; Dattani, Mehul; Zucchini, Stefano; Wakelam, Michael; Foukas, Lazaros C.; Savage, David B.; Murphy, Rinki; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis. In 3 of these 4, plasma adiponectin was preserved, as in insulin receptor dysfunction. The fourth patient and her healthy mother had low plasma adiponectin associated with a potentially novel mutation, p.Asp231Ala, in adiponectin itself. Cells studied from one patient with the p.Tyr657X PIK3R1 mutation expressed abundant truncated PIK3R1 products and showed severely reduced insulin-stimulated association of mutant but not WT p85α with IRS1, but normal downstream signaling. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, mutant p85α overexpression attenuated insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, PIK3R1 C-terminal mutations impair insulin signaling only in some cellular contexts and produce a subphenotype of insulin resistance resembling INSR dysfunction but unlike AKT2 dysfunction, implicating PI3K in the pathogenesis of key components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27766312

  10. An ancient founder mutation in PROKR2 impairs human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Jeanpierre, Marc; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P; Young, Jacques; Quinton, Richard; Abreu, Ana Paula; Plummer, Lacey; Au, Margaret G; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Dwyer, Andrew A; Florez, Jose C; Cheetham, Timothy; Pearce, Simon H; Purushothaman, Radhika; Schinzel, Albert; Pugeat, Michel; Jacobson-Dickman, Elka E; Ten, Svetlana; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Gusella, James F; Dode, Catherine; Crowley, William F; Pitteloud, Nelly

    2012-10-01

    Congenital gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency manifests as absent or incomplete sexual maturation and infertility. Although the disease exhibits marked locus and allelic heterogeneity, with the causal mutations being both rare and private, one causal mutation in the prokineticin receptor, PROKR2 L173R, appears unusually prevalent among GnRH-deficient patients of diverse geographic and ethnic origins. To track the genetic ancestry of PROKR2 L173R, haplotype mapping was performed in 22 unrelated patients with GnRH deficiency carrying L173R and their 30 first-degree relatives. The mutation's age was estimated using a haplotype-decay model. Thirteen subjects were informative and in all of them the mutation was present on the same ~123 kb haplotype whose population frequency is ≤10%. Thus, PROKR2 L173R represents a founder mutation whose age is estimated at approximately 9000 years. Inheritance of PROKR2 L173R-associated GnRH deficiency was complex with highly variable penetrance among carriers, influenced by additional mutations in the other PROKR2 allele (recessive inheritance) or another gene (digenicity). The paradoxical identification of an ancient founder mutation that impairs reproduction has intriguing implications for the inheritance mechanisms of PROKR2 L173R-associated GnRH deficiency and for the relevant processes of evolutionary selection, including potential selective advantages of mutation carriers in genes affecting reproduction.

  11. A point mutation in Euglene gracilis chloroplast tRNA{sup Glu} uncouples protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Stange-Thomann, N.; Thomann, H.U.; Lloyd, A.J.; Soell, D.; Lyman, H.

    1994-08-16

    The universal precursor of tetrapyrrole pigments (e.g., chlorophylls and hemes) is 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which in Euglena gracilis chloroplasts is derived via the two-step C{sub 5} pathway from glutamate charged to tRNA{sup Glu}. The first enzyme in this pathway, Glu-tRNA reductase (GluTR) catalyzes the reduction of glutamyl-tRNA{sup Glu} (Glu-tRNA) to glutamate 1-semialdehyde (GSA) with the release of the uncharged tRNA{sup Glu}. The second enzyme, GSA-2, 1-aminomutase, converts GSA to ALA. tRNA{sup Glu} is a specific cofactor for the NADPH-dependent reduction by GluTR, an enzyme that recognizes the tRNA in a sequence-specific manner. This RNA is the normal tRNA{sup Glu}, a dual-function molecule participating both in protein and in ALA and, hence, chlorophyll biosynthesis. A chlorophyll-deficient mutant of E. gracilis (Y{sub 9}ZNaIL) does not synthesize ALA from glutamate, although it contains GluTR and GSA-2,1-aminomutase activity. The tRNA{sup Glu} isolated from the mutant can still be acrylated with glutamate in vitro and in vitro. Furthermore, it supports chloroplast protein synthesis; however, it is a poor substrate for GluTR. Sequence analysis of the tRNA and of its gene revealed a C56 {yields} U mutation in the resulting gene product. C56 is therefore an important identity element for GluTR. Thus, a point mutation in the T loop of tRNA uncouples protein from chlorophyll biosynthesis.

  12. The Slavic NBN Founder Mutation: A Role for Reproductive Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Seemanova, Eva; Varon, Raymonda; Vejvalka, Jan; Seeman, Pavel; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H.; Digweed, Martin; Resnick, Igor; Kremensky, Ivo; Saar, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Katrin; Dutrannoy, Véronique; Karbasiyan, Mohsen; Ghani, Mehdi; Barić, Ivo; Tekin, Mustafa; Kovacs, Peter; Krawczak, Michael; Reis, André; Sperling, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) are of Slavic origin and carry a deleterious deletion (c.657del5; rs587776650) in the NBN gene on chromosome 8q21. This mutation is essentially confined to Slavic populations and may thus be considered a Slavic founder mutation. Notably, not a single parenthood of a homozygous c.657del5 carrier has been reported to date, while heterozygous carriers do reproduce but have an increased cancer risk. These observations seem to conflict with the considerable carrier frequency of c.657del5 of 0.5% to 1% as observed in different Slavic populations because deleterious mutations would be eliminated quite rapidly by purifying selection. Therefore, we propose that heterozygous c.657del5 carriers have increased reproductive success, i.e., that the mutation confers heterozygote advantage. In fact, in our cohort study of the reproductive history of 24 NBS pedigrees from the Czech Republic, we observed that female carriers gave birth to more children on average than female non-carriers, while no such reproductive differences were observed for males. We also estimate that c.657del5 likely occurred less than 300 generations ago, thus supporting the view that the original mutation predated the historic split and subsequent spread of the ‘Slavic people’. We surmise that the higher fertility of female c.657del5 carriers reflects a lower miscarriage rate in these women, thereby reflecting the role of the NBN gene product, nibrin, in the repair of DNA double strand breaks and their processing in immune gene rearrangements, telomere maintenance, and meiotic recombination, akin to the previously described role of the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. PMID:27936167

  13. BRCA2 mutation carriers, reproductive factors and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Gudlaugsdottir, Sigfridur; Thorlacius, Steinunn; Jonasson, Jon G; Tulinius, Hrafn; Eyfjord, Jorunn E

    2003-01-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA genes dramatically increase the risk of breast cancer. In the general population, breast cancer risk is affected by age at menarche, by age at first birth, by the number of births and by the duration of breast feeding. Whether this is true for mutation carriers is not clear. In a case-control study, nested in a population-based cohort of the Icelandic Cancer Detection Clinic, two groups of cases were defined, matched on year of birth, on age at diagnosis and on age when giving information on reproductive factors: 100 carriers of the Icelandic founder BRCA2 mutation 999del5, and 361 BRCA2-negative cases. The mean age at diagnosis was 48 years. There were 1000 women in a matched group of unaffected controls. Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis. An increased number of births was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in BRCA2-negative cases but not in BRCA2-positive cases. A negative association between risk and duration of breast feeding was observed only in the mutation carriers. These associations were not statistically significant, but the effects of the two variables differed significantly according to mutation status (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045 for interaction with number of births and with duration of breast feeding, respectively). This was maintained when limiting the analysis to women diagnosed older than the age of 40 years. The association between breast cancer and the number of pregnancies and between breast cancer and the duration of breast feeding was not the same for carriers and noncarriers of a detrimental BRCA2 mutation. In the context of other epidemiological and laboratory studies, this may indicate that the product of the BRCA2 gene has a function relating to the differentiation of epithelial tissue in the breast.

  14. BRCA2 mutation carriers, reproductive factors and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Gudlaugsdottir, Sigfridur; Thorlacius, Steinunn; Jonasson, Jon G; Tulinius, Hrafn; Eyfjord, Jorunn E

    2003-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA genes dramatically increase the risk of breast cancer. In the general population, breast cancer risk is affected by age at menarche, by age at first birth, by the number of births and by the duration of breast feeding. Whether this is true for mutation carriers is not clear. Methods In a case–control study, nested in a population-based cohort of the Icelandic Cancer Detection Clinic, two groups of cases were defined, matched on year of birth, on age at diagnosis and on age when giving information on reproductive factors: 100 carriers of the Icelandic founder BRCA2 mutation 999del5, and 361 BRCA2-negative cases. The mean age at diagnosis was 48 years. There were 1000 women in a matched group of unaffected controls. Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis. Results An increased number of births was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in BRCA2-negative cases but not in BRCA2-positive cases. A negative association between risk and duration of breast feeding was observed only in the mutation carriers. These associations were not statistically significant, but the effects of the two variables differed significantly according to mutation status (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045 for interaction with number of births and with duration of breast feeding, respectively). This was maintained when limiting the analysis to women diagnosed older than the age of 40 years. Conclusion The association between breast cancer and the number of pregnancies and between breast cancer and the duration of breast feeding was not the same for carriers and noncarriers of a detrimental BRCA2 mutation. In the context of other epidemiological and laboratory studies, this may indicate that the product of the BRCA2 gene has a function relating to the differentiation of epithelial tissue in the breast. PMID:12927042

  15. Universal distribution of mutational effects on protein stability, uncoupling of protein robustness from sequence evolution and distinct evolutionary modes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Guilhem; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2016-01-01

    Robustness to destabilizing effects of mutations is thought of as a key factor of protein evolution. The connections between two measures of robustness, the relative core size and the computationally estimated effect of mutations on protein stability (ΔΔG), protein abundance and the selection pressure on protein-coding genes (dN/dS) were analyzed for the organisms with a large number of available protein structures including four eukaryotes, two bacteria and one archaeon. The distribution of the effects of mutations in the core on protein stability is universal and indistinguishable in eukaryotes and bacteria, centered at slightly destabilizing amino acid replacements, and with a heavy tail of more strongly destabilizing replacements. The distribution of mutational effects in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus gammatolerans is significantly shifted toward strongly destabilizing replacements which is indicative of stronger constraints that are imposed on proteins in hyperthermophiles. The median effect of mutations is strongly, positively correlated with the relative core size, in evidence of the congruence between the two measures of protein robustness. However, both measures show only limited correlations to the expression level and selection pressure on protein-coding genes. Thus, the degree of robustness reflected in the universal distribution of mutational effects appears to be a fundamental, ancient feature of globular protein folds whereas the observed variations are largely neutral and uncoupled from short term protein evolution. A weak anticorrelation between protein core size and selection pressure is observed only for surface residues in prokaryotes but a stronger anticorrelation is observed for all residues in eukaryotic proteins. This substantial difference between proteins of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is likely to stem from the demonstrable higher compactness of prokaryotic proteins. PMID:25927823

  16. Universal distribution of mutational effects on protein stability, uncoupling of protein robustness from sequence evolution and distinct evolutionary modes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Guilhem; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2015-05-01

    Robustness to destabilizing effects of mutations is thought of as a key factor of protein evolution. The connections between two measures of robustness, the relative core size and the computationally estimated effect of mutations on protein stability (ΔΔG), protein abundance and the selection pressure on protein-coding genes (dN/dS) were analyzed for the organisms with a large number of available protein structures including four eukaryotes, two bacteria and one archaeon. The distribution of the effects of mutations in the core on protein stability is universal and indistinguishable in eukaryotes and bacteria, centered at slightly destabilizing amino acid replacements, and with a heavy tail of more strongly destabilizing replacements. The distribution of mutational effects in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus gammatolerans is significantly shifted toward strongly destabilizing replacements which is indicative of stronger constraints that are imposed on proteins in hyperthermophiles. The median effect of mutations is strongly, positively correlated with the relative core size, in evidence of the congruence between the two measures of protein robustness. However, both measures show only limited correlations to the expression level and selection pressure on protein-coding genes. Thus, the degree of robustness reflected in the universal distribution of mutational effects appears to be a fundamental, ancient feature of globular protein folds whereas the observed variations are largely neutral and uncoupled from short term protein evolution. A weak anticorrelation between protein core size and selection pressure is observed only for surface residues in prokaryotes but a stronger anticorrelation is observed for all residues in eukaryotic proteins. This substantial difference between proteins of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is likely to stem from the demonstrable higher compactness of prokaryotic proteins.

  17. Universal distribution of mutational effects on protein stability, uncoupling of protein robustness from sequence evolution and distinct evolutionary modes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Faure, Guilhem; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-04-30

    Robustness to destabilizing effects of mutations is thought of as a key factor of protein evolution. The connections between two measures of robustness, the relative core size and the computationally estimated effect of mutations on protein stability (ΔΔG), protein abundance and the selection pressure on protein-coding genes (dN/dS) were analyzed for the organisms with a large number of available protein structures including four eukaryotes, two bacteria and one archaeon. The distribution of the effects of mutations in the core on protein stability is universal and indistinguishable in eukaryotes and bacteria, centered at slightly destabilizing amino acid replacements, and with a heavy tail of more strongly destabilizing replacements. The distribution of mutational effects in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus gammatolerans is significantly shifted toward strongly destabilizing replacements which is indicative of stronger constraints that are imposed on proteins in hyperthermophiles. The median effect of mutations is strongly, positively correlated with the relative core size, in evidence of the congruence between the two measures of protein robustness. However, both measures show only limited correlations to the expression level and selection pressure on protein-coding genes. Thus, the degree of robustness reflected in the universal distribution of mutational effects appears to be a fundamental, ancient feature of globular protein folds whereas the observed variations are largely neutral and uncoupled from short term protein evolution. A weak anticorrelation between protein core size and selection pressure is observed only for surface residues in prokaryotes but a stronger anticorrelation is observed for all residues in eukaryotic proteins. This substantial difference between proteins of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is likely to stem from the demonstrable higher compactness of prokaryotic proteins.

  18. A gain-of-function mutation of plastidic invertase alters nuclear gene expression with sucrose treatment partially via GENOMES UNCOUPLED1-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Takanori; Miyazaki, Nozomi; Nosaka, Ryota; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Padilla-Chacon, Daniel; Otori, Kumi; Kimura, Ayako; Tanabe, Noriaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tamoi, Masahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    Plastid gene expression (PGE) is one of the signals that regulate the expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) via GENOMES UNCOUPLED1 (GUN1)-dependent retrograde signaling. We recently isolated Arabidopsis sugar-inducible cotyledon yellow-192 (sicy-192), a gain-of-function mutant of plastidic invertase, and showed that following the treatment of this mutant with sucrose, the expression of PhANGs as well as PGE decreased, suggesting that the sicy-192 mutation activates a PGE-evoked and GUN1-mediated retrograde pathway. To clarify the relationship between the sicy-192 mutation, PGE, and GUN1-mediated pathway, plastid and nuclear gene expression in a double mutant of sicy-192 and gun1-101, a null mutant of GUN1 was studied. Plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP)-dependent PGE was markedly suppressed in the sicy-192 mutant by the sucrose treatment, but the suppression as well as cotyledon yellow phenotype was not mitigated by GUN1 disruption. Microarray analysis revealed that the altered expression of nuclear genes such as PhANG in the sucrose-treated sicy-192 mutant was largely dependent on GUN1. The present findings demonstrated that the sicy-192 mutation alters nuclear gene expression with sucrose treatment via GUN1, which is possibly followed by inhibiting PEP-dependent PGE, providing a new insight into the role of plastid sugar metabolism in nuclear gene expression.

  19. A mutation in Na(+)-NQR uncouples electron flow from Na(+) translocation in the presence of K(+).

    PubMed

    Shea, Michael E; Mezic, Katherine G; Juárez, Oscar; Barquera, Blanca

    2015-01-20

    The sodium-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) is a bacterial respiratory enzyme that obtains energy from the redox reaction between NADH and ubiquinone and uses this energy to create an electrochemical Na(+) gradient across the cell membrane. A number of acidic residues in transmembrane helices have been shown to be important for Na(+) translocation. One of these, Asp-397 in the NqrB subunit, is a key residue for Na(+) uptake and binding. In this study, we show that when this residue is replaced with asparagine, the enzyme acquires a new sensitivity to K(+); in the mutant, K(+) both activates the redox reaction and uncouples it from the ion translocation reaction. In the wild-type enzyme, Na(+) (or Li(+)) accelerates turnover while K(+) alone does not activate. In the NqrB-D397N mutant, K(+) accelerates the same internal electron transfer step (2Fe-2S → FMNC) that is accelerated by Na(+). This is the same step that is inhibited in mutants in which Na(+) uptake is blocked. NqrB-D397N is able to translocate Na(+) and Li(+), but when K(+) is introduced, no ion translocation is observed, regardless of whether Na(+) or Li(+) is present. Thus, this mutant, when it turns over in the presence of K(+), is the first, and currently the only, example of an uncoupled Na(+)-NQR. The fact the redox reaction and ion pumping become decoupled from each other only in the presence of K(+) provides a switch that promises to be a useful experimental tool.

  20. Mutations causing Greenberg dysplasia but not Pelger anomaly uncouple enzymatic from structural functions of a nuclear membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Peter; Fischer, Björn; Mann, Anuska; Mansour, Sahar; Rossier, Eva; Veen, Markus; Lang, Christine; Baasanjav, Sevjidmaa; Kieslich, Moritz; Brossuleit, Katja; Gravemann, Sophia; Schnipper, Nele; Karbasyian, Mohsen; Demuth, Ilja; Zwerger, Monika; Vaya, Amparo; Utermann, Gerd; Mundlos, Stefan; Stricker, Sigmar; Sperling, Karl; Hoffmann, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The lamin B receptor (LBR) is an inner nuclear membrane protein with a structural function interacting with chromatin and lamins, and an enzymatic function as a sterol reductase. Heterozygous LBR mutations cause nuclear hyposegmentation in neutrophils (Pelger anomaly), while homozygous mutations cause prenatal death with skeletal defects and abnormal sterol metabolism (Greenberg dysplasia). It has remained unclear whether the lethality in Greenberg dysplasia is due to cholesterol defects or altered nuclear morphology.To answer this question we characterized two LBR missense mutations and showed that they cause Greenberg dysplasia. Both mutations affect residues that are evolutionary conserved among sterol reductases. In contrast to wildtype LBR, both mutations failed to rescue C14 sterol reductase deficient yeast, indicating an enzymatic defect. We found no Pelger anomaly in the carrier parent excluding marked effects on nuclear structure. We studied Lbr in mouse embryos and demonstrate expression in skin and the developing skeletal system consistent with sites of histological changes in Greenberg dysplasia. Unexpectedly we found in disease-relevant cell types not only nuclear but also cytoplasmatic LBR localization. The cytoplasmatic LBR staining co-localized with ER-markers and is thus consistent with the sites of endogeneous sterol synthesis. We conclude that LBR missense mutations can abolish sterol reductase activity, causing lethal Greenberg dysplasia but not Pelger anomaly. The findings separate the metabolic from the structural function and indicate that the sterol reductase activity is essential for human intrauterine development.

  1. Mutations causing Greenberg dysplasia but not Pelger anomaly uncouple enzymatic from structural functions of a nuclear membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Anuska; Mansour, Sahar; Rossier, Eva; Veen, Markus; Lang, Christine; Baasanjav, Sevjidmaa; Kieslich, Moritz; Brossuleit, Katja; Gravemann, Sophia; Schnipper, Nele; Karbasyian, Mohsen; Demuth, Ilja; Zwerger, Monika; Vaya, Amparo; Utermann, Gerd; Mundlos, Stefan; Stricker, Sigmar; Sperling, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The lamin B receptor (LBR) is an inner nuclear membrane protein with a structural function interacting with chromatin and lamins, and an enzymatic function as a sterol reductase. Heterozygous LBR mutations cause nuclear hyposegmentation in neutrophils (Pelger anomaly), while homozygous mutations cause prenatal death with skeletal defects and abnormal sterol metabolism (Greenberg dysplasia). It has remained unclear whether the lethality in Greenberg dysplasia is due to cholesterol defects or altered nuclear morphology. To answer this question we characterized two LBR missense mutations and showed that they cause Greenberg dysplasia. Both mutations affect residues that are evolutionary conserved among sterol reductases. In contrast to wildtype LBR, both mutations failed to rescue C14 sterol reductase deficient yeast, indicating an enzymatic defect. We found no Pelger anomaly in the carrier parent excluding marked effects on nuclear structure. We studied Lbr in mouse embryos and demonstrate expression in skin and the developing skeletal system consistent with sites of histological changes in Greenberg dysplasia. Unexpectedly we found in disease-relevant cell types not only nuclear but also cytoplasmatic LBR localization. The cytoplasmatic LBR staining co-localized with ER-markers and is thus consistent with the sites of endogeneous sterol synthesis. We conclude that LBR missense mutations can abolish sterol reductase activity, causing lethal Greenberg dysplasia but not Pelger anomaly. The findings separate the metabolic from the structural function and indicate that the sterol reductase activity is essential for human intrauterine development. PMID:21327084

  2. Uncoupling Flight and Reproduction in Ants: Evolution of Ergatoid Queens in Two Lineages of Megalomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Christian; Adams, Rachelle M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Megalomyrmex Forel (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) consists of 44 species with diverse life history strategies. Most species are predatory and may also tend honeydew-producing insects. A morphologically derived group of species are social parasites that consume the brood and fungus garden within fungus-growing ant nests. The reproductive strategies of Megalomyrmex queens are somewhat aligned with these life-style patterns. Predatory species in the leoninus species group are large in body size and have ergatoid (i.e., permanently wingless) queens whereas the social parasitic species are smaller and typically have winged queens. We examined two ergatoid phenotypes of Megalomyrmex foreli Emery and Megalomyrmex wallacei Mann and compared them to winged species, one a social lestobiotic or “thief ant” parasite (Megalomyrmex mondabora Brandão) and the other a predator (Megalomyrmex modestus Emery). Megalomyrmex foreli colonies have a single queen with an enlarged gaster that is morphologically distinct from workers. Megalomyrmex wallacei colonies have several queens that are similar in body size to workers. Queens in both species showed a simplification of the thorax, but there was a dramatic difference in the number of ovarioles. Megalomyrmex foreli had 60–80 ovarioles compared to eight in M. wallacei and M. mondabora and M. modestus had 22–28. Along with flight loss in queens, there is an obligate shift to dependent colony founding (also called budding or fission) consequently influencing dispersal patterns. These constraints in life history traits may help explain the variation in nesting biology among Megalomyrmex species. PMID:27620557

  3. Uncoupling Flight and Reproduction in Ants: Evolution of Ergatoid Queens in Two Lineages of Megalomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Peeters, Christian; Adams, Rachelle M M

    2016-01-01

    Megalomyrmex Forel (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) consists of 44 species with diverse life history strategies. Most species are predatory and may also tend honeydew-producing insects. A morphologically derived group of species are social parasites that consume the brood and fungus garden within fungus-growing ant nests. The reproductive strategies of Megalomyrmex queens are somewhat aligned with these life-style patterns. Predatory species in the leoninus species group are large in body size and have ergatoid (i.e., permanently wingless) queens whereas the social parasitic species are smaller and typically have winged queens. We examined two ergatoid phenotypes of Megalomyrmex foreli Emery and Megalomyrmex wallacei Mann and compared them to winged species, one a social lestobiotic or "thief ant" parasite (Megalomyrmex mondabora Brandão) and the other a predator (Megalomyrmex modestus Emery). Megalomyrmex foreli colonies have a single queen with an enlarged gaster that is morphologically distinct from workers. Megalomyrmex wallacei colonies have several queens that are similar in body size to workers. Queens in both species showed a simplification of the thorax, but there was a dramatic difference in the number of ovarioles. Megalomyrmex foreli had 60-80 ovarioles compared to eight in M. wallacei and M. mondabora and M. modestus had 22-28. Along with flight loss in queens, there is an obligate shift to dependent colony founding (also called budding or fission) consequently influencing dispersal patterns. These constraints in life history traits may help explain the variation in nesting biology among Megalomyrmex species. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Mutations in the Diageotropica (Dgt) gene uncouple patterned cell division during lateral root initiation from proliferative cell division in the pericycle.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Coffeen, Warren C; Lomax, Terri L; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2006-05-01

    In angiosperms, root branching requires a continuous re-initiation of new root meristems. Through some unknown mechanism, in most eudicots pericycle cells positioned against the protoxylem change identity and initiate patterned division, leading to formation of lateral root primordia that further develop into lateral roots. This process is auxin-regulated. We have observed that three mutations in the Diageotropica (Dgt) gene in tomato prevent primordium formation. Detailed analysis of one of these mutants, dgt1-1, demonstrated that the mutation does not abolish the proliferative capacity of the xylem-adjacent pericycle in the differentiated root portion. Files of shortened pericycle cells found in dgt1-1 roots were unrelated to primordium formation. Auxin application stimulated this unusual proliferation, leading to formation of a multi-layered xylem-adjacent pericycle, but did not rescue the primordium formation. In contrast to wild type, auxin could not induce any cell divisions in the pericycle of the most distal dgt1-1 root-tip portion. In wild-type roots, the Dgt gene promoter was expressed strongly in lateral root primordia starting from their initiation, and on auxin treatment was induced in the primary root meristem. Auxin level and distribution were altered in dgt1-1 root tissues, as judged by direct auxin measurements, and the tissue-specific expression of an auxin-response reporter was altered in transgenic plants. Together, our data demonstrate that the Dgt gene product, a type-A cyclophilin, is essential for morphogenesis of lateral root primordia, and that the dgt mutations uncouple patterned cell division in lateral root initiation from proliferative cell division in the pericycle.

  5. Mutations in NLRP5 are associated with reproductive wastage and multilocus imprinting disorders in humans

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Louise E.; Rezwan, Faisal I.; Poole, Rebecca L.; Turner, Claire L. S.; Kivuva, Emma; Maher, Eamonn R.; Smithson, Sarah F.; Hamilton-Shield, Julian P.; Patalan, Michal; Gizewska, Maria; Peregud-Pogorzelski, Jaroslaw; Beygo, Jasmin; Buiting, Karin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Soellner, Lukas; Begemann, Matthias; Eggermann, Thomas; Baple, Emma; Mansour, Sahar; Temple, I. Karen; Mackay, Deborah J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Human-imprinting disorders are congenital disorders of growth, development and metabolism, associated with disturbance of parent of origin-specific DNA methylation at imprinted loci across the genome. Some imprinting disorders have higher than expected prevalence of monozygotic twinning, of assisted reproductive technology among parents, and of disturbance of multiple imprinted loci, for which few causative trans-acting mutations have been found. Here we report mutations in NLRP5 in five mothers of individuals affected by multilocus imprinting disturbance. Maternal-effect mutations of other human NLRP genes, NLRP7 and NLRP2, cause familial biparental hydatidiform mole and multilocus imprinting disturbance, respectively. Offspring of mothers with NLRP5 mutations have heterogenous clinical and epigenetic features, but cases include a discordant monozygotic twin pair, individuals with idiopathic developmental delay and autism, and families affected by infertility and reproductive wastage. NLRP5 mutations suggest connections between maternal reproductive fitness, early zygotic development and genomic imprinting. PMID:26323243

  6. Contribution of PPi-Hydrolyzing Function of Vacuolar H+-Pyrophosphatase in Vegetative Growth of Arabidopsis: Evidenced by Expression of Uncoupling Mutated Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Ferjani, Ali; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The vacuolar-type H+-pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) catalyzes a coupled reaction of pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis and active proton translocation across the tonoplast. Overexpression of H+-PPase improves growth in various plant species, and loss-of-function mutants (fugu5s) of H+-PPase in Arabidopsis thaliana have post-germinative developmental defects. Here, to further clarify the physiological significance of this important enzyme, we newly generated three varieties of H+-PPase overexpressing lines with different levels of activity that we analyzed together with the loss-of-function mutant fugu5-3. The H+-PPase overexpressors exhibited enhanced activity of H+-PPase during vegetative growth, but no change in the activity of vacuolar H+-ATPase. Overexpressors with high enzymatic activity grew more vigorously with fresh weight increased by more than 24 and 44%, compared to the wild type and fugu5-3, respectively. Consistently, the overexpressors had larger rosette leaves and nearly 30% more cells in leaves than the wild type. When uncoupling mutated variants of H+-PPase, that could hydrolyze PPi but could not translocate protons, were introduced into the fugu5-3 mutant background, shoot growth defects recovered to the same levels as when a normal H+-PPase was introduced. Taken together, our findings clearly demonstrate that additional expression of H+-PPase improves plant growth by increasing cell number, predominantly as a consequence of the PPi-hydrolyzing activity of the enzyme. PMID:27066051

  7. Reproductive decision-making in young female carriers of a BRCA mutation.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, L S; Watson, M; Moynihan, C; Bancroft, E; Evans, D G R; Eeles, R; Lavery, S; Ormondroyd, E

    2013-04-01

    How do young women, who were identified as carrying a BRCA gene mutation before they had children, approach reproductive decision-making and what are their attitudes towards reproductive genetic testing? Reproductive decision-making within the context of cancer risk is complex and influenced by personal experiences of cancer. Younger women were not concerned with reproductive decision-making at the time of their genetic test; however, the impact on subsequent reproductive decision-making was considerable and left them with unanticipated dilemmas, such as having children who would be at risk of inheriting cancer predisposition, timing risk-reducing surgery and changing perceptions of responsibility. Individuals carrying gene mutations predisposing to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer have concerns about passing on the gene mutation to children. Qualitative methodology and thematic analysis. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 25 women aged 18-45 who had received a positive result for a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation while childless. Analysis revealed four central themes: (i) the impact of cancer on reproductive decision-making; (ii) motivation for genetic testing; (iii) risk management and timing of planning children; and (iv) optimism for future medical advancements. This study explores the views of female BRCA carriers. Further research should explore the views of couples, men, and include samples with greater ethnic and social diversity. This evidence highlights the need for reproductive decision-making to be addressed at the time of pretest genetic counselling. More information should be provided on reproductive options as well as counselling/support to guide women's reproductive decision-making and prenatal testing options at the time they undertake genetic testing. This research was supported by Cancer Research UK (Number C1226 A7920) and NIHR support to the Biomedical Research Centre at The Institute of Cancer Research and RMH. The

  8. Identification of Mutations that Delay Somatic or Reproductive Aging of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Stacie E.; Huang, Cheng; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Aging is an important feature of animal biology characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in somatic and reproductive tissues. The rate of age-related degeneration is genetically controlled, since genes that influence lifespan have been identified. However, little is known about genes that affect reproductive aging or aging of specific somatic tissues. To identify genes that are important for controlling these degenerative changes, we used chemical mutagenesis to perform forward genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans. By conducting a screen focused on somatic aging, we identified mutant hermaphrodites that displayed extended periods of pharyngeal pumping, body movement, or survival. One of these mutations is a novel allele of the age-1 gene. age-1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) that functions in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway. age-1(am88) creates a missense change in the conserved PIK domain and causes dramatic extensions of the pharyngeal pumping and body movement spans, as well as a twofold extension of the lifespan. By conducting screens focused on reproductive aging in mated hermaphrodites, we identified mutants that displayed increased progeny production late in life. To characterize these mutations, we developed quantitative measurements of age-related morphological changes in the gonad. The am117 mutation delayed age-related declines in progeny production and morphological changes in the gonad. These studies provide new insights into the genetic regulation of age-related degenerative changes in somatic and reproductive tissues. PMID:21750263

  9. Mutation accumulation may only be a minor force in shaping life-history traits, even when reproduction is sexual.

    PubMed

    Dańko, Maciej Jan; Kozłowski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a previous theoretical study we investigated whether adaptive or non-adaptive processes are more important in the evolution of senescence. We built a model that combined both processes and found that mutation accumulation is important only at those ages where mortality has a negligible impact on fitness. This model, however, was limited to haploid organisms. Here we extend our model by introducing diploidy and sexual reproduction. We assume that only recessive (mutated) homozygotes experience detrimental effects. Our results corroborate our previous conclusions, confirming that life histories are largely determined by adaptive processes. We also found that the equilibrium frequencies of mutated alleles are at higher values than in haploid model, because mutations in heterozygotes are hidden for directional selection. Nevertheless, the equilibrium frequencies of recessive homozygotes that make mutations visible to selection are very similar to the equilibrium frequencies of these alleles in our haploid model. Diploidy and sexual reproduction with recombination slows down approaching selection-mutation balance.

  10. Reproductive Decision-Making in MMR Mutation Carriers After Results Disclosure: Impact of Psychological Status in Childbearing Options.

    PubMed

    Duffour, Jacqueline; Combes, Audrey; Crapez, Evelyne; Boissière-Michot, Florence; Bibeau, Frédéric; Senesse, Pierre; Ychou, Marc; Courraud, Julie; de Forges, Hélène; Roca, Lise

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive techniques such as prenatal diagnosis (PND) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), although debated, are legally forbidden in France in case of Lynch syndrome. The preference of mutation carriers about their reproductive options is not systematically considered in France. We aimed to prospectively assess the reproductive preferences of mismatch repair mutation carriers consulting in our institution (2003-2010, n = 100). We also considered the short- and long-term post-disclosure psychological impact using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised questionnaire to measure the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in those patients. Complete data were obtained for 34 respondents (17 males, 17 females, median age of 33.5 years [22-59]). Seventeen respondents (57 %) preferred spontaneous natural conception versus 28 % and 35 % choosing PND and PGD, respectively. At results disclosure, respondents mainly explained their distress by fear of premature death (43 %) and transmitting mutated genes (42 %). One year later, this last fear remained predominant in 55 % of subjects. None of the main socio-demographical, psychological or medical variables (including fear of transmitting mutations) was significantly associated with the reproductive preferences. Results disclosure had a real and time-decreasing psychological impact on mutation carriers. Reproductive techniques, expected to decrease the hereditary risk, were not significantly preferred to natural conception.

  11. Transient Uncoupling Induces Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Dutta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Sagar; Timme, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Finding conditions that support synchronization is a fertile and active area of research with applications across multiple disciplines. Here we present and analyze a scheme for synchronizing chaotic dynamical systems by transiently uncoupling them. Specifically, systems coupled only in a fraction of their state space may synchronize even if fully coupled they do not. While for many standard systems coupling strengths need to be bounded to ensure synchrony, transient uncoupling removes this bound and thus enables synchronization in an infinite range of effective coupling strengths. The presented coupling scheme therefore opens up the possibility to induce synchrony in (biological or technical) systems whose parameters are fixed and cannot be modified continuously.

  12. Mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 cause Kallmann syndrome with a wide spectrum of reproductive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Pitteloud, Nelly; Meysing, Astrid; Quinton, Richard; Acierno, James S; Dwyer, Andrew A; Plummer, Lacey; Fliers, Eric; Boepple, Paul; Hayes, Frances; Seminara, Stephanie; Hughes, Viriginia A; Ma, Jinghong; Bouloux, Pierre; Mohammadi, Moosa; Crowley, William F

    2006-07-25

    Kallmann's syndrome (KS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder consisting of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and anosmia. Mutations in KAL1 causing the X-linked form of KS have been identified in 10% of all KS patients and consistently result in a severe reproductive phenotype. KAL1 gene encodes for anosmin-1, a key protein involved in olfactory and GnRH neuronal migration through a putative interaction with FGFR1. Heterozygous mutations in the FGFR1 gene accompanied by a high frequency of cleft palate and other facial dysmorphisms were recently identified in 8% of a large KS cohort, yet the reproductive phenotype of KS patients harboring FGFR1 mutations has not been described. One hundred and fifty probands with KS (130 males and 20 females) were studied to determine the frequency and distribution of FGFR1 mutations and their detailed reproductive phenotypes. Fifteen heterozygous mutations in unrelated probands were identified. Twelve missense mutations (p.R78C, p.V102I, p.D224H, p.G237D, p.R254Q, p.V273M, p.E274G, p.Y339C, p.S346C, p.I538V, p.G703S and p.G703R) were distributed among the first, second and third immunoglobulin-like domains (D1-D3), as well as the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). The mutations Y339C and S346C are located in exon 8B and code for the isoform FGFR1c. Additionally, two nonsense mutations (p.T585X and p.R622X) were documented in the TKD of the protein. A wide spectrum of reproductive function was observed among KS probands including: (1) a severe phenotype demonstrated by microphallus, cryptorchidism, no pubertal development, undetectable serum gonadotropins and low serum testosterone (T) and inhibin B; (2) partial pubertal development; (3) the fertile eunuch variant of IHH with normal testicular size and active spermatogenesis with a reversal of HH after T therapy. In addition, we found an even wider spectrum of reproductive function within pedigrees carrying an FGFR1 mutation ranging from IHH to delayed

  13. The complexity of reproductive decision-making in asymptomatic carriers of the Huntington mutation.

    PubMed

    Decruyenaere, Marleen; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Boogaerts, Andrea; Philippe, Kristien; Demyttenaere, Koen; Dom, René; Vandenberghe, Wim; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe reproductive decisions in mutation carriers after predictive testing for Huntington's disease (HD) and to identify factors that play a role in decision-making. In 1987-2004, 245 individuals received a predictive test result; 89 of them were carriers and seven received an equivocal result. Quantitative data on reproductive behaviour have been collected during all follow-up contacts. The follow-up time in this study was 1-16 years (mean: 7.1 years). Qualitative data on reproductive decision-making have been collected by the means of semistructured interviews during the 5-year follow-up study. For 46 carriers and two persons with an equivocal result, family planning was one of the motives for predictive testing. In this group, slightly more than half of the carriers (58%) had chosen to have children with prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis and about one in three (35%) decided to have no children anymore after the test. A minority (7%) was undecided or had no children for other reasons. Factors playing a role in the decision-making process were the carrier's sex, ethical issues about PD and PGD, the strength of the desire to have children, illness representations including personal experiences with HD in the family and the technological imperative. Some of these elements were in conflict and induced ambivalence towards reproductive choices. The results illustrate the complexity of the decision-making process and the necessity of in-depth counselling. Counselling should pay special attention to conflicting values and beliefs and to all kinds of pressure.

  14. Screening of mutations in the CFTR gene in 1195 couples entering assisted reproduction technique programs.

    PubMed

    Stuppia, Liborio; Antonucci, Ivana; Binni, Francesco; Brandi, Alessandra; Grifone, Nicoletta; Colosimo, Alessia; De Santo, Mariella; Gatta, Valentina; Gelli, Gianfranco; Guida, Valentina; Majore, Silvia; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Palka, Chiara; Ravani, Anna; Rinaldi, Rosanna; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Ballone, Enzo; Venturoli, Anna; Ferlini, Alessandra; Torrente, Isabella; Grammatico, Paola; Calzolari, Elisa; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2005-08-01

    Genetic testing of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) gene is currently performed in couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques (ART), because of the high prevalence of healthy carriers in the population and the pathogenic relationship with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD). However, discordant data have been reported concerning the usefulness of this genetic test in couples with no family history of cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we report the results of CFTR molecular screening in 1195 couples entering ART. Genetic testing was initially carried out in a single partner of each couple. CFTR mutations were detected in 55 subjects (4.6%), a percentage that overlaps with the one reported in the general population. However, significantly higher frequencies of were found in CBAVD individuals (37.5%) and in males with nonobstructive azoospermia (6.6%). The 5T allele was found in 78 patients (6.5%). This figure was again significantly different in males with nonobstructive-azoospermia (9.9%) and in those with CBAVD (100%). All together, 139 subjects (11.6%) had either a CFTR mutation or the 5T allele. Subsequent molecular analysis of their partners disclosed a CFTR mutation or 5T allele in nine cases (6.5%). However, none of these couples had CFTR alterations in both members, a CFTR mutation being invariably present in one partner and the 5T allele in the other. In order to improve genetic counselling of these couples, the TG-M470V-5T association was analyzed, and a statistically significant relationship between 12TG-V470 and CBAVD was detected.

  15. Awareness and attitude regarding reproductive options of persons carrying a BRCA mutation and their partners.

    PubMed

    Gietel-Habets, J J G; de Die-Smulders, C E M; Derks-Smeets, I A P; Tibben, A; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; van Golde, R; Gomez-Garcia, E; Kets, C M; van Osch, L A D M

    2017-03-01

    To what extent are BRCA mutation carriers and their partners in the Netherlands aware about preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and prenatal diagnosis (PND) as reproductive options and what is their attitude towards these options? Awareness of PGD (66%) and PND (61%) among BRCA mutation carriers and their partners is relatively high and 80% and 26%, respectively, of BRCA carriers and their partners find offering PGD and PND for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) acceptable. Internationally, awareness of PGD among persons with a genetic cancer predisposition appears to be relatively low (35%) and although acceptability is generally high (71%), only a small proportion of mutation carriers would consider using PGD (36%). However, for HBOC, there are no studies available that investigated the perspective of individuals with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation and their partners about PGD and PND including demographic and medical correlates of awareness and acceptability. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 191 participants between July 2012 and June 2013. Participants were recruited through patient organizations (88%) and the databases of two Clinical Genetics departments in the Netherlands (12%). Male and female BRCA carriers and their partners completed an online survey, which assessed demographic and medical characteristics, and awareness, knowledge, acceptability and consideration of PGD and PND as main outcomes. Correlations between demographic and medical characteristics and the main outcomes were investigated. The majority of respondents were female (87%), of reproductive age (86%) and about half reported a desire for a child in the future. About two-thirds (66%) were aware of PGD and 61% of PND for HBOC. PGD knowledge was moderate (5.5 on a 9-point scale) and acceptability of PGD and PND for HBOC was 80% and 26%, respectively. A minority would personally consider using PGD (39%) or PND (20%). Individuals with a higher educational level were more

  16. Alterations in the frequency of trinucleotide repeat dynamic mutations in offspring conceived through assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying-Ming; Li, Li; Zhou, Li-Ming; Le, Fang; Cai, Li-Yi; Yu, Ping; Zhu, Yu-Rong; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Wang, Li-Ya; Li, Le-Jun; Lou, Yi-Yun; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Lou, Hang-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng; Jin, Fan

    2013-09-01

    How does the frequency of trinucleotide repeat dynamic mutations in offspring conceived through assisted reproductive technology (ART) compare with the frequency of these mutations in control offspring conceived from spontaneous pregnancies? There is a slight increase in dynamic mutation instability in offspring conceived through ART compared with the naturally conceived offspring. There is evidence to suggest that ART can increase the risk of birth defects and karyotypic abnormalities. However, the accumulating evidence of an association between ART and de novo genetic aberrations is controversial. A prospective clinical observational study was performed on 246 families recruited from an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) centre at a tertiary-care, university-affiliated teaching hospital from 2008 to 2012. The study included 147 ART families [75 IVF and 72 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)] in the study group and 99 natural-conception families in the control group. Parental, umbilical cord and infant peripheral blood samples were collected, and the trinucleotide repeats of the ATN1, AR, ATXN1, ATXN3, Huntington, DMPK and FMR-1 genes were investigated between the generations; these genes were chosen due to their ability to undergo dynamic mutation. The frequencies and sizes of the mutational repeats, as well as the intergenerational instability, were measured. In 2466 transmissions identified in the ART offspring, 2.11% (n = 52/2466) of the alleles were unstable upon transmission, while in the control group offspring, the frequency of dynamic mutation was 0.77% (n = 10/1300); this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The unstable transmission alleles were detected in 32 (2.48%) of the 1288 alleles from the IVF offspring and in 20 (1.70%) of the 1178 alleles from the ICSI offspring; both of these frequencies were significantly different from that of naturally conceived offspring (0.77%) (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). However, there were no

  17. Mutations and polymorphisms in FSH receptor: functional implications in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Desai, Swapna S; Roy, Binita Sur; Mahale, Smita D

    2013-12-01

    FSH brings about its physiological actions by activating a specific receptor located on target cells. Normal functioning of the FSH receptor (FSHR) is crucial for follicular development and estradiol production in females and for the regulation of Sertoli cell function and spermatogenesis in males. In the last two decades, the number of inactivating and activating mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and spliced variants of FSHR gene has been identified in selected infertile cases. Information on genotype-phenotype correlation and in vitro functional characterization of the mutants has helped in understanding the possible genetic cause for female infertility in affected individuals. The information is also being used to dissect various extracellular and intracellular events involved in hormone-receptor interaction by studying the differences in the properties of the mutant receptor when compared with WT receptor. Studies on polymorphisms in the FSHR gene have shown variability in clinical outcome among women treated with FSH. These observations are being explored to develop molecular markers to predict the optimum dose of FSH required for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Pharmacogenetics is an emerging field in this area that aims at designing individual treatment protocols for reproductive abnormalities based on FSHR gene polymorphisms. The present review discusses the current knowledge of various genetic alterations in FSHR and their impact on receptor function in the female reproductive system.

  18. Male and female differential reproductive rate could explain parental transmission asymmetry of mutation origin in Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Amiel, Jeanne; Pelet, Anna; Lantieri, Francesca; Fernandez, Raquel M; Verheij, Joke B G M; Garcia-Barcelo, Merce; Arnold, Stacey; Ceccherini, Isabella; Borrego, Salud; Hofstra, Robert M W; Tam, Paul K H; Munnich, Arnold; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2012-09-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, aganglionic megacolon) is a complex and heterogeneous disease with an incidence of 1 in 5000 live births. Despite the multifactorial determination of HSCR in the vast majority of cases, there is a monogenic subgroup for which private rare RET coding sequence mutations with high penetrance are found (45% of HSCR familial cases). An asymmetrical parental origin is observed for RET coding sequence mutations with a higher maternal inheritance. A parent-of-origin effect is usually assumed. Here we show that a differential reproductive rate for males and females also leads to an asymmetrical parental origin, which was never considered as a possible explanation till now. In the case of HSCR, we show a positive association between penetrance of the mutation and parental transmission asymmetry: no parental transmission asymmetry is observed in sporadic RET CDS mutation carrier cases for which penetrance of the mutation is low, whereas a parental transmission asymmetry is observed in affected sib-pairs for which penetrance of the mutation is higher. This allows us to conclude that the explanation for this parental asymmetry is that more severe mutations have resulted in a differential reproductive rate between male and female carriers.

  19. Uncoupling of Obesity from Insulin Resistance Through a Targeted Mutation in aP2, the Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Johnson, Randall S.; Distel, Robert J.; Ellis, Ramsey; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1996-11-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytoplasmic proteins that are expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner and bind to fatty acids such as oleic and retinoic acid. Mice with a null mutation in aP2, the gene encoding the adipocyte FABP, were developmentally and metabolically normal. The aP2-deficient mice developed dietary obesity but, unlike control mice, they did not develop insulin resistance or diabetes. Also unlike their obese wild-type counterparts, obese aP2-/- animals failed to express in adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a molecule implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance. These results indicate that aP2 is central to the pathway that links obesity to insulin resistance, possibly by linking fatty acid metabolism to expression of TNF-α.

  20. Fanconi anemia group J mutation abolishes its DNA repair function by uncoupling DNA translocation from helicase activity or disruption of protein-DNA complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuliang; Sommers, Joshua A.; Suhasini, Avvaru N.; Leonard, Thomas; Deakyne, Julianna S.; Mazin, Alexander V.; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Kitao, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and susceptibility to leukemia and other cancers. FANCJ, one of 13 genes linked to FA, encodes a DNA helicase proposed to operate in homologous recombination repair and replicational stress response. The pathogenic FANCJ-A349P amino acid substitution resides immediately adjacent to a highly conserved cysteine of the iron-sulfur domain. Given the genetic linkage of the FANCJ-A349P allele to FA, we investigated the effect of this particular mutation on the biochemical and cellular functions of the FANCJ protein. Purified recombinant FANCJ-A349P protein had reduced iron and was defective in coupling adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and translocase activity to unwinding forked duplex or G-quadruplex DNA substrates or disrupting protein-DNA complexes. The FANCJ-A349P allele failed to rescue cisplatin or telomestatin sensitivity of a FA-J null cell line as detected by cell survival or γ-H2AX foci formation. Furthermore, expression of FANCJ-A349P in a wild-type background exerted a dominant-negative effect, indicating that the mutant protein interferes with normal DNA metabolism. The ability of FANCJ to use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to produce the force required to unwind DNA or destabilize protein bound to DNA is required for its role in DNA repair. PMID:20639400

  1. Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from ten studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong; He, Zhongyuan; Ling, Lijun; Ding, Qiang; Chen, Lin; Zha, Xiaoming; Zhou, Wenbin; Liu, Xiaoan; Wang, Shui

    2014-02-01

    Although reproductive factors are among the most well-established risk factors for breast cancer in the general population, it is still a matter for debate whether these factors act as risk modifiers among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. This meta-analysis is the first to be performed to determine the relationship between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We searched the PubMed database up to February 2013. A total of ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that the reproductive factors may be associated with breast cancer risk only among BRCA1 mutation carriers. No association was found between parity and breast cancer risk. Compared with women at the youngest age in the first-birth category, women in the oldest age category were at a 38% lower risk of breast cancer (RR=0.62, 95%CI=0.45-0.85). Breastfeeding for at least 1 or 2 years was associated with a 37% reduction in breast cancer risk (RR=0.63, 95%CI=0.46-0.86). Women at the oldest age in the menarche category were at a 34% lower risk of breast cancer (RR=0.66, 95%CI=0.53-0.81) than women in the youngest age category. However, none of the reproductive factors were associated with breast cancer risk among BRCA2 mutation carriers. In conclusion, late age at first birth, breastfeeding, and late age at menarche protect against breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers only. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanisms.

  2. Energy conservation and uncoupling in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Y

    1975-01-01

    Energy conservation and uncoupling in mitochondria are examined in the light of three important new findings: (a) Studies with the photoaffinity-labeling uncoupler 2-azido-4-nitrophenol have shown that mitochondria contain a specific uncoupler binding site (apparently a polypeptide of Mr = 30,000 +/- 10%). (b) This site fractionates into an enzyme complex (complex V), which is capable of oligomycin- and uncoupler-sensitive ATP-Pi exchange. It is absent from electron transfer complexes I, III, and IV, which represent segments of the respiratory chain containing coupling sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively. (c) Trinitrophenol is a membrane-impermeable uncoupler (uncouples submitochondrial particles, but not mitochondria) and a poor protonophore. There is an excellent correlation between the uncoupling potencies and the affinities of uncouplers for the mitochondrial uncoupler-binding site. There is no correlation between uncoupling potency and protonophoric activity of uncouplers when a membrane-permeable uncoupler is compared with a membrane-impermeable one.

  3. The role of SF1 in adrenal and reproductive function: insight from naturally occurring mutations in humans.

    PubMed

    Ozisik, Gokhan; Achermann, John C; Jameson, J Larry

    2002-06-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 is a monomeric orphan nuclear receptor and one of several hundreds of transcription factors encoded in the human genome. It regulates the transcription of many genes involved in gonadal development, sexual differentiation, steroidogenesis and reproduction. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding SF1 have been identified in several patients with primary adrenal failure and 46,XY sex-reversal. Interpreting the consequences of these mutations provides further understanding of transcription factor haploinsufficiency in human genetic disease as well as the exquisite sensitivity of humans to gene-dosage effects during adrenal and gonadal development. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  4. The role of the prokineticin 2 pathway in human reproduction: evidence from the study of human and murine gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cecilia; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Dwyer, Andrew A; Au, Margaret G; Sidis, Yisrael; Kaiser, Ursula B; Seminara, Stephanie B; Pitteloud, Nelly; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Crowley, William F

    2011-04-01

    A widely dispersed network of hypothalamic GnRH neurons controls the reproductive axis in mammals. Genetic investigation of the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency has revealed several key genes crucial for GnRH neuronal ontogeny and GnRH secretion. Among these genes, prokineticin 2 (PROK2), and PROK2 receptor (PROKR2) have recently emerged as critical regulators of reproduction in both mice and humans. Both prok2- and prokr2-deficient mice recapitulate the human Kallmann syndrome phenotype. Additionally, PROK2 and PROKR2 mutations are seen in humans with Kallmann syndrome, thus implicating this pathway in GnRH neuronal migration. However, PROK2/PROKR2 mutations are also seen in normosmic GnRH deficiency, suggesting a role for the prokineticin signaling system in GnRH biology that is beyond neuronal migration. This observation is particularly surprising because mature GnRH neurons do not express PROKR2. Moreover, mutations in both PROK2 and PROKR2 are predominantly detected in the heterozygous state with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity frequently seen within and across pedigrees. In some of these pedigrees, a "second hit" or oligogenicity has been documented. Besides reproduction, a pleiotropic physiological role for PROK2 is now recognized, including regulation of pain perception, circadian rhythms, hematopoiesis, and immune response. Therefore, further detailed clinical studies of patients with PROK2/PROKR2 mutations will help to map the broader biological role of the PROK2/PROKR2 pathway and identify other interacting genes/proteins that mediate its molecular effects in humans.

  5. A domestication related mutation in the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) modulates photoperiodic response and reproduction in chickens.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Fallahshahroudi, Amir; Johnsen, Hanna; Hagenblad, Jenny; Wright, Dominic; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2016-03-01

    The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) has been suggested to be a "domestication locus" in the chicken. A strong selective sweep over TSHR in domestic breeds together with significant effects of a mutation in the gene on several domestication related traits, indicate that the gene has been important for chicken domestication. TSHR plays a key role in the signal transduction of seasonal reproduction, which is characteristically less strict in domestic animals. We used birds from an advanced intercross line between ancestral Red Junglefowl (RJF) and domesticated White Leghorn (WL) to investigate effects of the mutation on reproductive traits as well as on TSHB, TSHR, DIO2 and DIO3 gene expression during altered day length (photoperiod). We bred chickens homozygous for either the mutation (d/d) or wild type allele (w/w), allowing assessment of the effect of genotype at this locus while also controlling for background variation in the rest of the genome. TSHR gene expression in brain was significantly lower in both d/d females and males and d/d females showed a faster onset of egg laying at sexual maturity than w/w. Furthermore, d/d males showed a reduced testicular size response to decreased day length, and lower levels of TSHB and DIO3 expression. Additionally, purebred White Leghorn females kept under natural short day length in Sweden during December had active ovaries and lower levels of TSHR and DIO3 expression compared to Red Junglefowl females kept under similar conditions. Our study indicates that the TSHR mutation affects photoperiodic response in chicken by reducing dependence of seasonal reproduction, a typical domestication feature, and may therefore have been important for chicken domestication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of the Prokineticin 2 Pathway in Human Reproduction: Evidence from the Study of Human and Murine Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cecilia; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Dwyer, Andrew A.; Au, Margaret G.; Sidis, Yisrael; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Pitteloud, Nelly; Zhou, Qun-Yong

    2011-01-01

    A widely dispersed network of hypothalamic GnRH neurons controls the reproductive axis in mammals. Genetic investigation of the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency has revealed several key genes crucial for GnRH neuronal ontogeny and GnRH secretion. Among these genes, prokineticin 2 (PROK2), and PROK2 receptor (PROKR2) have recently emerged as critical regulators of reproduction in both mice and humans. Both prok2- and prokr2-deficient mice recapitulate the human Kallmann syndrome phenotype. Additionally, PROK2 and PROKR2 mutations are seen in humans with Kallmann syndrome, thus implicating this pathway in GnRH neuronal migration. However, PROK2/PROKR2 mutations are also seen in normosmic GnRH deficiency, suggesting a role for the prokineticin signaling system in GnRH biology that is beyond neuronal migration. This observation is particularly surprising because mature GnRH neurons do not express PROKR2. Moreover, mutations in both PROK2 and PROKR2 are predominantly detected in the heterozygous state with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity frequently seen within and across pedigrees. In some of these pedigrees, a “second hit” or oligogenicity has been documented. Besides reproduction, a pleiotropic physiological role for PROK2 is now recognized, including regulation of pain perception, circadian rhythms, hematopoiesis, and immune response. Therefore, further detailed clinical studies of patients with PROK2/PROKR2 mutations will help to map the broader biological role of the PROK2/PROKR2 pathway and identify other interacting genes/proteins that mediate its molecular effects in humans. PMID:21037178

  7. ‘My funky genetics’: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers’ understanding of genetic inheritance and reproductive merger in the context of new repro-genetic technologies

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Lisa R.; Doyle, Maya; Stern, Rikki; Savin, Katie; Hurley, Karen; Sagi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Deleterious mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes elevate lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Each child of a mutation-positive parent has a 50% chance of inheriting it. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) permits prospective parents to avoid transmitting a BRCA1/2 mutation to a child, introducing predictability into a process historically defined by chance. This investigation explored how BRCA1/2 mutation carriers understand genetic inheritance and consider a child’s inheritance of a BRCA1/2 mutation, given the opportunities that exist to pursue PGD. METHOD 39 female and male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers of reproductive age were recruited from urban cancer and reproductive medical centers. Participants completed a standardized educational presentation on PGD and prenatal diagnosis, with pre- and post-test assessments. An interdisciplinary team of qualitative researchers analyzed data using grounded theory techniques. FINDINGS Participants expressed the belief that reproduction yields children with unique genetic strengths and challenges, including the BRCA1/2 mutation, family traits for which predictive tests do not exist, and hypothetical genetic risks. Participants expressed preference for biologically-related children, yet stated their genetically ‘well’ partner’s lineage would be marred through reproductive merger, requiring the well partner to assume the burden of the BRCA1/2 mutation via their children. Participants expressed diverse views of genetically ‘well’ partners’ participation in family planning and risk management decisions. DISCUSSION Pressure to use reprogenetic technology may grow as genetic susceptibility testing becomes more widely available. Work with individuals and couples across the disease spectrum must be attuned to they ways beliefs about genetic inheritance play into reproductive decision making. PMID:22709328

  8. The impact of FMR1 gene mutations on human reproduction and development: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Noto, Vincenzo; Harrity, Conor; Walsh, David; Marron, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    This is a comprehensive review of the literature in this field attempting to put the FMR1 gene and its evaluation into context, both in general and for the reproductive health audience. Online database search of publications with systematic review of all papers relevant to ovarian reserve and assisted reproduction was done. Relevant papers were identified and assessed, and an attempt was made to understand, rationalize and explain the divergent views in this field of study. Seminal and original illustrations were employed. FMR1 is a highly conserved gene whose interpretation and effect on outcomes remains controversial in the reproductive health setting. Recent re-evaluations of the commonly accepted normal range have yielded interesting tools for possibly explaining unexpected outcomes in assisted reproduction. Fragile X investigations should perhaps become more routinely assessed in the reproductive health setting, particularly following a failed treatment cycle where oocyte quality is thought to be a contributing factor, or in the presence of a surprise finding of diminished ovarian reserve in a young patient.

  9. The impact of reproductive life on breast cancer risk in women with family history or BRCA mutation.

    PubMed

    Toss, Angela; Grandi, Giovanni; Cagnacci, Angelo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Pavesi, Silvia; De Matteis, Elisabetta; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Tomasello, Chiara; Cascinu, Stefano; Cortesi, Laura

    2017-02-07

    Reproductive history and exogenous hormonal exposures are acknowledged risk factors for breast cancer in the general population. In women at increased breast cancer risk for genetic predisposition or positive family history, data regarding these risk factors are limited or conflicting, and recommendations for these categories are unclear. We evaluated the characteristics of reproductive life in 2522 women at increased genetic or familial breast cancer risk attending our Family Cancer Center. Breast cancers in BRCA mutation carriers were more likely to be hormone receptor negative, diagnosed at 35 years or before and multiple during the lifetime than tumors in women at increased familial risk, while the distribution of invasive cancers and HER2 positive tumors was similar in the different risk groups. At least one full-term pregnancy (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.12-0.58; p = 0.001), breastfeeding either less (HR 0.24; 95% CI 0.09-0.66; p = 0.005) or more (HR 0.25; 95% IC 0.08-0.82; p = 0.022) than one year and late age at menopause (HR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01-0.82; p = 0.033) showed to be protective factors in BRCA mutation carriers, while in women at increased familial risk early age at first full-term pregnancy (HR 0.62; 95% IC 0.38-0.99; p = 0.048) and late menarche (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42-0.85; p = 0.004) showed to be the main protective factors. Finally, for the entire population, combined hormonal contraceptives demonstrated to do not increase breast cancer risk. The results of our study suggest that women at high familial risk and mutation carries develop tumors with different clinical-pathological characteristics and, consequently, are influenced by different protective and risk factors.

  10. Reproductive factors and risk of contralateral breast cancer by BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status: results from the WECARE study.

    PubMed

    Poynter, Jenny N; Langholz, Bryan; Largent, Joan; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Bernstein, Leslie; Malone, Kathleen E; Lynch, Charles F; Borg, Ake; Concannon, Patrick; Teraoka, Sharon N; Xue, Shanyan; Diep, Anh T; Törngren, Therese; Begg, Colin B; Capanu, Marinela; Haile, Robert W; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2010-06-01

    Reproductive factors, such as early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and nulliparity are known risk factors for breast cancer. Previously, we reported these factors to be associated with risk of developing contralateral breast cancer (CBC). In this study, we evaluated the association between these factors and CBC risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation carriers and non-carriers. The WECARE Study is a population-based multi-center case-control study of 705 women with CBC (cases) and 1,397 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). All participants were screened for BRCA1/2 mutations and 181 carriers were identified. Conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between reproductive factors and CBC for mutation carriers and non-carriers. None of the associations between reproductive factors and CBC risk differed between mutation carriers and non-carriers. The increase in risk with younger age at menarche and decrease in risk in women with more than two full-term pregnancies seen in non-carriers were not significantly different in carriers (adjusted RRs = 1.31, 95% CI 0.65-2.65 and 0.53, 95% CI 0.19-1.51, respectively). No significant associations between the other reproductive factors and CBC risk were observed in mutation carriers or non-carriers. For two reproductive factors previously shown to be associated with CBC risk, we observed similar associations for BRCA1/2 carriers. This suggests that reproductive variables that affect CBC risk may have similar effects in mutation carriers and non-carriers.

  11. Uncoupling Mitochondrial Respiration for Diabesity.

    PubMed

    Larrick, James W; Larrick, Jasmine W; Mendelsohn, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Until recently, the mechanism of adaptive thermogenesis was ascribed to the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown and beige adipocytes. UCP1 is known to catalyze a proton leak of the inner mitochondrial membrane, resulting in uncoupled oxidative metabolism with no production of adenosine triphosphate and increased energy expenditure. Thus increasing brown and beige adipose tissue with augmented UCP1 expression is a viable target for obesity-related disorders. Recent work demonstrates an UCP1-independent pathway to uncouple mitochondrial respiration. A secreted enzyme, PM20D1, enriched in UCP1+ adipocytes, exhibits catalytic and hydrolytic activity to reversibly form N-acyl amino acids. N-acyl amino acids act as endogenous uncouplers of mitochondrial respiration at physiological concentrations. Administration of PM20D1 or its products, N-acyl amino acids, to diet-induced obese mice improves glucose tolerance by increasing energy expenditure. In short-term studies, treated animals exhibit no toxicity while experiencing 10% weight loss primarily of adipose tissue. Further study of this metabolic pathway may identify novel therapies for diabesity, the disease state associated with diabetes and obesity.

  12. A new uncoupling protein: a potential component of the human body weight regulation system.

    PubMed

    Wolf, G

    1997-05-01

    A mitochondrial protein that uncouples the respiratory chain from oxidative phosphorylation and generates heat is found in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rodents. Although humans have little BAT, a second uncoupling protein has been discovered that is widely distributed in human tissues. It is induced in mice by a high-fat diet and in mice with obese mutations, and may play a role in human body weight regulation.

  13. Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhee; Hodgins, Douglas; Calvert, Jay G.; Welch, Siao-Kun W.; Jolie, Rika; Yoo, Dongwan . E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

    2006-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a

  14. Synchronizing noisy nonidentical oscillators by transient uncoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Aditya Mannattil, Manu; Schröder, Malte; Timme, Marc; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2016-09-15

    Synchronization is the process of achieving identical dynamics among coupled identical units. If the units are different from each other, their dynamics cannot become identical; yet, after transients, there may emerge a functional relationship between them—a phenomenon termed “generalized synchronization.” Here, we show that the concept of transient uncoupling, recently introduced for synchronizing identical units, also supports generalized synchronization among nonidentical chaotic units. Generalized synchronization can be achieved by transient uncoupling even when it is impossible by regular coupling. We furthermore demonstrate that transient uncoupling stabilizes synchronization in the presence of common noise. Transient uncoupling works best if the units stay uncoupled whenever the driven orbit visits regions that are locally diverging in its phase space. Thus, to select a favorable uncoupling region, we propose an intuitive method that measures the local divergence at the phase points of the driven unit's trajectory by linearizing the flow and subsequently suppresses the divergence by uncoupling.

  15. Achromatic and uncoupled medical gantry

    DOEpatents

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos [Center Moriches, NY; Kayran, Dmitry [Rocky Point, NY; Litvinenko, Vladimir [Mt. Sinai, NY; MacKay, William W [Wading River, NY

    2011-11-22

    A medical gantry that focus the beam from the beginning of the gantry to the exit of the gantry independent of the rotation angle of the gantry by keeping the beam achromatic and uncoupled, thus, avoiding the use of collimators or rotators, or additional equipment to control the beam divergence, which may cause beam intensity loss or additional time in irradiation of the patient, or disadvantageously increase the overall gantry size inapplicable for the use in the medical treatment facility.

  16. A Novel Environmental Azole Resistance Mutation in Aspergillus fumigatus and a Possible Role of Sexual Reproduction in Its Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Snelders, Eveline; Zwaan, Bas J.; Schoustra, Sijmen E.; van Dijk, Karin; Hagen, Ferry; van der Beek, Martha T.; Kampinga, Greetje A.; Zoll, Jan; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Verweij, Paul E.; Debets, Alfons J. M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the dynamics of Aspergillus fumigatus azole-resistant phenotypes in two compost heaps with contrasting azole exposures: azole free and azole exposed. After heat shock, to which sexual but not asexual spores are highly resistant, the azole-free compost yielded 98% (49/50) wild-type and 2% (1/50) azole-resistant isolates, whereas the azole-containing compost yielded 9% (4/45) wild-type and 91% (41/45) resistant isolates. From the latter compost, 80% (36/45) of the isolates contained the TR46/Y121F/T289A genotype, 2% (1/45) harbored the TR46/Y121F/M172I/T289A/G448S genotype, and 9% (4/45) had a novel pan-triazole-resistant mutation (TR463/Y121F/M172I/T289A/G448S) with a triple 46-bp promoter repeat. Subsequent screening of a representative set of clinical A. fumigatus isolates showed that the novel TR463 mutant was already present in samples from three Dutch medical centers collected since 2012. Furthermore, a second new resistance mutation was found in this set that harbored four TR46 repeats. Importantly, in the laboratory, we recovered the TR463 mutation from a sexual cross between two TR46 isolates from the same azole-containing compost, possibly through unequal crossing over between the double tandem repeats (TRs) during meiosis. This possible role of sexual reproduction in the emergence of the mutation was further implicated by the high level of genetic diversity of STR genotypes in the azole-containing compost. Our study confirms that azole resistance mutations continue to emerge in the environment and indicates compost containing azole residues as a possible hot spot. Better insight into the biology of environmental resistance selection is needed to retain the azole class for use in food production and treatment of Aspergillus diseases. PMID:28655821

  17. Mitochondrial uncouplers with an extraordinary dynamic range

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Phing-How; Hansen, Birgit S.; Olsen, Preben H.; Tullin, Søren; Murphy, Michael P.; Brand, Martin D.

    2007-01-01

    We have discovered that some weak uncouplers (typified by butylated hydroxytoluene) have a dynamic range of more than 106 in vitro: the concentration giving measurable uncoupling is less than one millionth of the concentration causing full uncoupling. They achieve this through a high-affinity interaction with the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase that causes significant but limited uncoupling at extremely low uncoupler concentrations, together with more conventional uncoupling at much higher concentrations. Uncoupling at the translocase is not by a conventional weak acid/anion cycling mechanism since it is also caused by substituted triphenylphosphonium molecules, which are not anionic and cannot protonate. Covalent attachment of the uncoupler to a mitochondrially targeted hydrophobic cation sensitizes it to membrane potential, giving a small additional effect. The wide dynamic range of these uncouplers in isolated mitochondria and intact cells reveals a novel allosteric activation of proton transport through the adenine nucleotide translocase and provides a promising starting point for designing safer uncouplers for obesity therapy. PMID:17608618

  18. Uncouple my heart: the benefits of inefficiency.

    PubMed

    Modrianský, Martin; Gabrielová, Eva

    2009-04-01

    Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury leads to structural changes in the heart muscle later followed by functional decline due to progressive fibrous replacement. Hence approaches to minimize IR injury are devised, including ischemic pre-and postconditioning. Mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is one of the mechanisms suggested to be cardioprotective as chemical uncoupling mimics ischemic preconditioning. Uncoupling protein 2 is proposed to be the physiological counterpart of chemical uncouplers and is thought to be a part of the protective machinery of cardiomyocytes. Morphological changes in the mitochondrial network likely accompany the uncoupling with mitochondrial fission dampening the signals leading to cardiomyocyte death. Here we review recent data on the role of uncoupling in cardioprotection and propose that low concentrations of dietary polyphenols may elicit the same cardioprotective effect as dinitrophenol and FCCP, perhaps accounting for the famed "French paradox".

  19. Mutational analysis of the coding region of the uncoupling protein 2 gene in obese NIDDM patients: impact of a common amino acid polymorphism on juvenile and maturity onset forms of obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Urhammer, S A; Dalgaard, L T; Sørensen, T I; Møller, A M; Andersen, T; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Hansen, T; Clausen, J O; Vestergaard, H; Pedersen, O

    1997-10-01

    Recently, a gene encoding a novel human uncoupling protein, designated UCP2, was discovered. The murine UCP2 was mapped to a region on mouse chromosome 7 which in several models has been shown to be linked to obesity and hyperinsulinaemia. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing of the coding region of the UCP2 gene in 35 obese Caucasian NIDDM patients of Danish ancestry revealed one nucleotide substitution, replacing an alanine with a valine at codon 55. The amino acid polymorphism was present in 24 of the 35 (69%) examined subjects. The allelic frequency of the A/V55 variant was 48.3% (95% CI: 42.5-54.1%) among 144 subjects with juvenile onset obesity, 45.6% (40.5-50.7%) among 182 subjects randomly selected at the draft board examination, and 45.5% (37.1-53.9%) among lean control subjects selected from the same study cohort. Within these cohorts there were no differences in BMI values at different ages among wild-type carriers and A/V55 carriers. In a population-based sample of 369 young healthy Caucasians the variant showed no association with alterations in BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass or weight gain during childhood or adolescence. The A/V55 polymorphism was not related to alterations in fasting values of serum insulin and C-peptide or to an impaired insulin sensitivity index. We conclude that genetic variability in the human UCP2 gene is not a common factor contributing to NIDDM in obese Danish Caucasian subjects and the common A/V55 amino acid polymorphism of the gene is not implicated in the pathogenesis of juvenile or maturity onset obesity or insulin resistance in Caucasians.

  20. Uncoupling protein-2 regulates lifespan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Zane B.; Horvath, Tamas L.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effects of uncoupled mitochondrial respiration by uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) in mammalian physiology remain controversial. Here we show that increased mitochondrial uncoupling activity of different tissues predicts longer lifespan of rats compared with mice. UCP2 reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress throughout the aging process in different tissues in mice. The absence of UCP2 shortens lifespan in wild-type mice, and the level of UCP2 positively correlates with the postnatal survival of superoxide dismutase-2 mutant animals. Thus UCP2 has a beneficial influence on cell and tissue function leading to increased lifespan. PMID:19141680

  1. Reproductive Endocrinologists' Utilization of Genetic Counselors for Oncofertility and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Treatment of BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Goetsch, Allison L; Wicklund, Catherine; Clayman, Marla L; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2016-06-01

    Genetic counselors believe fertility preservation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) discussions to be a part of their role when counseling BRCA1/2 mutation-positive patients. This study is the first to explore reproductive endocrinologists' (REI) practices and attitudes regarding involvement of genetic counselors in the care of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers seeking fertility preservation and PGD. A survey was mailed to 1000 REIs from Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility (SREI), an American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) affiliate group. A 14.5 % response rate was achieved; data was analyzed using SPSS software. The majority of participating REIs were found to recommend genetic counseling to cancer patients considering fertility preservation (82 %) and consult with a genetic counselor regarding PGD for hereditary cancer syndromes (92 %). Additionally, REIs consult genetic counselors regarding PGD patient counseling (88 %), genetic testing (78 %), and general genetics questions (66 %). Two areas genetic counselors may further aid REIs are: elicitation of family history, which is useful to determine fertility preservation and PGD intervention timing (32 % of REIs utilize a cancer family history to determine intervention timing); and, interpretation of variants of uncertain significance (VOUS) as cancer panel genetic testing becomes more common (36 % of REIs are unfamiliar with VOUS). Given our findings, the Oncofertility Consortium® created an online resource for genetic counselors focused on fertility preservation education and communication strategies.

  2. Reproductive Endocrinologists’ Utilization of Genetic Counselors for Oncofertility and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Treatment of BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Goetsch, Allison L.; Wicklund, Catherine; Clayman, Marla L.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic counselors believe fertility preservation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) discussions to be a part of their role when counseling BRCA1/2 mutation-positive patients. This study is the first to explore reproductive endocrinologists’ (REI) practices and attitudes regarding involvement of genetic counselors in the care of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers seeking fertility preservation and PGD. A survey was mailed to 1000 REIs from Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility (SREI), an American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) affiliate group. A 14.5 % response rate was achieved; data was analyzed using SPSS software. The majority of participating REIs were found to recommend genetic counseling to cancer patients considering fertility preservation (82 %) and consult with a genetic counselor regarding PGD for hereditary cancer syndromes (92 %). Additionally, REIs consult genetic counselors regarding PGD patient counseling (88 %), genetic testing (78 %), and general genetics questions (66 %). Two areas genetic counselors may further aid REIs are: elicitation of family history, which is useful to determine fertility preservation and PGD intervention timing (32 % of REIs utilize a cancer family history to determine intervention timing); and, interpretation of variants of uncertain significance (VOUS) as cancer panel genetic testing becomes more common (36 % of REIs are unfamiliar with VOUS). Given our findings, the Oncofertility Consortium® created an online resource for genetic counselors focused on fertility preservation education and communication strategies. PMID:26567039

  3. Depression uncouples brain hate circuit

    PubMed Central

    Tao, H; Guo, S; Ge, T; Kendrick, K M; Xue, Z; Liu, Z; Feng, J

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that we need a better understanding of how mental disorders such as depression alter the brain's functional connections to improve both early diagnosis and therapy. A new holistic approach has been used to investigate functional connectivity changes in the brains of patients suffering from major depression using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. A canonical template of connectivity in 90 different brain regions was constructed from healthy control subjects and this identified a six-community structure with each network corresponding to a different functional system. This template was compared with functional networks derived from fMRI scans of both first-episode and longer-term, drug resistant, patients suffering from severe depression. The greatest change in both groups of depressed patients was uncoupling of the so-called ‘hate circuit' involving the superior frontal gyrus, insula and putamen. Other major changes occurred in circuits related to risk and action responses, reward and emotion, attention and memory processing. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was also carried out but this revealed no evidence in the depressed patients for altered gray or white matter densities in the regions showing altered functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for the involvement of the ‘hate circuit' in depression and suggests a potential reappraisal of the key neural circuitry involved. We have hypothesized that this may reflect reduced cognitive control over negative feelings toward both self and others. PMID:21968929

  4. Uncoupling reproduction from metabolism extends chronological lifespan in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Saisubramanian; Kruckeberg, Arthur L.; Schmidt, Karen H.; Kroll, Evgueny; Hamilton, Morgan; McInnerney, Kate; Summers, Ryan; Taylor, Timothy; Rosenzweig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Studies of replicative and chronological lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have advanced understanding of longevity in all eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan in this species is defined as the age-dependent viability of nondividing cells. To date this parameter has only been estimated under calorie restriction, mimicked by starvation. Because postmitotic cells in higher eukaryotes often do not starve, we developed a model yeast system to study cells as they age in the absence of calorie restriction. Yeast cells were encapsulated in a matrix consisting of calcium alginate to form ∼3 mm beads that were packed into bioreactors and fed ad libitum. Under these conditions cells ceased to divide, became heat shock and zymolyase resistant, yet retained high fermentative capacity. Over the course of 17 d, immobilized yeast cells maintained >95% viability, whereas the viability of starving, freely suspended (planktonic) cells decreased to <10%. Immobilized cells exhibited a stable pattern of gene expression that differed markedly from growing or starving planktonic cells, highly expressing genes in glycolysis, cell wall remodeling, and stress resistance, but decreasing transcription of genes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and genes that regulate the cell cycle, including master cyclins CDC28 and CLN1. Stress resistance transcription factor MSN4 and its upstream effector RIM15 are conspicuously up-regulated in the immobilized state, and an immobilized rim15 knockout strain fails to exhibit the long-lived, growth-arrested phenotype, suggesting that altered regulation of the Rim15-mediated nutrient-sensing pathway plays an important role in extending yeast chronological lifespan under calorie-unrestricted conditions. PMID:24706810

  5. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins--facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Jezek, P; Zácková, M; Růzicka, M; Skobisová, E; Jabůrek, M

    2004-01-01

    Instead of a comprehensive review, we describe the basic undisputed facts and a modest contribution of our group to the fascinating area of the research on mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. After defining the terms uncoupling, leak, protein-mediated uncoupling, we discuss the assumption that due to their low abundance the novel mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP2 to UCP5) can provide only a mild uncoupling, i.e. can decrease the proton motive force by several mV only. Contrary to this, the highly thermogenic role of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue is not given only by its high content (approximately 5 % of mitochondrial proteins) but also by the low ATP synthase content and high capacity respiratory chain. Fatty acid cycling mechanism as a plausible explanation for the protonophoretic function of all UCPs and some other mitochondrial carriers is described together with the experiments supporting it. The phylogenesis of all UCPs, estimated UCP2 content in several tissues, and details of UCP2 activation are described on the basis of our experiments. Functional activation of UCP2 is proposed to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, reaction products of lipoperoxidation such as cleaved hydroperoxy-fatty acids and hydroxy-fatty acid can activate UCP2 and promote feedback down-regulation of mitochondrial ROS production.

  6. Uncoupling the links between male mating tactics and female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Ojanguren, Alfredo F; Magurran, Anne E

    2004-12-07

    Because not all females are equally attractive, and because mating reduces the chances of getting further copulations, males should prefer better-quality mates. In this paper, we use the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to explore the effects of two non-correlated measures of female quality--size and reproductive status--on male mating decisions. All male guppies employ two alternative mating tactics. We found that large females, particularly those from a high predation site, were the target of most sneaky mating attempts. The response persisted in fish raised under standard conditions over several generations in the laboratory. In addition, non-pregnant females received more courtship displays. We conclude that males can discriminate among females and that they uncouple their mating tactics to track different axes of quality.

  7. Uncoupling the links between male mating tactics and female attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Ojanguren, Alfredo F; Magurran, Anne E

    2004-01-01

    Because not all females are equally attractive, and because mating reduces the chances of getting further copulations, males should prefer better-quality mates. In this paper, we use the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to explore the effects of two non-correlated measures of female quality--size and reproductive status--on male mating decisions. All male guppies employ two alternative mating tactics. We found that large females, particularly those from a high predation site, were the target of most sneaky mating attempts. The response persisted in fish raised under standard conditions over several generations in the laboratory. In addition, non-pregnant females received more courtship displays. We conclude that males can discriminate among females and that they uncouple their mating tactics to track different axes of quality. PMID:15801594

  8. A mitochondrial uncoupling artifact can be caused by expression of uncoupling protein 1 in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, J A; Harper, J A; Brindle, K M; Jekabsons, M B; Brand, M D

    2001-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) from mouse was expressed in yeast and the specific (GDP-inhibitable) and artifactual (GDP-insensitive) effects on mitochondrial uncoupling were assessed. UCP1 provides a GDP-inhibitable model system to help interpret the uncoupling effects of high expression in yeast of other members of the mitochondrial carrier protein family, such as the UCP1 homologues UCP2 and UCP3. Yeast expressing UCP1 at modest levels (approx. 1 microg/mg of mitochondrial protein) showed no growth defect, normal rates of chemically uncoupled respiration and an increased non-phosphorylating proton conductance that was completely GDP-sensitive. The catalytic-centre activity of UCP1 in these yeast mitochondria was similar to that in mammalian brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria. However, yeast expressing UCP1 at higher levels (approx. 11 microg/mg of mitochondrial protein) showed a growth defect. Their mitochondria had depressed chemically uncoupled respiration rates and an increased proton conductance that was partly GDP-insensitive. Thus, although UCP1 shows native behaviour at modest levels of expression in yeast, higher levels (or rates) of expression can lead to an uncoupling that is not a physiological property of the native protein and is therefore artifactual. This observation might be important in the interpretation of results from experiments in which the functions of UCP1 homologues are verified by their ability to uncouple yeast mitochondria. PMID:11389685

  9. Uncoupling chitosanase production from chitosan.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in chitosanases as enzymatic tools to hydrolyze chitosan into bioactive forms: low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) or chitosan oligosaccharides (CHOS). However chitosanases are still expensive and methods of large-scale production of these enzymes are not yet established. The article reviews the approaches used for chitosanase production in various bacterial hosts, pointing out the difficulties resulting from the necessity to include chitosan into the medium composition. A mutated Streptomyces host allows for the efficient production of several chitosanases originating from actinobacteria in the absence of chitosan as inducer.

  10. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  20. Brief temperature stress during reproductive stages alters meiotic recombination and somatic mutation rates in the progeny of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ramswaroop; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Saeed, Thoufeequl Hakeem; Hyde, Geoffrey J; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2017-06-14

    Plants exposed to environmental stresses draw upon many genetic and epigenetic strategies, with the former sometimes modulated by the latter. This can help the plant, and its immediate progeny, at least, to better endure the stress. Some evidence has led to proposals that (epi) genetic changes can be both selective and sustainably heritable, while other evidence suggests that changes are effectively stochastic, and important only because they induce genetic variation. One type of stress with an arguably high level of stochasticity in its effects is temperature stress. Studies of how heat and cold affect the rates of meiotic recombination (MR) and somatic mutations (SMs, which are potentially heritable in plants) report increases, decreases, or no effect. Collectively, they do not point to any consistent patterns. Some of this variability, however, might arise from the stress being applied for such an extended time, typically days or weeks. Here, we adopted a targeted approach by (1) limiting exposure to one hour; and (2) timing it to coincide with (a) gamete, and early gametophyte, development, a period of high stress sensitivity; and (b) a late stage of vegetative development. For plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) otherwise grown at 22 °C, we measured the effects of a 1 h exposure to cold (12 °C) or heat (32 °C) on the rates of MR, and four types of SMs (frameshift mutations; intrachromosomal recombination; base substitutions; transpositions) in the F1 progeny. One parent (wild type) was stressed, the other (unstressed) carried a genetic event detector. When rates were compared to those in progeny of control (both parents unstressed) two patterns emerged. In the progeny of younger plants (stressed at 36 days; pollinated at 40 days) heat and cold either had no effect (on MR) or (for SMs) had effects that were rare and stochastic. In the progeny of older plants (stressed at 41 days; pollinated at 45 days), while effects were also infrequent, those that were

  1. The regulation and turnover of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Azzu, Vian; Jastroch, Martin; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Brand, Martin D

    2010-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3) are important in regulating cellular fuel metabolism and as attenuators of reactive oxygen species production, through strong or mild uncoupling. The generic function and broad tissue distribution of the uncoupling protein family means that they are increasingly implicated in a range of pathophysiological processes including obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, immunity and cancer. The significant recent progress describing the turnover of novel uncoupling proteins, as well as current views on the physiological roles and regulation of UCPs, is outlined. PMID:20211596

  2. Optimal parameters uncoupling vibration modes of oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, K. C.; Pieper, A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization concept for an oscillator with two degrees of freedom. By using specially defined motion ratios, we control the action of springs to each degree of freedom of the oscillator. We aim at showing that, if the potential action of the springs in one period of vibration, used as the payoff function for the conservative oscillator, is maximized among all admissible parameters and motions satisfying Lagrange's equations, then the optimal motion ratios uncouple vibration modes. A similar result holds true for the dissipative oscillator having dampers. The application to optimal design of vehicle suspension is discussed.

  3. [The mechanism of the effect of apterous56f mutation on the reproductive function of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Raushenbakh, I Iu; Gruntenko, N E; Karpova, e K; Adon'eva, N V; Alekseev, A A; Chentsova, N A; Shumnaia, L V; Faddeeva, N V

    2006-02-01

    The effects of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were studied with respect to the content of dopamine (DA), intensity of the juvenile hormone (JH) degradation, and fecundity of the wildtype flies (Canton S) and JH-deficient apterous56f mutants (in young females, carrying this mutation, the levels of DA and 20E production were strongly increased). Fly feeding with L-DOPA proved to increase the level of DA in a dose-dependent manner and reduce JH degradation in 2-day-old females of both strains. Feeding with 20E produced the same effect. Treating the wild-type flies with 2.5 mg L-DOPA caused a 24-h delay in beginning of oviposition and reduction in fecundity throughout the experiment. An L-DOPA dose of 1 mg caused no such changes. An experimental increase in 20E titer led to reduced fecundity of the wild-type flies, though no delay in oviposition was observed. In mutant flies, an increase in DA and 20E levels accelerated beginning of oviposition and increased fecundity of young females, though the latter parameter was reduced in mature individuals. Thus, an increase in endogenous DA and 20E characteristic of young apterous56f females is assumed to be a compensatory response that leads to a higher JH titer and induction of vitellogenesis.

  4. Uncoupling of Longevity and Telomere Length in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Raices, Marcela; Maruyama, Hugo; Dillin, Andrew; Karlseder, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, after completing its developmental stages and a brief reproductive period, spends the remainder of its adult life as an organism consisting exclusively of post-mitotic cells. Here we show that telomere length varies considerably in clonal populations of wild-type worms, and that these length differences are conserved over at least ten generations, suggesting a length regulation mechanism in cis. This observation is strengthened by the finding that the bulk telomere length in different worm strains varies considerably. Despite the close correlation of telomere length and clonal cellular senescence in mammalian cells, nematodes with long telomeres were neither long lived, nor did worm populations with comparably short telomeres exhibit a shorter life span. Conversely, long-lived daf-2 and short-lived daf-16 mutant animals can have either long or short telomeres. Telomere length of post-mitotic cells did not change during the aging process, and the response of animals to stress was found independent of telomere length. Collectively, our data indicate that telomere length and life span can be uncoupled in a post-mitotic setting, suggesting separate pathways for replication-dependent and -independent aging. PMID:16151516

  5. Uncoupling of longevity and telomere length in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Raices, Marcela; Maruyama, Hugo; Dillin, Andrew; Karlseder, Jan

    2005-09-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, after completing its developmental stages and a brief reproductive period, spends the remainder of its adult life as an organism consisting exclusively of post-mitotic cells. Here we show that telomere length varies considerably in clonal populations of wild-type worms, and that these length differences are conserved over at least ten generations, suggesting a length regulation mechanism in cis. This observation is strengthened by the finding that the bulk telomere length in different worm strains varies considerably. Despite the close correlation of telomere length and clonal cellular senescence in mammalian cells, nematodes with long telomeres were neither long lived, nor did worm populations with comparably short telomeres exhibit a shorter life span. Conversely, long-lived daf-2 and short-lived daf-16 mutant animals can have either long or short telomeres. Telomere length of post-mitotic cells did not change during the aging process, and the response of animals to stress was found independent of telomere length. Collectively, our data indicate that telomere length and life span can be uncoupled in a post-mitotic setting, suggesting separate pathways for replication-dependent and -independent aging.

  6. A novel Gs alpha mutant in a patient with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy uncouples cell surface receptors from adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Schwindinger, W F; Miric, A; Zimmerman, D; Levine, M A

    1994-10-14

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by decreased expression of Gs alpha and widespread tissue resistance to hormones that activate adenylyl cyclase. We identified a single mutation, R385H, in the Gs alpha gene of a subject with AHO who had evidence for a dysfunctional Gs alpha protein. The R385H substitution is near the carboxyl terminus of the Gs alpha protein and is located five amino acids upstream of the R389P mutation that uncouples Gs alpha from cell surface receptors in the unc clone of S49 murine lymphoma. To test the biological activity of the R385H mutant, we transiently expressed wild type, R385H, and R389P Gs alpha cDNAs in COS-1 cells. Neither of the mutant Gs alpha proteins stimulated adenylyl cyclase in response to l-isoproterenol (1 to 30 microM). By contrast, both mutant Gs alpha proteins showed activation of adenylyl cyclase in response to forskolin (10 microM) and fluoroaluminate (10 mM). We propose that the R385H mutation produces a Gs alpha molecule that is unable to interact with hormone receptors and results in uncoupling of adenylyl cyclase from cell surface receptors. This uncoupling mutation represents a new type of molecular defect that can result in AHO.

  7. Tuning the ion selectivity of glutamate transporter–associated uncoupled conductances

    PubMed Central

    Cater, Rosemary J.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of glutamate within a glutamatergic synapse is tightly regulated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). In addition to their primary role in clearing extracellular glutamate, the EAATs also possess a thermodynamically uncoupled Cl− conductance. This conductance is activated by the binding of substrate and Na+, but the direction of Cl− flux is independent of the rate or direction of substrate transport; thus, the two processes are thermodynamically uncoupled. A recent molecular dynamics study of the archaeal EAAT homologue GltPh (an aspartate transporter from Pyrococcus horikoshii) identified an aqueous pore at the interface of the transport and trimerization domains, through which anions could permeate, and it was suggested that an arginine residue at the most restricted part of this pathway might play a role in determining anion selectivity. In this study, we mutate this arginine to a histidine in the human glutamate transporter EAAT1 and investigate the role of the protonation state of this residue on anion selectivity and transporter function. Our results demonstrate that a positive charge at this position is crucial for determining anion versus cation selectivity of the uncoupled conductance of EAAT1. In addition, because the nature of this residue influences the turnover rate of EAAT1, we reveal an intrinsic link between the elevator movement of the transport domain and the Cl− channel. PMID:27296367

  8. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Ageing, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Harper, M-E; Bevilacqua, L; Hagopian, K; Weindruch, R; Ramsey, J J

    2004-12-01

    Mitochondria are a cell's single greatest source of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are important for many life sustaining processes of cells and tissues, but they can also induce cell damage and death. If their production and levels within cells is not effectively controlled, then the detrimental effects of oxidative stress can accumulate. Oxidative stress is widely thought to underpin many ageing processes, and the oxidative stress theory of ageing is one of the most widely acknowledged theories of ageing. As well as being the major source of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria are also a major site of oxidative damage. The purpose of this review is a concise and current review of the effects of oxidative stress and ageing on mitochondrial function. Emphasis is placed upon the roles of mitochondrial proton leak, the uncoupling proteins, and the anti-ageing effects of caloric restriction.

  10. Seismic coupling and uncoupling at subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Kanamori, H.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the correlations concerning the properties of subduction zones are reviewed. A quantitative global comparison of many subduction zones reveals that the largest earthquakes occur in zones with young lithosphere and fast convergence rates. Maximum earthquake size is directly related to the asperity distribution on the fault plane. This observation can be translated into a simple model of seismic coupling where the horizontal compressive stress between two plates is proportional to the ratio of the summed asperity area to the total area of the contact surface. Plate age and rate can control asperity distribution directly through the horizontal compressive stress associated with the vertical and horizontal velocities of subducting slabs. The basalt to eclogite phase change in the down-going oceanic crust may be largely responsible for the uncoupling of subduction zones below a depth of about 40 km.

  11. Pig has no uncoupling protein 1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lianjie; Shi, Jia; Cao, Lingbo; Xu, Guli; Hu, Chingyuan; Wang, Chong

    2017-06-10

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is critical for mammal's survival in the cold environment. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for the non-shivering thermogenesis in the BAT. Pig is important economically as a meat-producing livestock. However, whether BAT or more precisely UCP1 protein exists in pig remains a controversy. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether pig has UCP1 protein. In this study, we used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique to obtain the UCP1 mRNA 3' end sequence, confirmed only exons 1 and 2 of the UCP1 gene are transcribed in the pig. Then we cloned the pig UCP1 gene exons 1 and 2, and expressed the UCP1 protein from the truncated pig gene using E. coli BL21. We used the expressed pig UCP1 protein as antigen for antibody production in a rabbit. We could not detect any UCP1 protein expression in different pig adipose tissues by the specific pig UCP1 antibody, while our antibody can detect the cloned pig UCP1 as well as the mice adipose UCP1 protein. This result shows although exons 1 and 2 of the pig UCP1 gene were transcribed but not translated in the pig adipose tissue. Furthermore, we detected no uncoupled respiration in the isolated pig adipocytes. Thus, these results unequivocally demonstrate that pig has no UCP1 protein. Our results have resolved the controversy of whether pigs have the brown adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of uncoupler binding sites on mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Kurup, C K; Sanadi, D R

    1977-02-01

    3H 2-azido-4-nitrophenol, a photoactive uncoupler, has been synthesized, and its uncoupling action on oxidative phosphorylation and its binding to the mitochondrial membrane have been studied. The uncoupler bound covalently to the mitochondrial membrane on photoirradiation was 3-4 times that bound reversibly in the absence of light. When irradiation was carried out in the presence of serum albumin, covalent binding was significantly depressed. The pattern of loss of ATP-Pi exchange activity with increasing amounts of the uncoupler suggests that serum albumin prevents the binding of the uncoupler to the functional sites as well. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of photoaffinity labeled submitochondrial particles in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that a 9000 dalton peptide bound high levels of uncoupler. Other proteins in the molecular weight range of 20,000-40,000 and 55,000 were also labeled. Photolysis in the presence of serum albumin or ATP decreased the covalent binding of the uncoupler to all the proteins, but particularly to the 20,000 dalton component. Soluble ATPase and the mitochondrial proteolipid purified from labeled mitochondria showed the presence of label.

  13. Resistance to thyroid hormone is associated with raised energy expenditure, muscle mitochondrial uncoupling, and hyperphagia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Catherine S.; Savage, David B.; Dufour, Sylvie; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Murgatroyd, Peter; Befroy, Douglas; Halsall, David; Northcott, Samantha; Raymond-Barker, Philippa; Curran, Suzanne; Henning, Elana; Keogh, Julia; Owen, Penny; Lazarus, John; Rothman, Douglas L.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Shulman, Gerald I.; Chatterjee, Krishna; Petersen, Kitt Falk

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), a dominantly inherited disorder usually associated with mutations in thyroid hormone receptor β (THRB), is characterized by elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormones (including thyroxine), failure of feedback suppression of thyrotropin, and variable tissue refractoriness to thyroid hormone action. Raised energy expenditure and hyperphagia are recognized features of hyperthyroidism, but the effects of comparable hyperthyroxinemia in RTH patients are unknown. Here, we show that resting energy expenditure (REE) was substantially increased in adults and children with THRB mutations. Energy intake in RTH subjects was increased by 40%, with marked hyperphagia particularly evident in children. Rates of muscle TCA cycle flux were increased by 75% in adults with RTH, whereas rates of ATP synthesis were unchanged, as determined by 13C/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mitochondrial coupling index between ATP synthesis and mitochondrial rates of oxidation (as estimated by the ratio of ATP synthesis to TCA cycle flux) was significantly decreased in RTH patients. These data demonstrate that basal mitochondrial substrate oxidation is increased and energy production in the form of ATP synthesis is decreased in the muscle of RTH patients and that resting oxidative phosphorylation is uncoupled in this disorder. Furthermore, these observations suggest that mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to increased REE in patients with RTH, due to tissue selective retention of thyroid hormone receptor α sensitivity to elevated thyroid hormone levels. PMID:20237409

  14. Molecular studies of the uncoupling protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ricquier, D.; Casteilla, L.; Bouillaud, F. )

    1991-06-01

    The uncoupling protein (UCP) is a proton/anion transporter found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipocyte. Although UCP has nor been detected in mitochondria from any other tissue, it shares structural and catalytic properties with several other mitochondrial carrier proteins. Although UCP was discovered only recently it is one of the most extensively studied mitochondrial carrier proteins.More recently, the mouse, rat, and human genes encoding for UCP have been isolated and sequenced. The availability of these various tools has led to several significant observations. UCP gene expression is strongly controlled at the level of transcription by signals that are activated after the stimulation of brown adipocytes by norepinephrine. The comparison of UCP gene with the genes encoding the adenine nucleotide translocator revealed the existence of structural and evolutionary homologies. Moreover, in humans the UCP gene and one form of adenine nucleotide translocator gene are located on the same chromosome. Recently, the expression of functional UCp in various heterologous systems was achieved (Xenopus oocytes, CHO cells, yeasts). These data will facilitate studies of the structure/function relationship in UCP (identification of residues involved in H{sup +} transport, Cl{sup {minus}} transport, nucleotide binding, mitochondrial targeting). Another aspect of the present research on UCP is the understanding of mechanisms that control UCP gene and the differentiated commitment of adipose precursor cells to thermogenic brown adipocytes.

  15. Rapid turnover of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Azzu, Vian; Mookerjee, Shona A.; Brand, Martin D.

    2013-01-01

    UCP3 (uncoupling protein 3) and its homologues UCP2 and UCP1 are regulators of mitochondrial function. UCP2 is known to have a short half-life of approx. 1 h, owing to its rapid degradation by the cytosolic 26S proteasome, whereas UCP1 is turned over much more slowly by mitochondrial autophagy. In the present study we investigate whether UCP3 also has a short half-life, and whether the proteasome is involved inUCP3 degradation. UCP3 half-life was examined in the mouse C2C12 myoblast cell line by inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide and monitoring UCP3 protein levels by immunoblot analysis. We show that UCP3 has a short half-life of 0.5–4 h. Rapid degradation was prevented by a cocktail of proteasome inhibitors, supporting a proteasomal mechanism for turnover. In addition, this phenotype is recapitulated in vitro: UCP3 was degraded in mitochondria isolated from rat skeletal muscle or brown adipose tissue with a half-life of 0.5–4 h, but only in the presence of a purified 26S proteasomal fraction. This in vitro proteolysis was also sensitive to proteasome inhibition. This phenotype is in direct contrast with the related proteins UCP1 and the adenine nucleotide translocase, which have long half-lives. Therefore UCP3 is turned over rapidly in multiple cell types in a proteasome-dependent manner. PMID:19954423

  16. Airway-parenchyma uncoupling in nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Irvin, C G; Pak, J; Martin, R J

    2000-01-01

    Airway flow resistance is well known to be dependent upon lung volume. The rise in lung volume that occurs in asthma is therefore thought to be an important mechanism that defends airway patency. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interdependence or mechanical coupling between airways and lung parenchyma during the inflammatory processes that occur in the patient with nocturnal asthma. Five patients with documented nocturnal asthma were studied in both a vertical and a horizontal body plethysmograph. Lung volume was altered with continuous negative pressure as applied to the chest wall with a poncho cuirass in different postures and during sleep. We found during the awake phase that an increase in lung volume decreased lower pulmonary resistance (Rlp); however, within 30 min of sleep onset, functional residual capacity (FRC) fell and Rlp rose more than would be expected for the fall in FRC. Restoring FRC to presleep values either at an early (half-hour) or a late (3-h) time point did not cause Rlp to significantly fall. A second phase of the study showed that the loss of Rlp dependence on lung volume was not due to the assumption of the supine posture. Indirect measurements of lung compliance were consistent with a stiffening of the lung. We conclude that with sleep there is an immediate uncoupling of the parenchyma to the airway, resulting in a loss of interdependence that persists throughout sleep and may contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with nocturnal asthma.

  17. Inhibition of photosynthetic oxygen evolution by protonophoric uncouplers.

    PubMed

    Samuilov, V D; Renger, G; Paschenko, V Z; Oleskin, A V; Gusev, M V; Gubanova, O N; Vasil'ev, S S; Barsky, E L

    1995-01-01

    The protonophoric uncouplers carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole (TTFB) inhibited the Hill reaction with K3[Fe(CN)6] (but not with SiMo) in chloroplast and cyanobacterial membranes (the I50 values were approx. 1-2, 4-6 and 0.04-0.10 μM, respectively). The inhibition is due to oxidation of the uncouplers on the Photosystem II donor side (ADRY effect) and their subsequent reduction on the acceptor side, ie. to the formation of a cyclic electron transfer chain around Photosystem II involving the uncouplers as redox carriers. The relative amplitude of nanosecond chlorophyll fluorescence in chloroplasts was increased by DCMU or HQNO and did not change upon addition of uncouplers, DBMIB or DNP-INT; the HQNO effect was not removed by the uncouplers. The uncouplers did not inhibit the electron transfer from reduced TMPD or duroquinol to methylviologen which is driven by Photosystem I. These data show that CCCP, PCP and TTFB oxidized on the Photosystem II donor side are reduced by the membrane pool of plastoquinone (Qp) which is also the electron donor for K3 [Fe(CN)6] in the Hill reaction as deduced from the data obtained in the presence of inhibitors. Inhibition of the Hill reaction by the uncouplers was maximum at the pH values corresponding to the pK of these compounds. It is suggested that the tested uncouplers serve as proton donors, and not merely as electron donors on the oxidizing side of Photosystem II.

  18. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzia, A.; Antonakakis, T.

    2016-06-01

    In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the preceding assumptions

  19. Uncoupling protein-1 is not leaky.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Ost, Mario; Petrovic, Natasa; Vrbacky, Marek; Nedergaard, Jan; Cannon, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The activity of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) is rate-limiting for nonshivering thermogenesis and diet-induced thermogenesis. Characteristically, this activity is inhibited by GDP experimentally and presumably mainly by cytosolic ATP within brown-fat cells. The issue as to whether UCP1 has a residual proton conductance even when fully saturated with GDP/ATP (as has recently been suggested) has not only scientific but also applied interest, since a residual proton conductance would make overexpressed UCP1 weight-reducing even without physiological/pharmacological activation. To examine this question, we have here established optimal conditions for studying the bioenergetics of wild-type and UCP1-/- brown-fat mitochondria, analysing UCP1-mediated differences in parallel preparations of brown-fat mitochondria from both genotypes. Comparing different substrates, we find that pyruvate (or palmitoyl-L-carnitine) shows the largest relative coupling by GDP. Comparing albumin concentrations, we find the range 0.1-0.6% optimal; higher concentrations are inhibitory. Comparing basic medium composition, we find 125 mM sucrose optimal; an ionic medium (50-100 mM KCl) functions for wild-type but is detrimental for UCP1-/- mitochondria. Using optimal conditions, we find no evidence for a residual proton conductance (not a higher post-GDP respiration, a lower membrane potential or an altered proton leak at highest common potential) with either pyruvate or glycerol-3-phosphate as substrates, nor by a 3-4-fold alteration of the amount of UCP1. We could demonstrate that certain experimental conditions, due to respiratoty inhibition, could lead to the suggestion that UCP1 possesses a residual proton conductance but find that under optimal conditions our experiments concur with implications from physiological observations that in the presence of inhibitory nucleotides, UCP1 is not leaky.

  20. Concurrent porcine circovirus type 2a (PCV2a) or PCV2b infection increases the rate of amino acid mutations of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) during serial passages in pigs.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang-Hui; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Gerber, Priscilla F; Beach, Nathan M; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2013-12-26

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a high degree of genetic and antigenic variability. The purpose of this study was to determine if porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection increases genetic variability of PRRSV during serial passages in pigs and to determine if there is a difference in the PRRSV mutation rate between pigs concurrently infected with PCV2a or PCV2b. After 8 consecutive passages of PRRSV alone (group 1), PRRSV with PCV2a (group 2), or PCV2b (group 3) in pigs, the sequences of PRRSV structural genes for open reading frame (ORF) 5, ORF6, ORF7 and the partial non-structural protein gene (Nsp) 2 were determined. The total number of identified amino acid mutations in ORF5, ORF6, ORF7 and Nsp2 sequences was 30 for PRRSV infection only, 63 for PRRSV/PCV2a concurrent infection, and 77 for PRRSV/PCV2b concurrent infection when compared with the original VR2385 virus used to infect the passage 1 pigs. Compared to what occurred in pigs infected with PRRSV only, the mutation rates in ORF5 and ORF6 were significantly higher for concurrent PRRSV/PCV2b infected pigs. The PRRSV/PCV2a pigs had a significantly higher mutation rate in ORF7. The results from this study indicated that, besides ORF5 and Nsp2, the PRRSV structural genes ORF6 and ORF7 were shown to mutate at various degrees when the PRRSV was passaged over time in vivo. Furthermore, a significantly higher mutation rate of PRRSV was observed when pigs were co-infected with PCV2 highlighting the importance of concurrent infections on PRRSV evolution and control.

  1. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics/molecular mechanics (CPMD/MM) simulation study of coupling and uncoupling mechanisms of Cytochrome P450cam.

    PubMed

    Lian, Peng; Li, Jue; Wang, Dong-Qi; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2013-07-03

    The relevance of the pathway through which the second proton is delivered to the active site of P450cam and the subsequent coupling/uncoupling reactions has been investigated using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics/molecular mechanics (CPMD/MM) dynamics simulations. Five models have been prepared, representing delivery pathways in the wild-type enzyme and its mutants in which Thr252 mutated into other residues with different side-chain length and hydrophobicity. In the simulations, coupling reaction is observed in the wild-type enzyme (Model A) and its T252S mutant (Model B), while the uncoupling products are obtained in the other three models (C, D, and E). Different from previous studies, a dynamic process of the last stage of coupling/uncoupling was observed. We found that the peroxide bond cleavage in coupling, the Fe-O bond stretching in uncoupling, proton transfer, and electron delivery take place spontaneously. Moreover, besides the intrinsic chemical differences between the two peroxide oxygen atoms, water molecules in the active site and the proton transfer pathway may play an important role in the determination of coupling/uncoupling. We conclude that by maintaining a specific proton transfer channel, Asp251-Thr252 channel, the wild-type enzyme could efficiently deliver the second proton to the ideal position for coupling reaction.

  2. Uncoupled Cardiac Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Gad A.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Liu, Hong; Jiao, Zhe; Xiao, Hong D.; Lovelock, Joshua D.; Boulden, Beth M.; Widder, Julian; Fredd, Scott; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Wolska, Beata M.; Dikalov, Sergey; Harrison, David G.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is one consequence of hypertension and caused by impaired cardiac diastolic relaxation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a known modulator of cardiac relaxation. Hypertension can lead to a reduction in vascular NO, in part because nitric oxide synthase (NOS) becomes uncoupled when oxidative depletion of its co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) occurs.Similar events may occur in the heart leading to uncoupled NOS and diastolic dysfunction. Methods and Results In a hypertensive mouse model, diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by cardiac oxidation, a reduction in cardiac BH4, and uncoupled NOS. Compared to sham-operated animals, male mice with unilateral nephrectomy, with subcutaneous implantation of a controlled release deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) pellet, and given 1% saline to drink were mildly hypertensive and had diastolic dysfunction in the absence of systolic dysfunction or cardiac hypertrophy. The hypertensive mouse hearts showed increased oxidized biopterins, NOS-dependent superoxide production, reduced NO production, and phosphorylated phospholamban. Feeding hypertensive mice BH4 (5 mg/day), but not treating with hydralazine or tetrahydroneopterin, improved cardiac BH4 stores, phosphorylated phospholamban levels, and diastolic dysfunction. Isolated cardiomyocyte experiments revealed impaired relaxation that was normalized with acute BH4 treatment. Targeted cardiac overexpression of angiotensin converting enzyme also resulted in cardiac oxidation, NOS uncoupling, and diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension. Conclusions Cardiac oxidation, independent of vascular changes, can lead to uncoupled cardiac NOS and diastolic dysfunction. BH4 may represent a possible treatment for diastolic dysfunction. PMID:20083682

  3. Triclosan is a mitochondrial uncoupler in live zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shim, Juyoung; Weatherly, Lisa M; Luc, Richard H; Dorman, Maxwell T; Neilson, Andy; Ng, Ryan; Kim, Carol H; Millard, Paul J; Gosse, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent used in many consumer goods at millimolar concentrations. As a result of exposure, TCS has been detected widely in humans. We have recently discovered that TCS is a proton ionophore mitochondrial uncoupler in multiple types of living cells. Here, we present novel data indicating that TCS is also a mitochondrial uncoupler in a living organism: 24-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos. These experiments were conducted using a Seahorse Bioscience XF(e) 96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer modified for bidirectional temperature control, using the XF96 spheroid plate to position and measure one zebrafish embryo per well. Using this method, after acute exposure to TCS, the basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increases, without a decrease in survival or heartbeat rate. TCS also decreases ATP-linked respiration and spare respiratory capacity and increases proton leak: all indicators of mitochondrial uncoupling. Our data indicate, that TCS is a mitochondrial uncoupler in vivo, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the toxicity and/or pharmaceutical uses of TCS. This is the first example of usage of a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer to measure bioenergetic flux of a single zebrafish embryo per well in a 96-well assay format. The method developed in this study provides a high-throughput tool to identify previously unknown mitochondrial uncouplers in a living organism. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Uncoupled cardiac nitric oxide synthase mediates diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Gad A; Fan, Tai-Hwang M; Liu, Hong; Jiao, Zhe; Xiao, Hong D; Lovelock, Joshua D; Boulden, Beth M; Widder, Julian; Fredd, Scott; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Wolska, Beata M; Dikalov, Sergey; Harrison, David G; Dudley, Samuel C

    2010-02-02

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is 1 consequence of hypertension and is caused by impaired cardiac diastolic relaxation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a known modulator of cardiac relaxation. Hypertension can lead to a reduction in vascular NO, in part because NO synthase (NOS) becomes uncoupled when oxidative depletion of its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) occurs. Similar events may occur in the heart that lead to uncoupled NOS and diastolic dysfunction. In a hypertensive mouse model, diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by cardiac oxidation, a reduction in cardiac BH(4), and uncoupled NOS. Compared with sham-operated animals, male mice with unilateral nephrectomy, with subcutaneous implantation of a controlled-release deoxycorticosterone acetate pellet, and given 1% saline to drink were mildly hypertensive and had diastolic dysfunction in the absence of systolic dysfunction or cardiac hypertrophy. The hypertensive mouse hearts showed increased oxidized biopterins, NOS-dependent superoxide production, reduced NO production, and dephosphorylated phospholamban. Feeding hypertensive mice BH(4) (5 mg/d), but not treating with hydralazine or tetrahydroneopterin, improved cardiac BH(4) stores, phosphorylated phospholamban levels, and diastolic dysfunction. Isolated cardiomyocyte experiments revealed impaired relaxation that was normalized with short-term BH(4) treatment. Targeted cardiac overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme also resulted in cardiac oxidation, NOS uncoupling, and diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension. Cardiac oxidation, independently of vascular changes, can lead to uncoupled cardiac NOS and diastolic dysfunction. BH(4) may represent a possible treatment for diastolic dysfunction.

  5. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ‘young’ (4-month-old) and ‘aged’ (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH4 precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  6. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved.

  7. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include: Radiation Metals such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive ...

  8. Coupled and uncoupled dipole models of nonlinear scattering.

    PubMed

    Balla, Naveen K; Yew, Elijah Y S; Sheppard, Colin J R; So, Peter T C

    2012-11-05

    Dipole models are one of the simplest numerical models to understand nonlinear scattering. Existing dipole model for second harmonic generation, third harmonic generation and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering assume that the dipoles which make up a scatterer do not interact with one another. Thus, this dipole model can be called the uncoupled dipole model. This dipole model is not sufficient to describe the effects of refractive index of a scatterer or to describe scattering at the edges of a scatterer. Taking into account the interaction between dipoles overcomes these short comings of the uncoupled dipole model. Coupled dipole model has been primarily used for linear scattering studies but it can be extended to predict nonlinear scattering. The coupled and uncoupled dipole models have been compared to highlight their differences. Results of nonlinear scattering predicted by coupled dipole model agree well with previously reported experimental results.

  9. Identification of a nonsense mutation in APAF1 that is likely causal for a decrease in reproductive efficiency in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Adams, Heather A; Sonstegard, Tad S; VanRaden, Paul M; Null, Daniel J; Van Tassell, Curt P; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A

    2016-08-01

    The HH1 haplotype on chromosome 5 is associated with a reduced conception rate and a deficit of homozygotes at the population level in Holstein cattle. The source HH1 haplotype was traced to the bull Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief (Chief), who was born in 1962 and has sired more than 16,000 daughters. We identified a nonsense mutation in APAF1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1;APAF1 p.Q579X) within HH1 using whole-genome resequencing of Chief and 3 of his sons. This mutation is predicted to truncate 670 AA (53.7%) of the encoded APAF1 protein that contains a WD40 domain critical to protein-protein interactions. Initial screening revealed no homozygous individuals for the mutation in 758 animals previously genotyped, whereas all 497 HH1 carriers possessed 1 copy of the mutant allele. Subsequent commercial genotyping of 246,773 Holsteins revealed 5,299 APAF1 heterozygotes and zero homozygotes for the mutation. The causative role of this mutation is also supported by functional data in mice that have demonstrated Apaf1 to be an essential molecule in the cytochrome-c-mediated apoptotic cascade and directly implicated in developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, most Apaf1 homozygous knockouts die by day 16.5 of development. We thus propose that the APAF1 p.Q579X nonsense mutation is the functional equivalent of the Apaf1 knockout. This mutation has caused an estimated 525,000 spontaneous abortions worldwide over the past 35 years, accounting for approximately $420 million in losses. With the mutation identified, selection against the deleterious allele in breeding schemes has aided in eliminating this defect from the population, reducing carrier frequency from 8% in past decades to 2% in 2015.

  10. R248G cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation in three siblings presenting with recurrent acute pancreatitis and reproductive issues: a case series.

    PubMed

    Villalona, Seiichi; Glover-López, Guillermo; Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Moya-Quiles, Rosa; Mondejar-López, Pedro; Martínez-Romero, Maria C; Rigabert-Montiel, Mariano; Pastor-Vivero, María D; Sánchez-Solís, Manuel

    2017-02-15

    Mutational combinations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, gene have different phenotypic manifestations at the molecular level with varying clinical consequences for individuals possessing such mutations. Reporting cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations is important in understanding the genotype-phenotype correlations and associated clinical presentations in patients with cystic fibrosis. Understanding the effects of mutations is critical in developing appropriate treatments for individuals affected with cystic fibrosis, non-classic cystic fibrosis, or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-related disorders. This is the first report of related individuals possessing the R248G missense cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation and we present their associated clinical histories. All three patients are of Spanish descent. Deoxyribonucleic acid analysis revealed that all three siblings possessed a novel c.742A>G mutation, resulting in a p.Arg248Gly (R248G) amino acid change in exon 6 in trans with the known N1303K mutant allele. Case 1 patient is a 39-year-old infertile man presenting with congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens and recurrent episodes of epigastric pain. Case 2 patient is a 32-year-old woman presenting with periods of infertility, two previous spontaneous abortions, recurrent epigastric pain, and recurrent pancreatitis. Case 3 patient is a 29-year-old woman presenting with recurrent pancreatitis and epigastric pain. We report the genotype-phenotype correlations and clinical manifestations of a novel R248G cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation: congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens in males, reduced female fertility, and recurrent acute pancreatitis. In addition, we discuss the possible functional consequences of the mutations at the molecular level.

  11. Molecular cloning of amphioxus uncoupling protein and assessment of its uncoupling activity using a yeast heterologous expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kun; Sun, Guoxun; Lv, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Xueyuan; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Chenyu

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Invertebrates, for example amphioxus, do express uncoupling proteins. {yields} Both the sequence and the uncoupling activity of amphioxus UCP resemble UCP2. {yields} UCP1 is the only UCP that can form dimer on yeast mitochondria. -- Abstract: The present study describes the molecular cloning of a novel cDNA fragment from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) encoding a 343-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to human uncoupling proteins (UCP), this protein is therefore named amphioxus UCP. This amphioxus UCP shares more homology with and is phylogenetically more related to mammalian UCP2 as compared with UCP1. To further assess the functional similarity of amphioxus UCP to mammalian UCP1 and -2, the amphioxus UCP, rat UCP1, and human UCP2 were separately expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the recombinant yeast mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the state 4 respiration rate and proton leak, using pYES2 empty vector as the control. UCP1 increased the state 4 respiration rate by 2.8-fold, and the uncoupling activity was strongly inhibited by GDP, while UCP2 and amphioxus UCP only increased the state 4 respiration rate by 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold in a GDP-insensitive manner, moreover, the proton leak kinetics of amphioxus UCP was very similar to UCP2, but much different from UCP1. In conclusion, the amphioxus UCP has a mild, unregulated uncoupling activity in the yeast system, which resembles mammalian UCP2, but not UCP1.

  12. Mitochondrial Uncoupling and the Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling is a physiological process that has direct and indirect consequences on glucose homeostasis. Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, which is the most well-recognized biological process related to the physiological uncoupling of mitochondria, is caused by uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates a regulated permeabilization of the mitochondrial inner membrane to protons. The uncoupled brown fat mitochondria are specialized to produce heat by oxidizing large amounts of substrates, making brown fat a sink that can actively drain glucose from circulation. This has been confirmed in human studies in which active brown fat was detected by glucose-derivative-based positron emission tomography scans. Thus, UCP1-mediated activation of brown fat appears to be a likely mechanism through which hyperglycemia could be ameliorated. In other tissues, mitochondria are reported to be mildly uncoupled by the UCP1-like proteins, UCP2 and UCP3. The primary role of these other UCPs does not appear to be the oxidation of a metabolic substrate (e.g., glucose) for heat production; instead, they participate in other processes, such as regulating the production of reactive oxygen species and transporting certain metabolites across the mitochondrial membrane. UCP2 activity influences glucose homeostasis by fine tuning intracellular events related to the cellular energy status, thereby controlling insulin secretion, food intake behavior and adiponectin secretion in pancreatic .- cells, brain and white adipose tissue, respectively. UCP3 appears to be more specifically involved in promoting fatty acid oxidation in muscle, and is thus likely to influence glucose metabolism indirectly. Several genetic association studies have related polymorphisms in the genes encoding UCPs with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes phenotypes. In this review, we will focus on what is known about the specific role of mitochondrial uncoupling in glucose metabolism, and its

  13. Genome-Wide Effects of Selenium and Translational Uncoupling on Transcription in the Termite Gut Symbiont Treponema primitia

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Eric G.; Rosenthal, Adam Z.; Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT When prokaryotic cells acquire mutations, encounter translation-inhibiting substances, or experience adverse environmental conditions that limit their ability to synthesize proteins, transcription can become uncoupled from translation. Such uncoupling is known to suppress transcription of protein-encoding genes in bacteria. Here we show that the trace element selenium controls transcription of the gene for the selenocysteine-utilizing enzyme formate dehydrogenase (fdhFSec) through a translation-coupled mechanism in the termite gut symbiont Treponema primitia, a member of the bacterial phylum Spirochaetes. We also evaluated changes in genome-wide transcriptional patterns caused by selenium limitation and by generally uncoupling translation from transcription via antibiotic-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. We observed that inhibiting protein synthesis in T. primitia influences transcriptional patterns in unexpected ways. In addition to suppressing transcription of certain genes, the expected consequence of inhibiting protein synthesis, we found numerous examples in which transcription of genes and operons is truncated far downstream from putative promoters, is unchanged, or is even stimulated overall. These results indicate that gene regulation in bacteria allows for specific post-initiation transcriptional responses during periods of limited protein synthesis, which may depend both on translational coupling and on unclassified intrinsic elements of protein-encoding genes. PMID:24222491

  14. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  15. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  16. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  17. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  18. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  19. Identification of a nonsense mutation in APAF1 that is likely causal for a decrease in reproductive efficiency in Holstein dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A haplotype on cattle chromosome 5 carrying a recessive lethal allele was found to originate in a Holstein-Friesian foundation sire. Resequencing led to the identification of a stop-gain mutation in exon 11 of APAF1, a gene known to cause embryonic lethality and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ...

  20. Low resistance junctions in crayfish. Structural changes with functional uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Electrical uncoupling of crayfish septate lateral giant axons is paralleled by structural changes in the gap junctions. The changes are characterized by a tighter aggregation of the intramembrane particles and a decrease in the overall width of the junction and the thickness of the gap. Preliminary measurements indicate also a decrease in particle diameter. The uncoupling is produced by in vitro treatment of crayfish abdominal cords either with a Ca++, Mg++-free solution containing EDTA, followed by return to normal saline (Van Harreveld's solution), or with VAn Harreveld's solution containing dinitrophenol (DNP). The uncoupling is monitored by the intracellular recording of the electrical resistance at a septum between lateral giant axons. The junctions of the same septum are examined in thin sections; those of other ganglia of the same chain used for the electrical measurements are studied by freeze-fracture. In controls, most junctions contain a more or less regular array of particles repeating at a center to center distance of approximately 200 A. The overall width of the junctions is approximately 200 A and the gap thickness is 40-50 A. Vesicles (400-700 A in diameter) are closely apposed to the junctional membranes. In uncoupled axons, most junctions contain a hexagonal array of particles repeating at a center to center distance of 150-155 A. The overall width of the junctions is approximately 180 A and the gap thickness is 20-30 A. These junctions are usually curved and are rarely associated with vesicles. Isolated, PTA-stained junctions, also believed to be uncoupled, display similar structural features. There are reasons to believe that the changes in structure and permeability are triggered by an increase in the intracellular free Ca++ concentration. Most likely, the changes in permeability are caused by conformational changes in some components of the intramembrane particles at the gap junctions. PMID:820701

  1. Coordinated Rhythmic Motion by Uncoupled Neuronal Oscillators with Sensory Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    This paper explores the potential of biological oscillators as a basic unit for feedback control to achieve rhythmic motion of locomotory systems. Among those properties of biological control systems that are useful for engineering applications, we focus on decentralized coordination, that is, the ability of uncoupled neuronal oscillators to coordinate rhythmic body movements to achieve locomotion with the aid of local sensory feedback. We will consider the reciprocal inhibition oscillator (RIO) as a candidate for the basic control unit, and show that uncoupled RIOs can achieve decentralized coordination of a prototype mechanical rectifier (PMR) that captures essential dynamics underlying animal locomotion by a simple arm-disk configuration. Optimality of the induced locomotion is studied in comparison with analytical results we derive for statically optimal PMR locomotion.

  2. Involvement of Drosophila uncoupling protein 5 in metabolism and aging.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Fridell, Yih-Woei C; Helfand, Stephen L

    2006-03-01

    A novel uncoupling protein, UCP5, has recently been characterized as a functional mitochondrial uncoupler in Drosophila. Here we demonstrate that UCP5 knockout (UCP5KO) flies are highly sensitive to starvation stress, a phenotype that can be reversed by ectopic neuronal expression of UCP5. UCP5KO flies live longer than controls on low-calorie diets, have a decreased level of fertility, and gain less weight than controls on high-calorie diets. However, isolated mitochondria from UCP5KO flies display the same respiration patterns as controls. Furthermore, total ATP levels in both UCP5KO and control flies are comparable. UCP5KO flies have a lower body composition of sugars, and during starvation stress their triglyceride reserves are depleted more rapidly than controls. Taken together, these data indicate that UCP5 is important to maintain metabolic homeostasis in the fly. We hypothesize that UCP5 influences hormonal control of metabolism.

  3. Perspectives on mitochondrial uncoupling proteins-mediated neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Susana; Correia, Sónia; Carvalho, Cristina; Candeias, Emanuel; Plácido, Ana I; Duarte, Ana I; Seiça, Raquel M; Moreira, Paula I

    2015-04-01

    The integrity of mitochondrial function is essential to cell life. It follows that disturbances of mitochondrial function will lead to disruption of cell function, expressed as disease or even death. Considering that neuronal uncoupling proteins (UCPs) decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at the expense of energy production, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms by which UCPs control the balance between the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and ROS in the context of normal physiological activity and in pathological conditions. Here we review the current understanding of neuronal UCPs-mediated respiratory uncoupling process by performing a survey in their physiology and regulation. The latest findings regarding neuronal UCPs physiological roles and their involvement and interest as potential targets for therapeutic intervention in brain diseases will also be exploited.

  4. Robots Would Couple And Uncouple Fluid And Electrical Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Castillo, Eduardo Lopez; Davis, Virgil; Ferguson, Bob; Reichle, Garland

    1992-01-01

    Robots make and break connections between umbilical plates and mating connectors on rockets about to be launched. Sensing and control systems include vision, force, and torque subsystems. Enhances safety by making it possible to couple and uncouple umbilical plates quickly, without exposing human technicians to hazards of leaking fuels and oxidizers. Significantly reduces time spent to manually connect umbilicals. Robots based on similar principles used in refueling of National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) and satellites and orbital transfer vehicles in space.

  5. Chimera states in uncoupled neurons induced by a multilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-12-01

    Spatial coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in network of coupled oscillators is called a chimera state. We study such chimera states in a network of neurons without any direct interactions but connected through another medium of neurons, forming a multilayer structure. The upper layer is thus made up of uncoupled neurons and the lower layer plays the role of a medium through which the neurons in the upper layer share information among each other. Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with square wave bursting dynamics are considered as nodes in both layers. In addition, we also discuss the existence of chimera states in presence of inter layer heterogeneity. The neurons in the bottom layer are globally connected through electrical synapses, while across the two layers chemical synapses are formed. According to our research, the competing effects of these two types of synapses can lead to chimera states in the upper layer of uncoupled neurons. Remarkably, we find a density-dependent threshold for the emergence of chimera states in uncoupled neurons, similar to the quorum sensing transition to a synchronized state. Finally, we examine the impact of both homogeneous and heterogeneous inter-layer information transmission delays on the observed chimera states over a wide parameter space.

  6. Chimera states in uncoupled neurons induced by a multilayer structure.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-12-13

    Spatial coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in network of coupled oscillators is called a chimera state. We study such chimera states in a network of neurons without any direct interactions but connected through another medium of neurons, forming a multilayer structure. The upper layer is thus made up of uncoupled neurons and the lower layer plays the role of a medium through which the neurons in the upper layer share information among each other. Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with square wave bursting dynamics are considered as nodes in both layers. In addition, we also discuss the existence of chimera states in presence of inter layer heterogeneity. The neurons in the bottom layer are globally connected through electrical synapses, while across the two layers chemical synapses are formed. According to our research, the competing effects of these two types of synapses can lead to chimera states in the upper layer of uncoupled neurons. Remarkably, we find a density-dependent threshold for the emergence of chimera states in uncoupled neurons, similar to the quorum sensing transition to a synchronized state. Finally, we examine the impact of both homogeneous and heterogeneous inter-layer information transmission delays on the observed chimera states over a wide parameter space.

  7. Uncoupling of Vascular Nitric Oxide Synthase Caused by Intermittent Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Badran, Mohammad; Abuyassin, Bisher; Golbidi, Saeid; Ayas, Najib; Laher, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is often present in diabetic (DB) patients. Both conditions are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that diabetic endothelial dysfunction is further compromised by CIH. Methods. Adult male diabetic (BKS.Cg-Dock7(m) +/+ Lepr(db) /J) (db/db) mice (10 weeks old) and their heterozygote littermates were subjected to CIH or intermittent air (IA) for 8 weeks. Mice were separated into 4 groups: IA (intermittent air nondiabetic), IH (intermittent hypoxia nondiabetic), IADB (intermittent air diabetic), and IHDB (intermittent hypoxia diabetic) groups. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation and modulation by basal nitric oxide (NO) were analyzed using wire myograph. Plasma 8-isoprostane, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were measured using ELISA. Uncoupling of eNOS was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Results. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and basal NO production were significantly impaired in the IH and IADB group compared to IA group but was more pronounced in IHDB group. Levels of 8-isoprostane, IL-6, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were ≈2-fold higher in IH and IADB groups and were further increased in the IHDB group. Conclusion. Endothelial dysfunction is more pronounced in diabetic mice subjected to CIH compared to diabetic or CIH mice alone. Oxidative stress, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were exacerbated by CIH in diabetic mice.

  8. Uncoupling of Vascular Nitric Oxide Synthase Caused by Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ayas, Najib

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is often present in diabetic (DB) patients. Both conditions are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that diabetic endothelial dysfunction is further compromised by CIH. Methods. Adult male diabetic (BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/J) (db/db) mice (10 weeks old) and their heterozygote littermates were subjected to CIH or intermittent air (IA) for 8 weeks. Mice were separated into 4 groups: IA (intermittent air nondiabetic), IH (intermittent hypoxia nondiabetic), IADB (intermittent air diabetic), and IHDB (intermittent hypoxia diabetic) groups. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation and modulation by basal nitric oxide (NO) were analyzed using wire myograph. Plasma 8-isoprostane, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were measured using ELISA. Uncoupling of eNOS was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Results. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and basal NO production were significantly impaired in the IH and IADB group compared to IA group but was more pronounced in IHDB group. Levels of 8-isoprostane, IL-6, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were ≈2-fold higher in IH and IADB groups and were further increased in the IHDB group. Conclusion. Endothelial dysfunction is more pronounced in diabetic mice subjected to CIH compared to diabetic or CIH mice alone. Oxidative stress, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were exacerbated by CIH in diabetic mice. PMID:27840666

  9. Arrhythmia and neuronal/endothelial myocyte uncoupling in hyperhomocysteinemia*

    PubMed Central

    ROSENBERGER, DOROTHEA; MOSHAL, KARNI S.; KARTHA, GANESH K.; TYAGI, NEETU; SEN, UTPAL; LOMINADZE, DAVID; MALDONADO, CLAUDIO; ROBERTS, ANDREW M.; TYAGI, SURESH C.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) are associated with arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Hcy decreases constitutive neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide (NO), and cardiac diastolic relaxation. Hcy increases the iNOS/NO, peroxynitrite, mitochondrial NADPH oxidase, and suppresses superoxide dismutase (SOD) and redoxins. Hcy activates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), disrupts connexin-43 and increases collagen/elastin ratio. The disruption of connexin-43 and accumulation of collagen (fibrosis) disrupt the normal pattern of cardiac conduction and attenuate NO transport from endothelium to myocyte (E-M) causing E-M uncoupling, leading to a pro-arrhythmic environment. The goal of this review is to elaborate the mechanism of Hcy-mediated iNOS/NO in E-M uncoupling and SCD. It is known that Hcy creates arrhythmogenic substrates (i.e. increase in collagen/elastin ratio and disruption in connexin-43) and exacerbates heart failure during chronic volume overload. Also, Hcy behaves as an agonist to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, an excitatory neurotransmitter) receptor-1, and blockade of NMDA-R1 reduces the increase in heart rate-evoked by NMDA-analog and reduces SCD. This review suggest that Hcy increases iNOS/NO, superoxide, metalloproteinase activity, and disrupts connexin-43, exacerbates endothelial-myocyte uncoupling and cardiac failure secondary to inducing NMDA-R1. PMID:17178594

  10. Chimera states in uncoupled neurons induced by a multilayer structure

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-01-01

    Spatial coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in network of coupled oscillators is called a chimera state. We study such chimera states in a network of neurons without any direct interactions but connected through another medium of neurons, forming a multilayer structure. The upper layer is thus made up of uncoupled neurons and the lower layer plays the role of a medium through which the neurons in the upper layer share information among each other. Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with square wave bursting dynamics are considered as nodes in both layers. In addition, we also discuss the existence of chimera states in presence of inter layer heterogeneity. The neurons in the bottom layer are globally connected through electrical synapses, while across the two layers chemical synapses are formed. According to our research, the competing effects of these two types of synapses can lead to chimera states in the upper layer of uncoupled neurons. Remarkably, we find a density-dependent threshold for the emergence of chimera states in uncoupled neurons, similar to the quorum sensing transition to a synchronized state. Finally, we examine the impact of both homogeneous and heterogeneous inter-layer information transmission delays on the observed chimera states over a wide parameter space. PMID:27958355

  11. Selective Uncoupling of P120ctn from E-Cadherin Disrupts Strong Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Molly A.; Anastasiadis, Panos Z.; Daniel, Juliet M.; Ireton, Reneé C.; Wheelock, Margaret J.; Johnson, Keith R.; Hummingbird, Diana K.; Reynolds, Albert B.

    2000-01-01

    p120ctn is a catenin whose direct binding to the juxtamembrane domain of classical cadherins suggests a role in regulating cell–cell adhesion. The juxtamembrane domain has been implicated in a variety of roles including cadherin clustering, cell motility, and neuronal outgrowth, raising the possibility that p120 mediates these activities. We have generated minimal mutations in this region that uncouple the E-cadherin–p120 interaction, but do not affect interactions with other catenins. By stable transfection into E-cadherin–deficient cell lines, we show that cadherins are both necessary and sufficient for recruitment of p120 to junctions. Detergent-free subcellular fractionation studies indicated that, in contrast to previous reports, the stoichiometry of the interaction is extremely high. Unlike α- and β-catenins, p120 was metabolically stable in cadherin-deficient cells, and was present at high levels in the cytoplasm. Analysis of cells expressing E-cadherin mutant constructs indicated that p120 is required for the E-cadherin–mediated transition from weak to strong adhesion. In aggregation assays, cells expressing p120-uncoupled E-cadherin formed only weak cell aggregates, which immediately dispersed into single cells upon pipetting. As an apparent consequence, the actin cytoskeleton failed to insert properly into peripheral E-cadherin plaques, resulting in the inability to form a continuous circumferential ring around cell colonies. Our data suggest that p120 directly or indirectly regulates the E-cadherin–mediated transition to tight cell–cell adhesion, possibly blocking subsequent events necessary for reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and compaction. PMID:10629228

  12. Loss of UCP2 Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction without Altering ROS Production and Uncoupling Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P.; Hultenby, Kjell; Flögel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. PMID:24945157

  13. Lotus japonicus symRK-14 uncouples the cortical and epidermal symbiotic program.

    PubMed

    Kosuta, Sonja; Held, Mark; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Morieri, Giulia; Macgillivary, Amanda; Johansen, Christopher; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, Allan J; Karas, Bogumil; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof

    2011-09-01

    SYMRK is a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR)-receptor kinase that mediates intracellular symbioses of legumes with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. It participates in signalling events that lead to epidermal calcium spiking, an early cellular response that is typically considered as central for intracellular accommodation and nodule organogenesis. Here, we describe the Lotus japonicus symRK-14 mutation that alters a conserved GDPC amino-acid sequence in the SYMRK extracellular domain. Normal infection of the epidermis by fungal or bacterial symbionts was aborted in symRK-14. Likewise, epidermal responses of symRK-14 to bacterial signalling, including calcium spiking, NIN gene expression and infection thread formation, were significantly reduced. In contrast, no major negative effects on the formation of nodule primordia and cortical infection were detected. Cumulatively, our data show that the symRK-14 mutation uncouples the epidermal and cortical symbiotic program, while indicating that the SYMRK extracellular domain participates in transduction of non-equivalent signalling events. The GDPC sequence was found to be highly conserved in LRR-receptor kinases in legumes and non-legumes, including the evolutionarily distant bryophytes. Conservation of the GDPC sequence in nearly one-fourth of LRR-receptor-like kinases in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana suggests, however, that this sequence might also play an important non-symbiotic function in this plant.

  14. Functional and immunochemical characterization of a mutant of Escherichia coli energy uncoupled for lactose transport

    SciTech Connect

    Herzlinger, D.; Carrasco, N.; Kaback, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Right-side-out cytoplasmic membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli ML 308-22, a mutant ''uncoupled'' for beta-galactoside/H/sup +/ symport are specifically defective in the ability to catalyze accumulation of methyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (TMG) in the presence of an H/sup +/ electrochemical gradient (interior negative and alkaline). Furthermore, the rate of carrier-mediated efflux under nonenergized conditions is slow and unaffected by ambient pH from pH 5.5 to 7.5, and TMG-induced H/sup +/ influx is only about 15% of that observed in vesicles containing wild-type lac permease (ML 308-225). Alternatively, ML 308-22 vesicles bind p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside and monoclonal antibody 4B1 to the same extent as ML 308-225 vesicles and catalyze facilitated diffusion and equilibrium exchange as well as ML 308-225 vesicles. When entrance counterflow is studied with external substrate at saturating and subsaturating concentrations, it is apparent that the mutation simulates the effects of deuterium oxide. That is, the mutation has no effect on the rate or extent of counterflow when external substrate is saturating but stimulates the efficiency of counterflow when external substrate is below the apparent K/sub m/. Moreover, although replacement of protium with deuterium stimulates counterflow in ML 308-225 vesicles when external substrate is subsaturating, the isotope has no effect on the mutant vesicles under the same conditions.

  15. A novel loss-of-function mutation in Npr2 clarifies primary role in female reproduction and reveals a potential therapy for acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type.

    PubMed

    Geister, Krista A; Brinkmeier, Michelle L; Hsieh, Minnie; Faust, Susan M; Karolyi, I Jill; Perosky, Joseph E; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Conti, Marco; Camper, Sally A

    2013-01-15

    We discovered a new spontaneous mutant allele of Npr2 named peewee (pwe) that exhibits severe disproportionate dwarfism and female infertility. The pwe phenotype is caused by a four base-pair deletion in exon 3 that generates a premature stop codon at codon 313 (L313X). The Npr2(pwe/pwe) mouse is a model for the human skeletal dysplasia acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM). We conducted a thorough analysis of the female reproductive tract and report that the primary cause of Npr2(pwe/pwe) female infertility is premature oocyte meiotic resumption, while the pituitary and uterus appear to be normal. Npr2 is expressed in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. We determined that the loss of Npr2 causes a reduction in the hypertrophic and proliferative zones of the growth plate, but mineralization of skeletal elements is normal. Mutant tibiae have increased levels of the activated form of ERK1/2, consistent with the idea that natriuretic peptide receptor type 2 (NPR2) signaling inhibits the activation of the MEK/ERK mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Treatment of fetal tibiae explants with mitogen activated protein kinase 1 and 2 inhibitors U0126 and PD325901 rescues the Npr2(pwe/pwe) growth defect, providing a promising foundation for skeletal dysplasia therapeutics.

  16. A novel loss-of-function mutation in Npr2 clarifies primary role in female reproduction and reveals a potential therapy for acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type

    PubMed Central

    Geister, Krista A.; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Hsieh, Minnie; Faust, Susan M.; Karolyi, I. Jill; Perosky, Joseph E.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Conti, Marco; Camper, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    We discovered a new spontaneous mutant allele of Npr2 named peewee (pwe) that exhibits severe disproportionate dwarfism and female infertility. The pwe phenotype is caused by a four base-pair deletion in exon 3 that generates a premature stop codon at codon 313 (L313X). The Npr2pwe/pwe mouse is a model for the human skeletal dysplasia acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM). We conducted a thorough analysis of the female reproductive tract and report that the primary cause of Npr2pwe/pwe female infertility is premature oocyte meiotic resumption, while the pituitary and uterus appear to be normal. Npr2 is expressed in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. We determined that the loss of Npr2 causes a reduction in the hypertrophic and proliferative zones of the growth plate, but mineralization of skeletal elements is normal. Mutant tibiae have increased levels of the activated form of ERK1/2, consistent with the idea that natriuretic peptide receptor type 2 (NPR2) signaling inhibits the activation of the MEK/ERK mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Treatment of fetal tibiae explants with mitogen activated protein kinase 1 and 2 inhibitors U0126 and PD325901 rescues the Npr2pwe/pwe growth defect, providing a promising foundation for skeletal dysplasia therapeutics. PMID:23065701

  17. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  18. Stress-induced protein CSP 310: a third uncoupling system in plants.

    PubMed

    Kolesnichenko, A V; Pobezhimova, T P; Grabelnych, O I; Voinikov, V K

    2002-06-01

    Addition of the cold-stress-related protein CSP 310 to mitochondria isolated from winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Zalarinka), winter rye ( Secale cereale L. cv. Dymka), maize ( Zea mays L. cv. VIR 36) and pea ( Pisum sativum L. cv. Marat) caused an increase in non-phosphorylative respiration. This increase was inhibited by KCN, indicating that the protein is not a CN-resistant alternative oxidase. Unlike plant mitochondrial uncoupling proteins such as PUMP, the uncoupling action of CSP 310 did not depend on the presence of free fatty acids in the incubation medium. We propose that the mechanism of the uncoupling action of CSP 310 differs from that of other known plant uncoupling systems and that the CSP 310 uncoupling system is a third uncoupling system in cereals.

  19. Mutation of FVS1, encoding a protein with a sterile alpha motif domain, affects asexual reproduction in the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Yoshioka, Yosuke; Tsuge, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores: microconidia, macroconidia and chlamydospores. We previously analysed expressed sequence tags during vegetative growth and conidiation in F. oxysporum and found 42 genes that were markedly upregulated during conidiation compared to vegetative growth. One of the genes, FVS1, encodes a protein with a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, which functions in protein-protein interactions that are involved in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. Here, we made FVS1-disrupted mutants from the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Although the mutants produced all three kinds of asexual spores with normal morphology, they formed markedly fewer microconidia and macroconidia than the wild type. The mutants appeared to have a defect in the development of the conidiogenesis cells, conidiophores and phialides, required for the formation of microconidia and macroconidia. In contrast, chlamydospore formation was dramatically promoted in the mutants. The growth rates of the mutants on media were slightly reduced, indicating that FVS1 is also involved in, but not essential for, vegetative growth. We also observed that mutation of FVS1 caused defects in conidial germination and virulence, suggesting that the Fvs1 has pleiotropic functions in F. oxysporum. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncoupling of sexual reproduction from homologous recombination in homozygous Oenothera species

    PubMed Central

    Rauwolf, U; Greiner, S; Mráček, J; Rauwolf, M; Golczyk, H; Mohler, V; Herrmann, R G; Meurer, J

    2011-01-01

    Salient features of the first meiotic division are independent segregation of chromosomes and homologous recombination (HR). In non-sexually reproducing, homozygous species studied to date HR is absent. In this study, we constructed the first linkage maps of homozygous, bivalent-forming Oenothera species and provide evidence that HR was exclusively confined to the chromosome ends of all linkage groups in our population. Co-segregation of complementary DNA-based markers with the major group of AFLP markers indicates that HR has only a minor role in generating genetic diversity of this taxon despite its efficient adaptation capability. Uneven chromosome condensation during meiosis in Oenothera may account for restriction of HR. The use of plants with ancient chromosomal arm arrangement demonstrates that limitation of HR occurred before and independent from species hybridizations and reciprocal translocations of chromosome arms—a phenomenon, which is widespread in the genus. We propose that consecutive loss of HR favored the evolution of reciprocal translocations, beneficial superlinkage groups and ultimately permanent translocation heterozygosity. PMID:21448231

  1. Targeted mitochondrial uncoupling beyond UCP1 - The fine line between death and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Ost, Mario; Keipert, Susanne; Klaus, Susanne

    2017-03-01

    In the early 1930s, the chemical uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was promoted for the very first time as a powerful and effective weight loss pill but quickly withdrawn from the market due to its lack of tissue-selectivity with resulting dangerous side effects, including hyperthermia and death. Today, novel mitochondria- or tissue-targeted chemical uncouplers with higher safety and therapeutic values are under investigation in order to tackle obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Moreover, in the past 20 years, transgenic mouse models were generated to understand the molecular and metabolic consequences of targeted uncoupling, expressing functional uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) ectopically in white adipose tissue or skeletal muscle. Similar to the action of chemical mitochondrial uncouplers, UCP1 protein dissipates the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thus allowing maximum activity of the respiratory chain and compensatory increase in oxygen consumption, uncoupled from ATP synthesis. Consequently, targeted mitochondrial uncoupling in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of UCP1-transgenic mice increased substrate metabolism and ameliorates obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance. Further, muscle-specific decrease in mitochondrial efficiency promotes a cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous adaptive metabolic remodeling with increased oxidative stress tolerance. This review provides an overview of novel chemical uncouplers as well as the metabolic consequences and adaptive processes of targeted mitochondrial uncoupling on metabolic health and survival.

  2. Uncoupler-reversible inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase by metal chelates of bathophenanthroline. I. General features.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, C; Ernster, L

    1981-12-14

    (1) Certain metal chelates of 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline, BPh) are potent inhibitors of soluble mitochondrial F1-ATPase. (2) The BPh-metal chelate inhibition of soluble mitochondrial F1-ATPase is relieved by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (3) The uncouplers appear to interact directly with the inhibitory chelates, forming stoichiometric adducts. (4) A complex between F1 and bPh3Fe2+, containing 3 mol BPh3Fe2+/mol F1, has been isolated. The enzymically inactive F1-BPh3Fe2+ complex binds uncouplers, yielding an enzymically active F1-BPh3Fe2+-uncoupler complex.

  3. A neural basis for control of cichlid female reproductive behavior by prostaglandin F2α

    PubMed Central

    Juntti, Scott A; Hilliard, Austin T; Kent, Kai R.; Kumar, Anusha; Nguyen, Andrew; Jimenez, Mariana A; Loveland, Jasmine L; Mourrain, Philippe; Fernald, Russell D

    2016-01-01

    Summary In most species, females time reproduction to coincide with fertility. Thus, identifying factors that signal fertility to the brain can provide access to neural circuits that control sexual behaviors. In vertebrates, levels of key signaling molecules rise at the time of fertility to prime the brain for reproductive behavior [1–11], but how and where they regulate neural circuits is not known [12, 13]. Specifically, 17α,20β-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) levels rise in teleost fish around the time of ovulation [10, 14, 15]. In an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, fertile females select a mate and perform a stereotyped spawning routine, offering quantifiable behavioral outputs of neural circuits. We show that within minutes, PGF2α injection activates a naturalistic pattern of sexual behavior in female A. burtoni. We also identify cells in the brain that transduce a prostaglandin signal to mate, and show that the gonadal steroid DHP modulates mRNA levels of the putative receptor for PGF2α (Ptgfr). We use CRISPR/Cas9 to generate the first targeted gene mutation in A. burtoni, and show that Ptgfr is necessary for the initiation of sexual behavior, uncoupling sexual behavior from reproductive status. Our findings are consistent with a model in which PGF2α communicates fertility status via Ptgfr to circuits in the brain that drive female sexual behavior. Our targeted genome modification in a cichlid fish shows that dissection of gene function can reveal basic control mechanisms for behaviors in this large family of species with diverse and fascinating social systems [16, 17]. PMID:26996507

  4. A dental implant: aluminium trioxide exhibited no effect on mouse reproductive and mutanogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Zelić, O; Dimitrijević, B; Vasilijevska, M; Dujić, A; Lekić, P C

    1998-11-01

    Several diseases as well as trauma can affect the composition and integrity of periodontal tissues leading eventually to the destruction of connective tissue matrix and cells, loss of attachment and resorption of alveolar bone, often followed by tooth loss. Replacement of the missing tooth could then be provided by endosseous dental implants healing in a form of osseo- or fibrosteal integration to the alveolar bone. Aluminium oxide ceramics, a form of endosseous implant, allows osseointegration type of healing and has demonstrated excellent biocompatibility. However, potential aluminium toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders and for this reason we examined the reproductive and mutagenic effect of aluminium trioxide ceramic implant in experimental mice. 720 female and 45 fertile male BALB-cAn NCR mice were included in the study. 3 experimental groups of fertile male mice (15 for each group) were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of aluminium trioxide (1 g/ kg of body weight, group I), with ethyl-methane-sulphonate as a positive control (200 mg/kg, group II) and with Tween-80 (10 mg/kg as a negative control, Group III). Each of the labeled male mice fertilized previously uncoupled female mice during 8 weeks (a pair per week) to facilitate appropriate pre- and post-meiotic conditions of spermatogenesis to occur. Female mice were sacrificed with cervical dislocation at day 13 after fertilization. Immediately upon sacrifice the uterus was removed and the number of alive and healthy, or alive but mutated and/or dead embryos was computed to determine the dominant lethal or mutagenic effect. Animals treated with aluminium trioxide demonstrated similar effects on the reproductive and mutagenic capacity as the negative control, whereas the animals treated as positive controls exhibited significantly reduced reproductive and mutagenic capacity. Collectively, we concluded that aluminium trioxide has a very low rate of

  5. Cellular interactions uncouple beta-adrenergic receptors from adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ciment, G; de Vellis, J

    1978-11-17

    C6 glioma cells and B104 neuroblastoma cells both possess adenylate cyclase activity, but only C6 cells have beta-adrenergic receptors. However, when cocultured with B104 cells, C6 cells show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate upon stimulation with beta receptor agonists. Since both beta receptors and cholera toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities are present in C6/B104 cocultures, we conclude that the beta receptor/adenylate cyclase transduction mechanism in cocultured C6 cells is uncoupled.

  6. Mitochondrial ATP-Pi exchange complex and the site of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Y; Hanstein, W G; Galante, Y; Stiggall, D L

    1975-07-01

    Five enzyme complexes, which are concerned with electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, have been isolated from beef heart mitochondria. Enzyme complexes I, II, III and IV are the electron transfer complexes discovered in 1961. Complex V is an energy-conserving complex. It catalyzes ATP-Pi exchange and ATP hydrolysis. The exchange reaction is sensitive to uncouplers, rutamycin, valinomycin plus K-+, dicyclorexylcarboditmide, arsenate, azide, and adenylyl imidodiphosphate. It is also specific for ATP; ITP, GTP and UTP are essentially ineffective. Studies with the photoaffinity labeling uncoupler, 2-azido-4-nitrophenol (NPA), have shown that the mitochondrial uncoupler-binding sites are located exclusively in complex V. Complexes I, III and IV, which carry the three coupling sites of the respiratory chain, had negligible capacity for the binding of NPA, whereas the uncoupler-binding capacity of complex V appeared to be increased two- to threefold as compared to mitochondria. Complexes I, II, III, IV and V are obtained from the same batch of mitochondria by a simple fractionation procedure, which employs cholate, deoxycholate, ammonium acetate and ammonium sulfate. Studies with NPA have shown that mitochondria contain per milligram protein about 0.6 nmole of uniformly reacting uncoupler binding site. All of the uncouplers tested appeared to interact competitively with this site. Photoaffinity labeling with tritiated NPA has shown that a major portion of NPA binds to a polypeptide of molecular weight between 26,000 and 30,000. Other studies on the mechanism of uncoupling have shown that picrate is a membrane-impermeable uncoupler. It cannot uncouple mitochondria. However, it is an effective uncoupler of ATP synthesis and ATP-induced transhydrogenation or reverse electron transfer when used in conjunction with sonicated submitochondrial particles, which have an inside-out orientation of the inner membrane with respect to the medium. In these particles, picrate

  7. Seasonal uncoupling of demographic processes in a marine clonal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaró, O.; Romero, J.; Pérez, M.

    2014-04-01

    In temperate regions, climatic factors impose a general seasonal pattern on seagrass growth that can be observed in leaf growth rates and, in small species, also in shoot density. Large variations in shoot density suggest a strong temporal uncoupling between shoot recruitment and shoot mortality, and the dependence of each of these processes on different drivers. Here we examine seasonal patterns of recruitment and mortality in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, one of the species most sensitive to seasonal forcing in the Mediterranean. We sampled two local populations submitted to different nutrient availability in Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) and determined recruitment and mortality rates, as well as other plant traits, on a monthly basis. Our results confirm the hypothesized uncoupling, with maximum mortality 2 months after maximum recruitment. Whereas timing of recruitment was associated with light availability, and was supported by carbohydrate remobilisation, mortality was related to high water temperatures and probably also to light limitation in late summer due to self-shading. In the high-nutrient population, algal overgrowth caused further light deprivation, with mortality rates higher than in the low-nutrient population. It is emphasised that the demographic balance of the studied populations was negative for most of the year, with the exception of August and September. Therefore, caution is necessary when overall population trends are inferred from single annual sampling events.

  8. Flavivirus Infection Uncouples Translation Suppression from Cellular Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Hanna; Magg, Vera; Uch, Fabian; Mutz, Pascal; Klein, Philipp; Haneke, Katharina; Lohmann, Volker; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Fackler, Oliver T.; Locker, Nicolas; Stoecklin, Georg

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on host cell translation for the production of new progeny, yet infected cells also synthesize antiviral proteins to limit virus infection. Modulation of host cell translation therefore represents a frequent strategy by which viruses optimize their replication and spread. Here we sought to define how host cell translation is regulated during infection of human cells with dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), two positive-strand RNA flaviviruses. Polysome profiling and analysis of de novo protein synthesis revealed that flavivirus infection causes potent repression of host cell translation, while synthesis of viral proteins remains efficient. Selective repression of host cell translation was mediated by the DENV polyprotein at the level of translation initiation. In addition, DENV and ZIKV infection suppressed host cell stress responses such as the formation of stress granules and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2). Mechanistic analyses revealed that translation repression was uncoupled from the disruption of stress granule formation and eIF2α signaling. Rather, DENV infection induced p38-Mnk1 signaling that resulted in the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and was essential for the efficient production of virus particles. Together, these results identify the uncoupling of translation suppression from the cellular stress responses as a conserved strategy by which flaviviruses ensure efficient replication in human cells. PMID:28074025

  9. The role of uncoupling proteins in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Li, Ji; Li, Wen-Jian; Wang, Chun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion carriers expressed in the mitochondrial inner membrane that uncouple oxygen consumption by the respiratory chain from ATP synthesis. The physiological functions of UCPs have long been debated since the new UCPs (UCP2 to 5) were discovered, and the role of UCPs in the pathogeneses of diabetes mellitus is one of the hottest topics. UCPs are thought to be activated by superoxide and then decrease mitochondrial free radicals generation; this may provide a protective effect on diabetes mellitus that is under the oxidative stress conditions. UCP1 is considered to be a candidate gene for diabetes because of its role in thermogenesis and energy expenditure. UCP2 is expressed in several tissues and acts in the negative regulation of insulin secretion by β-cells and in fatty acid metabolism. UCP3 plays a role in fatty acid metabolism and energy homeostasis and modulates insulin sensitivity. Several gene polymorphisms of UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3 were reported to be associated with diabetes. The progress in the role of UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3 on diabetes mellitus is summarized in this review.

  10. Inflammation and Uncoupling as Mechanisms of Periodontal Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Graves, D.T.; Li, J.; Cochran, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by both inflammation and bone loss. Advances in research in both these areas have led to a new appreciation of not only each field but also the intimate relationship between inflammation and bone loss. This relationship has resulted in a new field of science called osteoimmunology and provides a context for better understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In this review, we discuss several aspects of the immuno-inflammatory host response that ultimately results in loss of alveolar bone. A proposal is made that periodontal inflammation not only stimulates osteoclastogenesis but also interferes with the uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, consistent with a pathologic process. Furthermore, arguments based on experimental animal models suggest a critical role of the spatial and temporal aspects of inflammation in the periodontium. A review of these findings leads to a new paradigm to help explain more fully the impact of inflammation on alveolar bone in periodontal disease so that it includes the effects of inflammation on uncoupling of bone formation from resorption. PMID:21135192

  11. RNA structure-dependent uncoupling of substrate recognition and cleavage by Escherichia coli ribonuclease III

    PubMed Central

    Calin-Jageman, Irina; Nicholson, Allen W.

    2003-01-01

    Members of the ribonuclease III superfamily of double-strand-specific endoribonucleases participate in diverse RNA maturation and decay pathways. Ribonuclease III of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli processes rRNA and mRNA precursors, and its catalytic action can regulate gene expression by controlling mRNA translation and stability. It has been proposed that E.coli RNase III can function in a non-catalytic manner, by binding RNA without cleaving phosphodiesters. However, there has been no direct evidence for this mode of action. We describe here an RNA, derived from the T7 phage R1.1 RNase III substrate, that is resistant to cleavage in vitro by E.coli RNase III but retains comparable binding affinity. R1.1[CL3B] RNA is recognized by RNase III in the same manner as R1.1 RNA, as revealed by the similar inhibitory effects of a specific mutation in both substrates. Structure-probing assays and Mfold analysis indicate that R1.1[CL3B] RNA possesses a bulge– helix–bulge motif in place of the R1.1 asymmetric internal loop. The presence of both bulges is required for uncoupling. The bulge–helix–bulge motif acts as a ‘catalytic’ antideterminant, which is distinct from recognition antideterminants, which inhibit RNase III binding. PMID:12711683

  12. Uncoupling the Pleiotropic Phenotypes of clk-1 with tRNA Missense Suppressors in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Branicky, Robyn; Nguyen, Phuong Anh Thi; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    clk-1 encodes a demethoxyubiquinone (DMQ) hydroxylase that is necessary for ubiquinone biosynthesis. When Caenorhabditis elegans clk-1 mutants are grown on bacteria that synthesize ubiquinone (UQ), they are viable but have a pleiotropic phenotype that includes slowed development, behaviors, and aging. However, when grown on UQ-deficient bacteria, the mutants arrest development transiently before growing up to become sterile adults. We identified nine suppressors of the missense mutation clk-1(e2519), which harbors a Glu-to-Lys substitution. All suppress the mutant phenotypes on both UQ-replete and UQ-deficient bacteria. However, each mutant suppresses a different subset of phenotypes, indicating that most phenotypes can be uncoupled from each other. In addition, all suppressors restore the ability to synthesize exceedingly small amounts of UQ, although they still accumulate the precursor DMQ, suggesting that the presence of DMQ is not responsible for the Clk-1 phenotypes. We cloned six of the suppressors, and all encode tRNAGlu genes whose anticodons are altered to read the substituted Lys codon of clk-1(e2519). To our knowledge, these suppressors represent the first missense suppressors identified in any metazoan. The pattern of suppression we observe suggests that the individual members of the tRNAGlu family are expressed in different tissues and at different levels. PMID:16648490

  13. Specific Interaction of the Human Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 1 with Free Long-Chain Fatty Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linlin; Wang, Shuqing; Zhu, Qianli; Wu, Bin; Liu, Zhijun; OuYang, Bo; Chou, James J

    2017-09-05

    The mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) generates heat by causing proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane that requires fatty acid (FA). The mechanism by which UCP1 uses FA to conduct proton remains unsolved, and it is also unclear whether a direct physical interaction between UCP1 and FA exists. Here, we have shown using nuclear magnetic resonance that FA can directly bind UCP1 at a helix-helix interface site composed of residues from the transmembrane helices H1 and H6. According to the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data and molecular dynamics simulation, the FA acyl chain appears to fit into the groove between H1 and H6 while the FA carboxylate group interacts with the basic residues near the matrix side of UCP1. Functional mutagenesis showed that mutating the observed FA binding site severely reduced UCP1-mediated proton flux. Our study identifies a functionally important FA-UCP1 interaction that is potentially useful for mechanistic understanding of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Mitochondrial Uncoupling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yaguang; Shi, Hai; Lee, Kyongbum

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasing energy expenditure at the cellular level offers an attractive option to limit adiposity and improve whole body energy balance. In vivo and in vitro observations have correlated mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression with reduced white adipose tissue triglyceride (TG) content. The metabolic basis for this correlation remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings This study tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling requires the cell to compensate for the decreased oxidation phosphorylation efficiency by up-regulating lactate production, thus redirecting carbon flux away from TG synthesis. Metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize the effects of non-lethal, long-term mitochondrial uncoupling (up to 18 days) on the pathways of intermediary metabolism in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Uncoupling was induced by forced expression of UCP1 and chemical (FCCP) treatment. Chemical uncoupling significantly decreased TG content by ca. 35%. A reduction in the ATP level suggested diminished oxidative phosphorylation efficiency in the uncoupled adipocytes. Flux analysis estimated significant up-regulation of glycolysis and down-regulation of fatty acid synthesis, with chemical uncoupling exerting quantitatively larger effects. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study support our hypothesis regarding uncoupling-induced redirection of carbon flux into glycolysis and lactate production, and suggest mitochondrial proton translocation as a potential target for controlling adipocyte lipid metabolism. PMID:19746157

  15. Changes in GDP binding to brown adipose tissue mitochondria and the uncoupling protein

    SciTech Connect

    Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W. )

    1988-12-01

    Incubation in vitro of brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria with divalent cations, spermine, or alkaline phosphatase led to a marked increase in the binding of ({sup 3}H)GDP. The effect of Mg{sup 2+} appeared to be the most specific and led to the largest increase in GDP binding. A simplified method was developed for measuring GDP binding to purified uncoupling protein from rat BAT mitochondria. Application of this method indicates that uncoupling protein from cold-acclimated rats binds twice as much GDP as uncoupling protein from cold-acclimated rats that were briefly returned to thermoneutrality, paralleling changes in GDP binding to the mitochondria. Incubation of BAT mitochondria with Mg{sup 2+} led to a smaller increase in GDP binding to the subsequently purified uncoupling protein, suggesting that divalent cations may somehow participate in the regulation of the activity of the uncoupling protein.

  16. Uncoupling of the LKB1-AMPKalpha energy sensor pathway by growth factors and oncogenic BRAF.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Canals, Francesc; Colomé, Núria; Merlino, Glenn; Recio, Juan Angel

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the biochemical mechanisms contributing to melanoma development and progression is critical for therapeutical intervention. LKB1 is a multi-task Ser/Thr kinase that phosphorylates AMPK controlling cell growth and apoptosis under metabolic stress conditions. Additionally, LKB1(Ser428) becomes phosphorylated in a RAS-Erk1/2-p90(RSK) pathway dependent manner. However, the connection between the RAS pathway and LKB1 is mostly unknown. Using the UV induced HGF transgenic mouse melanoma model to investigate the interplay among HGF signaling, RAS pathway and PI3K pathway in melanoma, we identified LKB1 as a protein directly modified by HGF induced signaling. A variety of molecular techniques and tissue culture revealed that LKB1(Ser428) (Ser431 in the mouse) is constitutively phosphorylated in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cell lines and spontaneous mouse tumors with high RAS pathway activity. Interestingly, BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells showed a very limited response to metabolic stress mediated by the LKB1-AMPK-mTOR pathway. Here we show for the first time that RAS pathway activation including BRAF(V600E) mutation promotes the uncoupling of AMPK from LKB1 by a mechanism that appears to be independent of LKB1(Ser428) phosphorylation. Notably, the inhibition of the RAS pathway in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells recovered the complex formation and rescued the LKB1-AMPKalpha metabolic stress-induced response, increasing apoptosis in cooperation with the pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and Bim, and the down-regulation of Mcl-1. These data demonstrate that growth factor treatment and in particular oncogenic BRAF(V600E) induces the uncoupling of LKB1-AMPKalpha complexes providing at the same time a possible mechanism in cell proliferation that engages cell growth and cell division in response to mitogenic stimuli and resistance to low energy conditions in tumor cells. Importantly, this mechanism reveals a new level for therapeutical intervention particularly

  17. Potassium channel openers are uncoupling protonophores: implication in cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Jahangir, Arshad; Oberlin, Andrew; Komarov, Alexander; Colombini, Marco; Terzic, Andre

    2004-06-18

    Excessive build-up of mitochondrial protonic potential is harmful to cellular homeostasis, and modulation of inner membrane permeability a proposed countermeasure. Here, we demonstrate that structurally distinct potassium channel openers, diazoxide and pinacidil, facilitated transmembrane proton translocation generating H(+)-selective current through planar phospholipid membrane. Both openers depolarized mitochondria, activated state 4 respiration and reduced oxidative phosphorylation, recapitulating the signature of mitochondrial uncoupling. This effect was maintained in K(+)-free conditions and shared with the prototypic protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol. Diazoxide, pinacidil and 2,4-dinitrophenol, but not 2,4-dinitrotoluene lacking protonophoric properties, preserved functional recovery of ischemic heart. The identified protonophoric property of potassium channel openers, thus, implicates a previously unrecognized component in their mechanism of cardioprotection.

  18. Molecular identity of uncoupling proteins in thermogenic skunk cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Hida, Yamato; Mori, Hitoshi; Inaba, Takehito

    2008-12-01

    Thermogenic skunk cabbage has been reported to have two types of uncoupling protein (UCP), a typical 6-transmembrane (TM) SrUCPA and an atypical 5-TM SrUCPB. To verify further the role of SrUCPs in thermogenic skunk cabbage, we examined the molecular identity of SrUCPs in more detail. Both mRNA and genomic analyses supported the presence of SrUCPA, but not SrUCPB. Furthermore, SrUCP protein purified from spadix mitochondria was identified as SrUCPA by mass spectrometry. These results clearly indicate that SrUCPA is the major expressed UCP in skunk cabbage, and the presence of atypical SrUCPB is unlikely to be associated with thermogenesis of skunk cabbage.

  19. Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

    2007-05-01

    Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

  20. Possible physiological roles of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins--UCPn.

    PubMed

    Jezek, Petr

    2002-10-01

    Five mitochondrial uncoupling proteins exist in the human gemone: UCP2, expressed ubiquitously; UCP1, exclusively in brown adipose tissue (BAT); UCP3, predominantly in muscle; UCP4 and BMCP (UCP5), in brain. UCP4 is the ancestral prototype from which the other UCPn diverged. Findings on the level of organism and reconstituted recombinant proteins demonstrated that UCPn exhibit a protonophoric function, documented by overexpression in mice, L6 myotubes, INS1 cells, muscle, and yeast. In a few cases (yeast), this protonophoric function was correlated with elevated fatty acid (FA) levels. Reconstituted UCPn exhibited nucleotide-sensitive FA induced H(+) uniport. Two mechanisms, local buffering or FA cycling were suggested as an explanation. A basic UCPn role with mild uncoupling is to accelerate metabolism and reduce reactive oxygen species. UCP2 (UCP3) roles were inferred from transcriptional up-regulation mediated by FAs via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, cytokines, leptin signalling via hypothalamic pathway, and by thyroide and beta2 adrenergic stimulation. The latter indicated a role in catecholamine-induced thermogenesis in skeletal muscle. UCP2 (UCP3) may contribute to body weight regulation, although obesity was not induced in knockout (KO) mice. An obesity reduction in middle-aged humans was associated with the less common allele of -866 G/A polymorphism in the ucp2 gene promoter enhancing the exon 8 insertion: deletion transcript ratio. Up-regulated UCP2 transcription by pyrogenic cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)) suggested a role in fever. UCP2 could induce type 2 diabetes as developed from obesity due to up-regulated UCP2 transcription by FAs in pancreatic beta-cells. UCPn might be pro-apoptotic as well as anti-apoptotic, depending on transcriptional and biochemical regulation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling in a murine cancer cachexia model.

    PubMed

    Tzika, A Aria; Fontes-Oliveira, Cibely Cristine; Shestov, Alexander A; Constantinou, Caterina; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Righi, Valeria; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Busquets, Silvia; Lopez-Soriano, Francisco J; Milot, Sylvain; Lepine, Francois; Mindrinos, Michael N; Rahme, Laurence G; Argiles, Josep M

    2013-09-01

    Approximately half of all cancer patients present with cachexia, a condition in which disease-associated metabolic changes lead to a severe loss of skeletal muscle mass. Working toward an integrated and mechanistic view of cancer cachexia, we investigated the hypothesis that cancer promotes mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle. We subjected mice to in vivo phosphorous-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy and subjected murine skeletal muscle samples to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mice used in both experiments were Lewis lung carcinoma models of cancer cachexia. A novel 'fragmented mass isotopomer' approach was used in our dynamic analysis of 13C mass isotopomer data. Our 31P NMR and GC/MS results indicated that the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rate and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux were reduced by 49% and 22%, respectively, in the cancer-bearing mice (p<0.008; t-test vs. controls). The ratio of ATP synthesis rate to the TCA cycle flux (an index of mitochondrial coupling) was reduced by 32% in the cancer-bearing mice (p=0.036; t-test vs. controls). Genomic analysis revealed aberrant expression levels for key regulatory genes and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the muscle fiber, consistent with the presence of abnormal, giant mitochondria. Taken together, these data suggest that mitochondrial uncoupling occurs in cancer cachexia and thus point to the mitochondria as a potential pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cachexia. These findings may prove relevant to elucidating the mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle wasting observed in other chronic diseases, as well as in aging.

  2. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins in human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Hagen, T; Vidal-Puig, A

    2002-02-01

    Uncoupling proteins are mitochondrial carrier proteins that catalyse a regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, diverting free energy from ATP synthesis by the mitochondrial F0F1-ATP synthase to the production of heat. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue, is the mediator of thermogenesis in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Using gene a knockout mouse model, UCP1 has been shown to be required for cold acclimation. Two homologues of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3, have been identified recently and show a much wider tissue distribution. UCP2 and UCP3 have been postulated to play a role in the regulation of cold acclimation, energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis in humans, who, in contrast to rodents, have very little brown fat in adult life. However, evidence is accumulating that thermogenesis and regulation of body weight may not be the physiological functions of UCP2 and UCP3. For instance, mice deficient for UCP2 or UCP3 are not cold-intolerant and do not develop obesity. Alternative functions were suggested, primarily based on findings in UCP2 and UCP3 gene knockout mice. Both UCP2- and UCP3-deficient mice were found to overproduce reactive oxygen species and UCP2-deficient mice to hypersecrete insulin. Thus, the UCP1 homologues may play a role in regulating mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and b-cell function. In this review, we discuss the role of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 in human physiology and disease, primarily based on findings from the various animal models that have been generated.

  4. Humane reproduction.

    PubMed

    1974-03-01

    Discusses social, economic, and humane considerations in population control. Mental health aspects of controlled fertility are considered in relation to the family's psychosocial and material resources, the effects of reproduction on the individual the family, and community, and the advantages and disadvantages of controlled reproduction. A distinction between family planning and population control is outlined. It is suggested that there is hardly a single more effective tool for preventing psychological disorders than the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Analyses of educational and medical services and methods of birth control are presented. A comprehensive neighborhood health station, which would consolidate these services, is suggested. It is concluded that humane programs of reproduction would lead to a reconciliation of biological drives with a responsible concern for the quality of life.

  5. AAV-mediated leptin receptor installation improves energy balance and the reproductive status of obese female Koletsky rats.

    PubMed

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Kalra, Satya P; Kalra, Pushpa S

    2005-12-01

    Leptin is a hormone secreted primarily by white adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and reproduction via CNS receptors. Koletsky (f/f) rats with a leptin receptor (OB-Rb) gene mutation are obese, diabetic and infertile. We employed recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors to transfer the human OB-Rb gene into the brains of female Koletsky rats to identify sites of leptin action in the brain. rAAV-OB-Rb was microinjected into the medial preoptic area (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the ventromedial hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus (ARC), or the dorsal vagal complex in the brainstem. Food intake and body weight were monitored bi-weekly for 55 days. Vaginal cytology was examined daily to assess estrous cyclicity. After sacrifice, uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) mRNA in brown adipose tissue and serum concentrations of leptin, insulin, glucose, estradiol and progesterone were measured. Expression of OB-Rb was documented by RT-PCR and site specificity of microinjection was verified by immunohistochemical detection of green fluorescent protein following a control microinjection of rAAV-GFP. OB-Rb installation in the ARC reduced food intake, however, energy expenditure, assessed by UCP-1 mRNA expression, was increased by OB-Rb installation in all sites except the PVN. When injected into the MPOA and ARC, rAAV-OB-Rb stimulated the reproductive axis as evidenced by normalization of estrous cycle length and increased luteinizing hormone releasing hormone concentrations in the hypothalamus. These studies show that long-term installation of a functional leptin receptor in the CNS is achievable using rAAV vectors and further show that leptin acts on specific sites in the brain to produce differential effects on food intake, energy expenditure and reproduction.

  6. Genomic structure and expression of uncoupling protein 2 genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Issa; Gahr, Scott A; Palti, Yniv; Yao, Jianbo; Rexroad, Caird E

    2006-08-09

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) belongs to the superfamily of mitochondrial anion carriers that dissociate the respiratory chain from ATP synthesis. It has been determined that UCP2 plays a role in several physiological processes such as energy expenditure, body weight control and fatty acid metabolism in several vertebrate species. We report the first characterization of UCP2s in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two UCP2 genes were identified in the rainbow trout genome, UCP2A and UCP2B. These genes are 93% similar in their predicted amino acid sequences and display the same genomic structure as other vertebrates (8 exons and 7 introns) spanning 4.2 kb and 3.2 kb, respectively. UCP2A and UCP2B were widely expressed in all tissues of the study with a predominant level in macrophage-rich tissues and reproductive organs. In fry muscle we observed an increase in UCP2B expression in response to fasting and a decrease after refeeding in agreement with previous studies in human, mouse, rat, and marsupials. The converse expression pattern was observed for UCP2A mRNA which decreased during fasting, suggesting different metabolic roles for UCP2A and UCP2B in rainbow trout muscle. Phylogenetic analysis including other genes from the UCP core family located rainbow trout UCP2A and UCP2B with their orthologs and suggested an early divergence of vertebrate UCPs from a common ancestor gene. We characterized two UCP2 genes in rainbow trout with similar genomic structures, amino acid sequences and distribution profiles. These genes appeared to be differentially regulated in response to fasting and refeeding in fry muscle. The genomic organization and phylogeny analysis support the hypothesis of a common ancestry between the vertebrate UCPs.

  7. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  8. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System A A ... your son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  9. Transcriptomic and macroevolutionary evidence for phenotypic uncoupling between frog life history phases

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg Valero, Katharina C.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Rodríguez, Ariel; Arias, Mónica; Shah, Abhijeet; Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Brown, Jason L.; Glaw, Frank; Amat, Felix; Künzel, Sven; Metzler, Dirk; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Vences, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Anuran amphibians undergo major morphological transitions during development, but the contribution of their markedly different life-history phases to macroevolution has rarely been analysed. Here we generate testable predictions for coupling versus uncoupling of phenotypic evolution of tadpole and adult life-history phases, and for the underlying expression of genes related to morphological feature formation. We test these predictions by combining evidence from gene expression in two distantly related frogs, Xenopus laevis and Mantidactylus betsileanus, with patterns of morphological evolution in the entire radiation of Madagascan mantellid frogs. Genes linked to morphological structure formation are expressed in a highly phase-specific pattern, suggesting uncoupling of phenotypic evolution across life-history phases. This gene expression pattern agrees with uncoupled rates of trait evolution among life-history phases in the mantellids, which we show to have undergone an adaptive radiation. Our results validate a prevalence of uncoupling in the evolution of tadpole and adult phenotypes of frogs. PMID:28504275

  10. Transcriptomic and macroevolutionary evidence for phenotypic uncoupling between frog life history phases.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg Valero, Katharina C; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Rodríguez, Ariel; Arias, Mónica; Shah, Abhijeet; Randrianiaina, Roger Daniel; Brown, Jason L; Glaw, Frank; Amat, Felix; Künzel, Sven; Metzler, Dirk; Isokpehi, Raphael D; Vences, Miguel

    2017-05-15

    Anuran amphibians undergo major morphological transitions during development, but the contribution of their markedly different life-history phases to macroevolution has rarely been analysed. Here we generate testable predictions for coupling versus uncoupling of phenotypic evolution of tadpole and adult life-history phases, and for the underlying expression of genes related to morphological feature formation. We test these predictions by combining evidence from gene expression in two distantly related frogs, Xenopus laevis and Mantidactylus betsileanus, with patterns of morphological evolution in the entire radiation of Madagascan mantellid frogs. Genes linked to morphological structure formation are expressed in a highly phase-specific pattern, suggesting uncoupling of phenotypic evolution across life-history phases. This gene expression pattern agrees with uncoupled rates of trait evolution among life-history phases in the mantellids, which we show to have undergone an adaptive radiation. Our results validate a prevalence of uncoupling in the evolution of tadpole and adult phenotypes of frogs.

  11. Stochastic calculus for uncoupled continuous-time random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germano, Guido; Politi, Mauro; Scalas, Enrico; Schilling, René L.

    2009-06-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is a pure-jump stochastic process with several applications not only in physics but also in insurance, finance, and economics. A definition is given for a class of stochastic integrals driven by a CTRW, which includes the Itō and Stratonovich cases. An uncoupled CTRW with zero-mean jumps is a martingale. It is proved that, as a consequence of the martingale transform theorem, if the CTRW is a martingale, the Itō integral is a martingale too. It is shown how the definition of the stochastic integrals can be used to easily compute them by Monte Carlo simulation. The relations between a CTRW, its quadratic variation, its Stratonovich integral, and its Itō integral are highlighted by numerical calculations when the jumps in space of the CTRW have a symmetric Lévy α -stable distribution and its waiting times have a one-parameter Mittag-Leffler distribution. Remarkably, these distributions have fat tails and an unbounded quadratic variation. In the diffusive limit of vanishing scale parameters, the probability density of this kind of CTRW satisfies the space-time fractional diffusion equation (FDE) or more in general the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, which generalizes the standard diffusion equation, solved by the probability density of the Wiener process, and thus provides a phenomenologic model of anomalous diffusion. We also provide an analytic expression for the quadratic variation of the stochastic process described by the FDE and check it by Monte Carlo.

  12. Stochastic calculus for uncoupled continuous-time random walks.

    PubMed

    Germano, Guido; Politi, Mauro; Scalas, Enrico; Schilling, René L

    2009-06-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is a pure-jump stochastic process with several applications not only in physics but also in insurance, finance, and economics. A definition is given for a class of stochastic integrals driven by a CTRW, which includes the Itō and Stratonovich cases. An uncoupled CTRW with zero-mean jumps is a martingale. It is proved that, as a consequence of the martingale transform theorem, if the CTRW is a martingale, the Itō integral is a martingale too. It is shown how the definition of the stochastic integrals can be used to easily compute them by Monte Carlo simulation. The relations between a CTRW, its quadratic variation, its Stratonovich integral, and its Itō integral are highlighted by numerical calculations when the jumps in space of the CTRW have a symmetric Lévy alpha -stable distribution and its waiting times have a one-parameter Mittag-Leffler distribution. Remarkably, these distributions have fat tails and an unbounded quadratic variation. In the diffusive limit of vanishing scale parameters, the probability density of this kind of CTRW satisfies the space-time fractional diffusion equation (FDE) or more in general the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, which generalizes the standard diffusion equation, solved by the probability density of the Wiener process, and thus provides a phenomenologic model of anomalous diffusion. We also provide an analytic expression for the quadratic variation of the stochastic process described by the FDE and check it by Monte Carlo.

  13. The insensitivity to uncouplers of testis mitochondrial ATPase.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Memije, M E; Izquierdo-Reyes, V; Delhumeau-Ongay, G

    1988-01-01

    Albumin-free testis mitochondrial ATPase activity failed to be stimulated by either 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or carbonyl cyanide rho-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). DNP scarcely enhanced the state 4 respiration and mitochondria proved to be poorly coupled. When 1% bovine serum albumin was added to the isolation medium, DNP or FCCP stimulated ATPase nearly twofold and the dose-response curves for the uncouplers on the QO2 reached a plateau at five- to sixfold. The DNP coupling index (q) also showed a 30-40% improvement. A dose-response curve for oligomycin on the rate of [gamma-32P]ATP synthesis showed a stimulation of ATP synthase activity by 10-100 ng inhibitor/mg protein, suggesting a possible blockade of "open" F0 channels. In the albumin preparation oligomycin inhibited ATP synthesis in the range 10-100 ng/mg protein. Since testis ATPase is known to be loosely bound to the membrane, an effect of albumin, improving tightness in the interaction of the F1 and the F0 sectors of the ATPase, is suggested.

  14. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein is required for efficient photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sweetlove, Lee J.; Lytovchenko, Anna; Morgan, Megan; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Taylor, Nicolas L.; Baxter, Charles J.; Eickmeier, Ira; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2006-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) occur in the inner mitochondrial membrane and dissipate the proton gradient across this membrane that is normally used for ATP synthesis. Although the catalytic function and regulation of plant UCPs have been described, the physiological purpose of UCP in plants has not been established. Here, biochemical and physiological analyses of an insertional knockout of one of the Arabidopsis UCP genes (AtUCP1) are presented that resolve this issue. Absence of UCP1 results in localized oxidative stress but does not impair the ability of the plant to withstand a wide range of abiotic stresses. However, absence of UCP1 results in a photosynthetic phenotype. Specifically there is a restriction in photorespiration with a decrease in the rate of oxidation of photorespiratory glycine in the mitochondrion. This change leads to an associated reduced photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate. Collectively, these results suggest that the main physiological role of UCP1 in Arabidopsis leaves is related to maintaining the redox poise of the mitochondrial electron transport chain to facilitate photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:17148605

  15. Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrafish, ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J A; Harper, J A; Brindle, K M; Brand, M D

    1999-09-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is of demonstrated importance in mammalian thermogenesis, and early hypotheses regarding the functions of the newly discovered UCP homologues, UCP2, UCP3 and others, have focused largely on their potential roles in thermogenesis. Here we report the amino acid sequences of two new UCPs from ectothermic vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), were identified in expressed sequence tag databases at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory. cDNAs from a C. carpio 'peritoneal exudate cell' cDNA library and from a D. rerio 'day 0 fin regeneration' cDNA library were obtained and fully sequenced. Each cDNA encodes a 310 amino acid protein with an average 82% sequence identity to mammalian UCP2s. The fish UCP2s are about 70% identical to mammalian UCP3s, and 60% identical to mammalian UCP1s. Carp and zebrafish are ectotherms--they do not raise their body temperatures above ambient by producing excess heat. The presence of UCP2 in these fish thus suggests the protein may have function(s) not related to thermogenesis.

  16. The Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rabender, Christopher S.; Alam, Asim; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Cardnell, Robert J.; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Graves, Paul; Zweit, Jamal; Mikkelsen, Ross B.

    2015-01-01

    Here evidence suggests that nitric oxide synthases (NOS) of tumor cells, in contrast to normal tissues, synthesize predominantly superoxide and peroxynitrite. Based on HPLC analysis, the underlying mechanism for this uncoupling is a reduced tetrahydrobiopterin: dihydrobiopterin ratio (BH4:BH2) found in breast, colorectal, epidermoid and head and neck tumors compared to normal tissues. Increasing BH4:BH2 and reconstitution of coupled NOS activity in breast cancer cells with the BH4 salvage pathway precursor, sepiapterin, causes significant shifts in downstream signaling including increased cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity, decreased β-catenin expression and TCF4 promoter activity, and reduced NF-κB promoter activity. Sepiapterin inhibited breast tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo as measured by clonogenic assay, Ki67 staining and 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). In summary, using diverse tumor types, it is demonstrated that the BH4:BH2 ratio is lower in tumor tissues and as a consequence nitric oxide synthase activity generates more peroxynitrite and superoxide anion than nitric oxide resulting in important tumor growth promoting and anti-apoptotic signaling properties. Implications The synthetic BH4, Kuvan®, is used to elevate BH4:BH2 in some phenylketonuria patients and to treat diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction suggesting a novel, testable approach for correcting an abnormality of tumor metabolism to control tumor growth. PMID:25724429

  17. Genome-wide effects of selenium and translational uncoupling on transcription in the termite gut symbiont Treponema primitia.

    PubMed

    Matson, Eric G; Rosenthal, Adam Z; Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2013-11-12

    When prokaryotic cells acquire mutations, encounter translation-inhibiting substances, or experience adverse environmental conditions that limit their ability to synthesize proteins, transcription can become uncoupled from translation. Such uncoupling is known to suppress transcription of protein-encoding genes in bacteria. Here we show that the trace element selenium controls transcription of the gene for the selenocysteine-utilizing enzyme formate dehydrogenase (fdhFSec) through a translation-coupled mechanism in the termite gut symbiont Treponema primitia, a member of the bacterial phylum Spirochaetes. We also evaluated changes in genome-wide transcriptional patterns caused by selenium limitation and by generally uncoupling translation from transcription via antibiotic-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. We observed that inhibiting protein synthesis in T. primitia influences transcriptional patterns in unexpected ways. In addition to suppressing transcription of certain genes, the expected consequence of inhibiting protein synthesis, we found numerous examples in which transcription of genes and operons is truncated far downstream from putative promoters, is unchanged, or is even stimulated overall. These results indicate that gene regulation in bacteria allows for specific post-initiation transcriptional responses during periods of limited protein synthesis, which may depend both on translational coupling and on unclassified intrinsic elements of protein-encoding genes. A large body of literature demonstrates that the coupling of transcription and translation is a general and essential method by which bacteria regulate gene expression levels. However, the potential role of noncanonical amino acids in regulating transcriptional output via translational control remains, for the most part, undefined. Furthermore, the genome-wide transcriptional state in response to translational decoupling is not well quantified. The results presented here suggest that the

  18. Alteration of plant mitochondrial proton conductance by free fatty acids. Uncoupling protein involvement.

    PubMed

    Hourton-Cabassa, Cecile; Mesneau, Agnes; Miroux, Bruno; Roussaux, Jean; Ricquier, Daniel; Zachowski, Alain; Moreau, Francois

    2002-11-01

    We characterized the uncoupling activity of the plant uncoupling protein from Solanum tuberosum (StUCP) using mitochondria from intact potato tubers or from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expressing the StUCP gene. Compared with mitochondria from transfected yeast, StUCP is present at very low levels in intact potato mitochondrial membranes (at least thirty times lower) as shown by immunodetection with anti-UCP1 antibodies. Under conditions that ruled out undesirable effects of nucleotides and free fatty acids on uncoupling activity measurement in plant mitochondria, the linoleic acid-induced depolarization in potato mitochondria was insensitive to the nucleotides ATP, GTP, or GDP. In addition, sensitivity to linoleic acid was similar in potato and in control yeast mitochondria, suggesting that uncoupling occurring in potato mitochondria was because of a UCP-independent proton diffusion process. By contrast, yeast mitochondria expressing StUCP exhibited a higher sensitivity to free fatty acids than those from the control yeast and especially a marked proton conductance in the presence of low amounts of linoleic acid. However, this fatty acid-induced uncoupling was also insensitive to nucleotides. Altogether, these results suggest that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and heat production cannot be the dominant feature of StUCP expressed in native potato tissues. However, it could play a role in preventing reactive oxygen species production as proposed for mammalian UCP2 and UCP3.

  19. Thyroxine reversibly inhibits the uncoupling action of protonophores on energy production in rat thymus lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Palamarchuk, L A; Mansurova, S E; Starkov, A A

    2002-04-01

    Earlier we reported that some thyroid and steroid hormones and also 6-ketocholestanol used in micromolar concentrations modulated the effects of protonophoric uncouplers on isolated mitochondria (Starkov et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1318, 173-183). In the present study we investigated the effects of a thyroid hormone, thyroxine, on energy coupling of intact rat thymus lymphocytes and mitochondria isolated from these cells. The resting (oligomycin-inhibited) respiration of the isolated intact lymphocytes was stimulated by the addition of protonophoric uncouplers 2,4-DNP, FCCP, or SF6847. Subsequent addition of micromolar concentrations of thyroxin decreased the rate of uncoupler-stimulated respiration and partially reversed uncoupler-induced decrease of membrane potential (DeltaPsi). In experiments with mitochondria isolated from thymus lymphocytes the re-coupling effect of thyroxine was not observed. In this case thyroxine did not influence mitochondrial respiration stimulated with 2,4-DNP, but did potentiate the stimulation of respiration and DeltaPsi decrease induced with another uncoupler, SF6847. The data are discussed in terms of a hypothesis that aromatic uncouplers are transported into the cell by the thyroxine carrier of the plasma membrane.

  20. Mutations in troponin T associated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy increase Ca(2+)-sensitivity and suppress the modulation of Ca(2+)-sensitivity by troponin I phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Messer, Andrew E; Bayliss, Christopher R; El-Mezgueldi, Mohammed; Redwood, Charles S; Ward, Douglas G; Leung, Man-Ching; Papadaki, Maria; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; Marston, Steven B

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effect of 7 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)-causing mutations in troponin T (TnT) on troponin function in thin filaments reconstituted with actin and human cardiac tropomyosin. We used the quantitative in vitro motility assay to study Ca(2+)-regulation of unloaded movement and its modulation by troponin I phosphorylation. Troponin from a patient with the K280N TnT mutation showed no difference in Ca(2+)-sensitivity when compared with donor heart troponin and the Ca(2+)-sensitivity was also independent of the troponin I phosphorylation level (uncoupled). The recombinant K280N TnT mutation increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity 1.7-fold and was also uncoupled. The R92Q TnT mutation in troponin from transgenic mouse increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity and was also completely uncoupled. Five TnT mutations (Δ14, Δ28 + 7, ΔE160, S179F and K273E) studied in recombinant troponin increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity and were all fully uncoupled. Thus, for HCM-causing mutations in TnT, Ca(2+)-sensitisation together with uncoupling in vitro is the usual response and both factors may contribute to the HCM phenotype. We also found that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can restore coupling to all uncoupled HCM-causing TnT mutations. In fact the combination of Ca(2+)-desensitisation and re-coupling due to EGCG completely reverses both the abnormalities found in troponin with a TnT HCM mutation suggesting it may have therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of the uncoupling protein-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Francesc; Peyrou, Marion; Giralt, Marta

    2017-03-01

    Regulated transcription of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene, and subsequent UCP1 protein synthesis, is a hallmark of the acquisition of the differentiated, thermogenically competent status of brown and beige/brite adipocytes, as well as of the responsiveness of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to adaptive regulation of thermogenic activity. The 5' non-coding region of the UCP1 gene contains regulatory elements that confer tissue specificity, differentiation dependence, and neuro-hormonal regulation to UCP1 gene transcription. Two main regions-a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter region-mediate transcriptional regulation through interactions with a plethora of transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors and cAMP-responsive transcription factors. Co-regulators, such as PGC-1α, play a pivotal role in the concerted regulation of UCP1 gene transcription. Multiple interactions of transcription factors and co-regulators at the promoter region of the UCP1 gene result in local chromatin remodeling, leading to activation and increased accessibility of RNA polymerase II and subsequent gene transcription. Moreover, a commonly occurring A-to-G polymorphism in close proximity to the UCP1 gene enhancer influences the extent of UCP1 gene transcription. Notably, it has been reported that specific aspects of obesity and associated metabolic diseases are associated with human population variability at this site. On another front, the unique properties of the UCP1 promoter region have been exploited to develop brown adipose tissue-specific gene delivery tools for experimental purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Uncoupling protein 2 gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene polymorphisms have been reported as genetic risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the association of commonly observed UCP2 G(−866)A (rs659366) and Ala55Val (C > T) (rs660339) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity, high fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids in a Balinese population. Methods A total of 603 participants (278 urban and 325 rural subjects) were recruited from Bali Island, Indonesia. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured. Obesity was determined based on WHO classifications for adult Asians. Participants were genotyped for G(−866)A and Ala55Val polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene. Results Obesity prevalence was higher in urban subjects (51%) as compared to rural subjects (23%). The genotype, minor allele (MAF), and heterozygosity frequencies were similar between urban and rural subjects for both SNPs. All genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A combined analysis of genotypes and environment revealed that the urban subjects carrying the A/A genotype of the G(−866)A SNP have higher BMI than the rural subjects with the same genotype. Since the two SNPs showed strong linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.946, r2 = 0.657), a haplotype analysis was performed. We found that the AT haplotype was associated with high BMI only when the urban environment was taken into account. Conclusions We have demonstrated the importance of environmental settings in studying the influence of the common UCP2 gene polymorphisms in the development of obesity in a Balinese population. PMID:22533685

  4. Ca2+-induced uncoupling of Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    PubMed

    Dargaei, Zahra; Standage, Dominic; Groten, Christopher J; Blohm, Gunnar; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-02-01

    Electrical transmission is a dynamically regulated form of communication and key to synchronizing neuronal activity. The bag cell neurons of Aplysia are a group of electrically coupled neuroendocrine cells that initiate ovulation by secreting egg-laying hormone during a prolonged period of synchronous firing called the afterdischarge. Accompanying the afterdischarge is an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We used whole cell recording from paired cultured bag cell neurons to demonstrate that electrical coupling is regulated by both Ca2+ and PKC. Elevating Ca2+ with a train of voltage steps, mimicking the onset of the afterdischarge, decreased junctional current for up to 30 min. Inhibition was most effective when Ca2+ entry occurred in both neurons. Depletion of Ca2+ from the mitochondria, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, also attenuated the electrical synapse. Buffering Ca2+ with high intracellular EGTA or inhibiting calmodulin kinase prevented uncoupling. Furthermore, activating PKC produced a small but clear decrease in junctional current, while triggering both Ca2+ influx and PKC inhibited the electrical synapse to a greater extent than Ca2+ alone. Finally, the amplitude and time course of the postsynaptic electrotonic response were attenuated after Ca2+ influx. A mathematical model of electrically connected neurons showed that excessive coupling reduced recruitment of the cells to fire, whereas less coupling led to spiking of essentially all neurons. Thus a decrease in electrical synapses could promote the afterdischarge by ensuring prompt recovery of electrotonic potentials or making the neurons more responsive to current spreading through the network.

  5. Uncoupling Proteins: Role in Insulin Resistance and Insulin Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Catherine B.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are modulators of mitochondrial metabolism that have been implicated in the development of both insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency, the two major pathophysiological events associated with type 2 diabetes. UCP2 mRNA is expressed in a wide range of tissues; however UCP2 protein expression is restricted to fewer tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, spleen, stomach, brain and the lung. To date, its role in the pathophysiology of diabetes has been most strongly associated with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the β-cell, particularly after its induction by free fatty acids. The physiological role of UCP2 remains controversial, but it may act as a downstream signal transducer of superoxide. UCP3 mRNA and protein are expressed in relatively few tissues, predominately skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue and heart. Increased expression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle is associated with protection from diet-induced insulin resistance in mice. In patients with type 2 diabetes UCP3 protein in muscle is reduced by 50% compared to healthy controls. The primary physiological role of the novel UCPs does not appear to be protection against positive energy balance and obesity; this is based largely on findings from studies of UCP2 and UCP3 knockout mice and from observed increases in UCP3 expression with fasting. The mechanism(s) of action of UCP2 and UCP3 are poorly understood. However, findings support roles for UCP2 and UCP3 as modifiers of fatty acid metabolism and in mitigating damage from reactive oxygen species. PMID:18220632

  6. Uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by DNA gyrase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M.; Weinberg, R.; Simpson, M.V.

    1986-05-01

    Supercoiled mtDNA and the swivel requirement for its replication suggest the existence of a mtDNA gyrase. The authors published studies on isolated mitochondria showing that novobiocin, coumermycin, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid promote relaxed DNA formation at the expense of supercoiled DNA are in accord with this view. However, their inability to directly detect the enzyme led them to ask whether these drugs act elsewhere. Their results with isolated rat liver mitochondria show that novo, nal, but not oxo, stimulate O/sub 2/ uptake as much as does 2.4-dinitrophenol (DNP). This possible uncoupling effect was confirmed by a standard (/sup 32/P) assay showing the following inhibitions of ATP synthesis: 0.2 mM novo, 95% (0.4 mM, 100%) 0.4 mM nal, 37%; oxo to at least 1.9 mM, 0%; (0.5 mM 2,4-DNP, 100%). Thus, oxo remains a useful tool for intact mitochondrial studies. Because these three drugs, especially novo, are being used to study the role of DNA superhelicity on pro- and eucaryotic (and mitochondrial) gene expression, the authors studied their effect on oxidative phosphorylation in such cells. In these cases the drugs did not affect DNP-sensitive (/sup 14/C)glutamine transport into E. coli cells (an established measure of ATP level), nor, in an S. cerevisiae mutant permeable to novo, did novo affect the steady state ATP level. Studies on cultured mammalian cells are in progress.

  7. Glaciers and rivers: Pleistocene uncoupling in a Mediterranean mountain karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, K. R.; Woodward, J. C.; Hughes, P. D.

    2014-06-01

    Large-scale coupling between headwater catchments and downstream depocentres is a critical influence on long-term fluvial system behaviour and on the creation of the fluvial sedimentary record. However, it is often difficult to examine this control over multiple Quaternary glacial cycles and it has not been fully explored in karst basins. By investigating the Pleistocene glacial and fluvial records on and around Mount Orjen (1894 m) in Montenegro, we show how the changing connectivity between glaciated mountain headwater source zones and downstream alluvial basins is a key feature of long-term karst system behaviour - especially in relation to the creation and preservation of the surface sedimentary record. Middle and Late Pleistocene glacial deposits are well preserved on Mount Orjen. Uranium-series dating of 27 carbonate cements in fluvial sediments shows that many alluvial depocentres were completely filled with coarse glacial outwash before 350 ka during the largest recorded glaciation. This major glaciation is correlated with the Skamnellian Stage in Greece and Marine Isotope Stage 12 (MIS 12, c 480-420 ka). This was a period of profound landscape change in many glaciated catchments on the Balkan Peninsula. Later glaciations were much less extensive and sediment supply to fluvial systems was much diminished. The extreme base level falls of the Late Miocene produced the world's deepest karst networks around the Mediterranean. After MIS 12, the subterranean karst of Mount Orjen formed the dominant pathway for meltwater and sediment transfer so that the depositional basins below 1000 m became disconnected (uncoupled) from the glaciated headwaters. There is little evidence of post-MIS 12 aggradation or incision in these basins. This absence of later Pleistocene and Holocene fluvial activity means these basins contain some of the thickest and best-preserved outwash deposits in the Mediterranean.

  8. Unisexual Reproduction Reverses Muller’s Ratchet

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Kevin C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus that engages in outcrossing, inbreeding, and selfing forms of unisexual reproduction as well as canonical sexual reproduction between opposite mating types. Long thought to be clonal, >99% of sampled environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans are MATα, limiting the frequency of opposite mating-type sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction allows eukaryotic organisms to exchange genetic information and shuffle their genomes to avoid the irreversible accumulation of deleterious changes that occur in asexual populations, known as Muller’s ratchet. We tested whether unisexual reproduction, which dispenses with the requirement for an opposite mating-type partner, is able to purge the genome of deleterious mutations. We report that the unisexual cycle can restore mutant strains of C. neoformans to wild-type genotype and phenotype, including prototrophy and growth rate. Furthermore, the unisexual cycle allows attenuated strains to purge deleterious mutations and produce progeny that are returned to wild-type virulence. Our results show that unisexual populations of C. neoformans are able to avoid Muller’s ratchet and loss of fitness through a unisexual reproduction cycle involving α-α cell fusion, nuclear fusion, and meiosis. Similar types of unisexual reproduction may operate in other pathogenic and saprobic eukaryotic taxa. PMID:25217049

  9. Mimicking a SURF1 allele reveals uncoupling of cytochrome c oxidase assembly from translational regulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Robert; Bareth, Bettina; Balleininger, Martina; Wissel, Mirjam; Rehling, Peter; Mick, David U

    2011-06-15

    Defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism lead to severe human disorders, mainly affecting tissues especially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, such as muscle and brain. Leigh Syndrome describes a severe encephalomyopathy in infancy, frequently caused by mutations in SURF1. SURF1, termed Shy1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a conserved assembly factor for the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase. Although the molecular function of SURF1/Shy1 is still enigmatic, loss of function leads to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and reduced expression of the central subunit Cox1 in yeast. Here, we provide insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to disease through missense mutations in codons of the most conserved amino acids in SURF1. Mutations affecting G(124) do not compromise import of the SURF1 precursor protein but lead to fast turnover of the mature protein within the mitochondria. Interestingly, an Y(274)D exchange neither affects stability nor localization of the protein. Instead, SURF1(Y274D) accumulates in a 200 kDa cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate. Using yeast as a model, we demonstrate that the corresponding Shy1(Y344D) is able to overcome the stage where cytochrome c oxidase assembly links to the feedback regulation of mitochondrial Cox1 expression. However, Shy1(Y344D) impairs the assembly at later steps, most apparent at low temperature and exhibits a dominant-negative phenotype upon overexpression. Thus, exchanging the conserved tyrosine (Y(344)) with aspartate in yeast uncouples translational regulation of Cox1 from cytochrome c oxidase assembly and provides evidence for the dual functionality of Shy1.

  10. Identification of a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Kenwood, Brandon M; Weaver, Janelle L; Bajwa, Amandeep; Poon, Ivan K; Byrne, Frances L; Murrow, Beverley A; Calderone, Joseph A; Huang, Liping; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Tomsig, Jose L; Okabe, Kohki; Lo, Ryan H; Cameron Coleman, G; Columbus, Linda; Yan, Zhen; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Smith, Jeffrey S; Holmes, Jeffrey W; Lynch, Kevin R; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Uchiyama, Seiichi; Santos, Webster L; Rogers, George W; Okusa, Mark D; Bayliss, Douglas A; Hoehn, Kyle L

    2014-04-01

    Dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation is associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and some of the most prevalent human diseases including obesity, cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and heart disease. Chemical 'mitochondrial uncouplers' are lipophilic weak acids that transport protons into the mitochondrial matrix via a pathway that is independent of ATP synthase, thereby uncoupling nutrient oxidation from ATP production. Mitochondrial uncouplers also lessen the proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane and thereby increase the rate of mitochondrial respiration while decreasing production of reactive oxygen species. Thus, mitochondrial uncouplers are valuable chemical tools that enable the measurement of maximal mitochondrial respiration and they have been used therapeutically to decrease mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. However, the most widely used protonophore uncouplers such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have off-target activity at other membranes that lead to a range of undesired effects including plasma membrane depolarization, mitochondrial inhibition, and cytotoxicity. These unwanted properties interfere with the measurement of mitochondrial function and result in a narrow therapeutic index that limits their usefulness in the clinic. To identify new mitochondrial uncouplers that lack off-target activity at the plasma membrane we screened a small molecule chemical library. Herein we report the identification and validation of a novel mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler (2-fluorophenyl){6-[(2-fluorophenyl)amino](1,2,5-oxadiazolo[3,4-e]pyrazin-5-yl)}amine, named BAM15, that does not depolarize the plasma membrane. Compared to FCCP, an uncoupler of equal potency, BAM15 treatment of cultured cells stimulates a higher maximum rate of mitochondrial respiration and is less cytotoxic. Furthermore, BAM15 is bioactive in vivo and dose

  11. Identification of a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane☆

    PubMed Central

    Kenwood, Brandon M.; Weaver, Janelle L.; Bajwa, Amandeep; Poon, Ivan K.; Byrne, Frances L.; Murrow, Beverley A.; Calderone, Joseph A.; Huang, Liping; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Tomsig, Jose L.; Okabe, Kohki; Lo, Ryan H.; Cameron Coleman, G.; Columbus, Linda; Yan, Zhen; Saucerman, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Uchiyama, Seiichi; Santos, Webster L.; Rogers, George W.; Okusa, Mark D.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation is associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and some of the most prevalent human diseases including obesity, cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and heart disease. Chemical 'mitochondrial uncouplers' are lipophilic weak acids that transport protons into the mitochondrial matrix via a pathway that is independent of ATP synthase, thereby uncoupling nutrient oxidation from ATP production. Mitochondrial uncouplers also lessen the proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane and thereby increase the rate of mitochondrial respiration while decreasing production of reactive oxygen species. Thus, mitochondrial uncouplers are valuable chemical tools that enable the measurement of maximal mitochondrial respiration and they have been used therapeutically to decrease mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. However, the most widely used protonophore uncouplers such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have off-target activity at other membranes that lead to a range of undesired effects including plasma membrane depolarization, mitochondrial inhibition, and cytotoxicity. These unwanted properties interfere with the measurement of mitochondrial function and result in a narrow therapeutic index that limits their usefulness in the clinic. To identify new mitochondrial uncouplers that lack off-target activity at the plasma membrane we screened a small molecule chemical library. Herein we report the identification and validation of a novel mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler (2-fluorophenyl){6-[(2-fluorophenyl)amino](1,2,5-oxadiazolo[3,4-e]pyrazin-5-yl)}amine, named BAM15, that does not depolarize the plasma membrane. Compared to FCCP, an uncoupler of equal potency, BAM15 treatment of cultured cells stimulates a higher maximum rate of mitochondrial respiration and is less cytotoxic. Furthermore, BAM15 is bioactive in vivo and dose

  12. Thermodynamics of Anharmonic Systems: Uncoupled Mode Approximations for Molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Pei; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-06-14

    The partition functions, heat capacities, entropies, and enthalpies of selected molecules were calculated using uncoupled mode (UM) approximations, where the full-dimensional potential energy surface for internal motions was modeled as a sum of independent one-dimensional potentials for each mode. The computational cost of such approaches scales the same with molecular size as standard harmonic oscillator vibrational analysis using harmonic frequencies (HO(hf)). To compute thermodynamic properties, a computational protocol for obtaining the energy levels of each mode was established. The accuracy of the UM approximation depends strongly on how the one-dimensional potentials of each modes are defined. If the potentials are determined by the energy as a function of displacement along each normal mode (UM-N), the accuracies of the calculated thermodynamic properties are not significantly improved versus the HO(hf) model. Significant improvements can be achieved by constructing potentials for internal rotations and vibrations using the energy surfaces along the torsional coordinates and the remaining vibrational normal modes, respectively (UM-VT). For hydrogen peroxide and its isotopologs at 300 K, UM-VT captures more than 70% of the partition functions on average. By contrast, the HO(hf) model and UM-N can capture no more than 50%. For a selected test set of C2 to C8 linear and branched alkanes and species with different moieties, the enthalpies calculated using the HO(hf) model, UM-N, and UM-VT are all quite accurate comparing with reference values though the RMS errors of the HO model and UM-N are slightly higher than UM-VT. However, the accuracies in entropy calculations differ significantly between these three models. For the same test set, the RMS error of the standard entropies calculated by UM-VT is 2.18 cal mol(-1) K(-1) at 1000 K. By contrast, the RMS error obtained using the HO model and UM-N are 6.42 and 5.73 cal mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. For a test set

  13. Dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling in vivo triggers respiratory adaptation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Desquiret, Valérie; Loiseau, Dominique; Jacques, Caroline; Douay, Olivier; Malthièry, Yves; Ritz, Patrick; Roussel, Damien

    2006-01-01

    Here, we show that 3 days of mitochondrial uncoupling, induced by low concentrations of dinitrophenol (10 and 50 microM) in cultured human HepG2 cells, triggers cellular metabolic adaptation towards oxidative metabolism. Chronic respiratory uncoupling of HepG2 cells induced an increase in cellular oxygen consumption, oxidative capacity and cytochrome c oxidase activity. This was associated with an upregulation of COXIV and ANT3 gene expression, two nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production and growth rate were unaffected, indicating that metabolic adaptation of HepG2 cells undergoing chronic respiratory uncoupling allows continuous and efficient mitochondrial ATP production without the need to increase glycolytic activity. In contrast, 3 days of dinitrophenol treatment did not change the oxidative capacity of human 143B.TK(-) cells, but it increased glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production. Despite a large increase in glycolytic metabolism, the growth rate of 143B.TK(-) cells was significantly reduced by dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. We propose that chronic respiratory uncoupling may constitute an internal bioenergetic signal, which would initiate a coordinated increase in nuclear respiratory gene expression, which ultimately drives mitochondrial metabolic adaptation within cells.

  14. Oxidative phosphorylation in Debaryomyces hansenii: physiological uncoupling at different growth phases.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Díaz-Ruíz, Rodrigo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador

    2014-07-01

    Physiological uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) was studied in Debaryomyces hansenii. In other species, such as Yarrowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, OxPhos can be uncoupled through differential expression of branched respiratory chain enzymes or by opening of a mitochondrial unspecific channel (ScMUC), respectively. However D. hansenii mitochondria, which contain both a branched respiratory chain and a mitochondrial unspecific channel (DhMUC), selectively uncouple complex I-dependent rate of oxygen consumption in the stationary growth phase. The uncoupled complex I-dependent respiration was only 20% of the original activity. Inhibition was not due to inactivation of complex I, lack of protein expression or to differential expression of alternative oxidoreductases. Furthermore, all other respiratory chain activities were normal. Decrease of complex I-dependent respiration was due to NAD(+) loss from the matrix, probably through an open of DhMUC. When NAD(+) was added back, coupled complex I-activity was recovered. NAD(+) re-uptake was independent of DhMUC opening and seemed to be catalyzed by a NAD(+)-specific transporter, which was sensitive to bathophenanthroline, bromocresol purple or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate as described for S. cerevisiae mitochondrial NAD(+) transporters. Loss of NAD(+) from the matrix through an open MUC is proposed as an additional mechanism to uncouple OxPhos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. High membrane potential promotes alkenal-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and influences adenine nucleotide translocase conformation.

    PubMed

    Azzu, Vian; Parker, Nadeene; Brand, Martin D

    2008-07-15

    Mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species, whose downstream lipid peroxidation products, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, induce uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by increasing proton leak through mitochondrial inner membrane proteins such as the uncoupling proteins and adenine nucleotide translocase. Using mitochondria from rat liver, which lack uncoupling proteins, in the present study we show that energization (specifically, high membrane potential) is required for 4-hydroxynonenal to activate proton conductance mediated by adenine nucleotide translocase. Prolonging the time at high membrane potential promotes greater uncoupling. 4-Hydroxynonenal-induced uncoupling via adenine nucleotide translocase is prevented but not readily reversed by addition of carboxyatractylate, suggesting a permanent change (such as adduct formation) that renders the translocase leaky to protons. In contrast with the irreversibility of proton conductance, carboxyatractylate added after 4-hydroxynonenal still inhibits nucleotide translocation, implying that the proton conductance and nucleotide translocation pathways are different. We propose a model to relate adenine nucleotide translocase conformation to proton conductance in the presence or absence of 4-hydroxynonenal and/or carboxyatractylate.

  16. Coevolution of robustness, epistasis, and recombination favors asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Thomas; Bergman, Aviv

    2007-07-31

    The prevalence of sexual reproduction remains one of the most perplexing phenomena in evolutionary biology. The deterministic mutation hypothesis postulates that sexual reproduction will be advantageous under synergistic epistasis, a condition in which mutations cause a greater reduction in fitness when combined than would be expected from their individual effects. The inverse condition, antagonistic epistasis, correspondingly is predicted to favor asexual reproduction. To assess this hypothesis, we introduce a finite population evolutionary process that combines a recombination modifier formalism with a gene-regulatory network model. We demonstrate that when reproductive mode and epistasis are allowed to coevolve, asexual reproduction outcompetes sexual reproduction. In addition, no correlation is found between the level of synergistic epistasis and the fixation time of the asexual mode. However, a significant correlation is found between the level of antagonistic epistasis and asexual mode fixation time. This asymmetry can be explained by the greater reduction in fitness imposed by sexual reproduction as compared with asexual reproduction. Our findings present evidence and suggest plausible explanations that challenge both the deterministic mutation hypothesis and recent arguments asserting the importance of emergent synergistic epistasis in the maintenance of sexual reproduction.

  17. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  18. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  19. The uncoupling protein 1 gene (UCP1) is disrupted in the pig lineage: a genetic explanation for poor thermoregulation in piglets.

    PubMed

    Berg, Frida; Gustafson, Ulla; Andersson, Leif

    2006-08-18

    Piglets appear to lack brown adipose tissue, a specific type of fat that is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals, and they rely on shivering as the main mechanism for thermoregulation. Here we provide a genetic explanation for the poor thermoregulation in pigs as we demonstrate that the gene for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was disrupted in the pig lineage. UCP1 is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue and plays a crucial role for thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. We used long-range PCR and genome walking to determine the complete genome sequence of pig UCP1. An alignment with human UCP1 revealed that exons 3 to 5 were eliminated by a deletion in the pig sequence. The presence of this deletion was confirmed in all tested domestic pigs, as well as in European wild boars, Bornean bearded pigs, wart hogs, and red river hogs. Three additional disrupting mutations were detected in the remaining exons. Furthermore, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was clearly elevated in the pig sequence compared with the corresponding sequences in humans, cattle, and mice, and we used this increased rate to estimate that UCP1 was disrupted about 20 million years ago.

  20. The Uncoupling Protein 1 Gene (UCP1) Is Disrupted in the Pig Lineage: A Genetic Explanation for Poor Thermoregulation in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Frida; Gustafson, Ulla; Andersson, Leif

    2006-01-01

    Piglets appear to lack brown adipose tissue, a specific type of fat that is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals, and they rely on shivering as the main mechanism for thermoregulation. Here we provide a genetic explanation for the poor thermoregulation in pigs as we demonstrate that the gene for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was disrupted in the pig lineage. UCP1 is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue and plays a crucial role for thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. We used long-range PCR and genome walking to determine the complete genome sequence of pig UCP1. An alignment with human UCP1 revealed that exons 3 to 5 were eliminated by a deletion in the pig sequence. The presence of this deletion was confirmed in all tested domestic pigs, as well as in European wild boars, Bornean bearded pigs, wart hogs, and red river hogs. Three additional disrupting mutations were detected in the remaining exons. Furthermore, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was clearly elevated in the pig sequence compared with the corresponding sequences in humans, cattle, and mice, and we used this increased rate to estimate that UCP1 was disrupted about 20 million years ago. PMID:16933999

  1. EFFECT OF UNCOUPLING PROTEIN–1 EXPRESSION ON 3T3-L1 ADIPOCYTE GENE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Senocak, Fatih S.; Si, Yaguang; Moya, Colby; Russell, William K.; Russell, David H.; Lee, Kyongbum; Jayaraman, Arul

    2008-01-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) partially uncouples substrate oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation to promote the dissipation of cellular biochemical energy as heat in brown adipose tissue. We have recently shown that expression of UCP1 in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes reduces the accumulation of triglycerides. Here, we investigated the molecular basis underlying UCP1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Gene expression data show that forced UCP1 expression down-regulated several energy metabolism pathways; but ATP levels were constant. A metabolic flux analysis model was used to reflect the gene expression changes onto metabolic processes and concordance was observed in the down-regulation of energy consuming pathways. Our data suggest that adipocytes respond to long-term mitochondrial uncoupling by minimizing ATP utilization. PMID:18061577

  2. Structure-activity relationships of furazano[3,4-b]pyrazines as mitochondrial uncouplers.

    PubMed

    Kenwood, Brandon M; Calderone, Joseph A; Taddeo, Evan P; Hoehn, Kyle L; Santos, Webster L

    2015-11-01

    Chemical mitochondrial uncouplers are lipophilic weak acids that transport protons into the mitochondrial matrix via a pathway that is independent of ATP synthase, thereby uncoupling nutrient oxidation from ATP production. These uncouplers have potential for the treatment of diseases such as obesity, Parkinson's disease, and aging. We have previously identified a novel mitochondrial protonophore, named BAM15, which stimulates mitochondrial respiration across a broad dosing range compared to carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). Herein, we report our investigations on the structure-activity relationship profile of BAM15. Our studies demonstrate the importance of the furazan, pyrazine, and aniline rings as well as pKa in maintaining its effective protonophore activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of 6-ketocholestanol on FCCP- and DNP-induced uncoupling in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vianello, A; Macri, F; Braidot, E; Mokhova, E N

    1995-05-22

    Effect of 6-ketocholestanol on FCCP-induced and DNP-induced uncoupling in beef liver and pea stem mitochondria was studied, under experimental conditions at which this steroid abolished the effect of low concentrations of FCCP and other most potent uncouplers in rat mitochondria [Starkov et al. (1994) FEBS Lett., 355, 305-308]. It is shown that, in both types of mitochondria, 6-ketocholestanol prevents or reverses the uncoupling induced by low concentrations of FCCP, but not that caused by high concentrations of FCCP or by any concentration of DNP. Progesterone and male sex hormones, showing recoupling capability in animal mitochondria, appear to be ineffective in the plant system. Cholesterol does not recouple in both animal and plant mitochondria. Plant steroids, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are also without effect.

  4. Uncoupling effect of fatty acids on heart muscle mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

    PubMed

    Dedukhova, V I; Mokhova, E N; Skulachev, V P; Starkov, A A; Arrigoni-Martelli, E; Bobyleva, V A

    1991-12-16

    The effect of ATP/ADP-antiporter inhibitors on palmitate-induced uncoupling was studied in heart muscle mitochondria and inside-out submitochondrial particles. In both systems palmitate is found to decrease the respiration-generated membrane potential. In mitochondria, this effect is specifically abolished by carboxyatractylate (CAtr) a non-penetrating inhibitor of antiporter. In submitochondrial particles, CAtr does not abolish the palmitate-induced potential decrease. At the same time, bongkrekic acid, a penetrating inhibitor of the antiporter, suppresses the palmitate effect on the potential both in mitochondria and particles. Palmitoyl-CoA which is known to inhibit the antiporter in mitochondria as well as in particles decreases the palmitate uncoupling efficiency in both these systems. These data are in agreement with the hypothesis that the ATP/ADP-antiporter is involved in the action of free fatty acids as natural uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation.

  5. Reduced heart rate variability: an indicator of cardiac uncoupling and diminished physiologic reserve in 1,425 trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Morris, John A; Norris, Patrick R; Ozdas, Asli; Waitman, Lemuel R; Harrell, Frank E; Williams, Anna E; Cao, Hanqing; Jenkins, Judith M

    2006-06-01

    Measurements of a patient's physiologic reserve (age, injury severity, admission lactic acidosis, transfusion requirements, and coagulopathy) reflect robustness of response to surgical insult. We have previously shown that cardiac uncoupling (reduced heart rate variability, HRV) in the first 24 hours after injury correlates with mortality and autonomic nervous system failure. We hypothesized: Deteriorating physiologic reserve correlates with reduced HRV and cardiac uncoupling. There were 1,425 trauma ICU patients that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Differences in mortality across categorical measurements of the domains of physiologic reserve were assessed using the chi test. The relationship of cardiac uncoupling and physiologic reserve was examined using multivariate logistic regression models for various levels of cardiac uncoupling (>0 through 28% reduced HRV in the first 24 hours). Of these, 797 (55.9%) patients exhibited cardiac uncoupling. Deteriorating measures of physiologic reserve reflected increased risk of death. Measures of acidosis (admission lactate, time to lactate normalization, and lactate deterioration over the first 24 hours), coagulopathy, age, and injury severity contributed significantly to the risk of cardiac uncoupling (area under receiver operator curve, ROC=0.73). The association between deteriorating reserve and cardiac uncoupling increases with the threshold for uncoupling (ROC=0.78). Reduced heart rate variability is a new biomarker reflecting the loss of command and control of the heart (cardiac uncoupling). Risk of cardiac uncoupling increases significantly as a patient's physiologic reserve deteriorates and physiologic exhaustion approaches. Cardiac uncoupling provides a noninvasive, overall measure of a patient's clinical trajectory over the first 24 hours of ICU stay.

  6. Reproductive Information and Reproductive Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of reproductive choice are attempting to limit reproductive decisions based on certain underlying reasons. This commentary explores the rationales for these limitations and the objections to them. It concludes that reasoned-based limitations are unsupportable and unenforceable.

  7. Uncoupling by Acetic Acid Limits Growth of and Acetogenesis by Clostridium thermoaceticum

    PubMed Central

    Baronofsky, Jerald J.; Schreurs, Wilhelmus J. A.; Kashket, Eva R.

    1984-01-01

    When cells of the anaerobic thermophile Clostridium thermoaceticum grow in batch culture and homoferment glucose to acetic acid, the pH of the medium decreases until growth and then acid production cease, at about pH 5. We postulated that the end product of fermentation limits growth by acting as an uncoupling agent. Thus, when the pH of the medium is low, the cytoplasm of the cells becomes acidified below a tolerable pH. We have therefore measured the internal pH of growing cells and compared these values with those of nongrowing cells incubated in the absence of acetic acid. Growing cells maintained an interior about 0.6 pH units more alkaline than the exterior throughout most of batch growth (i.e., ΔpH = 0.6). We also measured the transmembrane electrical potential (ΔΨ), which decreased from 140 mV at pH 7 at the beginning of growth to 80 mV when the medium had reached pH 5. The proton motive force, therefore, was 155 mV at pH 7, decreasing to 120 mV at pH 5. When further fermentation acidified the medium below pH 5, both the ΔpH and the ΔΨ collapsed, indicating that these cells require an internal pH of at least 5.5 to 5.7. Cells harvested from stationary phase and suspended in citrate-phosphate buffer maintained a ΔpH of 1.5 at external pH 5.0. This ΔpH was dissipated by acetic acid (at the concentrations found in the growth medium) and other weak organic acids, as well as by ionophores and inhibitors of glycolysis and of the H+-ATPase. Nongrowing cells had a ΔΨ which ranged from about 116 mV at external pH 7 to about 55 mV at external pH 5 and which also was sensitive to ionophores. Since acetic acid, in its un-ionized form, diffuses passively across the cytoplasmic membrane, it effectively renders the membrane permeable to protons. It therefore seems unlikely that mutations at one or a few loci would result in C. thermoaceticum cells significantly more acetic acid tolerant than their parental type. PMID:16346677

  8. Reproductive and post-reproductive life history of wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Klepsatel, P; Gáliková, M; De Maio, N; Ricci, S; Schlötterer, C; Flatt, T

    2013-07-01

    The life history of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is well understood, but fitness components are rarely measured by following single individuals over their lifetime, thereby limiting insights into lifetime reproductive success, reproductive senescence and post-reproductive lifespan. Moreover, most studies have examined long-established laboratory strains rather than freshly caught individuals and may thus be confounded by adaptation to laboratory culture, inbreeding or mutation accumulation. Here, we have followed the life histories of individual females from three recently caught, non-laboratory-adapted wild populations of D. melanogaster. Populations varied in a number of life-history traits, including ovariole number, fecundity, hatchability and lifespan. To describe individual patterns of age-specific fecundity, we developed a new model that allowed us to distinguish four phases during a female's life: a phase of reproductive maturation, followed by a period of linear and then exponential decline in fecundity and, finally, a post-ovipository period. Individual females exhibited clear-cut fecundity peaks, which contrasts with previous analyses, and post-peak levels of fecundity declined independently of how long females lived. Notably, females had a pronounced post-reproductive lifespan, which on average made up 40% of total lifespan. Post-reproductive lifespan did not differ among populations and was not correlated with reproductive fitness components, supporting the hypothesis that this period is a highly variable, random 'add-on' at the end of reproductive life rather than a correlate of selection on reproductive fitness. Most life-history traits were positively correlated, a pattern that might be due to genotype by environment interactions when wild flies are brought into a novel laboratory environment but that is unlikely explained by inbreeding or positive mutational covariance caused by mutation accumulation.

  9. Uncoupling protein expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to in vivo porcine somatotropin treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The uncoupling proteins are thought to be involved in waste heat production, reducing the energy efficiency of growth in animals. Previous studies have detected their presence in swine and their regulation by the endocrine system. This study attempted to determine whether the uncoupling proteins 2...

  10. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with /sup 3/H-GDP binding

    SciTech Connect

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial /sup 3/H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27/sup 0/C although /sup 3/H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although /sup 3/H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria.

  11. Reproductive compensation in the evolution of plant mating systems.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Emmanuelle; Lande, Russell

    2005-05-01

    Reproductive compensation, the replacement of dead embryos by potentially viable ones, is known to play a major role in the maintenance of deleterious mutations in mammalian populations. However, it has received little attention in plant evolution. Here we model the joint evolution of mating system and inbreeding depression with reproductive compensation. We used a dynamic model of inbreeding depression, allowing for partial purging of recessive lethal mutations by selfing. We showed that reproductive compensation tended to increase the mean number of lethals in a population, but favored self-fertilization by effectively decreasing early inbreeding depression. When compensation depended on the selfing rate, stable mixed mating systems can occur, with low to intermediate selfing rates. Experimental evidence of reproductive compensation is required to confirm its potential importance in the evolution of plant mating systems. We suggest experimental methods to detect reproductive compensation.

  12. Single Cell Microgel Based Modular Bioinks for Uncoupled Cellular Micro- and Macroenvironments.

    PubMed

    Kamperman, Tom; Henke, Sieger; van den Berg, Albert; Shin, Su Ryon; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali; Karperien, Marcel; Leijten, Jeroen

    2017-02-01

    Modular bioinks based on single cell microgels within distinct injectable prepolymers enable uncoupling of biomaterials' micro- and macroenvironments. These inks allow biofabrication of 3D constructs that recapitulate the multiscale modular design of native tissues with a single cell resolution. This approach represents a major step forward in endowing engineered constructs with the multifunctionality that underlies the behavior of native tissues.

  13. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by curcumin: Implication of its cellular mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Han Wern; Lim, Hwee Ying; Wong, Kim Ping

    2009-11-06

    Curcumin is a phytochemical isolated from the rhizome of turmeric. Recent reports have shown curcumin to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties as well as affecting the 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), mTOR and STAT-3 signaling pathways. We provide evidence that curcumin acts as an uncoupler. Well-established biochemical techniques were performed on isolated rat liver mitochondria in measuring oxygen consumption, F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase activity and ATP biosynthesis. Curcumin displays all the characteristics typical of classical uncouplers like fccP and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, at concentrations higher than 50 {mu}M, curcumin was found to inhibit mitochondrial respiration which is a characteristic feature of inhibitory uncouplers. As a protonophoric uncoupler and as an activator of F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase, curcumin causes a decrease in ATP biosynthesis in rat liver mitochondria. The resulting change in ATP:AMP could disrupt the phosphorylation status of the cell; this provides a possible mechanism for its activation of AMPK and its downstream mTOR and STAT-3 signaling.

  14. Water recycling by Amazonian vegetation: coupled versus uncoupled vegetation-climate interactions.

    PubMed

    Cowling, S A; Shin, Y; Pinto, E; Jones, C D

    2008-05-27

    To demonstrate the relationship between Amazonian vegetation and surface water dynamics, specifically, the recycling of water via evapotranspiration (ET), we compare two general circulation model experiments; one that couples the IS92a scenario of future CO2 emissions to a land-surface scheme with dynamic vegetation (coupled) and the other to fixed vegetation (uncoupled). Because the only difference between simulations involves vegetation coupling, any alterations to surface energy and water balance must be due to vegetation feedbacks. The proportion of water recycled back to the atmosphere is relatively conserved through time for both experiments. Absolute value of recycled water is lower in our coupled relative to our uncoupled simulation as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 that in turn promotes lowering of stomatal conductance and increase in water-use efficiency. Bowen ratio increases with decreasing per cent broadleaf cover, with the greatest rate of change occurring at high vegetation cover (above 70% broadleaf cover). Over the duration of the climate change simulation, precipitation is reduced by an extra 30% in the coupled relative to the uncoupled simulations. Lifting condensation level (proxy for base height of cumulus cloud formation) is 520m higher in our coupled relative to uncoupled simulations.

  15. Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into heat (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of heat production by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the heat sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism. PMID:12887329

  16. The development of structure-activity relationships for mitochondrial dysfunction: uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Naven, Russell T; Swiss, Rachel; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn; Will, Yvonne; Greene, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the development of idiosyncratic organ toxicity. An ability to predict mitochondrial dysfunction early in the drug development process enables the deselection of those drug candidates with potential safety liabilities, allowing resources to be focused on those compounds with the highest chance of success to the market. A database of greater than 2000 compounds was analyzed to identify structural and physicochemical features associated with the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (herein defined as an increase in basal respiration). Many toxicophores associated with potent uncoupling activity were identified, and these could be divided into two main mechanistic classes, protonophores and redox cyclers. For the protonophores, potent uncoupling activity was often promoted by high lipophilicity and apparent stabilization of the anionic charge resulting from deprotonation of the protonophore. The potency of redox cyclers did not appear to be prone to variations in lipophilicity. Only 11 toxicophores were of sufficient predictive performance that they could be incorporated into a structural-alert model. Each alert was associated with one of three confidence levels (high, medium, and low) depending upon the lipophilicity-activity profile of the structural class. The final model identified over 68% of those compounds with potent uncoupling activity and with a value for specificity above 99%. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this approach and conclude that although structural alert methodology is useful for identifying toxicophores associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, they are not a replacement for the mitochondrial dysfunction assays in early screening paradigms.

  17. A novel amino acid and metabolomics signature in mice overexpressing muscle uncoupling protein 3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle and whole body metabolism has not been extensively studied. We utilized unt...

  18. The mitochondrial consequences of uncoupling intact cells depend on the nature of the exogenous substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, B; Filippi, C; Piquet, M A; Leclercq, P; Fontaine, E; Ronot, X; Rigoulet, M; Leverve, X

    2001-01-01

    In isolated mitochondria the consequences of oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling are well defined, whereas in intact cells various effects have been described. Uncoupling liver cells with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in the presence of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and ethanol results in a marked decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane electrical potential (DeltaPsi), ATP/ADP ratios and gluconeogenesis (as an ATP-utilizing process), whereas the increased oxidation rate is limited and transient. Conversely, when DHA is associated with octanoate or proline, DNP addition results in a very large and sustained increase in oxidation rate, whereas the decreases in DeltaPsi, ATP/ADP ratios and gluconeogenesis are significantly less when compared with DHA and ethanol. Hence significant energy wastage (high oxidation rate) by uncoupling is achieved only with substrates that are directly oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix. Conversely in the presence of substrates that are first oxidized in the cytosol, uncoupling results in a profound decrease in mitochondrial DeltaPsi and ATP synthesis, whereas energy wastage is very limited. PMID:11256968

  19. Circadian Biology: Uncoupling Human Body Clocks by Food Timing.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Celine; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-07-10

    Synchrony of circadian rhythms between tissues/organs appears critical for health. A new study reports that meal timing, a modifiable temporal cue for the circadian system, can selectively uncouple circadian rhythms in metabolic physiology from the central circadian clock in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncoupling of Energy-Linked Functions of Corn Mitochondria by Linoleic Acid and Monomethyldecenylsuccinic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Baddeley, M. Susan; Hanson, J. B.

    1967-01-01

    Linoleic acid and monomethyldecenylsuccinic acid were tested as uncoupling agents for energy linked functions of corn mitochondria. 2,4-dinitrophenol was used as a standard for comparison. Both compounds uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation, released oligomycin-blocked respiration, and accelerated adenosine triphosphatase. Linoleic acid uncoupled calcium-activated phosphate accumulation and the increase in light scattering that accompanies the accumulation. Unlike dinitrophenol, linoleic acid at 0.1 mm had a destructive effect on membrane semipermeability. Kinetic studies indicated that dinitrophenol and linoleic acid compete with phosphate for active sites in oxidative phosphorylation. Some linoleic acid is taken up by respiring mitochondria and a major share of the uptake is incorporated into phospholipids. Calcium ion and oligomycin promote the uptake, but coenzyme A does not. It is deduced that fatty acid probably attacks the non-phosphorylated intermediate, I∼X, producing X∼acyl. Uncoupling results from breakdown of X∼acyl, but sufficient X∼acyl is maintained to serve as a source of activated fatty acid. PMID:16656708

  1. Reproductive Medicine in Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of amphibians includes ovulation, spermiation, fertilization, oviposition, larval stage and development, and metamorphosis. A problem at any stage could lead to reproductive failure. To stimulate reproduction, environmental conditions must be arranged to simulate changes in natural habits. Reproductive life history is well documented in amphibians; a thorough knowledge of this subject will aid the practitioner in diagnosis and treatment. Technologies for artificial reproduction are developing rapidly, and some protocols may be transferable to privately kept or endangered species. Reproductive tract disorders are rarely described; no bacterial or viral diseases are known that specifically target the amphibian reproductive system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  4. Beta-blocker exposure in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cardiac uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Riordan, William P; Cotton, Bryan A; Norris, Patrick R; Waitman, Lemuel R; Jenkins, Judith M; Morris, John A

    2007-09-01

    Cardiac uncoupling and reduced heart rate (HR) variability are associated with increased mortality after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data has shown beta-blocker (betaB) exposure is associated with improved survival in this patient population. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of betaB exposure on the mortality risk of patients with severe TBI and early cardiac uncoupling. From December 2000 to October 2005, 4,116 patients were admitted to the trauma intensive care unit. Four hundred forty-six patients (12%) had head Abbreviated Injury Scale score >/= 5 without neck injury and had continuous HR data for the first 24 hours. One hundred forty-one patients (29%) received betaB. Cardiac uncoupling was calculated as the percent of time that 5-minute HR standard deviation was between 0.3 bpm and 0.6 bpm on postinjury day 1. A relationship between betaB and survival was observed when the population was considered irrespective of length of stay or betaB start time (p < 0.001). Cardiac uncoupling appears to stratify patients into groups who might receive additional benefit from betaB, and identifies patients with increasing mortality. However, the association of betaB with survival was attenuated when analyses accounted for selection bias in betaB administration. betaB exposure was associated with reduced mortality among patients with severe TBI. Though loss of HR variability has previously been associated with an increase in mortality, betaB exposure appears to be associated with increased survival across all stratifications of cardiac uncoupling.

  5. Influences of clonality on plant sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Flowering plants possess an unrivaled diversity of mechanisms for achieving sexual and asexual reproduction, often simultaneously. The commonest type of asexual reproduction is clonal growth (vegetative propagation) in which parental genotypes (genets) produce vegetative modules (ramets) that are capable of independent growth, reproduction, and often dispersal. Clonal growth leads to an expansion in the size of genets and increased fitness because large floral displays increase fertility and opportunities for outcrossing. Moreover, the clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules can assist “mate finding,” particularly in aquatic plants. However, there are ecological circumstances in which functional antagonism between sexual and asexual reproductive modes can negatively affect the fitness of clonal plants. Populations of heterostylous and dioecious species have a small number of mating groups (two or three), which should occur at equal frequency in equilibrium populations. Extensive clonal growth and vegetative dispersal can disrupt the functioning of these sexual polymorphisms, resulting in biased morph ratios and populations with a single mating group, with consequences for fertility and mating. In populations in which clonal propagation predominates, mutations reducing fertility may lead to sexual dysfunction and even the loss of sex. Recent evidence suggests that somatic mutations can play a significant role in influencing fitness in clonal plants and may also help explain the occurrence of genetic diversity in sterile clonal populations. Highly polymorphic genetic markers offer outstanding opportunities for gaining novel insights into functional interactions between sexual and clonal reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:26195747

  6. Influences of clonality on plant sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Spencer C H

    2015-07-21

    Flowering plants possess an unrivaled diversity of mechanisms for achieving sexual and asexual reproduction, often simultaneously. The commonest type of asexual reproduction is clonal growth (vegetative propagation) in which parental genotypes (genets) produce vegetative modules (ramets) that are capable of independent growth, reproduction, and often dispersal. Clonal growth leads to an expansion in the size of genets and increased fitness because large floral displays increase fertility and opportunities for outcrossing. Moreover, the clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules can assist "mate finding," particularly in aquatic plants. However, there are ecological circumstances in which functional antagonism between sexual and asexual reproductive modes can negatively affect the fitness of clonal plants. Populations of heterostylous and dioecious species have a small number of mating groups (two or three), which should occur at equal frequency in equilibrium populations. Extensive clonal growth and vegetative dispersal can disrupt the functioning of these sexual polymorphisms, resulting in biased morph ratios and populations with a single mating group, with consequences for fertility and mating. In populations in which clonal propagation predominates, mutations reducing fertility may lead to sexual dysfunction and even the loss of sex. Recent evidence suggests that somatic mutations can play a significant role in influencing fitness in clonal plants and may also help explain the occurrence of genetic diversity in sterile clonal populations. Highly polymorphic genetic markers offer outstanding opportunities for gaining novel insights into functional interactions between sexual and clonal reproduction in flowering plants.

  7. Mutational Meltdown in Large Sexual Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, A. T.

    1995-11-01

    When a new individual is formed (independently of the reproduction process) it inherits harmful mutations. Moreover, new mutations are acquired even in the genetic code formation, most of them deleterious ones. This might lead to a time decay in the mean fitness of the whole population that, for long enough time, would produce the extinction of the species. This process is called Mutational Meltdown and such question used to be considered in the biological literature as a problem that only occurs in small populations. In contrast with earlier biological assumptions, here we present results obtained in different models showing that the mutational meltdown can occur in large populations, even in sexual reproductive ones. We used a bit-string model introduced to study the time evolution of age-structured populations and a genetically inspired model that allows to observe the time evolution of the population mean fitness.

  8. Evolution of Human Longevity Uncoupled from Caloric Restriction Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guodong; Guo, Song; Somel, Mehmet; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) and chemical agents, such as resveratrol and rapamycin that partially mimic the CR effect, can delay morbidity and mortality across a broad range of species. In humans, however, the effects of CR or other life-extending agents have not yet been investigated systematically. Human maximal lifespan is already substantially greater compared to that of closely related primate species. It is therefore possible that humans have acquired genetic mutations that mimic the CR effect. Here, we tested this notion by comparing transcriptome differences between humans and other primates, with the transcriptome changes observed in mice subjected to CR. We show that the human transcriptome state, relative to other primate transcriptomes, does not match that of the CR mice or mice treated with resveratrol, but resembles the transcriptome state of ad libitum fed mice. At the same time, the transcriptome changes induced by CR in mice are enriched among genes showing age-related changes in primates, concentrated in specific expression patterns, and can be linked with specific functional pathways, including insulin signalling, cancer, and the immune response. These findings indicate that the evolution of human longevity was likely independent of CR-induced lifespan extension mechanisms. Consequently, application of CR or CR-mimicking agents may yet offer a promising direction for the extension of healthy human lifespan. PMID:24400080

  9. β Subunit M2–M3 Loop Conformational Changes Are Uncoupled from α1 β Glycine Receptor Channel Gating: Implications for Human Hereditary Hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Qiang; Han, Lu; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary hyperekplexia, or startle disease, is a neuromotor disorder caused mainly by mutations that either prevent the surface expression of, or modify the function of, the human heteromeric α1 β glycine receptor (GlyR) chloride channel. There is as yet no explanation as to why hyperekplexia mutations that modify channel function are almost exclusively located in the α1 to the exclusion of β subunit. The majority of these mutations are identified in the M2–M3 loop of the α1 subunit. Here we demonstrate that α1 β GlyR channel function is less sensitive to hyperekplexia-mimicking mutations introduced into the M2–M3 loop of the β than into the α1 subunit. This suggests that the M2–M3 loop of the α subunit dominates the β subunit in gating the α1 β GlyR channel. A further attempt to determine the possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon by using the voltage-clamp fluorometry technique revealed that agonist-induced conformational changes in the β subunit M2–M3 loop were uncoupled from α1 β GlyR channel gating. This is in contrast to the α subunit, where the M2–M3 loop conformational changes were shown to be directly coupled to α1 β GlyR channel gating. Finally, based on analysis of α1 β chimeric receptors, we demonstrate that the structural components responsible for this are distributed throughout the β subunit, implying that the β subunit has evolved without the functional constraint of a normal gating pathway within it. Our study provides a possible explanation of why hereditary hyperekplexia-causing mutations that modify α1 β GlyR channel function are almost exclusively located in the α1 to the exclusion of the β subunit. PMID:22132222

  10. Investigation of connexin 43 uncoupling and prolongation of the cardiac QRS complex in preclinical and marketed drugs

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, M P; Sharpe, P M; Garner, C; Hughes, R; Pollard, C E; Bowes, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prolongation of the cardiac QRS complex is linked to increased mortality and may result from drug-induced inhibition of cardiac sodium channels (hNaV1.5). There has been no systematic evaluation of preclinical and marketed drugs for their additional potential to cause QRS prolongation via gap junction uncoupling. Experimental Approach Using the human cardiac gap junction connexin 43 (hCx43), a dye transfer ‘parachute’ assay to determine IC50 values for compound ranking was validated with compounds known to uncouple gap junctions. Uncoupling activity (and hNaV1.5 inhibition by automated patch clamp) was determined in a set of marketed drugs and preclinical candidate drugs, each with information regarding propensity to prolong QRS. Key Results The potency of known gap junction uncouplers to uncouple hCx43 was ranked (according to IC50) as phorbol ester>digoxin>meclofenamic acid>carbenoxolone>heptanol. Among the drugs associated with QRS prolongation, 29% were found to uncouple hCx43 (IC50 < 50 μM), whereas no uncoupling activity was observed in drugs not associated with QRS prolongation. In preclinical candidate drugs, hCx43 and hNaV1.5 IC50 values were similar (within threefold). No consistent margin over preclinical Cmax (free) was apparent for QRS prolongation associated with Cx43 inhibition. However, instances were found of QRS prolonging compounds that uncoupled hCx43 with significantly less activity at hNaV1.5. Conclusion and Implications These results demonstrate that off-target uncoupling activity is apparent in drug and drug-like molecules. Although the full ramifications of Cx inhibition remain to be established, screening for hCx43 off-target activity could reduce the likelihood of developing candidate drugs with a risk of causing QRS prolongation. PMID:24328991

  11. Simulated coevolution in a mutating ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá Martins, J. S.

    2000-03-01

    The bit-string Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and a sexual population sharing the same environment. A newborn of either population can mutate and become a part of the other with some probability. In a stable environment the sexual population soon dies out. When an infestation by rapidly mutating genetically coupled parasites is introduced, however, sexual reproduction prevails, as predicted by the so-called Red Queen hypothesis for the evolution of sex.

  12. Disorders of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Anne; del Junco, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biomarkers of reproductive health and disease that have been developed in the past 15 years. Due to the gender- and age-dependency of most of the advances in measuring reproductive health status and outcomes, these biomarkers have been categorized with respect to the unique member of the reproductive triad of interest (i.e. mother, father, conceptus). Biomarkers of female and male puberty, female reproductive function, fetal and infant development, and male reproductive function are discussed. The strengths and limitations of developing and implementing biomarkers in reproductive health studies over the past decade are explored.

  13. Male Reproductive Proteins and Reproductive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Roberta B.; Grainger, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations argue that MRPs are critically important to reproductive success. Yet, the impact of male reproductive proteins on obstetrical outcomes in women is largely unstudied. Epidemiologic and clinical observations suggest that shorter-duration exposure to MRPs prior to conception may elevate the risk for preeclampsia. A limited literature has also linked sexual behavior to bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth. We offer a clinical opinion that MRPs may have broad implications for successful reproduction, potentially involved in the composition of vaginal microflora, risks of preterm birth and preeclampsia, and success of assisted reproduction. PMID:18191798

  14. Male reproductive proteins and reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Grainger, David A

    2008-06-01

    Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations argue that MRPs are critically important to reproductive success. Yet the impact of male reproductive proteins on obstetrical outcomes in women is largely unstudied. Epidemiologic and clinical observations suggest that shorter-duration exposure to MRPs prior to conception may elevate the risk for preeclampsia. A limited literature has also linked sexual behavior to bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth. We offer a clinical opinion that MRPs may have broad implications for successful reproduction, potentially involved in the composition of vaginal microflora, risks of preterm birth and preeclampsia, and success of assisted reproduction.

  15. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... SRS is a professional group of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies and groups. Reproductive Facts Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  16. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  17. Reproductive systems and evolution in vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    Holsinger, Kent E.

    2000-01-01

    Differences in the frequency with which offspring are produced asexually, through self-fertilization and through sexual outcrossing, are a predominant influence on the genetic structure of plant populations. Selfers and asexuals have fewer genotypes within populations than outcrossers with similar allele frequencies, and more genetic diversity in selfers and asexuals is a result of differences among populations than in sexual outcrossers. As a result of reduced levels of diversity, selfers and asexuals may be less able to respond adaptively to changing environments, and because genotypes are not mixed across family lineages, their populations may accumulate deleterious mutations more rapidly. Such differences suggest that selfing and asexual lineages may be evolutionarily short-lived and could explain why they often seem to be of recent origin. Nonetheless, the origin and maintenance of different reproductive modes must be linked to individual-level properties of survival and reproduction. Sexual outcrossers suffer from a cost of outcrossing that arises because they do not contribute to selfed or asexual progeny, whereas selfers and asexuals may contribute to outcrossed progeny. Selfing and asexual reproduction also may allow reproduction when circumstances reduce opportunities for a union of gametes produced by different individuals, a phenomenon known as reproductive assurance. Both the cost of outcrossing and reproductive assurance lead to an over-representation of selfers and asexuals in newly formed progeny, and unless sexual outcrossers are more likely to survive and reproduce, they eventually will be displaced from populations in which a selfing or asexual variant arises. PMID:10860968

  18. Effects of the uncoupling agents FCCP and CCCP on the saltatory movements of cytoplasmic organelles.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, P J; Bray, D; Adams, R J

    1985-02-01

    Two potent uncoupling agents, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibit the movement of organelles in neurites of chick sensory neurones in culture. FCCP applied for 30 minutes at 10 microM reduces the number of moving organelles by 78% and a similar treatment with CCCP causes a reduction of 47%. At 100 microM either compound abolishes all directed movements both in neurites and in cultured 3T3 cells. These effects are probably not due to the discharge of proton gradients since 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), at concentrations shown to uncouple mitochondria by the discharge of the permeant cationic fluorescent probe rhodamine 123, fails to inhibit cytoplasmic movements. The inhibition of cytoplasmic movements by FCCP and CCCP is likely to be a consequence of their inhibitory action on a variety of enzymes, including dynein and myosin ATPases, through a reaction with sulfhydryl groups.

  19. Uncoupling of reading and IQ over time: empirical evidence for a definition of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Emilio; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Holahan, John M; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected difficulty in reading in individuals who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for fluent reading, and who also have had reasonable reading instruction. Identifying factors associated with normative and impaired reading development has implications for diagnosis, intervention, and prevention. We show that in typical readers, reading and IQ development are dynamically linked over time. Such mutual interrelationships are not perceptible in dyslexic readers, which suggests that reading and cognition develop more independently in these individuals. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first empirical demonstration of a coupling between cognition and reading in typical readers and a developmental uncoupling between cognition and reading in dyslexic readers. This uncoupling was the core concept of the initial description of dyslexia and remains the focus of the current definitional model of this learning disability.

  20. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling in mice affects energy metabolism, redox balance and longevity.

    PubMed

    Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Barbosa, Lívea F; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2008-08-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective non-genetic intervention to enhance lifespan known to date. A major research interest has been the development of therapeutic strategies capable of promoting the beneficial results of this dietary regimen. In this sense, we propose that compounds that decrease the efficiency of energy conversion, such as mitochondrial uncouplers, can be caloric restriction mimetics. Treatment of mice with low doses of the protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol promotes enhanced tissue respiratory rates, improved serological glucose, triglyceride and insulin levels, decrease of reactive oxygen species levels and tissue DNA and protein oxidation, as well as reduced body weight. Importantly, 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated animals also presented enhanced longevity. Our results demonstrate that mild mitochondrial uncoupling is a highly effective in vivo antioxidant strategy, and describe the first therapeutic intervention capable of effectively reproducing the physiological, metabolic and lifespan effects of caloric restriction in healthy mammals.

  1. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System A A ... the egg or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  2. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1500x1575 View Download Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive ...

  3. Induction of endogenous uncoupling protein 3 suppresses mitochondrial oxidant emission during fatty acid-supported respiration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ethan J; Yamazaki, Hanae; Neufer, P Darrell

    2007-10-26

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression increases dramatically in skeletal muscle under metabolic states associated with elevated lipid metabolism, yet the function of UCP3 in a physiological context remains controversial. Here, in situ mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission and respiration were measured in permeabilized fiber bundles prepared from both rat and mouse (wild-type) gastrocnemius muscle after a single bout of exercise plus 18 h of recovery (Ex/R) that induced a approximately 2-4-fold increase in UCP3 protein. Elevated uncoupling activity (i.e. GDP inhibitable) was evident in Ex/R fibers only upon the addition of palmitate (known activator of UCP3) or under substrate conditions eliciting substantial rates of H(2)O(2) production (i.e. respiration supported by succinate or palmitoyl-L-carnitine/malate but not pyruvate/malate), indicative of UCP3 activation by endogenous reactive oxygen species. In mice completely lacking UCP3 (ucp3(-/-)), Ex/R failed to induce uncoupling activity. Surprisingly, when UCP3 activity was inhibited by GDP (rats) or in the absence of UCP3 (ucp3(-/-)), H(2)O(2) emission was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Ex/R versus non-exercised control fibers. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the oxidant emitting potential of mitochondria is increased in skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise, possibly as a consequence of prolonged reliance on lipid metabolism and/or altered mitochondrial biochemistry/morphology and that induction of UCP3 in vivo mediates an increase in uncoupling activity that restores mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission to non-exercised, control levels.

  4. Uncoupling effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in isolated rat hepatocytes:effect on glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Piquet, M A; Fontaine, E; Sibille, B; Filippi, C; Keriel, C; Leverve, X M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a 4-week deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in isolated rat hepatocytes have been investigated for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid, dihydroxyacetone (DHA) or glycerol metabolism. Oxygen uptake was significantly increased (by 20%) with or without fatty acid addition (octanoate or oleate) in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls. The effect persisted after oligomycin addition but not after that of potassium cyanide, leading to the conclusion that, in these intact cells, the mitochondria were uncoupled. The PUFA-deficient group exhibited a significant decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio, whereas the mitochondrial ratio was not affected. PUFA deficiency led to a 16% decrease in DHA metabolism owing to a 34% decrease in glycerol kinase activity; the significant decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio was accompanied by an increase in the fractional glycolytic flux. In contrast, glycerol metabolism was significantly enhanced in the PUFA-deficient group. The role of the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step in this stimulation was evidenced in hepatocytes perifused with glycerol and octanoate in the presence of increased concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (Dnp): uncoupling with Dnp led to an enhancement of glycerol metabolism, as found in PUFA deficiency, although it was more pronounced than in controls. The matrix/cytosol gradients for redox potential and ATP/ADP ratio were lower in cells from PUFA-deficient rats, suggesting a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in accordance with the uncoupling effect. Moreover, a doubling of the mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls led us to conclude that the activation of glycerol metabolism is the consequence of two mitochondrial effects: uncoupling and an increase in glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8760348

  5. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System A A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  6. Muscle Mitochondrial Uncoupling Dismantles Neuromuscular Junction and Triggers Distal Degeneration of Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Luc; Gonzalez de Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Eschbach, Judith; Rene, Frédérique; Oudart, Hugues; Halter, Benoit; Huze, Caroline; Schaeffer, Laurent; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most frequent adult onset motor neuron disease, is associated with hypermetabolism linked to defects in muscle mitochondrial energy metabolism such as ATP depletion and increased oxygen consumption. It remains unknown whether muscle abnormalities in energy metabolism are causally involved in the destruction of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and subsequent motor neuron degeneration during ALS. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied transgenic mice with muscular overexpression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a potent mitochondrial uncoupler, as a model of muscle restricted hypermetabolism. These animals displayed age-dependent deterioration of the NMJ that correlated with progressive signs of denervation and a mild late-onset motor neuron pathology. NMJ regeneration and functional recovery were profoundly delayed following injury of the sciatic nerve and muscle mitochondrial uncoupling exacerbated the pathology of an ALS animal model. Conclusions/Significance These findings provide the proof of principle that a muscle restricted mitochondrial defect is sufficient to generate motor neuron degeneration and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at muscle metabolism might prove useful for motor neuron diseases. PMID:19404401

  7. Uncoupling RARA transcriptional activation and degradation clarifies the bases for APL response to therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ablain, Julien; Leiva, Magdalena; Peres, Laurent; Fonsart, Julien; Anthony, Elodie

    2013-01-01

    In PML/RARA-driven acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), retinoic acid (RA) induces leukemia cell differentiation and transiently clears the disease. Molecularly, RA activates PML/RARA-dependent transcription and also initiates its proteasome-mediated degradation. In contrast, arsenic, the other potent anti-APL therapy, only induces PML/RARA degradation by specifically targeting its PML moiety. The respective contributions of RA-triggered transcriptional activation and proteolysis to clinical response remain disputed. Here, we identify synthetic retinoids that potently activate RARA- or PML/RARA-dependent transcription, but fail to down-regulate RARA or PML/RARA protein levels. Similar to RA, these uncoupled retinoids elicit terminal differentiation, but unexpectedly fail to impair leukemia-initiating activity of PML/RARA-transformed cells ex vivo or in vivo. Accordingly, the survival benefit conferred by uncoupled retinoids in APL mice is dramatically lower than the one provided by RA. Differentiated APL blasts sorted from uncoupled retinoid–treated mice retain PML/RARA expression and reinitiate APL in secondary transplants. Thus, differentiation is insufficient for APL eradication, whereas PML/RARA loss is essential. These observations unify the modes of action of RA and arsenic and shed light on the potency of their combination in mice or patients. PMID:23509325

  8. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for weak acid respiratory uncouplers to Vibrio fisheri

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Cronin, M.T.D.

    1997-02-01

    Acute toxicity values of 16 organic compounds thought to elicit their response via the weak acid respiratory uncoupling mechanism of toxic action were secured from the literature. Regression analysis of toxicities revealed that a measured 5-min V. fisheri potency value can be used as a surrogate for the 30-min value. Regression analysis of toxicity versus hydrophobicity, measured as the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log K{sub ow}), was used to formulate a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). The equation log pT{sub 30}{sup {minus}1} = 0.489(log K{sub ow}) + 0.126 was found to be a highly predictive model. This V. fisheri QSAR is statistically similar to QSARs generated from weak acid uncoupler potency data for Pimephales promelas survivability and Tetrahymena pyriformis population growth impairment. This work, therefore, suggests that the weak acid respiratory uncoupling mechanism of toxic action is present in V. fisheri, and as such is not restricted to mitochondria-containing organisms.

  9. Uncoupling RARA transcriptional activation and degradation clarifies the bases for APL response to therapies.

    PubMed

    Ablain, Julien; Leiva, Magdalena; Peres, Laurent; Fonsart, Julien; Anthony, Elodie; de Thé, Hugues

    2013-04-08

    In PML/RARA-driven acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), retinoic acid (RA) induces leukemia cell differentiation and transiently clears the disease. Molecularly, RA activates PML/RARA-dependent transcription and also initiates its proteasome-mediated degradation. In contrast, arsenic, the other potent anti-APL therapy, only induces PML/RARA degradation by specifically targeting its PML moiety. The respective contributions of RA-triggered transcriptional activation and proteolysis to clinical response remain disputed. Here, we identify synthetic retinoids that potently activate RARA- or PML/RARA-dependent transcription, but fail to down-regulate RARA or PML/RARA protein levels. Similar to RA, these uncoupled retinoids elicit terminal differentiation, but unexpectedly fail to impair leukemia-initiating activity of PML/RARA-transformed cells ex vivo or in vivo. Accordingly, the survival benefit conferred by uncoupled retinoids in APL mice is dramatically lower than the one provided by RA. Differentiated APL blasts sorted from uncoupled retinoid-treated mice retain PML/RARA expression and reinitiate APL in secondary transplants. Thus, differentiation is insufficient for APL eradication, whereas PML/RARA loss is essential. These observations unify the modes of action of RA and arsenic and shed light on the potency of their combination in mice or patients.

  10. Inhibition of uncoupled respiration in tumor cells. A possible role of mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux.

    PubMed

    Gabai, V L

    1993-08-23

    Uncouplers CCCP (2-4 microM) or DNP (200-400 microM) when added to EL-4 thymoma or Ehrlich carcinoma ascites cells initially stimulated endogenous respiration about 2-fold but then inhibited it to a first-order rate 20-25% of controls. This inhibition was accelerated by intracellular acidification or by A23187, a Ca2+/H(+)-antiporter (i.e. when mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux was stimulated) whereas Ruthenium red, an inhibitor of uniporter-driven Ca2+ efflux, significantly slowed down the effect of uncouplers. The respiratory inhibition was associated with NAD(P)H oxidation and was partially reversed by exogenous substrates (glutamine or glucose). In the permeabilized cells, endogenous and glutamine-supported respiration was inhibited by EGTA, while succinate-supported respiration was Ca2+ independent. It is suggested that mitochondrial Ca2+ is necessary for NADH-dependent respiration of tumor cells, and uncouplers inhibit it by activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux.

  11. Uncoupled skeletal muscle mitochondria contribute to hypermetabolism in severely burned adults

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, David N.; Børsheim, Elisabet; Chao, Tony; Reidy, Paul T.; Borack, Michael S.; Rasmussen, Blake B.; Chondronikola, Maria; Saraf, Manish K.; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated metabolic rate is a hallmark of the stress response to severe burn injury. This response is mediated in part by adrenergic stress and is responsive to changes in ambient temperature. We hypothesize that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn survivors. Here, we determined skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in healthy and severely burned adults. Indirect calorimetry was used to estimate metabolic rate in burn patients. Quadriceps muscle biopsies were collected on two separate occasions (11 ± 5 and 21 ± 8 days postinjury) from six severely burned adults (68 ± 19% of total body surface area burned) and 12 healthy adults. Leak, coupled, and uncoupled mitochondrial respiration was determined in permeabilized myofiber bundles. Metabolic rate was significantly greater than predicted values for burn patients at both time points (P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, citrate synthase activity, a marker of mitochondrial abundance, and mitochondrial sensitivity to oligomycin were all lower in burn patients vs. controls at both time points (P < 0.05). A greater proportion of maximal mitochondrial respiration was linked to thermogenesis in burn patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). Increased metabolic rate in severely burned adults is accompanied by derangements in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from burn victims are more uncoupled, indicating greater heat production within skeletal muscle. Our findings suggest that skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn victims. PMID:25074988

  12. Uncoupled skeletal muscle mitochondria contribute to hypermetabolism in severely burned adults.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Børsheim, Elisabet; Chao, Tony; Reidy, Paul T; Borack, Michael S; Rasmussen, Blake B; Chondronikola, Maria; Saraf, Manish K; Sidossis, Labros S

    2014-09-01

    Elevated metabolic rate is a hallmark of the stress response to severe burn injury. This response is mediated in part by adrenergic stress and is responsive to changes in ambient temperature. We hypothesize that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn survivors. Here, we determined skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in healthy and severely burned adults. Indirect calorimetry was used to estimate metabolic rate in burn patients. Quadriceps muscle biopsies were collected on two separate occasions (11 ± 5 and 21 ± 8 days postinjury) from six severely burned adults (68 ± 19% of total body surface area burned) and 12 healthy adults. Leak, coupled, and uncoupled mitochondrial respiration was determined in permeabilized myofiber bundles. Metabolic rate was significantly greater than predicted values for burn patients at both time points (P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, citrate synthase activity, a marker of mitochondrial abundance, and mitochondrial sensitivity to oligomycin were all lower in burn patients vs. controls at both time points (P < 0.05). A greater proportion of maximal mitochondrial respiration was linked to thermogenesis in burn patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). Increased metabolic rate in severely burned adults is accompanied by derangements in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from burn victims are more uncoupled, indicating greater heat production within skeletal muscle. Our findings suggest that skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn victims. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. The anti-cancer agent nemorosone is a new potent protonophoric mitochondrial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Tudella, Valeria G; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Rodrigues, Fernando P; Pestana, Cezar R; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Alberici, Luciane C; Curti, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Nemorosone, a natural-occurring polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol, has received increasing attention due to its strong in vitro anti-cancer action. Here, we have demonstrated the toxic effect of nemorosone (1-25 μM) on HepG2 cells by means of the MTT assay, as well as early mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and ATP depletion in this cancer cell line. In mitochondria isolated from rat liver, nemorosone (50-500 nM) displayed a protonophoric uncoupling activity, showing potency comparable to the classic protonophore, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP). Nemorosone enhanced the succinate-supported state 4 respiration rate, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, released Ca(2+) from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, decreased Ca(2+) uptake and depleted ATP. The protonophoric property of nemorosone was attested by the induction of mitochondrial swelling in hyposmotic K(+)-acetate medium in the presence of valinomycin. In addition, uncoupling concentrations of nemorosone in the presence of Ca(2+) plus ruthenium red induced the mitochondrial permeability transition process. Therefore, nemorosone is a new potent protonophoric mitochondrial uncoupler and this property is potentially involved in its toxicity on cancer cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Divalent cation chelators citrate and EDTA unmask an intrinsic uncoupling pathway in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Chinopoulos, Christos; Starkova, Natalia N; Konrad, Csaba; Kiss, Gergely; Stepanova, Anna; Popov, Vasily N

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a suppression of ROS production and uncoupling of mitochondria by exogenous citrate in Mg(2+) free medium. Exogenous citrate suppressed H2O2 emission and depolarized mitochondria. The depolarization was paralleled by the stimulation of respiration of mitochondria. The uncoupling action of citrate was independent of the presence of sodium, potassium, or chlorine ions, and it was not mediated by the changes in permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to solutes. The citrate transporter was not involved in the citrate effect. Inhibitory analysis data indicated that several well described mitochondria carriers and channels (ATPase, IMAC, ADP/ATP translocase, mPTP, mKATP) were not involved in citrate's effect. Exogenous MgCl2 strongly inhibited citrate-induced depolarization. The uncoupling effect of citrate was demonstrated in rat brain, mouse brain, mouse liver, and human melanoma cells mitochondria. We interpreted the data as an evidence to the existence of a hitherto undescribed putative inner mitochondrial membrane channel that is regulated by extramitochondrial Mg(2+) or other divalent cations.

  15. Pentachlorobutadienyl-L-cysteine uncouples oxidative phosphorylation by dissipating the proton gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Schnellmann, R.G.; Cross, T.J.; Lock, E.A. )

    1989-09-15

    A very early event in the toxicity of pentachlorobutadienyl-L-cysteine (PCBC) to rabbit renal proximal tubules is uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. The mechanism of PCBC uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation has been investigated using isolated rabbit renal cortical mitochondria (RCM). PCBC increased state 4 respiration of RCM respiring on pyruvate/malate or succinate in a concentration (10-100 microM)- and time (1-5 min)-dependent manner. PCBC also increased state 4 respiration in the presence of oligomycin, an inhibitor of F0F1-ATPase. The effect of PCBC on mitochondrial proton permeability was determined by measuring passive mitochondrial swelling. After a 2-min exposure to PCBC, RCM swelled when placed in NH4Cl or NaCl, but not KCl or sucrose. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) (1 microM) produced similar effects. After 5 min, RCM swelled when placed in NH4Cl, NaCl, or KCl, but not in sucrose. Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, blocked the effects of PCBC on respiration, indicating that PCBC can be metabolized by RCM to produce RCM toxicity. These results show that PCBC initially uncouples oxidative phosphorylation by dissipating the proton gradient. Subsequently, additional ion permeabilities occur. These results are in complete agreement with previous observations in rabbit renal proximal tubule suspensions.

  16. Snf1-related kinase improves cardiac mitochondrial efficiency and decreases mitochondrial uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Rines, Amy K.; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Wu, Rongxue; Sato, Tatsuya; Khechaduri, Arineh; Kouzu, Hidemichi; Shapiro, Jason; Shang, Meng; Burke, Michael A.; Jiang, Xinghang; Chen, Chunlei; Rawlings, Tenley A.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Schumacker, Paul T.; Abel, E. Dale; Ardehali, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease limits oxygen and metabolic substrate availability to the heart, resulting in tissue death. Here, we demonstrate that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein Snf1-related kinase (SNRK) decreases cardiac metabolic substrate usage and mitochondrial uncoupling, and protects against ischaemia/reperfusion. Hearts from transgenic mice overexpressing SNRK have decreased glucose and palmitate metabolism and oxygen consumption, but maintained power and function. They also exhibit decreased uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and mitochondrial uncoupling. Conversely, Snrk knockout mouse hearts have increased glucose and palmitate oxidation and UCP3. SNRK knockdown in cardiac cells decreases mitochondrial efficiency, which is abolished with UCP3 knockdown. We show that Tribbles homologue 3 (Trib3) binds to SNRK, and downregulates UCP3 through PPARα. Finally, SNRK is increased in cardiomyopathy patients, and SNRK reduces infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion. SNRK also decreases cardiac cell death in a UCP3-dependent manner. Our results suggest that SNRK improves cardiac mitochondrial efficiency and ischaemic protection. PMID:28117339

  17. Stable Expression of Functional Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteilla, L.; Blondel, O.; Klaus, S.; Raimbault, S.; Diolez, P.; Moreau, F.; Bouillaud, F.; Ricquier, D.

    1990-07-01

    The mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) is a membranous proton carrier exclusively synthesized in brown adipocytes. The cDNA for the rat UCP was placed in an expression vector and transfected into mammalian cells. Its expression was tested in transiently transfected CHO cells. In these cells the UCP was detected in mitochondria by using antibodies. Permanent expression of the UCP was achieved in stable transformed CHO cell lines. In these cells the UCP was characterized in mitochondrial membranes, by using antibodies and hydroxyapatite purification. The protein expressed in CHO cells displayed the functional characteristics of brown adipocyte UCP. It induced the uncoupling of respiration in isolated CHO mitochondria. The membrane potential of transformed mitochondria was also significantly lowered, as a result of the proton translocating activity of the UCP. GDP is known to inhibit the proton pathway in brown fat mitochondria. Addition of GDP to CHO mitochondria containing UCP resulted in a recoupling of respiration and an increase in membrane potential. Thus we conclude that functional UCP is expressed in CHO cells and that the insertion of the UCP alone in any mitochondria is sufficient to induce the uncoupling of respiration. This approach should allow studies on the structure-function relationship of the UCP and of several other related mitochondrial carriers.

  18. Dopamine-stimulated dephosphorylation of connexin 36 mediates AII amacrine cell uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Kothmann, W. Wade; Massey, Stephen C.; O’Brien, John

    2010-01-01

    Gap junction proteins form the substrate for electrical coupling between neurons. These electrical synapses are widespread in the central nervous system and serve a variety of important functions. In the retina, connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctions couple AII amacrine cells and are a requisite component of the high-sensitivity rod photoreceptor pathway. AII amacrine cell coupling strength is dynamically regulated by background light intensity, and uncoupling is thought to be mediated by dopamine signaling via D1-like receptors. One proposed mechanism for this uncoupling involves dopamine-stimulated phosphorylation of Cx36 at regulatory sites, mediated by protein kinase A. Here we provide evidence against this hypothesis and demonstrate a direct relationship between Cx36 phosphorylation and AII amacrine cell coupling strength. Dopamine receptor-driven uncoupling of the AII network results from protein kinase A activation of protein phosphatase 2A and subsequent dephosphorylation of Cx36. Protein phosphatase 1 activity negatively regulates this pathway. We also find that Cx36 gap junctions can exist in widely different phosphorylation states within a single neuron, implying that coupling is controlled at the level of individual gap junctions by locally assembled signaling complexes. This kind of synapse-by-synapse plasticity allows for precise control of neuronal coupling, as well as cell type-specific responses dependent on the identity of the signaling complexes assembled. PMID:19940186

  19. Mitochondrial uncoupling as a regulator of life-history trajectories in birds: an experimental study in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Bize, Pierre; Roussel, Damien; Schull, Quentin; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria have a fundamental role in the transduction of energy from food into ATP. The coupling between food oxidation and ATP production is never perfect, but may nevertheless be of evolutionary significance. The 'uncoupling to survive' hypothesis suggests that 'mild' mitochondrial uncoupling evolved as a protective mechanism against the excessive production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because resource allocation and ROS production are thought to shape animal life histories, alternative life-history trajectories might be driven by individual variation in the degree of mitochondrial uncoupling. We tested this hypothesis in a small bird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), by treating adults with the artificial mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) over a 32-month period. In agreement with our expectations, the uncoupling treatment increased metabolic rate. However, we found no evidence that treated birds enjoyed lower oxidative stress levels or greater survival rates, in contrast to previous results in other taxa. In vitro experiments revealed lower sensitivity of ROS production to DNP in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscles of zebra finch than mouse. In addition, we found significant reductions in the number of eggs laid and in the inflammatory immune response in treated birds. Altogether, our data suggest that the 'uncoupling to survive' hypothesis may not be applicable for zebra finches, presumably because of lower effects of mitochondrial uncoupling on mitochondrial ROS production in birds than in mammals. Nevertheless, mitochondrial uncoupling appeared to be a potential life-history regulator of traits such as fecundity and immunity at adulthood, even with food supplied ad libitum. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Burn after feeding. An old uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation is redesigned for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fromenty, B

    2014-10-01

    Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in brown adipose tissue can be used by hibernating animals to produce heat at the expense of their fat mass. In a recent work, Dr Shulman et al. generated a liver-targeted derivative of the prototypical OXPHOS uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol that alleviated steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in several models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in Reproductive Biology.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; ChunJie, Huang; Ahmad, Hafiz Ishfaq; Wang, Kai; Ahmad, Muhammad Jamil; Zhang, ShuJun

    2017-09-07

    Genome editing is unraveling its benefits in wide areas of scientific development and understanding. The advances of genome editing from ZFNs and TALLENs to CRISPRs defines it wide applicability. Reproduction is the fundamental process by which all organisms maintain their generations. CRISPR/Cas9, a new versatile genome editing tool is recently tamed to correct several disease causing genetic mutations spreading its arms to improve reproductive health. It not only edit harmful genetic mutations but is also applied to control the spread of parasitic diseases like malaria by introducing selfish genetic elements, propagated through generations and population via reproduction. These applications made us to review the recent developments of CRISPRs use in reproductive biology.

  2. Mutant Allele-Specific Uncoupling of PENETRATION3 Functions Reveals Engagement of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter in Distinct Tryptophan Metabolic Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xunli; Dittgen, Jan; Piślewska-Bednarek, Mariola; Molina, Antonio; Schneider, Bernd; Doubský, Jan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PENETRATION (PEN) genes quantitatively contribute to the execution of different forms of plant immunity upon challenge with diverse leaf pathogens. PEN3 encodes a plasma membrane-resident pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter and is thought to act in a pathogen-inducible and PEN2 myrosinase-dependent metabolic pathway in extracellular defense. This metabolic pathway directs the intracellular biosynthesis and activation of tryptophan-derived indole glucosinolates for subsequent PEN3-mediated efflux across the plasma membrane at pathogen contact sites. However, PEN3 also functions in abiotic stress responses to cadmium and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-mediated auxin homeostasis in roots, raising the possibility that PEN3 exports multiple functionally unrelated substrates. Here, we describe the isolation of a pen3 allele, designated pen3-5, that encodes a dysfunctional protein that accumulates in planta like wild-type PEN3. The specific mutation in pen3-5 uncouples PEN3 functions in IBA-stimulated root growth modulation, callose deposition induced with a conserved peptide epitope of bacterial flagellin (flg22), and pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation from PEN3 activity in extracellular defense, indicating the engagement of multiple PEN3 substrates in different PEN3-dependent biological processes. We identified 4-O-β-d-glucosyl-indol-3-yl formamide (4OGlcI3F) as a pathogen-inducible, tryptophan-derived compound that overaccumulates in pen3 leaf tissue and has biosynthesis that is dependent on an intact PEN2 metabolic pathway. We propose that a precursor of 4OGlcI3F is the PEN3 substrate in extracellular pathogen defense. These precursors, the shared indole core present in IBA and 4OGlcI3F, and allele-specific uncoupling of a subset of PEN3 functions suggest that PEN3 transports distinct indole-type metabolites in distinct biological processes. PMID:26023163

  3. UCP1, the mitochondrial uncoupling protein of brown adipocyte: A personal contribution and a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ricquier, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The present text summarizes what was my contribution, starting in 1975, to the research on the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the mitochondrial uncoupler of brown adipocytes. The research on UCP1 aimed at identifying the mechanisms of heat production by brown adipocytes that occurs in mammals either at birth or during cold exposure and arousal in hibernators. With others and in particular Dr. David Nicholls, I participated in the first experiments that contributed to the identification of UCP1. Important steps were the obtention of UCP1 antibodies followed with my main collaborator and friend Frédéric Bouillaud with the initial cloning of the UCP1 cDNA and gene from rats and humans. These molecular tools were then used not only to analyse UCP1 uncoupling activity and to investigate the effects of mutagenesis on the uncoupling function of this protein, but also to decipher the transcriptional regulation of the UCP1 gene. In addition to experiments carried out in rodents, we could identify UCP1 and thermogenic brown adipocytes in humans. A more recent outcome of our research on this uncoupling protein was the identification of a second isoform of UCP, that we named UCP2, and of several UCP homologues in mammals, chicken and plants. UCP1 is certainly a unique mitochondrial transporter able to uncouple respiration from ADP phosphorylation in mitochondria. The discovery of this protein has opened new avenues for studying energy expenditure in relation to overweight, obesity and related pathologies.

  4. Evaluation of sludge reduction of three metabolic uncouplers in laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Li, Hechao; Li, Jin; Guo, Xuesong; Liu, Junxin; Xiao, Benyi

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the sludge reduction of three metabolic uncouplers (3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS)), we conducted continuous experiments on laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic processes. The three metabolic uncouplers were separately added in each oxic tank of the three systems, and a system without uncoupler addition was used as control. During the 85-day operation, sludge production and observed growth yields decreased to 38.6% and 16.98%, 43.4% and 17.55%, and 39.3% and 17.04% by the addition of TCS, DCP, and THPS, respectively. The addition of metabolic uncouplers slightly reduced the wastewater treatment efficiencies of the system (about 1.1-8.7%) and increased sludge SVIs (about 69.9-80.6%). Meanwhile, the differences among three metabolic uncouplers were little. Besides metabolic uncoupling and maintenance metabolism, which exist in the TCS- and DCP-added systems, lysis-cryptic growth also exists in the THPS-added system.

  5. Genistein ameliorated endothelial nitric oxidase synthase uncoupling by stimulating sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ping; Zhao, Jia-hui; Yu, Hai-xia; Guo, Dong-xing

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxidase synthase (eNOS) uncoupling plays a causal role in endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Genistein consumption has been associated with the prevention of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling has not been reported. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced injury on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was established to evaluate the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling. We investigated the effect of genistein on NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production, NOX4 expression, BH4 synthesis and oxidation, the expression of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The results showed that genistein decreased superoxide production and NOX4 expression, enhanced the ratio of BH4/BH2, augmented the expressions of GCH1 and DHFR. Accompanied with genistein ameliorating eNOS uncoupling, genistein elevated the expression of sirtuin-1; furthermore, the effects of genistein on eNOS uncoupling were blunted with sirtuin-1 siRNA. The present study indicated that genistein ameliorated eNOS uncoupling was concerned with sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs.

  6. Reproductive Medicine in Ferrets.

    PubMed

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, desexing is performed routinely in ferrets at the age of 6 weeks, therefore reproductive tract diseases are not so common. However, in Europe most ferrets are desexed when they are several months old, or they are kept as intact animals. For this reason, diseases of the reproductive organs and a prolonged estrus are far more frequent in Europe than in the United States. This article summarizes and reviews the anatomy, reproductive physiology, management of reproduction (including surgical and hormonal contraception) and reproductive tract diseases in male and female ferrets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  8. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  9. From reproductive choice to reproductive justice.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-08-01

    Since the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development, the human rights movement has embraced the concept of reproductive rights. These are often pursued, however, by means to which objection is taken. Some conservative political and religious forces continue to resist implementation of several means of protecting and advancing reproductive rights. Individuals' rights to grant and to deny consent to medical procedures affecting their reproductive health and confidentiality have been progressively advanced. However, access to contraceptive services, while not necessarily opposed, is unjustifiably obstructed in some settings. Rights to lawful abortion have been considerably liberalized by legislative and judicial decisions, although resistance remains. Courts are increasingly requiring that lawful services be accommodated under transparent conditions of access and of legal protection. The conflict between rights of resort to lawful reproductive health services and to conscientious objection to participation is resolved by legal duties to refer patients to non-objecting providers.

  10. Accelerated mutation accumulation in asexual lineages of a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Maurine; Hehman, Gery; Miller, Joseph T; Logsdon, John M; Taylor, Douglas R

    2010-04-01

    Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and widespread relative to asexual reproduction, meaning that it must also confer profound advantages in order to persist. One theorized benefit of sex is that it facilitates the clearance of harmful mutations, which would accumulate more rapidly in the absence of recombination. The extent to which ineffective purifying selection and mutation accumulation are direct consequences of asexuality and whether the accelerated buildup of harmful mutations in asexuals can occur rapidly enough to maintain sex within natural populations, however, remain as open questions. We addressed key components of these questions by estimating the rate of mutation accumulation in the mitochondrial genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by mixed sexual/asexual populations. We found that increased mutation accumulation is associated with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum. Our results demonstrate that increased mutation accumulation in asexuals can differentially affect coexisting and ecologically similar sexual and asexual lineages. The accelerated rate of mutation accumulation observed in asexual P. antipodarum provides some of the most direct evidence to date for a link between asexuality and mutation accumulation and implies that mutational buildup could be rapid enough to contribute to the short-term evolutionary mechanisms that favor sexual reproduction.

  11. Simulated emergence of cyclic sexual-asexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá Martins, J. S.; Racco, A.

    2001-08-01

    Motivated by the cyclic pattern of reproductive regimes observed in some species of green flies (“ aphids”), we simulate the evolution of a population enduring harsh seasonal conditions for survival. The reproductive regime of each female is also seasonal in principle and genetically acquired, and can mutate for each newborn with some small probability. The results show a sharp transition at a critical value of the survival probability in the winter, between a reproductive regime in the fall that is predominantly sexual, for low values of this probability, or asexual, for high values.

  12. Justification of sexual reproduction by modified Penna model of ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá Martins, J. S.; Stauffer, D.

    2001-05-01

    We generalize the standard Penna bit-string model of biological ageing by assuming that each deleterious mutation diminishes the survival probability in every time interval by a small percentage. This effect is added to the usual lethal but age-dependent effect of the same mutation. We then find strong advantages or disadvantages of sexual reproduction (with males and females) compared to asexual cloning, depending on parameters.

  13. Coupled and uncoupled hydrogeophysical inversions using ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of ERT-monitored tracer test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporese, Matteo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Salandin, Paolo; Binley, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in geophysical methods have been increasingly exploited as inverse modeling tools in groundwater hydrology. In particular, several attempts to constrain the hydrogeophysical inverse problem to reduce inversion errors have been made using time-lapse geophysical measurements through both coupled and uncoupled (also known as sequential) inversion approaches. Despite the appeal and popularity of coupled inversion approaches, their superiority over uncoupled methods has not been proved conclusively; the goal of this work is to provide an objective comparison between the two approaches within a specific inversion modeling framework based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Using EnKF and a model of Lagrangian transport, we compare the performance of a fully coupled and uncoupled inversion method for the reconstruction of heterogeneous saturated hydraulic conductivity fields through the assimilation of ERT-monitored tracer test data. The two inversion approaches are tested in a number of different scenarios, including isotropic and anisotropic synthetic aquifers, where we change the geostatistical parameters used to generate the prior ensemble of hydraulic conductivity fields. Our results show that the coupled approach outperforms the uncoupled when the prior statistics are close to the ones used to generate the true field. Otherwise, the coupled approach is heavily affected by "filter inbreeding" (an undesired effect of variance underestimation typical of EnKF), while the uncoupled approach is more robust, being able to correct biased prior information, thanks to its capability of capturing the solute travel times even in presence of inversion artifacts such as the violation of mass balance. Furthermore, the coupled approach is more computationally intensive than the uncoupled, due to the much larger number of forward runs required by the electrical model. Overall, we conclude that the relative merit of the coupled versus the uncoupled approach cannot

  14. The evolution and consequences of sex-specific reproductive variance.

    PubMed

    Mullon, Charles; Reuter, Max; Lehmann, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors alleles that increase the number of offspring produced by their carriers. But in a world that is inherently uncertain within generations, selection also favors alleles that reduce the variance in the number of offspring produced. If previous studies have established this principle, they have largely ignored fundamental aspects of sexual reproduction and therefore how selection on sex-specific reproductive variance operates. To study the evolution and consequences of sex-specific reproductive variance, we present a population-genetic model of phenotypic evolution in a dioecious population that incorporates previously neglected components of reproductive variance. First, we derive the probability of fixation for mutations that affect male and/or female reproductive phenotypes under sex-specific selection. We find that even in the simplest scenarios, the direction of selection is altered when reproductive variance is taken into account. In particular, previously unaccounted for covariances between the reproductive outputs of different individuals are expected to play a significant role in determining the direction of selection. Then, the probability of fixation is used to develop a stochastic model of joint male and female phenotypic evolution. We find that sex-specific reproductive variance can be responsible for changes in the course of long-term evolution. Finally, the model is applied to an example of parental-care evolution. Overall, our model allows for the evolutionary analysis of social traits in finite and dioecious populations, where interactions can occur within and between sexes under a realistic scenario of reproduction.

  15. The Evolution and Consequences of Sex-Specific Reproductive Variance

    PubMed Central

    Mullon, Charles; Reuter, Max; Lehmann, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors alleles that increase the number of offspring produced by their carriers. But in a world that is inherently uncertain within generations, selection also favors alleles that reduce the variance in the number of offspring produced. If previous studies have established this principle, they have largely ignored fundamental aspects of sexual reproduction and therefore how selection on sex-specific reproductive variance operates. To study the evolution and consequences of sex-specific reproductive variance, we present a population-genetic model of phenotypic evolution in a dioecious population that incorporates previously neglected components of reproductive variance. First, we derive the probability of fixation for mutations that affect male and/or female reproductive phenotypes under sex-specific selection. We find that even in the simplest scenarios, the direction of selection is altered when reproductive variance is taken into account. In particular, previously unaccounted for covariances between the reproductive outputs of different individuals are expected to play a significant role in determining the direction of selection. Then, the probability of fixation is used to develop a stochastic model of joint male and female phenotypic evolution. We find that sex-specific reproductive variance can be responsible for changes in the course of long-term evolution. Finally, the model is applied to an example of parental-care evolution. Overall, our model allows for the evolutionary analysis of social traits in finite and dioecious populations, where interactions can occur within and between sexes under a realistic scenario of reproduction. PMID:24172130

  16. Studies of genetic variability of the uncoupling protein 1 gene in Caucasian subjects with juvenile-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Urhammer, S A; Fridberg, M; Sørensen, T I; Echwald, S M; Andersen, T; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Clausen, J O; Pedersen, O

    1997-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether genetic variants of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene are associated with juvenile-onset obesity or alterations in weight gain and insulin sensitivity in young healthy Caucasians. Single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis of the coding region of the UCP1 gene was performed in 56 subjects randomly selected at the draft board examination from a cohort of 156 males with juvenile-onset obesity. Association studies of amino acid variants were undertaken in the cohort of males with juvenile-onset obesity, a cohort of 205 randomly selected control males, and a subgroup of this cohort comprising 76 lean subjects. Genetic variants of the coding region as well as a previously described a-->g nucleotide polymorphism of the 5'-flanking region of the UCP1 gene were examined for associations with accelerated weight gain or reduced sensitivity to insulin in a cohort of 380 young healthy Caucasians. The mutational analysis revealed five nucleotide substitutions that changed the sequence of UCP1, Arg/Trp40, Ala/Thr64, Val/Met137, Met/Leu229, and Lys/Asn257 and two nucleotide substitutions in the nontranslated region of exon 1. Among subjects with juvenile-onset obesity, the allelic frequencies of Ala/Thr64 and Met/Leu229 were both 8.2% (95% confidence interval: 5.1-11.3%) vs. 8.8% (6.0-11.6%) and 8.1% (5.3-10.9%), respectively, in the cohort of randomly selected control subjects. Among lean control subjects, the allelic frequencies of the polymorphisms were 8.2% (3.7-12.7%) and 5.6% (1.9-9.3%), respectively. In the cohort of young healthy subjects, measurements of obesity and insulin sensitivity did not differ between carriers of the Ala/Thr64 and Met/Leu229 variants and wild-type carriers. The Val/Met137 and Lys/Asn257 mutations were each found in one subject with juvenile-onset obesity, and the Arg/Trp40 mutation was found in two obese subjects and in one control subject. The allelic frequency of the nucleotide

  17. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  18. Diesel exhaust exposure enhances venoconstriction via uncoupling of eNOS

    SciTech Connect

    Knuckles, Travis L.; Lund, Amie K.; Lucas, Selita N.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2008-08-01

    Environmental air pollution is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, including increased hospital admissions due to heart failure and myocardial infarction. The exact mechanism(s) by which air pollution affects the heart and vasculature is currently unknown. Recent studies have found that exposure to air pollution enhances arterial vasoconstriction in humans and animal models. Work in our laboratory has shown that diesel emissions (DE) enhance vasoconstriction of mouse coronary arteries. Thus, we hypothesized that DE could enhance vasoconstriction in arteries and veins through uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). To test this hypothesis, we first bubbled DE through a physiological saline solution and exposed isolated mesenteric veins. Second, we exposed animals, whole body, to DE at 350 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for 4 h, after which mesenteric arteries and veins were isolated. Results from these experiments show that saline bubbled with DE as well as inhaled DE enhances vasoconstriction in veins but not arteries. Exposure to several representative volatile organic compounds found in the DE-exposed saline did not enhance arterial constriction. L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME), an eNOS inhibitor, normalized the control vessels to the DE-exposed vessels implicating an uncoupling of eNOS as a mechanism for enhanced vasoconstriction. The principal conclusions of this research are 1) veins exhibit endothelial dysfunction following in vivo and ex vivo exposures to DE, 2) veins appear to be more sensitive to DE effects than arteries, and 3) DE components most likely induce endothelial dysfunction through the uncoupling of eNOS.

  19. Mitochondrial uncoupling reduces exercise capacity despite several skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations.

    PubMed

    Schlagowski, A I; Singh, F; Charles, A L; Gali Ramamoorthy, T; Favret, F; Piquard, F; Geny, B; Zoll, J

    2014-02-15

    The effects of mitochondrial uncoupling on skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation and maximal exercise capacity are unknown. In this study, rats were divided into a control group (CTL, n = 8) and a group treated with 2,4-dinitrophenol, a mitochondrial uncoupler, for 28 days (DNP, 30 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in drinking water, n = 8). The DNP group had a significantly lower body mass (P < 0.05) and a higher resting oxygen uptake (Vo2, P < 0.005). The incremental treadmill test showed that maximal running speed and running economy (P < 0.01) were impaired but that maximal Vo2 (Vo2max) was higher in the DNP-treated rats (P < 0.05). In skinned gastrocnemius fibers, basal respiration (V0) was higher (P < 0.01) in the DNP-treated animals, whereas the acceptor control ratio (ACR, Vmax/V0) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), indicating a reduction in OXPHOS efficiency. In skeletal muscle, DNP activated the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, as indicated by changes in the mRNA expression of PGC1-α and -β, NRF-1 and -2, and TFAM, and increased the mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase 1 (P < 0.01). The expression of two mitochondrial proteins (prohibitin and Ndufs 3) was higher after DNP treatment. Mitochondrial fission 1 protein (Fis-1) was increased in the DNP group (P < 0.01), but mitofusin-1 and -2 were unchanged. Histochemical staining for NADH dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle revealed an increase in the proportion of oxidative fibers after DNP treatment. Our study shows that mitochondrial uncoupling induces several skeletal muscle adaptations, highlighting the role of mitochondrial coupling as a critical factor for maximal exercise capacities. These results emphasize the importance of investigating the qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in addition to the amount of mitochondria.

  20. Endothelin uncouples gap junctions in sustentacular cells and olfactory ensheathing cells of the olfactory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Le Bourhis, Mikaël; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Congar, Patrice; Meunier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Several factors modulate the first step of odour detection in the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Among others, vasoactive peptides such as endothelin might play multifaceted roles in the different OM cells. Like their counterparts in the central nervous system, the olfactory sensory neurons are encompassed by different glial-like non-neuronal OM cells; sustentacular cells (SCs) surround their cell bodies, whereas olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) wrap their axons. Whereas SCs maintain both the structural and ionic integrity of the OM, OECs assure protection, local blood flow control and guiding of olfactory sensory neuron axons toward the olfactory bulb. We previously showed that these non-neuronal OM cells are particularly responsive to endothelin in vitro. Here, we confirmed that the endothelin system is strongly expressed in the OM using in situ hybridization. We then further explored the effects of endothelin on SCs and OECs using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging approaches on both in vitro and ex vivo OM preparations. Endothelin induced both robust calcium signals and gap junction uncoupling in both types of cells. This latter effect was mimicked by carbenoxolone, a known gap junction uncoupling agent. However, although endothelin is known for its antiapoptotic effect in the OM, the uncoupling of gap junctions by carbenoxolone was not sufficient to limit the cellular death induced by serum deprivation in OM primary culture. The functional consequence of the endothelin 1-induced reduction of the gap junctional communication between OM non-neuronal cells thus remains to be elucidated. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Exercise-induced cardioprotection: a role for eNOS uncoupling and NO metabolites.

    PubMed

    Farah, C; Kleindienst, A; Bolea, G; Meyer, G; Gayrard, S; Geny, B; Obert, P; Cazorla, O; Tanguy, S; Reboul, Cyril

    2013-11-01

    Exercise is an efficient strategy for myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Although endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is phosphorylated and activated during exercise, its role in exercise-induced cardioprotection remains unknown. This study investigated whether modulation of eNOS activation during IR could participate in the exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR injury. Hearts isolated from sedentary or exercised rats (5 weeks training) were perfused with a Langendorff apparatus and IR performed in the presence or absence of NOS inhibitors [N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine, L-NIO] or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄). Exercise training protected hearts against IR injury and this effect was abolished by L-NAME or by L-NIO treatment, indicating that exercise-induced cardioprotection is eNOS dependent. However, a strong reduction of eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 (eNOS-PSer1177) and of eNOS coupling during early reperfusion was observed in hearts from exercised rats (which showed higher eNOS-PSer1177 and eNOS dimerization at baseline) in comparison to sedentary rats. Despite eNOS uncoupling, exercised hearts had more S-nitrosylated proteins after early reperfusion and also less nitro-oxidative stress, indexed by lower malondialdehyde content and protein nitrotyrosination compared to sedentary hearts. Moreover, in exercised hearts, stabilization of eNOS dimers by BH4 treatment increased nitro-oxidative stress and then abolished the exercise-induced cardioprotection, indicating that eNOS uncoupling during IR is required for exercise-induced myocardial cardioprotection. Based on these results, we hypothesize that in the hearts of exercised animals, eNOS uncoupling associated with the improved myocardial antioxidant capacity prevents excessive NO synthesis and limits the reaction between NO and O₂·- to form peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻), which is cytotoxic.

  2. Modelling of the protonophoric uncoupling by phenoxyacetic acid of the plasma membrane potential of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, C M; Nielsen, J; Villadsen, J

    1998-12-20

    Physiological effects of phenoxyacetic acid, the penicillin V side-chain precursor, on steady-state continuous cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical calculations show that at an extracellular pH of 6.50, phenoxyacetic acid has negligible influence on the growth energetics due to protonophoric uncoupling of membrane potentials by passive diffusive uptake. On the other hand, when the extracellular pH is lowered to 5.00, a severe maintenance-related uncoupling effect of phenoxyacetic acid is calculated. These findings were confirmed experimentally by steady-state continuous cultivations with a high-yielding penicillin strain of P. chrysogenum performed on a chemically defined and glucose-limited medium at pH 6.50 and pH 5.00, both with and without phenoxyacetic acid present. The yield and maintenance coefficients were determined from steady-state measurements of the specific uptake rates of glucose and oxygen and the specific production rate of carbon dioxide as functions of the specific growth rate. Combining these data with a simple stoichiometric model for the primary metabolism of P. chrysogenum allows quantitative information to be extracted on the growth energetics in terms of ATP spent in maintenance- and growth-related processes, i.e. mATP and YxATP. The increased maintenance-related ATP consumption when adding phenoxyacetic acid at pH 5.00 agrees with the theoretical calculations on the uncoupling effect of phenoxyacetic acid. When YxATP is compared with earlier reported values for the theoretical ATP requirement for biosynthesis of P. chrysogenum, i.e. YxATP, growth, it is found that YxATP,growth is only 40-50% of YxATP, which stresses that a large amount of ATP is wasted in turnover of macromolecules, leaks, and futile cycles.

  3. Effects of acute and chronic endurance exercise on mitochondrial uncoupling in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fernström, Maria; Tonkonogi, Michail; Sahlin, Kent

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteins such as uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) may mediate back-leakage of protons and serve as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. We hypothesized that UCP3 and ANT increase after prolonged exercise and/or endurance training, resulting in increased uncoupled respiration (UCR). Subjects were investigated with muscle biopsies before and after acute exercise (75 min of cycling at 70% of V̇O2peak) or 6 weeks endurance training. Mitochondria were isolated and respiration measured in the absence (UCR or state 4) and presence of ADP (coupled respiration or state 3). Protein expression of UCP3 and ANT was measured with Western blotting. After endurance training V̇O2peak, citrate synthase activity (CS), state 3 respiration and ANT increased by 24, 47, 40 and 95%, respectively (all P < 0.05), whereas UCP3 remained unchanged. When expressed per unit of CS (a marker of mitochondrial volume) UCP3 and UCR decreased by 54% and 18%(P < 0.05). CS increased by 43% after acute exercise and remained elevated after 3 h of recovery (P < 0.05), whereas the other muscle parameters remained unchanged. An intriguing finding was that acute exercise reversibly enhanced the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca2+(P < 0.05) before opening of permeability transition pores. In conclusion, UCP3 protein and UCR decrease after endurance training when related to mitochondrial volume. These changes may prevent excessive basal thermogenesis. Acute exercise enhances mitochondrial resistance to Ca2+ overload but does not influence UCR or protein expression of UCP3 and ANT. The increased Ca2+ resistance may prevent mitochondrial degradation and the mechanism needs to be further explored. PMID:14634202

  4. Nucleotide binding to human uncoupling protein-2 refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Jekabsons, Mika B; Echtay, Karim S; Brand, Martin D

    2002-09-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that recombinant human uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) ectopically expressed in bacterial inclusion bodies binds nucleotides in a manner identical with the nucleotide-inhibited uncoupling that is observed in kidney mitochondria. For this, sarkosyl-solubilized UCP2 inclusion bodies were treated with the polyoxyethylene ether detergent C12E9 and hydroxyapatite. Protein recovered from hydroxyapatite chromatography was approx. 90% pure UCP2, as judged by Coomassie Blue and silver staining of polyacrylamide gels. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, N-methylanthraniloyl-tagged purine nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates exhibited enhanced fluorescence with purified UCP2. Dissociation constants determined by least-squares non-linear regression indicated that the affinity of UCP2 for these fluorescently tagged nucleotides was 3-5 microM or perhaps an order of magnitude stronger, depending on the model used. Competition experiments with [8-14C]ATP demonstrated that UCP2 binds unmodified purine and pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates with 2-5 microM affinity. Affinities for ADP and GDP were approx. 10-fold lower. These data indicate that: UCP2 (a) is at least partially refolded from sarkosyl-solubilized bacterial inclusion bodies by a two-step treatment with C12E9 detergent and hydroxyapatite; (b) binds purine and pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates with low micromolar affinity; (c) binds GDP with the same affinity as GDP inhibits superoxide-stimulated uncoupling by kidney mitochondria; and (d) exhibits a different nucleotide preference than kidney mitochondria.

  5. Regulation of the level of uncoupling protein in brown adipose tissue by insulin requires the mediation of the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Géloën, A; Trayhurn, P

    1990-07-16

    The role of the sympathetic nervous system in the regulation by insulin of the level of uncoupling protein in brown adipose tissue has been examined. The amount of uncoupling protein was substantially reduced in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, while insulin replacement to diabetic animals induced a partial restoration. Unilateral denervation of the interscapular brown fat pads also lowered the amount of uncoupling protein, and in diabetic animals inhibited the stimulation of the level of the protein by insulin replacement. Maintenance of normal uncoupling protein levels requires both insulin and the sympathetic system; regulation of the protein by insulin involves sympathetic mediation.

  6. Uncoupling protein-3 is a molecular determinant for the regulation of resting metabolic rate by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    de Lange, P; Lanni, A; Beneduce, L; Moreno, M; Lombardi, A; Silvestri, E; Goglia, F

    2001-08-01

    Thyroid hormones increase energy expenditure, partly by reducing metabolic efficiency. The control of specific genes at the transcriptional level is thought to be the major molecular mechanism. However, both the number and the identity of the thyroid hormone-controlled genes remain unknown, as do their relative contributions. Uncoupling protein-3, a recently identified member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily and one that is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, has the potential to be a molecular determinant for thyroid thermogenesis. However, changes in mitochondrial proton conductance and resting metabolic rate after physiologically mediated changes in uncoupling protein-3 levels have not been described. Here, in a study on hypothyroid rats given a single injection of T(3), we describe a strict correlation in terms of time course between the induced increase in uncoupling protein-3 expression (at mRNA and protein levels) and decrease in mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, on the one hand, and the increase in resting metabolic rate, on the other. First, we describe our finding that uncoupling protein-3 is present and regulated by T(3) only in metabolically relevant tissues (such as skeletal muscle and heart). Second, we follow the time course (at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 65, 96, and 144 h) of both uncoupling protein-3 mRNA levels and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 density in gastrocnemius muscle and heart. In both tissues, the maximal (12-fold) increase in uncoupling protein-3 density was reached at 65 h. The resting metabolic rate [lO(2)(kg(0.75))(-1)h(-1)] showed the same time course, and at 65 h the increase vs. time zero was 45% (1.316 +/- 0.026 vs. 0.940 +/- 0.007; P < 0.001). At the same time point, gastrocnemius muscle mitochondria showed a significantly higher nonphosphorylating respiration rate (nanoatoms of oxygen per min/mg protein; increase vs. time zero, 40%; 118 +/- 4 vs. 85 +/- 9; P < 0.05), whereas the membrane potential decreased

  7. Carboxyatractylate inhibits the potentiating effect of lipophylic cation TPP+ on uncoupling activity of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Dedukhova, V I; Mokhova, E N; Starkov, A A; Leikin YuN

    1993-08-01

    The effect of TPP+ on the fatty acid or FCCP-induced uncoupling in rat heart mitochondria was studied. It was found that (a) TPP+ increases the stimulation of oxygen consumption by palmitic acid or FCCP in the presence of oligomycin, (b) TPP+ greatly enhances the palmitic acid or FCCP-induced delta psi decrease. Both effects of TPP+ were strongly suppressed by carboxyatractylate in the case of palmitate but were not in the case of FCCP. The role of ATP/ADP-antiporter in the TPP+ and palmitic acid effects is discussed.

  8. Stochastic dynamics of uncoupled neural oscillators: Fokker-Planck studies with the finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Galan, Roberto F.; Urban, Nathaniel N.; Ermentrout, G. Bard

    2007-11-15

    We have investigated the effect of the phase response curve on the dynamics of oscillators driven by noise in two limit cases that are especially relevant for neuroscience. Using the finite element method to solve the Fokker-Planck equation we have studied (i) the impact of noise on the regularity of the oscillations quantified as the coefficient of variation, (ii) stochastic synchronization of two uncoupled phase oscillators driven by correlated noise, and (iii) their cross-correlation function. We show that, in general, the limit of type II oscillators is more robust to noise and more efficient at synchronizing by correlated noise than type I.

  9. Stochastic dynamics of uncoupled neural oscillators: Fokker-Planck studies with the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, Roberto F.; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Urban, Nathaniel N.

    2007-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of the phase response curve on the dynamics of oscillators driven by noise in two limit cases that are especially relevant for neuroscience. Using the finite element method to solve the Fokker-Planck equation we have studied (i) the impact of noise on the regularity of the oscillations quantified as the coefficient of variation, (ii) stochastic synchronization of two uncoupled phase oscillators driven by correlated noise, and (iii) their cross-correlation function. We show that, in general, the limit of type II oscillators is more robust to noise and more efficient at synchronizing by correlated noise than type I.

  10. Properties of ethylmethane sulfonate-induced mutations affecting life-history traits in Caenorhabditis elegans and inferences about bivariate distributions of mutation effects.

    PubMed Central

    Keightley, P D; Davies, E K; Peters, A D; Shaw, R G

    2000-01-01

    The homozygous effects of ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS)-induced mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans are compared across life-history traits. Mutagenesis has a greater effect on early than late reproductive output, since EMS-induced mutations tend to cause delayed reproduction. Mutagenesis changes the mean and variance of longevity much less than reproductive output traits. Mutations that increase total or early productivity are not detected, but the net effect of mutations is to increase and decrease late productivity to approximately equal extents. Although most mutations decrease longevity, a mutant line with increased longevity was found. A flattening of mortality curves with age is noted, particularly in EMS lines. We infer that less than one-tenth of mutations that have fitness effects in natural conditions are detected in the laboratory, and such mutations have moderately large effects ( approximately 20% of the mean). Mutational correlations for life-history traits are strong and positive. Correlations between early or late productivity and longevity are of similar magnitude. We develop a maximum-likelihood procedure to infer bivariate distributions of mutation effects. We show that strong mutation-induced genetic correlations do not necessarily imply strong directional correlations between mutational effects, since correlation is also generated by lines carrying different numbers of mutations. PMID:10978281

  11. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  12. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  13. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  14. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  15. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  16. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  17. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  18. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  19. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A ... Read Article View All News ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/ ...

  20. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of ...

  1. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  2. Mitochondria as pharmacological targets: the discovery of novel anti-obesity mitochondrial uncouplers from Africa's medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ocloo, Augustine; Dongdem, Julius Tieroyaare

    2012-01-01

    Obesity results from prolonged positive imbalance between energy in take and expenditure. When food intake chronically exceeds the body's energy need, an efficient metabolism results in the storage of the excess energy as fat. Mitochondria are the main centre for energy production in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial proton cycling is responsible for a significant proportion of basal or standard metabolic rate, therefore, further uncoupling of mitochondria may be a good way to increase energy expenditure and hence represent a good pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity. This implies that, any chemical agent or photochemical compound that further uncouples the mitochondria in vivo without having any effect on mitochondria activity could be a potential target in finding treatment for obesity. In the past, uncoupling by 2, 4-dinitrophenol has been used this way with notable success. This paper discusses the mitochondria as targets in the discovery of potential plant natural anti-obesity products from Africa's rich rainforests.

  3. Uncoupler-reversible inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase by metal chelates of bathophenanthroline. II. Comparison with other inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, C; Ernster, L

    1981-12-14

    (1) Trisbathophenanthroline-Fe2+ (BPh3Fe2+)alters the hyperbolic relationship between concentration of ATP and reaction velocity of F1-ATPase to sigmoidal, with a simultaneous decrease in maximal velocity. (2) BPh3Fe2+ binds to the beta-subunit of F1 and competes with the binding of aurovertin. The reversal of this effect uncouplers in enhanced by ADP and diminished by ATP. BPh3Fe2+ also changes the hyperbolic concentration dependence of aurovertin binding to sigmoidal. (3) BPh3Fe2+ stabilizes F1 against the cold inactivation and cold dissociation in an uncoupler-reversible manner. (4) BPh3Fe2+ efficiently protects F1 against the light-induced inactivation occurring in the presence of Rose Bengal, and the effect is reversed by uncouplers. (5) The results are discussed in relation to the reaction mechanism of F1-ATPase and other enzymes catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of pyrophosphate bonds.

  4. Mechanism of Fatty-Acid-Dependent UCP1 Uncoupling in Brown Fat Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Andriy; Lishko, Polina V.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Upon activation by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. Despite being a member of the family of mitochondrial anion carriers (SLC25), UCP1 is believed to transport H+ by an unusual mechanism that has long remained unresolved. Here, we achieved direct patch-clamp measurements of UCP1 currents from the IMM of BAT mitochondria. We show that UCP1 is an LCFA anion/H+ symporter. However, the LCFA anions cannot dissociate from UCP1 due to hydrophobic interactions established by their hydrophobic tails, and UCP1 effectively operates as an H+ carrier activated by LCFA. A similar LCFA-dependent mechanism of transmembrane H+ transport may be employed by other SLC25 members and be responsible for mitochondrial uncoupling and regulation of metabolic efficiency in various tissues. PMID:23063128

  5. Uncoupled transport of chlorofluorocarbons and anthropogenic carbon in the subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Marta; Gourcuff, Claire

    2010-07-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 11 and 12 transports across the transoceanic World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) A25 section in the subpolar North Atlantic are derived from an inverse model using hydrographic and ADCP data ( Lherminier et al., 2007). CFC and anthropogenic carbon ( CANT) advective transports contrary to expected are uncoupled: CANT is transported northeastwards (82±39 kmol s -1) mainly within the overturning circulation, while CFC-11 and CFC-12 are transported southwestwards (-24±4 and -11±2 mol s -1, respectively) as part of the large-scale horizontal circulation. The main reason for this uncoupled behaviour is the complex CFC vs. CANT relation in the ocean, which stems from the contrasting temperature relation for both tracers: more CANT dissolves in warmer waters with a low Revelle factor, while CFC's solubility is higher in cold waters. These results point to CANT and CFC having different routes of uptake, accumulation and transport within the ocean, and hence: CANT transport would be more sensitive to changes in the overturning circulation strength, while CFC to changes in the East Greenland Current and Labrador Sea Water formation in the Irminger Sea. Additionally, CANT and CFCs would have different sensitivities to circulation and climate changes derived from global warming as the slowdown of the overturning circulation, increase stratification due to warming and changes in wind stress.

  6. Effect of high-fat diet, surrounding temperature, and enterostatin on uncoupling protein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rippe, C; Berger, K; Böiers, C; Ricquier, D; Erlanson-Albertsson, C

    2000-08-01

    Nonshivering thermogenesis induced in brown adipose tissue (BAT) during high-fat feeding is mediated through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP2 is a recently identified homologue found in many tissues. To determine the role of UCP1 and UCP2 in thermoregulation and energy balance, we investigated the long-term effect of high-fat feeding on mRNA levels in mice at two different ambient temperatures. We also treated mice with the anorectic peptide enterostatin and compared mRNA levels in BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), stomach, and duodenum. Here, we report that high-fat feeding at 23 degrees C increased UCP1 and UCP2 levels in BAT four- and threefold, respectively, and increased UCP2 levels fourfold in WAT. However, at 29 degrees C, UCP1 decreased, whereas UCP2 remained unchanged in BAT and increased twofold in WAT. Enterostatin increased UCP1 and decreased UCP2 mRNA in BAT. In stomach and duodenum, high-fat feeding decreased UCP2 mRNA, whereas enterostatin increased it. Our results suggest that the regulation of uncoupling protein mRNA levels by high-fat feeding is dependent on ambient temperature and that enterostatin is able to modulate it.

  7. Spectroscopic elucidation of uncoupled transition energies in the major photosynthetic light-harvesting complex, LHCII

    PubMed Central

    Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Calhoun, Tessa R.; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic couplings between chromophores in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes, and interactions of pigments with the surrounding protein environment, produce a complicated energy landscape of delocalized excited states. The resultant electronic structure absorbs light and gives rise to energy transfer steps that direct the excitation toward a site of charge separation with near unity quantum efficiency. Knowledge of the transition energies of the uncoupled chromophores is required to describe how the wave functions of the individual pigments combine to form this manifold of delocalized excited states that effectively harvests light energy. In an investigation of the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII), we develop a method based on polarized 2D electronic spectroscopy to experimentally access the energies of the S0–S1 transitions in the chromophore site basis. Rotating the linear polarization of the incident laser pulses reveals previously hidden off-diagonal features. We exploit the polarization dependence of energy transfer peaks to find the angles between the excited state transition dipole moments. We show that these angles provide a spectroscopic method to directly inform on the relationship between the delocalized excitons and the individual chlorophylls through the site energies of the uncoupled chromophores. PMID:20622154

  8. Mitochondrial uncouplers inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis largely through cytoplasmic acidification

    PubMed Central

    Dejonghe, Wim; Kuenen, Sabine; Mylle, Evelien; Vasileva, Mina; Keech, Olivier; Viotti, Corrado; Swerts, Jef; Fendrych, Matyáš; Ortiz-Morea, Fausto Andres; Mishev, Kiril; Delang, Simon; Scholl, Stefan; Zarza, Xavier; Heilmann, Mareike; Kourelis, Jiorgos; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Nguyen, Le Son Long; Drozdzecki, Andrzej; Van Houtte, Isabelle; Szatmári, Anna-Mária; Majda, Mateusz; Baisa, Gary; Bednarek, Sebastian York; Robert, Stéphanie; Audenaert, Dominique; Testerink, Christa; Munnik, Teun; Van Damme, Daniël; Heilmann, Ingo; Schumacher, Karin; Winne, Johan; Friml, Jiří; Verstreken, Patrik; Russinova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    ATP production requires the establishment of an electrochemical proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial uncouplers dissipate this proton gradient and disrupt numerous cellular processes, including vesicular trafficking, mainly through energy depletion. Here we show that Endosidin9 (ES9), a novel mitochondrial uncoupler, is a potent inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in different systems and that ES9 induces inhibition of CME not because of its effect on cellular ATP, but rather due to its protonophore activity that leads to cytoplasm acidification. We show that the known tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostinA23, which is routinely used to block CME, displays similar properties, thus questioning its use as a specific inhibitor of cargo recognition by the AP-2 adaptor complex via tyrosine motif-based endocytosis signals. Furthermore, we show that cytoplasm acidification dramatically affects the dynamics and recruitment of clathrin and associated adaptors, and leads to reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate from the plasma membrane. PMID:27271794

  9. Characteristics of the turnover of uncoupling protein 3 by the ubiquitin proteasome system in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Shona A; Brand, Martin D

    2011-11-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is implicated in mild uncoupling and the regulation of mitochondrial ROS production. We previously showed that UCP3 turns over rapidly in C2C12 myoblasts, with a half-life of 0.5-4h, and that turnover can be reconstituted in vitro. We show here that rapid degradation of UCP3 in vitro in isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria required the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin, ATP, succinate to generate a high membrane potential, and a pH of 7.4 or less. Ubiquitin containing lysine-48 was both necessary and sufficient to support UCP3 degradation, implying a requirement for polyubiquitylation at this residue. The 20S proteasome did not support degradation. UCP3 degradation was prevented by simultaneously blocking matrix ATP generation and import, showing that ATP in the mitochondrial matrix was required. Degradation did not appear to require a transmembrane pH gradient, but was very sensitive to membrane potential: degradation was halved when membrane potential decreased 10-20mV from its resting value, and was not significant below about 120mV. We propose that matrix ATP and a high membrane potential are needed for UCP3 to be polyubiquitylated through lysine-48 of ubiquitin and exported to the cytosolic 26S proteasome, where it is de-ubiquitylated and degraded.

  10. The uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol improves mitochondrial homeostasis following striatal quinolinic acid injections.

    PubMed

    Korde, Amit S; Sullivan, Patrick G; Maragos, William F

    2005-10-01

    It is now generally accepted that excitotoxic cell death involves bioenergetic failure resulting from the cycling of Ca2+ and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. Both Ca2+ cycling and ROS formation by mitochondria are dependent on the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) that results from the proton gradient that is generated across the inner membrane. Mitochondrial uncoupling refers to a condition in which protons cross the inner membrane back into the matrix while bypassing the ATP synthase. As a consequence of this "short-circuit," there is a reduction in Deltapsi(m). We have previously demonstrated that animals treated with the classic uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) show significant protection against brain damage following striatal injections of the NMDA agonist quinolinic acid (QA). In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of neuroprotection, we have assessed the effects of DNP on several parameters of mitochondrial function caused by QA. The results presented herein demonstrate that treatment with DNP attenuates QA-induced increases in mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and ROS formation and also improves mitochondrial respiration. Our findings indicate that DNP may confer protection against acute brain injury involving excitotoxic pathways by mechanisms that maintain mitochondrial function.

  11. Uncoupling protein 1 in fish uncovers an ancient evolutionary history of mammalian nonshivering thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jastroch, Martin; Wuertz, Sven; Kloas, Werner; Klingenspor, Martin

    2005-07-14

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) increase proton leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Thereby, UCP1 in brown adipose tissue dissipates proton motive force as heat. This mechanism of nonshivering thermogenesis is considered as a monophyletic trait of endothermic placental mammals that emerged about 140 million years ago and provided a crucial advantage for life in the cold. The paralogues UCP2 and UCP3 are probably not thermogenic proteins but convey mild uncoupling, which may serve to reduce the rate of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Both are present in endotherms (mammals and birds), but so far only UCP2 has been identified in ectothermic vertebrates (fish and amphibia). The evolution of UCPs is of general interest in the search for the origin of mammalian UCP1-mediated nonshivering thermogenesis. We here show the presence of UCP1 and UCP3 in ectothermic teleost fish species using comparative genomics, phylogenetic inference, and gene expression analysis. In the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), UCP1 is predominantly expressed in the liver and strongly diminished in response to cold exposure, thus contrasting the cold-induced expression of mammalian UCP1 in brown adipose tissue. UCP3 mRNA is only found in carp skeletal muscle with expression levels increased fivefold in response to fasting. Our findings disprove the monophyletic nature of UCP1 in placental mammals and demonstrate that all three members of the core UCP family were already present before the divergence of ray-finned and lobe-finned vertebrate lineages about 420 million years ago.

  12. Reptilian uncoupling protein: functionality and expression in sub-zero temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Sibille, Brigitte; Romestaing, Caroline; Belouze, Maud; Letexier, Dominique; Servais, Stéphane; Barré, Hervé; Duchamp, Claude; Voituron, Yann

    2008-05-01

    Here we report the partial nucleotide sequence of a reptilian uncoupling protein (repUCP) gene from the European common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). Overlapping sequence analysis reveals that the protein shows 55%, 72% and 77% sequence homology with rat UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3, respectively, and 73% with bird and fish UCPs. RepUCP gene expression was ubiquitously detected in 4 degrees C cold-acclimated lizard tissues and upregulated in muscle tissues by a 20 h exposure to sub-zero temperatures in a supercooling state or after thawing. In parallel, we show an increase in the co-activators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), mRNA expression, suggesting that the mechanisms regulating UCP expression may be conserved between mammals (endotherms) and reptiles (ectotherms). Furthermore, mitochondria extracted from lizard skeletal muscle showed a guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-sensitive non phosphorylating respiration. This last result indicates an inhibition of extra proton leakage mediated by an uncoupling protein, providing arguments that repUCP is functional in lizard tissues. This result is associated with a remarkable GDP-dependent increase in mitochondrial endogenous H(2)O(2) production. All together, these data support a physiological role of the repUCP in superoxide limitation by lizard mitochondria in situations of stressful oxidative reperfusion following a re-warming period in winter.

  13. Uncoupling protein homologs may provide a link between mitochondria, metabolism and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Catherine A; Iser, Wendy B

    2006-05-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient, have the ability to decouple mitochodrial respiration from ATP production. Since mitochondrial electron transport is a major source of free radical production, it is possible that UCP activity might impact free radical production. Free radicals can react with and damage cellular proteins, DNA and lipids. Accumulated damage from oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributor to cellular decline during aging. If UCP function were to impact mitochondrial free radical production, then one would expect to find a link between UCP activity and aging. This theory has recently been tested in a handful of organisms whose genomes contain UCP1 homologs. Interestingly, these experiments indicate that UCP homologs can affect lifespan, although they do not support a simple relationship between UCP activity and aging. Instead, UCP-like proteins appear to have a variety of effects on lifespan, and on pathways implicated in lifespan regulation. One possible explanation for this complex picture is that UCP homologs may have tissue-specific effects that complicate their effects on aging. Furthermore, the functional analysis of UCP1 homologs is incomplete. Thus, these proteins may perform functions in addition to, or instead of, mitochondrial uncoupling. Although these studies have not revealed a clear picture of UCP effects on aging, they have contributed to the growing knowledge base for these interesting proteins. Future biochemical and genetic investigation of UCP-like proteins will do much to clarify their functions and to identify the regulatory networks in which they are involved.

  14. Mitochondrial Hormesis in Pancreatic β Cells: Does Uncoupling Protein 2 Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Stojanovski, Suzana; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In pancreatic β cells, mitochondrial metabolism translates glucose sensing into signals regulating insulin secretion. Chronic exposure of β cells to excessive nutrients, namely, glucolipotoxicity, impairs β-cell function. This is associated with elevated ROS production from overstimulated mitochondria. Mitochondria are not only the major source of cellular ROS, they are also the primary target of ROS attacks. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2, even though its uncoupling properties are debated, has been associated with protective functions against ROS toxicity. Hormesis, an adaptive response to cellular stresses, might contribute to the protection against β-cell death, possibly limiting the development of type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial hormesis, or mitohormesis, is a defense mechanism observed in ROS-induced stress-responses by mitochondria. In β cells, mitochondrial damages induced by sublethal exogenous H2O2 can induce secondary repair and defense mechanisms. In this context, UCP2 is a marker of mitohormesis, being upregulated following stress conditions. When overexpressed in nonstressed naïve cells, UCP2 confers resistance to oxidative stress. Whether treatment with mitohormetic inducers is sufficient to restore or ameliorate secretory function of β cells remains to be determined. PMID:23029600

  15. The Secreted Enzyme PM20D1 Regulates Lipidated Amino Acid Uncouplers of Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Long, Jonathan Z; Svensson, Katrin J; Bateman, Leslie A; Lin, Hua; Kamenecka, Theodore; Lokurkar, Isha A; Lou, Jesse; Rao, Rajesh R; Chang, Mi Ra; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Paulo, Joao A; Gygi, Steven P; Griffin, Patrick R; Nomura, Daniel K; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-07-14

    Brown and beige adipocytes are specialized cells that express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and dissipate chemical energy as heat. These cells likely possess alternative UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanisms. Here, we identify a secreted enzyme, peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (PM20D1), that is enriched in UCP1(+) versus UCP1(-) adipocytes. We demonstrate that PM20D1 is a bidirectional enzyme in vitro, catalyzing both the condensation of fatty acids and amino acids to generate N-acyl amino acids and also the reverse hydrolytic reaction. N-acyl amino acids directly bind mitochondria and function as endogenous uncouplers of UCP1-independent respiration. Mice with increased circulating PM20D1 have augmented respiration and increased N-acyl amino acids in blood. Lastly, administration of N-acyl amino acids to mice improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure. These data identify an enzymatic node and a family of metabolites that regulate energy homeostasis. This pathway might be useful for treating obesity and associated disorders.

  16. Overexpression of uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle protects against fat-induced insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Kim, Jason K.; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Kim, Sheene; Collier, Emily F.; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Kahn, Mario; Chen, Yan; Yu, Chunli; Moore, Irene K.; Reznick, Richard M.; Higashimori, Takamasa; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with obesity. Increased concentrations of intracellular fatty acid metabolites have been postulated to interfere with insulin signaling by activation of a serine kinase cascade involving PKCθ in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been postulated to dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient and cause metabolic inefficiency. We therefore hypothesized that overexpression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle might protect against fat-induced insulin resistance in muscle by conversion of intramyocellular fat into thermal energy. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet were markedly insulin resistant, a result of defects in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in these tissues was associated with reduced insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1– (IRS-1–) and IRS-2–associated PI3K activity in muscle and liver, respectively. In contrast, UCP3-overexpressing mice were completely protected against fat-induced defects in insulin signaling and action in these tissues. Furthermore, these changes were associated with a lower membrane-to-cytosolic ratio of diacylglycerol and reduced PKCθ activity in whole-body fat–matched UCP3 transgenic mice. These results suggest that increasing mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle may be an excellent therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:17571165

  17. Novel reptilian uncoupling proteins: molecular evolution and gene expression during cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Murray, Shauna; Seebacher, Frank

    2008-04-22

    Many animals upregulate metabolism in response to cold. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) increase proton conductance across the mitochondrial membrane and can thereby alleviate damage from reactive oxygen species that may form as a result of metabolic upregulation. Our aim in this study was to determine whether reptiles (Crocodylus porosus) possess UCP genes. If so, we aimed to place reptilian UCP genes within a phylogenetic context and to determine whether the expression of UCP genes is increased during cold acclimation. We provide the first evidence that UCP2 and UCP3 genes are present in reptiles. Unlike in other vertebrates, UCP2 and UPC3 are expressed in liver and skeletal muscle of the crocodile, and both are upregulated in liver during cold acclimation but not in muscle. We identified two transcripts of UCP3, one of which produces a truncated protein similar to the UCP3S transcript in humans, and the resulting protein lacks the predicted nucleotide-binding regulatory domain. Our molecular phylogeny suggests that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is ancestral and has been lost in archosaurs. In birds, UCP3 may have assumed a similar function as UCP1 in mammals, which has important ramifications for understanding endothermic heat production.

  18. Simulations of reduced conduction reserve in the diabetic rat heart: response to uncoupling and reduced excitability.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Haisam A; Boyle, Patrick M; Vigmond, Edward J; Shimoni, Yakhin; Nygren, Anders

    2010-04-01

    Experimental results have shown that action potential (AP) conduction in ventricular tissue from streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ) rats is compromised. This was manifest as increased sensitivity of conduction velocity (CV) to the gap junction uncoupler heptanol, as well as increased sensitivity of CV to reduced cellular excitability due to elevated extracellular K(+) concentration, in the STZ hearts. This "reduced conduction reserve" has been suggested to be due to lateralization of connexin43 (Cx43) proteins, rendering them nonfunctional, resulting in compromised intercellular electrical coupling. In this study, we have used computer simulations of one-dimensional AP conduction in a model of rat ventricular myocytes to verify this interpretation. Our results show that compromised intercellular coupling indeed reduces conduction reserve and predict a response to gap junction uncoupling with heptanol that is consistent with experiments. However, our simulations also show that compromised intercellular coupling is insufficient to explain the increased sensitivity to reduced cellular excitability. A thorough investigation of possible underlying mechanisms, suggests that subtle alterations in the voltage-dependence of steady-state gating for the Na(+) current (I (Na)), combined with compromised intercellular coupling, is a likely mechanism for these observations.

  19. Reproduction in female reindeer.

    PubMed

    Ropstad, E

    2000-07-02

    Reindeer are either wild or kept under very extensive farming systems. They are seasonal breeders, with mating coinciding with the decreasing photoperiod in the autumn, and with calving in the spring. Little is known regarding the factors that influence reproduction in reindeer or of their reproductive physiology. Studies carried out to date have mainly focused on issues related to the population dynamics of wild populations and semi-domestic herds, and to a limited extent on the reproductive physiology of the female. Nor is much known about reproductive disorders and their medical treatment, or of the possibilities to manipulate or control reproduction by the use of hormones. Modern reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation, maturation and transfer of embryos have so far received scant attention.In the future, it is possible that reindeer under certain conditions might be kept in more intensive production systems. Limited access to high-quality winter pastures and increased demands for productivity have resulted in artificial feeding becoming a common practice in various reindeer herding areas in Scandinavia. In efforts to enhance the productivity of reindeer herds, attention has been focused on factors affecting reproduction in the female and survival of the offspring. Further knowledge on these issues seems necessary when developing strategies for optimalization of meat production in domestic herds and the harvesting of wild populations. This paper puts a broad focus on various aspects of reproduction, including factors influencing the fecundity of reproductively active females. In order to understand these effects it is important also to have a basic understanding of the reproductive physiology of these animals.

  20. Asiatic acid uncouples respiration in isolated mouse liver mitochondria and induces HepG2 cells death.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yapeng; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Dang; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Li

    2016-09-05

    Asiatic acid, one of the triterpenoid components isolated from Centella asiatica, has received increasing attention due to a wide variety of biological activities. To date, little is known about its mechanisms of action. Here we examined the cytotoxic effect of asiatic acid on HepG2 cells and elucidated some of the underlying mechanisms. Asiatic acid induced rapid cell death, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation, ATP depletion and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. In mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, asiatic acid treatment significantly stimulated the succinate-supported state 4 respiration rate, dissipated the MMP, increased Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, decreased ATP content and promoted cytochrome c release, indicating the uncoupling effect of asiatic acid. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by succinate-supported mitochondrial respiration was also significantly inhibited by asiatic acid. In addition, asiatic acid inhibited Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling but did not induce mitochondrial swelling in hyposmotic potassium acetate medium which suggested that asiatic acid may not act as a protonophoric uncoupler. Inhibition of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) or blockade of adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) attenuated the effect of asiatic acid on MMP dissipation, Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial respiration and HepG2 cell death. When combined inhibition of UCPs and ANT, asiatic acid-mediated uncoupling effect was noticeably alleviated. These results suggested that both UCPs and ANT partially contribute to the uncoupling properties of asiatic acid. In conclusion, asiatic acid is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler and this property is potentially involved in its toxicity on HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncoupling of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase by N-arachidonoyl dopamine. Members of the endocannabinoid family as thermogenic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mahmmoud, YA; Gaster, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) plays a role in thermogenesis. The exogenous compound capsaicin increased SERCA-mediated ATP hydrolysis not coupled to Ca2+ transport. Here, we have sought to identify endogenous compounds that may function as SERCA uncoupling agents. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using isolated SR vesicles from rabbits, we have screened for endogenous compounds that uncouple SERCA. We have also studied their ability to deplete cytoplasmic ATP from human skeletal muscle cells in culture. KEY RESULTS Studies on SR vesicles showed that the endogenous lipid metabolite N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) was a potent stimulator of SERCA uncoupling. NADA stabilized an E1-like pump conformation that had a lower dephosphorylation rate, low affinity for Ca2+ at the luminal sites and a specific proteinase K cleavage pattern involving protection of the C-terminal p83C fragment from further cleavage. Moreover, we found a significantly decreased cytoplasmic ATP levels following treatment of skeletal muscle cells with 100 nM NADA. This effect was dependent on the presence of glucose and abolished by pretreatment with the specific SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin, regardless of the presence of glucose. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS NADA is an endogenous molecule that may function as SERCA uncoupling agent in vivo. Members of the endocannabinoid family exert concerted actions on several Ca2+-handling proteins. Uncoupling of SERCA by exogenous compounds could be a novel post-mitochondrial strategy for reduction of cellular ATP levels. In addition, signalling networks leading to SERCA uncoupling can be explored to study the importance of this ion pump in pathophysiological conditions related to metabolism. PMID:22335600

  2. Pre- or post-treatment with the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol attenuates striatal quinolinate lesions.

    PubMed

    Maragos, William F; Rockich, Kevin T; Dean, Jesse J; Young, Kristie L

    2003-03-21

    We have examined the neuroprotective efficacy of the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in animals receiving striatal injections of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid. Animals administered DNP either 1 h before or 3 h following QA infusion developed lesions that were 25% smaller than control animals. Animals treated with the DNP analogue 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, which does not possess uncoupling activity in intact mitochondria, showed no neuroprotection. These results indicate that DNP, and other compounds that diminish the mitochondrial membrane potential, might provide a novel approach to the treatment of acute neurological injury.

  3. Influence of a Small Fraction of Individuals with Enhanced Mutations on a Population Genetic Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    It has been observed that a higher mutation load could be introduced into the genomes of children conceived by assisted reproduction technology (fertilization in-vitro). This generates two effects — slightly higher mutational pressure on the whole genetic pool of population and inhomogeneity of mutation distributions in the genetic pool. Computer simulations of the Penna ageing model suggest that already a small fraction of births with enhanced number of new mutations can negatively influence the whole population.

  4. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies. PMID:12803888

  5. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  6. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  7. Reproductive decisions after fetal genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Pergament, Eugene; Pergament, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    A broad range of testing modalities for fetal genetic disease has been established. These include carrier screening for single-gene mutations, first-trimester and second-trimester screening for chromosome abnormalities and open neural-tube defects, prenatal diagnosis by means of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Reproductive decisions before and after fetal genetic counselling represent the culmination of a dynamic interaction between prospective parents, obstetrician and genetic counsellor. The decision to undergo genetic testing before and after genetic counselling is influenced by a host of interrelated factors, including patient-partner and family relationships, patient-physician communication, societal mores, religious beliefs, and the media. Because of the complexity of personal and societal factors involved, it is not surprising that genetic counselling concerning reproductive decision-making must be individualised. A limited number of principles, guidelines and standards apply when counselling about testing for fetal genetic disease. These principles are that genetic counselling should be non-directive and unbiased and that parental decisions should be supported regardless of the reproductive choice. A critical responsibility of the obstetrician and genetic counsellor is to provide accurate and objective information about the implications, advantages, disadvantages and consequences of any genetic testing applied to prospective parents and their fetuses. These principles and responsibilities will be tested as newer technologies, such as array comparative genome hybridisation, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and sequencing of the entire genome are introduced into the field of reproductive genetics and become routine practice.

  8. Human reproduction: Jewish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish Law -- Halacha to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  9. Mutation and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.L. ); Albertini, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Somatic Mutation: Animal Model; Somatic Mutation: Human; Heritable Mutation: Animal Model; Heritable Mutation: Approaches to Human Induction Rates; Heritable Mutation: Human Risk; Epidemiology: Population Studies on Genotoxicity; and Epidemiology: Workplace Studies of Genotoxicity.

  10. Mitochondrial efficiency and exercise economy following heat stress: a potential role of uncoupling protein 3.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Roy M; Sheard, Ailish C; Vaughan, Roger A; Parker, Daryl L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Kenefick, Robert W; McCormick, James J; Gannon, Nicholas P; Van Dusseldorp, Trisha A; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M

    2017-02-01

    Heat stress has been reported to reduce uncoupling proteins (UCP) expression, which in turn should improve mitochondrial efficiency. Such an improvement in efficiency may translate to the systemic level as greater exercise economy. However, neither the heat-induced improvement in mitochondrial efficiency (due to decrease in UCP), nor its potential to improve economy has been studied. Determine: (i) if heat stress in vitro lowers UCP3 thereby improving mitochondrial efficiency in C2C12 myocytes; (ii) whether heat acclimation (HA) in vivo improves exercise economy in trained individuals; and (iii) the potential improved economy during exercise at altitude. In vitro, myocytes were heat stressed for 24 h (40°C), followed by measurements of UCP3, mitochondrial uncoupling, and efficiency. In vivo, eight trained males completed: (i) pre-HA testing; (ii) 10 days of HA (40°C, 20% RH); and (iii) post-HA testing. Pre- and posttesting consisted of maximal exercise test and submaximal exercise at two intensities to assess exercise economy at 1600 m (Albuquerque, NM) and 4350 m. Heat-stressed myocytes displayed significantly reduced UCP3 mRNA expression and, mitochondrial uncoupling (77.1 ± 1.2%, P < 0.0001) and improved mitochondrial efficiency (62.9 ± 4.1%, P < 0.0001) compared to control. In humans, at both 1600 m and 4350 m, following HA, submaximal exercise economy did not change at low and moderate exercise intensities. Our findings indicate that while heat-induced reduction in UCP3 improves mitochondrial efficiency in vitro, this is not translated to in vivo improvement of exercise economy at 1600 m or 4350 m. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. Marked over expression of uncoupling protein-2 in beta cells exerts minor effects on mitochondrial metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hals, Ingrid K.; Ogata, Hirotaka; Pettersen, Elin; Ma, Zuheng; Bjoerklund, Anneli; Skorpen, Frank; Egeberg, Kjartan Wollo; Grill, Valdemar

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The impact of UCP-2 over expression on mitochondrial function is controversial. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested mitochondrial functions at defined levels of overexpression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find minor increases of fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects were seen only at high level (fourfold) of over expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hence it is doubtful whether these effects are of importance in diabetes. -- Abstract: Evidence is conflicting as to the impact of elevated levels of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) on insulin-producing beta cells. Here we investigated effects of a fourfold induction of UCP-2 protein primarily on mitochondrial parameters and tested for replication of positive findings at a lower level of induction. We transfected INS-1 cells to obtain a tet-on inducible cell line. A 48 h exposure to 1 {mu}g/ml of doxycycline (dox) induced UCP-2 fourfold (424 {+-} 113%, mean {+-} SEM) and 0.1 {mu}g/ml twofold (178 {+-} 29%, n = 3). Fourfold induced cells displayed normal viability (MTT, apoptosis), normal cellular insulin contents and, glucose-induced insulin secretion (+27 {+-} 11%) as well as D-[U-{sup 14}C]-glucose oxidation (+5 {+-} 9% at 11 mM glucose). Oxidation of [1-{sup 14}C]-oleate was increased from 4088 to 5797 fmol/{mu}g prot/2 h at 3.3 mM glucose, p < 0.03. Oxidation of L-[{sup 14}C(U)]-glutamine was unaffected. Induction of UCP-2 did not significantly affect measures of mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine 123) or mitochondrial mass (Mitotracker Green) and did not affect ATP levels. Oligomycin-inhibited oxygen consumption (a measure of mitochondrial uncoupling) was marginally increased, the effect being significant in comparison with dox-only treated cells, p < 0.05. Oxygen radicals, assessed by dichlorofluorescin diacetate, were decreased by 30%, p < 0.025. Testing for the lower level of UCP-2 induction did not reproduce any of the

  12. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect

    Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Substantial reducing equivalents are lost in human P450 CYP3A4 via an oxidase channel. ► Substrate binding has a pronounced effect on uncoupling in cytochrome P450. ► Anionic phospholipids improve the overall coupling in CYP3A4 Nanodiscs. -- Abstract: The normal reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450 operates by utilizing two reducing equivalents to reduce atmospheric dioxygen, producing one molecule of water and an oxygenated product in an overall stoichiometry of 2 electrons:1 dioxygen:1 product. However, three alternate unproductive pathways exist where the intermediate iron–oxygen states in the catalytic cycle can yield reduced oxygen products without substrate metabolism. The first involves release of superoxide from the oxygenated intermediate while the second occurs after input of the second reducing equivalent. Superoxide rapidly dismutates and hence both processes produce hydrogen peroxide that can be cytotoxic to the organism. In both cases, the formation of hydrogen peroxide involves the same overall stoichiometry as oxygenases catalysis. The key step in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 involves scission of the oxygen–oxygen bond of atmospheric dioxygen to produce a higher valent iron-oxo state termed “Compound I”. This intermediate initiates a radical reaction in the oxygenase pathway but also can uptake two additional reducing equivalents from reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) and the flavoprotein reductase to produce a second molecule of water. This non-productive decay of Compound I thus yields an overall oxygen to NADPH ratio of 1:2 and does not produce hydrocarbon oxidation. This water uncoupling reaction provides one of a limited means to study the reactivity of the critical Compound I intermediate in P450 catalysis. We measured simultaneously the rates of NADPH and oxygen consumption as a function of substrate concentration during the steady-state hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by human P450 CYP3A4

  13. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affairs NGO Status with the WHO Contact Us Social Media Donate News & Publications Publications Overview News and Research Fertility and Sterility Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics Coding Ethics Committee Opinions and Webinars Practice Committee Documents Newsletters ...

  14. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  15. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  16. Thyroid and male reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-01-01

    Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction. PMID:24701426

  17. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Dharia, Sejal P; Falcone, Tommaso

    2005-07-01

    To review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology. The MEDLINE database was reviewed for all publications on robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, its role in surgical education, and telepresence surgery. University medical center. Robotic-assisted surgery is an emerging technology, which provides an alternative to traditional surgical techniques in reproductive medicine and may have a role in surgical education and telepresence surgery.

  18. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  19. Cloning in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, K

    2001-08-01

    This review article summarizes the historical development of mammalian cloning, presents current advances and presumed risk factors in the field of reproductive cloning, discusses possible clinical applications of therapeutic and diagnostic cloning and outlines prospective commercial trends in pharmaceutical cloning. Predictable progress in biotechnology and stem cell engineering should prove to be advantageous for patients' health and for novel benefits in reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  20. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    PubMed Central

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. PMID:25405228

  1. Asexual reproduction in holothurians.

    PubMed

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.

  2. Mutation rates and mutational loads in man

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The following areas of research are discussed: (1) the study of human mutation rates; (2) geography of human genes and its relevance to mutation; (3) sociocultural studies correlated with population genetics; (4) consanguineous marriages; and (5) surnames. (ACR)

  3. Interactive effects of sex, social environment, dietary restriction, and methionine on survival and reproduction in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Friberg, Urban; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-08-01

    For the evolution of life histories, the trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental. Because sexes optimize fitness in different ways, this trade-off is expected to be resolved differently by males and females. Consequently, the sexes are predicted to respond differently to changes in resource availability. In fruit flies, research on dietary restriction has focused largely on females maintained in the absence of males, thereby neglecting sexual interactions that affect reproductive behavior of both sexes under more natural conditions. Here, we tested for the interactive effects of diet (40, 60, 100, and 300 % of standard yeast concentrations) and social environment (separate-sex vs. mixed-sex groups) on male and female Drosophila melanogaster life histories. Additionally, we evaluated the essential amino acid methionine as an agent that can uncouple the survival-reproduction trade-off. We show sex differences in the effect of social environment on survival patterns, but not on reproductive fitness. In females, yeast had a positive effect on reproduction and a negative effect on survival. In males, yeast had a negative effect on reproduction and the effect on survival depended on the social environment. Methionine reduced survival, but had no effect on reproduction. Our findings highlight the need to include both sexes and to vary social environments in research programs aimed at lifespan extension and call for further evaluation of the fecundity-restoring effect of methionine.

  4. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Uncoupling protein 2 is a member of the mitochondrial channel proteins that regulate the flow of hydrogen ions and ATP generation. The relationship between UCP2 and nutrient metabolism has been well-defined in humans but unclear in fish. We hypothesized that increased muscle growth in channel catf...

  5. Oxidative damage and phospholipid fatty acyl composition in skeletal muscle mitochondria from mice underexpressing or overexpressing uncoupling protein 3.

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Martin D; Pamplona, Reinald; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Requena, Jesús R; Roebuck, Stephen J; Buckingham, Julie A; Clapham, John C; Cadenas, Susana

    2002-01-01

    Five markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins [glutamic semialdehyde, aminoadipic semialdehyde, N (epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N (epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine and N (epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine] and phospholipid fatty acyl composition were identified and measured in skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from mice genetically engineered to underexpress or overexpress uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3). Mitochondria from UCP3-underexpressing mice had significantly higher levels of oxidative damage than wild-type controls, suggesting that UCP3 functions in vivo as part of the antioxidant defences of the cell, but mitochondria from UCP3-overexpressing mice had unaltered oxidative damage, suggesting that mild uncoupling in vivo beyond the normal basal uncoupling provides little protection against oxidative stress. Mitochondria from UCP3-underexpressing mice showed little change, but mitochondria from UCP3-overexpressing mice showed marked changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition. These changes were very similar to those previously found to correlate with basal proton conductance in mitochondria from a range of species and treatments, suggesting that high protein expression, or some secondary result of uncoupling, may cause the observed correlation between basal proton conductance and phospholipid fatty acyl composition. PMID:12193161

  6. Early Decrease in Respiration and Uncoupling Event Independent of Cytochrome c Release in PC12 Cells Undergoing Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Berghella, Libera; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome c is a key molecule in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. It also plays a pivotal role in cell respiration. The switch between these two functions occurs at the moment of its release from mitochondria. This process is therefore extremely relevant for the fate of the cell. Since cytochrome c mediates respiration, we studied the changes in respiratory chain activity during the early stages of apoptosis in order to contribute to unravel the mechanisms of cytochrome c release. We found that, during staurosporine (STS)- induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, respiration is affected before the release of cytochrome c, as shown by a decrease in the endogenous uncoupled respiration and an uncoupling event, both occurring independently of cytochrome c release. The decline in the uncoupled respiration occurs also upon Bcl-2 overexpression (which inhibits cytochrome c release), while the uncoupling event is inhibited by Bcl-2. We also observed that the first stage of nuclear condensation during STS-induced apoptosis does not depend on the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and is a reversibile event. These findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms affecting mitochondria during the early stages of apoptosis and priming them for the release of apoptogenic factors. PMID:22666257

  7. Temperature dependence of rat liver mitochondrial respiration with uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by fatty acids. Influence of inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Samartsev, V N; Chezganova, S A; Polishchuk, L S; Paydyganov, A P; Vidyakina, O V; Zeldi, I P

    2003-06-01

    The respiration rate of liver mitochondria in the course of succinate oxidation depends on temperature in the presence of palmitate more strongly than in its absence (in state 4). In the Arrhenius plot, the temperature dependence of the palmitate-induced stimulation of respiration has a bend at 22 degrees C which is characterized by transition of the activation energy from 120 to 60 kJ/mol. However, a similar dependence of respiration in state 4 is linear over the whole temperature range and corresponds to the activation energy of 17 kJ/mol. Phosphate partially inhibits the uncoupling effect of palmitate. This effect of phosphate is increased on decrease in temperature. In the presence of phosphate the temperature dependence in the Arrhenius plot also has a bend at 22 degrees C, and the activation energy increases from 128 to 208 kJ/mol in the range from 13 to 22 degrees C and from 56 to 67 kJ/mol in the range from 22 to 37 degrees C. Mersalyl (10 nmol/mg protein), an inhibitor of the phosphate carrier, similarly to phosphate, suppresses the uncoupling effect of laurate, and the effects of mersalyl and phosphate are not additive. The recoupling effects of phosphate and mersalyl seem to show involvement of the phosphate carrier in the uncoupling effect of fatty acids in liver mitochondria. Possible mechanisms of involvement of the phosphate carrier in the uncoupling effect of fatty acids are discussed.

  8. Mitochondrial uncouplers act synergistically with the fumigant phosphine to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential and cause cell death.

    PubMed

    Valmas, Nicholas; Zuryn, Steven; Ebert, Paul R

    2008-10-30

    Phosphine is the most widely used fumigant for the protection of stored commodities against insect pests, especially food products such as grain. However, pest insects are developing resistance to phosphine and thereby threatening its future use. As phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and reduces the strength of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), we reasoned that mitochondrial uncouplers should act synergistically with phosphine. The mitochondrial uncouplers FCCP and PCP caused complete mortality in populations of both wild-type and phosphine-resistant lines of Caenorhabditis elegans simultaneously exposed to uncoupler and phosphine at concentrations that were individually nonlethal. Strong synergism was also observed with a third uncoupler DNP. We have also tested an alternative complex IV inhibitor, azide, with FCCP and found that this also caused a synergistic enhancement of toxicity in C. elegans. To investigate potential causes of the synergism, we measured DeltaPsi(m), ATP content, and oxidative damage (lipid hydroperoxides) in nematodes subjected to phosphine-FCCP treatment and found that neither an observed 50% depletion in ATP nor oxidative stress accounted for the synergistic effect. Instead, a synergistic reduction in DeltaPsi(m) was observed upon phosphine-FCCP co-treatment suggesting that this is directly responsible for the subsequent mortality. These results support the hypothesis that phosphine-induced mortality results from the in vivo disruption of normal mitochondrial activity. Furthermore, we have identified a novel pathway that can be targeted to overcome genetic resistance to phosphine.

  9. Upregulation of uncoupling protein Ucp2 through acute cold exposure increases post-thaw sperm quality in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongfa; Kang, Ning; Gong, Hongmei; Luo, Yan; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Ji, Xiaoping; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in sperm damage during cryopreservation. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling has been shown to reduce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus mitigate oxidative stress. Uncoupling protein (Ucp2) regulates mitochondrial uncoupling and can be induced by temperature fluctuation. In the present study, we explored a novel approach of acute cold exposure on Ucp2 activation and its association with oxidative damage and post-thaw sperm quality in zebrafish. Our study revealed that acute cold exposure of zebrafish at 18 °C for 24 h led to significant increase of ucp2 mRNA and Ucp2 protein in zebrafish fresh sperm as well as thawed sperm after cryopreservation. Although cold exposure had no effect on fresh sperm quality except for decreasing lipid peroxidation, sperm collected from cold-exposed zebrafish exhibited higher resistance to cryodamage, which was demonstrated by increased post-thaw motility, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased ATP production, and ultimately increased fertilization success. However, except for reduced lipid peroxidation, we did not observe any significant ROS reduction associated with increased Ucp2 activation in cold-exposed group, suggesting mechanisms other than mitochondrial uncoupling could have contributed to cold exposure associated benefits in post-thaw sperm survival. Nevertheless, our findings indicate that acute cold exposure prior to sperm cryopreservation is beneficial for post-thaw sperm survival in zebrafish, and this novel approach may be used to improve post-thaw sperm quality for other aquatic species.

  10. An improved finite-difference analysis of uncoupled vibrations of tapered cantilever beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1983-01-01

    An improved finite difference procedure for determining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of tapered cantilever beams undergoing uncoupled vibrations is presented. Boundary conditions are derived in the form of simple recursive relations involving the second order central differences. Results obtained by using the conventional first order central differences and the present second order central differences are compared, and it is observed that the present second order scheme is more efficient than the conventional approach. An important advantage offered by the present approach is that the results converge to exact values rapidly, and thus the extrapolation of the results is not necessary. Consequently, the basic handicap with the classical finite difference method of solution that requires the Richardson's extrapolation procedure is eliminated. Furthermore, for the cases considered herein, the present approach produces consistent lower bound solutions.

  11. An uncoupling protein homologue putatively involved in facultative muscle thermogenesis in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Raimbault, S; Dridi, S; Denjean, F; Lachuer, J; Couplan, E; Bouillaud, F; Bordas, A; Duchamp, C; Taouis, M; Ricquier, D

    2001-01-01

    The cDNA of an uncoupling protein (UCP) homologue was obtained by screening a chicken skeletal-muscle library. The predicted 307-amino-acid sequence of avian UCP (avUCP) is 55, 70, 70 and 46% identical with mammalian UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 and plant UCP respectively. avUCP mRNA expression is restricted to skeletal muscle and its abundance was increased 1.3-fold in a chicken line showing diet-induced thermogenesis, and 3.6- and 2.6-fold in cold-acclimated and glucagon-treated ducklings developing muscle non-shivering thermogenesis respectively. The present data support the implication of avUCP in avian energy expenditure. PMID:11171038

  12. Coherent population transfer between uncoupled or weakly coupled states in ladder-type superconducting qutrits

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H. K.; Song, C.; Liu, W. Y.; Xue, G. M.; Su, F. F.; Deng, H.; Tian, Ye; Zheng, D. N.; Han, Siyuan; Zhong, Y. P.; Wang, H.; Liu, Yu-xi; Zhao, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage offers significant advantages for coherent population transfer between uncoupled or weakly coupled states and has the potential of realizing efficient quantum gate, qubit entanglement and quantum information transfer. Here we report on the realization of the process in the superconducting Xmon and phase qutrits—two ladder-type three-level systems in which the ground state population is coherently transferred to the second excited state via the dark state subspace. We demonstrate that the population transfer efficiency is no less than 96% and 67% for the two devices, which agree well with the numerical simulation of the master equation. Population transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage is significantly more robust against variations of the experimental parameters compared with that via the conventional resonant π pulse method. Our work opens up a new venue for exploring the process for quantum information processing using the superconducting artificial atoms. PMID:27009972

  13. Role of cellular uncoupling in arrhythmogenesis in ischemia phase 1B.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xiao; Rodriguez, Blanca; Trayanova, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Delayed ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia phase 1B are related to a rise in tissue impedance and are most likely sustained in a thin layer of subepicardium. It has been hypothesized that coupling of depressed midmyocardial tissue to the surviving subepicardial layer sets the conditions for reentrant arrhythmias. This hypothesis was verified by means of bidomain simulations on a 3D slab consisting of a normal subepicardial layer coupled to a depressed depolarized midmyocardial layer. The heterogeneity in the coupling was defined by varying the transmural conductivities between the two layers in a circular centrally-located region. The resulting dispersion of effective refractory period in the subepicardium allows for reentry to occur. As uncoupling increases within the circular island, the vulnerability to reentry increases. A higher degree of depolarization in the midmyocardium inhibits the induction of reentry.

  14. Design of an achromatic and uncoupled medical gantry for radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; MacKay, W.W.

    2011-03-28

    We are presenting the layout and the optics of a beam line to be used as a medical gantry in radiation therapy. The optical properties of the gantry's beam line are such as to make the beam line achromatic and uncoupled. These two properties make the beam spot size, which is delivered and focused by the gantry, on the tumor of the patient, independent of the angular orientation of the gantry. In this paper we present the layout of the magnetic elements of the gantry, and also present the theoretical basis for the optics design of such a gantry. A medical gantry, as it is used in the radiation treatment of cancer patients, is the last part of the beam optical system, of the accelerator complex, which delivers and focuses the beam on the tumor. The curved line shown in figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a gantry which can rotate about a horizontal axis. The particle beam (green arrow in fig. 1) enters the gantry, and is guided by the gantry on the tumor (red spot in fig. 1). As the gantry rotates about the axis shown in figure 1, the beam exiting the gantry always lies on a plane normal to the rotation axis at the point of the icocenter. Thus the gantry facilitates the ability of the beam delivery system, to deliver the beam at the tumor, which is placed at the icocenter, from any angle on this vertical plane, which is normal to the rotation angle of the gantry as stated earlier. The gantry consists of dipoles and quadrupoles elements whose median symmetry plane lies on a plane which contains the rotation axis of the gantry. In this paper we define this plane as the 'plane of the gantry'. As the beam is transported along the axis of rotation of the gantry and before it enters the gantry, it is focused by 'normal' quadrupoles and experiences no linear beam coupling. Subsequently the beam enters the gantry, and is transported by the gantry to the delivery point which is the tumor. The transported beam at the tumor is still linearly uncoupled as long as the plane of the

  15. Application of an Uncoupled Elastic-plastic-creep Constitutive Model to Metals at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    A uniaxial, uncoupled constitutive model to predict the response of thermal and rate dependent elastic-plastic material behavior is presented. The model is based on an incremental classicial plasticity theory extended to account for thermal, creep, and transient temperature conditions. Revisions to he combined hardening rule of the theory allow for better representation of cyclic phenomenon including the high rate of strain hardening upon cyclic reyield and cyclic saturation. An alternative approach is taken to model the rate dependent inelastic deformation which utilizes hysteresis loops and stress relaxation test data at various temperatures. The model is evaluated and compared to experiments which involve various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy-X.

  16. Evidence that bacteriophage λ lysogens may induce in response to the proton motive force uncoupler CCCP

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Lynn C.; Court, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a genetic β-galactoside reporter system using a disk diffusion assay on MacConkey Lactose agar petri plates to monitor maintenance of the bacteriophage λ prophage state and viral induction in Escherichia coli K-12. Evidence is presented that the phage λ major lytic promoters, pL and pR, are activated when cells containing the reporters are exposed to the energy poison carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine, CCCP. This uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation inhibits ATP synthesis by collapsing the proton motive force. Expression of the λ lytic promoters in response to CCCP requires host RecA function and an autocleavable CI repressor, as does SOS induction of the λ prophage that occurs by a DNA damage-dependent pathway. λ Cro function is required for CCCP-mediated activation of the λ lytic promoters. CCCP does not induce an sfi-lacZ SOS reporter. PMID:26705574

  17. A Prototypical Small-Molecule Modulator Uncouples Mitochondria in Response to Endogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    McQuaker, Stephen J; Quinlan, Casey L; Caldwell, Stuart T; Brand, Martin D; Hartley, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    A high membrane potential across the mitochondrial inner membrane leads to the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) implicated in aging and age-related diseases. A prototypical drug for the correction of this type of mitochondrial dysfunction is presented. MitoDNP-SUM accumulates in mitochondria in response to the membrane potential due to its mitochondria-targeting alkyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation and is uncaged by endogenous hydrogen peroxide to release the mitochondrial uncoupler, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). DNP is known to reduce the high membrane potential responsible for the production of ROS. The approach potentially represents a general method for the delivery of drugs to the mitochondrial matrix through mitochondria targeting and H2O2-induced uncaging. PMID:23640856

  18. Does any yeast mitochondrial carrier have a native uncoupling protein function?

    PubMed

    Roussel, Damien; Harding, Marilyn; Runswick, Michael J; Walker, John E; Brand, Martin D

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we explore the hypothesis that some member of the mitochondrial carrier family has specific uncoupling activity that is responsible for the basal proton conductance of mitochondria. Twenty-seven of the 35 yeast mitochondrial carrier genes were independently disrupted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Six knockout strains did not grow on nonfermentable carbon sources such as lactate. Mitochondria were isolated from the remaining 21 strains, and their proton conductances were measured. None of the 21 carriers contributed significantly to the basal proton leak of yeast mitochondria. A possible exception was the succinate/fumarate carrier encoded by the Xc2 gene, but deletion of this gene also affected yeast growth and respiratory chain activity, suggesting a more general alteration in mitochondrial function. If a specific protein is responsible for the basal proton conductance of yeast mitochondria, its identity remains unknown.

  19. Laminated polymer waveguide fan-out device for uncoupled multi-core fibers.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsuhiko; Hikita, Makoto; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2012-11-19

    A compact waveguide-type fan-out device for uncoupled multi-core fibers was demonstrated using a laminated polymer waveguide (LPW). The core spacing in the vertical direction was precisely controlled by the spin-coating of epoxy resin cladding with accurate viscosity control, while that in the lateral direction was determined precisely by using a photomask. The simultaneous coupling from the fan-out device to a seven-core MCF was successfully demonstrated. Next, we measured the offset loss characteristics of the cores of the LPW and calculated the spot size of the respective cores. The theoretical coupling losses evaluated from the spot size and the offset were as low as 0.2 - 7.5 dB.

  20. UNCOUPLING PROTEIN-2 MODULATES THE LIPID METABOLIC RESPONSE TO FASTING IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Anthony R.; Fülöp, Péter; Derdák, Zoltán; Kassai, Andrea; Sabo, Edmond; Mark, Nicholas M.; Paragh, György; Wands, Jack R.; Baffy, György

    2008-01-01

    Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) regulates insulin secretion by controlling ATP levels in β cells. While UCP2 deficiency improves glycemic control in mice, increased expression of UCP2 interferes with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These observations link UCP2 to β cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes with a perplexing evolutionary role. We found higher residual serum insulin levels and blunted lipid metabolic responses in fasted ucp2−/− mice, supporting the concept that UCP2 evolved to suppress insulin effects and to accommodate the fuel switch to fatty acids during starvation. In the absence of UCP2, fasting initially promotes peripheral lipolysis and hepatic fat accumulation at less than expected rates, but culminates in protracted steatosis indicating diminished hepatic utilization and clearance of fatty acids. We conclude that UCP2-mediated control of insulin secretion is a physiologically relevant mechanism of the metabolic response to fasting. PMID:18292186

  1. Effect of running training on uncoupling protein mRNA expression in rat brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Yuzo; Izawa, Tetsuya; Komabayashi, Takao; Saito, Daizo; Ohno, Hideki

    1993-03-01

    The effect was investigated of endurance training on the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rats. The exercised rats were trained on a rodent treadmill for 5 days per week and a total of 9 weeks. After the training programme, a marked decrease in BAT mass was found in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight; there was a corresponding decrease in DNA content and a downward trend in RNA and glycogen levels. The UCP mRNA was present at a markedly decreased level in BAT of trained animals. In consideration of the reduced levels of mRNAs for hormone-sensitive lipase and acylCoA synthetase, the brown adipose tissue investigated appeared to be in a relatively atrophied and thermogenically quiescent state.

  2. Spatial uncoupling of biodegradation, soil respiration, and PAH concentration in a creosote contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Göran; Törneman, Niklas; Yang, Xiuhong

    2010-09-01

    Hotspots and coldspots of concentration and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) marginally overlapped at the 0.5-100 m scale in a creosote contaminated soil in southern Sweden, suggesting that concentration and biodegradation had little spatial co-variation. Biodegradation was substantial and its spatial variability considerable and highly irregular, but it had no spatial autocorrelation. The soil concentration of PAHs explained only 20-30% of the variance of their biodegradation. Soil respiration was spatially autocorrelated. The spatial uncoupling between biodegradation and soil respiration seemed to be governed by the aging of PAHs in the soil, since biodegradation of added 13C phenanthrene covaried with both soil respiration and microbial biomass. The latter two were also correlated with high concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that are common in gram-negative bacteria. However, several of the hotspots of biodegradation coincided with hotspots for the distribution of a PLFA indicative of fungal biomass.

  3. Coherent population transfer between uncoupled or weakly coupled states in ladder-type superconducting qutrits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. K.; Song, C.; Liu, W. Y.; Xue, G. M.; Su, F. F.; Deng, H.; Tian, Ye; Zheng, D. N.; Han, Siyuan; Zhong, Y. P.; Wang, H.; Liu, Yu-Xi; Zhao, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage offers significant advantages for coherent population transfer between uncoupled or weakly coupled states and has the potential of realizing efficient quantum gate, qubit entanglement and quantum information transfer. Here we report on the realization of the process in the superconducting Xmon and phase qutrits--two ladder-type three-level systems in which the ground state population is coherently transferred to the second excited state via the dark state subspace. We demonstrate that the population transfer efficiency is no less than 96% and 67% for the two devices, which agree well with the numerical simulation of the master equation. Population transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage is significantly more robust against variations of the experimental parameters compared with that via the conventional resonant π pulse method. Our work opens up a new venue for exploring the process for quantum information processing using the superconducting artificial atoms.

  4. Dynamic regulation of uncoupling protein 2 content in INS-1E insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Azzu, Vian; Affourtit, Charles; Breen, Eamon P; Parker, Nadeene; Brand, Martin D

    2008-10-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. UCP2 content, measured by calibrated immunoblot in INS-1E insulinoma cells (a pancreatic beta-cell model) grown in RPMI medium, and INS-1E mitochondria, was 2.0 ng/million cells (7.9 ng/mg mitochondrial protein). UCP2 content was lower in cells incubated without glutamine and higher in cells incubated with 20 mM glucose, and varied from 1.0-4.4 ng/million cells (2.7-14.5 ng/mg mitochondrial protein). This dynamic response to nutrients was achieved by varied expression rates against a background of a very short UCP2 protein half-life of about 1 h.

  5. The HK-2 human renal proximal tubule cell as a model for GRK4-mediated dopamine-1 receptor uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Gildea, John J.; Shah, Ishan; Weiss, Ryan; Casscells, Nicholas D.; McGrath, Helen E.; Zhang, Jin; Felder, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    HK-2 human renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) are commonly used in the in vitro study of “normal” RPTCs. We recently discovered that HK-2 cells are uncoupled from dopamine-1 receptor (D1R) adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulation. We hypothesized that G protein coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be responsible for the D1R/AC uncoupling in HK-2. This hypothesis was tested by genotyping GRK4 SNPs, measuring D1-like receptor agonist (fenoldopam)stimulated cAMP accumulation, quantifying D1R inhibition of sodium transport, and testing the ability of GRK4 siRNA to reverse the D1R/AC uncoupling. We compared HK-2 to 2 normally coupled human RPTC cell lines (nRPTC) and 2 uncoupled RPTC cell lines (uRPTC). The HK-2 cell line was found to have 4 out of 6 potential GRK4 SNPs known to uncouple the D1R from AC (namely R65L, A142V, and A486V). AC response to fenoldopam stimulation was increased in the two nRPTC cell lines (FEN 2.02±0.05-fold and 2.33±0.19-fold over control, P<0.001, N=4), but not in the two uncoupled or HK-2 cell lines. GRK4 siRNA rescued the fenoldopam-mediated AC stimulation in the uncoupled cells, including HK-2. The expected fenoldopam -mediated inhibition of sodium hydrogen exchanger type 3 was absent in HK-2 (N=6) and uRPTCs (N=6), but was observed in the two nRPTCs (−25.41±4.7% and −27.36±2.70% (P<0.001, N=6)), which express wild-type GRK4. Despite the fact that HK-2 cells retain many functional characteristics of RPTCs, they are not normal from the perspective of dopaminergic function. PMID:20660820

  6. Overexpression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) induces a hypoxic response in Nicotiana tabacum leaves

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Pedro; Okura, Vagner; Pena, Izabella A.; Maia, Renato; Maia, Ivan G.; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) decreases reactive oxygen species production under stress conditions by uncoupling the electrochemical gradient from ATP synthesis. This study combined transcriptome profiling with experimentally induced hypoxia to mechanistically dissect the impact of Arabidopsis thaliana UCP1 (AtUCP1) overexpression in tobacco. Transcriptomic analysis of AtUCP1-overexpressing (P07) and wild-type (WT) plants was carried out using RNA sequencing. Metabolite and carbohydrate profiling of hypoxia-treated plants was performed using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The transcriptome of P07 plants revealed a broad induction of stress-responsive genes that were not strictly related to the mitochondrial antioxidant machinery, suggesting that overexpression of AtUCP1 imposes a strong stress response within the cell. In addition, transcripts that mapped into carbon fixation and energy expenditure pathways were broadly altered. It was found that metabolite markers of hypoxic adaptation, such as alanine and tricarboxylic acid intermediates, accumulated in P07 plants under control conditions at similar rates to WT plants under hypoxia. These findings indicate that constitutive overexpression of AtUCP1 induces a hypoxic response. The metabolites that accumulated in P07 plants are believed to be important in signalling for an improvement in carbon assimilation and induction of a hypoxic response. Under these conditions, mitochondrial ATP production is less necessary and fermentative glycolysis becomes critical to meet cell energy demands. In this scenario, the more flexible energy metabolism along with an intrinsically activated hypoxic response make these plants better adapted to face several biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26494730

  7. Acceptably aware during general anaesthesia: 'dysanaesthesia'--the uncoupling of perception from sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Jaideep J

    2014-07-01

    This review makes the case for 'dysanaesthesia', a term encompassing states of mind that can arise in the course of anaesthesia during surgery, characterised by an uncoupling of sensation and perceptual experience. This is reflected in a macroscopic, functional model of anaesthetically-relevant consciousness. Patients in this state can be aware of events but in a neutral way, not in pain, sometimes personally dissociated from the experiences. This makes events associated with surgery peripheral to their whole experience, such that recall is less likely and if it exists, makes any spontaneous report of awareness unlikely. This state of perception-sensation uncoupling is therefore broadly acceptable (a minimum requirement for acceptable anaesthesia) but since it is likely a dose-related phenomenon, may also represent a precursor for awareness with adverse recall. This hypothesis uniquely explains the often inconsistent responses seen during the experimental paradigm of the 'isolated forearm technique', wherein apparently anaesthetised patients exhibit a positive motor response to verbal command, but no spontaneous movement to surgery. The hypothesis can also explain the relatively high incidence of positive response to relatively direct questions for recall (e.g., using the Brice questionnaire; ∼1:500; the vast majority of these being neutral reports) versus the very low incidence of spontaneous reports of awareness (∼1:15,000; a higher proportion of these being adverse recollections). The hypothesis is consistent with relevant notions from philosophical discussions of consciousness, and neuroscientific evidence. Dysanaesthesia has important implications for research and also for the development of appropriate monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chimera states in a multilayer network of coupled and uncoupled neurons.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-07-01

    We study the emergence of chimera states in a multilayer neuronal network, where one layer is composed of coupled and the other layer of uncoupled neurons. Through the multilayer structure, the layer with coupled neurons acts as the medium by means of which neurons in the uncoupled layer share information in spite of the absence of physical connections among them. Neurons in the coupled layer are connected with electrical synapses, while across the two layers, neurons are connected through chemical synapses. In both layers, the dynamics of each neuron is described by the Hindmarsh-Rose square wave bursting dynamics. We show that the presence of two different types of connecting synapses within and between the two layers, together with the multilayer network structure, plays a key role in the emergence of between-layer synchronous chimera states and patterns of synchronous clusters. In particular, we find that these chimera states can emerge in the coupled layer regardless of the range of electrical synapses. Even in all-to-all and nearest-neighbor coupling within the coupled layer, we observe qualitatively identical between-layer chimera states. Moreover, we show that the role of information transmission delay between the two layers must not be neglected, and we obtain precise parameter bounds at which chimera states can be observed. The expansion of the chimera region and annihilation of cluster and fully coherent states in the parameter plane for increasing values of inter-layer chemical synaptic time delay are illustrated using effective range measurements. These results are discussed in the light of neuronal evolution, where the coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics during the developmental stage is particularly likely.

  9. Effect of mitochondrial uncoupling and glycolysis inhibition on ram sperm functionality.

    PubMed

    Losano, Jda; Angrimani, Dsr; Dalmazzo, A; Rui, B R; Brito, M M; Mendes, C M; Kawai, Gkv; Vannucchi, C I; Assumpção, Meoa; Barnabe, V H; Nichi, M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated the importance of mitochondria to sperm functionality, as the main source of ATP for cellular homoeostasis and motility. However, the role of mitochondria on sperm metabolism is still controversial. Studies indicate that, for some species, glycolysis may be the main mechanism for sperm energy production. For ram sperm, such pathway is not clear. Thus, we evaluated ram sperm in response to mitochondrial uncoupling and glycolysis inhibition aiming to assess the importance of each pathway for sperm functionality. Statistical analysis was performed by the SAS System for Windows, using the General Linear Model Procedure. Data were tested for residue normality and variance homogeneity. A p < .05 was considered significant. Groups treated with the mitochondrial uncoupler Carbonyl cyanide 3 chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) showed a decrease in the percentage of cells with low mitochondrial activity and high mitochondrial membrane potential. We also observed that the highest CCCP concentration promotes a decrease in sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Regardless the lack of effect of CCCP on total motility, this substance induced significant alterations on sperm kinetics. Besides the interference of CCCP on spermatic movement patterns, it was also possible to observe such an effect in samples treated with the inhibitor of glycolysis (2-deoxy-d-glucose, DOG). Furthermore, treatment with DOG also led to a dose-dependent increase in sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Based on our results, we suggest that the glycolysis appears to be as important as oxidative phosphorylation for ovine sperm kinetics as this mechanism is capable of maintaining full motility when most of the cells have a low mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, we found that changes in the glycolytic pathway trough glycolysis inhibition are likely involved in mitochondrial dysfunction and sperm oxidative unbalance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. A novel high-throughput assay for islet respiration reveals uncoupling of rodent and human islets.

    PubMed

    Wikstrom, Jakob D; Sereda, Samuel B; Stiles, Linsey; Elorza, Alvaro; Allister, Emma M; Neilson, Andy; Ferrick, David A; Wheeler, Michael B; Shirihai, Orian S

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell is unique in its response to nutrient by increased fuel oxidation. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) may be a valuable predictor of islet quality and long term nutrient responsiveness. To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this study was to develop such an assay and to examine bioenergetic efficiency of rodent and human islets. The XF24 respirometer platform was adapted to islets by the development of a 24-well plate specifically designed to confine islets. The islet plate generated data with low inter-well variability and enabled stable measurement of oxygen consumption for hours. The F1F0 ATP synthase blocker oligomycin was used to assess uncoupling while rotenone together with myxothiazol/antimycin was used to measure the level of non-mitochondrial respiration. The use of oligomycin in islets was validated by reversing its effect in the presence of the uncoupler FCCP. Respiratory leak averaged to 59% and 49% of basal OCR in islets from C57Bl6/J and FVB/N mice, respectively. In comparison, respiratory leak of INS-1 cells and C2C12 myotubes was measured to 38% and 23% respectively. Islets from a cohort of human donors showed a respiratory leak of 38%, significantly lower than mouse islets. The assay for islet respiration presented here provides a novel tool that can be used to study islet mitochondrial function in a relatively high-throughput manner. The data obtained in this study shows that rodent islets are less bioenergetically efficient than human islets as well as INS1 cells.

  11. Chimera states in a multilayer network of coupled and uncoupled neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-07-01

    We study the emergence of chimera states in a multilayer neuronal network, where one layer is composed of coupled and the other layer of uncoupled neurons. Through the multilayer structure, the layer with coupled neurons acts as the medium by means of which neurons in the uncoupled layer share information in spite of the absence of physical connections among them. Neurons in the coupled layer are connected with electrical synapses, while across the two layers, neurons are connected through chemical synapses. In both layers, the dynamics of each neuron is described by the Hindmarsh-Rose square wave bursting dynamics. We show that the presence of two different types of connecting synapses within and between the two layers, together with the multilayer network structure, plays a key role in the emergence of between-layer synchronous chimera states and patterns of synchronous clusters. In particular, we find that these chimera states can emerge in the coupled layer regardless of the range of electrical synapses. Even in all-to-all and nearest-neighbor coupling within the coupled layer, we observe qualitatively identical between-layer chimera states. Moreover, we show that the role of information transmission delay between the two layers must not be neglected, and we obtain precise parameter bounds at which chimera states can be observed. The expansion of the chimera region and annihilation of cluster and fully coherent states in the parameter plane for increasing values of inter-layer chemical synaptic time delay are illustrated using effective range measurements. These results are discussed in the light of neuronal evolution, where the coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics during the developmental stage is particularly likely.

  12. Prodigiosins uncouple lysosomal vacuolar-type ATPase through promotion of H+/Cl- symport.

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuma, S; Sato, T; Okamoto, M; Matsuya, H; Arai, K; Kataoka, T; Nagai, K; Wasserman, H H

    1998-01-01

    We reported previously [Kataoka, Muroi, Ohkuma, Waritani, Magae, Takatsuki, Kondo, Yamasaki and Nagai (1995) FEBS Lett. 359, 53-59] that prodigiosin 25-C (one of the red pigments of the prodigiosin group produced by micro-organisms like Streptomyces and Serratia) uncoupled vacuolar H+-ATPase, inhibited vacuolar acidification and affected glycoprotein processing. In the present study we show that prodigiosin, metacycloprodigiosin and prodigiosin 25-C, all raise intralysosomal pH through inhibition of lysosomal acidification driven by vacuolar-type (V-)ATPase without inhibiting ATP hydrolysis in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 30-120 pmol/mg of protein. The inhibition against lysosomal acidification was quick and reversible, showing kinetics of simple non-competitive (for ATP) inhibition. However, the prodigiosins neither raised the internal pH of isolated lysosomes nor showed ionophoric activity against H+ or K+ at concentrations where they strongly inhibited lysosomal acidification. They required Cl- for their acidification inhibitory activity even when driven in the presence of K+ and valinomycin, suggesting that their target is not anion (chloride) channel(s). In fact, the prodigiosins inhibited acidification of proteoliposomes devoid of anion channels that were reconstituted from lysosomal vacuolar-type (V-)ATPase and Escherichia coli phospholipids. However, they did not inhibit the formation of an inside-positive membrane potential driven by lysosomal V-ATPase. Instead, they caused quick reversal of acidified pH driven by lysosomal V-ATPase and, in acidic buffer, produced quick acidification of lysosomal pH, both only in the presence of Cl-. In addition, they induced swelling of liposomes and erythrocytes in iso-osmotic ammonium salt of chloride but not of gluconate, suggesting the promotion of Cl- entry by prodigiosins. These results suggest that prodigiosins facilitate the symport of H+ with Cl- (or exchange of OH- with Cl-) through lysosomal

  13. Salicylic Acid Is an Uncoupler and Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport1

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Christel; Howell, Katharine A.; Millar, A. Harvey; Whelan, James M.; Day, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of salicylic acid (SA) on respiration and mitochondrial function was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cell cultures in the range of 0.01 to 5 mm. Cells rapidly accumulated SA up to 10-fold of the externally applied concentrations. At the lower concentrations, SA accumulation was transitory. When applied at 0.1 mm or less, SA stimulated respiration of whole cells and isolated mitochondria in the absence of added ADP, indicating uncoupling of respiration. However, at higher concentrations, respiration was severely inhibited. Measurements of ubiquinone redox poise in isolated mitochondria suggested that SA blocked electron flow from the substrate dehydrogenases to the ubiquinone pool. This inhibition could be at least partially reversed by re-isolating the mitochondria. Two active analogs of SA, benzoic acid and acetyl-SA, had the same effect as SA on isolated tobacco mitochondria, whereas the inactive p-hydroxybenzoic acid was without effect at the same concentration. SA induced an increase in Aox protein levels in cell suspensions, and this was correlated with an increase in Aox1 transcript abundance. However, when applied at 0.1 mm, this induction was transient and disappeared as SA levels in the cells declined. SA at 0.1 mm also increased the expression of other SA-responsive genes, and this induction was dependent on active mitochondria. The results indicate that SA is both an uncoupler and an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport and suggest that this underlies the induction of some genes by SA. The possible implications of this for the interpretation of SA action in plants are discussed. PMID:14684840

  14. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged.

  15. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Kalindi; Parihar, Raminder; Goswami, Satindra K; Walsh, Melissa; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1) activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21) prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX) and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure triggers PKC-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of the mGluR1 leading to uncoupling of mGluR1 from its signaling components. Hence, blockade of excessive PKC activation may alleviate abnormalities in mGluR1 signaling and restores mGluR1-regulated brain functions in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains.

  16. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress, antioxidant levels and uncoupling protein expression in striped hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si-Si; Cao, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Dong; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-11-01

    According to the rate of living-free radical hypothesis, higher metabolic rates should increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the "uncoupling to survive" hypothesis postulates that uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can decrease ROS production by lowering the potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in which case the correlation between metabolic rate and ROS levels would be a negative rather than positive. In this study, we examined energy intake, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant activity and the expression of UCPs in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain, of striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either 5 °C or 32.5 °C. The energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 5 °C increased by 70.7%, whereas the energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 32.5 °C decreased by 31.3%, relative to hamsters kept at room temperature (21 °C) (P<0.05). Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in BAT significantly decreased in 5 °C group, but increased in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. Neither ROS levels (i.e. H2O2 levels), nor antioxidants in skeletal muscle, liver, heart or brain tissue, were affected by temperature. UCP1 expression in BAT was significantly up-regulated in 5 °C group, but down-regulated in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. UCP3 expression of skeletal muscle was also up-regulated significantly in hamsters acclimated to 5 °C. These results suggest that the relationship between ROS levels and metabolic rate was negative, rather than positive. UCP1 expression in BAT may have played a role in lowering ROS levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apoptosis-associated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption in osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the destruction of bone tissue in osteomyelitis are only now being elucidated. While some of the tissue damage associated with osteomyelitis likely results from the direct actions of bacteria and infiltrating leukocytes, perhaps exacerbated by bacterial manipulation of leukocyte survival pathways, infection-induced bone loss predominantly results from an uncoupling of the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bacteria or their products can directly increase osteoclast formation and activity, and the inflammatory milieu at sites of infection can further promote bone resorption. In addition, osteoclast activity is critically regulated by osteoblasts that can respond to bacterial pathogens and foster both inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, bone loss during osteomyelitis is also brought about by a decline in new bone deposition due to decreased bone matrix synthesis and by increased rates of osteoblast apoptosis. Extracellular bacterial components may be sufficient to reduce osteoblast viability, but the causative agents of osteomyelitis are also capable of inducing continuous apoptosis of these cells by activating intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways to further uncouple bone formation and resorption. Interestingly, bacterial internalization appears to be required for maximal osteoblast apoptosis, and cytosolic inflammasome activation may act in concert with autocrine/paracrine death receptor-ligand signaling to induce cell death. The manipulation of apoptotic pathways in infected bone cells could be an attractive new means to limit inflammatory damage in osteomyelitis. However, the mechanism that is the most important in bacterium-induced bone loss has not yet been identified. Furthermore, it remains to be determined whether the host would be best served by preventing osteoblast cell death or by promoting apoptosis in infected cells.

  18. Myosin VI undergoes a 180 degrees power stroke implying an uncoupling of the front lever arm.

    PubMed

    Reifenberger, Jeff G; Toprak, Erdal; Kim, Hyeongjun; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H Lee; Selvin, Paul R

    2009-10-27

    We simultaneously measure both the step size, via FIONA, and the 3-D orientation, via DOPI, of the light-chain domain of individual dimeric myosin VIs. This allows for the correlation of the change in orientation of the light chain domain to the stepping of the motor. Three different pairs of positions were tested using a rigid bifunctional rhodamine on the calmodulin of the IQ domain. The data for all three labeling positions support the model that the light chain domain undergoes a significant rotation of approximately 180 degrees . Contrary to an earlier study [Sun, Y. et al. (2007) Mol Cell 28, 954-964], our data does not support a model of multiple angles of the lever arm of the lead head, nor "wiggly" walking on actin. Instead, we propose that for the two heads of myosin VI to coordinate their processive movement, the lever arm of the lead head must be uncoupled from the converter until the rear head detaches. More specifically, intramolecular strain causes the myosin VI lever arm of the lead head to uncouple from the motor domain, allowing the motor domain to go through its product-release (phosphate and ADP) steps at an unstrained rate. The lever arm of the lead head rebinds to the motor and attains a rigor conformation when the rear head detaches. By coupling the orientation and position information with previously described kinetics, this allows us to explain how myosin VI coordinates its heads processively while maintaining the ability to move under load with a (semi-) rigid lever arm.

  19. Uncoupling the coupled calcium and zinc dyshomeostasis in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria seen in aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Kamalov, German; Ahokas, Robert A; Zhao, Wenyuan; Zhao, Tieqiang; Shahbaz, Atta U; Johnson, Patti L; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T

    2010-03-01

    Intracellular [Ca2+]i overloading in cardiomyocytes is a fundamental pathogenic event associated with chronic aldosterone/salt treatment (ALDOST) and accounts for an induction of oxidative stress that leads to necrotic cell death and consequent myocardial scarring. This prooxidant response to Ca2+ overloading in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria is intrinsically coupled to simultaneous increased Zn2+ entry serving as an antioxidant. Herein, we investigated whether Ca2+ and Zn2+ dyshomeostasis and prooxidant to antioxidant dysequilibrium seen at 4 weeks, the pathologic stage of ALDOST, could be uncoupled in favor of antioxidants, using cotreatment with a ZnSO4 supplement; pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a Zn2+ ionophore; or ZnSO4 in combination with amlodipine (Amlod), a Ca2+ channel blocker. We monitored and compared responses in cardiomyocyte free [Ca2+]i and [Zn2+]i together with biomarkers of oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria. At week 4 of ALDOST and compared with controls, we found (1) an elevation in [Ca2+]i coupled with [Zn2+]i and (2) increased mitochondrial H2O2 production and increased mitochondrial and cardiac 8-isoprostane levels. Cotreatment with the ZnSO4 supplement alone, PDTC, or ZnSO4+Amlod augmented the rise in cardiomyocyte [Zn2+]i beyond that seen with ALDOST alone, whereas attenuating the rise in [Ca2+]i, which together served to reduce oxidative stress. Thus, a coupled dyshomeostasis of intracellular Ca2+ and Zn2+ was demonstrated in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria during 4-week ALDOST, where prooxidants overwhelm antioxidant defenses. This intrinsically coupled Ca2+ and Zn2+ dyshomeostasis could be uncoupled in favor of antioxidant defenses by selectively increasing free [Zn2+]i and/or reducing [Ca2+]i using cotreatment with ZnSO4 or PDTC alone or ZnSO4+Amlod in combination.

  20. UNCOUPLING THE COUPLED CALCIUM AND ZINC DYSHOMEOSTASIS IN CARDIAC MYOCYTES AND MITOCHONDRIA SEEN IN ALDOSTERONISM

    PubMed Central

    Kamalov, German; Ahokas, Robert A.; Zhao, Wenyuan; Zhao, Tieqiang; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Johnson, Patti L.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.; Weber, Karl T.

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular [Ca2+]i overloading in cardiomyocytes is a fundamental pathogenic event associated with chronic aldosterone/salt treatment (ALDOST) and accounts for an induction of oxidative stress that leads to necrotic cell death and consequent myocardial scarring. This prooxidant response to Ca2+ overloading in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria is intrinsically coupled to simultaneous increased Zn2+ entry serving as an antioxidant. Herein, we investigated whether Ca2+ and Zn2+ dyshomeostasis and prooxidant:antioxidant dysequilibrium seen at 4 wks, the pathologic stage of ALDOST, could be uncoupled in favor of antioxidants, using cotreatment with a ZnSO4 supplement, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a Zn2+ ionophore, or ZnSO4 in combination with amlodipine (Amlod), a Ca2+ channel blocker. We monitored and compared responses in cardiomyocyte free [Ca2+]i and [Zn2+]i together with biomarkers of oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria. At wk 4 ALDOST and compared to controls, we found: i) an elevation in [Ca2+]i coupled with [Zn2+]i; and ii) increased mitochondrial H2O2 production, and increased mitochondrial and cardiac 8-isoprostane levels. Cotreatment with the ZnSO4 supplement alone, PDTC, or ZnSO4+Amlod augmented the rise in cardiomyocyte [Zn2+]i beyond that seen with ALDOST alone, while attenuating the rise in [Ca2+]i which together served to reduce oxidative stress. Thus, a coupled dyshomeostasis of intracellular Ca2+ and Zn2+ was demonstrated in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria during 4 wks ALDOST, where prooxidants overwhelm antioxidant defenses. This intrinsically coupled Ca2+ and Zn2+ dyshomeostasis could be uncoupled in favor of antioxidant defenses by selectively increasing free [Zn2+]i and/or reducing [Ca2+]i using cotreatment with ZnSO4 or PDTC alone or ZnSO4+Amlod in combination. PMID:20051880

  1. Apoptosis-associated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption in osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the destruction of bone tissue in osteomyelitis are only now being elucidated. While some of the tissue damage associated with osteomyelitis likely results from the direct actions of bacteria and infiltrating leukocytes, perhaps exacerbated by bacterial manipulation of leukocyte survival pathways, infection-induced bone loss predominantly results from an uncoupling of the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bacteria or their products can directly increase osteoclast formation and activity, and the inflammatory milieu at sites of infection can further promote bone resorption. In addition, osteoclast activity is critically regulated by osteoblasts that can respond to bacterial pathogens and foster both inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, bone loss during osteomyelitis is also brought about by a decline in new bone deposition due to decreased bone matrix synthesis and by increased rates of osteoblast apoptosis. Extracellular bacterial components may be sufficient to reduce osteoblast viability, but the causative agents of osteomyelitis are also capable of inducing continuous apoptosis of these cells by activating intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways to further uncouple bone formation and resorption. Interestingly, bacterial internalization appears to be required for maximal osteoblast apoptosis, and cytosolic inflammasome activation may act in concert with autocrine/paracrine death receptor-ligand signaling to induce cell death. The manipulation of apoptotic pathways in infected bone cells could be an attractive new means to limit inflammatory damage in osteomyelitis. However, the mechanism that is the most important in bacterium-induced bone loss has not yet been identified. Furthermore, it remains to be determined whether the host would be best served by preventing osteoblast cell death or by promoting apoptosis in infected cells. PMID:24392356

  2. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 induces cell cycle arrest and necrotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Arun P; Cheng, Gang; Sutter, Alton G; Evans, Zachary P; Polito, Carmen C; Jin, Lan; Liu, John; Schmidt, Michael G; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2014-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a mitochondrial membrane protein that regulates energy metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We generated mouse carboxy- and amino-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged UCP2 constructs to investigate the effect of UCP2 expression on cell proliferation and viability. UCP2-transfected Hepa 1-6 cells did not show reduced cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) but showed increased levels of glutathione. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that transfected cells were less proliferative than nontransfected controls, with most cells blocked at the G1 phase. The effect of UCP2 on cell cycle arrest could not be reversed by providing exogenous ATP or oxidant supply, and was not affected by the chemical uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). However, this effect of UCP2 was augmented by treatment with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which by itself did not affect cell proliferation on control hepatocytes. Western blotting analysis revealed decreased expression levels of CDK6 but not CDK2 and D-type cyclins. Examination of cell viability in UCP2-transfected cells with Trypan Blue and Annexin-V staining revealed that UCP2 transfection led to significantly increased cell death. However, characteristics of apoptosis were absent in UCP2-transfected Hepa 1-6 cells, including lack of oligonucleosomal fragmentation (laddering) of chromosomal DNA, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and cleavage of caspase-3. In conclusion, our results indicate that UCP2 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and causes nonapoptotic cell death, suggesting that UCP2 may act as a powerful influence on hepatic regeneration and cell death in the steatotic liver.

  3. Control of mitochondrial pH by uncoupling protein 4 in astrocytes promotes neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Perreten Lambert, Hélène; Zenger, Manuel; Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J; Lengacher, Sylvain

    2014-11-07

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival.

  4. Control of Mitochondrial pH by Uncoupling Protein 4 in Astrocytes Promotes Neuronal Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Perreten Lambert, Hélène; Zenger, Manuel; Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Lengacher, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival. PMID:25237189

  5. A long-linker conjugate of fluorescein and triphenylphosphonium as mitochondria-targeted uncoupler and fluorescent neuro- and nephroprotector.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Yuri N; Denisov, Stepan S; Silachev, Denis N; Khailova, Ljudmila S; Jankauskas, Stanislovas S; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Danilina, Tatyana I; Kotova, Elena A; Korshunova, Galina A; Plotnikov, Egor Y; Zorov, Dmitry B

    2016-11-01

    Limited uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is known to be beneficial in various laboratory models of diseases. Linking a triphenyl-phosphonium cation to fluorescein through a decyl (C10) spacer yields a fluorescent uncoupler, coined mitoFluo, that selectively accumulates in energized mitochondria (Denisov et al., Chem.Commun. 2014). Proton-transport activity of mitoFluo was tested in liposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin. To examine the uncoupling action on mitochondria, we monitored mitochondrial membrane potential in parallel with oxygen consumption. Neuro- and nephroprotecting activity was detected by a limb-placing test and a kidney ischemia/reperfusion protocol, respectively. We compared mitoFluo properties with those of its newly synthesized analog having a short (butyl) spacer (C4-mitoFluo). MitoFluo, but not C4-mitoFluo, caused collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in stimulation of mitochondrial respiration. The dramatic difference in the uncoupling activity of mitoFluo and C4-mitoFluo was in line with the difference in their protonophoric activity on a lipid membrane. The accumulation of mitoFluo in mitochondria was more pronounced than that of C4-mitoFluo. MitoFluo decreased the rate of ROS production in mitochondria. MitoFluo was effective in preventing consequences of brain trauma in rats: it suppressed trauma-induced brain swelling and reduced a neurological deficit. Besides, mitoFluo attenuated acute kidney injury after ischemia/reperfusion in rats. A long alkyl linker was proved mandatory for mitoFluo to be a mitochondria- targeted uncoupler. MitoFluo showed high protective efficacy in certain models of oxidative stress-related diseases. MitoFluo is a candidate for developing therapeutic and fluorescence imaging agents to treat brain and kidney pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Male mutation rates and the cost of sex for females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Rosemary J.

    1994-05-01

    ALTHOUGH we do not know why sex evolved, the twofold cost of meiosis for females provides a standard against which postulated benefits of sex can be evaluated1. The most reliable benefit is sex's ability to reduce the impact of deleterious mutations2,3. But deleterious mutations may themselves generate a large and previously overlooked female-specific cost of sex. DNA sequence comparisons have confirmed Haldane's suggestion that most mutations arise in the male germ line4,5; recent estimates of α, the ratio of male to female mutation rates, are ten, six and two in humans, primates and rodents, respectively6-8. Consequently, male gametes may give progeny more mutations than the associated sexual recombination eliminates. Here I describe computer simulations showing that the cost of male mutations can easily exceed the benefits of recombination, causing females to produce fitter progeny by parthenogenesis than by mating. The persistence of sexual reproduction by females thus becomes even more problematic.

  7. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival. However, long-term inhibition can lead to persistent reproductive dysfunction, even if no longer stressed. This response is mediated by the increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which orchestrate complex inhibition of the entire reproductive axis. Stress and glucocorticoids exhibits both central and peripheral inhibition of the reproductive hormonal axis. While this has long been recognized as an issue, understanding the complex signaling mechanism behind this inhibition remains somewhat of a mystery. What makes this especially difficult is attempting to differentiate the many parts of both of these hormonal axes, and new neuropeptide discoveries in the last decade in the reproductive field have added even more complexity to an already complicated system. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and other hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as well as contributors in the sympathetic system) can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at all levels-GCs can inhibit release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release in the pituitary, and inhibit testosterone synthesis and release from the gonads, while also influencing gametogenesis and sexual behavior. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of all the known literature, however is aimed at giving a brief look at both the central and peripheral effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive function.

  8. Genetic Counselors' Experiences Regarding Communication of Reproductive Risks with Autosomal Recessive Conditions found on Cancer Panels.

    PubMed

    Mets, Sarah; Tryon, Rebecca; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Zierhut, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    The development of hereditary cancer genetic testing panels has altered genetic counseling practice. Mutations within certain genes on cancer panels pose not only a cancer risk, but also a reproductive risk for autosomal recessive conditions such as Fanconi anemia, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia. This study aimed to determine if genetic counselors discuss reproductive risks for autosomal recessive conditions associated with genes included on cancer panels, and if so, under what circumstances these risks are discussed. An on-line survey was emailed through the NSGC list-serv. The survey assessed 189 cancer genetic counselors' experiences discussing reproductive risks with patients at risk to carry a mutation or variant of uncertain significance (VUS) in a gene associated with both an autosomal dominant cancer risk and an autosomal recessive syndrome. Over half (n = 82, 55 %) reported having discussed reproductive risks; the remainder (n = 66, 45 %) had not. Genetic counselors who reported discussing reproductive risks primarily did so when patients had a positive result and were of reproductive age. Reasons for not discussing these risks included when a patient had completed childbearing or when a VUS was identified. Most counselors discussed reproductive risk after obtaining results and not during the informed consent process. There is inconsistency as to if and when the discussion of reproductive risks is taking place. The wide variation in responses suggests a need to develop professional guidelines for when and how discussions of reproductive risk for autosomal recessive conditions identified through cancer panels should occur with patients.

  9. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  10. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  11. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  12. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction.

  13. Endocrine regulation of aging and reproduction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Janne M; Partridge, Linda

    2009-02-05

    Hormonal signals can modulate lifespan and reproductive capacity across the animal kingdom. The use of model organisms such as worms, flies and mice has been fundamentally important for aging research in the discovery of genetic alterations that can extend healthy lifespan. The effects of mutations in the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-like signaling (IIS) pathways are evolutionarily conserved in that they can increase lifespan in all three animal models. Additionally, steroids and other lipophilic signaling molecules modulate lifespan in diverse organisms. Here we shall review how major hormonal pathways in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster interact to influence reproductive capacity and aging.

  14. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as τseek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  15. Molecular analysis of heritable mouse mutations.

    PubMed

    Rinchik, E M

    1987-10-01

    Germ-line mutations of the mouse have for years comprised one class of biological markers for mammalian reproductive and developmental toxicology. Understanding the molecular nature of mutations and the mechanisms by which mutations are translated into specific (and often complex) phenotypes, however, still looms as a major goal of mammalian biology. Molecular genetic analysis of heritable mouse mutations constitutes a significant, experimentally malleable strategy for relating genomic DNA structure to genic expression and function in mammals. The integrated use of recombinant DNA technology, which allows both the identification and analysis of expression of single genes, and classical genetic and cytogenetic analysis, which allow the important correlation between basic DNA defects and the organismic consequences of such defects, has been crucial to this strategy. Some of the approaches (e.g., specific-gene cloning, random-clone analysis of genomic regions, insertional mutagenesis) for studying the nature and effect of both mutations and their wild-type counterparts that have resulted from this integration of genetic analysis and molecular biology have been applied to many loci within the murine genome. Studies of the nature and effects of a complex set of radiation-induced mutations at the dilute-short ear (d-se) region of chromosome 9, a specific example of this type of integrated analysis, are discussed.

  16. BRCA Mutations, DNA Repair Deficiency, and Ovarian Aging1

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Kutluk; Turan, Volkan; Titus, Shiny; Stobezki, Robert; Liu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Oocyte aging has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in reproductive success have not been fully addressed. BRCA is known to be involved in homologous DNA recombination and plays an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair. Given the growing body of laboratory and clinical evidence, we performed a systematic review on the current understanding of the role of DNA repair in human reproduction. We find that BRCA mutations negatively affect ovarian reserve based on convincing evidence from in vitro and in vivo results and prospective studies. Because decline in the function of the intact gene occurs at an earlier age, women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit accelerated ovarian aging, unlike those with BRCA2 mutations. However, because of the still robust function of the intact allele in younger women and because of the masking of most severe cases by prophylactic oophorectomy or cancer, it is less likely one would see an effect of BRCA mutations on fertility until later in reproductive age. The impact of BRCA2 mutations on reproductive function may be less visible because of the delayed decline in the function of normal BRCA2 allele. BRCA1 function and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA repair may also be important in the pathogenesis of age-induced increase in aneuploidy. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly, and cohesion function between sister chromatids is also regulated by ATM family member proteins. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the implication of BRCA and DNA repair malfunction in ovarian aging. PMID:26224004

  17. BRCA Mutations, DNA Repair Deficiency, and Ovarian Aging.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Kutluk; Turan, Volkan; Titus, Shiny; Stobezki, Robert; Liu, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Oocyte aging has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in reproductive success have not been fully addressed. BRCA is known to be involved in homologous DNA recombination and plays an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair. Given the growing body of laboratory and clinical evidence, we performed a systematic review on the current understanding of the role of DNA repair in human reproduction. We find that BRCA mutations negatively affect ovarian reserve based on convincing evidence from in vitro and in vivo results and prospective studies. Because decline in the function of the intact gene occurs at an earlier age, women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit accelerated ovarian aging, unlike those with BRCA2 mutations. However, because of the still robust function of the intact allele in younger women and because of the masking of most severe cases by prophylactic oophorectomy or cancer, it is less likely one would see an effect of BRCA mutations on fertility until later in reproductive age. The impact of BRCA2 mutations on reproductive function may be less visible because of the delayed decline in the function of normal BRCA2 allele. BRCA1 function and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA repair may also be important in the pathogenesis of age-induced increase in aneuploidy. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly, and cohesion function between sister chromatids is also regulated by ATM family member proteins. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the implication of BRCA and DNA repair malfunction in ovarian aging.

  18. Biofluidmechanics of Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Lisa J.; Dillon, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian fertilization requires the coordinated activity of motile spermatozoa, muscular contractions of the uterus and oviduct, as well as ciliary beating. These elastic structures generate forces that drive fluid motion, but their configurations are, in turn, determined by the fluid dynamics. We review the basic fluid mechanical aspects of reproduction, including flagellar/ciliary beating and peristalsis. We report on recent biological studies that have shed light on the relative importance of the mechanical ingredients of reproduction. In particular, we examine sperm motility in the reproductive tract, ovum pickup and transport in the oviduct, as well as sperm-egg interactions. We review recent advances in understanding the internal mechanics of cilia and flagella, flagellar surface interaction, sperm motility in complex fluids, and the role of fluid dynamics in embryo transfer. We outline promising computational fluid dynamics frameworks that may be used to investigate these complex, fluid-structure interactions.

  19. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  20. Biotechnology in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, Karl

    2002-01-01

    In this review I am summarizing the past and current progress in the field of pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and reproductive cloning in mammals. Several human gene products can be pharmaceutically explored in transgenic farm animals and employed for medical applications. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is utilizing modern molecular cloning techniques to detect genetic and chromosomal aberrations in early embryos originating from patients with inborn errors at risk for hereditary diseases or age-related risk for abnormal karyotype. Stem cell engineering from early human embryos is creating new and promising but also controversial applications for therapeutic and regenerative medicine. Potential risk factors for reproductive cloning are presented and discussed in the context of possible developmental malformations, frequently observed after embryo culture and cloning in farm animals. Future extension of biotechnology to human reproductive cloning is currently under worldwide dispute.

  1. Rethinking progesterone regulation of female reproductive cyclicity

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kaiyu; Cui, Wei; Dhakal, Pramod; Wolfe, Michael W.; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Vivian, Jay L.; Roby, Katherine F.; Soares, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PGR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with key roles in the regulation of female fertility. Much has been learned of the actions of PGR signaling through the use of pharmacologic inhibitors and genetic manipulation, using mouse mutagenesis. Characterization of rats with a null mutation at the Pgr locus has forced a reexamination of the role of progesterone in the regulation of the female reproductive cycle. We generated two Pgr mutant rat models, using genome editing. In both cases, deletions yielded a null mutation resulting from a nonsense frame-shift and the emergence of a stop codon. Similar to Pgr null mice, Pgr null rats were infertile because of deficits in sexual behavior, ovulation, and uterine endometrial differentiation. However, in contrast to the reported phenotype of female mice with disruptions in Pgr signaling, Pgr null female rats exhibit robust estrous cycles. Cyclic changes in vaginal cytology, uterine histology, serum hormone levels, and wheel running activity were evident in Pgr null female rats, similar to wild-type controls. Furthermore, exogenous progesterone treatment inhibited estrous cycles in wild-type female rats but not in Pgr-null female rats. As previously reported, pharmacologic antagonism supports a role for PGR signaling in the regulation of the ovulatory gonadotropin surge, a result at variance with experimentation using genetic ablation of PGR signaling. To conclude, our findings in the Pgr null rat challenge current assumptions and prompt a reevaluation of the hormonal control of reproductive cyclicity. PMID:27035990

  2. Rethinking progesterone regulation of female reproductive cyclicity.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kaiyu; Cui, Wei; Dhakal, Pramod; Wolfe, Michael W; Rumi, M A Karim; Vivian, Jay L; Roby, Katherine F; Soares, Michael J

    2016-04-12

    The progesterone receptor (PGR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with key roles in the regulation of female fertility. Much has been learned of the actions of PGR signaling through the use of pharmacologic inhibitors and genetic manipulation, using mouse mutagenesis. Characterization of rats with a null mutation at the Pgr locus has forced a reexamination of the role of progesterone in the regulation of the female reproductive cycle. We generated two Pgr mutant rat models, using genome editing. In both cases, deletions yielded a null mutation resulting from a nonsense frame-shift and the emergence of a stop codon. Similar to Pgr null mice, Pgr null rats were infertile because of deficits in sexual behavior, ovulation, and uterine endometrial differentiation. However, in contrast to the reported phenotype of female mice with disruptions in Pgr signaling, Pgr null female rats exhibit robust estrous cycles. Cyclic changes in vaginal cytology, uterine histology, serum hormone levels, and wheel running activity were evident in Pgr null female rats, similar to wild-type controls. Furthermore, exogenous progesterone treatment inhibited estrous cycles in wild-type female rats but not in Pgr-null female rats. As previously reported, pharmacologic antagonism supports a role for PGR signaling in the regulation of the ovulatory gonadotropin surge, a result at variance with experimentation using genetic ablation of PGR signaling. To conclude, our findings in the Pgr null rat challenge current assumptions and prompt a reevaluation of the hormonal control of reproductive cyclicity.

  3. Methylxanthines and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alba; Bellezza, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction is the process by which organisms create descendants. In human reproduction, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. Sperm, the male gamete, and egg egg , or ovum ovum Vedi egg , the female gamete, must meet in the female reproductive system to create a new individual and both the female and the male reproductive systems are essential to the occurrence of reproduction. Scientific reports dealing with the effects of methylxanthines on reproduction are mostly centred on the use of these compounds as phosphodiesterase inhibitors that, by maintaining high intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) cyclic AMP , will affect the gametes differently. High cAMP levels will sustain sperm sperm maturation while they hold the oocytes in mitotic arrest. Caffeine caffeine , being the methylxanthine most widely consumed by every segment of the population, has been the subject of greatest interest among health professionals and researchers. Conflicting results still seem to characterize the association between male/female caffeine caffeine consumption in adult life and semen quality/fertility fertility , although moderate daily caffeine consumption of levels up to 400-450 mg/day (5.7-6.4 mg/kg/day in a 70-kg adult) do not seem to be associated with adverse effects, i.e. general toxicity, effects on bone status and calcium balance, cardiovascular effects, behavioural changes, increased incidence of cancer, or effects on male fertility. A clear stimulation of egg-laying by the coffee leaf pest Leucoptera coffeella was recently reported, providing support for the hypothesis that caffeine, in a dose-dependent way, in insects stimulates egg-laying, thus leading to the death of coffee trees.

  4. Reproductive rights under attack.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, K

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, funding groups, and donor countries must all be lobbied with the message that sexual and reproductive health issues are inextricably linked to women in development, education, and future economic strength of nations worldwide. In the Beijing Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum the draft Plan of Action had 35% of its language bracketed and subject to negotiation in Beijing. The previous International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo had only 15% of its language bracketed. Much of the language bracketed for Beijing had already been fully agreed upon before the Cairo conference. The bracketed language was in the health and human rights sections, and most of the language pertained to sexual and reproductive health. The increase in controversy is due to an opposition better organized in Beijing than it had been in Cairo, due to the opposition's failure to recognize the implications of the Cairo declarations on women, men, and children, and due to the opposition's general intolerance of sexual and reproductive issues. The major factor, however, was the linking of women's rights with sexual and reproductive health issues. Family planners joined with women's rights groups, which had always promoted women's control over their bodies as the cornerstone of equality. This connection was interpreted as a threat to the social order by conservative societies. NGO participants included 1400 people representing 170 countries. The NGO anti-abortion contingent was well-funded, well-organized, and large. Lobbying was conducted in an effort to convince people to oppose any language pertaining to gender, sexual and reproductive health, and adolescent rights. Anti-abortion lobbyists also rifled through documents of pro-choice participants. In Canada and the United States anti-abortion groups are lobbying hard to overturn the Cairo Plan of Action and to expand their efforts internationally among

  5. Complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence of cDNA encoding the mitochondrial uncoupling protein of rat brown adipose tissue: lack of a mitochondrial targeting presequence.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, R G; Patel, H V; Gerber, G E; Morton, R C; Freeman, K B

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA clone spanning the entire amino acid sequence of the nuclear-encoded uncoupling protein of rat brown adipose tissue mitochondria has been isolated and sequenced. With the exception of the N-terminal methionine the deduced N-terminus of the newly synthesized uncoupling protein is identical to the N-terminal 30 amino acids of the native uncoupling protein as determined by protein sequencing. This proves that the protein contains no N-terminal mitochondrial targeting prepiece and that a targeting region must reside within the amino acid sequence of the mature protein. Images PMID:3012461

  6. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Julie; Patel, Sejal Dharia; Falcone, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, robotic technology has been increasingly incorporated into various industries, including surgery and medicine. This chapter will review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology in reproductive medicine. A literature search was performed for all publications regarding robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, and its role in both surgical education and telepresence surgery. As robotic assisted surgery has emerged, this technology provides a feasible option for minimally invasive surgery, impacts surgical education, and plays a role in telepresence surgery.

  7. Feminism and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Joan C

    1994-01-01

    ... Rowland is a social scientist and a radical feminist, and she has undertaken the task of making readers think twice about reproductive technologies. If a reader isn't thinking twice, it will not do to blame it on Rowland and the shortcomings of her book. She has a good deal to say that is extremely important and that needs to be considered by anyone who is interested in the moral issues, in general, and the issues for women and children, in particular, that are raised by the new and emerging reproductive technologies. Her book should be widely read. And it should generate the worries it is written to generate.

  8. Analysis of variation for apomictic reproduction in diploid Paspalum rufum

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Luciana; Galdeano, Florencia; Sartor, María E.; Quarin, Camilo L.; Espinoza, Francisco; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The diploid cytotype of Paspalum rufum (Poaceae) reproduces sexually and is self-sterile; however, recurrent autopolyploidization through 2n + n fertilization and the ability for reproduction via apomixis have been documented in one genotype of the species. The objectives of this work were to analyse the variation in the functionality of apomixis components in diploid genotypes of P. rufum and to identify individuals with contrasting reproductive behaviours. Methods Samples of five individuals from each of three natural populations of P. rufum (designated R2, R5 and R6) were used. Seeds were obtained after open pollination, selfing, conspecific interploidy crosses and interspecific interploidy self-pollination induction. The reproductive behaviour of each plant was determined by using the flow cytometric seed screen (FCSS) method. Embryo sacs were cleared using a series of ethanol and methyl salicylate solutions and observed microscopically. Key Results In open pollination, all genotypes formed seeds by sexual means and no evidence of apomeiotic reproduction was detected. However, in conspecific interploidy crosses and interspecific interploidy self-pollination induction, variations in the reproductive pathways were observed. While all plants from populations R2 and R6 formed seeds exclusively by sexual means, three genotypes from the R5 population developed seeds from both meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs, and one of them (R5#49) through the complete apomictic pathway (apospory + parthenogenesis + pseudogamy). Cytoembryological observations revealed the presence of both meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs in all the genotypes analysed, suggesting that parthenogenesis could be uncoupled from apospory in some genotypes. Conclusions The results presented demonstrate the existence of variation in the functionality of apomixis components in natural diploid genotypes of P. rufum and have identified individuals with contrasting reproductive

  9. Analysis of variation for apomictic reproduction in diploid Paspalum rufum.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Luciana; Galdeano, Florencia; Sartor, María E; Quarin, Camilo L; Espinoza, Francisco; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A

    2014-06-01

    The diploid cytotype of Paspalum rufum (Poaceae) reproduces sexually and is self-sterile; however, recurrent autopolyploidization through 2n + n fertilization and the ability for reproduction via apomixis have been documented in one genotype of the species. The objectives of this work were to analyse the variation in the functionality of apomixis components in diploid genotypes of P. rufum and to identify individuals with contrasting reproductive behaviours. Samples of five individuals from each of three natural populations of P. rufum (designated R2, R5 and R6) were used. Seeds were obtained after open pollination, selfing, conspecific interploidy crosses and interspecific interploidy self-pollination induction. The reproductive behaviour of each plant was determined by using the flow cytometric seed screen (FCSS) method. Embryo sacs were cleared using a series of ethanol and methyl salicylate solutions and observed microscopically. In open pollination, all genotypes formed seeds by sexual means and no evidence of apomeiotic reproduction was detected. However, in conspecific interploidy crosses and interspecific interploidy self-pollination induction, variations in the reproductive pathways were observed. While all plants from populations R2 and R6 formed seeds exclusively by sexual means, three genotypes from the R5 population developed seeds from both meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs, and one of them (R5#49) through the complete apomictic pathway (apospory + parthenogenesis + pseudogamy). Cytoembryological observations revealed the presence of both meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs in all the genotypes analysed, suggesting that parthenogenesis could be uncoupled from apospory in some genotypes. The results presented demonstrate the existence of variation in the functionality of apomixis components in natural diploid genotypes of P. rufum and have identified individuals with contrasting reproductive behaviours. Genotypes identified here can be crossed to

  10. A Perspective on the Importance of Reproductive Mode in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doninck, Karine; Schön, Isa; Martens, Koen

    2003-12-01

    Reproduction is a vital characteristic of life, and sex is the most common reproductive mode in the eukaryotic world. Sex and reproduction are not necessarily linked mechanisms: Sexuality without reproduction exists, while several forms of asexual reproduction are known. The occurrence of sexuality itself is paradoxical, as it is very costly in evolutionary terms. Most of the hypotheses (more than 20) attempting to explain the prevalence of sex fall into two categories: Sex either creates good gene combinations for adaptation to environments or eliminates bad gene combinations counteracting the accumulation of mutations. In spite of this apparent wealth of beneficial effects of sex, asexuality is not rare. Most eukaryotic, asexual lineages are short-lived and can only persist through the presence of sexual roots, but at least two animal groups, bdelloid rotifers and darwinulid ostracods, seem to claim the status of ancient asexuals. Research on (a)sexuality is relevant to astrobiology in a number of ways. First, strong relationships between the origin and persistence of life in extreme environments and reproductive mode are known. Second, the "habitability" of nonterrestrial environments to life greatly depends on reproductive mode. Whereas asexuals can do equally well or better in harsh environments, they fail to adapt fast enough to changing abiotic and biotic environments. Third, it has been shown that plants reproduce mainly asexually in space, and sperm production and motility in some vertebrates are hampered. Both findings indicate that extraterrestrial life under conditions different from Earth might be dominated by asexual reproduction. Finally, for exchange of biological material between planets, the choice of reproductive mode will be important.

  11. A perspective on the importance of reproductive mode in astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Van Doninck, Karine; Schön, Isa; Martens, Koen

    2003-01-01

    Reproduction is a vital characteristic of life, and sex is the most common reproductive mode in the eukaryotic world. Sex and reproduction are not necessarily linked mechanisms: Sexuality without reproduction exists, while several forms of asexual reproduction are known. The occurrence of sexuality itself is paradoxical, as it is very costly in evolutionary terms. Most of the hypotheses (more than 20) attempting to explain the prevalence of sex fall into two categories: Sex either creates good gene combinations for adaptation to environments or eliminates bad gene combinations counteracting the accumulation of mutations. In spite of this apparent wealth of beneficial effects of sex, asexuality is not rare. Most eukaryotic, asexual lineages are short-lived and can only persist through the presence of sexual roots, but at least two animal groups, bdelloid rotifers and darwinulid ostracods, seem to claim the status of ancient asexuals. Research on (a)sexuality is relevant to astrobiology in a number of ways. First, strong relationships between the origin and persistence of life in extreme environments and reproductive mode are known. Second, the "habitability" of nonterrestrial environments to life greatly depends on reproductive mode. Whereas asexuals can do equally well or better in harsh environments, they fail to adapt fast enough to changing abiotic and biotic environments. Third, it has been shown that plants reproduce mainly asexually in space, and sperm production and motility in some vertebrates are hampered. Both findings indicate that extraterrestrial life under conditions different from Earth might be dominated by asexual reproduction. Finally, for exchange of biological material between planets, the choice of reproductive mode will be important.

  12. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line.

  13. Benzene-Induced Uncoupling of Naphthalene Dioxygenase Activity and Enzyme Inactivation by Production of Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung

    1999-01-01

    Naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) is a multicomponent enzyme system that oxidizes naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene with consumption of O2 and two electrons from NAD(P)H. In the presence of benzene, NADH oxidation and O2 utilization were partially uncoupled from substrate oxidation. Approximately 40 to 50% of the consumed O2 was detected as hydrogen peroxide. The rate of benzene-dependent O2 consumption decreased with time, but it was partially increased by the addition of catalase in the course of the O2 consumption by NDO. Detailed experiments showed that the total amount of O2 consumed and the rate of benzene-induced O2 consumption increased in the presence of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging agents, and further addition of the terminal oxygenase component (ISPNAP) of NDO. Kinetic studies showed that ISPNAP was irreversibly inactivated in the reaction that contained benzene, but the inactivation was relieved to a high degree in the presence of catalase and partially relieved in the presence of 0.1 mM ferrous ion. Benzene- and naphthalene-reacted ISPNAP gave almost identical visible absorption spectra. In addition, hydrogen peroxide added at a range of 0.1 to 0.6 mM to the reaction mixtures inactivated the reduced ISPNAP containing mononuclear iron. These results show that hydrogen peroxide released during the uncoupling reaction acts both as an inhibitor of benzene-dependent O2 consumption and as an inactivator of ISPNAP. It is proposed that the irreversible inactivation of ISPNAP occurs by a Fenton-type reaction which forms a strong oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radicals (·OH), from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferrous mononuclear iron at the active site. Furthermore, when [14C]benzene was used as the substrate, cis-benzene 1,2-dihydrodiol formed by NDO was detected. This result shows that NDO also couples a trace amount of benzene to both O2 consumption and NADH oxidation. PMID:10217759

  14. A novel amino acid and metabolomics signature in mice overexpressing muscle uncoupling protein 3.

    PubMed

    Aguer, Céline; Piccolo, Brian D; Fiehn, Oliver; Adams, Sean H; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly selectively expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle and whole-body metabolism have not been extensively studied. We utilized untargeted metabolomics to identify novel metabolites that distinguish mice overexpressing UCP3 in muscle, both at rest and after exercise regimens that challenged muscle metabolism, to potentially unmask subtle phenotypes. Male wild-type (WT) and muscle-specific UCP3-overexpressing transgenic (UCP3 Tg) C57BL/6J mice were compared with or without a 5 wk endurance training protocol at rest or after an acute exercise bout (EB). Skeletal muscle, liver, and plasma samples were analyzed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Discriminant metabolites were considered if within the top 99th percentile of variable importance measurements obtained from partial least-squares discriminant analysis models. A total of 80 metabolites accurately discriminated UCP3 Tg mice from WT when modeled within a specific exercise condition (i.e., untrained/rested, endurance trained/rested, untrained/EB, and endurance trained/EB). Results revealed that several amino acids and amino acid derivatives in skeletal muscle and plasma of UCP3 Tg mice (e.g., Asp, Glu, Lys, Tyr, Ser, Met) were significantly reduced after an EB; that metabolites associated with skeletal muscle glutathione/Met/Cys metabolism (2-hydroxybutanoic acid, oxoproline, Gly, and Glu) were altered in UCP3 Tg mice across all training and exercise conditions; and that muscle metabolite indices of dehydrogenase activity were increased in UCP3 Tg mice, suggestive of a shift in tissue NADH/NAD(+) ratio. The results indicate that mitochondrial UCP3 activity affects metabolism well beyond fatty acid oxidation, regulating biochemical pathways associated with amino acid metabolism and redox status. That select

  15. MicroRNA-133a-1 regulates inflammasome activation through uncoupling protein-2.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sayantani; Lane, Troy; Venugopal, Rajanbabu; Parthasarathy, Prasanna Tamarapu; Cho, Young; Galam, Lakshmi; Lockey, Richard; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2013-09-27

    Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes involved in the processing of IL-1β through Caspase-1 cleavage. NLRP3 is the most widely studied inflammasome, which has been shown to respond to a large number of both endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Although studies have begun to define basic pathways for the activation of inflammasome and have been instrumental in identifying therapeutics for inflammasome related disorders; understanding the inflammasome activation at the molecular level is still incomplete. Recent functional studies indicate that microRNAs (miRs) regulate molecular pathways and can lead to diseased states when hampered or overexpressed. Mechanisms involving the miRNA regulatory network in the activation of inflammasome and IL-1β processing is yet unknown. This report investigates the involvement of miR-133a-1 in the activation of inflammasome (NLRP3) and IL-1β production. miR-133a-1 is known to target the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). The role of UCP2 in inflammasome activation has remained elusive. To understand the role of miR-133a-1 in regulating inflammasome activation, we either overexpressed or suppressed miR-133a-1 in differentiated THP1 cells that express the NLRP3 inflammasome. Levels of Caspase-1 and IL-1β were analyzed by Western blot analysis. For the first time, we showed that overexpression of miR-133a-1 increases Caspase-1 p10 and IL-1β p17 cleavage, concurrently suppressing mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Surprisingly, our results demonstrated that miR-133A-1 controls inflammasome activation without affecting the basal expression of the individual inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC or its immediate downstream targets proIL-1β and pro-Caspase-1. To confirm the involvement of UCP2 in the regulation of inflammasome activation, Caspase-1 p10 and IL-1β p17 cleavage in UCP2 of overexpressed and silenced THP1 cells were studied. Suppression of UCP2 by siRNA enhanced the inflammasome activity stimulated

  16. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Grinkova, Yelena V; Denisov, Ilia G; McLean, Mark A; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-01-25

    The normal reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450 operates by utilizing two reducing equivalents to reduce atmospheric dioxygen, producing one molecule of water and an oxygenated product in an overall stoichiometry of 2 electrons:1 dioxygen:1 product. However, three alternate unproductive pathways exist where the intermediate iron-oxygen states in the catalytic cycle can yield reduced oxygen products without substrate metabolism. The first involves release of superoxide from the oxygenated intermediate while the second occurs after input of the second reducing equivalent. Superoxide rapidly dismutates and hence both processes produce hydrogen peroxide that can be cytotoxic to the organism. In both cases, the formation of hydrogen peroxide involves the same overall stoichiometry as oxygenases catalysis. The key step in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 involves scission of the oxygen-oxygen bond of atmospheric dioxygen to produce a higher valent iron-oxo state termed "Compound I". This intermediate initiates a radical reaction in the oxygenase pathway but also can uptake two additional reducing equivalents from reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) and the flavoprotein reductase to produce a second molecule of water. This non-productive decay of Compound I thus yields an overall oxygen to NADPH ratio of 1:2 and does not produce hydrocarbon oxidation. This water uncoupling reaction provides one of a limited means to study the reactivity of the critical Compound I intermediate in P450 catalysis. We measured simultaneously the rates of NADPH and oxygen consumption as a function of substrate concentration during the steady-state hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by human P450 CYP3A4 reconstituted in Nanodiscs. We discovered that the "oxidase" uncoupling pathway is also operating in the substrate free form of the enzyme with rate of this pathway substantially increasing with the first substrate binding event. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the reducing

  17. MicroRNA-133a-1 regulates inflammasome activation through uncoupling protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Sayantani; Lane, Troy; Venugopal, Rajanbabu; Parthasarathy, Prasanna Tamarapu; Cho, Young; Galam, Lakshmi; Lockey, Richard; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2013-01-01

    Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes involved in the processing of IL-1β through Caspase-1 cleavage. NLRP3 is the most widely studied inflammasome, which has been shown to respond to a large number of both endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Although studies have begun to define basic pathways for the activation of inflammasome and have been instrumental in identifying therapeutics for inflammasome related disorders; understanding the inflammasome activation at the molecular level is still incomplete. Recent functional studies indicate that microRNAs (miRs) regulate molecular pathways and can lead to diseased states when hampered or overexpressed. Mechanisms involving the miRNA regulatory network in the activation of inflammasome and IL-1β processing is yet unknown. This report investigates the involvement of miR-133a-1 in the activation of inflammasome (NLRP3) and IL-1β production. miR-133a-1 is known to target the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). The role of UCP2 in inflammasome activation has remained elusive. To understand the role of miR-133a-1 in regulating inflammasome activation, we either overexpressed or suppressed miR-133a-1 in differentiated THP1 cells that express the NLRP3 inflammasome. Levels of Caspase-1 and IL-1β were analyzed by Western blot analysis. For the first time, we showed that overexpression of miR-133a-1 increases Caspase-1 p10 and IL-1β p17 cleavage, concurrently suppressing mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Surprisingly, our results demonstrated that miR-133A-1 controls inflammasome activation without affecting the basal expression of the individual inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC or its immediate downstream targets proIL-1β and pro-Caspase-1. To confirm the involvement of UCP2 in the regulation of inflammasome activation, Caspase-1 p10 and IL-1β p17 cleavage in UCP2 of overexpressed and silenced THP1 cells were studied. Suppression of UCP2 by siRNA enhanced the inflammasome activity stimulated

  18. Parental Age Affects Somatic Mutation Rates in the Progeny of Flowering Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  19. Nonequilibrium model for estimating parameters of deleterious mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordo, Isabel; Dionisio, Francisco

    2005-03-01

    Deleterious mutations are of extreme evolutionary importance because, even though they are eliminated by natural selection, their continuous pressure creates a pool of variability in natural populations. They are of potential relevance for the existence of several features in evolution, such as sexual reproduction, and pose a risk to small asexual populations. Despite their extreme importance, the deleterious mutation rate and the effects of each mutation on fitness are poorly known quantities. Here we analyze a simple model that can be applied to simple experiments, in microorganisms, aiming at the quantification of these values.

  20. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  1. Reproductive Market Values Explain Post-reproductive Lifespans in Men.

    PubMed

    Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-03-01

    Post-reproductive lifespans (PRLSs) of men vary across traditional societies. We argue that if sexual selection operates on male age-dependent resource availability (or 'reproductive market values') the result is variation in male late-life reproduction across subsistence systems. This perspective highlights the uniqueness of PRLS in both women and men.

  2. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  3. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Understanding plant reproductive diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Flowering plants display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous plants. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns that are evident within lineages. Here, I provide some personal reflections on recent progress in our understanding of the ecology and evolution of plant reproductive diversity. I begin with a brief historical sketch of the major developments in this field and then focus on three of the most significant evolutionary transitions in the reproductive biology of flowering plants: the pathway from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization, the origin of separate sexes (females and males) from hermaphroditism and the shift from animal pollination to wind pollination. For each evolutionary transition, I consider what we have discovered and some of the problems that still remain unsolved. I conclude by discussing how new approaches might influence future research in plant reproductive biology. PMID:20008389

  5. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  6. Telomeres and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Keri Horan; Fontes Antunes, Danielle Mota; Dracxler, Roberta Caetano; Knier, Taylor Warner; Seth-Smith, Michelle Louise; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres mediate biologic aging in organisms as diverse as plants, yeast, and mammals. We propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging that posits telomere shortening in the female germ line as the primary driver of reproductive aging in women. Experimental shortening of telomeres in mice, which normally do not exhibit appreciable oocyte aging, and which have exceptionally long telomeres, recapitulates the aging phenotype of human oocytes. Telomere shortening in mice reduces synapsis and chiasmata, increases embryo fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, spindle dysmorphologies, and chromosome abnormalities. Telomeres are shorter in the oocytes from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, who then produce fragmented, aneuploid embryos that fail to implant. In contrast, the testes are replete with spermatogonia that can rejuvenate telomere reserves throughout the life of the man by expressing telomerase. Differences in telomere dynamics across the life span of men and women may have evolved because of the difference in the inherent risks of aging on reproduction between men and women. Additionally, growing evidence links altered telomere biology to endometriosis and gynecologic cancers, thus future studies should examine the role of telomeres in pathologies of the reproductive tract.

  7. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  8. Male Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  9. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations and rigid body (TLS) analysis of aspartate carbamoyltransferase: evidence for an uncoupled R state.

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, J. J.; Smith, P. E.; Krause, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    In the R form of ATCase complexed with the bisubstrate analogue, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate, large temperature factors are reported for the allosteric domains of the regulatory chains. We studied the conformational flexibility of the holoenzyme with molecular dynamics simulations and rigid body (TLS) analysis. The results of the molecular dynamics simulations suggest that, although local atomic fluctuations account for the temperature factors of the catalytic and zinc domains, they do not account for the large temperature factors of the allosteric regions. However, the temperature factors of the allosteric domains can be satisfactorily analyzed using a rigid body model. The simulations and rigid body analysis support the idea that the allosteric regions are mechanically uncoupled from the rest of the enzyme in the PALA structure. Implications of this uncoupling for allosteric regulation are discussed. PMID:8318897

  11. Solving Modal Equations of Motion with Initial Conditions Using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP. Part 2; Coupled Versus Uncoupled Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Ibrahim, Omar M.; Abdallah, Ayman A.; Sullivan, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    By utilizing MSC/NASTRAN DMAP (Direct Matrix Abstraction Program) in an existing NASA Lewis Research Center coupled loads methodology, solving modal equations of motion with initial conditions is possible using either coupled (Newmark-Beta) or uncoupled (exact mode superposition) integration available within module TRD1. Both the coupled and newly developed exact mode superposition methods have been used to perform transient analyses of various space systems. However, experience has shown that in most cases, significant time savings are realized when the equations of motion are integrated using the uncoupled solver instead of the coupled solver. Through the results of a real-world engineering analysis, advantages of using the exact mode superposition methodology are illustrated.

  12. Herba Cistanche extract enhances mitochondrial glutathione status and respiration in rat hearts, with possible induction of uncoupling proteins.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ada Hoi-Ling; Ko, Kam Ming

    2010-05-01

    Herba Cistanche, a Chinese herb derived from the whole plant of Cistanche deserticola Y.C. Ma (Orobanchaceae), has been shown to enhance mitochondrial ATP generation and to protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury ex vivo in rats. To define the role of mitochondria in the cardioprotective action of Herba Cistanche, we investigated the effect of Herba Cistanche treatment on mitochondrial glutathione status and functional parameters in rat hearts. Treatment with a methanol extract of Herba Cistanche enhanced mitochondrial glutathione status, decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) content, and increased mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, an increase in State 4 respiration, indicative of uncoupled respiration, was observed in mitochondria isolated from Herba Cistanche-treated rat hearts. The enhancement of mitochondrial glutathione status and functional ability, as well as the putative induction of uncoupling proteins, may be related to cardioprotection afforded by Herba Cistanche treatment protecting against I/R injury.

  13. Solving modal equations of motion with initial conditions using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP. Part 2: Coupled versus uncoupled integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Ibrahim, Omar M.; Abdallah, Ayman A.; Sullivan, Timothy L.

    1993-05-01

    By utilizing MSC/NASTRAN DMAP (Direct Matrix Abstraction Program) in an existing NASA Lewis Research Center coupled loads methodology, solving modal equations of motion with initial conditions is possible using either coupled (Newmark-Beta) or uncoupled (exact mode superposition) integration available within module TRD1. Both the coupled and newly developed exact mode superposition methods have been used to perform transient analyses of various space systems. However, experience has shown that in most cases, significant time savings are realized when the equations of motion are integrated using the uncoupled solver instead of the coupled solver. Through the results of a real-world engineering analysis, advantages of using the exact mode superposition methodology are illustrated.

  14. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants and Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Treatment of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Vlada V; Pletjushkina, Olga Yu; Zinovkin, Roman A; Popova, Ekaterina N; Chernyak, Boris V

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) development is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive ROS production. Mitochondrial dysfunctions also occur in many SIRS-related diseases and may be critical for their pathogenesis; therefore, a use of mitochondria-targeted drugs is a promising trend in SIRS research and therapy. Here, we review recent studies concerning the application of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in animal models of SIRS and related diseases. We propose that a new class of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, lipophilic cations could be a base for a new generation of drugs for SIRS treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 904-912, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Uncoupling effect of palmitate is exacerbated in skeletal muscle mitochondria of sea-acclimatized king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins. Mitochondria exhibited much greater palmitate-induced uncoupling respiration and higher maximal oxidative capacity after acclimatization to marine life. Such effects were not reproduced experimentally after repeated immersions in cold water, suggesting that the plasticity of mitochondrial characteristics may not be primarily driven by cold exposure per se but by other aspects of sea acclimatization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Reduction in energy efficiency induced by expression of the uncoupling protein, UCP1, in mouse liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    González-Muniesa, Pedro; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2006-04-01

    Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein, uniquely expressed in brown adipocytes, which uncouples the mitochondrial respiration impairing ATP production and energy efficiency. The aim of the present study was to express UCP1 in liver mitochondria using a non-viral system in order to affect energy utilization. The effect of ectopic protein expression on liver energy metabolism, which was evaluated 42 h after DNA transfer, showed that mitochondria expressing UCP1 presented decreased ATP production, lasted more time in membrane potential state 3, and consumed more molecular oxygen to produce the same amount of ATP than the control group. In summary, the successful functionality of the mitochondrial protein, UCP1, after hydrodynamic delivery is a novel and significant finding. This approach could be useful to ectopically express mitochondrial proteins and, in this particular case, to manage metabolic disorders related to energy efficiency and expenditure, such as obesity.

  17. Deleterious mutation accumulation in asexual Timema stick insects.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lee; Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is extremely widespread in spite of its presumed costs relative to asexual reproduction, indicating that it must provide significant advantages. One postulated benefit of sex and recombination is that they facilitate the purging of mildly deleterious mutations, which would accumulate in asexual lineages and contribute to their short evolutionary life span. To test this prediction, we estimated the accumulation rate of coding (nonsynonymous) mutations, which are expected to be deleterious, in parts of one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (Actin and Hsp70) genes in six independently derived asexual lineages and related sexual species of Timema stick insects. We found signatures of increased coding mutation accumulation in all six asexual Timema and for each of the three analyzed genes, with 3.6- to 13.4-fold higher rates in the asexuals as compared with the sexuals. In addition, because coding mutations in the asexuals often resulted in considerable hydrophobicity changes at the concerned amino acid positions, coding mutations in the asexuals are likely associated with more strongly deleterious effects than in the sexuals. Our results demonstrate that deleterious mutation accumulation can differentially affect sexual and asexual lineages and support the idea that deleterious mutation accumulation plays an important role in limiting the long-term persistence of all-female lineages.

  18. Hypoxia and Reoxygenation Induce Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling in Endothelial Cells through Tetrahydrobiopterin Depletion and S-Glutathionylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is accompanied by endothelial hypoxia and reoxygenation that trigger oxidative stress with enhanced superoxide generation and diminished nitric oxide (NO) production leading to endothelial dysfunction. Oxidative depletion of the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin can trigger eNOS uncoupling, in which the enzyme generates superoxide rather than NO. Recently, it has also been shown that oxidative stress can induce eNOS S-glutathionylation at critical cysteine residues of the reductase site that serves as a redox switch to control eNOS coupling. While superoxide can deplete tetrahydrobiopterin and induce eNOS S-glutathionylation, the extent of and interaction between these processes in the pathogenesis of eNOS dysfunction in endothelial cells following hypoxia and reoxygenation remain unknown. Therefore, studies were performed on endothelial cells subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation to determine the severity of eNOS uncoupling and the role of cofactor depletion and S-glutathionylation in this process. Hypoxia and reoxygenation of aortic endothelial cells triggered xanthine oxidase-mediated superoxide generation, causing both tetrahydrobiopterin depletion and S-glutathionylation with resultant eNOS uncoupling. Replenishing cells with tetrahydrobiopterin along with increasing intracellular levels of glutathione greatly preserved eNOS activity after hypoxia and reoxygenation, while targeting either mechanism alone only partially ameliorated the decrease in NO. Endothelial oxidative stress, secondary to hypoxia and reoxygenation, uncoupled eNOS with an altered ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione inducing eNOS S-glutathionylation. These mechanisms triggered by oxidative stress combine to cause eNOS dysfunction with shift of the enzyme from NO to superoxide production. Thus, in endothelial reoxygenation injury, normalization of both tetrahydrobiopterin levels and the glutathione pool are needed for maximal

  19. The role of mild uncoupling and non-coupled respiration in the regulation of hydrogen peroxide generation by plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Casolo, V; Braidot, E; Chiandussi, E; Macrì, F; Vianello, A

    2000-05-26

    The roles of mild uncoupling caused by free fatty acids (mediated by plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) and ATP/ADP carrier (AAC)) and non-coupled respiration (alternative oxidase (AO)) on H(2)O(2) formation by plant mitochondria were examined. Both laurate and oleate prevent H(2)O(2) formation dependent on the oxidation of succinate. Conversely, these free fatty acids (FFA) only slightly affect that dependent on malate plus glutamate oxidation. Carboxyatractylate (CAtr), an inhibitor of AAC, completely inhibits oleate- or laurate-stimulated oxygen consumption linked to succinate oxidation, while GDP, an inhibitor of PUMP, caused only a 30% inhibition. In agreement, CAtr completely restores the oleate-inhibited H(2)O(2) formation, while GDP induces only a 30% restoration. Both oleate and laurate cause a mild uncoupling of the electrical potential (generated by succinate), which is then followed by a complete collapse with a sigmoidal kinetic. FFA also inhibit the succinate-dependent reverse electron transfer. Diamide, an inhibitor of AO, favors the malate plus glutamate-dependent H(2)O(2) formation, while pyruvate (a stimulator of AO) inhibits it. These results show that the succinate-dependent H(2)O(2) formation occurs at the level of Complex I by a reverse electron transport. This generation appears to be prevented by mild uncoupling mediated by FFA. The anionic form of FFA appears to be shuttled by AAC rather than PUMP. The malate plus glutamate-dependent H(2)O(2) formation is, conversely, mainly prevented by non-coupled respiration (AO).

  20. 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and induces membrane permeability transition in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Castilho, R F; Vicente, J A; Kowaltowski, A J; Vercesi, A E

    1997-07-01

    The effect of the herbicide 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC), a structural analogue of the classical protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol, on the bioenergetics and inner membrane permeability of isolated rat liver mitochondria was studied. We observed that DNOC (10-50 microM) acts as a classical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria, promoting both an increase in succinate-supported mitochondrial respiration in the presence or absence of ADP and a decrease in transmembrane potential. The protonophoric activity of DNOC was evidenced by the induction of mitochondrial swelling in hyposmotic K(+)-acetate medium, in the presence of valinomycin. At higher concentrations (> 50 microM), DNOC also induces an inhibition of succinate-supported respiration, and a decrease in the activity of the succinate dehydrogenase can be observed. The addition of uncoupling concentrations of DNOC to Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria treated with Ruthenium Red results in non-specific membrane permeabilization, as evidenced by mitochondrial swelling in isosmotic sucrose medium. Cyclosporin A, which inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition, prevented DNOC-induced mitochondrial swelling in the presence of Ca2+, which was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane protein thiol content, owing to protein thiol oxidation. Catalase partially inhibits mitochondrial swelling and protein thiol oxidation, indicating the participation of mitochondrial-generated reactive oxygen species in this process. It is concluded that DNOC is a potent potent protonophore acting as a classical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria by dissipating the proton electrochemical gradient. Treatment of Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria with uncoupling concentrations of DNOC results in mitochondrial permeability transition, associated with membrane protein thiol oxidation by reactive oxygen species.

  1. Endothelial dihydrofolate reductase: critical for nitric oxide bioavailability and role in angiotensin II uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Chalupsky, Karel; Cai, Hua

    2005-06-21

    Recent studies demonstrate that oxidative inactivation of tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) may cause uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce superoxide (O2*-). H4B was found recyclable from its oxidized form by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in several cell types. Functionality of the endothelial DHFR, however, remains completely unknown. Here we present findings that specific inhibition of endothelial DHFR by RNA interference markedly reduced endothelial H4B and nitric oxide (NO.) bioavailability. Furthermore, angiotensin II (100 nmol/liter for 24 h) caused a H4B deficiency that was mediated by H2O2-dependent down-regulation of DHFR. This response was associated with a significant increase in endothelial O2*- production, which was abolished by eNOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester or H2O2 scavenger polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase, strongly suggesting H2O2-dependent eNOS uncoupling. Rapid and transient activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidases was responsible for the initial burst production of O2* (Rac1 inhibitor NSC 23766 but not an N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-attenuated ESR O2*- signal at 30 min) in response to angiotensin II, preceding a second peak in O2*- production at 24 h that predominantly depended on uncoupled eNOS. Overexpression of DHFR restored NO. production and diminished eNOS production of O2*- in angiotensin II-stimulated cells. In conclusion, these data represent evidence that DHFR is critical for H4B and NO. bioavailability in the endothelium. Endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase-derived H2O2 down-regulates DHFR expression in response to angiotensin II, resulting in H4B deficiency and uncoupling of eNOS. This signaling cascade may represent a universal mechanism underlying eNOS dysfunction under pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidant stress.

  2. Nox2-dependent glutathionylation of endothelial NOS leads to uncoupled superoxide production and endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Szczepaniak, William S; Shiva, Sruti; Liu, Huanbo; Wang, Yinna; Wang, Ling; Wang, Ying; Kelley, Eric E; Chen, Alex F; Gladwin, Mark T; McVerry, Bryan J

    2014-12-15

    Microvascular barrier integrity is dependent on bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) produced locally by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Under conditions of limited substrate or cofactor availability or by enzymatic modification, eNOS may become uncoupled, producing superoxide in lieu of NO. This study was designed to investigate how eNOS-dependent superoxide production contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction in inflammatory lung injury and its regulation. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with intratracheal LPS. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for protein accumulation, and lung tissue homogenate was assayed for endothelial NOS content and function. Human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HLMVEC) monolayers were exposed to LPS in vitro, and barrier integrity and superoxide production were measured. Biopterin species were quantified, and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays were performed to identify protein interactions with eNOS that putatively drive uncoupling. Mice exposed to LPS demonstrated eNOS-dependent increased alveolar permeability without evidence for altered canonical NO signaling. LPS-induced superoxide production and permeability in HLMVEC were inhibited by the NOS inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, eNOS-targeted siRNA, the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, and superoxide dismutase. Co-IP indicated that LPS stimulated the association of eNOS with NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), which correlated with augmented eNOS S-glutathionylation both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Nox2-specific inhibition prevented LPS-induced eNOS modification and increases in both superoxide production and permeability. These data indicate that eNOS uncoupling contributes to superoxide production and barrier dysfunction in the lung microvasculature after exposure to LPS. Furthermore, the results implicate Nox2-mediated eNOS-S-glutathionylation as a mechanism underlying LPS-induced eNOS uncoupling in the lung microvasculature.

  3. Weight loss by Ppc-1, a novel small molecule mitochondrial uncoupler derived from slime mold.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Ogura, Masato; Homma, Miwako K; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Homma, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in diverse processes including ATP synthesis and apoptosis. Mitochondrial function can be studied using inhibitors of respiration, and new agents are valuable for discovering novel mechanisms involved in mitochondrial regulation. Here, we screened small molecules derived from slime molds and other microorganisms for their effects on mitochondrial oxygen consumption. We identified Ppc-1 as a novel molecule which stimulates oxygen consumption without adverse effects on ATP production. The kinetic behavior of Ppc-1 suggests its function as a mitochondrial uncoupler. Serial administration of Ppc-1 into mice suppressed weight gain with no abnormal effects on liver or kidney tissues, and no evidence of tumor formation. Serum fatty acid levels were significantly elevated in mice treated with Ppc-1, while body fat content remained low. After a single administration, Ppc-1 distributes into various tissues of individual animals at low levels. Ppc-1 stimulates adipocytes in culture to release fatty acids, which might explain the elevated serum fatty acids in Ppc-1-treated mice. The results suggest that Ppc-1 is a unique mitochondrial regulator which will be a valuable tool for mitochondrial research as well as the development of new drugs to treat obesity.

  4. Weight Loss by Ppc-1, a Novel Small Molecule Mitochondrial Uncoupler Derived from Slime Mold

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Ogura, Masato; Homma, Miwako K.; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Homma, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in diverse processes including ATP synthesis and apoptosis. Mitochondrial function can be studied using inhibitors of respiration, and new agents are valuable for discovering novel mechanisms involved in mitochondrial regulation. Here, we screened small molecules derived from slime molds and other microorganisms for their effects on mitochondrial oxygen consumption. We identified Ppc-1 as a novel molecule which stimulates oxygen consumption without adverse effects on ATP production. The kinetic behavior of Ppc-1 suggests its function as a mitochondrial uncoupler. Serial administration of Ppc-1 into mice suppressed weight gain with no abnormal effects on liver or kidney tissues, and no evidence of tumor formation. Serum fatty acid levels were significantly elevated in mice treated with Ppc-1, while body fat content remained low. After a single administration, Ppc-1 distributes into various tissues of individual animals at low levels. Ppc-1 stimulates adipocytes in culture to release fatty acids, which might explain the elevated serum fatty acids in Ppc-1-treated mice. The results suggest that Ppc-1 is a unique mitochondrial regulator which will be a valuable tool for mitochondrial research as well as the development of new drugs to treat obesity. PMID:25668511

  5. In vitro and in vivo induction of brown adipocyte uncoupling protein (thermogenin) by retinoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Puigserver, P; Vázquez, F; Bonet, M L; Picó, C; Palou, A

    1996-01-01

    The effects of retinoic acid (RA) isomers (all-trans-RA and 9-cis-RA) on the appearance of uncoupling protein (UCP; thermogenin), the only unequivocal molecular marker of the brown adipocyte differentiated phenotype, have been investigated in primary cultures of brown adipocytes, in the brown adipocyte cell line HIB 1B and directly in intact mice. The results obtained with cultured cells indicate that retinoids function as inducers of the appearance of UCP and, at the same time, partially inhibit brown adipocyte cell proliferation. The two RA isomers displayed similar effectiveness as UCP inducers, their effect being comparable with that triggered by noradrenaline, so far considered to be the main modulator of UCP gene expression. The effectiveness of retinoids as UCP inducers was dependent on the stage of brown adipocyte differentiation, being maximal in confluent primary cells and in the medium-late differentiation stage of HIB 1B cells. Corroborating the results obtained in vitro, we show that administration of all-trans-RA or 9-cis-RA to mice leads to an increase in their brown adipose tissue specific UCP content. 9-cis-RA treatment also prevented the loss of UCP on cold deacclimation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a stimulatory effect of retinoid compounds on UCP induction in vivo. PMID:8760369

  6. Calculation of Coupled Vibroacoustics Response Estimates from a Library of Available Uncoupled Transfer Function Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Hunt, Ron; Fulcher, Clay; Towner, Robert; McDonald, Emmett

    2012-01-01

    The design and theoretical basis of a new database tool that quickly generates vibroacoustic response estimates using a library of transfer functions (TFs) is discussed. During the early stages of a launch vehicle development program, these response estimates can be used to provide vibration environment specification to hardware vendors. The tool accesses TFs from a database, combines the TFs, and multiplies these by input excitations to estimate vibration responses. The database is populated with two sets of uncoupled TFs; the first set representing vibration response of a bare panel, designated as H(sup s), and the second set representing the response of the free-free component equipment by itself, designated as H(sup c). For a particular configuration undergoing analysis, the appropriate H(sup s) and H(sup c) are selected and coupled to generate an integrated TF, designated as H(sup s +c). This integrated TF is then used with the appropriate input excitations to estimate vibration responses. This simple yet powerful tool enables a user to estimate vibration responses without directly using finite element models, so long as suitable H(sup s) and H(sup c) sets are defined in the database libraries. The paper discusses the preparation of the database tool and provides the assumptions and methodologies necessary to combine H(sup s) and H(sup c) sets into an integrated H(sup s + c). An experimental validation of the approach is also presented.

  7. Investigation of Surface Flux Feedbacks for Coupled and Uncoupled Atmosphere-Ocean Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, F. R.

    2010-01-01

    Variability in the atmosphere and ocean are linked through coupled processes via the surface exchanges of heat, moisture, and momentum. This coupling can occur predominantly via one-way (ocean forcing atmosphere or atmosphere forcing ocean) or two-way interactions. The dominant type of interaction can vary both regionally and with season. The existence of the coupled variability can act to enhance the persistence of anomalies and therefore may be important to seasonal (and longer) forecasts. The leading components of surface exchange that regulate the damping of the atmospheric and oceanic anomalies most likely also varies regionally and seasonally. This study seeks to elucidate the roles of the various surface flux components using satellite based data sets. Using dynamical relationships expected for one-way forcing regimes, coupled and uncoupled variability is isolated and used in conjunction with composite-type analyses to reveal the nature of these coupling mechanisms and their variation in space and time. Results of this study can be useful in examining the veracity of general circulation model output by understanding how the coupling mechanisms are replicated as found in satellite based observations.

  8. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. The (un)coupling between viruses and prokaryotes in the Gulf of Trieste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuza, Ana; Umani, Serena Fonda; Del Negro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    Viruses and prokaryotes represent the smallest and the most abundant biological entities in marine environments. The interest for viruses and their interactions with marine organisms is continuously rising but the studies are generally limited to short-time investigations. This study conducted in the Gulf of Trieste on monthly resolution investigates for the very first time relationships between viruses and prokaryotes (both heterotrophs-HP and autotrophs-AP) over ten years (2000-2010). From our results emerged that no clear relationship between the abundances of viruses and prokaryotes is observed unless for rather restricted time intervals. Some of the sporadic peaks of viral abundances can be attributable to infections occurred during the autumn phytoplankton blooms, thus probably contributing to the end of the bloom. We infer that the general uncoupling between viruses and prokaryotes in the Gulf of Trieste is due to the variety of factors that regulate viral infection, proliferation and persistence such as the diversity of viral life cycles that are determined by environmental factors, the abundance and the physiological status of their hosts.

  10. Small Heterodimer Partner-Targeting Therapy Inhibits Systemic Inflammatory Responses through Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chul-Su; Yuk, Jae-Min; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jin-Man; Oh, Goo Taeg; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor, small heterodimer partner (SHP), appears to play a negative regulatory role in innate immune signaling. Emerging evidence warrants further study on the therapeutic targeting of SHP to suppress excessive and deleterious inflammation. Here we show that fenofibrate, which targets SHP, is required for inhibiting systemic inflammation via mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). In vivo administration of fenofibrate ameliorated systemic inflammatory responses and increased survival upon experimental sepsis through SHP. An abundance of SHP was observed in mice fed fenofibrate and in cultured macrophages through LKB1-dependent activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Fenofibrate significantly blocked endotoxin-triggered inflammatory signaling responses via SHP, but not via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α. In addition to the known mechanism by which SHP modulates innate signaling, we identify a new role of fenofibrate-induced SHP on UCP2 induction, which is required for the suppression of inflammatory responses through modulation of mitochondrial ROS production. These data strongly suggest that the SHP-inducing drug fenofibrate paves the way for novel therapies for systemic inflammation by targeting SHP. PMID:23704907

  11. The conserved regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins: From unicellular eukaryotes to mammals.

    PubMed

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2017-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to the mitochondrial anion carrier protein family and mediate regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free fatty acids, aldehydes such as hydroxynonenal, and retinoids activate UCPs. However, there are some controversies about the effective action of retinoids and aldehydes alone; thus, only free fatty acids are commonly accepted positive effectors of UCPs. Purine nucleotides such as GTP inhibit UCP-mediated mitochondrial proton leak. In turn, membranous coenzyme Q may play a role as a redox state-dependent metabolic sensor that modulates the complete activation/inhibition of UCPs. Such regulation has been observed for UCPs in microorganisms, plant and animal UCP1 homologues, and UCP1 in mammalian brown adipose tissue. The origin of UCPs is still under debate, but UCP homologues have been identified in all systematic groups of eukaryotes. Despite the differing levels of amino acid/DNA sequence similarities, functional studies in unicellular and multicellular organisms, from amoebae to mammals, suggest that the mechanistic regulation of UCP activity is evolutionarily well conserved. This review focuses on the regulatory feedback loops of UCPs involving free fatty acids, aldehydes, retinoids, purine nucleotides, and coenzyme Q (particularly its reduction level), which may derive from the early stages of evolution as UCP first emerged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The neuroanatomical correlates of training-related perceptuo-reflex uncoupling in dancers.

    PubMed

    Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Hellyer, Peter J; Nachev, Parashkev; Sharp, David J; Seemungal, Barry M

    2015-02-01

    Sensory input evokes low-order reflexes and higher-order perceptual responses. Vestibular stimulation elicits vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) and self-motion perception (e.g., vertigo) whose response durations are normally equal. Adaptation to repeated whole-body rotations, for example, ballet training, is known to reduce vestibular responses. We investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of vestibular perceptuo-reflex adaptation in ballet dancers and controls. Dancers' vestibular-reflex and perceptual responses to whole-body yaw-plane step rotations were: (1) Briefer and (2) uncorrelated (controls' reflex and perception were correlated). Voxel-based morphometry showed a selective gray matter (GM) reduction in dancers' vestibular cerebellum correlating with ballet experience. Dancers' vestibular cerebellar GM density reduction was related to shorter perceptual responses (i.e. positively correlated) but longer VOR duration (negatively correlated). Contrastingly, controls' vestibular cerebellar GM density negatively correlated with perception and VOR. Diffusion-tensor imaging showed that cerebral cortex white matter (WM) microstructure correlated with vestibular perception but only in controls. In summary, dancers display vestibular perceptuo-reflex dissociation with the neuronatomical correlate localized to the vestibular cerebellum. Controls' robust vestibular perception correlated with a cortical WM network conspicuously absent in dancers. Since primary vestibular afferents synapse in the vestibular cerebellum, we speculate that a cerebellar gating of perceptual signals to cortical regions mediates the training-related attenuation of vestibular perception and perceptuo-reflex uncoupling. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Rewiring of jasmonate and phytochrome B signalling uncouples plant growth-defense tradeoffs

    DOE PAGES

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Yoshida, Yuki; Major, Ian T.; ...

    2016-08-30

    Plants resist infection and herbivory with innate immune responses that are often associated with reduced growth. Despite the importance of growth-defense tradeoffs in shaping plant productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the molecular mechanisms that link growth and immunity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth-defense tradeoffs mediated by the hormone jasmonate are uncoupled in an Arabidopsis mutant (jazQ phyB) lacking a quintet of Jasmonate ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors and the photoreceptor phyB. Analysis of epistatic interactions between jazQ and phyB reveal that growth inhibition associated with enhanced anti-insect resistance is likely not caused by diversion of photoassimilates from growthmore » to defense but rather by a conserved transcriptional network that is hardwired to attenuate growth upon activation of jasmonate signalling. Furthermore, the ability to unlock growth-defense tradeoffs through relief of transcription repression provides an approach to assemble functional plant traits in new and potentially useful ways.« less

  14. Cortical spreading depression produces a neuroprotective effect activating mitochondrial uncoupling protein-5

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Monda, Vincenzo; Messina, Antonietta; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Valenzano, Anna; Tafuri, Domenico; Cibelli, Giuseppe; De Luca, Bruno; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    Depression of electrocorticogram propagating over the cortex surface results in cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is probably related to the pathophysiology of stroke, epilepsy, and migraine. However, preconditioning with CSD produces neuroprotection to subsequent ischemic episodes. Such effects require the expression or activation of several genes, including neuroprotective ones. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the expression of the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 2 and 5 is amplified during brain ischemia and their expression exerts a long-term effect upon neuron protection. To evaluate the neuroprotective consequence of CSD, the expression of UCP-5 in the brain cortex was measured following CSD induction. CSD was evoked in four samples of rats, which were sacrificed after 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Western blot analyses were carried out to measure UCP-5 concentrations in the prefrontal cortices of both hemispheres, and immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the localization of UCP-5 in the brain cortex. The results showed a significant elevation in UCP-5 expression at 24 hours in all cortical strata. Moreover, UCP-5 was triggered by CSD, indicating that UCP-5 production can have a neuroprotective effect. PMID:27468234

  15. Uncoupling Environmental pH and Intrabacterial Acidification from Pyrazinamide Susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Nicholas D; Rosen, Brandon C; Dillon, Nicholas A; Baughn, Anthony D

    2015-12-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first-line antitubercular drug for which the mode of action remains unresolved. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lacks measurable susceptibility to PZA under standard laboratory growth conditions. However, susceptibility to this drug can be induced by cultivation of the bacilli in an acidified growth medium. Previous reports suggested that the active form of PZA, pyrazinoic acid (POA), operates as a proton ionophore that confers cytoplasmic acidification when M. tuberculosis is exposed to an acidic environment. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of the PZA-activating enzyme PncA can confer PZA susceptibility to M. tuberculosis under neutral and even alkaline growth conditions. Furthermore, we find that wild-type M. tuberculosis displays increased susceptibility to POA relative to PZA in neutral and alkaline media. Utilizing a strain of M. tuberculosis that expresses a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP), we find that unlike the bona fide ionophores monensin and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, PZA and POA do not induce rapid uncoupling or cytoplasmic acidification under conditions that promote susceptibility. Thus, based on these observations, we conclude that the antitubercular action of POA is independent of environmental pH and intrabacterial acidification.

  16. Uncoupled Geographical Variation between Leaves and Flowers in a South-Andean Proteaceae

    PubMed Central

    Chalcoff, Vanina R.; Ezcurra, Cecilia; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Geographical variation in foliar and floral traits and their degree of coupling can provide relevant information on the relative importance of abiotic, biotic and even neutral factors acting at geographical scales as generators of evolutionary novelty. Geographical variation was studied in leaves and flowers of Embothrium coccineum, a species that grows along abrupt environmental gradients and exhibits contrasting pollinator assemblages in the southern Andes. Methods Five foliar and eight floral morphological characters were considered from 32 populations, and their patterns of variation and covariation were analysed within and among populations, together with their relationship with environmental variables, using both univariate and multivariate methods. The relationships between foliar and floral morphological variation and geographical distance between populations were compared with Mantel permutation tests. Key Results Leaf and flower traits were clearly uncoupled within populations and weakly associated among populations. Whereas geographical variation in foliar traits was mostly related to differences in precipitation associated with geographical longitude, variation in floral traits was not. Conclusions These patterns suggest that leaves and flowers responded to different evolutionary forces, environmental (i.e. rainfall) in the case of leaves, and biotic (i.e. pollinators) or genetic drift in the case of flowers. This study supports the view that character divergence at a geographical scale can be moulded by different factors acting in an independent fashion. PMID:18436551

  17. Cell Death and Heart Failure in Obesity: Role of Uncoupling Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Angélica; López-Acosta, Ocarol; Barrios-Maya, Miguel Angel; El-Hafidi, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes are often characterized by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondrial respiratory complexes, associated with fat accumulation in cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, and hepatocytes. Several rodents studies showed that lipid accumulation in cardiac myocytes produces lipotoxicity that causes apoptosis and leads to heart failure, a dynamic pathological process. Meanwhile, several tissues including cardiac tissue develop an adaptive mechanism against oxidative stress and lipotoxicity by overexpressing uncoupling proteins (UCPs), specific mitochondrial membrane proteins. In heart from rodent and human with obesity, UCP2 and UCP3 may protect cardiomyocytes from death and from a state progressing to heart failure by downregulating programmed cell death. UCP activation may affect cytochrome c and proapoptotic protein release from mitochondria by reducing ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Therefore the aim of this review is to discuss recent findings regarding the role that UCPs play in cardiomyocyte survival by protecting against ROS generation and maintaining bioenergetic metabolism homeostasis to promote heart protection.

  18. Pharmacologically-induced neurovascular uncoupling is associated with cognitive impairment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tarantini, Stefano; Hertelendy, Peter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Smith, Nataliya; Menyhart, Akos; Farkas, Eszter; Hodges, Erik L; Towner, Rheal; Deak, Ferenc; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Toth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that vascular risk factors, including aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, promote cognitive impairment; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is adjusted to neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling (NVC) and this mechanism is known to be impaired in the aforementioned pathophysiologic conditions. To establish a direct relationship between impaired NVC and cognitive decline, we induced neurovascular uncoupling pharmacologically in mice by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilator mediators involved in NVC. Treatment of mice with the epoxygenase inhibitor N-(methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide (MSPPOH), the NO synthase inhibitor l-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and the COX inhibitor indomethacin decreased NVC by over 60% mimicking the aging phenotype, which was associated with significantly impaired spatial working memory (Y-maze), recognition memory (Novel object recognition), and impairment in motor coordination (Rotarod). Blood pressure (tail cuff) and basal cerebral perfusion (arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI) were unaffected. Thus, selective experimental disruption of NVC is associated with significant impairment of cognitive and sensorimotor function, recapitulating neurologic symptoms and signs observed in brain aging and pathophysiologic conditions associated with accelerated cerebromicrovascular aging. PMID:26174328

  19. Functional white-laser imaging to study brain oxygen uncoupling/recoupling in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Mottin, Stéphane; Montcel, Bruno; de Chatellus, Hugues Guillet; Ramstein, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    Contrary to the intense debate about brain oxygen dynamics and its uncoupling in mammals, very little is known in birds. In zebra finches, picosecond optical tomography with a white laser and a streak camera can measure in vivo oxyhemoglobin (HbO(2)) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes following physiologic stimulation (familiar calls and songs). Picosecond optical tomography showed sufficient submicromolar sensitivity to resolve the fast changes in the hippocampus and auditory forebrain areas with 250 μm resolution. The time course is composed of (1) an early 2-second-long event with a significant decrease in Hb and HbO(2) levels of -0.7 and -0.9 μmol/L, respectively, (2) a subsequent increase in blood oxygen availability with a plateau of HbO(2) (+0.3 μmol/L), and (3) pronounced vasodilatation events immediately after the end of the stimulus. One of the findings of our study is the direct link between blood oxygen level-dependent signals previously published in birds and our results. Furthermore, the early vasoconstriction event and poststimulus ringing seem to be more pronounced in birds than in mammals. These results in birds, tachymetabolic vertebrates with a long lifespan, can potentially yield new insights, e.g., into brain aging.

  20. Flow-metabolism uncoupling in the cervical spinal cord of ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toru; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Sato, Kota; Fukui, Yusuke; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tamiya, Takashi; Abe, Koji

    2017-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease. In ALS, both glucose consumption and neuronal intensity reportedly decrease in the cerebral motor cortex when measured by positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we evaluated cervical spinal glucose metabolism, blood flow, and neuronal intensity of 10 ALS patients with upper extremity (U/E) atrophy both with (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET and (11)C-flumazenil ((11)C-FMZ) PET. On the ipsilateral side of C5 and T1 levels, (18)F-FDG uptake increased significantly (*p < 0.05), and was correlated with the rate of progression of the ALS FRS-R-U/E score (R = 0.645, *p = 0.041). Despite this hyperglucose metabolism, the (11)C-FMZ PET study did not show a coupled increase of spinal blood flow even though neuronal intensity did not decrease. These results indicate a strong correlation between hyperglucose metabolism and ALS progression alongside the uncoupling of flow-metabolism. This mechanism, which could result in subsequent motor neuronal death, may be a potential therapeutic target for ALS.

  1. Homocysteine induces oxidative stress by uncoupling of NO synthase activity through reduction of tetrahydrobiopterin.

    PubMed

    Topal, Gökce; Brunet, Annie; Millanvoye, Elisabeth; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Rendu, Francine; Devynck, Marie-Aude; David-Dufilho, Monique

    2004-06-15

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that induces endothelial dysfunction. Here, we examine the participation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in the homocysteine-induced alterations of NO/O(2)(-) balance in endothelial cells from human umbilical cord vein. When cells were treated for 24 h, homocysteine dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-activated NO release without altering eNOS phosphorylation and independently of the endogenous NOS inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine. The inhibitory effect of homocysteine on NO release was associated with increased production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS/ROS) independent of extracellular superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and was suppressed by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In unstimulated cells, L-NAME markedly decreased RNS/ROS formation and the ethidium red fluorescence induced by homocysteine. This eNOS-dependent O(2)(-) synthesis was associated with reduced intracellular levels of both total biopterins (-45%) and tetrahydrobiopterin (-80%) and increased release of 7,8-dihydrobiopterin and biopterin in the extracellular medium (+40%). In addition, homocysteine suppressed the activating effect of sepiapterin on NO release, but not that of ascorbate. The results show that the oxidative stress and inhibition of NO release induced by homocysteine depend on eNOS uncoupling due to reduction of intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin availability.

  2. Overexpression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein conferred resistance to heat stress and Botrytis cinerea infection in tomato.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuangchen; Liu, Airong; Zhang, Shaojie; Li, Cong; Chang, Rui; Liu, Dilin; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Lin, Xiaomin

    2013-12-01

    The mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes improve plant stress tolerance by minimizing oxidative damage. However, the underlying mechanism of redox homeostasis and antioxidant signaling associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation remained poorly understood. We introduced LeUCP gene into tomato line Ailsa Craig via Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transgenic lines were confirmed for integration into the tomato genome using PCR and Southern blot hybridization. One to three copies of the transgene were integrated into the tomato nuclear genome. Transcription of LeUCP in various transgenic lines was determined using real-time PCR. Transgenic tomato overexpressing LeUCP showed higher growth rate, chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and electron transport rate (ETR), increased contents of AsA and proline, higher AsA/DHA ratio and GalLDH activity, reduced ROS accumulation, and enhanced heat stress tolerance compared with the control plants. The transgenic tomato plants also exhibited significant increases in tolerance against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, our results suggest that LeUCP may play a pivotal role in controlling a broad range of abiotic and biotic stresses in plants by increasing redox level and antioxidant capacity, elevating electron transport rate, lowering H2O2 and lipid peroxidation accumulation.

  3. Uncoupling Stress-Inducible Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Factor 1 from Its Activation

    PubMed Central

    Budzyński, Marek A.; Puustinen, Mikael C.; Joutsen, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    In mammals the stress-inducible expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins is under the control of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Activation of HSF1 is a multistep process, involving trimerization, acquisition of DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, which coincide with several posttranslational modifications. Stress-inducible phosphorylation of HSF1, or hyperphosphorylation, which occurs mainly within the regulatory domain (RD), has been proposed as a requirement for HSF-driven transcription and is widely used for assessing HSF1 activation. Nonetheless, the contribution of hyperphosphorylation to the activity of HSF1 remains unknown. In this study, we generated a phosphorylation-deficient HSF1 mutant (HSF1Δ∼PRD), where the 15 known phosphorylation sites within the RD were disrupted. Our results show that the phosphorylation status of the RD does not affect the subcellular localization and DNA-binding activity of HSF1. Surprisingly, under stress conditions, HSF1Δ∼PRD is a potent transactivator of both endogenous targets and a reporter gene, and HSF1Δ∼PRD has a reduced activation threshold. Our results provide the first direct evidence for uncoupling stress-inducible phosphorylation of HSF1 from its activation, and we propose that the phosphorylation signature alone is not an appropriate marker for HSF1 activity. PMID:25963659

  4. Dangerous liaisons between detergents and membrane proteins. The case of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2.

    PubMed

    Zoonens, Manuela; Comer, Jeffrey; Masscheleyn, Sandrine; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Chipot, Christophe; Miroux, Bruno; Dehez, François

    2013-10-09

    The extraction of membrane proteins from their native environment by detergents is central to their biophysical characterization. Recent studies have emphasized that detergents may perturb the structure locally and modify the dynamics of membrane proteins. However, it remains challenging to determine whether these perturbations are negligible or could be responsible for misfolded conformations, altering the protein's function. In this work, we propose an original strategy combining functional studies and molecular simulations to address the physiological relevance of membrane protein structures obtained in the presence of detergents. We apply our strategy to a structure of isoform 2 of an uncoupling protein (UCP2) binding an inhibitor recently obtained in dodecylphosphocholine detergent micelles. Although this structure shares common traits with the ADP/ATP carrier, a member of the same protein family, its functional and biological significance remains to be addressed. In the present investigation, we demonstrate how dodecylphosphocholine severely alters the structure as well as the function of UCPs. The proposed original strategy opens new vistas for probing the physiological relevance of three-dimensional structures of membrane proteins obtained in non-native environments.

  5. Uncoupling Protein 2 Increases Susceptibility to Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Jianchun; Hu, Mingdong; Yang, Yu; Guo, Liang; Xu, Jing; Lei, Chuanjiang; Jiao, Yan; Xu, JianCheng

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is upregulated in patients with systemic inflammation and infection, but its functional role is unclear. We up- or downregulated UCP2 expression using UCP2 recombinant adenovirus or the UCP2 inhibitor, genipin, in lungs of mice, and investigated the mechanisms of UCP2 in ALI. UCP2 overexpression in mouse lungs increased LPS-induced pathological changes, lung permeability, lung inflammation, and lowered survival rates. Furthermore, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased, while reactive oxygen species production was increased. Additionally, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activity was elevated, which increased the sensitivity to LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation. LPS-induced apoptosis and release of inflammatory factors were alleviated by pretreatment of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059 in UCP2-overexpressing mice. On the other hand, LPS-induced alveolar epithelial cell death and inflammation were attenuated by genipin. In conclusion, UCP2 increased susceptibility to LPS-induced cell death and pulmonary inflammation, most likely via ATP depletion and activation of MAPK signaling following ALI in mice. PMID:27057102

  6. Mitochondrial uncoupling and the reprograming of intermediary metabolism in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Juliana; Hail, Numsen; Konopleva, Marina; Zeng, Zhihong; Kojima, Kensuke; Samudio, Ismael; Andreeff, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 60 years ago Otto Warburg proposed, in a seminal publication, that an irreparable defect in the oxidative capacity of normal cells supported the switch to glycolysis for energy generation and the appearance of the malignant phenotype (Warburg, 1956). Curiously, this phenotype was also observed by Warburg in embryonic tissues, and recent research demonstrated that normal stem cells may indeed rely on aerobic glycolysis - fermenting pyruvate to lactate in the presence of ample oxygen - rather than on the complete oxidation of pyruvate in the Krebs cycle - to generate cellular energy (Folmes et al., 2012). However, it remains to be determined whether this phenotype is causative for neoplastic development, or rather the result of malignant transformation. In addition, in light of mounting evidence demonstrating that cancer cells can carry out electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, although in some cases predominantly using electrons from non-glucose carbon sources (Bloch-Frankenthal et al., 1965), Warburg's hypothesis needs to be revisited. Lastly, recent evidence suggests that the leukemia bone marrow microenvironment promotes the Warburg phenotype adding another layer of complexity to the study of metabolism in hematological malignancies. In this review we will discuss some of the evidence for alterations in the intermediary metabolism of leukemia cells and present evidence for a concept put forth decades ago by lipid biochemist Feodor Lynen, and acknowledged by Warburg himself, that cancer cell mitochondria uncouple ATP synthesis from electron transport and therefore depend on glycolysis to meet their energy demands (Lynen, 1951; Warburg, 1956).

  7. Uncoupling protein 2 in the glial response to stress: implications for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Hass, Daniel T; Barnstable, Colin J

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals thought to mediate the neurotoxic effects of several neurodegenerative disorders. In the central nervous system, ROS can also trigger a phenotypic switch in both astrocytes and microglia that further aggravates neurodegeneration, termed reactive gliosis. Negative regulators of ROS, such as mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are neuroprotective factors that decrease neuron loss in models of stroke, epilepsy, and parkinsonism. However, it is unclear whether UCP2 acts purely to prevent ROS production, or also to prevent gliosis. In this review article, we discuss published evidence supporting the hypothesis that UCP2 is a neuroprotective factor both through its direct effects in decreasing mitochondrial ROS and through its effects in astrocytes and microglia. A major effect of UCP2 activation in glia is a change in the spectrum of secreted cytokines towards a more anti-inflammatory spectrum. There are multiple mechanisms that can control the level or activity of UCP2, including a variety of metabolites and microRNAs. Understanding these mechanisms will be key to exploitingthe protective effects of UCP2 in therapies for multiple neurodegenerative conditions.

  8. Uncoupling protein 2 in the glial response to stress: implications for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Daniel T.; Barnstable, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals thought to mediate the neurotoxic effects of several neurodegenerative disorders. In the central nervous system, ROS can also trigger a phenotypic switch in both astrocytes and microglia that further aggravates neurodegeneration, termed reactive gliosis. Negative regulators of ROS, such as mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are neuroprotective factors that decrease neuron loss in models of stroke, epilepsy, and parkinsonism. However, it is unclear whether UCP2 acts purely to prevent ROS production, or also to prevent gliosis. In this review article, we discuss published evidence supporting the hypothesis that UCP2 is a neuroprotective factor both through its direct effects in decreasing mitochondrial ROS and through its effects in astrocytes and microglia. A major effect of UCP2 activation in glia is a change in the spectrum of secreted cytokines towards a more anti-inflammatory spectrum. There are multiple mechanisms that can control the level or activity of UCP2, including a variety of metabolites and microRNAs. Understanding these mechanisms will be key to exploitingthe protective effects of UCP2 in therapies for multiple neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:27651753

  9. The Neuroanatomical Correlates of Training-Related Perceptuo-Reflex Uncoupling in Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Hellyer, Peter J.; Nachev, Parashkev; Sharp, David J.; Seemungal, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory input evokes low-order reflexes and higher-order perceptual responses. Vestibular stimulation elicits vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) and self-motion perception (e.g., vertigo) whose response durations are normally equal. Adaptation to repeated whole-body rotations, for example, ballet training, is known to reduce vestibular responses. We investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of vestibular perceptuo-reflex adaptation in ballet dancers and controls. Dancers' vestibular-reflex and perceptual responses to whole-body yaw-plane step rotations were: (1) Briefer and (2) uncorrelated (controls' reflex and perception were correlated). Voxel-based morphometry showed a selective gray matter (GM) reduction in dancers' vestibular cerebellum correlating with ballet experience. Dancers' vestibular cerebellar GM density reduction was related to shorter perceptual responses (i.e. positively correlated) but longer VOR duration (negatively correlated). Contrastingly, controls' vestibular cerebellar GM density negatively correlated with perception and VOR. Diffusion-tensor imaging showed that cerebral cortex white matter (WM) microstructure correlated with vestibular perception but only in controls. In summary, dancers display vestibular perceptuo-reflex dissociation with the neuronatomical correlate localized to the vestibular cerebellum. Controls' robust vestibular perception correlated with a cortical WM network conspicuously absent in dancers. Since primary vestibular afferents synapse in the vestibular cerebellum, we speculate that a cerebellar gating of perceptual signals to cortical regions mediates the training-related attenuation of vestibular perception and perceptuo-reflex uncoupling. PMID:24072889

  10. Cell Death and Heart Failure in Obesity: Role of Uncoupling Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Angélica; López-Acosta, Ocarol; Barrios-Maya, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes are often characterized by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondrial respiratory complexes, associated with fat accumulation in cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, and hepatocytes. Several rodents studies showed that lipid accumulation in cardiac myocytes produces lipotoxicity that causes apoptosis and leads to heart failure, a dynamic pathological process. Meanwhile, several tissues including cardiac tissue develop an adaptive mechanism against oxidative stress and lipotoxicity by overexpressing uncoupling proteins (UCPs), specific mitochondrial membrane proteins. In heart from rodent and human with obesity, UCP2 and UCP3 may protect cardiomyocytes from death and from a state progressing to heart failure by downregulating programmed cell death. UCP activation may affect cytochrome c and proapoptotic protein release from mitochondria by reducing ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Therefore the aim of this review is to discuss recent findings regarding the role that UCPs play in cardiomyocyte survival by protecting against ROS generation and maintaining bioenergetic metabolism homeostasis to promote heart protection. PMID:27642497

  11. Uncoupling of retinoic acid signaling from tailbud development before termination of body axis extension.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Thomas J; Zhao, Xianling; Duester, Gregg

    2011-10-01

    During the early stages of body axis extension, retinoic acid (RA) synthesized in somites by Raldh2 represses caudal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to limit the tailbud progenitor zone. Excessive RA down-regulates Fgf8 and triggers premature termination of body axis extension, suggesting that endogenous RA may function in normal termination of body axis extension. Here, we demonstrate that Raldh2-/- mouse embryos undergo normal down-regulation of tailbud Fgf8 expression and termination of body axis extension in the absence of RA. Interestingly, Raldh2 expression in wild-type tail somites and tailbud from E10.5 onwards does not result in RA activity monitored by retinoic acid response element (RARE)-lacZ. Treatment of wild-type tailbuds with physiological levels of RA or retinaldehyde induces RARE-lacZ activity, validating the sensitivity of RARE-lacZ and demonstrating that deficient RA synthesis in wild-type tail somites and tailbud is due to a lack of retinaldehyde synthesis. These studies demonstrate an early uncoupling of RA signaling from mouse tailbud development and show that termination of body axis extension occurs in the absence of RA signaling.

  12. Cellulose-Microtubule Uncoupling Proteins Prevent Lateral Displacement of Microtubules during Cellulose Synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengyu; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Zhang, Yi; Somssich, Marc; Zhang, Youjun; Fernie, Alisdair R; Persson, Staffan

    2016-08-08

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is the major contributor to plant morphogenesis. Cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Nascent cellulose microfibrils become entangled in the cell wall, and further catalysis therefore drives the CSC forward through the membrane: a process guided by cortical microtubules via the protein CSI1/POM2. Still, it is unclear how the microtubules can withstand the forces generated by the motile CSCs to effectively direct CSC movement. Here, we identified a family of microtubule-associated proteins, the cellulose synthase-microtubule uncouplings (CMUs), that located as static puncta along cortical microtubules. Functional disruption of the CMUs caused lateral microtubule displacement and compromised microtubule-based guidance of CSC movement. CSCs that traversed the microtubules interacted with the microtubules via CSI1/POM2, which prompted the lateral microtubule displacement. Hence, we have revealed how microtubules can withstand the propulsion of the CSCs during cellulose biosynthesis and thus sustain anisotropic plant cell growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Uncoupling Auxin and Ethylene Effects in Transgenic Tobacco and Arabidopsis Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, CP; Cooper, ML; Klee, HJ

    1993-01-01

    Overproduction of auxin in transgenic plants also results in the overproduction of ethylene. Plants overproducing both auxin and ethylene display inhibition of stem elongation and growth, increased apical dominance, and leaf epinasty. To determine the relative roles of auxin and ethylene in these processes, transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing the auxin-overproducing tryptophan monooxygenase transgene were crossed to plants expressing an ethylene synthesis-inhibiting 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase transgene. Tobacco and Arabidopsis plants with elevated auxin and normal levels of ethylene were obtained by this strategy. Transgenic auxin-overproducing Arabidopsis plants were also crossed with the ethylene-insensitive ein1 and ein2 mutants. Analysis of these plants indicates that apical dominance and leaf epinasty are primarily controlled by auxin rather than ethylene. However, ethylene is partially responsible for the inhibition of stem elongation observed in auxin-overproducing tobacco. Finally, these data show that auxin overproduction can be effectively uncoupled from ethylene overproduction in transgenic plants to enable direct manipulation of plant morphology for agronomic and horticultural purposes. PMID:12271061

  14. Reversal of hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance by a liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel J; Kim, Taehan; Zhang, Xian-Man; Lee, Hui-Young; Pesta, Dominik; Popov, Violeta B; Zhang, Dongyan; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Jurczak, Michael J; Cline, Gary W; Spiegel, David A; Shulman, Gerald I

    2013-11-05

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects one in three Americans and is a major predisposing condition for the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined whether a functionally liver-targeted derivative of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), DNP-methyl ether (DNPME), could safely decrease hypertriglyceridemia, NAFLD, and insulin resistance without systemic toxicities. Treatment with DNPME reversed hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and whole-body insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats and decreased hyperglycemia in a rat model of T2D with a wide therapeutic index. The reversal of liver and muscle insulin resistance was associated with reductions in tissue diacylglycerol content and reductions in protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) and PKCθ activity in liver and muscle, respectively. These results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of DNP on hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and insulin resistance can be dissociated from systemic toxicities and suggest the potential utility of liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupling agents for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, NAFLD, metabolic syndrome, and T2D.

  15. Uncoupled continuous-time random walk model: Analytical and numerical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Kwok Sau

    2014-05-01

    Solutions for the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model are known in few cases. In this work, the uncoupled CTRW model is investigated analytically and numerically. In particular, the probability density function (PDF) and n-moment are obtained and analyzed. Exponential and Gaussian functions are used for the jump length PDF, whereas the Mittag-Leffler function and a combination of exponential and power-laws function is used for the waiting time PDF. The exponential and Gaussian jump length PDFs have finite jump length variances and they give the same second moment; however, their distribution functions present different behaviors near the origin. The combination of exponential and power-law function for the waiting time PDF can generate a crossover from anomalous regime to normal regime. Moreover, the parameter of the exponential jump length PDF does not change the behavior of the n-moment for all time intervals, and for the Gaussian jump length PDF the n-moment also indicates a similar behavior.

  16. Synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein in brown adipocytes differentiated in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kopecky, J.; Baudysova, M.; Zanotti, F.; Janikova, D.; Pavelka, S.; Houstek, J. )

    1990-12-25

    In order to characterize the biogenesis of unique thermogenic mitochondria of brown adipose tissue, differentiation of precursor cells isolated from mouse brown adipose tissue was studied in cell culture. Synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP), F1-ATPase, and cytochrome oxidase was examined by L-(35S)methionine labeling and immunoblotting. For the first time, synthesis of physiological amounts of the UCP, a key and tissue-specific component of thermogenic mitochondria, was observed in cultures at about confluence (day 6), indicating that a complete differentiation of brown adipocytes was achieved in vitro. In postconfluent cells (day 8) the content of UCP decreased rapidly, in contrast to some other mitochondrial proteins (beta subunit of F1-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase). In these cells, it was possible, by using norepinephrine, to induce specifically the synthesis of the UCP but not of F1-ATPase or cytochrome oxidase. The maximal response was observed at 0.1 microM norepinephrine and the synthesis of UCP remained activated for at least 24 h. Detailed analysis revealed a major role of the beta-adrenergic receptors and elevated intracellular concentration of cAMP in stimulation of UCP synthesis. A quantitative recovery of the newly synthesized UCP in the mitochondrial fraction indicated completed biogenesis of functionally competent thermogenic mitochondria.

  17. Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Barberá, Maria José; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression vector but not with other expression vectors driving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARgamma or a form of RXR devoid of ligand-dependent sensitivity. The effect of phytanic acid on the UCP1 gene required the 5' enhancer region of the gene and the effects of phytanic acid were mediated in an additive manner by three binding sites for RXR. Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid promoted the acquisition of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of brown adipocyte differentiation, such as UCP1, adipocyte lipid-binding protein aP2, lipoprotein lipase, the glucose transporter GLUT4 or subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase. In conclusion, phytanic acid is a natural product of phytol metabolism that activates brown adipocyte thermogenic function. It constitutes a potential nutritional signal linking dietary status to adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:11829740

  18. The role of uncoupling protein 3 regulating calcium ion uptake into mitochondria during sarcopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Choi, Inho; Haruna, Marie; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Maita Ohno, Ayako; Kondo Teshima, Shigetada

    Overloaded mitochondrial calcium concentration contributes to progression of mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscle, leading to sarcopenia. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is primarily expressed in the inner membrane of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Recently, it has been reported that UCP3 is associated with calcium uptake into mitochondria. However, the mechanisms by which UCP3 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake are not well understood. Here we report that UCP3 interacts with HS-1 associated protein X-1 (Hax-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that is localized in mitochondria, which is involved in cellular responses to calcium ion. The hydrophilic sequences within the loop 2, matrix-localized hydrophilic domain of mouse UCP3 are necessary for binding to Hax-1 of the C-terminal domain in adjacent to mitochondrial innermembrane. Interestingly, these proteins interaction occur the calcium-dependent manner. Indeed, overexpression of UCP3 significantly enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myoblasts. In addition, Hax-1 knock-down enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on both UCP3 and Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myotubes, but not myoblasts. Finally, the dissociation of UCP3 and Hax-1 enhances calcium uptake into mitochondria in aged muscle. These studies identify a novel UCP3-Hax-1 complex regulates the influx of calcium ion into mitochondria in muscle. Thus, the efficacy of UCP3-Hax-1 in mitochondrial calcium regulation may provide a novel therapeutic approach against mitochondrial dysfunction-related disease containing sarcopenia.

  19. Uncoupling protein 2 negatively regulates glucose-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiangying; Luo, Yun; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2012-04-01

    It is known that endogenous levels of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) can be enhanced by various secretagogues, but the mechanism underlying GLP1 secretion is still not fully understood. We assessed the possible effect of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) on GLP1 secretion in mouse intestinal tract and NCI-H716 cells, a well-characterized human enteroendocrine L cell model. Localization of UCP2 and GLP1 in the gastrointestinal tract was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Ucp2 mRNA levels in gut were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Human NCI-H716 cells were transiently transfected with siRNAs targeting UCP2. The plasma and ileum tissue levels of GLP1 (7-36) amide were measured using an ELISA kit. UCP2 was primarily expressed in the mucosal layer and colocalized with GLP1 in gastrointestinal mucosa. L cells secreting GLP1 also expressed UCP2. After glucose administration, UCP2-deficient mice showed increased glucose-induced GLP1 secretion compared with wild-type littermates. GLP1 secretion increased after NCI-H716 cells were transfected with siRNAs targeting UCP2. UCP2 was markedly upregulated in ileum tissue from ob/ob mice, and GLP1 secretion decreased compared with normal mice. Furthermore, GLP1 secretion increased after administration of genipin by oral gavage. Taken together, these results reveal an inhibitory role of UCP2 in glucose-induced GLP1 secretion.

  20. Uncoupling charge movement from channel opening in voltage-gated potassium channels by ruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Ishida, Itzel G; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E; Espinosa-Jalapa, Noel; Pérez-Guzmán, José A; Elías-Viñas, David; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D

    2011-05-06

    The Kv2.1 channel generates a delayed-rectifier current in neurons and is responsible for modulation of neuronal spike frequency and membrane repolarization in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes. As with other tetrameric voltage-activated K(+)-channels, it has been proposed that each of the four Kv2.1 voltage-sensing domains activates independently upon depolarization, leading to a final concerted transition that causes channel opening. The mechanism by which voltage-sensor activation is coupled to the gating of the pore is still not understood. Here we show that the carbon-monoxide releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is an allosteric inhibitor of the Kv2.1 channel and that its inhibitory properties derive from the CORM-2 ability to largely reduce the voltage dependence of the opening transition, uncoupling voltage-sensor activation from the concerted opening transition. We additionally demonstrate that CORM-2 modulates Shaker K(+)-channels in a similar manner. Our data suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by CORM-2 may be common to voltage-activated channels and that this compound should be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of electromechanical coupling.

  1. Uncoupling stimulus specificity and glomerular position in the mouse olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingji; Huang, Guangzhe; Dewan, Adam; Feinstein, Paul; Bozza, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Sensory information is often mapped systematically in the brain with neighboring neurons responding to similar stimulus features. The olfactory system represents chemical information as spatial and temporal activity patterns across glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. However, the degree to which chemical features are mapped systematically in the glomerular array has remained controversial. Here, we test the hypothesis that the dual roles of odorant receptors, in axon guidance and odor detection, can serve as a mechanism to map olfactory inputs with respect to their function. We compared the relationship between response specificity and glomerular formation in genetically-defined olfactory sensory neurons expressing variant odorant receptors. We find that sensory neurons with the same odor response profile can be mapped to different regions of the bulb, and that neurons with different response profiles can be mapped to the same glomeruli. Our data demonstrate that the two functions of odorant receptors can be uncoupled, indicating that the mechanisms that map olfactory sensory inputs to glomeruli do so without regard to stimulus specificity. PMID:22926192

  2. Aging Exacerbates Obesity-induced Cerebromicrovascular Rarefaction, Neurovascular Uncoupling, and Cognitive Decline in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Warrington, Junie P.; Giles, Cory B.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Koller, Akos; Ballabh, Praveen; Sonntag, William E.; Csiszar, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that obesity has deleterious effects on the brain and cognitive function in the elderly population. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to promote cognitive decline remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that aging exacerbates obesity-induced cerebromicrovascular impairment, we compared young (7 months) and aged (24 months) high-fat diet–fed obese C57BL/6 mice. We found that aging exacerbates the obesity-induced decline in microvascular density both in the hippocampus and in the cortex. The extent of hippocampal microvascular rarefaction and the extent of impairment of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function positively correlate. Aging exacerbates obesity-induced loss of pericyte coverage on cerebral microvessels and alters hippocampal angiogenic gene expression signature, which likely contributes to microvascular rarefaction. Aging also exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress and induction of NADPH oxidase and impairs cerebral blood flow responses to whisker stimulation. Collectively, obesity exerts deleterious cerebrovascular effects in aged mice, promoting cerebromicrovascular rarefaction and neurovascular uncoupling. The morphological and functional impairment of the cerebral microvasculature in association with increased blood–brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation (Tucsek Z, Toth P, Sosnowsk D, et al. Obesity in aging exacerbates blood–brain barrier disruption, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the mouse hippocampus: effects on expression of genes involved in beta-amyloid generation and Alzheimer’s disease. J Gerontol Biol Med Sci. 2013. In press, PMID: 24269929) likely contribute to obesity-induced cognitive decline in aging. PMID:24895269

  3. FGF21-Mediated Improvements in Glucose Clearance Require Uncoupling Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Michelle M; O'Dwyer, Shannon M; Baker, Robert K; Covey, Scott D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-11-24

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-mediated weight loss and improvements in glucose metabolism correlate with increased uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) levels in adipose tissues, suggesting that UCP1-dependent thermogenesis may drive FGF21 action. It was reported that FGF21 is equally effective at reducing body weight and improving glucose homeostasis without UCP1. We find while FGF21 can lower body weight in both wild-type and Ucp1 knockout mice, rapid clearance of glucose by FGF21 is defective in the absence of UCP1. Furthermore, in obese wild-type mice there is a fall in brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperature during glucose excursion, and FGF21 improves glucose clearance while preventing the fall in BAT temperature. In Ucp1 knockout mice, the fall in BAT temperature during glucose excursion and FGF21-mediated changes in BAT temperature are lost. We conclude FGF21-mediated improvements in clearance of a glucose challenge require UCP1 and evoke UCP1-dependent thermogenesis as a method to increase glucose disposal.

  4. FATE1 antagonizes calcium- and drug-induced apoptosis by uncoupling ER and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Doghman-Bouguerra, Mabrouka; Granatiero, Veronica; Sbiera, Silviu; Sbiera, Iuliu; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Brau, Frédéric; Fassnacht, Martin; Rizzuto, Rosario; Lalli, Enzo

    2016-09-01

    Several stimuli induce programmed cell death by increasing Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Perturbation of this process has a special relevance in pathologies as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake mainly takes place in correspondence of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), specialized contact sites between the two organelles. Here, we show the important role of FATE1, a cancer-testis antigen, in the regulation of ER-mitochondria distance and Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria. FATE1 is localized at the interface between ER and mitochondria, fractionating into MAM FATE1 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cells under the control of the transcription factor SF-1 decreases ER-mitochondria contact and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, while its knockdown has an opposite effect. FATE1 also decreases sensitivity to mitochondrial Ca(2+)-dependent pro-apoptotic stimuli and to the chemotherapeutic drug mitotane. In patients with ACC, FATE1 expression in their tumor is inversely correlated with their overall survival. These results show that the ER-mitochondria uncoupling activity of FATE1 is harnessed by cancer cells to escape apoptotic death and resist the action of chemotherapeutic drugs. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Induction by leptin of uncoupling protein-2 and enzymes of fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ting; Shimabukuro, Michio; Koyama, Kazunori; Lee, Young; Wang, May-Yun; Trieu, Falguni; Newgard, Christopher B.; Unger, Roger H.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied mechanisms by which leptin overexpression, which reduces body weight via anorexic and thermogenic actions, induces triglyceride depletion in adipocytes and nonadipocytes. Here we show that leptin alters in pancreatic islets the mRNA of the genes encoding enzymes of free fatty acid metabolism and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In animals infused with a recombinant adenovirus containing the leptin cDNA, the levels of mRNAs encoding enzymes of mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation rose 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA encoding an enzyme of esterification declined in islets from hyperleptinemic rats. Islet UCP-2 mRNA rose 6-fold. All in vivo changes occurred in vitro in normal islets