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Sample records for mutnovsky volcano kamchatka

  1. Evolution of Mutnovsky Volcano, Kamchatka with Implications for Arc Pluton Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.; Robertson, K.; Smith, E. I.; Kiryukhin, A. V.; Selyangin, O.; Mulcahy, S. R.; Walker, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated the petrologic evolution of Mutnovsky Volcano, located on the Kamchatka island arc, in order to elucidate the causes of the observed compositional diversity of erupted material, the source of partial melting in the mantle, and the relationship between magma production and material transfer from the slab and overlying meta-sediments to the mantle wedge. Mutnovsky has had four major caldera-forming eruptions over the past 100,000 years. Each caldera-forming eruption was followed by repositioning of the eruptive plumbing system such that the calderas are offset from one another by at least 1 km. The oldest three centers erupted material that ranges in composition from basalt to dacite, whereas the youngest center is composed of only basalts and basaltic andesites. We analyzed fifty-five whole rock samples for major, minor, and trace elements, performed high-resolution electron probe microanalyses of pyroxenes in all samples, and quantified Sr, Nd, Pb and O isotope abundances in a subset of samples. Our results indicate the following: (1) Major, minor, trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb and O isotope data are consistent with fluid-flux melting of the Kamchatka mantle wedge having produced Mutnovsky magmas by dehydration and fluid transfer from the subducting Pacific plate and overlying meta-sediments, and a complete absence of slab-sediment or slab melting. (2) Basaltic magma formed from partial melting in the garnet-peridotite stability field in the sub-arc mantle, and differentiated via closed-system fractional crystallization to produce the basaltic andesites and andesites erupted from Mutnovsky I and II. Dacites from Mutnovsky I and II formed from low degrees of partial melting of a spinel peridotite mantle source. (3) The compositional diversity of the rocks erupted from Mutnovsky III and IV is consistent with different degrees of partial melting of spinel peridotite in the sub-arc mantle source region. (4) Opx-liquid and cpx-liquid model pressures

  2. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  3. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  4. Ambient Noise Tomography at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, A. E.; Ekström, G.; West, M.; Senyukov, S.

    2008-12-01

    Bezymianny Volcano is an active stratovolcano located in the Kluychevskoy volcanic group on the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. Since its dramatic sector collapse eruption in 1956, the volcano's activity has been characterized by nearly twice annual plinian eruptions accompanying ongoing lava-dome growth. Its frequent eruptions and similarity to Mt. St. Helens have made it the target of a multifaceted geologic and geophysical project supported by the NSF Partners in Research and Education (PIRE) program. Since mid- 2006, the volcano has been monitored by a broadband seismic array that is currently composed of 8 stations within 10 kilometers of the active dome. In this project, we use continuous data from these stations to investigate the static and dynamic structure of the volcano. Using methods similar to those used by Brenguier et al. (2007, 2008), we estimate the Green's function for each pair of stations by cross-correlating day-long time series of ambient noise. Paths with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used to estimate group velocity dispersion curves. From these measurements, we work towards constructing the first velocity model of this volcano. Furthermore, we begin to test whether measurements of ambient noise can be used to monitor changes inside the volcano prior to eruptive activity. These problems will continue to be addressed as more data becomes available in future field seasons.

  5. Progress report on modeling studies: Natural state conditions and exploitation of the Dachny geothermal reservoir, Mutnovsky hydrothermal system, Kamchatka, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryukhin, A.V.

    1992-07-01

    The spatial distribution of pre-exploitation conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure distributions, liquid and vapor saturations, circulation characteristics of high-temperature fluids) in the Dachny site of the Mutnovsky hydrothermal system, obtained earlier using a 3-D mapping method (Kiryukhin et al, 1991), are revised on the basis of natural state simulations performed with the computer code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). A 3-D model of the natural state conditions at the Dachny site was developed. The fine-tuning of the model has been achieved by comparing model results to the observations made in geothermal wells 1, 24, 01, 016 and 26 during flow tests conducted during 1983--1988. The behavior of these five wells in response to two exploitation scenarios, one with no reinjection, the other with 100 kg/s of liquid injection into well 027, was also computed.

  6. Inverse Modeling of the Thermal Hydrodynamic and Chemical Processes During Exploitation of the Mutnovsky Geothermal Field (Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    A TOUGH2-EOS1 3D rectangular numerical model of the Mutnovsky geothermal field (Kiryukhin, 1996) was re-calibrated using natural state and history exploitation data during the time period 1984-2006 years. Recalibration using iTOUGH2-EOS1+tracer inversion modeling capabilities, was useful to remove outliers from calibration data, identify sets of the estimated parameters of the model, and perform estimations. Chloride ion was used as a "tracer" in this modeling. Thermal hydrodynamic observational data which were used for model recalibration are as follows: 37 temperature and 1 pressure calibration points - for natural state, 13 production wells with monthly averaged enthalpies (650 values during the time period 1983-1987, 2000-2006 years) and 1 transient pressure monitoring wells (57 values during 2003-2006 years) - for exploitation history match. Chemical observational data includes transient mass chloride concentrations from 10 production wells and chloride hot spring sampling data (149 values during 1999-2006 years). The following features of Mutnovsky geothermal reservoir based on integrated inverse modeling analysis of natural state and exploitation data were estimated and better understood: 1. Reservoir permeability was found to be one order more comparable to model-1996, especially the lower part coinciding with intrusion contact zone (600-800 mD at -750 - -1250 masl); 2. Local meteoric inflow in the central part of the field accounting for 45 - 80 kg/s since year 2002; 3. Reinjection rates were estimated significantly lower, than officially reported as 100% of total fluid withdrawal; 4. Upflow fluid flows were estimated hotter (314oC) and the rates are larger (+50%), than assumed before; 5. Global double porosity parameters estimates are: fracture spacing - 5 - 10 m, void fraction N 10-3; 6. Main upflow zone chloride mass concentration estimate is 150 ppm. Conversion of the calibrated TOUGH2-EOS1+tracer model into electrical resistivity model using TOUGH2

  7. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in

  8. Kamchatka and North Kurile Volcano Explosive Eruptions in 2015 and Danger to Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girina, Olga; Melnikov, Dmitry; Manevich, Alexander; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    There are 36 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka and North Kurile, and several of them are continuously active. In 2015, four of the Kamchatkan volcanoes (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky) and two volcanoes of North Kurile (Alaid and Chikurachki) had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Bezymianny, Kizimen, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruptions of volcanoes are the most dangerous for aircraft because they can produce in a few hours or days to the atmosphere and the stratosphere till several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2015: on 07, 12, and 15 January, 01, 17, and 28 February, 04, 08, 16, 21-22, and 26 March, 07 and 12 April: ash plumes rose up to 7-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the different directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Ust'-Kamchatsk on 16 March, and Klyuchi on 30 October. Strong and moderate hot avalanches from the lava dome were observing more often in the second half of the year. Aviation color code of Sheveluch was Orange during the year. Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Explosive-effusive eruption of Klyuchevskoy volcano lasted from 01 January till 24 March. Strombolian explosive volcanic activity began from 01 January, and on 08-09 January a lava flow was detected at the Apakhonchich chute on the southeastern flank of the volcano. Vulcanian activity of the volcano began from 10 January. Ashfalls

  9. Most recent fall deposits of Ksudach Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursik, M.; Melekestsev, I. V.; Brajtseva, O. A.

    1993-01-01

    Three of four Plinian eruptions from Ksudach Volcano are among the four largest explosive eruptions in southern Kamchatka during the past 2000 years. The earliest of the eruptions was voluminous and was accompanied by an ignimbrite and the fifth and most recent Cddera collapse event at Ksudach. The isopach pattern is consistent with a column height of 23 km. The three more recent and smaller eruptions were from the Shtyubel' Cone, within the fifth caldera. Using isopach and grain size isopleth patterns, column heights ranged from >10 to 22 kin. Although the oldest eruption may have produced a large acidity peak in the Greenland ice, the three Shtyubel' events may not be related to major acid deposition. Thus it is possible that few if any of the uncorrelated acidity peaks of the past 2000 years in Greenland ice cores result from eruptions in southern Kamchatka.

  10. The KISS Project - Exploring the magmatic system beneath Kamchatka's volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luehr, Birger-G.; Shapiro, Nikolai; Abkadyrov, Ilyas; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Abramenkov, Sergey; Saltykov, Vadim A.; Heit, Benjamin; Weber, Michael; Gordeev, Evgeny I.; Chebrov, Victor N.

    2016-04-01

    In a joint initiative of GFZ with Russian (IPGG, IVS, KGBS) and a French partner (IPGP) a temporary seismological network has been installed around the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group in Central Kamchatka. The Klyuchevskoy volcanic group is an ensemble of 13 stratovolcanoes with very different compositions and eruption styles in a ~70km diameter area which produced at least 30 VEI≥2 episodes during the last 15 years. Latest activity of the highest volcano Klyuchevskoy (4754 m) was in spring 2015. The group is located right on the triple junction between Asian, Pacifc and North American plates where the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain separates the Aleutian and the Kuril-Kamchatka trenches. The complex setting presumably leads to processes like increased melting at slab edges and/or accelerated mantle flow which affect the volcanism and might be responsible for the unparalleled concentration of volcanic activity in the Klyuchevskoy group. Due to the difficult field conditions and special permitting regulations seismological investigations have been rare in Kamchatka. In this consortium we build strongly on the experience of the Kamchatkan partners for permitting and logistics. Installation was done to about 50% by helicopter. Funding was provided via a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (grant 14-47-00002) to the IVS/KBGS/IPGG, the GFZ, and the IPGP. 60 of the stations were provided by the GFZ instrument pool GIPP. Including the permanent stations operated by KGBS and temporary stations provided by the partners, the network consist of 98 stations and will record earthquakes volcanic signals and the ambient field over one year in an area of approximately 150 by 150km.

  11. Monitoring Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes (Kamchatka) using seismic noise records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, Clara; Brenguier, Florent; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Droznin, Dmitry V.; Droznina, Svetlana Y.; Chebrov, Victor N.; Gordeev, Evgenii I.

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, extraction of Green functions from seismic ambient noise has been used extensive and efficiently in different contexts and scales: from imaging to monitoring the Earth's interior and from global to local scales. By using coda waves of noise cross-correlations to estimate travel time perturbations, we can assign changes in delay times to changes in the medium's velocity. Due to this technique attribute of continuous recording of the medium, it can accurately detect very small seismic velocity changes linked to small disturbances in volcano interiors. However, cross-correlation functions (CCF) do not necessary converge to media Green function: measurements of waveforms perturbations within a volcanic edifice are affected by the noise fluctuation. The Klyuchevskoy volcanic group, located above the edge of the Pacific Plate subducting beneath Kamchatka, is one of the most active clusters of volcanoes in the word. It is characterized by strongly localized volcanic tremor sources, which often dominate the recorded wavefield. To monitor and get measurements of temporal changes of these active volcanoes, we use coda waves of daily CCF from a total of 19 seismic stations from the seismic network operated by the Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service (KBGS) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Our study period goes from January 2009 to July 2013 in which two eruptions occurred: one from the Klyuchevskoy volcano (2009-2010) and the other from the Tolbachik volcano (2012-2013). After a quality checking of the records and testing different filters, we filter data in the frequency range 0.08 - 7 Hz and we use the Moving Window Cross Spectrum (MWCS) method to measure the relative time shifts. As both eruptions are characterized by emissions of seismic tremors, we avoid the choice of an arbitrary reference CCF: we compute velocity changes between all pairs of daily CCF. We retrieve a continuous velocity change time series for each station pair using a

  12. Relationship between Kamen Volcano and the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes (Kamchatka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churikova, Tatiana G.; Gordeychik, Boris N.; Ivanov, Boris V.; Wörner, Gerhard

    2013-08-01

    Data on the geology, petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry of rocks from Kamen Volcano (Central Kamchatka Depression) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighbouring active volcanoes. The rocks from Kamen and Ploskie Sopky volcanoes differ systematically in major elemental and mineral compositions and could not have been produced from the same primary melts. The compositional trends of Kamen stratovolcano lavas and dikes are clearly distinct from those of Klyuchevskoy lavas in all major and trace element diagrams as well as in mineral composition. However, lavas of the monogenetic cones on the southwestern slope of Kamen Volcano are similar to the moderately high-Mg basalts from Klyuchevskoy and may have been derived from the same primary melts. This means that the monogenetic cones of Kamen Volcano represent the feeding magma for Klyuchevskoy Volcano. Rocks from Kamen stratovolcano and Bezymianny form a common trend on all major element diagrams, indicating their genetic proximity. This suggests that Bezymianny Volcano inherited the feeding magma system of extinct Kamen Volcano. The observed geochemical diversity of rocks from the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes can be explained as the result of both gradual depletion over time of the mantle N-MORB-type source due to the intense previous magmatic events in this area, and the addition of distinct fluids to this mantle source.

  13. Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia: 2010-2012 Eruptive Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, E.; Droznin, V.; Malik, N.; Muravyev, Y.

    2012-12-01

    New eruptive activity at Kizimen Volcano began in October 2010 after 1.5 years of seismic build up. Two vents located at the summit of the volcano had been producing occasional steam-and-gas emissions with traces of ash until early December. Kizimen is located at a junction between Shapensky graben in the Central Kamchatka Depression and a horst of Tumrok Ridge. Kizimen is a 2376 m a.s.l. complex stratovolcano. The only single eruption reported in historic time occurred from December 1928 to January 1929. Little is known about the volcano; explosive activity was preceded by strong local earthquakes, and ashfalls were reported in neighboring settlements. During the period between eruptions the volcano was producing constant fumarolic activity, reported since 1825. During the cause of the current (2010-2012) eruption, the volcano produced several eruptive phases: moderate explosive activity was observed from December 10, 2010 to late February 2011 (ashfalls and descend of pyroclastic flows resulted in a large lahar traveling along the valley of the Poperechny Creek on December 13, 2010); from late February to mid-December the volcano produced an explosive-effusive phase (the lava flow descended eastern flank, while explosive activity has decreased), which resulted in strong explosions on December 14, 2011 accompanied by scores of pyroclastic flows of various thickness to the NE foot on the volcano. Since then, a constant growth of the large lava flow has been accompanied by strong steam-and-gas emissions from the summit crater. The erupted materials are tephra and deposits of pyroclastic and lava flows consisted of high-aluminous andesites and dacites of potassium-sodium series: SiO2 content varied from 61% in December 2010 to 65-68% in January-February 2011, and up to 62% in December 2011. Ashfalls area exceeded 100 km2 (the weight of erupted tephra > 107 tons), while the total area of pyroclastic flows was estimated to be 15.5 km2 (V= 0.16 km3). Until late May 2012

  14. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitseva, O. A.; Melekestsev, I. V.; Ponomareva, V. V.; Sulerzhitsky, L. D.

    1995-12-01

    The ages of most of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region have been determined by extensive geological, geomorphological, tephrochronological and isotopic geochronological studies, including more than 600 14C dates. Eight ‘Krakatoa-type’ and three ‘Hawaiian-type’ calderas and no less than three large explosive craters formed here during the Holocene. Most of the Late Pleistocene Krakatoa-type calderas were established around 30 000 40 000 years ago. The active volcanoes are geologically very young, with maximum ages of about 40 000 50 000 years. The overwhelming majority of recently active volcanic cones originated at the very end of the Late Pleistocene or in the Holocene. These studies show that all Holocene stratovolcanoes in Kamchatka were emplaced in the Holocene only in the Eastern volcanic belt. Periods of synchronous, intensified Holocene volcanic activity occurred within the time intervals of 7500 7800 and 1300 1800 14C years BP.

  15. 2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O.A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  16. Volcanic structure and composition of Old Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbach, Natalia; Portnyagin, Maxim; Tembrel, Igor

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports results of a new comprehensive geological mapping of the Late Pleistocene Old Shiveluch volcano. The mapping results and geochemical data on major and trace element composition of the volcanic rocks are used to characterize spatial distribution, eruptive sequence and volumetric relationships between different rock types of the volcano. Old Shiveluch volcano had been constructed during two main stages: initial explosive and subsequent effusive ones. Pyroclastic deposits of the initial stage are represented by agglomerate and psephytic tuffs with very few lava flows and form at least 60% of volume of the Old Shiveluch edifice. The deposits of the second stage are dominantly lava flows erupted from four vents: Central, Western, Baidarny and Southern, reconstructed from the field relationships of their lava flows. About 75% of the Old Shiveluch edifice, both pyroclastic deposits and lava, are composed of magnesian andesites (SiO2 = 57.3-63.8 wt.%, Mg# = 0.53-0.57). The most abundant andesitic lavas were coevally erupted from the Central and Western vents in the central part of the edifice. Less voluminous high-Al basaltic andesites (SiO2 = 53.5-55.7 wt.%, Mg# = 0.52-0.56) were produced by the Western, Baidarny and Southern vents situated in the south-western sector. Small volume high-Mg basaltic andesites (SiO2 = 53.9-55.0 wt.%, Mg# = 0.59-0.64) occur in the upper part of the pyroclastic deposits. Andesites of Old and Young Shiveluch Volcanoes have similar compositions, whereas Old Shiveluch basaltic andesites are compositionally distinctive from those of the Young Shiveluch by having lower Mg#, SiO2, Cr and Ni, and higher Al2O3, FeOT, CaO, TiO2, and V contents at given MgO. Geochemical modeling suggests that the compositions of the intermediate Old Shiveluch magmas can be reasonably explained by simple fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and magnetite (± hornblende) from water-bearing (~ 3 wt.% H2O) high-Mg# basaltic

  17. Seismic activity related to the degassing of the Gorely volcano (Kamchatka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramenkov, S. S.; Shapiro, N.; Koulakov, I.; Abkadyirov, I.; Frank, W.; Jakovlev, A.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed continuous seismic records from a temporary network of 21 broadband seismograph that we installed in Gorely volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) between August 2013 and August 2014. During the studied period, the activity of Gorely was characterized by a sustained gas emission. We developed a source scanning algorithm based on summation of seismogram envelopes to automatically detect seismic events characterized by emerging signals without clear arrivals of P or S waves. With the help of this method, we detected and located numerous events originated from the vicinity of the main crater and caused by the volcano degassing. We then studied variations in spatio-temporal distribution of this seismic emission to characterize the evolution of the volcanic activity.

  18. Explosions of andesitic volcanoes in Kamchatka and danger of volcanic ash clouds to aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, E. I.; Girina, O. A.; Neal, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    There are 30 active volcanoes in Kamchatka and 4 of them continuously active. The explosions of andesitic volcanoes (Bezymianny and Sheveluch) produce strong and fast ash plumes, which can rich high altitude (up to 15 km) in short time. Bezymianny and Sheveluch are the most active volcanoes of Kamchatka. A growth of the lava dome of Bezymianny into the explosive crater continues from 1956 till present. Nine strong explosive eruptions of the volcano associated with the dome-building activity occurred for last 5 years in: 2005, January 11 and November 30; 2006, May 09 and December 24; 2007, May 11 and October 14-15; 2008, August 19; 2009, December 16-17 and 2010, May 31. Since 1980, a lava dome of Sheveluch has being growing at the bottom of the explosive crater, which has formed as the result of the catastrophic eruption in 1964. Strong explosive eruptions of the volcano associated with the dome-building activity occurred in: 1993, April 22; 2001, May 19-21; 2004, May 09; 2005, February 27 and September 22; 2006, December 25-26; 2007, March 29 and December 19; 2009, April 26-28 and September 10-11. Strong explosive eruption of andesitic volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Volcanic ash is an extremely abrasive, as it consists of acute-angled rock fragments and volcanic glass. Due to the high specific surface of andesitic ash particles are capable of retaining an electrostatic charge and absorb droplets of water and corrosive acids. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. To reduce the risk of collision of aircraft with ash clouds of Kamchatkan volcanoes, was

  19. 2009 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Girina, Olga A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  20. 1996 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    During 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity, anomalous seismicity, or suspected volcanic activity at 10 of the approximately 40 active volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. As part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also disseminated information about eruptions and other volcanic unrest at six volcanic centers on the Kamchatka Peninsula and in the Kurile Islands, Russia.

  1. Pre-eruptive storage conditions of the Holocene dacite erupted from Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browne, B.; Izbekov, P.; Eichelberger, J.; Churikova, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of the pre-eruptive conditions (T, P and fO2) of dacite magma erupted during the KZI cycle (12,000-8400 years ago) of Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka, the earliest, most voluminous and most explosive eruption cycle in the Kizimen record. Hydrothermal, water-saturated experiments on KZI dacite pumice coupled with titanomagnetite-ilmenite geothermometry calculations require that the KZI dacite existed at a temperature of 823 ?? 20??C and pressures of 125-150 MPa immediately prior to eruption. This estimate corresponds to a lithologic contact between Miocene volcaniclastic rocks and Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks located at a depth of 5-6 km beneath the Kizimen edifice, which may have facilitated the accumulation of atypically large volumes of gas-rich dacite during the KZI cycle.

  2. Gold recycling and enrichment beneath volcanoes: A case study of Tolbachik, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, Michael; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Hedenquist, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Magmas supply metals to hydrothermal ore deposits, although typical arc basalts may be unable to produce a gold-rich ore-forming fluid, as such basalts rarely exceed 5 ppb Au. Consistent with this, the occurrence of native gold of magmatic origin is extremely rare, and only a few finds of micron-sized gold particles in unaltered basalts have been documented. Surprisingly, some lava flows and scoria cones of the historic basaltic eruptions of Tolbachik volcano (Kamchatka) are unusually gold-rich. Tolbachik basalts contain up to 11.6 ppb Au based on whole rock analyses, nuggets of gold (electrum) up to 900 μm in size and native gold droplets up to 200 μm, plus numerous vapor-deposited gold crystals within fumarolic incrustations and directly on surfaces of basaltic lapilli. Our results demonstrate that the gold nuggets in Tolbachik basalt are of hydrothermal origin and were physically scavenged from epithermal veins hosted by country rocks during intrusion of mafic magmas. Depending on the melt temperature and/or time span of the melt-rock interaction, gold was ejected by the erupting volcano either in the form of abraded nuggets or liquid droplets, or was fully assimilated (dissolved) into the shallow long-lived magma chamber to provide a 4-fold increase in gold content over background concentration of 2.7 ppb Au, characteristic of mafic volcanic rocks in Kamchatka. Upon the end of the eruption, the continued discharge of volcanic vapors enriched in gold deposited abundant crystals of gold on cooling lava and scoria. Similar to Tolbachik, recycling of metals from prior accumulations (ore deposits) in the shallow crust may take place in other long-lived magma reservoirs, thus upgrading the gold and other metal contents and contributing to the ore-forming potential of a magma.

  3. Third International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.

  4. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  5. 2007 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Dixon, James P.; Malik, Nataliya; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2007. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Pavlof, one of Alaska's most frequently active volcanoes. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the autumn of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of steam and volcanic gas into 2007. Redoubt Volcano showed the first signs of the unrest that would unfold in 2008-09. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  6. Dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of lahar activity and triggers: Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaorni, E.; Stoffel, M.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.; Seynova, I.; Sorg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Lahars are highly concentrated, water-saturated volcanic hyperconcentrated flows or debris flows containing pyroclastic material and are a characteristic mass movement process on volcanic slopes. On Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Federation), lahars are widespread and may affect remote settlements. Historical records of past lahar occurrences are generally sparse and mostly limited to events which damaged infrastructure on the slopes or at the foot of volcanoes. In this study, we present a tree-ring-based reconstruction of spatiotemporal patterns of past lahar activity at Shiveluch volcano. Using increment cores and cross sections from 126 Larix cajanderi trees, we document 34 events covering the period AD 1729-2012. Analyses of the seasonality of damage in trees reveal that 95% of all lahars occurred between October and May and thus point to the predominant role of the sudden melt of the snow cover by volcanic material. These observations suggest that most lahars were likely syn-eruptive and that lahar activity is largely restricted to periods of volcanic activity. By contrast, rainfall events do not seem to play a significant role in lahar triggering.

  7. Carbonado-like diamond from the Avacha active volcano in Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Wirth, Richard; Anikin, Leonid P.; Morales, Luiz; Schreiber, Anja

    2016-11-01

    In addition to a series of finds of diamond in mafic volcanic and ultramafic massive rocks in Kamchatka, Russia, a carbonado-like diamond aggregate was identified in recent lavas of the active Avacha volcano. This aggregate differs from 'classic carbonado' by its location within an active volcanic arc, well-formed diamond crystallites, and cementing by Si-containing aggregates rather than sintering. The carbonado-like aggregate contains inclusions of Mn-Ni-Si-Fe alloys, native β-Mn, tungsten and boron carbides, which are uncommon for both carbonado and monocrystalline diamonds. Mn-Ni-Si-Fe alloys, trigonal W2C and trigonal B4C are new mineral species that were not previously found in the natural environment. The formation of the carbonado-like diamond aggregate started with formation at 850-1000 °C of tungsten and boron carbides, Mn-Ni-Si-Fe alloys and native β-Mn, which were used as seeds for the subsequent crystallization of micro-sized diamond aggregate. In the final stage, the diamond aggregate was cemented by amorphous silica, tridymite, β-SiC, and native silicon. The carbonado-like aggregate was most likely formed at near-atmospheric pressure conditions via the CVD mechanism during the course or shortly after one of the volcanic eruption pulses of the Avacha volcano. Volcanic gases played a great role in the formation of the carbonado-like aggregate.

  8. Geochemistry of the Koshelev Volcano-Hydrothermal System, Southern Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Y.; Kalacheva, E.

    2015-12-01

    Koshelev is the southernmost volcano of the Kamchatkan volcanic front where magmatic plumbing systems of the Kamchatkan subduction zone cross a thick layer of the oil-gas-bearing Neogene sedimentary strata of Western Kamchatka. The volcanic massive hosts a powerful hydrothermal system, which has been drilled in early 1980s. Deep wells tapped a hot (ca. 300ºC) saline solution (up to 40 g/L of Cl), whereas the upper part of the system is a typical steam cap with temperature close to 240ºC. Two hydrothermal fields of the volcano (Upper and Lower) discharge saturated or super-heated (up to 150ºC) steam and are characterized by numerous hot pools and low flow-rate springs of steam-heated waters enriched in boron and ammonia. There is also a small lateral group of warm Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 springs (40ºC). We report here our data and review the literature geochemical data on the chemical and isotopic composition of waters and hydrothermal vapours of the Koshelev system. Data on the gas composition include He and C isotopes, as well as the chemical and isotopic composition of light hydrocarbons. Water geochemistry includes literature data on water isotopes of the deep brine and trace elements and REE of steam-heated waters. A conceptual model of the system is presented and discussed.

  9. Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilenko, Maxim; Ozerov, Alexey; Kyle, Philip R.; Carr, Michael J.; Nikulin, Alex; Vidito, Christopher; Danyushevsky, Leonid

    2016-07-01

    A series of large caldera-forming eruptions (361-38 ka) transformed Gorely volcano, southern Kamchatka Peninsula, from a shield-type system dominated by fractional crystallization processes to a composite volcanic center, exhibiting geochemical evidence of magma mixing. Old Gorely, an early shield volcano (700-361 ka), was followed by Young Gorely eruptions. Calc-alkaline high magnesium basalt to rhyolite lavas have been erupted from Gorely volcano since the Pleistocene. Fractional crystallization dominated evolution of the Old Gorely magmas, whereas magma mixing is more prominent in the Young Gorely eruptive products. The role of recharge-evacuation processes in Gorely magma evolution is negligible (a closed magmatic system); however, crustal rock assimilation plays a significant role for the evolved magmas. Most Gorely magmas differentiate in a shallow magmatic system at pressures up to 300 MPa, ˜3 wt% H2O, and oxygen fugacity of ˜QFM + 1.5 log units. Magma temperatures of 1123-1218 °C were measured using aluminum distribution between olivine and spinel in Old and Young Gorely basalts. The crystallization sequence of major minerals for Old Gorely was as follows: olivine and spinel (Ol + Sp) for mafic compositions (more than 5 wt% of MgO); clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at ˜5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag) and magnetite at ˜3.5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag + Mt). We show that the shallow magma chamber evolution of Old Gorely occurs under conditions of decompression and degassing. We find that the caldera-forming eruption(s) modified the magma plumbing geometry. This led to a change in the dominant magma evolution process from fractional crystallization to magma mixing. We further suggest that disruption of the magma chamber and accompanying change in differentiation process have the potential to transform a shield volcanic system to that of composite cone on a global scale.

  10. Stratigraphic features of firn as proxy climate signals at the summit ice cap of Ushkovsky volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Muravyev, Y.D.

    1997-11-01

    Field observations were conducted at the summit ice cap of the Ushkovsky volcano, central Kamchatka, in the summer of 1996, in order to evaluate the potential of the ice cap for reconstruction of the past climate over Kamchatka. A 27-m-long firn-core contains an approximate 27-yr record of net balance with an average accumulation rate of 0.57 m a{sup -1} water equivalent. The temperature of the firn is -16.5{degrees}C at 10-m depth. Average annual accumulation rates are calculated by reference to dated ash layers and amount to between 0.38 and 0.88 m a{sup -1} during six fixed periods. Depth and age of pore close-off are calculated as 58 m and 66 yr at this site by empirical formulas. Comparisons of the accumulation rates with winter precipitation at lowland stations indicate that there is a positive relationship with winter precipitation on the eastern and western coasts of the peninsula. We cannot find a clear relation between the rates and annual average sea-ice extent in the Sea of Okhotsk, which implies the vapor source to the ice cap could have been the North Pacific. Melt feature percentage in the firn core displays a clear positive relationship with summer air temperature at 700 hPa over Kamchatka. The result obtained suggests that the ice cap has potential for the reconstruction of paleoclimate over the Kamchatka Peninsula. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  11. 2006 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Manevich, Alexander; Rybin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2006. A significant explosive eruption at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet marked the first eruption within several hundred kilometers of principal population centers in Alaska since 1992. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the fall of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of volcanic gas into 2007. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  12. 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

  13. The December 2009 and May 2010 eruptions of Bezymianny volcano, Kamchatka: Interpretation of the GPS Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Freymueller, J. T.; Serovetnikov, S.

    2010-12-01

    Bezymianny Volcano in Kamchatka reactivated after a roughly 1000 year hiatus in 1956 with an eruption that culminated into a directed blast removing about 0.6 km3 of material from the edifice. Today eruptive activity occurs roughly every 6 months with a violent explosion lasting for 2 - 20 minutes that creates lava flows and pyroclastic flows. In 2005 the volcano was instrumented with an array of 6 campaign and 8 continuous GPS stations, none of which are telemetered. Since then 6 explosive eruptions (VEI 2-3) occurred but only the December 2009 and May 2010 events were recorded by an almost fully intact network with only two continuous sites out of service due to bear attacks. The closest site on the flanks of Bezymianny volcano, BZ09, faithfully recorded both explosive events until it was struck by a volcanic bomb on May 31, 2010. The campaign sites have been measured during annual summer field work during which we also recovered data of the continuous sites. We analyze the data in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) using the GIPSY/OASIS software and find a relatively uniform network wide subsidence of about 7-9 mm yr-1 for the observation period from 2005 to 2010. Horizontal motions are generally smaller in magnitude which suggests depressurization of a deeply seated magma reservoir, a regional surface loading effect, or a combination of these. Surface load effects could be induced by the new dome growing inside Bezymianny's horseshoe shaped crater and other material emplaced during the regular eruptions. Effects due to the majestic Kliuchevskoy volcano to the North of Bezymianny should also be taken into consideration. Preliminary analysis of pre-eruptive displacements shows little to no inflationary signal in the near field prior to the explosive events in 2009 and 2010 which suggests a deeply seated magma source. We remove seasonal signals using both gravity data (GRACE) and extrapolation of GPS data undisturbed by volcanic signals. We

  14. Petrology and volatile content of magmas erupted from Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, 2012-13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plechov, Pavel; Blundy, Jon; Nekrylov, Nikolay; Melekhova, Elena; Shcherbakov, Vasily; Tikhonova, Margarita S.

    2015-12-01

    We report petrography, and bulk rock, mineral and glass analyses of eruptive products of the 2012-13 eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Central Kamchatka Depression, Russia. Magmas are shoshonitic in composition, with phenocrysts of olivine and plagioclase; clinopyroxene phenocrysts are scarce. Samples collected as bombs from the active vent, from liquid lava at the active lava front, and as naturally solidified "toothpaste" lava allow us to quantify changes in porosity and crystallinity that took place during 5.25 km of lava flow and during solidification. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from rapidly-cooled, mm-size tephra have near-constant H2O contents (1.19 ± 0.1 wt%) over a wide range of CO2 contents (< 900 ppm), consistent with degassing. The groundmass glasses from tephras lie at the shallow end of this degassing trend with 0.3 wt% H2O and 50 ppm CO2. The presence of small saturation, rather than shrinkage, bubbles testifies to volatile saturation at the time of entrapment. Calculated saturation pressures are 0.3 to 1.7 kbar, in agreement with the depths of earthquake swarms during November 2012 (0.6 to 7.5 km below the volcano). Melt inclusions from slowly-cooled and hot-collected lavas have H2O contents that are lower by an order of magnitude than tephras, despite comparable CO2 contents. We ascribe this to diffusive H2O loss through olivine host crystals during cooling. The absence of shrinkage bubbles in the inclusions accounts for the lack of reduction in dissolved CO2 (and S and Cl). Melt inclusions from tephras experienced < 3 wt% post-entrapment crystallisation. Melt inclusion entrapment temperatures are around 1080 °C. Compared to magmas erupted elsewhere in the Kluchevskoy Group, the 2012-13 Tolbachik magmas appear to derive from an unusually H2O-poor and K2O-rich basaltic parent.

  15. Depth of the main crustal and mantle interfaces beneath the Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) based on the receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Arseny; Woelbern, Ingo; Nikulin, Alex; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Gordeev, Evgeny; Abkadyrov, Ilyas

    2016-04-01

    Gorely volcano is located in the southern part of the Kamchatka peninsula. It is two-tier structure with an old shield volcano at the base and a younger edifice on the top. The subducting Pacific oceanic Plate is located at the depth of 120 km beneath the volcano. The receiver function method was used to investigate the 1D structure beneath the volcano. From the continuous yearly seismograms recorded by a temporary network consisting of 16 seismic stations, we selected more than 600 records corresponding to teleseismic events which were used for the receiver function analysis. Based on the method by Zhu and Kanamory, we have determined the depth of the Moho interface at 38 km and that of the Conrad discontinuity at 26 km. These values correspond to the well exposed continental crust. The receiver functions also provide a rather prominent signal corresponding to a discontinuity at ~300 km depth; however, no clear signatures of deeper interfaces and slab interfaces are determined in this study. This study is the first attempt to determine the depth of the major interfaces beneath the Gorely volcano.

  16. Tephra from andesitic Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, NW Pacific: chronology of explosive eruptions and geochemical fingerprinting of volcanic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, Vera; Portnyagin, Maxim; Pevzner, Maria; Blaauw, Maarten; Kyle, Philip; Derkachev, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The ~16-ka-long record of explosive eruptions from Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka, NW Pacific) is refined using geochemical fingerprinting of tephra and radiocarbon ages. Volcanic glass from 77 prominent Holocene tephras and four Late Glacial tephra packages was analyzed by electron microprobe. Eruption ages were estimated using 113 radiocarbon dates for proximal tephra sequence. These radiocarbon dates were combined with 76 dates for regional Kamchatka marker tephra layers into a single Bayesian framework taking into account the stratigraphic ordering within and between the sites. As a result, we report ~1,700 high-quality glass analyses from Late Glacial-Holocene Shiveluch eruptions of known ages. These define the magmatic evolution of the volcano and provide a reference for correlations with distal fall deposits. Shiveluch tephras represent two major types of magmas, which have been feeding the volcano during the Late Glacial-Holocene time: Baidarny basaltic andesites and Young Shiveluch andesites. Baidarny tephras erupted mostly during the Late Glacial time (~16-12.8 ka BP) but persisted into the Holocene as subordinate admixture to the prevailing Young Shiveluch andesitic tephras (~12.7 ka BP-present). Baidarny basaltic andesite tephras have trachyandesite and trachydacite (SiO2 < 71.5 wt%) glasses. The Young Shiveluch andesite tephras have rhyolitic glasses (SiO2 > 71.5 wt%). Strongly calc-alkaline medium-K characteristics of Shiveluch volcanic glasses along with moderate Cl, CaO and low P2O5 contents permit reliable discrimination of Shiveluch tephras from the majority of other large Holocene tephras of Kamchatka. The Young Shiveluch glasses exhibit wave-like variations in SiO2 contents through time that may reflect alternating periods of high and low frequency/volume of magma supply to deep magma reservoirs beneath the volcano. The compositional variability of Shiveluch glass allows geochemical fingerprinting of individual Shiveluch tephra layers which along

  17. Compositional and Textural Trends at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia 1956 to 2006: Implications for Magma Storage and Eruption Response at Volcanoes That Have Experienced Edifice Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Pire Team, *

    2006-12-01

    The common volcanic sequence consisting of shallow intrusion, edifice collapse, paroxysmal eruption, and return to predominantly non- explosive behavior may contain important information about what factors control explosive versus effusive volcanism. We hypothesize that the violence and size of the paroxysmal eruption reflects the amplitude of the triggering decompression event and that the duration of subsequent dome-building is due to the reduction of vent elevation. Three historic eruption episodes exhibiting this type of behavior are Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, 1956, Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, 1964 and Mount St. Helens, WA, 1980. During August 2006, we sampled a range of eruption products at Bezymianny, including; (1) ash from pre-1956 eruption (2) 1956 crytpodome, blast material and pyroclastic flow deposits from the plinian phase of the eruption (3) 1997 pyroclastic flow deposits (4) 2005 mafic enclaves and silicic hosts, and breadcrust bombs (5) breadcrust bombs from the most recent eruption on May 9, 2006. Results from whole rock and electron microprobe analyses will be presented. At this point it is clear from both bulk chemical trends and appearance of mafic enclaves that new mafic magma continues to enter the system, even 50 years after the paroxysmal event. Such recharge may also be responsible for increasing fluidity and explosiveness of eruption products.

  18. [Plant biomorphology and seed germination of pioneer species of the Kamchatka volcanoes].

    PubMed

    Voronkova, N M; Kholina, A B; Verkholat, V P

    2008-01-01

    Biomorphology, quantitative characters and seed germination of 17 pioneer plant species friable materials of volcanic eruptions (Kamchatka Peninsula) were studied. Adaptive trends in survival stress conditions are discussed. To evaluate a possibility of the cryogenic seed storage, their response to ultra low temperatures (-196 degrees C) was determine.

  19. Partners in International Research and Education: Student Contributions to the Collaborative Investigation of Bezymianny, Shiveluch, and Karymsky Volcanoes, Kamchatka, Russia and Mount St. Helens, WA, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Kayzar, T. M.; Team, P.

    2008-12-01

    Undergraduate and graduate students as well as senior researchers from the U.S., Russia, and Japan are investigating volcanism as participants of the National Science Foundation initiative Partners in International Research and Education (PIRE). The goal of this study is to use the benefits of global comparisons to increase our understanding of explosive volcanism while at the same time developing international collaboration between scientists in the U.S., Russia, and Japan. International collaboration is established through field work in Kamchatka, Russia investigating the active systems of Bezymianny, Shiveluch, and Karymsky volcanoes with a specific focus on historic collapse-blast type eruptions. The Kamchatka volcanic arc provides unique access to multiple active volcanic systems that can be compared and contrasted to the well-studied behavior at Mount St. Helens, WA., USA. Conversely, Mount St. Helens also provides a field setting for Russian and Japanese students to be incorporated in U.S. research. Student participants employ their respective techniques in geochemistry, geophysics, petrology, and remote sensing to study the eruption response of Bezymianny and Shiveluch volcanoes, which have experienced edifice collapse. During the 2008 field season, the increased activity at Bezymianny volcano shortened a planned field expedition. In order to preserve the integrity of the program and provide a safer environment for researchers, alternative field studies began at Karymsky volcano. In July, an anonymously large eruption at Karymsky volcano permitted the collection of unique real-time data of the eruptive event. Here we present student research from three field seasons in the Kamchatka volcanic arc and associated workshops at Mount St. Helens, WA. Results include estimates of magma storage depth, gas emissions measurements, evidence for dynamic thermal regime changes in fresh volcanic deposits, and data constraining magma inputs and sources at each volcano. By

  20. Composition, structure and properties of sediment thermal springs of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, Violetta; Smolyakov, Pavel; Parfenov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the physical and mechanical properties sediment thermal fields Mutnovsky, Lower Koshelevo and Bannyh (Kamchatka). This multi-component soils, mineral and chemical composition of which depends on the formation factors (pH, temperature, salinity of water, composition and structure of the host volcanic rocks). Samples Lower Koshelevo sediment thermal sources differ in the following composition: smectite, kaolinite, kaolinite-smectite mixed-mineral. Samples of sediment thermal springs Mutnovsky volcano in accordance with the X-ray analysis has the following composition: volcanic glass, crystalline sulfur, plagioclase, smectite, illite-smectite mixed, illite, chlorite, quartz, cristobalite, pyrite, melanterite, kaolinite. Natural moisture content samples of sediment thermal springs from 45 to 121%, hygroscopic moisture content of 1.3 to 3.7%. A large amount of native sulfur (up to 92%) and the presence of amorphous material gives low values of density of solid particles (up to 2.1 g/cm3) samples Mutnovskii thermal field. The values of the density of solids sediment Koshelevo and Bannyh hot springs close to those of the main components of mineral densities (up to 2.6-3.0 g/cm3). The results of the particle size distribution and microaggregate analysis of sediment thermal springs Lower Koshelevo field shows that the predominance observed of particles with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm, the coefficient of soil heterogeneity heterogeneous. In the bottom sediments of the thermal springs of the volcano Mutnovsky poorly traced predominance of one faction. Most prevalent fraction with particle size 0.01 - 0.05 mm. When analyzing the content in the soil microaggregates their content is shifted towards particles with a diameter of 0.25 mm. The contents of a large number of large (1-10 mm), porous rock fragments, due to the deposition of pyroclastic material from the eruptions of the last century. Present in large amounts rounded crystals of native sulfur

  1. Toward a general view of mantle peridotite beneath the volcanic front: petrology of peridotite xenoliths from Bezymyanny volcano (central Kamchatka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, S.; Arai, S.; Tamura, A.; Okrugin, V. M.; Shcherbakov, V.; Plechov, P.

    2012-04-01

    We have a large amount of data about petrological and geochemical features of upper mantle peridotites based on researches of mantle xenoliths, ophiolites or solid intrusions. But the nature of sub-arc mantle, especially beneath a volcanic front, has not been fully understood due to the scarcity of occurrences of mantle-derived materials there. Kamchatka Peninsula is one of the active volcanic arcs, having 29 active volcanoes, and 13 volcanoes of them contain cognate or mantle peridotite xenoliths (Erlich et al., 1979). Peridotite xenoliths derived from the upper mantle beneath the volcanic front are expected from 9 of them (Erlich et al., 1979). Avachinsky (Avacha) volcano is the most famous of them because of its easy accessibility and high xenolith production. Peridotite xenoliths from Avacha record high degree of melting and multiple stages of metasomatism (e.g., Ishimaru et al., 2007; Ionov, 2010). Formation of secondary orthopyroxenes replacing olivine is one of characteristics of arc-derived peridotite xenoliths (e.g., Arai & Kida, 2000; McInnes et al., 2001). In addition, we found peculiar metasomatisms, e.g., Ni enrichment (e.g., Ishimaru and Arai, 2008), in the Avacha peridotite xenolith suite. Here, we show petrological and geochemical features of ultramafic xenoliths from Bezymyanny volcano, central Kamchatka, to obtain a more generalized view of the sub-front mantle. We examined 2 harzburgite xenoliths from Bezymyanny. They are composed of fine-grained minerals (cf. Arai and Kida, 2000), and occasionally contain hornblende and/or phlogopite. Almost all orthopyroxenes show irregular shapes and replace olivine, indicating a secondary origin. At the boundary between the harzburgite and host andesite, we observed hornblende and secondary orthopyroxenes. At the xenoliths' interior, Fo content of olivine and Cr# (= Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio) of chromian spinel are high, 91-92 and 0.43-0.69, respectively, and the Fo content decreases to 76 at the boundary

  2. Phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive magma storage conditions for the 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Vasily D.; Neill, Owen K.; Izbekov, Pavel E.; Plechov, Pavel Yu.

    2013-08-01

    Phase equilibria experiments were performed on andesites from the catastrophic 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, to determine pre-eruptive magma storage conditions. Fifteen experiments were conducted under water-saturated conditions, with oxygen fugacity equal to the Ni-NiO oxygen buffer, at temperatures between 775 and 1100 °C and pressures between 50 and 200 MPa. Simultaneous amphibole and plagioclase crystallization is reproduced at ≤ 850 °C and ≥ 200 MPa. The simultaneous crystallization temperature range of the plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-Fe-Ti oxide assemblage increases with decreasing pressure, from 840 to 940 °C at 150 MPa to 940-1020 °C at 50 MPa. Melt inclusion compositions in plagioclase phenocrysts and matrix glass match experimental melt compositions reproduced at 50-100 MPa and ≤ 50 MPa, respectively. Presence of the silica phase in groundmass and mature amphibole breakdown rims suggests that magma has been stored at ca. 3 km depth prior to the final ascent for at least 40 days. Syn-eruptive ascent led to decompression-driven crystallization, which caused a temperature increase from 850-900 °C to 950-1000 °C.

  3. Characterization of volcanic activity using observations of infrasound, volcanic emissions, and thermal imagery at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, T.; Fee, D.; Prata, F.

    2012-04-01

    Karymsky Volcano is one of the most active and dynamic volcanoes in Kamchatka, with activity ranging from vigorous degassing, frequent ash emissions, and apparent vent sealing, all punctuated by daily to weekly explosive magmatic eruptions. Recent studies have highlighted the strengths in using complementary infrasound measurements and remote volcanic emission measurements to characterize volcanic activity, with the potential to discriminate emission-type, approximate ash-cloud height, and estimate SO2 emission mass. Here we use coincident measurements of infrasound, SO2, ash, and thermal radiation collected over a ten day period at Karymsky Volcano in August 2011 to characterize the observed activity and elucidate vent processes. The ultimate goal of this project is to enable different types of volcanic activity to be identified using only infrasound data, which would significantly improve our ability to continuously monitor remote volcanoes. Four types of activity were observed. Type 1 activity is characterized by discrete ash emissions occurring every 1 - 5 minutes that either jet or roil out of the vent, by plumes from 500 - 1500 m (above vent) altitudes, and by impulsive infrasonic onsets. Type 2 activity is characterized by periodic pulses of gas emission, little or no ash, low altitude (100 - 200 m) plumes, and strong audible jetting or roaring. Type 3 activity is characterized by sustained emissions of ash and gas, with multiple pulses lasting from ~1 - 3 minutes, and by plumes from 300 - 1500 m. Type 4 activity is characterized by periods of relatively long duration (~30 minutes to >1 hour) quiescence, no visible plume and weak SO2 emissions at or near the detection limit, followed by an explosive, magmatic eruption, producing ash-rich plumes to >2000 m, and centimeter to meter (or greater) sized pyroclastic bombs that roll down the flanks of the edifice. Eruption onset is accompanied by high-amplitude infrasound and occasionally visible shock

  4. A novel thermophilic methane-oxidizing bacteria from thermal springs of Uzon volcano caldera, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorianchikova, E.; Kizilova, A.; Kravchenko, I.; Galchenko, V.

    2012-04-01

    Methane is a radiatively active trace gas, contributing significantly to the greenhouse effect. It is 26 times more efficient in absorbing and re-emitting infrared radiation than carbon dioxide. Methanotrophs play an essential role in the global carbon cycle by oxidizing 50-75% of the biologically produced methane in situ, before it reaches the atmosphere. Methane-oxidizing bacteria are isolated from the various ecosystems and described at present. Their biology, processes of methane oxidation in fresh-water, marsh, soil and marine habitats are investigated quite well. Processes of methane oxidation in places with extreme physical and chemical conditions (high or low , salinity and temperature values) are studied in much smaller degree. Such ecosystems occupy a considerable part of the Earth's surface. The existence of aerobic methanotrophs inhabiting extreme environments has been verified so far by cultivation experiments and direct detection of methane monooxygenase genes specific to almost all aerobic methanotrophs. Thermophilic and thermotolerant methanotrophs have been isolated from such extreme environments and consist of the gammaproteobacterial (type I) genera Methylothermus, Methylocaldum, Methylococcus and the verrucomicrobial genus Methylacidiphilum. Uzon volcano caldera is a unique area, where volcanic processes still happen today. Hydrothermal springs of the area are extreme ecosystems which microbial communities represent considerable scientific interest of fundamental and applied character. A thermophilic aerobic methane-oxidising bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample from a hot spring (56.1; 5.3) of Uzon caldera. Strain S21 was isolated using mineral low salt medium. The headspace gas was composed of CH4, Ar, CO2, and O2 (40:40:15:5). The temperature of cultivation was 50, pH 5.5. Cells of strain S21 in exponential and early-stationary phase were coccoid bacilli, about 1 μm in diameter, and motile with a single polar flagellum. PCR and

  5. Evidences for high gas content beneath the Gorely volcano in Kamchatka (Russia) based on very low Vp/Vs ratio revealed from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Ilyich Gordeev, Evgeny; Nikolaevich Chebrov, Viktor

    2015-04-01

    The Gorely volcano, which is located at distance of 70 km from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka. Nowadays, a large fumarole inside the volcano crater ejects approximately 11,000 tons of gases daily. During the last thousands years, eruptions in Gorely were mostly basaltic that determined the shield type of the volcano. However, a large caldera of ~20 km diameter dated at approximately 30,000 years indicates that the volcano has high explosive potential. To identify the feeding mechanisms and to assess the possibility of future large eruptions, scientists from IPGG, Novosibirsk, have deployed the first temporary seismic network on the Gorely volcano. This network consisted of 21 uniformly distributed seismic stations that operated for one year from August 2013 to July 2014. Most of the time during the observation period, dozens to hundreds events per day and frequent tremors were recorded which indicated significant activity inside the volcano. As a result of preliminary processing, almost 300 events were identified during only several weeks of recording. The available distributions of events and stations enables fairly high resolution in the derived seismic velocity models, as demonstrated by a number of synthetic tests. A striking feature of the tomographic inversion is an average ratio of Vp/Vs=1.53, which is an exceptionally low compared to other volcanic areas. We propose that this low Vp/Vs ratio is a signature of high content of gases beneath the volcano. Higher values of Vp/Vs beneath the crater below ~2 km depth might indicate some presence of liquid water, which comes from deeper sources and is transformed to the steam at shallower levels due to the decompression. It appears that Gorely is a kind of a huge steam boiler covered with a solid cover consisting of previously erupted basaltic layers. The fumarole inside the crater plays the role of safety valve which prevents the accumulation of excessive pressure inside

  6. Lava emplacements at Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka) from June 2011 to September 2014 observed by TanDEM-X SAR-Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Alexandra; Kubanek, Julia; Westerhaus, Malte; Gottschämmer, Ellen; Heck, Bernhard; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Ring of Fire, Shiveluch volcano is one of the largest and most active volcanoes on Kamchatka Peninsula. During the Holocene, only the southern part of the Shiveluch massive was active. Since the last Plinian eruption in 1964, the activity of Shiveluch is characterized by periods of dome growth and explosive eruptions. The recent active phase began in 1999 and continues until today. Due to the special conditions at active volcanoes, such as smoke development, danger of explosions or lava flows, as well as poor weather conditions and inaccessible area, it is difficult to observe the interaction between dome growth, dome destruction, and explosive eruptions in regular intervals. Consequently, a reconstruction of the eruption processes is hardly possible, though important for a better understanding of the eruption mechanism as well as for hazard forecast and risk assessment. A new approach is provided by the bistatic radar data acquired by the TanDEM-X satellite mission. This mission is composed of two nearly identical satellites, TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X, flying in a close helix formation. On one hand, the radar signals penetrate clouds and partially vegetation and snow considering the average wavelength of about 3.1 cm. On the other hand, in comparison with conventional InSAR methods, the bistatic radar mode has the advantage that there are no difficulties due to temporal decorrelation. By interferometric evaluation of the simultaneously recorded SAR images, it is possible to calculate high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of Shiveluch volcano and its surroundings. Furthermore, the short recurrence interval of 11 days allows to generate time series of DEMs, with which finally volumetric changes of the dome and of lava flows can be determined, as well as lava effusion rates. Here, this method is used at Shiveluch volcano based on data acquired between June 2011 and September 2014. Although Shiveluch has a fissured topography with steep slopes

  7. Kamchatkan Volcanoes Explosive Eruptions in 2014 and Danger to Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014, three of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2014: on January 08 and 12, May 12, September 24, October 02 and 28, November 16, 22 and 26, and December 05, 17, 26 and 29: ash plumes rose up to 9-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the eastern and western directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on January 12, June 11, and November 16). Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Karymsky volcano has been in a state of explosive eruption since 1996. The moderate ash explosions of this volcano were noting during 2014: from March 24 till April 02; and from September 03 till December 10. Ash plumes rose up to 5 km a.s.l. and extended more 300 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Activity of the volcano was dangerous to local aviation. Explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky volcano began on June 06, 2014 and continues in January 2015 too. Ash explosions rose up to 8-10 km a.s.l. on June 19, September 05 and 07, October 11

  8. 1997 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Wallace, Kristi L.

    1999-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors over 40 historically active volcanoes along the Aleutian Arc. Twenty are seismically monitored and for the rest, the AVO monitoring program relies mainly on pilot reports, observations of local residents and ship crews, and daily analysis of satellite images. In 1997, AVO responded to eruptive activity or suspect volcanic activity at 11 volcanic centers: Wrangell, Sanford, Shrub mud volcano, Iliamna, the Katmai group (Martin, Mageik, Snowy, and Kukak volcanoes), Chiginagak, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Okmok, Cleveland, and Amukta. Of these, AVO has real-time, continuously recording seismic networks at Iliamna, the Katmai group, and Pavlof. The phrase “suspect volcanic activity” (SVA), used to characterize several responses, is an eruption report or report of unusual activity that is subsequently determined to be normal or enhanced fumarolic activity, weather-related phenomena, or a non-volcanic event. In addition to responding to eruptive activity at Alaska volcanoes, AVO also disseminated information for the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) about the 1997 activity of 5 Russian volcanoes--Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Karymsky, and Alaid (SVA). This report summarizes volcanic activity and SVA in Alaska during 1997 and the AVO response, as well as information on the reported activity at the Russian volcanoes. Only those reports or inquiries that resulted in a “significant” investment of staff time and energy (here defined as several hours or more for reaction, tracking, and follow-up) are included. AVO typically receives dozens of reports throughout the year of steaming, unusual cloud sightings, or eruption rumors. Most of these are resolved quickly and are not tabulated here as part of the 1997 response record.

  9. 1995 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.

    1996-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity (SVA) at 6 volcanic centers in 1995: Mount Martin (Katmai Group), Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Kliuchef/Korovin, and Kanaga. In addition to responding to eruptive activity at Alaska volcanoes, AVO also disseminated information for the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) on the 1995 eruptions of 2 Russian volcanoes: Bezymianny and Karymsky. This report summarizes volcanic activity in Alaska during 1995 and the AVO response, as well as information on the 2 Kamchatkan eruptions. Only those reports or inquiries that resulted in a "significant" investment of staff time and energy (here defined as several hours or more for reaction, tracking, and follow-up) are included. AVO typically receives dozens of phone calls throughout the year reporting steaming, unusual cloud sightings, or eruption rumors. Most of these are resolved quickly and are not tabulated here as part of the 1995 response record.

  10. Emissions of trace elements during the 2012-2013 effusive eruption of Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka: enrichment factors, partition coefficients and aerosol contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, M.; Malik, N.; Taran, Yu.

    2014-09-01

    Gases and aerosols from the 2012-13 effusive eruption of Tolbachik basaltic volcano, Kamchatka, were sampled in February and May, 2013, from a lava tube window located 300 m from the eruptive crater; temperature at the sampling point was 1060-1070 °C. The chemical and isotopic compositions of the sampled gases (92.4% H2O, 3.5% CO2, 2.3% SO2 on average; δD from - 25.0 to - 38.6‰) correspond to a typical volcanic arc gas without dilution by meteoric or hydrothermal water. Halogen contents in the gases (1.37% HCl, 0.5% HF) were higher than average arc values. The total amount of analyzed metallic and metalloid (trace) elements in the gas exceeded 665 ppm. Six most abundant trace elements, K (250 ppm), Na (220 ppm), Si (74 ppm), Br (48 ppm), Cu (21 ppm) and Fe (12 ppm), accounted for 95% of the total content of trace elements in the gas. The gases contained 24 ppb Re, 12 ppb Ag, 4.9 ppb Au and 0.45 ppb Pt. Refractory rock-forming elements (Mg, Al, Ca) and some other elements such as Ba and Th were transported mainly in the form of silicate microspheres and altered rock particles. The concentrations of metals in the eruptive Tolbachik gases are higher than the corresponding concentrations in high-temperature fumaroles worldwide, although the mutual ratios of the elements are approximately the same. The gas/magma partition coefficients of eleven elements exceed unity, including the non-metals F, S, Cl, Br, As, Se and Te and the rare metals Cd, Re, Tl and Bi. Despite the relatively low concentrations of trace elements in the volcanic gases at the highest temperatures, superficial magma degassing provides information on the sources and sinks of metals.

  11. Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2013 and Danger to Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Petrova, Elena

    2014-05-01

    There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and three of them (Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, and Karymsky) continuously active. In 2013, five of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Klyuchevskoy, Karymsky, Zhupanovsky, and Mutnovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2013: on June 26, on October 18, and on December 03: ash plumes rose up to 10 km a.s.l. and extended about 200-400 km, respectively, to the south-west, south-southeast, and north of the volcano. A form of pyroclastic flow deposits with run-out 12 km accompanied these explosive eruptions. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on June 26) and Ivashka Village (on December 03). Activity of the volcano was dangerous to international and local aviation. Klyuchevskoy volcano had two eruptions in 2013: moderate Strombolian explosive eruption from October 14, 2012, till January 15, 2013; and strong Strombolian-Vulcanian explosive and effusive eruption from August 15, 2013, till December 20, 2013. There were four lava flows to effuse on the north-west, west and south-western volcanic flanks. Probably a flank eruption began at the pass between Klyuchevskoy volcano and Kamen volcano on October 06. Culmination of strong Vulcanian explosive activity of the volcano occurred on October 15-20: ash column rose up to 10-12 km a.s.l. and

  12. Rapid Modal Analysis and Whole-Rock Geochemistry of the 1956-Present Eruptive Products of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Turner, S. J.; Gavrilenko, M.; Izbekov, P. E.; Partners in International Research; Education

    2010-12-01

    Complimentary data sets from whole-rock geochemical analyses including major and trace elements and mineral modal analyses are used to characterize the evolution of magma in the Bezymianny system. Bezymianny Volcano is an ideal laboratory for studies into magmatic evolution at volcanoes which have experienced edifice collapse. A comprehensive sample repository representing over 50 years of volcanic activity provided the unique ability to investigate the factors which sustain the ongoing eruptive activity. Whole-rock geochemical analyses were conducted for major and trace elements using X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS. Whole-rock geochemical analyses suggest a progressive trend to more mafic compositions with 61.0 wt. % SiO2 1956 to 56.6 wt. % SiO2 in 2008. Major element trends are consistent with linear two-component magma mixing. Furthermore, an increase in crystallization temperatures and a transition in the character of effusive eruptions from dome growth to summit lava flow morphology suggest a mafic source entering the system. A modified image analysis method is used for rapid determination of mineral modal measurements and compared to manual analysis of Bezymianny samples. The algorithm includes a combination of three detection techniques: 1) Mahalanobis distance based color analyses, 2) texture analysis using a standard deviation of pixel intensity distribution and 3) grayscale intensity to generate a composite likelihood image. This method demonstrates a low residual error and the product can be used for feature extraction and crystal size distribution analysis. Bulk partition coefficients are calculated based on modal abundance and integrated into trace element modeling to resolve the apparent evolutionary trend in whole-rock data and contribution from mixing components.

  13. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Monitoring of the volcanic rock compositions during the 2012-2013 fissure eruption at Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volynets, Anna O.; Edwards, Benjamin R.; Melnikov, Dmitry; Yakushev, Anton; Griboedova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Here we present the results from monitoring of the composition of rocks produced during the 2012-2013 fissure eruption at Tolbachik volcano (FTE). Major and trace element concentrations in 75 samples are reported. Products of this eruption are represented by high alumina basaltic trachyandesites with higher alkalis and titanium contents than in all previously studied rocks of the Tolbachik monogenetic volcanic field. Rocks erupted during the first three days (27-30 November) from the northern (also called Menyailov) group of vents are the most silica- and alkali-rich (SiO2 concentrations up to 55.35 wt.% and K2O up to 2.67 wt.%). From December onwards, when the eruptive activity switched from the Menyailov vents to the southern (Naboko) group of vents, silica content dropped by 2 wt.%, concentrations of MgO, FeO, TiO2 and Mg# increased, and K2O and Na2O concentrations and K2O/MgO ratio decreased. For the rest of the eruption the compositions of rocks remained constant and homogeneous; no systematic compositional differences between lava, bombs and scoria samples are evident. Trace element distributions in the rocks of the Menyailov and Naboko vent lavas are relatively uniform; Menyailov lavas have slightly higher Th, Nb, Hf, Y, and HREE concentrations than the Naboko vent lavas at more or less constant element ratios. We explain the initial change in geochemistry by tapping of a slightly cooler and fractionated (~ 3% Mt and 8% Cpx) upper part of the magma storage zone before the main storage area began to feed the eruption. Thermodynamic constraints show that apparent liquidus temperatures varied from 1142 °C to 1151 °C, and thermodynamic modeling shows that variations in compositions are consistent with a high degree of low pressure (100-300 MPa), nominally anhydrous fractionation of a parent melt compositionally similar to the 1975 Northern Breakthrough high-Mg basalt. Geochemistry, petrological observations and modeling are in agreement with the newly erupted

  15. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Are U-Series Disequilibria Transparent to Crustal Processing of Magma? A Case Study at Bezymianny and Klyuchevskoy Volcanoes, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayzar, T. M.; Nelson, B. K.; Bachmann, O.; Portnyagin, M.; Ponomareva, V.

    2010-12-01

    Disequilibria in the short-lived uranium-series isotopic system can provide timescales of magma production, modification and transport in all tectonic settings. In volcanic arcs, the field has converged on the concept that (238U/230Th) and (226Ra/230Th) activities greater than one are a result of fluid fluxing from the slab to mantle wedge, and that the preservation of (226Ra/230Th) disequilibria requires rapid transport of melts from the mantle wedge to the surface (226Ra returns to equilibrium with 230Th in ~8000 years). The need for rapid transport coupled with the incompatibility of U-series elements suggest that U-series fractionation is not measurably affected by crustal processes. However, some well-studied arc systems, including the very productive Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD) of the Kamchatkan volcanic arc, show U-series data that are in conflict with this commonly accepted model. Our study focuses on two neighboring volcanic systems, Bezymianny and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes in the CKD. Separated by ~10km, these two systems are thought to share the same mantle source. Klyuchevskoy has primitive compositions (51-56 wt%) while Bezymianny erupts more differentiated andesites (57-63 wt% SiO2); therefore, by examining the U-series signals in these two systems it is possible to decouple a primary signal from one having undergone crustal processing. We record whole rock (238U/230Th) values for Bezymianny ranging from 0.94 to 0.96 in modern eruptive products, while (226Ra/230Th) are >1. We also observe a similar signal in older (212-6791BP) tephra deposits from Klyuchevskoy, measuring (238U/230Th) of 0.92-0.99 (unpublished data, collaborative research with the KALMAR project). (238U/230Th) <1 in arcs have mostly been reported from areas of thick continental crust (Andes; Sigmarsson et al. 1998, Garrison et al. 2006, Jicha et al. 2007) or from an arc where phases such as garnet and/or Al-rich clinopyroxene can retain a high U/Th in the crystalline residue (Jicha

  17. Steklite, KAl(SO4)2: A finding at the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, validating its status as a mineral species and crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashko, M. N.; Pekov, I. V.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Chernyatyeva, A. P.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Zadov, A. E.; Zelensky, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Steklite KAl(SO4)2 has been found in sublimates of the Yadovitaya (Poisonous) fumarole at the second cinder cone of the northern breach of the Great Fissure Tolbachik Eruption, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Steklite was approved as a valid mineral species by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Mineral Classification of the International Mineralogical Association on June 2, 2011 (IMA no. 2011-041). The name steklite is left for this mineral, as it was named by Chesnokov et al. (1995) for its technogenic analog from a burnt dump of coal mine no. 47 at Kopeisk, the Southern Urals, Russia. It is named after the Russian word steklo, meaning glass, in allusion to the visual similarity of its lamellae to thin glass platelets. At Tolbachik, steklite is associated with alumoklyuchevskite, langbeinite, euchlorine, fedotovite, chalcocyanite, hematite, and lyonsite. It occurs as hexagonal or irregular-shaped lamellar crystals with the major form {001} reaching 30 μm in thickness and 0.2 mm (occasionally up to 1 mm) in width. The crystals are frequently split. They are combined into openwork aggregates or thin crusts up to 1.5 × 2.5 cm in area. Steklite is transparent and colorless, with vitreous luster. The cleavage is perfect, parallel to (001). The mineral is brittle. The Mohs' hardness is 2.5. D calc is 2.797 g/cm3. Steklite is optically uniaxial, (-), ω = 1.546(2), ɛ = 1.533(3). The chemical composition (wt %, electron-microprobe data) is as follows: 0.09 Na2O, 18.12 K2O, 0.08 CaO, 0.03 MnO, 2.02 Fe2O3, 18.18 Al2O3, 61.80 SO3. The total is 100.37. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of eight O atoms is: (K0.997Na0.008Ca0.004)Σ1.009(Al0.925Fe{0.066/3+}Mg0.003Mn0.001)Σ0.995S2.01O8. Steklite is trigonal, space group P321, a = 4.7281(3), c = 7.9936(5) Å, V = 154.76(17)Å3, Z =1. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are: 8.02-34[001], 4.085-11[100], 3.649-100[011, 101], 2

  18. Volcanoes!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Volcanoes is an interdisciplinary set of materials for grades 4-8. Through the story of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, students will answer fundamental questions about volcanoes: "What is a volcano?" "Where do volcanoes occur and why?" "What are the effects of volcanoes on the Earth system?" "What are the risks and the benefits of living near volcanoes?" "Can scientists forecast volcanic eruptions?"

  19. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF

    One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  20. Volcanoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, L. N. S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of volcanoes and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to volcanoes and explains the location of volcanic regions. (GS)

  1. Volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, R.W.; Decker, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes volcanoes although the authors say they are more to be experienced than described. This book poses more question than answers. The public has developed interest and awareness in volcanism since the first edition eight years ago, maybe because since the time 120 volcanoes have erupted. Of those, the more lethal eruptions were from volcanoes not included in the first edition's World's 101 Most Notorious Volcanoes.

  2. Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilling, Robert I.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of volcanoes. Separate sections examine the nature and workings of volcanoes, types of volcanoes, volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…

  3. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. For example, the small hills in the foreground and behind the central volcano are cinder cones, approximately only 200 meters high. Note the sharp triangular shadow from the conical volcano at right. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk

  4. The origin of hydrous, high-δ18O voluminous volcanism: diverse oxygen isotope values and high magmatic water contents within the volcanic record of Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Sara; Bindeman, Ilya; Wallace, Paul; Ponomareva, Vera; Portnyagin, Maxim

    2009-02-01

    the variably high-δ18O olivines suggest a peridotite source for the parental magmas. Voluminous, highest in the world with respect to δ18O, and hydrous basic volcanism in Klyuchevskoy and other Central Kamchatka depression volcanoes is explained by a model in which the ascending primitive melts that resulted from the hydrous melt fluxing of mantle wedge peridotite, interacted with the shallow high-δ18O lithospheric mantle that had been extensively hydrated during earlier times when it was part of the Kamchatka forearc. Following accretion of the Eastern Peninsula terrains several million years ago, a trench jump eastward caused the old forearc mantle to be beneath the presently active arc. Variable interaction of ascending flux-melting-derived melts with this older, high-δ18O lithospheric mantle has produced mafic parental magmas with a spectrum of δ18O values. Differentiation of the higher δ18O parental magmas has created the volumetrically dominant high-Al basalt series. Both basalt types incessantly rise and mix between themselves and with variable in δ18O cumulates within dynamic Klyuchevskoy magma plumbing system, causing biannual eruptions and heterogeneous magma products.

  5. Volcanism and Subduction: The Kamchatka Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, John; Gordeev, Evgenii; Izbekov, Pavel; Kasahara, Minoru; Lees, Jonathan

    The Kamchatka Peninsula and contiguous North Pacific Rim is among the most active regions in the world. Kamchatka itself contains 29 active volcanoes, 4 now in a state of semi-continuous eruption, and I has experienced 14 magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes since accurate recording began in 1962. At its heart is the uniquely acute subduction cusp where the Kamchatka and Aleutian Arcs and Emperor Seamount Chain meet. Volcanism and Subduction covers coupled magmatism and tectonics in this spectacular region, where the torn North Pacific slab dives into hot mantle. Senior Russian and American authors grapple with the dynamics of the cusp with perspectives from the west and east of it, respectively, while careful tephrostratigraphy yields a remarkably precise record of behavior of storied volcanoes such as Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch. Towards the south, Japanese researchers elucidate subduction earthquake processes with unprecedented geodetic resolution. Looking eastward, new insights on caldera formation, monitoring, and magma ascent are presented for the Aleutians. This is one of the first books of its kind printed in the English language. Students and scientists beginning research in the region will find in this book a useful context and introduction to the region's scientific leaders. Others who wish to apply lessons learned in the North Pacific to their areas of interest will find the volume a valuable reference.

  6. Chlorine Stable Isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in subduction zones: the case of the Kamchatka-Kuril and the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bardoux, Gerard; Michel, Agnes; Maximov, Alexandr; Kalatcheva, Elena; Ryabinin, Gennady; Bonifacie, Magali

    2015-04-01

    By using the stable isotopes of chlorine (δ 37Cl), we have shown that magmatic chlorine (δ 37Cl ≤ -0.6 ‰ [1]) is different from surface chlorine (δ 37Cl ≈ 0 ‰ [1]) in hydrothermal system of Soufrière and Montagne Pelé from the young arc volcanic system of Lesser Antilles. First measurements on condensed chlorides from volcanic gases (e.g. [2], [3]) did not permitted to get sensible δ 37Cl values on degassed chlorine likely because chlorine isotopes are fractionated during the HClgas - chloride equilibrium in the fumaroles or during sampling artifacts. Therefore we have developed an alternative strategy based on the analysis of chloride in thermal springs, streams, sout{f}lowing on the flanks of the volcanoes. Due to the highly hydrophilic behavior of Cl, we hypothesize that thermal springs incorporate chlorine without fractionation of chlorine isotopes and might reflect the chlorine isotopic composition degassed by magmas [1]. Indeed Thermal spring with low δ 37Cl chlorides (≤ -0.6 perthousand{}) are linked with magmatic volatiles characters (3He ratio at 5 Ra at and δ 13C CO2 quad ≈ -3 perthousand{}). To go further in the potentiality of using the Chlorine isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in volcanic systems, we have started the survey of thermal springs and wells waters in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc (on sites Mutnovsky, Paratunka, Nalychevsky, Khodutkinsky, Paramushir Island, identified by Taran, 2009 [4] for concentrations of chloride). Preliminary results show δ 37Cl values ranging from 0.5 to -0.2 ‰ and generally higher chloride concentrations. The δ 37Cl values are higher than the value recorded for the young arc volcanic system of lesser Antilles. At present moment very few negative δ 37Cl have been measured in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc. [1] Li et al., 2015 EPSL in press. [2] Sharp et al. 2010 GCA. [3] Rizzo et al., 2013, EPSL, 371, 134. [4] Taran, 2009, GCA, 73, 1067

  7. Radiogeochemistry of Kamchatka soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharikhina, L. V.; Litvinenko, Yu. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background concentrations of Th and U in volcanic soils (Andosols) of Kamchatka are much lower than their clarkes in continental soils. The dose rate of gamma radiation above the soil surface (10-11.5 µR/h in the south and 8-9.5 [m]R/h in the north of Kamchatka Peninsula) is lower than the natural level of this index for the mountainous areas in the boreal zone of Russia. The natural radiogeochemical background of Kamchatka soils is controlled by the petrochemical composition of volcanic ash composing the mineral basis of Kamchatka soils. It is higher in the southern soil province, where soils develop from acidic ashes, in comparison with the northern province, with a predominance of soils developing from ashes of basic and intermediate composition. This agrees with Th and U clarkes for the corresponding types of volcanic rocks and explains the natural origin of the elevated radiogeochemical background in the southern part of Kamchatka as compared with its northern part. The soils of the northern province developing from relatively fresh volcanic ashes show a lower Th/U ratio as compared to the soils of southern Kamchatka because of higher uranium content in the newly deposited ashes.

  8. Seismic tomography of the Pacific slab edge under Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhao, Dapeng; Zhang, Guibin

    2009-02-01

    We determine a 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the mantle down to 700 km depth under the Kamchatka peninsula using 678 P-wave arrival times collected from digital seismograms of 75 teleseismic events recorded by 15 portable seismic stations and 1 permanent station in Kamchatka. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly that is visible in the upper mantle and extends below the 660-km discontinuity under southern Kamchatka, while it shortens toward the north and terminates near the Aleutian-Kamchatka junction. Low-velocity anomalies are visible beneath northern Kamchatka and under the junction, which are interpreted as asthenospheric flow. A gap model without remnant slab fragment is proposed to interpret the main feature of high-V anomalies. Combining our tomographic results with other geological and geophysical evidences, we consider that the slab loss may be induced by the friction with surrounding asthenosphere as the Pacific plate rotated clockwise at about 30 Ma ago, and then it was enlarged by the slab-edge pinch-off by the asthenospheric flow and the presence of Meiji seamounts. As a result, the slab loss and the subducted Meiji seamounts have jointly caused the Pacific plate to subduct under Kamchatka with a lower dip angle near the junction, which made the Sheveluch and Klyuchevskoy volcanoes shift westward.

  9. Volcanoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot gases and debris called pyroclastic flows. Some dangers from volcanoes can be predicted ahead of time ... for All Disasters Illnesses, injuries, carbon monoxide poisoning, animals & insects, food, water, cleanup, mold, environmental concerns, and ...

  10. Volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1998-01-01

    Volcanoes destroy and volcanoes create. The catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, made clear the awesome destructive power of a volcano. Yet, over a time span longer than human memory and record, volcanoes have played a key role in forming and modifying the planet upon which we live. More than 80 percent of the Earth's surface--above and below sea level--is of volcanic origin. Gaseous emissions from volcanic vents over hundreds of millions of years formed the Earth's earliest oceans and atmosphere, which supplied the ingredients vital to evolve and sustain life. Over geologic eons, countless volcanic eruptions have produced mountains, plateaus, and plains, which subsequent erosion and weathering have sculpted into majestic landscapes and formed fertile soils.

  11. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk and brought home with the flight crewmembers for processing. ESC was developed by the JSC Man-Systems Division and this mission's application of it is part of a continuing evolutionary development le

  12. The Sub-Crustal Magma Chamber Existence and Magma Ascent Rate for Klyuchevskoy Volcano (Kamchatka): Constrains from Ni Zonation in Olivine Phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozerov, A.; Gavrilenko, M.

    2014-12-01

    Klyuchevskoy volcano is the highest active volcano in Europe and Asia (~4800 m). Morphologically it is a classic stratovolcano, but its edifice consists entirely of mafic rocks (up to 55% of SiO2). The absence of andesites and dacites suggests that Klyuchevskoy does not have a crustal magma chamber. This is supported by seismological studies, the results of which have shown that stable crustal structures (magma bodies) are not found. However, [2] petrological barometry, indicates the existence of a magma chamber near the base of the crust beneath Klyuchevskoy at pressures of 5 - 9 kbar, (~ 18-33 km). In later studies, [1] and [4] proposed a model of decompression crystallization during continuous magma ascent in the conduit (from 50-60 km depth to the surface), which explains the genesis of the whole variety of Klyuchevskoy mafic rocks without the magma chamber requirement. The most recent detailed seismological studies combined with petrological barometry [3] suggest the existence of a sub-crustal volume (magma chamber) beneath Klyuchevskoy volcano (25-35 km depths) where processes of magma accumulation most likely occur. In this study we attempt to confirm the presence of a sub-crustal magma chamber using Ni zonation in primitive olivines, which may preserve information about mixing between distinct primitive melts in the magma chamber. Moreover, olivine Ni diffusion rates could help to estimate the rate of magma ascent (from the 35 km depths to the surface) beneath Klyuchevskoy using the approach of [5]. Ni concentration in olivines were measured by the electron microprobe high-precision technique (20kV, 300 nA) developed in [6]. [1] Ariskin et al. (1995) Petrology, 3(5): p.449-472. [2] Kersting & Arculus (1994) J. of Petrology, 35(1): p.1-41. [3] Levin et al. (2014) Geology, (in print). [4] Ozerov et al. (1997) Petrology, 1997. 5(6): p. 550-569. [5] Ruprecht & Plank, (2013) Nature, 500(7460): p.68-72. [6] Sobolev et al. (2007) Science, 316(5823): p.412-417.

  13. The Kamchatka-Aleutian Collision Zone: Mother of All Cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Kamchatka subduction zone represents a key to the understanding of volcanism, tectonics and mantle dynamics. The termination of the Pacific plate in the northern part of the Kamchatka slab is the prime location to investigate the cusp-ward shoaling of seismicity, the volumetrically spectacular production of magma with unusual geochemical signatures and slab edge ablation associated with mantle flow around the leading edge of the plate. In addition, the Kamchatka subduction zone is further complicated by the subduction of the aseismic ridge, the Meiji Seamounts. The three-dimensional structural configuration of the subducting pacific slab, the Komandorsky basin and the volcanic arc all suggest that absence of Pacific slab north of latitude. Tomographic analyses show a deep low velocity zone below Kliuchevskoi Volcano, suggesting a deep source near the crust-mantle interface. The intense volcanic production rates of the northern part of the Kamchatka Arc indicate that a prolific source feeds the surface expression of the cusp. Extensive heating at the exposed slab edge provides a source of heat for the Kliuchevskoi group. In this presentation I will review the critical observations and conclusions regarding cusp dynamics in Kamchatka and the Pacific Rim.

  14. The geography of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Vivienne; Solomina, Olga

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews the physical and human geography of the Kamchatka region and summarises previous research on Holocene climate dynamics. We provide context for the rest of the Special Issue of the Journal Global and Planetary Change entitled 'Holocene climate change in Kamchatka', the primary focus of which is the use of lake sediment records for palaeoclimatic inferences. In this paper an additional perspective from ongoing tree ring, ice core and borehole temperature reconstructions illustrates that the Kamchatka region is rich in paleoclimatic proxies. The period of the last 200 years is sufficiently covered by the proxy information, including reconstructions with annual resolution. In this period the tree-rings, ice cores, boreholes, and glacier fluctuations recorded a 1 °C warming and a general glacier retreat, i.e. the transition from the Little Ice Age climate to the modern one. Although the proxies have different resolution, accuracy and seasonality in general they demonstrate a coherent picture of environmental changes in the last two centuries. The tree ring and ice core records are up to four-six hundred years long and they provide information on annual to decadal variability of summer temperature, accumulation processes, volcanic eruptions and lahar activity.

  15. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  16. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  17. Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

  18. In Brief: Russian volcano warnings reinstated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is again issuing warnings for aviation during periods of activity by Kamchatkan volcanoes. KVERT had stopped issuing warnings on 1 March due to a loss of funding by the Federal Unitary Enterprise State Air Traffic Management Corporation of Russia (see Eos 88(12), 2007). The funding for this work has now resumed. KVERT is a collaborative project of scientists from the Russian Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  19. Thermal models beneath Kamchatka and the Pacific Plate rejuvenation from a mantle plume impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V. C.; Manea, M.

    The Northwest Pacific area, comprising the Kamchatka peninsula, is a distinctive area where a series of on going geodynamical processes like: plate rejuvenation from a mantle plume impact, slab detachment, slab edge melting and exotic volcanism, take place. With the help of finite element modeling we infer the thermal structure across Kamchatka in a series of 2D profiles normal to the trench. We chose the location at these profiles based on seismicity, geochemical variation and offshore heat flow measurements. Assuming that the transition from brittle to ductile behavior inside the subducting slab corresponds to the 650°C isotherm, our thermal models predict a good fit with maximum depth of seismicity (˜500 km) for southern Kamchatka only if the exothermic olivine-spinel phase transition is introduced. In the central part of Kamchatka, a good fit is obtained if the hot mantle plume, located just beneath Meiji Guyot seamount, thermally rejuvenates the subducting Pacific plate. Further to the north, the seismicity shallows more (200-100 km) and slab rejuvenation alone cannot provide a thermal structure with a good fit with seismically active subducting slab. A good explanation for such shallow seismicity might be the slab detachment due to cessation of subduction just north of Kamchatka-Aleutians junction. The thermal structure beneath the northernmost active volcano in Kamchatka, Scheveluch, which exhibits a strong adakitic signature, shows that slab edge exposure to the hotter asthenosphere creates the favorable conditions for oceanic crust melting at ˜70 km depth, just beneath Scheveluch. Our numerical models show that plate rejuvenation from a mantle plume, slab edge exposure to hot upper mantle and probably slab detachment play an essential role in subduction slabs thermal structure, seismicity down-dip extension and geochemical variations of lavas in Kamchatka.

  20. Holocene Lake Records on Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Bernhard; Biskaborn, Boris; Chapligin, Bernhard; Dirksen, Oleg; Dirksen, Veronika; Hoff, Ulrike; Meyer, Hanno; Nazarova, Larisa

    2014-05-01

    The availibility of terrestrial records of Holocene palaeoenvironmental changes in eastern Siberia still is quite limited, compared to other regions on the northern hemisphere. In particular, the Kamchatka Peninsula as an important climate-sensitive region is very underrepresented. Situated at the border of northeastern Eurasia, the maritime-influenced terrestrial setting of Kamchatka offers the potential to pinpoint connections of environmental changes between the periglacial and highly continental landmasses of eastern Siberia and the sub-Arctic Pacific Ocean and Sea of Okhotsk. The study region lies at the eastern end-loop of the global thermohaline ocean conveyor belt and is strongly affected by atmospheric teleconnections. Volcanic, tectonic, and glacial processes overprint palaeoenvironmental changes in addition to primary climate forcing. In order to widen our understanding of plaeoclimate dynamics on Kamchatka, sediment cores from different lake systems and peat sections were recovered and analysed by a multi-proxy approach, using sedimentological and geochemical data as well as fossil bioindicators, such as diatoms, pollen, and chironomids. Chronostratigraphy of the studied records was achieved through radiocarbon dating and tephrostratigraphy. Sediment cores with complete Holocene sedimentary sequences were retrieved from Lake Sokoch, an up to six metre deep lake of proglacial origin, situated at the treeline in the Ganalsky Ridge of southern central Kamchatka (53°15,13'N, 157°45.49' E, 495 m a.s.l.). Lacustrine sediment records of mid- to late Holocene age were also recovered from the up to 30 m deep Two-Yurts Lake, which occupies a former proglacial basin at the eastern flank of the Central Kamchatka Mountain Chain, the Sredinny Ridge (56°49.6'N, 160°06.9'E, 275 m a.s.l.). In addition to sediment coring in the open and deep Two-Yurts Lake, sediment records were also recovered from peat sections and small isolated forest lakes to compare

  1. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is

  2. Late Glacial to Holocene paleoenvironmental change on the northwestern Pacific seaboard, Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendea, Ionel Florin; Ponomareva, Vera; Bourgeois, Joanne; Zubrow, Ezra B. W.; Portnyagin, Maxim; Ponkratova, Irina; Harmsen, Hans; Korosec, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    We used a new sedimentary record from a small kettle wetland to reconstruct the Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of the Krutoberegovo-Ust Kamchatsk region in eastern Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). Pollen and charcoal data suggest that the Late Glacial landscape was dominated by a relatively fire-prone Larix forest-tundra during the Greenland Interstadial complex (GI 1) and a subarctic steppe during the Younger Dryas (GS1). The onset of the Holocene is marked by the reappearance of trees (mainly Alnus incana) within a fern and shrub dominated landscape. The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) features shifting vegetational communities dominated by Alnus shrubs, diverse forb species, and locally abundant aquatic plants. The HTM is further defined by the first appearance of stone birch forests (Betula ermanii) - Kamchatka's most abundant modern tree species. The Late Holocene is marked by shifts in forest dynamics and forest-graminoid ratio and the appearance of new non-arboreal taxa such as bayberry (Myrica) and meadow rue (Filipendula). Kamchatka is one of Earth's most active volcanic regions. During the Late Glacial and Holocene, Kamchatka's volcanoes spread large quantities of tephra over the study region. Thirty-four tephra falls have been identified at the site. The events represented by most of these tephra falls have not left evidence of major impacts on the vegetation although some of the thicker tephras caused expansion of grasses (Poaceae) and, at least in one case, forest die-out and increased fire activity.

  3. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  4. Holocene volcanic influence on climate-forced vegetation changes on Kamchatka, based on pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, V.; Dirksen, O.

    2009-04-01

    Pollen data from volcanic-affected areas on Kamchatka (Northern Volcanic Group, Eastern Volcanic Zone and Southern Kamchatka) have been overviewed, and compared with pollen records from the sites with negligible volcanic influence that allowed some asynchronous trends in vegetation dynamics during the Holocene to be found. Pollen data from sites within Central Kamchatka Depression (Esso, Kirganik etc.), far from recently active volcanoes, show that shrub pine (Pinus pumila), which started to spread from ca. 5.5 ka (all ages are given as14C kyr BP) in response to climate warming and weakening of maritime influence, had the highest rates of advance during last 3 ka that agrees well with the late Holocene coniferous forest expansion overall the Central Kamchatka Depression. Meanwhile, shrub pine spreading around the Tolbachik volcano (Northern Volcanic Group) decelerated after ca. 1.8 ka and ceased completely by ca. 1.5 ka while other coniferous, spruce (Picea ajanensis) and larch (Larix cajanderi), were in progress. Such a local degradation of shrub pine, which is rather sensitive species to ashfalls, is likely caused by volcanic impact: since ca. 2 ka there was a pulse of volcanic activity of numerous monogenetic eruptive centers at the Tolbachinsky Dol lava field. Asynchronous shift of stone birch (Betula ermanii) forest along the Pacific coast of Kamchatka could be also regarded as volcanic-forced phenomenon. First appearance of stone birch forest at the eastern coast of the peninsula occurred between 8-6 ka under warmer conditions and strengthened climate continentality. However, birch advance in particular areas along the Pacific coast appears to have been not caused by spatial heterogeneity of climatic patterns: the earliest (ca. 8 ka) evidences of stone birch forest establishment are recorded near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky city and at the Uzon-Geizernaya Depression, while the latest (ca. 6 ka) - nearby the Maly Semyachik and Karymsky volcanoes; northern records

  5. Reprint of "Seismic monitoring of the Plosky Tolbachik eruption in 2012-2013 (Kamchatka Peninsula Russia)"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyukov, S. L.; Nuzhdina, I. N.; Droznina, S. Ya.; Garbuzova, V. T.; Kozhevnikova, T. Yu.; Sobolevskaya, O. V.; Nazarova, Z. A.; Bliznetsov, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The active basaltic volcano Plosky Tolbachik (Pl. Tolbachik) is located in the southern part of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The previous 1975-1976 Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (1975-1976 GTFE) occurred in the southern sector of Pl. Tolbachik. It was preceded by powerful earthquakes with local magnitudes between 2.5 and 4.9 and it was successfully predicted with a short-term forecast. The Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Survey (KBGS) of the Russian Academy of Science (RAS) began to publish the results of daily seismic monitoring of active Kamchatka volcanoes on the Internet in 2000. Unlike the 1975-1976 GTFE precursor, (1) seismicity before the 2012-2013 Tolbachik Fissure Eruption (2012-2013 TFE) was relatively weak and earthquake magnitudes did not exceed 2.5. (2) Precursory earthquake hypocenters at 0-5 km depth were concentrated mainly under the southeastern part of the volcano. (3) The frequency of events gradually increased in September 2012, and rose sharply on the eve of the eruption. (4) According to seismic data, the explosive-effusive 2012-2013 TFE began at ~ 05 h 15 min UTC on November 27, 2012; the outbreak occurred between the summit of the Pl. Tolbachik and the Northern Breakthrough of the 1975-1976 GTFE. (5) Because of bad weather, early interpretations of the onset time and the character of the eruption were made using seismological data only and were confirmed later by other monitoring methods. The eruption finished in early September 2013. This article presents the data obtained through real-time seismic monitoring and the results of retrospective analysis, with additional comments on the future monitoring of volcanic activity.

  6. Deglaciation and volcanism connection: evidences from Kamchatka and mechanical modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakin, Alexander; Muraviev, Yaroslav

    2014-05-01

    facilitating magma accumulation in the lower crust and at Moho depth while magma outcome paths lead to the peak of the mountain ridge and to the glacier periphery. Adiabatic decompression melting is the most affected by deglaciation. In Kamchatka definite geochemical signatures of adiabatic decompression melting component can be distinguished in Kluchevskaya group of volcanoes (KGV) and in the Central ridge (CRK). As expected, Ozernovsky volcano in central position in CRK was activated in the Early Holocene 9300 cal BP (Pevzner, 2012). Recently high explosive activity of Plosky volcano (now dormant) located on the periphery of KGV in the period 11.650-10.200 cal BP was recognized (Ponomareva et al., 2013). Last glaciation cover of KGV was at least 80 km wide. Work was supported by RFBR grant #13-05-00994a. Literature. 1) Barr I.D., Solomina O. (2013) Global and Planetary Change. 2) Pevzner M. (2012) Proceedings of KRAUNZ, Earth Sci., 15:117-144 (in Russian). 3) Ponomareva V., Portnyagin M. et al. (2013) Geol. Rundsch., 102:1673-1699.Turcotte D.L. and Schubert G. (2002) Geodynamics.

  7. On the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in volcano exhausts.

    PubMed

    Ilnitsky, A P; Belitsky, G A; Shabad, L M

    1976-05-01

    The content of benzo(a)pyrene in the juvenile ashes of the volcano Tyatya (Kunashir Island, Kuriles) and in the soil, vegetation and volcanic mud collected near volcanos in Kamchatka was studied. It was concluded that volcanic activity does not play a large role in forming the background level of this carcinogen in the human environment.

  8. The influence of volcanic activity on suspended sediment yield of rivers (Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksina, Ludmila

    2014-05-01

    Kamchatka is specific region of suspended sediment yield formation. This fact is particularly connected with active volcanism in the territory. The influence of volcanism on suspended sediment yield characteristics was studied in various time scales - into-diurnal, seasonal and long-term ones. The study of spatial variability of these characteristics reveals the maximum values characterize river basins in zones of strong impact of volcanic eruptions, especially, rivers draining slopes and flanks of active volcanoes. Into-diurnal fluctuations were studied for rivers in volcanic areas. They are characterized by synchronous changes of water flow and turbidity. It's determined by weak erosion-preventive capacity of friable volcanic deposits and big slopes of channels (2.5 - 6.0 %). The maximum of water flow and turbidity is observed at the period between 12 and 6 pm. The air temperature reaches its maximum by that time, and consequently, the intensity of snow melting is also maximum one. The maximum of turbidity advances diurnal maximum of water flow a little, and it's connected with the features of flood wave moving and consecutive maximums of slopes, turbidity, velocity, water flow, and capacity of stream during flush. Into-diurnal fluctuations are determined by complicated and little-studied processes of mass transfer between stream and channel deposits. These processes are connected with into-diurnal changes of stream capacity and water transfer between channel and underflow. As the result water regime is pulsating. Rivers under the influence of volcanic eruptions transport the main amount of sediments during floods which usually occur in summer-autumn period (in the absence of extreme floods in winter-spring period during volcanic eruptions). Combination of maximum snow supply, significant precipitation in warm part of the year and weak erosion-preventive capacity of friable volcanic deposits on volcanoes slopes is the reason of the most intense erosion in this

  9. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  10. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  11. Introduction to Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    This volume brings together a collection of papers on Holocene environmental change in the Kamchatka Peninsula, in the Russian Far East. Much of the work that appears in these papers was completed under the auspices of two major research activities: a UK NERC-funded project Influence of global teleconnections on Holocene climate in Kamchatka, which dealt with the analysis of lake records collected during the Swedish Beringia 2005 expedition organised by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat; and a Russian-German multidisciplinary research project KALMAR - Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems: Geodynamic and Climate Interaction in Space and Time, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

  12. Impact of subduction geometry on high-productivity arc volcanism of the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group (Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, B.; Levin, V. L.; Droznina, S.; Gavrilenko, M.

    2013-12-01

    Klyuchevskoy volcanic group is located at the northern termination of the Kamchatka volcanic arc. It is a typical island-arc volcanic center, its lava chemistry is consistent with the subduction fluid induced melting in the mantle wedge. It is however significantly larger than any other arc volcano or volcanic group. With a volume of~7500 km3 it is similar to shield volcanoes associated with rifts and hot spots. The causes of such high rates of volcanism are not clear, and likely reflect the unusual geodynamic setting of the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group. Subduction of the Pacific plate forms a convergent margin along the eastern coast of Kamchatka that terminates at the junction with the Aleutian Arc. Along most of its strike the subducting slab descends at ~45 degrees, is nearly planar, and reaches transition zone depths, with its deepest earthquakes at ~400 km. Near its northern termination the geometry of the subducting slab changes, seismicity is limited to 200 km, and the angle of subduction is likely more shallow. Determining the exact configuration of the Pacific slab beneath Kamchatka is complicated by the lack of large earthquakes within it in the last 30 years. Consequently, all global compilations of slab depth based on seismicity above M~5.5 do not extend into the region of the northern termination of the Kamchatka subduction zone. A study of the slab geometry using regional seismicity carried out by Gorbatov et al. (1997) was based on a regional earthquake catalog compiled by the seismic monitoring network of Kamchatka prior to its conversion to modern digital data acquisition. It suggests an abrupt change in slab dip close to the location of the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group. In this study we use a new digital catalog compiled over years 2000 - 2013. The new catalog contains data for over 28,000 earthquakes, most of which are below M~5. With the new catalog, we created a contour map and 3-D image of the slab surface using 2-D profiles of the earthquakes

  13. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  14. Tephra Links for the NW Pacific, Asian Mainland and Kamchatka Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, V.; Portnyagin, M.; Derkachev, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.; Pendea, I.; Nuernberg, D.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous tephra layers derived from the highly explosive Kamchatka volcanic arc (NW Pacific) are buried in various deposits on the Kamchatka Peninsula as well as in the adjacent seas and on Asian mainland. EMPA and LA-ICP-MS study of individual glass shards has allowed us to geochemically characterize several large proximal tephras and correlate them over distances of 600-1700 km to the Pacific and Bering Sea cores and sites at Chukotka and Arctic coast directly linking distal paleoenvironmental records. Compositional variability of proximal glasses reveals certain spatial patterns that ensures identification of the source volcanic zone for distal tephra. Early Holocene tephra from Plosky volcano in the Central Kamchatka Depression was found in Bering Sea cores at a distance of >600 km. The tephra has high-K trachyandesitic glass; typical subduction-related pattern of incompatible elements, high concentrations of all REE (>10x primitive mantle), moderately elevated LREE/MREE (LaN/SmN~1.6), non-fractionated mantle-like ratios of LILE (K, Ba, Rb). New high-precision 14C date suggests that Plosky tephra was deposited ~10,200 cal BP that makes it a valuable marker for the early Holocene climate fluctuations. Tephra from Gorely volcano (~40 ka BP), located behind the volcanic front in Southern Kamchatka, was found to the east (Pacific cores) and to the NNE (Chukotka) from the source at distances of 700 and 1600 km. Absence of this tephra in the Bering Sea cores northeast of Gorely suggests two separate tephra lobes that is consistent with the proximal stratigraphy. Glass from Gorely tephra is high-K rhyolite with typical subduction-related pattern of incompatible elements, high concentrations of all REE (>10x primitive mantle), and slightly spoon-shaped REE pattern (LaN/SmN ~2.3, low DyN/YbN ~0.9). Gorely tephra likely marks a glacial advance accompanied by production of icebergs (Bigg et al., 2008). Significantly older tephra compositionally identical to Gorely was

  15. Mantle temperature control on composition of arc magmas along the Central Kamchatka Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnyagin, Maxim; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2008-07-01

    Abundant volcanism in the Central Kamchatka Depression (CKD)adjacent to the Kamchatka-Aleutian Arc junction occurswhere the Pacific slab edge is subducting beneath Kamchatka.Here we summarize published data on CKD rocks and demonstratea systematic south-to-north change of their compositions frommoderately fractionated basalt-andesite tholeiitic series tohighly fractionated basalt-rhyolite calc-alkaline series includinghigh-magnesian andesites near the slab edge. Localized slabmelting at the slab edge cannot explain these regional geochemicalvariations. Instead, we propose that the thermal state of themantle wedge can be the key factor governing the compositionof CKD magmas. We integrate the results from petrology and numericmodeling to demonstrate the northward decrease of the mantlewedge temperatures beneath CKD volcanoes, which correlates withdecreasing slab dip, length of mantle columns, and magma flux.We envision two petrogenetic models, which relate the compositionof erupted magmas to the subduction parameters beneath the CKD.The first model suggests that mantle temperature governs melt-peridotiteequilibria and favors generation of andesitic primary meltsin cold mantle regions above the shallowly subducting Pacificslab edge. Alternatively, mantle temperature may control magmaticproductivity along the CKD, which decreases sharply toward theslab edge and thus allows more extensive magma fractionationdeeper in the crust and mixing of highly evolved and mantle-derivedmagmas to generate Si-rich "primitive" magmas. These resultspoint to a possible casual link between deep mantle and shallowcrustal magmatic processes. Similar effects of mantle temperatureon the composition and productivity of arc magmatism are expectedelsewhere, particularly in volcanic regions associated withsignificant slab dip variation along the arc.

  16. Structure and formation conditions of paleogene coal-bearing deposits of Western Kamchatka

    SciTech Connect

    Polyanskii, B.V.

    1995-03-01

    Peculiarities of lithofacial composition and cyclic structure of the Lower-Middle Paleogene volcano-terrigenous coal-bearing deposits of the Western Kamchatka marginal sedimentary basin are discussed. Unstable sedimentation under delta progradation environments is shown to be prevalent. Such conditions were favorable for coal formation of deltaic and alluvial-estuarine types. Against a background of the marine-coastal high rate (avalanche) sedimentation, short-lived conditions for dominantly allochthonous coal formation in the environment of humid, warm temperature climate and high changeable sedimentation rates were distinguished. The clastic material in the basin originates from two provenances, represented by Pre-Paleogene, mainly Cretaceous rocks. The Central Range supplied mainly coarse-grained graywacke material. The western continental denudation areas, consisting of sedimentary and igneous rocks (including granites), supplied fine-grained terrigenous graywacke-arkosic material.

  17. Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka: A synopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present a synthesis of the results of a multiproxy, multisite, palaeoecological study of Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka, Far East Russia, details of which are presented elsewhere in the volume. We summarise the results of the analyses of pollen, diatom, chironomid, and testate amoebae assemblages, together with stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon, and sediment characteristics from the sediments of five lakes and a peat succession on a latitudinal gradient of the Kamchatka Peninsula, to infer environmental change and establish the major climate forcers and climatic teleconnections. There are synchronous shifts in the assemblage composition of most of the biota and across most sites at 6.5-6.2 ka BP, 5.2 ka BP, 4.0 ka BP, and 3.5 ka BP, suggesting a response to strong regional climate forcing at these times. These dates correspond to the warmest part of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) (6.5-6.2 ka BP), the beginning of the Neoglacial cooling (5.2 ka BP), the coolest and wettest part of the Neoglacial (4.0 ka BP), and a switch to warmer and drier conditions at 3.5 ka BP. Our results provide evidence for the penetration and domination of different air masses at different periods during the Holocene. Cool and dry periods in winter (e.g., at 6.0 ka BP) were driven by a relatively weak pressure gradient between the Siberian High and the Aleutian Low, whereas cool, wet periods in winter (e.g., the Neoglacial and during the LIA) developed when these two systems increased in strength. Warm, dry, continental periods in summer (e.g., at 2.5 ka BP) were driven by a weakening of the Siberian High. We find that the timing of the HTM in Kamchatka is later than in the Eurasian arctic but similar to northern Europe and the sub-arctic part of eastern Siberia. This progressive onset of the HTM was due to the effects of postglacial ice-sheet decay that modulated the routes of westerly storm tracks in Eurasia. A major ecosystem driver was the Siberian dwarf pine Pinus

  18. Iceland Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-23

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, Volcano Ash Cloud     View larger ... Europe and captured this image of the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano ash cloud as it continued to drift over the continent. Unlike other ...

  19. Nicaraguan Volcanoes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Nicaraguan Volcanoes     View Larger Image Nicaraguan volcanoes, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya volcanoes. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  20. Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Doukas, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    During 1993, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to episodes of eruptive activity or false alarms at nine volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. Additionally, as part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also responded to eruptions on the Kamchatka Peninsula, details of which are summarized in Miller and Kurianov (1993). In 1993, AVO maintained seismic instrumentation networks on four volcanoes of the Cook Inlet region--Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine--and two stations at Dutton Volcano near King Cove on the Alaska Peninsula. Other routine elements of AVO's volcano monitoring program in Alaska include periodic airborne measurement of volcanic SO2 and CO2 at Cook Inlet volcanoes (Doukas, 1995) and maintenance of a lightning detection system in Cook Inlet (Paskievitch and others, 1995).

  1. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.

    This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  2. June 03, 2007 Natural Disaster in the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, E. I.; Pinegina, T. K.; Droznin, V. A.; Dvigalo, V. N.; Melekestsev, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    The famous Valley of Geysers along with active volcanoes appears to be a beautiful visiting card of Kamchatka. It is well known in Russia and other countries as the most popular tourist place. Annually it is visited by thousands of Russian and foreign tourists. The Valley of Geysers is the most potentially hazardous area in Kamchatka because of intense development of landslides, avalanches and frequent mudflows occurring within its boundaries. June 03, 2007 landslide, followed by a mudflow, resulted in a north - west faced horse-shoe amphitheater consisting of two adjacent circuses. The height of north-eastern sub-vertical wall is 150 m with a length 800 m; the length of a flatly inclined bottom 400 - 600 m. Initially estimated volume of collapse and avalanche made up 8-15 millions cubic meters. Avalanching and formation of a dam at the Geysernaya River caused completion of some geysers and open thermal water discharge at sites blocked off by the avalanche and a dammed lake. However beyond the boundaries of the avalanche and the lake, the geysers are still operating. It is likely that some geysers could be brought back if water level in the lake decreases. Possibly new geysers could appear. Based on results of routine survey we estimated specific areas that nowadays pose a hazard as well as a possibility of new avalanches and landslides that may occur in the future. Estimation and forecast of new avalanches and landslides require continuous observations to be performed in the Valley of Geysers to monitor deformation and seismic processes.

  3. Constraints on the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    This review collects and systematizes in one place a variety of results which offer constraints on the depth and the nature of the Moho beneath the Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan. We also include studies of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc. All results have already been published separately in a variety of venues, and the primary goal of the present review is to describe them in the same language and in comparable terms. For both regions we include studies using artificial and natural seismic sources, such as refraction and reflection profiling, detection and interpretation of converted-mode body waves (receiver functions), surface wave dispersion studies (in Kamchatka) and tomographic imaging (in Japan). The amount of work done in Japan is significantly larger than in Kamchatka, and resulting constraints on the properties of the crust and the uppermost mantle are more detailed. Japan and Kamchatka display a number of similarities in their crustal structure, most notably the average crustal thickness in excess of 30 km (typical of continental regions), and the generally gradational nature of the crust-mantle transition where volcanic arcs are presently active.

  4. Thunderstorm activity according to VLF observations at Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhin, G. I.; Cherneva, N. V.; Melnikov, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    The azimuthal distribution of lightning discharges and cyclone epicenters at a distance of up to 4000 km from the observation point at Kamchatka is given. The azimuths of lightning discharges were determined using an ELF finder, and the cyclone epicenters were determined from meteorological maps. Time dependences of the distribution of received radiations from lightning discharges have been obtained.

  5. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  6. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  7. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  8. Dante's Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  9. Volcano Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Fee, D.; Matoza, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Open-vent volcanoes generate prodigious low frequency sound waves that tend to peak in the infrasound (<20 Hz) band. These long wavelength (> ~20 m) atmospheric pressure waves often propagate long distances with low intrinsic attenuation and can be well recorded with a variety of low frequency sensitive microphones. Infrasound records may be used to remotely monitor eruptions, identify active vents or track gravity-driven flows, and/or characterize source processes. Such studies provide information vital for both scientific study and volcano monitoring efforts. This presentation proposes to summarize and standardize some of the terminology used in the still young, yet rapidly growing field of volcano infrasound. Herein we suggest classification of typical infrasound waveform types, which include bimodal pulses, blast (or N-) waves, and a variety of infrasonic tremors (including broadband, harmonic, and monotonic signals). We summarize various metrics, including reduced pressure, intensity, power, and energy, in which infrasound excess pressures are often quantified. We also describe the spectrum of source types and radiation patterns, which are typically responsible for recorded infrasound. Finally we summarize the variety of propagation paths that are common for volcano infrasound radiating to local (<10 km), regional (out to several hundred kilometers), and global distances. The effort to establish common terminology requires community feedback, but is now timely as volcano infrasound studies proliferate and infrasound becomes a standard component of volcano monitoring.

  10. International Studies of Hazardous Groundwater/Surface Water Exchange in the Volcanic Eruption and Tsunami Affected Areas of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Izbekov, P. E.; Gordeev, E.; Titov, V. V.; Verstraeten, I. M.; Pinegina, T. K.; Tsadikovsky, E. I.; Heilweil, V. M.; Gingerich, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    During the US-Russia Geohazards Workshop held July 17-19, 2012 in Moscow, Russia the international research effort was asked to identify cooperative actions for disaster risk reduction, focusing on extreme geophysical events. As a part of this recommendation the PIRE project was developed to understand, quantify, forecast and protect the coastal zone aquifers and inland water resources of Kamchatka (Russia) and its ecosystems affected by the November 4, 1952 Kamchatka tsunami (Khalatyrka Beach near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy) and the January 2, 1996 Karymskiy volcano eruption and the lake tsunami. This project brings together teams from U.S. universities and research institutions located in Russia. The research consortium was briefed on recent technical developments and will utilize samples secured via major international volcanic and tsunami programs for the purpose of advancing the study of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the volcanic eruption and tsunami affected coastal areas and inland lakes of Kamchatka. We plan to accomplish this project by developing and applying the next generation of field sampling, remote sensing, laboratory techniques and mathematical tools to study groundwater-surface water interaction processes and SGD. We will develop a field and modeling approach to define SGD environment, key controls, and influence of volcano eruption and tsunami, which will provide a framework for making recommendations to combat contamination. This is valuable for politicians, water resource managers and decision-makers and for the volcano eruption and tsunami affected region water supply and water quality of Kamchatka. Data mining and results of our field work will be compiled for spatial modeling by Geo-Information System (GIS) using 3-D Earth Systems Visualization Lab. The field and model results will be communicated to interested stakeholders via an interactive web site. This will allow computation of SGD spatial patterns. In addition, thanks to the

  11. Anaglyph, Lake Palanskoye Landslide, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Lake Palanskoye in northern Kamchatka was formed when a large landslide disrupted the drainage pattern, forming a natural dam. The area is volcanically and tectonically active and it is likely that the landslide -- which covers about 80 square kilometers (30 square miles) --was triggered by an earthquake sometime in the past 10,000 years. The source area of the landslide is the ridge to the upper left of the lake. The steep topographic scar at the head of the slide and the broad expanse of hummocky landslide debris that covers the valley to the left of the lake are visible in 3D.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper near-infrared image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then using the topographic data to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (99 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface on its 11-day mission. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  12. Large-volume silicic volcanism in Kamchatka: Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages, isotopic, and geochemical characteristics of major pre-Holocene caldera-forming eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Leonov, V. L.; Izbekov, P. E.; Ponomareva, V. V.; Watts, K. E.; Shipley, N. K.; Perepelov, A. B.; Bazanova, L. I.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.; Schmitt, A. K.; Portnyagin, M. V.; Chen, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia represents the most volcanically active arc in the world in terms of magma production and the number of explosive eruptions. We investigate large-scale silicic volcanism in the past several million years and present new geochronologic results from major ignimbrite sheets exposed in Kamchatka. These ignimbrites are found in the vicinity of morphologically-preserved rims of partially eroded source calderas with diameters from ˜ 2 to ˜ 30 km and with estimated volumes of eruptions ranging from 10 to several hundred cubic kilometers of magma. We also identify and date two of the largest ignimbrites: Golygin Ignimbrite in southern Kamchatka (0.45 Ma), and Karymshina River Ignimbrites (1.78 Ma) in south-central Kamchatka. We present whole-rock geochemical analyses that can be used to correlate ignimbrites laterally. These large-volume ignimbrites sample a significant proportion of remelted Kamchatkan crust as constrained by the oxygen isotopes. Oxygen isotope analyses of minerals and matrix span a 3‰ range with a significant proportion of moderately low- δ18O values. This suggests that the source for these ignimbrites involved a hydrothermally-altered shallow crust, while participation of the Cretaceous siliceous basement is also evidenced by moderately elevated δ18O and Sr isotopes and xenocryst contamination in two volcanoes. The majority of dates obtained for caldera-forming eruptions coincide with glacial stages in accordance with the sediment record in the NW Pacific, suggesting an increase in explosive volcanic activity since the onset of the last glaciation 2.6 Ma. Rapid changes in ice volume during glacial times and the resulting fluctuation of glacial loading/unloading could have caused volatile saturation in shallow magma chambers and, in combination with availability of low- δ18O glacial meltwaters, increased the proportion of explosive vs effusive eruptions. The presented results provide new constraints on

  13. Reconstruction of Holocene Seismic Events Along Kamchatka's Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinegina, T.; Bourgeois, J.

    2004-12-01

    Since 1995 we have been conducting detailed neotectonic and paleoseismological field studies of the Holocene at more than 15 localities along the east coast of Kamchatka. Specific methods of these investigations include 1) application of tephra chronology and tephra stratigraphy for dating and correlation of various types of coastal deposits and landforms; 2) study of paleotsunami deposits in order to determine their ages and recurrence rate and to estimate the magnitude of large tsunamis and tsunamigenic earthquakes along the Kurile-Kamchatka subduction zone and north of the latter during Holocene time; 3) analysis of the geologic structure, age, and modern and paleo-topography of marine terraces and beach ridges in order to determine the direction and scale of seismotectonic movements over different time intervals; and 4) identification and dating of inferred seismogenic landslides along the coast. Eastern Kamchatka's short history (since about 1730 A.D.) includes many large and several great earthquakes, although historical coverage of these events is scarce because of both low population density, and also military secrecy. Nevertheless, we can use historical earthquakes and tsunami deposits as benchmarks for pre-historic events. Moreover, our studies have helped elucidate historic cases, including co-seismic deformation, tsunami runup, and tsunami source mechanism. As a result of these studies we have reconstructed key events in coastal evolution during the Holocene, and determined the ages of marine accumulative landforms on various segments of the coast. A combination of all our data enables us to get an idea about spatial and temporal distribution of strong subduction-type earthquakes along the Kuril-Kamchatka trench and 'non-subduction' earthquakes north of the trench terminus.

  14. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  15. Syrian Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    23 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small volcano in the Syria Planum region of Mars. Today, the lava flows that compose this small volcano are nearly hidden by a mantle of rough-textured, perhaps somewhat cemented, dust. The light-toned streaks that cross the scene were formed by passing dust devils, a common occurrence in Syria.

    Location near: 13.0oS, 102.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  16. Volcano Hazards Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Myers, Bobbie; Driedger, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Diagram of common volcano hazards. The U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) monitors unrest and eruptions at U.S. volcanoes, assesses potential hazards, responds to volcanic crises, and conducts research on how volcanoes work. When conditions change at a monitored volcano, the VHP issues public advisories and warnings to alert emergency-management authorities and the public. See http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ to learn more about volcanoes and find out what's happening now.

  17. Chikurachki Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... southeast. The darker areas of the plume typically indicate volcanic ash, while the white portions of the plume indicate entrained water droplets and ice. According to the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), the temperature of the plume near the volcano ...

  18. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  19. Crust and upper mantle of Kamchatka from teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Vadim; Park, Jeffrey; Brandon, Mark; Lees, Jonathan; Peyton, Valerie; Gordeev, Evgenii; Ozerov, Alexei

    2002-11-01

    Teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) from a yearlong broadband seismological experiment in Kamchatka reveal regional variations in the Moho, anisotropy in the supra-slab mantle wedge, and, along the eastern coast, Ps converted phases from the steeply dipping slab. We analyze both radial- and transverse-component RFs in bin-averaged epicentral and backazimuthal sweeps, in order to detect Ps moveout and polarity variations diagnostic of interface depth, interface dip, and anisotropic fabric within the shallow mantle and crust. At some stations, the radial RF is overprinted by near-surface resonances, but anisotropic structure can be inferred from the transverse RF. Using forward modeling to match the observed RFs, we find Moho depth to range between 30 and 40 km across the peninsula, with a gradational crust-mantle transition beneath some stations along the eastern coast. Anisotropy beneath the Moho is required to fit the transverse RFs at most stations. Anisotropy in the lower crust is required at a minority of stations. Modeling the amplitude and backazimuthal variation of the Ps waveform suggests that an inclined axis of symmetry and 5-10% anisotropy are typical for the crust and the shallow mantle. The apparent symmetry axes of the anisotropic layers are typically trench-normal, but trench-parallel symmetry axes are found for stations APA and ESS, both at the fringes of the central Kamchatka depression. Transverse RFs from east-coast stations KRO, TUM, ZUP and PET are fit well by two anisotropic mantle layers with trench-normal symmetry axes and opposing tilts. Strong anisotropy in the supra-slab mantle wedge suggests that the mantle "lithosphere" beneath the Kamchatka volcanic arc is actively deforming, strained either by wedge corner flow at depth or by trenchward suction of crust as the Pacific slab retreats.

  20. Results of a seismic forecasting experiment for the Kamchatka region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doda, L. N.; Natyaganov, V. L.; Shopin, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    The integral results of a seismic forecasting experiment for the powerful M > 7 earthquakes in the Kamchatka region are presented. According to the empirical scheme of the short-term earthquake prediction, since 2002 all officially recorded forecasts, including five deep-focus earthquakes in the Sea of Okhotsk, have been predicted without missing events. The specific character of the features of the earthquake preparation and the annular cloud structures that began to be observed in satellite images near the coast of Japan at the boundary of the Okhotsk plate are analyzed.

  1. Variability in Coastal Neotectonics Along the Kamchatka Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, J.; Pinegina, T.; Ponomareva, V.

    2004-12-01

    The eastern coast of Kamchatka can be divided into several morphotectonic zones, which appear to correspond primarily to variations in the subducting crust, rather than to characteristics of the subduction zone such as rate of subduction or subduction angle. Pleistocene marine terraces and Holocene coastal stratigraphy along Kamchatka show variability in uplift (and subsidence) rate both at the degree-latitude scale, and at a scale of kilometers to 10s of km. The southern coast (51-53oN, to Petropavlovsk) is primarily rocky headlands with narrow embayments, some filled with volcaniclastics. North of Petropavlovsk, the coast is subdivided into a series of broad embayments separated by four peninsulas--Zhupanovskiy, Kronotskiy, Kamchatskiy, Ozernoi, from south to north. These peninsulas are landward, respectively, of the Kruzenstern fracture zone, the Meiji seamounts, the Aleutian-Komandorskiy island chain, and the Beta Rise. Our field studies of Quaternary coastal evolution and seismotectonic regime over the last decade have included: 1) tephra chronology for dating and correlation 2) study of paleotsunami deposits to estimate recurrence rates of tsunamigenic earthquakes; and 3) analysis of the modern and paleo-topography of marine terraces and beach ridges in order to determine the direction and intensity of tectonic deformation over different spatial and temporal scales. The shorter the time interval we are able to specify (decades to hundreds of years), the higher the rate of vertical movements we tend to obtain. Estimates of net deformation for longer periods (10s to 100s of thousands of years) are commonly an order of magnitude slower, because seismic cycles are averaged out. The net Quaternary deformation of eastern Kamchatka is uplift, with peninsulas exhibiting the highest rates, up to 2 mm/yr for the last 0.5 my on Kamchatskiy Peninsula. The large embayments between peninsulas typically exhibit evidence for subsidence or stasis on a Holocene time scale. On

  2. Santorini Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  4. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  5. Sediment transport in headwaters of a volcanic catchment—Kamchatka Peninsula case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalov, Sergey R.; Tsyplenkov, Anatolii S.; Pietron, Jan; Chalova, Aleksandra S.; Shkolnyi, Danila I.; Jarsjö, Jerker; Maerker, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Due to specific environmental conditions, headwater catchments located on volcanic slopes and valleys are characterized by distinctive hydrology and sediment transport patterns. However, lack of sufficient monitoring causes that the governing processes and patterns in these areas are rarely well understood. In this study, spatiotemporal water discharge and sediment transport from upstream sources was investigated in one of the numerous headwater catchments located in the lahar valleys of the Kamchatka Peninsula Sukhaya Elizovskaya River near Avachinskii and Koryakskii volcanoes. Three different subcatchments and corresponding channel types (wandering rivers within lahar valleys, mountain rivers within volcanic slopes and rivers within submountain terrains) were identified in the studied area. Our measurements from different periods of observations between years 2012-2014 showed that the studied catchment was characterized by extreme diurnal fluctuation of water discharges and sediment loads that were influenced by snowmelt patterns and high infiltration rates of the easily erodible lahar deposits. The highest recorded sediment loads were up to 9•104 mg/L which was related to an increase of two orders of magnitude within a one day of observations. Additionally, to get a quantitative estimate of the spatial distribution of the eroded material in the volcanic substrates we applied an empirical soil erosion and sediment yield model-modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE). The modeling results showed that even if the applications of the universal erosion model to different non-agricultural areas (e.g., volcanic catchments) can lead to irrelevant results, the MUSLE model delivered might be acceptable for non-lahar areas of the studied volcanic catchment. Overall the results of our study increase our understanding of the hydrology and associated sediment transport for prediction of risk management within headwater volcanic catchments.

  6. Uzon-Geysernaya volcano-tectonic depression: geodynamics phenomena last years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugaenko, Yulia

    2010-05-01

    One of the most active volcanic arcs in the Pacific Rim, Kamchatka is also one with poor geophysical constraints on its shallow magma plumbing systems. Uzon calderas lie within a graben approximately 20 km wide running beneath the eastern Kamchatka volcanic group. Cross sections of the shallow crustal graben show that it steps WNW from its southeasterly bounding fault beneath Kikhpinych volcano, deepening toward Uzon caldera. Uzon Caldera Summary (by Global Volcanism Program, http://www.volcano.si.edu ): Country, Subregion Name: Russia; Kamchatka Peninsula Volcano Number: 1000-17 Volcano Type: Calderas Last Known Eruption: 200 AD +/- 300 years Summit Elevation: 1617 m (5,305 feet) Coordinates: 54.50°N, 159.97°E Kikhpinych volcano Summary (by Global Volcanism Program, http://www.volcano.si.edu ): Country, Subregion Name: Russia, Kamchatka Peninsula Volcano Number: 1000-18 Volcano Type: Stratovolcanoes Last Known Eruption: 1550 (?) Summit Elevation: 1552 m (5,092 feet) Coordinates: 160.253°N, 160.253°E The twin Uzon and Geysernaya calderas, containing Kamchatka's largest geothermal area, from a 7x18 km Uzon-Geysernaya volcano-tectonic depression that originated during multiple eruptions during the mid-Pleistocene. Post-caldera activity was largely Pleistocene in age and consisted of the extrusion of small silicic lava domes and flows, maar formation and several Holocene phreatic eruptions. The extensive high-temperature hydrothermal system includes the many hot springs, mudpots, and geysers of the Valley of the Geysers on the SE margin of the Uzon-Geysernaya depression. Hydrothermal explosions took place in the western part of caldera in 1986 and 1989. The Valley of the Geysers in the far eastern portion of Uzon caldera is considered derived from shallow meteoric water in contact with a heat source associated with Kikhpinych volcano The general structure places a deep aquifer shallower than a depth of about 2 km with the top of a cooling magma chamber at depths

  7. Composition and pools of humus in natural and agrogenic soils of the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, I. V.; Purtova, L. N.; Kostenkov, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Differentiation of Kamchatka soils with respect to the composition and pools of humus is discussed. Very low and low pools of humus of the fulvate type are typical of the ocherous and stratified ocherous volcanic soils of the eastern coastal zone and the Central Kamchatka Depression. Ocherous volcanic soils of the Western Kamchatka Lowland are characterized by the low and moderate pools of the humate-fulvate humus. Agrogenic soils are characterized by the higher pools of humus in the upper 20 cm in comparison with their natural analogues, which is largely related to changes in the physical properties of the soils under the impact of tillage.

  8. Microbial diversity and autotrophic activity in Kamchatka hot springs.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Alexander Yu; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Rusanov, Igor I; Slobodkin, Alexander I; Slobodkina, Galina B; Tarnovetckii, Ivan Yu; Frolov, Evgeny N; Dubin, Arseny V; Perevalova, Anna A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2017-03-01

    Microbial communities of Kamchatka Peninsula terrestrial hot springs were studied using molecular, radioisotopic and cultural approaches. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments performed by means of high-throughput sequencing revealed that aerobic autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium (phylum Aquificae) dominated in a majority of streamers. Another widely distributed and abundant group was that of anaerobic bacteria of the genus Caldimicrobium (phylum Thermodesulfobacteria). Archaea of the genus Vulcanisaeta were abundant in a high-temperature, slightly acidic hot spring, where they were accompanied by numerous Nanoarchaeota, while the domination of uncultured Thermoplasmataceae A10 was characteristic for moderately thermophilic acidic habitats. The highest rates of inorganic carbon assimilation determined by the in situ incubation of samples in the presence of (14)C-labeled bicarbonate were found in oxygen-dependent streamers; in two sediment samples taken from the hottest springs this process, though much weaker, was found to be not dependent on oxygen. The isolation of anaerobic lithoautotrophic prokaryotes from Kamchatka hot springs revealed a wide distribution of the ability for sulfur disproportionation, a new lithoautotrophic process capable to fuel autonomous anaerobic ecosystems.

  9. Mid-Cretaceous Hawaiian tholeiites preserved in Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnyagin, Maxim; Savelyev, Dmitry; Hoernle, Kaj; Hauff, Folkmar; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2008-11-01

    We report geochemical data on a peculiar group of Albian-Cenomanian(120-93 Ma) basalts preserved in ophiolites on the KamchatskyMys peninsula (Kamchatka, Russia) that share trace element andisotopic compositions with enriched tholeiites from the Detroitand Meiji Seamounts in the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain.Melt inclusions in chromium spinel from these rocks, representativeof melt composition unaffected by post-magmatic alteration,exhibit Hawaiian-type [Th/Ba]n (0.25-0.77; i.e., distinctivelylow compared to the majority of oceanic island basalts and mid-oceanicridge basalts). Low 208Pb*/206Pb* of ~0.93 in rocks and high[Nb/La]n = 1.1-4.6 in melt inclusions suggest the presenceof a distinctive "Kea"-type component in their source.We propose that the ophiolitic basalts represent older (Earlyto middle Cretaceous) products of the Hawaiian hotspot (olderthan preserved on the northwest Pacific seafloor) that wereaccreted to the forearc of Kamchatka. The presence of similarcompositional components in modern and Cretaceous Hawaiian hotspotlavas suggests a persistent yet heterogeneous composition ofthe mantle plume, which may have sampled ≥15% of the core-mantleboundary layer over the past ~100 m.y.

  10. Tsunami wave generation by the eruption of underwater volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Eruption of volcanoes represents one of important origins of tsunami waves and is responsible for most catastrophic tsunami (Krakatau, 1883; Thira, BC). The products of volcano eruption include solids, liquids (lava) and gases. The present article presents hydrodynamic model of relatively slow process of eruption, with domination of liquids. The process of underwater eruption of lava causes the disturbance of ocean free surface. The standard formulation of hydrodynamic problem for incompressible fluid in cylindrically symmetric layer of with rigid bottom and free surface with local hydrodynamic source (volcano) is used. This problem is solved by constructing Green function using methodology of Sretenskij. The solution is obtained in the form of an integral and depends on the dynamics of eruption. Real data show that some volcanoes can erupt several millions of tons of lava during several dozens of seconds (Bezimjannij, Kamchatka). The long waves are more efficiently generated by larger T: these tsunamis can have smaller initial perturbations of free surface, but the waves are long and can transmit their energy over longer distances.

  11. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Tolbachik volcanic massif, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churikova, Tatiana G.; Gordeychik, Boris N.; Iwamori, Hikaru; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Tatsuji; Haraguchi, Satoru; Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.

    2015-12-01

    Data on the geology, petrography, and geochemistry of Middle-Late-Pleistocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic massif (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes) are presented and compared with rocks from the neighboring Mount Povorotnaya, Klyuchevskaya group basement, and Holocene-historical Tolbachik monogenetic cones. Two volcanic series of lavas, middle-K and high-K, are found in the Tolbachik massif. The results of our data analysis and computer modeling of crystallization at different P-T-H2O-fO2 conditions allow us to reconstruct the geochemical history of the massif. The Tolbachik volcanic massif started to form earlier than 86 ka based on K-Ar dating. During the formation of the pedestal and the lower parts of the stratovolcanoes, the middle-K melts, depleted relative to NMORB, fractionated in water-rich conditions (about 3% of H2O). At the Late Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, a large fissure zone was initiated and the geodynamical regime changed. Upwelling associated with intra-arc rifting generated melting from the same mantle source that produced magmas more enriched in incompatible trace elements and subduction components; these magmas are high-K, not depleted relative to N-MORB melts with island arc signatures and rift-like characteristics. The fissure opening caused degassing during magma ascent, and the high-K melts fractionated at anhydrous conditions. These high-K rocks contributed to the formation of the upper parts of stratovolcanoes. At the beginning of Holocene, the high-K rocks became prevalent and formed cinder cones and associated lava fields along the fissure zone. However, some features, including 1975-1976 Northern Breakthrough, are represented by middle-K high-Mg rocks, suggesting that both middle-K and high-K melts still exist in the Tolbachik system. Our results show that fractional crystallization at different water conditions and a variably depleted upper mantle source are responsible for all observed variations in rocks within

  12. KALMAR - "Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutean Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems: Geodynamic and Climate Interaction in Space and Time" - an integrated science approach between Russia and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Baranov, Boris; van den Bogaard, Christel

    2010-05-01

    The exploration of the arctic seas require an integrated approach applying different infrastructures. In Fall 2009 German and Russian scientists performed a geo marine cruise off Kamchatka and in the western Bering Sea within the frame of the KALMAR-Project. Two main research subjects formed the scientific backbone of the cruise: The first objective focuses on the geodynamic and volcanological-magmatic development of the Kuril-Kamchatka island arc system and the Kamchatka Aleutean Islands Triple-Junction. Very little is known about the composition of the mantle and the oceanic crust as well as of the seamounts including their ages. The best studied site is the Volcanologist's Massif located between the Bering- and the Alpha Fracture Zone (Tsvetkov 1990, Volynets et al. 1992, Yogodzinsky et al. 1994), which structurally belongs to the Komandorsky Basin. The oldest rocks of the Volcanologist's Massif show very similar trace element and isotope signatures like those rocks cropping out in the volcanoes on Kamchatka in the prolongation of the Alpha Fracture Zone (Portnyagin et al. 2005a), indicating similar conditions of magma formation. The top of the Volcanologist's Massif is characterized by the young (< 0.5 Ma) and hydrothermally active Piip volcano, which consists of special magnesium rich andesites ("Piip type"). Another hot site was the Meiji-Seamount which is the northernmost Seamount of the hotspot spur of the Hawaii-Emperor-Seamount chain, having an age of probably > 85 Ma. The only existing basement rocks from this seamount were gained during DSDP Leg 19. These are basalts with MORB like trace element and isotope signatures (Keller et al. 2000, Regelous et al. 2003). These data indicate that the Hawaii-Hotspot was at a MOR in Cretaceous time and that large volumes of depleted mantle material played a role during the magma formation. The second objective focuses on paleo-oceanographic investigations concentrating on the sediments along the eastern continental

  13. Thermal modeling of subducted plates: tear and hotspot at the Kamchatka corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davaille, Anne; Lees, Jonathan M.

    2004-10-01

    Pacific plate subduction at the Aleutian-Kamchatka juncture, or corner, could be accommodated by either a large bend or a tear in the oceanic lithosphere. In this paper, we describe a number of observations which suggest that the Pacific plate terminates abruptly at the Bering transform zone (TZ). Seismicity shoals along the subduction zone from Southern Kamchatka (600 km) to relatively shallow depths near the Kamchatka-Bering Fault intersection (100-200 km). This seismicity shoaling is accompanied by an increase in the heat flow values measured on the Pacific plate. Moreover, unusual volcanic products related to adakites are erupted on Kamchatka peninsula at the juncture. Simple thermal modeling shows that a slab torn and thinner along the northern edge of the Pacific plate would be compatible with the observations. Delayed thickening of the lithosphere due to the Meiji-Hawaiian hotspot may be responsible for the required thinning.

  14. Nyiragonga Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the Nyiragonga volcano eruption in the Congo was acquired on January 28, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: A river of molten rock poured from the Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo on January 18, 2002, a day after it erupted, killing dozens, swallowing buildings and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee the town of Goma. The flow continued into Lake Kivu. The lave flows are depicted in red on the image indicating they are still hot. Two of them flowed south form the volcano's summit and went through the town of Goma. Another flow can be seen at the top of the image, flowing towards the northwest. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 killed 50 to 100 people, and several villages were destroyed. The image covers an area of 21 x 24 km and combines a thermal band in red, and two infrared bands in green and blue.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the

  15. First data on magma ascent and residence times retrieved from Fe-Mg and trace element zonation in olivine phenocrysts from Kamchatka basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeychik, Boris; Churikova, Tatiana; Kronz, Andreas; Simakin, Alexander; Wörner, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Compositional zonation in olivine phenocrysts and diffusion modelling have been used in the last ten years to estimate magma residence times and the duration of magma ascent. The fundamental assumption is that mixing with newly injected magma into a reservoir triggers diffusional exchange between mafic olivine crystals and more evolved magma and that this magma mixing eventually triggers eruption. If depth of mixing is known, this translates to ascent rates of magmas to the surface. We applied this approach to a series of different arc basalt lavas from Kamchatka to constrain the rates of magma ascent and magma resident in what is one of the most active subduction zones in the world that is also dominated by an abundance of unusually mafic magmas. Our sample collection cover the principal modes of arc magmatism in Kamchatka: from different volcanic complexes (stratovolcano, dikes, summit eruptions, monogenetic cones), of different age (from Late-Pleistocene to Holocene and recent eruptions), from different magmatic regimes (long-lived volcanoes vs. monogenetic eruptions) and different major element composition (from basalt to basaltic andesite of different geochemical character including LILE enrichments). We analyzed and modelled zonation profiles for a range of elements with different diffusivities (e.g. Mg-Fe, Ca, Ni, Mn, Cr) to assess the role of variable diffusivities as a function of major and trace elements in the olivines from different P-T conditions. First data were obtained on samples from the Klyuchevskoy, Shiveluch and Tolbachik, including recent most eruption in 2012/2013. These data show that for some samples the zonation patterns are much more complex than is usually observed: high-Mg olivines at different volcanoes have very different zonation patterns, including normally, reversely zoned grains or even show highly complex repetitive zonation that indicate large compositional changes in the surrounding magma at very short time scales (years). Thus

  16. Test determinations of paleointensity in historical lavas of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkov, G. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Dolotov, A. V.; Smirnov, M. A.; Ovsyannikov, A. A.; Plechov, P. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the Thellier method for determining the paleointensity of a geomagnetic field is explored on recent igneous rocks of Kamchatka. The main magnetic mineral in the studied rocks is titanomagnetite with different degree of oxidation. It is obtained that the reliability of the results can be assessed based on the deviations of the check points of the partial thermoremanent magnetization (pTRM) during the Thellier experiment. Besides, for different rocks, it is found that the stability of titanomagnetites to heating during the experiments can be insufficient for validating the reliability of the results of paleointensity determination; however, at the same time, the reliability may depend on the initial (oxidation) state of the magnetic minerals of the studied rocks.

  17. Testing and Adapting a Daytime Four Band Satellite Ash Detection Algorithm for Eruptions in Alaska and the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrup-Henriksen, G.; Skoog, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Volcanic ash is detectable from satellite remote sensing due to the differences in spectral signatures compared to meteorological clouds. Recently a new global daytime ash detection algorithm was developed at University of Madison, Wisconsin. The algorithm is based on four spectral bands with the central wavelengths 0.65, 3.75, 11 and 12 micrometers that are common on weather satellite sensors including MODIS, AVHRR, GOES and MTSAT. The initial development of the algorithm was primarily based on MODIS data with global coverage. We have tested it using three years of AVHRR data in Alaska and the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. All the AVHRR data have been manually analyzed and recorded into an observational database during the daily monitoring performed by the remote sensing group at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). By taking the manual observations as accurate we were able to examine the accuracy of the four-channel algorithm for daytime data. The results were also compared to the current automated ash alarm used by AVO, based on the reverse absorption technique, also known as the split window method, with a threshold of -1.7K. This comparison indicates that the four- banded technique has a higher sensitivity to volcanic ash, but a greater number of false alarms. The algorithm was modified to achieve a false alarm rate comparable to current ash alarm while still maintaining increased sensitivity.

  18. Oil and gas potential of the west Kamchatka trough

    SciTech Connect

    Savostin, L.; Kusnetsov, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The west Kamchatka trough (WKT) is a region with a two-stage structural pattern (i.e., Cenozoic cover and pre-Cenozoic basement). The composition of hydrocarbons in local accumulations in the trough, and the present-day and paleotemperature distributions suggest that the hydrocarbons have a complex history. The WKT basement complexes, which have been penetrated by wells, are exposed in uplifts in the southern Median-Kamchatka ridge (MKR), where it is possible to study their composition and structure. The nappe structure of the MKR comprises various sedimentary and volcanoclastic complexes, including some highly carbonaceous Mesozoic clastics. Geodynamic analysis of the MKR rocks shows that during the Mesozoic, two separate island-arc terrances evolved in this part of the northwest Pacific, behind which a back-arc basin developed. In the Paleogene, rocks of this basin were overridden by nappes and metamorphosed. New understanding of the structure and evolution of the older complexes suggest that hydrocarbon accumulations may exist in underthrust zones in the WKT basement, which contains both reservoirs and source rocks. Subsequent evolution of the region was accompanied by the formation of zones of anomalously high formation pressure. Hydrocarbons drained upwards along faults and accumulated in structures in the cover, in places reaching the surface. Existing drilling and seismic data do not help with the interpretation of the basement structure because these operations were aimed at discovering local structural traps in the Cenozoic cover. Future oil exploration surveys in the region will require remote sensing methods that have much deeper penetration.

  19. Large-scale deformation related to the collision of the Aleutian Arc with Kamchatka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesit, Eric L.; Scholl, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The far western Aleutian Island Arc is actively colliding with Kamchatka. Westward motion of the Aleutian Arc is brought about by the tangential relative motion of the Pacific plate transferred to major, right-lateral shear zones north and south of the arc. Early geologic mapping of Cape Kamchatka (a promontory of Kamchatka along strike with the Aleutian Arc) revealed many similarities to the geology of the Aleutian Islands. Later studies support the notion that Cape Kamchatka is the farthest west Aleutian “island” and that it has been accreted to Kamchatka by the process of arc-continent collision. Deformation associated with the collision onshore Kamchatka includes gravimetrically determined crustal thickening and formation of a narrow thrust belt of intensely deformed rocks directly west of Cape Kamchatka. The trend of the thrust faults is concave toward the collision zone, indicating a radial distribution of maximum horizontal compressive stress. Offshore, major crustal faults trend either oblique to the Kamchatka margin or parallel to major Aleutian shear zones. These offshore faults are complex, accommodating both strike-slip and thrust displacements as documented by focal mechanisms and seismic reflection data. Earthquake activity is much higher in the offshore region within a zone bounded to the north by the northernmost Aleutian shear zone and to the west by an apparent aseismic front. Analysis of focal mechanisms in the region indicate that the present-day arc-continent “contact zone” is located directly east of Cape Kamchatka. In modeling the dynamics of the collision zone using thin viscous sheet theory, the rheological parameters are only partially constrained to values of n (the effective power law exponent) ≥ 3 and Ar(the Argand number) ≤ 30. These values are consistent with a forearc thermal profile of Kamchatka, previously determined from heat flow modeling. The thin viscous sheet modeling also indicates that onshore thrust faulting

  20. Assessment of geomorphic risks and attractiveness to recreational systems: a case of Nalychevo Nature Park (Kamchatka, Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, I.; Bredikhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    . "Volcanoes of Kamchatka" are included on UNESCO's World Heritage List. In spite of general fame of Far East recreational resources there are still areas which are not affected by human activities (including recreation and tourism) in immediate proximity to the regional center. This is usually caused by poor infrastructure and lack of information about natural objects. Natural Park Nalychevo, located 50 km NE from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, represents an example of wild area not involved in human activities. The diversity of natural conditions and relief forms creates the necessary prerequisites for assignment a wide range of recreation specialization: balneal, hillwalking, sports (skiing, hiking etc.), environmental education. Hierarchical polycentric structure of Nature Park hampers its management and further development. Moreover, poor infrastructure aggravates the situation. Speaking of prospects for further elaboration of Nature Park, along with high geomorphic attractiveness we should take into account enormous risks induced by active relief dynamics. Sober assessment and analysis of these peculiarities allows to manage it effectively.

  1. Satellite monitoring of remote volcanoes improves study efforts in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, K.; Servilla, M.; Roach, A.; Foster, B.; Engle, K.

    Satellite monitoring of remote volcanoes is greatly benefitting the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), and last year's eruption of the Okmok Volcano in the Aleutian Islands is a good case in point. The facility was able to issue and refine warnings of the eruption and related activity quickly, something that could not have been done using conventional seismic surveillance techniques, since seismometers have not been installed at these locations.AVO monitors about 100 active volcanoes in the North Pacific (NOPAC) region, but only a handful are observed by costly and logistically complex conventional means. The region is remote and vast, about 5000 × 2500 km, extending from Alaska west to the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia (Figure 1). Warnings are transmitted to local communities and airlines that might be endangered by eruptions. More than 70,000 passenger and cargo flights fly over the region annually, and airborne volcanic ash is a threat to them. Many remote eruptions have been detected shortly after the initial magmatic activity using satellite data, and eruption clouds have been tracked across air traffic routes. Within minutes after eruptions are detected, information is relayed to government agencies, private companies, and the general public using telephone, fax, and e-mail. Monitoring of volcanoes using satellite image data involves direct reception, real-time monitoring, and data analysis. Two satellite data receiving stations, located at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), are capable of receiving data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites and from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped satellites.

  2. Iridium anomaly in the Cretaceous section of the Eastern Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, Dmitry; Savelyeva, Olga

    2010-05-01

    The origin of iridium anomalies is widely discussed with regard to massive fauna and flora extinction at several geologic boundaries. Two hypotheses are most popular, cosmogenic and volcanogenic. Anomalies of iridium are known at many stratigraphic levels, both at the geologic series borders and within geologic series. Our studies revealed increased content of iridium in a section of Cretaceous oceanic deposits on the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). The investigated section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) includes interbedded jaspers and siliceous limestones overlaying pillow-basalts. These deposits belong to the Smagin Formation of the Albian-Cenomanian age. In the middle and upper parts of the section two beds of black carbonaceous rocks with sapropelic organic matter were observed. Their formation marked likely episodes of oxygen depletion of oceanic intermediate water (oceanic anoxic events). Our geochemical studies revealed an enrichment of the carbonaceous beds in a number of major and trace elements (Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, K2O, P2O5, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, V, Mo, Ba, Y, Zr, Nb, REE, U, Au, Pt etc.) in comparison with associating jaspers and limestones. There are likely different sources which contributed to the enrichment. It is possible however to correlate the excess of Al, Ti, Zr, Nb with volcanogenic admixture, which is absent in limestones and jaspers. A possible source of the volcanogenic material was local volcanism as suggested by the close association of the investigated section with volcanic rocks (basaltic lavas and hyaloclastites). The basalts of the Smagin Formation were previously proposed to originate during Cretaceous activity of the Hawaiian mantle plume (Portnyagin et al., Geology, 2008). Neutron activation analysis indicated increased up to 9 ppb concentration of Ir at the bottom of the lower carbonaceous bed (inorganic part of the sample was analyzed comprising 46% of the bulk rock). In other samples Ir content was below

  3. Focus: alien volcanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly

    2007-03-01

    Part 1: Volcanoes on Earth - blowing their top; Part 2: Volcanoes of the inner Solar System - dead or alive: the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus; Part 3: Volcanoes of the outer Solar System - fire and ice: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Miranda, Titan, Triton, Enceladus.

  4. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  5. Volcano Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouet, B.

    - A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  6. Volcano seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  7. Cascades Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Driedger, Carolyn; Pallister, John

    2008-01-01

    Washington's Mount St. Helens volcano reawakens explosively on October 1, 2004, after 18 years of quiescence. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) study and observe Mount St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, and northern California that hold potential for future eruptions. CVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Mount St. Helens and CVO at http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/.

  8. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Kuril-Kamchatka Arc and Vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Susan; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley

    2010-01-01

    This map shows details of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc not visible in an earlier publication, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3064. The arc extends about 2,100 km from Hokkaido, Japan, along the Kuril Islands and the pacific coast of the Kamchatka, Russia, peninsula to its intersection with the Aleutian arc near the Commander Islands, Russia. It marks the region where the Pacific plate subducts into the mantle beneath the Okhotsk microplate, a part of the larger North America plate. This subduction is responsible for the generation of the Kuril Islands chain and the deep offshore Kuril-Kamchatka trench. Relative to a fixed North America plate, the Pacific plate is moving northwest at a rate that decreases from 83 mm per year at the arc's southern end to 75 mm per year near its northern edge.

  9. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  10. Scoria cone formation through a violent Strombolian eruption: Irao Volcano, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyosugi, Koji; Horikawa, Yoshiyuki; Nagao, Takashi; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Connor, Charles B.; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Scoria cones are common volcanic features and are thought to most commonly develop through the deposition of ballistics produced by gentle Strombolian eruptions and the outward sliding of talus. However, some historic scoria cones have been observed to form with phases of more energetic violent Strombolian eruptions (e.g., the 1943-1952 eruption of Parícutin, central Mexico; the 1975 eruption of Tolbachik, Kamchatka), maintaining volcanic plumes several kilometers in height, sometimes simultaneous with active effusive lava flows. Geologic evidence shows that violent Strombolian eruptions during cone formation may be more common than is generally perceived, and therefore it is important to obtain additional insights about such eruptions to better assess volcanic hazards. We studied Irao Volcano, the largest basaltic monogenetic volcano in the Abu Monogenetic Volcano Group, SW Japan. The geologic features of this volcano are consistent with a violent Strombolian eruption, including voluminous ash and fine lapilli beds (on order of 10-1 km3 DRE) with simultaneous scoria cone formation and lava effusion from the base of the cone. The characteristics of the volcanic products suggest that the rate of magma ascent decreased gradually throughout the eruption and that less explosive Strombolian eruptions increased in frequency during the later stages of activity. During the eruption sequence, the chemical composition of the magma became more differentiated. A new K-Ar age determination for phlogopite crystallized within basalt dates the formation of Irao Volcano at 0.4 ± 0.05 Ma.

  11. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  12. Galactic Super Volcano Similar to Iceland Volcano

    NASA Video Gallery

    This composite image from NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio data from the Very Large Array shows a cosmic volcano being driven by a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. This eruptio...

  13. Volcanoes, Observations and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie

    Volcanoes are critical geologic hazards that challenge our ability to make long-term forecasts of their eruptive behaviors. They also have direct and indirect impacts on human lives and society. As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which volcanoes evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. On the other hand, the time scale over which a volcano can move from inactivity to eruption can be rather short: months, weeks, days, and even hours. Thus, scientific study and monitoring of volcanoes is essential to mitigate risk. There are thousands of volcanoes on Earth, and it is impractical to study and implement ground-based monitoring at them all. Fortunately, there are other effective means for volcano monitoring, including increasing capabilities for satellite-based technologies.

  14. The Volcano Adventure Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser

    2005-05-01

    Adventure travels to volcanoes offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting volcano and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study volcano processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny himself. To tour the splendors and horrors of 25 preeminent volcanoes might be the experience of a lifetime, for scientists and nonscientists alike. In The Volcano Adventure Guide, we now have the ultimate tourist volume to lead us safely to many of the world's famous volcanoes and to ensure that we will see the important sites at each one.

  15. Volcanoes: observations and impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanoes are critical geologic hazards that challenge our ability to make long-term forecasts of their eruptive behaviors. They also have direct and indirect impacts on human lives and society. As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which volcanoes evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. On the other hand, the time scale over which a volcano can move from inactivity to eruption can be rather short: months, weeks, days, and even hours. Thus, scientific study and monitoring of volcanoes is essential to mitigate risk. There are thousands of volcanoes on Earth, and it is impractical to study and implement ground-based monitoring at them all. Fortunately, there are other effective means for volcano monitoring, including increasing capabilities for satellite-based technologies.

  16. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An Expedition Two crewmember aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  17. Volcano hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Mastin, Larry G.; Scott, William E.; Schilling, Steven P.

    1997-01-01

    Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon. It has been built by thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during several eruptive episodes of the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. The most-visited part of the volcano is Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera at the summit of the volcano. Seven campgrounds, two resorts, six summer homes, and two major lakes (East and Paulina Lakes) are nestled in the caldera. The caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Other eruptions during this time have occurred along a rift zone on the volcano's northwest flank and, to a lesser extent, the south flank. Many striking volcanic features lie in Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The monument includes the caldera and extends along the northwest rift zone to the Deschutes River. About 30 percent of the area within the monument is covered by volcanic products erupted during the past 10,000 years from Newberry volcano. Newberry volcano is presently quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. This report describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. In terms of our own lifetimes, volcanic events at Newberry are not of day-to-day concern because they occur so infrequently; however, the consequences of some types of eruptions can be severe. When Newberry

  18. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  19. Mud volcanoes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komar, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    The term mud volcano is applied to a variety of landforms having in common a formation by extrusion of mud from beneath the ground. Although mud is the principal solid material that issues from a mud volcano, there are many examples where clasts up to boulder size are found, sometimes thrown high into the air during an eruption. Other characteristics of mud volcanoes (on Earth) are discussed. The possible presence of mud volcanoes, which are common and widespread on Earth, on Mars is considered.

  20. Epimeria abyssalis sp. n. from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Epimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Tomikawa, Ko

    2016-01-01

    A new deep-sea epimeriid, Epimeria abyssalis is described from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, in the northwestern Pacific. This species differs from its congeners in having a short rostrum and a telson with deep and narrow Y-shaped excavation. Epimeria abyssalis is the deepest recorded Epimeria species. A key to the north Pacific species of Epimeria is provided.

  1. Epimeria abyssalis sp. n. from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Epimeriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Tomikawa, Ko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new deep-sea epimeriid, Epimeria abyssalis is described from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, in the northwestern Pacific. This species differs from its congeners in having a short rostrum and a telson with deep and narrow Y-shaped excavation. Epimeria abyssalis is the deepest recorded Epimeria species. A key to the north Pacific species of Epimeria is provided. PMID:28174500

  2. Plastic pollution of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (NW pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Viola; Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Brenke, Nils; Schwabe, Enrico; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian expedition KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) to the northwest Pacific Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plain, we found several kinds and sizes of plastic debris ranging from fishing nets and packaging to microplastic in the sediment of the deep-sea floor. Microplastics were ubiquitous in the smaller fractions of the box corer samples from every station from depths between 4869 and 5766 m. They were found on the abyssal plain and in the sediments of the trench slope on both sides. The amount of microplastics differed between the stations, with lowest concentration of 60 pieces per m2 and highest concentrations of more than 2000 pieces per m2. Around 75% of the microplastics (defined here as particles <1 mm) we isolated from the sediment samples were fibers. Other particles were paint chips or small cracked pieces of unknown origin. The Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area is known for its very rich marine fauna (Zenkevich, 1963). Yet we can only guess how these microplastics accumulated in the deep sea of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area and what consequences the microplastic itself and its adsorbed chemicals will have on this very special and rich deep-sea fauna. But we herewith present an evaluation of the different kinds of plastic debris we found, as a documentation of human impact into the deep sea of this region of the Northwest Pacific.

  3. Volcano infrasound: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Bruce; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2011-09-01

    Exploding volcanoes, which produce intense infrasound, are reminiscent of the veritable explosion of volcano infrasound papers published during the last decade. Volcano infrasound is effective for tracking and quantifying eruptive phenomena because it corresponds to activity occurring near and around the volcanic vent, as opposed to seismic signals, which are generated by both surface and internal volcanic processes. As with seismology, infrasound can be recorded remotely, during inclement weather, or in the dark to provide a continuous record of a volcano's unrest. Moreover, it can also be exploited at regional or global distances, where seismic monitoring has limited efficacy. This paper provides a literature overview of the current state of the field and summarizes applications of infrasound as a tool for better understanding volcanic activity. Many infrasound studies have focused on integration with other geophysical data, including seismic, thermal, electromagnetic radiation, and gas spectroscopy and they have generally improved our understanding of eruption dynamics. Other work has incorporated infrasound into volcano surveillance to enhance capabilities for monitoring hazardous volcanoes and reducing risk. This paper aims to provide an overview of volcano airwave studies (from analog microbarometer to modern pressure transducer) and summarizes how infrasound is currently used to infer eruption dynamics. It also outlines the relative merits of local and regional infrasound surveillance, highlights differences between array and network sensor topologies, and concludes with mention of sensor technologies appropriate for volcano infrasound study.

  4. Understanding controls on cirque floor altitudes: Insights from Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Iestyn D.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    Glacial cirques reflect former regions of glacier initiation, and are therefore used as indicators of past climate. One specific way in which palaeoclimatic information is obtained from cirques is by analysing their elevations, on the assumption that cirque floor altitudes are a proxy for climatically controlled equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) during former periods of small scale (cirque-type) glaciation. However, specific controls on cirque altitudes are rarely assessed, and the validity of using cirque floor altitudes as a source of palaeoclimatic information remains open to question. In order to address this, here we analyse the distribution of 3520 ice-free cirques on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia), and assess various controls on their floor altitudes. In addition, we analyse controls on the mid-altitudes of 503 modern glaciers, currently identifiable on the peninsula, and make comparisons with the cirque altitude data. The main study findings are that cirque floor altitudes increase steeply inland from the Pacific, suggesting that moisture availability (i.e., proximity to the coastline) played a key role in regulating the altitudes at which former (cirque-forming) glaciers were able to initiate. Other factors, such as latitude, aspect, topography, geology, and neo-tectonics seem to have played a limited (but not insignificant) role in regulating cirque floor altitudes, though south-facing cirques are typically higher than their north-facing equivalents, potentially reflecting the impact of prevailing wind directions (from the SSE) and/or variations in solar radiation on the altitudes at which former glaciers were able to initiate. Trends in glacier and cirque altitudes across the peninsula are typically comparable (i.e., values typically rise from both the north and south, inland from the Pacific coastline, and where glaciers/cirques are south-facing), yet the relationship with latitude is stronger for modern glaciers, and the relationship with

  5. Division of the Cenozoic reference section of the Kvachina Bay, West Kamchatka, and problems of its correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladenkov, Yu. B.

    2016-11-01

    A reference section of the Paleogene and Neogene located in the Kvachina Bay, West Kamchatka, is characterized in detail with description of ancient sequences and their lithological and paleontological features. Debatable problems of division and correlation of the section are reported. Its importance for deciphering of the geological events of the region is examined, as well as for the development of the stratigraphic scheme of the Cenozoic of West Kamchatka.

  6. Explosive Eruptions of Kamchatkan Volcanoes in 2012 and Danger to Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Demyanchuk, Yury; Petrova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most dangerous for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting temperature of small particles of ash below the operating temperature of jet engines. There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka and 6 active volcanoes in the Northern Kuriles, and 4 of them continuously active. In 2012 seven strong explosive eruptions of the Kamchatkan and the Northern Kuriles volcanoes Sheveluch, Bezymianny, Kizimen, Tolbachik, Klyuchevskoy, and Karymsky took place. In addition, higher fumarolic activity of Gorely volcano was observed. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2012: on January 22-23; on March 16-17; March 25-30 - June 03; and on September 18: ash plumes rose up to 10 km a.s.l. and extended about 200-2000 km to the different directions of the volcano. The eruptive activity of Bezymianny volcano began since 1955, and is continuing at present as growth of the lava dome. Two paroxysmal explosive phases of the eruption occurred on March 08 and September 01: ash plumes rose up to 8-12 km a.s.l. and extended about 1500 km to the east-north-east of the volcano. Eruption of Kizimen volcano began on December 09, 2010, and continues. Strong explosive eruption began in mid-December, 2010, - ash plumes rose up to 10 km a.s.l. and extended > 800 km from the volcano. There are several stages of the eruption: explosive (from 09 December 2010 to mid-January 2011); explosive-effusive (mid-January to mid-June 2011); effusive (mid-January 2011 to September 2012). Extrusive-effusive phase of eruption

  7. Origin, transport, and emplacement of an exotic island-arc terrane exposed in eastern Kamchatka, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Vallier, Tracy L.; Scholl, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The regional stratigraphy of eastern Kamchatka includes an exotic, Early-Late Cretaceous ophiolite and Late Cretaceous island-arc volcanic sequence. Integrating the existing geologic and geophysical data, we examine the origin, transport, emplacement, and postemplacement deformation of the island-arc terrane, which is named the Olyutorsky island arc. Results from several paleomagnetic studies consistently indicate that the island-arc terrane originated >1000 km to the south of where it is presently exposed. Although the formative paleolatitudes of the island-arc rocks approximately correspond to the location of the Izanagi-Farallon subduction zone, the age of the volcanic rocks postdates the cessation of Izanagi-Farallon convergence, thus indicating that an unnamed plate or back-arc basin existed in the northwest Pacific during Late Cretaceous time. We examine two possible models for northward transport of the island-arc terrane to Kamchatka: (1) infra-oceanic transport with the Pacific or Kula plates and (2) coastwise translation of the island-arc terrane after accretion to the Eurasian margin far to the south of Kamchatka. For both models, the dominant Eocene and Miocene deformation ages observed in eastern Kamchatka are used as two possible age limits for the cessation of northward transport. Although the observed paleolatitudes from paleomagnetic data correspond best with the infra-oceanic transport model, the provenance of the Paleogene "transport" stratigraphy indicates a near-shore sediment supply. Our preferred interpretation is that the island-arc terrane (1) accreted onto the Eurasian margin concurrent with cessation of island-arc volcanism (Maastrichtian-Danian) and (2) underwent northward coastwise translation along a major strike-slip fault zone ending by middle-late Eocene time (43-50 Ma). It is unclear whether the ophiolite was exposed during arc-continent collision or whether the ophiolite was obducted onto the island arc prior to collision. A

  8. Subducting fracture zones control earthquake distribution and upper plate properties: examples from Sumatra and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaedicke, C.; Freitag, R.; Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Ladage, S.; Schnabel, M.; Tsukanov, N.

    2010-12-01

    With newly acquired marine geophysical data from the oceanic crust off Sumatra and Kamchatka (SO186 and SO201) we investigate the influence of the relief of the downgoing plate on seismicity and fore arc structure, architecture and properties along two different active margins, namely the Sumatra and the Kamchatka subduction zones. Off northern Sumatra two mega-thrust events occurred on 26.12.2004 (Mw=9.1-9.3) and on 28.03.2005 (Mw=8.6). Seismological investigations, GPS measurements and in-situ and remote observation of vertical motion on fore arc islands show both, an abrupt southern termination of the large 12/2004 rupture and a sharp northern termination of the rupture zone of the 03/2005 mega-thrust. Wide-angle/refraction seismic and MCS data show an abrupt arc parallel depth change of 3 km within 40 km in the oceanic crust beneath the fore arc SW of Simeulue Island. We interpret the abrupt depth change originates from a ramp or tear in the subducted oceanic crust. The discontinuity in the oceanic crust likely trends NNE and is located east of a continuation of an extinct FZ on the subducting Indo-Australian plate. This indicates a pervasive lower plate control on margin structure, particularly its segmentation. The tear might be the reason for rupture propagation termination of the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquakes. During RV Sonne cruise SO201 we collected geophysical profiles in the NW Pacific off Kamchatka and the Aleutian arc crossing the Emperor Seamount Chain and the Krusenstern FZ. The Krusenstern FZ is being subducted at the Kamchatka margin. It comprises a maximum vertical offset of about 1080 m. From our data we suggest that the Krusenstern FZ is reactivated in the vicinity of the Kamchatka margin due to the load of the subducting/colliding Meiji Guyot. It enters the subduction zone right off Kronotsky Peninsula, where a major segment boundary separates domains of different properties of the fore arc: It differs in terms of exhumation, uplift and

  9. Recognizing subtle evidence for silicic magma derivation from petrochemically-similar arc crust: Isotopic and chemical evidence for the bimodal volcanic series of Gorely Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Ponomareva, V.; Leonov, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula is home to some of the most prolific subduction related volcanic activity in the world. Gorely caldera and its central volcano are located in the rear of its currently active Eastern Volcanic Front. Recent work determined the presence of explosive ignimbrite eruptions sourced from Gorely volcano during the Pleistocene. We studied 32 eruptive units, including tephrochronologically-dated Holocene tephra, stratigraphically-arranged ignimbrites, as well as pre- and post-caldera lavas. We analyzed oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene and plagioclase grains by laser fluorination, and major and trace element compositions of whole rocks. In addition, we determined 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions. Chemical compositions show that Gorely eruptive units range from basalt to basaltic andesite in the "Pra-Gorely" stages prior to caldera formation and the modern Gorely stages forming its current edifice. In contrast, eruptive material from earlier ignimbrites exposed at Opasny Ravine consists primarily of dacite. Whole rock analyses for Gorely indicate that silicic rocks and ignimbrites volumetrically dominate all other products, forming separate bimodal peaks in our SiO2-frequency diagram. In addition, trace element concentrations and ratios define two trends, one for more silicic and another for more mafic material. δ18Omelt values range from a low of 4.85 up to 6.22‰, where the lowest value was found in the last caldera forming eruption, suggesting incorporation of hydrothermally-altered material from earlier eruptions. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.70328 to 0.70351 and from 0.51303 to 0.51309 respectively, with higher and more diverse values being characteristic of earlier ignimbrite units; again suggesting incorporation of surrounding crustal material. In contrast to these results, MELTS modeling using a variety of likely primitive basalts from Gorely shows it is possible to obtain silicic

  10. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Feeding volcanoes of the Kluchevskoy group from the results of local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Gordeev, Evgeniy I.; Dobretsov, Nikolay L.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Senyukov, Sergey; Jakovlev, Andrey

    2011-05-01

    We present a seismic model of the area beneath the Kluchevskoy volcano group (Kamchatka, Russia) based on the tomographic inversion of more than 66000 P and S arrival times from more than 5000 local earthquakes that occurred in 2004 and that were recorded by 17 permanent stations. Below a depth of 25 km beneath the Kluchevskoy volcano, we observed a very strong anomaly in the Vp/Vs ratio that reached as high as 2.2. This is a probable indicator of the presence of partially molten material with a composition corresponding to deeper mantle layers. The upper part of this anomaly at a depth of 25-30 km coincides with a cluster of strong seismicity that can be explained by strong mechanical stresses in the lowermost crust due to magma ascension, water release and/or phase transitions. In the crust, we observed regular seismicity clusters that link the mantle anomaly with the Kluchevskoy volcano and most likely indicate the paths of magma migration. Between depths of 8 and 13 km, we see several patterns of high Vp/Vs ratios, interpreted as intermediate-depth magma storages. Directly below the Kluchevskoy volcano, we observed a shallow body of high Vp/Vs, which probably represents the activated magma chamber just beneath the volcano cone, which erupted in the beginning of 2005. The existence of three levels of magma storage, based on results of local earthquake tomography, may explain the variety of the lava composition and eruption regimes in different volcanoes of the Kluchevskoy group.

  12. Volcanoes. A planetary perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, P.

    In this book, the author gives an account of the familiar violent aspects of volcanoes and the various forms that eruptions can take. He explores why volcanoes exist at all, why volcanoes occur where they do, and how examples of major historical eruptions can be interpreted in terms of physical processes. Throughout he attempts to place volcanism in a planetary perspective, exploring the pre-eminent role of submarine volcanism on Earth and the stunning range of volcanic phenomena revealed by spacecraft exploration of the solar system.

  13. Stereo Pair, Lake Palanskoye Landslide, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Lake Palanskoye in northern Kamchatka was formed when a large landslide disrupted the drainage pattern, forming a natural dam. The area is volcanically and tectonically active and it is likely that the landslide -- which covers about 80 square kilometers (30 square miles) --was triggered by an earthquake sometime in the past 10,000 years. The source area of the landslide is the ridge between the two bright rocky features to the lower left of the lake. In 3-D, the steep topographic scar at the head of the slide and the broad expanse of hummocky landslide debris that covers the valley just below the lake are visible. This Landsat/SRTM stereoscopic view is an enhanced true color image: Vegetation appears green, rocks are brownish, snow is white and water (such as the lake) appears very dark.

    This stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from SRTM combined with a Landsat 7 satellite image collected the previous summer. The topography data were used to create two differing perspectives of a single image -- one for each eye. Depending on its elevation, each point in the image was shifted slightly. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter(99 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  14. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    MedlinePlus

    ... large landslides have swept down the slopes of Mount Rainier, Washington, during the past 6,000 years. The ... communities downstream from glacier-clad volcanoes, such as Mount Rainier. To help protect lives and property, scientists of ...

  15. Shaking up volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Most volcanic eruptions that occur shortly after a large distant earthquake do so by random chance. A few compelling cases for earthquake-triggered eruptions exist, particularly within 200 km of the earthquake, but this phenomenon is rare in part because volcanoes must be poised to erupt in order to be triggered by an earthquake (1). Large earthquakes often perturb volcanoes in more subtle ways by triggering small earthquakes and changes in spring discharge and groundwater levels (1, 2). On page 80 of this issue, Brenguier et al. (3) provide fresh insight into the interaction of large earthquakes and volcanoes by documenting a temporary change in seismic velocity beneath volcanoes in Honshu, Japan, after the devastating Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011.

  16. Late Holocene climate and environmental changes in Kamchatka inferred from the subfossil chironomid record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; de Hoog, Verena; Hoff, Ulrike; Dirksen, Oleg; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of the Late Holocene climate in Kamchatka based on chironomid remains from a 332 cm long composite sediment core recovered from Dvuyurtochnoe Lake (Two-Yurts Lake, TYL) in central Kamchatka. The oldest recovered sediments date to about 4500 cal years BP. Chironomid head capsules from TYL reflect a rich and diverse fauna. An unknown morphotype of Tanytarsini, Tanytarsus type klein, was found in the lake sediments. Our analysis reveals four chironomid assemblage zones reflecting four different climatic periods in the Late Holocene. Between 4500 and 4000 cal years BP, the chironomid composition indicates a high lake level, well-oxygenated lake water conditions and close to modern temperatures (˜13 °C). From 4000 to 1000 cal years BP, two consecutive warm intervals were recorded, with the highest reconstructed temperature reaching 16.8 °C between 3700 and 2800 cal years BP. Cooling trend, started around 1100 cal years BP led to low temperatures during the last stage of the Holocene. Comparison with other regional studies has shown that termination of cooling at the beginning of late Holocene is relatively synchronous in central Kamchatka, South Kurile, Bering and Japanese Islands and take place around 3700 cal years BP. From ca 3700 cal years BP to the last millennium, a newly strengthened climate continentality accompanied by general warming trend with minor cool excursions led to apparent spatial heterogeneity of climatic patterns in the region. Some timing differences in climatic changes reconstructed from chironomid record of TYL sediments and late Holocene events reconstructed from other sites and other proxies might be linked to differences in local forcing mechanisms or caused by the different degree of dating precision, the different temporal resolution, and the different sensitive responses of climate proxies to the climate variations. Further high-resolution stratigraphic studies in this region are needed to understand

  17. Deep-sea sipunculans from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorova, Anastassya S.; Adrianov, Andrey V.

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea sipunculans collected during the expedition to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal plain are described and illustrated using differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specimens were sorted from brown silt collected by giant boxcorer (GKG), epibenthic sledge (EBS) and Agassiz trawl (AGT) from the depths 4830-5780 m. Within about 150 valid species of sipunculans only 15 have been known to be abyssal and six of them were found and identified in this KURAMBIO expedition. Eight species of sipunculans have been previously recorded from the Kuril-Kamchatka region but all of them were described based on preserved museum's material collected by bottom dredge and these descriptions are far from to be complete and comparable with other samplings. All KURAMBIO species are described according to a unified protocol to illustrate the most important taxonomic characters. This is the first description and illustrating of abyssal sipunculans in live condition with natural coloration of non-preserved specimens. Abyssal species were for a first time described with SEM facilities and according to a standardized protocol. For a first time for abyssal sipunculans, species accounts also include quantitative characteristics, distribution and specific biotope data. Nephasoma abyssorum is reported for the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal plain for a first time.

  18. Radiation situation in Kamchatka after the Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    The chronology of events in Kamchatka related to the threat of radioactive contamination of the territory as a result of the Fukushima-1 nuclear power station (NPS) accident in Japan is briefly reviewed based on the published data. The accident happened on March 11, 2011, after a strong earthquake near the coast of Japan and the giant tsunami followed by the earthquake. The power supply was damaged and, as a result, the cooling system of NPS reactors was destroyed. Although the reactors did not explode, radioactive emissions from the damaged NPS discharged into the atmosphere and spread over large areas by the air flows. Information about the radiation situation in Kamchatka is controversial. Therefore, the author carried out regular monitoring of the radiation background during a hiking trip in Kamchatka in August 2011. The data are presented in this paper. It was concluded that the radiation background along the route of the trip was consistent (within the accuracy of measurement methods) with the normal values of a natural background. A thorough analysis of air, soil, food samples, etc., is required for a more detailed study to identify the presence of radionuclides in the atmospheric emissions from the damaged NPS in Japan.

  19. Seismic tremor associated with the degassing of the Gorely volcano in 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramenkov, Sergey; Shapiro, Nikolai; Koulakov, Ivan; Abkadyirov, Ilyas; Frank, William; Jakovlev, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    We present observation of seismic activity associated with the strong degassing episode occurred in Gorely volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) in 2013-2014. We use the data of a temporary network of 21 broadband seismographs that operated on this volcano during one year. During the considered period, the volcanic activity mainly consisted of sustained gas emission that produced strong volcanic tremor well recorded by seismic stations. A close analysis of this tremor revealed that it was composed of many very frequent pulses of seismic energy. The corresponding signals had an emergent character without clear arrivals of P and S waves, which is typical for burst of Long Period (LP) events on many volcanoes. We developed a source-scanning algorithm based on summation of seismogram envelopes for automatic detection and location of these LP events. With the help of this method, numerous events originated from the vicinity of the main crater were detected. In a next step, we cross-correlated the waveforms of the detected LP events and found that a large part of them can be regrouped in families of seismic multiplets. This indicates that the increased pressure produced by the volcanic degassing activates a set of non-destructive shallow seismic sources in vicinity of the main volcanic conduit. The developed analysis of continuous seismic records was used to characterize the spatio-temporal evolution of these sources.

  20. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  1. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  2. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  3. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  4. Volcano-electromagnetic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Malcolm J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and blast-excited traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Identification of different physical processes and their interdependence is often possible with multiparameter monitoring, now common on volcanoes, since many of these processes occur with different timescales and some are simultaneously identified in other geophysical data (deformation, seismic, gas, ionospheric disturbances, etc.). EM monitoring plays an important part in understanding these processes.

  5. Comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the seismotectonic deformation orientations for Kamchatka region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushenkova, Natalia; Kuchay, Olga; Chervov, Victor; Koulakov, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    In this study we reveal the relationships between the structure of the lithosphere, the distribution of convective flows in the upper mantle and the character of seismotectonic deformations (STD) that is especially important for regions of active continental margins. We present a comprehensive analysis of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models together with the distribution of the STD principal axes orientations for the Kamchatka region, where crustal displacements are accompanied with seismic and volcanic activity. Our previous results have shown that: the variations of the lithosphere thickness significantly affect the structure of convective flows in the upper mantle [Chervov, Chernykh, 2014]; the pattern of these flows, in turn, correlate with the distribution and the orientations of STD principal axes (for the Altai-Sayan region with surrounding areas [Bushenkova, at al., 2014]). Based on the upper mantle seismic tomography model beneath Kamchatka and adjacent regions by Koulakov et al. (2011) and taking into account the variations of the lithosphere structure, we have calculated a numerical 3D model of thermal convection in the upper mantle. Also, we have estimated the distribution of orientations of the STD principal axes. We used the focal mechanisms of 511 earthquakes occurred in the period of 1976-2015 [www.isc.ac.uk/iscbulletin/search/fmechanisms] in the Kamchatka region. These focal mechanisms were transformed to the 3D STD distributions based on the Riznichenko's method (1985). In this case, the STD was determined as an average seismic moment tensor of all earthquakes in a unit volume for the selected time. We found that the STD principal axes distribution is inherited for different depth layers along the entire eastern coast of Kamchatka. Abrupt changes in the orientation of the principal axes of elongation and shortening, and a change of the direction of their dipping are observed in area zone of 53.0- 54.50 N. This zone coincides with an

  6. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  7. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This pair of images was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 26. The image on the left shows the scene in true color. The small purple box in the upper righthand corner marks the location of Nyamuragira's hot summit. The false-color image on the right shows the plume from the volcano streaming southwestward. This image was made using MODIS' channels sensitive at wavelengths from 8.5 to 11 microns. Red pixels indicate high concentrations of sulphur dioxide. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

  8. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 28, 2002. Nyamuragira is situated roughly in the center of this scene, roughly 100 km south of Lake Edward and just north of Lake Kivu (which is mostly obscured by the haze from the erupting volcano and the numerous fires burning in the surrounding countryside). Due south of Lake Kivu is the long, narrow Lake Tanganyika running south and off the bottom center of this scene.

  9. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  10. The Volcano Adventure Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2005-02-01

    This guide contains vital information for anyone wishing to visit, explore, and photograph active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. Following an introduction that discusses eruption styles of different types of volcanoes and how to prepare for an exploratory trip that avoids volcanic dangers, the book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world. It is filled with practical information that includes tour itineraries, maps, transportation details, and warnings of possible non-volcanic dangers. Three appendices direct the reader to a wealth of further volcano resources in a volume that will fascinate amateur enthusiasts and professional volcanologists alike. Rosaly Lopes is a planetary geology and volcanology specialist at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. In addition to her curatorial and research work, she has lectured extensively in England and Brazil and written numerous popular science articles. She received a Latinas in Science Award from the Comision Feminil Mexicana Nacional in 1991 and since 1992, has been a co-organizer of the United Nations/European Space Agency/The Planetary Society yearly conferences on Basic Science for the Benefit of Developing Countries.

  11. Geology of kilauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  12. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  13. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  14. Chlorine and fluorine partition coefficients and abundances in sub-arc mantle xenoliths (Kamchatka, Russia): Implications for melt generation and volatile recycling processes in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénard, A.; Koga, K. T.; Shimizu, N.; Kendrick, M. A.; Ionov, D. A.; Nebel, O.; Arculus, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    We report chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F) abundances in minerals, interstitial glasses, and melt inclusions in 12 andesite-hosted, spinel harzburgite xenoliths and crosscutting pyroxenite veins exhumed from the sub-arc lithospheric mantle beneath Avacha volcano in the Kamchatka Arc (NE Russia). The data are used to calculate equilibrium mineral-melt partition coefficients (D mineral / melt) for Cl and F relevant to subduction-zone processes and unravel the history of volatile depletion and enrichment mechanisms in an arc setting. Chlorine is ∼100 times more incompatible in pyroxenes (DClmineral/melt = 0.005-0.008 [±0.002-0.003]) than F (DFmineral/melt = 0.50-0.57 [±0.21-0.24]), which indicates that partial melting of mantle sources leads to strong depletions in Cl relative to F in the residues. The data set in this study suggests a strong control of melt composition on DCl,Fpyroxene/melt, in particular H2O contents and Al/(Al + Si), which is in line with recent experiments. Fluorine is compatible in Ca-amphibole in the 'wet' sub-arc mantle (DFamphibole/melt = 3.5-3.7 [±1.5]) but not Cl (DClamphibole/melt = 0.03-0.05 [±0.01-0.03]), indicating that amphibole may fractionate F from Cl in the mantle wedge. The inter-mineral partition coefficients for Cl and F in this study are consistent amongst different harzburgite samples, whether they contain glass or not. In particular, disseminated amphibole hosts much of the Cl and F bulk rock budgets of spinel harzburgites (DClamphibole/pyroxene up to 14 and DFamphibole/pyroxene up to 40). Chlorine and fluorine are variably enriched (up to 1500 ppm Cl and 750 ppm F) in the parental arc picrite and boninite melts of primitive pyroxenite veins (and related melt inclusions) crosscutting spinel harzburgites.

  15. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  16. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  17. Occurrence and genetic typing of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Kamchatka, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudakova, S.L.; Kurath, G.; Bochkova, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well known rhabdoviral pathogen of salmonid fish in North America that has become established in Asia and Europe. On the Pacific coast of Russia, IHNV was first detected in hatchery sockeye from the Kamchatka Peninsula in 2001. Results of virological examinations of over 10 000 wild and cultured salmonid fish from Kamchatka during 1996 to 2005 revealed IHNV in several sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations. The virus was isolated from spawning adults and from juveniles undergoing epidemics in both hatchery and wild sockeye populations from the Bolshaya watershed. No virus was detected in 2 other water-sheds, or in species other than sockeye salmon. Genetic typing of 8 virus isolates by seguence analysis of partial glycoprotein and nucleocapsid genes revealed that they were genetically homogeneous and fell within the U genogroup of IHNV. In phylogenetic analyses, the Russian IHNV sequences were indistinguishable from the sequences of North American U genogroup isolates that occur throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The high similarity, and in some cases identity, between Russian and North American IHNV isolates suggests virus transmission or exposure to a common viral reservoir in the North Pacific Ocean. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  18. Molecular analysis of the benthos microbial community in Zavarzin thermal spring (Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Geothermal areas are of great interest for the study of microbial communities. The results of such investigations can be used in a variety of fields (ecology, microbiology, medicine) to answer fundamental questions, as well as those with practical benefits. Uzon caldera is located in the Uzon-Geyser depression that is situated in the centre of the Karym-Semyachin region of the East Kamchatka graben-synclinorium. The microbial communities of Zavarzin spring are well studied; however, its benthic microbial mat has not been previously described. Results Pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to study the benthic microbial community of the Zavarzin thermal spring (Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka). The community is dominated by bacteria (>95% of all sequences), including thermophilic, chemoorganotrophic Caldiserica (33.0%) and Dictyoglomi (24.8%). The benthic community and the previously examined planktonic community of Zavarzin spring have qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, compositions. Conclusions In this study, we performed a metagenomic analysis of the benthic microbial mat of Zavarzin spring. We compared this benthic community to microbial communities found in the water and of an integral probe consisting of water and bottom sediments. Various phylogenetic groups of microorganisms, including potentially new ones, represent the full-fledged trophic system of Zavarzin. A thorough geochemical study of the spring was performed. PMID:25563397

  19. Evidence of global pollution and recent environmental change in Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, V. J.; Rose, N. L.; Self, A. E.; Solovieva, N.; Yang, H.

    2015-11-01

    Kamchatka is a remote, isolated and understudied area and is presumed to be pristine. Here we present the first high-resolution palaeolimnological investigation of the recent past. A short core representing the last 250 years was taken from Olive-backed Lake situated in central Kamchatka. Lead-210 dating revealed that sediment accumulation has increased at the site since the 1960s and may be related to greater rates of catchment erosion associated with wetter winters in the region. Mercury and spheroidal carbonaceous particle (an unambiguous indicator of fossil fuel combustion) concentrations are low but clearly detectable indicating that both regional and global pollution sources are observed at this site. The recent increase in the flux of mercury is more related to catchment sources and catchment erosion than increases from regional or global sources. The diatom and chironomid populations are stable and do not show any statistically significant changes related to either the low levels of pollution, or to temperature and precipitation changes. The lake is not pristine since anthropogenic contamination has occurred but since there have been no significant effects on the flora and fauna the lake can be considered to be unimpacted. Olive-backed Lake may be a suitable reference site to benchmark the natural variability of a lake ecosystem.

  20. Oceanic, island arc, and back-arc remnants into eastern Kamchatka accretionary complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorchuk, A.V.; Vishnevskaya, V.S.; Izvekov, I.N. )

    1990-06-01

    The Kamchatsky Mts. accretionary complex in the Eastern Kamchatka orogenic belt was studied for identification of the oceanic and suprasubduction components into accretionary wedges. That complex is divided into two tectonic units. The Lower unit is formed sedimentary and tectonic melanges containing arc-related components (Late Senonian volcaniclastics and boninitic gabbro) and oceanic fragments (Fe-Ti-tholeiites, ocean island basalts, and pelagic sediments of Valanginian to Turonian age). The Upper unit consists of ductile deformed oceanic cumulates from troctolites to Fe-Ti-gabbro, 151 to 172 Ma, which are intruded MORB-like diabases with suprasubduction characteristics, 122 to 141 Ma, and are overlain by basalts similar to latter. The Lower and Upper units are separated by a SW-dipping thrust, which is related by an ophiolitoclastic olistostrome of Late Campanian to Early Maestrichtian age. Both units are covered by Paleocene authoclastic deposits. They are all thrusted over the early Neogene island arc complex, 16 to 20 Ma. The Lower unit of the Kamchatsky Mys accretionary complex was originated in a shear zone between a Late Cretaceous island arc and an Early Cretaceous oceanic plate. The Upper unit represents a Jurassic oceanic remnant that formed a basement of Early Cretaceous back-arc or fore-arc basin. Both units were superposed in the latest Cretaceous. The Kamchatsky Mys accretionary complex was emplaced into the Eastern Kamchatka orogenic belt during late Neogene by collision of the early Neogene island arc.

  1. Occurrence and genetic typing of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Kamchatka, Russia.

    PubMed

    Rudakova, Svetlana L; Kurath, Gael; Bochkova, Elena V

    2007-03-29

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a well known rhabdoviral pathogen of salmonid fish in North America that has become established in Asia and Europe. On the Pacific coast of Russia, IHNV was first detected in hatchery sockeye from the Kamchatka Peninsula in 2001. Results of virological examinations of over 10,000 wild and cultured salmonid fish from Kamchatka during 1996 to 2005 revealed IHNV in several sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations. The virus was isolated from spawning adults and from juveniles undergoing epidemics in both hatchery and wild sockeye populations from the Bolshaya watershed. No virus was detected in 2 other watersheds, or in species other than sockeye salmon. Genetic typing of 8 virus isolates by sequence analysis of partial glycoprotein and nucleocapsid genes revealed that they were genetically homogeneous and fell within the U genogroup of IHNV. In phylogenetic analyses, the Russian IHNV sequences were indistinguishable from the sequences of North American U genogroup isolates that occur throughout Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The high similarity, and in some cases identity, between Russian and North American IHNV isolates suggests virus transmission or exposure to a common viral reservoir in the North Pacific Ocean.

  2. Positive geothermal anomalies in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age offshore Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisle, G.

    2011-09-01

    Heat flow measurements were carried out in 2009 offshore Kamchatka during the German-Russian joint-expedition KALMAR. An area with elevated heat flow in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age - detected ~30 yr ago in the course of several Russian heat flow surveys - was revisited. One previous interpretation postulated anomalous lithospheric conditions or a connection between a postulated mantle plume at great depth (>200 km) as the source for the observed high heat flow. However, the positive heat flow anomaly - as our bathymetric data show - is closely associated with the fragmentation of the western flank of the Meiji Seamount into a horst and graben structure initiated during descent of the oceanic crust into the subduction zone offshore Kamchatka. This paper offers an alternative interpretation, which connects high heat flow primarily with natural convection of fluids in the fragmented rock mass and, as a potential additional factor, high rates of erosion, for which evidence is available from our collected bathymetric image. Given high erosion rates, warm rock material at depth rises to nearer the sea floor, where it cools and causes temporary elevated heat flow.

  3. Positive geothermal anomalies in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age offshore Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisle, G.

    2011-05-01

    Heat flow measurements were carried out in 2009 offshore Kamchatka during the German-Russian joint-expedition KALMAR. An area with elevated heat flow in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age - detected ~30 years ago in the course of several Russian heat flow surveys - was revisited. One previous interpretation postulated anomalous lithospheric conditions or a connection between a postulated mantle plume at great depth (> 200 km) as the source for the observed high heat flow. However, the positive heat flow anomaly - as our bathymetric data show - is closely associated with the fragmentation of the western flank of the Meiji Seamount into a horst and graben structure, initiated during descend of the oceanic crust into the subduction zone offshore Kamchatka. This paper offers an alternative interpretation, which connects high heat flow primarily with natural convection of fluids in the fragmented rock mass and, as a potential additional factor, high rates of erosion, for which evidence is available from our collected bathymetric image. Given high erosion rates, warm rock material at depth rises to nearer the sea floor, where it cools and causes temporary elevated heat flow.

  4. The Alaska Volcano Observatory - Expanded Monitoring of Volcanoes Yields Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, Steven R.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent explosive eruptions at some of Alaska's 52 historically active volcanoes have significantly affected air traffic over the North Pacific, as well as Alaska's oil, power, and fishing industries and local communities. Since its founding in the late 1980s, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has installed new monitoring networks and used satellite data to track activity at Alaska's volcanoes, providing timely warnings and monitoring of frequent eruptions to the aviation industry and the general public. To minimize impacts from future eruptions, scientists at AVO continue to assess volcano hazards and to expand monitoring networks.

  5. Small Syrian Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-498, 29 September 2003

    Today, 29 September 2003, is the first day of southern summer, and the first day of northern winter on Mars. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small volcano in Syria Planum near 12.9oS, 102.7oW. The volcano and surrounding terrain have been thickly mantled by dust; this dust has subsequently been eroded so that it appears textured rather than smooth. The thin, light streaks that crisscross the image are the tracks left by passing dust devils. Not all dust devils on Mars make streaks, and not all streaks are darker than their surroundings--those found in Syria Planum are invariably lighter in tone. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  6. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. 4D volcano gravimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  8. Volcanoes and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The evidence that volcanic eruptions affect climate is reviewed. Single explosive volcanic eruptions cool the surface by about 0.3 C and warm the stratosphere by several degrees. Although these changes are of small magnitude, there have been several years in which these hemispheric average temperature changes were accompanied by severely abnormal weather. An example is 1816, the "year without summer" which followed the 1815 eruption of Tambora. In addition to statistical correlations between volcanoes and climate, a good theoretical understanding exists. The magnitude of the climatic changes anticipated following volcanic explosions agrees well with the observations. Volcanoes affect climate because volcanic particles in the atmosphere upset the balance between solar energy absorbed by the Earth and infrared energy emitted by the Earth. These interactions can be observed. The most important ejecta from volcanoes is not volcanic ash but sulfur dioxide which converts into sulfuric acid droplets in the stratosphere. For an eruption with its explosive magnitude, Mount St. Helens injected surprisingly little sulfur into the stratosphere. The amount of sulfuric acid formed is much smaller than that observed following significant eruptions and is too small to create major climatic shifts. However, the Mount St. Helens eruption has provided an opportunity to measure many properties of volcanic debris not previously measured and has therefore been of significant value in improving our knowledge of the relations between volcanic activity and climate.

  9. Recording Tilt with Broadband Seismic Sensors at Erupting Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B. E.; Lees, J. M.; Lyons, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    The horizontal components of broadband seismometers are known to be susceptible to gravitational acceleration due to slow tilting, and this has been successfully exploited to assess ground deformation at many volcanoes, including Anatahan (Mariana Islands), Meakan-dake (Japan), Santiaguito (Guatemala) and Stromboli (Italy). Tilt can be estimated from seismic velocity by differentiating, scaling to remove gravity, and applying an instrument correction. The fundamental assumption in estimating tilt from broadband data is that the signal recorded is the result of tilt and not translation, thus analysis of tilt require filtering below corner frequencies of seismic instruments, where the response to tilt should be flat. However, processing techniques for deriving tilt are not uniform among researchers. Filter type and passband allowance for the processing of data sets differs from case to case, and the dominant periods of tilt signals may vary from tens to hundreds of seconds. For instance, data from Santiaguito was filtered in the 600-30s passband, while at Anatahan filters spanned 13 hours to 8 minutes. In our study, we investigate tilt from seismic data sets at Karymsky (Kamchatka, Russia), Fuego (Guatemala), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Tungurahua (Ecuador) to understand implementation and limitations of this tool. We examine the importance of filter-type distortion related to filtering on the seismic signal. For example, a comparison of time domain versus frequency domain implementation is explored using a variety of lowpass and bandpass filters. We also investigate the advantages and drawbacks of causal versus acausal filters. In a few cases tiltmeters have been co-located with broadband seismic sensors for direct comparison. Signals at Mt. St. Helens, Stromboli, Sakurajima, and Semeru show a correlation of tilt and seismic records, although records at Karymsky volcano suggest that no tilt is recorded on either instrument. We speculate that strong vent explosions exhibit

  10. Volcanic activity observed from continuous seismic records in the region of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N.; Droznin, D.; Droznina, S.; Senyukov, S.; Chebrov, V.; Gordeev, E.; Frank, W.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze continuous seismic records from 18 permanent stations operated in vicinity of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanos (Kamchatka, Russia) during the period between 2009 and 2014. We explore the stability of the inter-station cross-correlation to detect different periods of sustained emission from seismic energy. The main idea of this approach is that cross-correlation waveforms computed from a wavefield emitted by a seismic source from a fixed position remain stable during the period when this source is acting. The detected periods of seismic emission correspond to different episodes of activity of volcanoes: Klyuchevskoy, Tolbachik, Shiveluch, and Kizimen. For Klyuchevskoy and Tolbachik whose recent eruptions are mostly effusive, the detected seismic signals correspond to typical volcanic tremor, likely caused by degassing processes. For Shiveluch and Kizimen producing more silicic lavas, the observed seismic emission often consists of many repetitive long period (LP) seismic events that might be related to the extrusion of viscous magmas. We develop an approach for automatic detection of these individual LP events in order to characterize variations of their size and recurrence in time.

  11. Volcanic activity observed from continuous seismic records in the region of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N.; Droznin, D.; Droznina, S.; Senyukov, S.; Chebrov, V.; Gordeev, E.; Frank, W.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze continuous seismic records from 18 permanent stations operated in vicinity of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanos (Kamchatka, Russia) during the period between 2009 and 2014. We explore the stability of the inter-station cross-correlation to detect different periods of sustained emission from seismic energy. The main idea of this approach is that cross-correlation waveforms computed from a wavefield emitted by a seismic source from a fixed position remain stable during the period when this source is acting. The detected periods of seismic emission correspond to different episodes of activity of volcanoes: Klyuchevskoy, Tolbachik, Shiveluch, and Kizimen. For Klyuchevskoy and Tolbachik whose recent eruptions are mostly effusive, the detected seismic signals correspond to typical volcanic tremor, likely caused by degassing processes. For Shiveluch and Kizimen producing more silicic lavas, the observed seismic emission often consists of many repetitive long period (LP) seismic events that might be related to the extrusion of viscous magmas. We develop an approach for automatic detection of these individual LP events in order to characterize variations of their size and recurrence in time.

  12. Magma source beneath the Bezymianny volcano and its interconnection with Klyuchevskoy inferred from local earthquake seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Koulakov, I. Yu.; West, M.; Jakovlev, A. V.; Gordeev, E. I.; Senyukov, S.; Chebrov, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    We present a new 3D model of P and S wave velocities and Vp/Vs ratio to 20 km depth beneath the active Klyuchevskoy and Bezymianny volcanoes (Kamchatka, Russia). In this study, we use travel time data from local seismicity recorded by temporary stations of the PIRE experiment from October 24 to December 15, 2009 and permanent stations operated by the Kamchatkan Branch of Geophysical Survey (KBGS). The calculations were performed using the LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009). The resolution limitations were explored using a series of synthetic tests with checkerboard patterns in the horizontal and vertical sections. At shallow depths, the resulting Vp and Vs anomalies tend to alternate on opposite sides of the lineation connecting the most active volcanic centers of the Klyuchevskoy Volcanic Group (KVG). This prominent lineation suggests the presence of a large fault zone passing throughout the KVG, consistent with regional tectonics. We suggest that this fault zone weakens the crust creating a natural pathway for magmas to reach the upper crust. Beneath Bezymianny volcano we observe a shallow anomaly of high Vp/Vs ratio extending to 5-6 km depth. Beneath Klyuchevskoy another high Vp/Vs anomaly is observed, at deeper depths of 7 and 15 km. These findings are consistent with the regional-scale model of Koulakov et al. (2013a) and provide some explanation for how very different eruption styles can be maintained at two volcanoes in close proximity over numerous eruption cycles.

  13. Volcano Hazards Assessment for Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Nathenson, Manuel; Champion, Duane E.; Ramsey, David W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ewert, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) is a very large shield-shaped volcano located in northern California where it forms part of the southern Cascade Range of volcanoes. It has erupted hundreds of times during its half-million-year history, including nine times during the past 5,200 years, most recently 950 years ago. This record represents one of the highest eruptive frequencies among Cascade volcanoes and includes a wide variety of different types of lava flows and at least two explosive eruptions that produced widespread fallout. Compared to those of a typical Cascade stratovolcano, eruptive vents at MLV are widely distributed, extending 55 km north-south and 40 km east-west. The total area covered by MLV lavas is >2,000 km2, about 10 times the area of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Judging from its long eruptive history and its frequent eruptions in recent geologic time, MLV will erupt again. Although the probability of an eruption is very small in the next year (one chance in 3,600), the consequences of some types of possible eruptions could be severe. Furthermore, the documented episodic behavior of the volcano indicates that once it becomes active, the volcano could continue to erupt for decades, or even erupt intermittently for centuries, and very likely from multiple vents scattered across the edifice. Owing to its frequent eruptions, explosive nature, and proximity to regional infrastructure, MLV has been designated a 'high threat volcano' by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Volcano Early Warning System assessment. Volcanic eruptions are typically preceded by seismic activity, but with only two seismometers located high on the volcano and no other USGS monitoring equipment in place, MLV is at present among the most poorly monitored Cascade volcanoes.

  14. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry volcano is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry volcano becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry Volcano that were used to estimate the probability

  15. Characterization and petrophysical properties of hydrothemally altered lacustrine volcanistic rock in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka) and its transformation by weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdeva, Irina; Zerkal, Oleg; Samarin, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    Work is devoted to the study of volcano sedimentary hydrothermally altered rocks in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka peninsula, Russia). The Geyser Valley is one of the most unique nature objects in Russia. There are quite large geyser fields. The valley of the river is part of the Uson-Geysernaya depression, where hydrothermal activity is very high. Besides geysers here are hot springs, mud pots and fumarols. In the late Pleistocene (about 45-35 thousand years ago) the lake was located in the site of the modern valley of the Geysernaya river, where sediments accumulated intensively. Sedimentary material came from several sources in the form of pyroclastic flows, ash falls, was supplied by permanent and temporary water streams. The total deposit thickness reached several hundred meters. In the late Pleistocene there was breakthrough of reservoir and further conditions for the lacustrine deposits formation did not arose. Later the rocks were intensively processed by thermal water. In 2007 large landslide was formed in lower part of the Geysernaya River on their left slope. Deposits of Geysernaya (Q34grn) series and Pemsovaya (Q34pmz) series were involved in landslide displacement. The headscarp was formed up to 100 m and a length of 800 m, exposing the volcano-sedimentary section of hydrothermally altered rocks - a unique opportunity for sampling and subsequent laboratory study. Thickness of lake sediments is interbedding of coarse-grain, medium-grain, fine-grain tuffites predominantly acidic composition. The study of thin sections revealed that all samples are lithoclastic and vitroclastic hydrothermally altered tuffits. Currently, the primary minerals and volcanic glass is largely replaced by clay minerals of the smectite group. Pores and cracks are made zeolites (heulandite and clinoptilolite). All this points to the low-temperature (<200 ° C) hydrothermal conditions with a pH near neutral. Tyere are acid plagioclase and quartz in most samples The high content of

  16. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  17. Italian Volcano Supersites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  18. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  19. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The under-explored abyssal depths of the Kurile-Kamchatka region have been re-examined during the KuramBio (Kurile-Kamchatka Biodiversity Study) expedition. Combining new KuramBio data with previous expedition data in this region has enhanced our understanding abyssal sponge fauna, in particular, the patchiness, rarity, and exceptional richness of the Cladorhizidae family. In total, 14 sponge species, from 7 genera, in 5 families, within two classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) were collected. Of the 14 species, 29% (4 spp.) have been found previously in this region, 36% (5 spp.) were new to the regional abyssal fauna, and 21% (3 spp.) were new to science. The number of abyssal species in this region has now been increased by 26% (8 spp.) and genera by nearly 15% (2 genera). Rarity is a prominent feature of this abyssal fauna, with more than half of species only found at one station, and 83% (19 spp.) of species found previously in this region were not re-found during KuramBio. Cladorhizid sponges dominate demosponge species and genera richness in the abyssal Kurile-Kamchatka region; accounting for 87% (20 spp.) of all demosponge species, and accounting for over 60% (5 genera) of all demosponge genera. Sponge richness in this region is potentially aided by the productivity of the ocean waters, the geological age of the Pacific Ocean, low population densities, and the varied topographic features (ridges, trenches, and seamounts) found in this region. Unusually, the dominance of demosponges in the Kurile-Kamchatka sponge faunal composition is not replicated in other well-sampled abyssal regions, which tend to be richer in deep-sea hexactinellid fauna. Broad depth, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges in Kurile-Kamchatka abyssal fauna are a key characteristic of this faunal assemblage. Strong abyssal faunal connectivity is found between the Kurile-Kamchatka region and North Pacific abyssal fauna, with weaker faunal connections found with the adjacent semi

  20. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Great Sitkin Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Great Sitkin Volcano is a composite andesitic stratovolcano on Great Sitkin Island (51°05’ N latitude, 176°25’ W longitude), a small (14 x 16 km), circular volcanic island in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Great Sitkin Island is located about 35 kilometers northeast of the community of Adak on Adak Island and 130 kilometers west of the community of Atka on Atka Island. Great Sitkin Volcano is an active volcano and has erupted at least eight times in the past 250 years (Miller and others, 1998). The most recent eruption in 1974 caused minor ash fall on the flanks of the volcano and resulted in the emplacement of a lava dome in the summit crater. The summit of the composite cone of Great Sitkin Volcano is 1,740 meters above sea level. The active crater is somewhat lower than the summit, and the highest point along its rim is about 1,460 meters above sea level. The crater is about 1,000 meters in diameter and is almost entirely filled by a lava dome emplaced in 1974. An area of active fumaroles, hot springs, and bubbling hot mud is present on the south flank of the volcano at the head of Big Fox Creek (see the map), and smaller ephemeral fumaroles and steam vents are present in the crater and around the crater rim. The flanking slopes of the volcano are gradual to steep and consist of variously weathered and vegetated blocky lava flows that formed during Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions. The modern edifice occupies a caldera structure that truncates an older sequence of lava flows and minor pyroclastic rocks on the east side of the volcano. The eastern sector of the volcano includes the remains of an ancestral volcano that was partially destroyed by a northwest-directed flank collapse. In winter, Great Sitkin Volcano is typically completely snow covered. Should explosive pyroclastic eruptions occur at this time, the snow would be a source of water for volcanic mudflows or lahars. In summer, much of the snowpack melts, leaving only a patchy

  1. Compositional Heterogeneity and Spatial Segmentation of Suprasubduction (ssz-type) Ophiolites: Evidence From The Kamchatka Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipenko, A.; Krylov, K.

    In ophiolite complexes from the Eastern Asian accretion belts the spatial heterogeneity of geochemical parameters for different components of an ophiolite sequence is estab- lished: restite mantle-derived peridotites, cumulative layered complex and volcanics. This heterogeneity is displayed as at a regional level (tens - hundred km), and at a level of local structures (hundred i - first tens km). As a rule, distinction is observed on a complex of geochemical parameters (concentration and form of REE spectra, EPG distribution, isotope characteristics, Cr-spinel and pyroxene composition etc.). Revealed at once in several suprasubduction-type ophiolite belts (Kamuikotan, Philip- pines New Guinea etc.), the spatial variations of geochemical parameters have not gradual, and discrete character. For an explanation of the reasons of ophiolite com- positional heterogeneity several mechanisms are offered: (1) tectonical overlapping of various fragments of lithosphere; (2) different specify of deep processes, resulting to compositional heterogeneity of rocks from the same lithosphere level; 3) hetero- geneity of the upper mantle and/or mantle metasomatism; 4) evolution of ophiolites (Shervais, 2001) and/or center of magma generation (mixture of continuous series of melt portions, separated during different stages of progressive mantle source melting (Bazylev et al., 2001)); 5) preservations of relict blocks of low lithosphere and upper mantle from the previous stage in suprasubduction conditions. The authors consider regional geochemical heterogeneity and segmentation of suprasubduction ophiolites (SSZ-type) on an example of peridotites from the Eastern Kamchatka ophiolite belt (EKOB), where sublongitude zones, crossed the basic geological structures of a penin- sula (including EROB) were allocated earlier. For each of zones the complex of geo- chemical attributes, steady is established within the limits of a zone, but distinct from of the characteristics of other zones

  2. Seismic noise investigation in Kuril-Kamchatka-Japan region: tidal modulation and connection with regional seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltykov, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    Tidal modulation of seismic noise proves that it's structure includes the endogenous component (seismic emission). This fact presumes the seismic noise self-descriptiveness and allows us to consider it as the self-dependent informational geophysical field. The high-frequency seismic noise (HFSN) is the seismic radiation in the range of the first tens of Hz with amplitude of 10^-9-10^-12 m. The HFSN is a complicated superposition of endogenous and exogenous microseismic signals. The factors affecting the intensity of the HFSN are human activity, wind, warming of the earth's surface, earth tides, and tectonic processes. At present, the observation of the highly sensitive geophysical field is complicated by industrial noise of large territories, which made it impossible to separate the natural signals from the obtained records in many cases. In Kuril-Kamchatka-Japan region the investigation of the HFSN are carrying out more then 20 years. During this time, four points of long-term observation were established in the areas with low level of anthropogenic cativity: «Nachiki» (1987, Southern Kamchatka), «Karymshina» (1999, Southern Kamchatka), «Erimo» (1993, Hokkaido) and «Shikotan» (2003, Lesser Kuriles). A resonance narrow-band vertical seismometer with a sensitive piezoceramic element was used as a sensor of the HFSN signals. Similar detectors are used at all four points of HFSN recording (the sensitivity with consideration for the preliminary amplification is not worse than 5×109 V/m, the frequency of the characteristic oscillation is f = 30 Hz, Q-factor=100). The most interesting object for investigation is the response of the HFSN to long-period deformation processes, in particular, to the Earth tides. The recorded data were processed using different time-windows. High-resolution coherent signal stacking clearly singled out the noise intensity variations with periodicity of tidal waves: O1 (main lunar, period T=25.82 h), K1 (lunar-solar declination, T=23

  3. Vesicomyinae (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylova, Elena M.; Kamenev, Gennady M.; Vladychenskaya, Irina P.; Petrov, Nikolai B.

    2015-01-01

    Representatives of the subfamily Vesicomyinae (Bivalvia, Vesicomyidae) are tiny deep-sea molluscs distributed worldwide and reaching huge abundances of hundreds and thousands of specimens in trawl catches. During the German-Russian deep-sea expedition KuramBio (R/V Sonne, 2012) for the first time two vesicomyin species were collected from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from the depths of 4861-5787 m, Vesicomya pacifica (Smith, 1885) and "Vesicomya" filatovae sp.n. Two species of vesicomyins, V. sergeeviFilatova, 1971 and V. profundiFilatova, 1971, which were previously reported from the hadal of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, were not collected at the abyssal depth despite of the close geographical proximity of the sampling area to their distribution ranges. Altogether nine species of vesicomyins are recorded now from the West and Indo-West Pacific; data on distribution and morpho-anatomical characters of these species are provided. Taxonomic description of V. pacifica is revised including information on its soft part anatomy, new localities and COI sequences. For the first time for a vesicomyin bivalve molecular data is given for a species with an explicit morphological description and unambiguous taxonomic affiliation. Molecular analysis of 160 published COI sequences of vesicomyids and newly obtained molecular data on V. pacifica showed that V. pacifica and two undescribed vesicomyin species forming a monophyletic clade which exhibits sister relationships with the Pliocardiinae, the group of chemosymbiotic vesicomyids. "Vesicomya" filatovae sp.n. is provisionally assigned to the genus Vesicomya (s.l.) until additional morphological and molecular data are obtained. It differs from Vesicomya s.s. by a broader hinge margin with more radiating teeth and the presence of only one pair of demibranchs.

  4. Optical mapping of Kamchatka's volcanic deposits using digitally processed band-selective photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. I.; Novikov, V. V.; Popov, A. P.; Tadzhidinov, Kh. G.

    1989-08-01

    A procedure is described for the digital processing of band-selective aerial photographs of volcano-bearing surfaces. The brightness and color parameters of samples of volcanic rocks and soils in their natural bedding are examined, and the results of two-parameter (albedo-color) mapping for an area around the Tolbachin Volcano are discussed. It is shown that the information obtained with this procedure yields accurate predictions of geochemical properties of volcanic deposits from optical data.

  5. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.

    1999-01-01

    Iliamna Volcano is a 3,053-meter-high, ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano in the southwestern Cook Inlet region about 225 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 100 kilometers northwest of Homer. Historical eruptions of Iliamna Volcano have not been positively documented; however, the volcano regularly emits steam and gas, and small, shallow earthquakes are often detected beneath the summit area. The most recent eruptions of the volcano occurred about 300 years ago, and possibly as recently as 90-140 years ago. Prehistoric eruptions have generated plumes of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. Rock avalanches from the summit area have occurred numerous times in the past. These avalanches flowed several kilometers down the flanks and at least two large avalanches transformed to cohesive lahars. The number and distribution of known volcanic ash deposits from Iliamna Volcano indicate that volcanic ash clouds from prehistoric eruptions were significantly less voluminous and probably less common relative to ash clouds generated by eruptions of other Cook Inlet volcanoes. Plumes of volcanic ash from Iliamna Volcano would be a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International Airport and other local airports, and depending on wind direction, could drift at least as far as the Kenai Peninsula and beyond. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Because Iliamna Volcano has not erupted for several hundred years, a future eruption could involve significant amounts of ice and snow that could lead to the formation of large lahars and downstream flooding. The greatest hazards in order of importance are described below and shown on plate 1.

  6. Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, S.D.; Frank, D.

    1976-01-01

    Hisotrically active volcanoes in the conterminous United States are restricted to the Cascade Range and extend to the Cascade Range and extend from Mount Baker near the Canadian border to Lassen Peak in northern California. Since 1800 A.D, most eruptive activity has been on a relatively small scale and has not caused loss of life or significant property damage. However, future  volcanism predictably will have more serious effects because of greatly increased use of land near volcanoes during the present century. (See "Appraising Volcanic Hazards of the Cascade Range of the Northwestern United States," Earthquake Inf. Bull., Sept.-Oct. 1974.) The recognition an impending eruption is highly important in order to minimize the potential hazard to people and property. Thus, a substantial increase in hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker in March 1975 ( see "Mount Baker Heating Up," July-Aug. 1975 issue) was regarded as a possible first signal that an eruption might occur, and an intensive monitoring program was undertaken. 

  7. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Kanaga Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    Kanaga Volcano is a steep-sided, symmetrical, cone-shaped, 1307 meter high, andesitic stratovolcano on the north end of Kanaga Island (51°55’ N latitude, 177°10’ W longitude) in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Kanaga Island is an elongated, low-relief (except for the volcano) island, located about 35 kilometers west of the community of Adak on Adak Island and is part of the Andreanof Islands Group of islands. Kanaga Volcano is one of the 41 historically active volcanoes in Alaska and has erupted numerous times in the past 11,000 years, including at least 10 eruptions in the past 250 years (Miller and others, 1998). The most recent eruption occurred in 1993-95 and caused minor ash fall on Adak Island and produced blocky aa lava flows that reached the sea on the northwest and west sides of the volcano (Neal and others, 1995). The summit of the volcano is characterized by a small, circular crater about 200 meters in diameter and 50-70 meters deep. Several active fumaroles are present in the crater and around the crater rim. The flanking slopes of the volcano are steep (20-30 degrees) and consist mainly of blocky, linear to spoonshaped lava flows that formed during eruptions of late Holocene age (about the past 3,000 years). The modern cone sits within a circular caldera structure that formed by large-scale collapse of a preexisting volcano. Evidence for eruptions of this preexisting volcano mainly consists of lava flows exposed along Kanaton Ridge, indicating that this former volcanic center was predominantly effusive in character. In winter (October-April), Kanaga Volcano may be covered by substantial amounts of snow that would be a source of water for lahars (volcanic mudflows). In summer, much of the snowpack melts, leaving only a patchy distribution of snow on the volcano. Glacier ice is not present on the volcano or on other parts of Kanaga Island. Kanaga Island is uninhabited and is part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, managed by

  8. Volcano geodesy: The search for magma reservoirs and the formation of eruptive vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorak, J.J.; Dzurisin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Routine geodetic measurements are made at only a few dozen of the world's 600 or so active volcanoes, even though these measurements have proven to be a reliable precursor of eruptions. The pattern and rate of surface displacement reveal the depth and rate of pressure increase within shallow magma reservoirs. This process has been demonstrated clearly at Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Long Valley caldera, California; Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy; Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea; and Aira caldera and nearby Sakurajima, Japan. Slower and lesser amounts of surface displacement at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming, are attributed to changes in a hydrothermal system that overlies a crustal magma body. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of eruptive fissures, as well as the amount of widening, have been determined at Kilauea, Hawaii; Etna, Italy; Tolbachik, Kamchatka; Krafla, Iceland; and Asal-Ghoubbet, Djibouti, the last a segment of the East Africa Rift Zone. Continuously recording instruments, such as tiltmeters, extensometers, and dilatometers, have recorded horizontal and upward growth of eruptive fissures, which grew at rates of hundreds of meters per hour, at Kilauea; Izu-Oshima, Japan; Teishi Knoll seamount, Japan; and Piton de la Fournaise, Re??union Island. In addition, such instruments have recorded the hour or less of slight ground movement that preceded small explosive eruptions at Sakurajima and presumed sudden gas emissions at Galeras, Colombia. The use of satellite geodesy, in particular the Global Positioning System, offers the possibility of revealing changes in surface strain both local to a volcano and over a broad region that includes the volcano.

  9. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posin, Seth B.; Greeley, Ronald

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology.

  10. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  11. Volcano spacing and plate rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, U. )

    1991-04-01

    In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

  12. Groundwater at Mayon, Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, S. E.; Sandoval, T.; Toledo, R.

    2001-12-01

    Around Mayon Volcano, Philippines, anecdotal evidence and rainfall normalized spring discharge data suggest that the water table 8 km from the summit of the volcano drops prior to eruptions. Residents report that they had to deepen their shallow wells in 1993 (some before and others following the eruption). In some cases they had to dig as far as 5 meters deeper to reach the water table. Significant decreases in spring discharge were recorded prior to the 1999 phreatic explosions and explosive eruption in 2000. A lesser decrease in spring discharge was recorded prior to the 2001 explosive eruptions. The cause of the observed correlation is not yet understood. Mechanisms consider include decrease in rainfall and boiling away of groundwater due to magmatic intrusion. Dilatation of the volcano may cause an increase in pore pressure, opening of cracks, and inflation of the ground surface that would all result in lower water table levels and decreases in spring discharges. Lack of significant hydraulic precursors prior to the 2001 eruptions may be due to a sustained state of inflation following the eruption of 2000. To better understand the relationship between changes in the volcanic system and changes in the groundwater system surrounding Mayon, instruments were installed about eight kilometers from the summit immediately following the explosive eruption of 26 July 2001. Parameters monitored include rainfall data, water levels in four shallow wells, discharge in the main river basin, and spring discharge. The aquifers at eight kilometers are predominantly poorly sorted lahar flow deposits. Characterization of these highly permeable aquifers has been conducted. Preliminary data include porosity ranges, hydraulic conductivity estimates, and response to rainfall. Water samples have been collected that are intended for geo-chemical analysis to determine if the water is predominantly meteoric or magmatic in origin. Numerical modeling of the system using the above mentioned

  13. Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    , if a major storm surge happens to arrive at a high astronomical tide, sea walls may be overtopped and flooding may ensue. In the domain of geological hazards, periods of volcanic unrest may generate precursory signals suggestive of imminent volcanic danger, but without leading to an actual eruption. Near-miss unrest periods provide vital evidence for assessing the dynamics of volcanoes close to eruption. Where the volcano catalogue has been diligently revised to include the maximum amount of information on the phenomenology of unrest periods, dynamic modelling and hazard assessment may be significantly refined. This is illustrated with some topical volcano hazard examples, including Montserrat and Santorini.

  14. Three new species and one new genus of abyssal Cumacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrenteva, Anna V.; Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Only two species of crustacean Cumacea have been reported in publications for the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area after nine expeditions on board of the RV "Vityaz". During the KuramBio expedition 2012 to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain at depths 4830-5780 m no less than 72 species of cumaceans from 23 genera and 6 families were sampled. Five genera were recorded for the first time in the studied region: the genera Pseudoleptostyloides and Platycuma were detected for the first time for the Pacific Ocean; Cyclaspoides, Bathylamprops and Styloptocuma were firstly sampled in North Pacific. About 90% of the sampled species appear to be new to science. Three new deep-sea cumacean species and one new genus from the Kurile Kamchatka area are described in the present paper: Abyssoleucon tzarevae gen. n., sp. n. belonging to the family Leuconidae, Cyclaspoides borisovetsi sp. n. and Bathycuma sonne sp. n. of the family Bodotriidae. A distribution map for the species of the genus Cyclaspoides is provided.

  15. The California Volcano Observatory: Monitoring the state's restless volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stovall, Wendy K.; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions happen in the State of California about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have taken place in California in the past 1,000 years—most recently at Lassen Peak in Lassen Volcanic National Park (1914 to 1917) in the northern part of the State—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The U.S. Geological Survey California Volcano Observatory monitors the State's potentially hazardous volcanoes.

  16. Living with volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Thomas L.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980 cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981) in southwestern Washington ushered in a decade marked by more worldwide volcanic disasters and crises than any other in recorded history. Volcanoes killed more people (over 28,500) in the 1980's than during the 78 years following 1902 eruption of Mount Pelee (Martinique). Not surprisingly, volcanic phenomena and attendant hazards received attention from government authorities, the news media, and the general public. As part of this enhanced global awareness of volcanic hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (Bailey and others, 1983) in response to the eruptions or volcanic unrest during the 1980's at Mount St. Helens and Redoubt are still erupting intermittently, and the caldera unrest at Long Valley also continues, albeit less energetically than during the early 1980's.

  17. Active submarine volcano sampled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.

    1983-01-01

    On June 4, 1982, two full dredge hauls of fresh lava were recovered from the upper flanks of Kavachi submarine volcano, Solomon Islands, in the western Pacific Ocean, from the water depths of 1,200 and 2,700 feet. the shallower dredge site was within 0.5 mile of the active submarine vent shown at the surface by an area of slick water, probably caused by gas emissions. Kavachi is a composite stratovolcano that has been observed to erupt every year or two for at least the last 30 years (see photographs). An island formed in 1952, 1961, 1965, and 1978; but, in each case, it rapidly eroded below sea level. The latest eruption was observed by Solair pilots during the several weeks up to and including May 18, 1982. 

  18. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of meters into the atmosphere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. Countless eruptions in the geologic past have produced volcanic rocks that form much of the Earth's present surface. The gradual disintegration and weathering of these rocks have yielded some of the richest farmlands in the world, and these fertile soils play a significant role in sustaining our large and growing population. Were it not for volcanic activity, the Hawaiian Islands with their sugar cane and pineapple fields and magnificent landscapes and seascapes would not exist to support their residents and to charm their visitors. Yet, the actual eruptive processes are catastrophic and can claim life and property.

  19. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.

    2010-05-01

    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  20. First evidence of the Oceanic Anoxic Events in Cenomanian paleoceanic deposits of the Eastern Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyeva, Olga; Palechek, Tatiana; Savelyev, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    They are a few stratigraphical levels corresponding to OAEs in the deep-water drilling sites in the Pacific ocean. Discoveries of ОАЕs evidences in fold-thrust belt of Pacific are important for correlation of Pacific ocean sections with well investigated sections of Europe. We studied Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic carbonate-siliceous deposits of the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). They are deposited in association with pillow-basalts and hyaloclastites. The thickness of the studied section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) is about 10 m. The deposits are represented mainly by rhythmical intercalation of red-brown radiolarian jaspers, pink nannoplancton limestones as well as siliceous limestones. In the middle and upper parts of the section there are two thin beds enriched by organic carbon. The thickness of the beds is about 2 cm and 5 cm. Such carbon-rich beds were also found in several other exposures. Near the carbonaceous beds jaspers and limestones lose red and pink colours and become gray and black (on the weathered surface almost white). The content of the mineral matter in the carbon-rich beds amounts 27-75%. It consists of biogenic silica and clay minerals (likely altered hyaloclactites). Carbonaceous beds contain pyrite, barite, phosphates in the form of pellets and fish bone detritus. Mo/Mn ratio in the mineral matter of carbon-rich beds corresponds to euxinic conditions. Total organic carbon contents change from 18 to 53%. The calculated values of the hydrogen and oxygen indexes indicate that the organic carbon originated from marine (sapropelic) organic matter. In studied section the curve of d13C (analyzed in limestones) is characterized by a clearly expressed positive shift at the level of the lower carbonaceous bed. Below it and in the overlapping stratum of siliceous limestone (1 cm thickness) d13C has the values of 1.9-2.1 pro mil, and above it d13C increases up to 2.5-3 pro mil. The radiolarian assemblages are dominated by

  1. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. ); Kurz, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  2. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

  3. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  4. Holocene pollen record from Lake Sokoch, interior Kamchatka (Russia), and its paleobotanical and paleoclimatic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, Veronika; Dirksen, Oleg; van den Bogaard, Christel; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    A pollen record, obtained from sediments of Lake Sokoch in mountain interior of the Kamchatka Peninsula, covers the last ca. 9600 years (all ages are given in calibrated years BP). Variations in local components, including pollen, spores and non-pollen palynomorphs, and related changes in sedimentation document the lake development from initially seepage and shallow basin to deeper lake during the mid Holocene and then to the hydrologically open system during the late Holocene. The studies of volcanic ashes from the lake sediment core show their complex depositional histories. Lake Sokoch occupies a former proglacial basin between two terminal moraines of the LGM time. The undated basal part of record before ca. 9600 year BP, however, does not reflect properly cold conditions. At that time, although shrublands and tundra dominated, stone birch and white birch forests have already settled in surroundings; the presence of alder woodland indicates wet and maritime-like climate. The subsequent forest advance suggesting warmer conditions was interrupted by the ca. 8000-7600 year BP spell of cooler climate. The following culmination of warmth is bracketed by the evidence of the first maximal forest extent between ca. 7400 and 5100 year BP. During that time, dramatic retreat of alder forest suggests a turn from maritime-like to more continental climate conditions. The cool and wet pulse after ca. 5100 year BP was pronounced as forests retreat while shrublands, meadows and bogs extended. An expansion of white birch forest since ca. 3500 year BP reflected the onset of drier climate, strengthening continentality and seasonal contrast. The second maximum of forests dominated by both stone and white birches occurred between ca. 2200 and 1700 year BP and indicated warming in association with relatively dry and increasingly continental climate. The following period was wetter and cooler, and minor outbreak of alder forest around ca. 1500 year BP suggests a short-term return of

  5. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

    The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A

  6. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A systematic aircraft program to monitor changes in the thermal emission from volcanoes of the Cascade Range has been initiated and is being carried out in conjunction with ERTS-1 thermal surveillance experiments. Night overflights by aircraft equipped with thermal infrared scanners sensitive to terrestrial emission in the 4-5.5 and 8-14 micron bands are currently being carried out at intervals of a few months. Preliminary results confirm that Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Shasta, and the Lassen area continue to be thermally active, although with the exception of Lassen which erupted between 1914 and 1917, and Mount Saint Helens which had a series of eruptions between 1831 and 1834, there has been no recent eruptive activity. Excellent quality infrared images recorded over Mount Rainier, as recently as April, 1972, show similar thermal patterns to those reported in 1964-1966. Infrared images of Mount Baker recorded in November 1970 and again in April 1972 revealed a distinct array of anomalies 1000 feet below the crater rim and associated with fumaroles or structures permitting convective heat transfer to the surface.

  7. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  8. A new species of Abyssobrotula (Ophidiiformes, Ophidiidae) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Shinpei; Nielsen, Jørgen G

    2016-07-01

    A new abyssal ophidiid fish, Abyssobrotula hadropercularis, is described on the basis of two specimens caught at two stations at ca. 5000 meters of depth in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. The genus Abyssobrotula Nielsen, 1977 was previously known from the type species, A. galatheae Nielsen, 1977 of which 40-50 specimens now are reported from all oceans at depths greater than 2000 m. One of the specimens from the Puerto Rico Trench captured at 8370 m is still the deepest record for fishes. The new species differs from A. galatheae in having great number of pectoral-fin rays 14-15 (vs 10-11); greater eye diameter (1.2-1.3% SL vs 0.7-0.9% SL); larger prepelvic 14.0-14.5% SL (vs 10.5-12.5% SL) and preanal lengths 42.5% SL (vs 33.0-41.5% SL); opercular spine strongly developed (vs poorly developed); gill rakers on anterior arch robust and close-set (vs rakers thin and well separated). The description of A. hadropercularis makes it necessary to slightly modify the generic diagnosis.

  9. Uncultured archaea dominate in the thermal groundwater of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka.

    PubMed

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Gumerov, Vadim M; Beletsky, Alexey V; Perevalova, Anna A; Karpov, Gennady A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2011-05-01

    The thermoacidophilic microbial community inhabiting the groundwater with pH 4.0 and temperature 50°C at the East Thermal Field of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, was examined using pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacteria comprise about 30% of microorganisms and are represented primarily by aerobic lithoautotrophs using the energy sources of volcanic origin--thermoacidophilic methanotrophs of the phylum Verrucomicrobia and Acidithiobacillus spp. oxidising metals and reduced sulfur compounds. More than 70% of microbial population in this habitat were represented by archaea, in majority affiliated with "uncultured" lineages. The most numerous group (39% of all archaea) represented a novel division in the phylum Euryarchaeota related to the order Thermoplasmatales. Another abundant group (33% of all archaea) was related to MCG1 lineage of the phylum Crenarchaeota, originally detected in the Yellowstone hot spring as the environmental clone pJP89. The organisms belonging to these two groups are widely spread in hydrothermal environments worldwide. These data indicate an important environmental role of these two archaeal groups and should stimulate the investigation of their metabolism by cultivation or metagenomic approaches.

  10. Rapid glacial retreat on the Kamchatka Peninsula during the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Colleen M.; Barr, Iestyn D.; Mullan, Donal; Ruffell, Alastair

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring glacier fluctuations provides insights into changing glacial environments and recent climate change. The availability of satellite imagery offers the opportunity to view these changes for remote and inaccessible regions. Gaining an understanding of the ongoing changes in such regions is vital if a complete picture of glacial fluctuations globally is to be established. Here, satellite imagery (Landsat 7, 8 and ASTER) is used to conduct a multi-annual remote sensing survey of glacier fluctuations on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia) over the 2000-2014 period. Glacier margins were digitised manually and reveal that, in 2000, the peninsula was occupied by 673 glaciers, with a total glacier surface area of 775.7 ± 27.9 km2. By 2014, the number of glaciers had increased to 738 (reflecting the fragmentation of larger glaciers), but their surface area had decreased to 592.9 ± 20.4 km2. This represents a ˜ 24 % decline in total glacier surface area between 2000 and 2014 and a notable acceleration in the rate of area loss since the late 20th century. Analysis of possible controls indicates that these glacier fluctuations were likely governed by variations in climate (particularly rising summer temperatures), though the response of individual glaciers was modulated by other (non-climatic) factors, principally glacier size, local shading and debris cover.

  11. Anaerobranca zavarzinii sp. nov., an anaerobic, alkalithermophilic bacterium isolated from Kamchatka thermal fields.

    PubMed

    Kevbrin, Vadim; Boltyanskaya, Yulia; Garnova, Elena; Wiegel, Juergen

    2008-06-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, alkalithermophilic, chemo-organotrophic bacterium was isolated from a small and very shallow geothermally heated pool at Pushino (Kamchatka, Far East Russia). The bacterium, designated strain JW/VK-KS5Y(T), was a Gram staining negative, Gram type positive rod. The cells were sometimes branched, with a tendency to grow in long chains, and were non-sporulating and non-motile. The shortest observed doubling time was 28 min when the novel strain was grown at 54-60 degrees C in 120 mM sodium carbonate-containing medium at pH(25 degrees C) 8.5-9.0. The novel bacterium grew on yeast extract and soytone as sole carbon and energy sources but could also use fumarate, thiosulfate and sulfur as electron acceptors. The DNA G+C content was 32.5 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic data, it was concluded that isolate JW/VK-KS5Y(T) (=VKM B-2436(T)=DSM 18970(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Anaerobranca zavarzinii sp. nov.

  12. 3D Numeric modeling of slab-plume interaction in Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Portnyagin, Maxim; Manea, Marina

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic rocks located in the central segment of the Eastern Volcanic Belt of Kamchatka show a high variability, both in age as well as in the geochemical composition. Three principal groups have been identified, an older group (7-12 my) represented by rich alkaline and transitional basalts, a 7-8 my group exemplified by alkaline basalts of extreme plume type, and a younger group (3-8 my) characterized by calc-alkaline andesites and dacites rocks. Moreover, the younger group shows an adakitic signature. The magmas are assumed to originate from two principle sources: from a subduction modified Pacific MORB-type and from plume-type mantle. In this paper we study the interaction of a cold subducting slab and a hot plume by means of 3D numeric modeling integrated 30 my back in time. Our preliminary modeling results show a short episode of plume material inflowing into the mantle wedge at ~10 my consistent with the second rocks group (plume like). Also our models predict slab edge melting consistent with the youngest group.

  13. Thermogladius calderae gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote from a Kamchatka hot spring.

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Kublanov, Ilya V; Toshchakov, Stepan V; Osburn, Magdalena R; Novikov, Andrei A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Perevalova, Anna A

    2016-01-21

    An obligately anaerobic, hyperthermophilic, organoheterotrophic archaeon, strain 1633T, was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring of the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia). Cells were regular cocci, 0.5-0.9 μm in diameter, with one flagellum. The temperature range for growth was 80-95°C, with an optimum at 84°C. Strain 1633T grew on yeast extract, beef extract, peptone, cellulose and cellobiose. No growth was detected on other sugars or carbohydrates, organic acids, or under autotrophic conditions. The only detected growth products were CO2, acetate, and H2. Growth rate was stimulated by elemental sulfur, which was reduced to hydrogen sulfide. In silico calculated G+C content of strain 1633T genomic DNA was 55.64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the strain 1633T together with the non-validly published "Thermogladius shockii" strain WB1 in a separate genus-level cluster within the Desulfurococcaceae family. ANI results revealed 75.72% identity between 1633T and WB1. Based on these results we propose a novel genus and species, for which the name Thermogladius calderae gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain 1633T=DSM 22663T=VKM B-2946T) is proposed.

  14. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  15. Lifespans of Cascade Arc volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Compiled argon ages reveal inception, eruptive episodes, ages, and durations of Cascade stratovolcanoes and their ancestral predecessors. Geologic mapping and geochronology show that most Cascade volcanoes grew episodically on multiple scales with periods of elevated behavior lasting hundreds of years to ca. 100 kyr. Notable examples include the paleomag-constrained, few-hundred-year-long building of the entire 15-20 km3 Shastina edifice at Mt. Shasta, the 100 kyr-long episode that produced half of Mt. Rainier's output, and the 30 kyr-long episode responsible for all of South and Middle Sister. Despite significant differences in timing and rates of construction, total durations of active and ancestral volcanoes at discrete central-vent locations are similar. Glacier Peak, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams, Mt. Hood, and Mt. Mazama all have inception ages of 400-600 ka. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Jefferson, Newberry Volcano, Mt. Shasta and Lassen Domefield have more recent inception ages of 200-300 ka. Only the Sisters cluster and Mt. Baker have established eruptive histories spanning less than 50 kyr. Ancestral volcanoes centered 5-20 km from active stratocones appear to have similar total durations (200-600 kyr), but are less well exposed and dated. The underlying mechanisms governing volcano lifecycles are cryptic, presumably involving tectonic and plumbing changes and perhaps circulation cycles in the mantle wedge, but are remarkably consistent along the arc.

  16. Seismic signals from Lascar Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Lascar, the most active volcano in northern Chile, lies near the center of the region studied during the Proyecto de Investigación Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental 94 (PISCO '94). Its largest historical eruption occurred on 19 April 1993. By the time of the PISCO '94 deployment, its activity consisted mainly of a plume of water vapor and SO 2. In April and May 1994, three short-period, three-component seismometers were placed on the flanks of the volcano, augmenting the broadband seismometer located on the NW flank of the volcano during the entire deployment. In addition to the usual seismic signals recorded at volcanoes, Lascar produced two unique tremor types: Rapid-fire tremor and harmonic tremor. Rapid-fire tremor appears to be a sequence of very similar, but independent, "impulsive" events with a large range of amplitudes. Harmonic tremor, on the other hand, is a continuous, cyclic signal lasting several hours. It is characterized by a spectrum with peaks at a fundamental frequency and its integer multiples. Both types of tremor seem to be generated by movement of fluids in the volcano, most probably water, steam or gas.

  17. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Plume Heights     View ... and stereo plume   Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano produced its second major ash plume of 2010 beginning on May 7. Unlike ...

  18. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Ash Plume Particle Properties     ... satellite flew over Iceland's erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano on April 19, 2010, its Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  19. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 23, Number 6, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Gordon, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers.

  20. Revisiting Jorullo volcano (Mexico): monogenetic or polygenetic volcano?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Granados, H.; Roberge, J.; Farraz Montes, I. A.; Victoria Morales, A.; Pérez Bustamante, J. C.; Correa Olan, J. C.; Gutiérrez Jiménez, A. J.; Adán González, N.; Bravo Cardona, E. F.

    2007-05-01

    Jorullo volcano is located near the volcanic front of the westernmost part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which is related to the subduction of the Cocos plate beneath the North American plate. This part of the TMVB is known as the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, a region where widespread monogenetic volcanism is present although polygenetic volcanism is also recognized (i. e. Tancítaro volcano; Ownby et al., 2006). Jorullo volcano was born in the middle of crop fields. During its birth several lava flows were emitted and several cones were constructed. The main cone is the Jorullo proper, but there is a smaller cone on the north (Volcán del Norte), and three smaller cones aligned N-S on the south (Unnamed cone, UC; Volcán de Enmedio, VE; and Volcán del Sur, VS). The cone of Jorullo volcano is made up of tephra and lava flows erupted from the crater. The three southern cones show very interesting histories not described previously. VE erupted highly vesiculated tephras including xenoliths from the granitic basement. VS is made of spatter and bombs. A very well preserved hummocky morphology reveals that VE and VS collapsed towards the west. After the collapses, phreatomagmatic activity took place at the UC blanketing VE, VS and the southern flank of the Jorullo cone with sticky surge deposits. The excellent study by Luhr and Carmichael (1985) indicates that during the course of the eruption, lavas evolved from primitive basalt to basaltic andesite, although explosive products show a reverse evolution pattern (Johnson et al., 2006). We mapped lava flows not described by the observers in the 18th century nor considered in previous geologic reports as part of the Jorullo lavas. These lavas are older, distributed to the west and south, and some of them resemble the lava flows from La Pilita volcano, a cone older than Jorullo (Luhr and Carmichael, 1985). These lava flows were not considered before because they were not extruded during the 1759

  1. Global Volcano Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  2. Volcanoes and global catastrophes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkin, Tom

    1988-01-01

    The search for a single explanation for global mass extinctions has let to polarization and the controversies that are often fueled by widespread media attention. The historic record shows a roughly linear log-log relation between the frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions and the volume of their products. Eruptions such as Mt. St. Helens 1980 produce on the order of 1 cu km of tephra, destroying life over areas in the 10 to 100 sq km range, and take place, on the average, once or twice a decade. Eruptions producing 10 cu km take place several times a century and, like Krakatau 1883, destroy life over 100 to 1000 sq km areas while producing clear global atmospheric effects. Eruptions producting 10,000 cu km are known from the Quaternary record, and extrapolation from the historic record suggests that they occur perhaps once in 20,000 years, but none has occurred in historic time and little is known of their biologic effects. Even larger eruptions must also exist in the geologic record, but documentation of their volume becomes increasingly difficult as their age increases. The conclusion is inescapable that prehistoric eruptions have produced catastrophes on a global scale: only the magnitude of the associated mortality is in question. Differentiation of large magma chambers is on a time scale of thousands to millions of years, and explosive volcanoes are clearly concentrated in narrow belts near converging plate margins. Volcanism cannot be dismissed as a producer of global catastrophes. Its role in major extinctions is likely to be at least contributory and may well be large. More attention should be paid to global effects of the many huge eruptions in the geologic record that dwarf those known in historic time.

  3. Volcano Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    When the violent energy of a volcano is unleashed, the results are often catastrophic. The risks to life, property, and infrastructure from volcanoes are escalating as more and more people live, work, play, and travel in volcanic regions. Since 1980, 45 eruptions and 15 cases of notable volcanic unrest have occurred at 33 U.S. volcanoes. Lava flows, debris avalanches, and explosive blasts have invaded communities, swept people to their deaths, choked major riverways, destroyed bridges, and devastated huge tracts of forest. Noxious volcanic gas emissions have caused widespread lung problems. Airborne ash clouds have disrupted the health, lives, and businesses of hundreds of thousands of people; caused millions of dollars of aircraft damage; and nearly brought down passenger flights.

  4. High Rate GPS on Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, M.

    2005-12-01

    The high rate GPS data processing can be considered as the "new deal" in geodetic monitoring of active volcanoes. Before an eruption, infact, transient episodes of ground displacements related to the dynamics of magmatic fluids can be revealed through a careful analysis of high rate GPS data. In the very first phases of an eruption the real time processing of high rate GPS data can be used by the authorities of Civil Protection to follow the opening of fractures field on the slopes of the volcanoes. During an eruption large explosions, opening of vents, migration of fractures fields, landslides and other dangerous phenomena can be followed and their potential of damage estimated by authorities. Examples from the recent eruption of Stromboli volcano and from the current activities of high rate GPS monitoring on Mt. Etna are reported, with the aim to show the great potential and the perspectives of this technique.

  5. Remote sensing of volcanos and volcanic terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Francis, Peter W.; Wilson, Lionel; Pieri, David C.; Self, Stephen; Rose, William I.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using remote sensing to monitor potentially dangerous volcanoes is discussed. Thermal studies of active volcanoes are considered along with using weather satellites to track eruption plumes and radar measurements to study lava flow morphology and topography. The planned use of orbiting platforms to study emissions from volcanoes and the rate of change of volcanic landforms is considered.

  6. Holocene environment of Central Kamchatka, Russia: Implications from a multi-proxy record of Two-Yurts Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Ulrike; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Dirksen, Veronika G.; Dirksen, Oleg; Kuhn, Gerhard; Meyer, Hanno; Nazarova, Larisa; Roth, Alexandra; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Within the scope of Russian-German palaeoenvironmental research, Two-Yurts Lake (TYL, Dvuh-Yurtochnoe in Russian) was chosen as the main scientific target area to decipher Holocene climate variability on Kamchatka. The 5 × 2 km large and 26 m deep lake is of proglacial origin and situated on the eastern flank of Sredinny Ridge at the northwestern end of the Central Kamchatka Valley, outside the direct influence of active volcanism. Here, we present results of a multi-proxy study on sediment cores, spanning about the last 7000 years. The general tenor of the TYL record is an increase in continentality and winter snow cover in conjunction with a decrease in temperature, humidity, and biological productivity after 5000-4500 cal yrs BP, inferred from pollen and diatom data and the isotopic composition of organic carbon. The TYL proxy data also show that the late Holocene was punctuated by two colder spells, roughly between 4500 and 3500 cal yrs BP and between 1000 and 200 cal yrs BP, as local expressions of the Neoglacial and Little Ice Age, respectively. These environmental changes can be regarded as direct and indirect responses to climate change, as also demonstrated by other records in the regional terrestrial and marine realm. Long-term climate deterioration was driven by decreasing insolation, while the short-term climate excursions are best explained by local climatic processes. The latter affect the configuration of atmospheric pressure systems that control the sources as well as the temperature and moisture of air masses reaching Kamchatka.

  7. Composition of the abyssal infauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka area (NW Pacific) collected with a box corer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Viola; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition with the RV Sonne from July to September 2012, a 0.25 m2 box corer was used to sample the benthic fauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka area. 23 cores were deployed at 12 stations, and in total 36,648 individuals could be identified from a combined surface area of 5.75 m2. Total faunal densities ranged from 1024 to 16,592 ind. m-2, respectively, for the macrofauna from 436 to 3520 ind. m-2. The fauna was dominated by Nematoda (65%), even though this group and other meiofaunal taxa were only partially retained by the 300 μm screen that was used as the smallest screen for this study. The remaining part of the fauna was dominated by polychaetes (23%), followed by peracarid crustaceans (6%) and molluscs (3%). Most of the collected taxa occurred very patchily. Over 80% of the animals were extracted from the upper 2 centimeters of the sediment. Compared to other regions of the Pacific the density of the benthic fauna was unusually high. At the upper slope of the continental margin of the trench and at the southern part of the area the benthic fauna was most taxon rich. Station 3 from the continental slope of the trench was also most rich in terms of faunal density (total numbers of ind. m-2), followed by the station 11 and 12 from that the southernmost part of the abyss. Although the Kuril-Kamchatka area has been sampled on several expeditions during the last century, and some studies on the biomass of the benthic fauna have been published, this study offers the first quantitative community analysis of the benthic fauna in terms of abundance and taxon richness.

  8. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  9. Of Rings and Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    show it. The bright spot close to the equator is the remnant of a giant storm in Saturn's extended atmosphere that has lasted more than 5 years. The present photo provides what is possibly the sharpest view of the ring system ever achieved from a ground-based observatory . Many structures are visible, the most obvious being the main ring sections, the inner C-region (here comparatively dark), the middle B-region (here relatively bright) and the outer A-region, and also the obvious dark "divisions", including the well-known, broad Cassini division between the A- and B-regions, as well as the Encke division close to the external edge of the A-region and the Colombo division in the C-region. Moreover, many narrow rings can be seen at this high image resolution , in particular within the C-region - they may be compared with those seen by the Voyager spacecraft during the flybys, cf. the weblinks below. This image demonstrates the capability of NAOS-CONICA to observe also extended objects with excellent spatial resolution. It is a composite of four short-exposure images taken through the near-infrared H (wavelength 1.6 µm) and K (2.2 µm) filters. This observation was particularly difficult because of the motion of Saturn during the exposure. To provide the best possible images, the Adaptive Optics system of NAOS was pointed towards the Saturnian moon Tethys , while the image of Saturn was kept at a fixed position on the CONICA detector by means of "differential tracking" (compensating for the different motions in the sky of Saturn and Tethys). This is also why the (faint) image of Tethys - visible south of Saturn (i.e., below the planet in PR Photo 04a/02 ) - appears slightly trailed. Io - volcanoes and sulphur ESO PR Photo 04b/02 ESO PR Photo 04b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 478 pix - 39k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 955 pix - 112k] ESO PR Photo 04c/02 ESO PR Photo 04c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 469 pix - 58k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 937 pix - 368k] Caption : PR Photo 04b/02 shows

  10. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  11. Large landslides from oceanic volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, R.T.; Searle, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Large landslides are ubiquitous around the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes, and GLORIA has also revealed large landslides offshore from Tristan da Cunha and El Hierro. On both of the latter islands, steep flanks formerly attributed to tilting or marine erosion have been reinterpreted as landslide headwalls mantled by younger lava flows. These landslides occur in a wide range of settings and probably represent only a small sample from a large population. They may explain the large volumes of archipelagic aprons and the stellate shapes of many oceanic volcanoes. Large landslides and associated tsunamis pose hazards to many islands. -from Authors

  12. [Interactions between larvae of the hoverfly Eristalinus sepulchralis and microorganisms in the hydrothermal springs of the Uzon caldera, Kamchatka].

    PubMed

    Lobkova, L E; Barinova, E S; Dulov, L E; Gal'chenko, V F

    2007-01-01

    The physicochemical and microbial characteristics of some medium-temperature hydrotherms of Kamchatka Peninsula (Uzon caldera), habitats of the hoverfly Eristalinus sepulchralis larvae, were studied. In these hydrothermal vents, the larvae were found to use various prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms as a nutrient substrate. The rates of chemo- and photosynthetic activity of the suspended microbial communities inhabiting the hydrotherms and supporting the existence of larvae were measured. By light and electron microscopy, exo- and endosymbiotic prokaryotic microorganisms were revealed in the digestive and respiratory systems of larvae.

  13. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Waitt, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Augustine Volcano is a 1250-meter high stratovolcano in southwestern Cook Inlet about 280 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and within about 300 kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. Explosive eruptions have occurred six times since the early 1800s (1812, 1883, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, and 1986). The 1976 and 1986 eruptions began with an initial series of vent-clearing explosions and high vertical plumes of volcanic ash followed by pyroclastic flows, surges, and lahars on the volcano flanks. Unlike some prehistoric eruptions, a summit edifice collapse and debris avalanche did not occur in 1812, 1935, 1964-65, 1976, or 1986. However, early in the 1883 eruption, a portion of the volcano summit broke loose forming a debris avalanche that flowed to the sea. The avalanche initiated a small tsunami reported on the Kenai Peninsula at English Bay, 90 kilometers east of the volcano. Plumes of volcanic ash are a major hazard to jet aircraft using Anchorage International and other local airports. Ashfall from future eruptions could disrupt oil and gas operations and shipping activities in Cook Inlet. Eruptions similar to the historical and prehistoric eruptions are likely in Augustine's future.

  14. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Mount Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano complex located in the north-central Cook Inlet region about 100 kilometers west of Anchorage, Alaska. Mount Spurr volcano consists of a breached stratovolcano, a lava dome at the summit of Mount Spurr, and Crater Peak vent, a small stratocone on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano. Historical eruptions of Crater Peak occurred in 1953 and 1992. These eruptions were relatively small but explosive, and they dispersed volcanic ash over areas of interior, south-central, and southeastern Alaska. Individual ash clouds produced by the 1992 eruption drifted east, north, and south. Within a few days of the eruption, the south-moving ash cloud was detected over the North Atlantic. Pyroclastic flows that descended the south flank of Crater Peak during both historical eruptions initiated volcanic-debris flows or lahars that formed temporary debris dams across the Chakachatna River, the principal drainage south of Crater Peak. Prehistoric eruptions of Crater Peak and Mount Spurr generated clouds of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. A flank collapse on the southeast side of Mount Spurr generated a large debris avalanche that flowed about 20 kilometers beyond the volcano into the Chakachatna River valley. The debris-avalanche deposit probably formed a large, temporary debris dam across the Chakachatna River. The distribution and thickness of volcanic-ash deposits from Mount Spurr volcano in the Cook Inlet region indicate that volcanic-ash clouds from most prehistoric eruptions were as voluminous as those produced by the 1953 and 1992 eruptions. Clouds of volcanic ash emitted from the active vent, Crater Peak, would be a major hazard to all aircraft using Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and other local airports and, depending on wind direction, could drift a considerable distance beyond the volcano. Ash fall from future eruptions could disrupt many

  15. Io Volcano Observer (IVO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, N.; Johnson, T.; Christensen, P.; Wurz, P.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Shinohara, C.; Girard, T.

    2009-04-01

    In early FY2008, NASA solicited study concepts for Discovery/Scout-class missions that would be enabled by use of 2 Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs). We proposed an Io Volcano Observer (IVO) study concept, because the ASRGs enable pointing flexibility and a high data rate from a low-cost mission in Jupiter orbit. Io presents a rich array of inter-connected orbital, geophysical, atmospheric, and plasma phenomena and is the only place in the Solar System (including Earth) where we can watch very large-scale silicate volcanic processes in action. Io is the best place to study tidal heating, which greatly expands the habitable zones of planetary systems. The coupled orbital-tidal evolution of Io and Europa is key to understanding the histories of both worlds. IVO utilizes an elliptical orbit inclined > 45° to Jupiter's orbital plane with repeated fast flybys of Io. Io will have nearly constant illumination at each flyby, which facilitates monitoring of changes over time. The view of Io on approach and departure will be nearly polar, enabling unique measurement and monitoring of polar heat flow (key to tidal heating models), equatorial plumes, and magnetospheric interactions. We expect to collect and return 20 Gbits per flyby via 34-m DSN stations, >1000 times the Io data return of Galileo. The minimal payload we considered included (1) a narrow-angle camera, (2) a thermal mapper, (3) an ion and neutral mass spectrometer, and (4) a pair of fluxgate magnetometers. The camera will acquire global km-scale monitoring and sampling down to 10 m/pixel or better. One key objective is to acquire nearly simultaneous (<0.1 s) multispectral measurements to determine the peak lava temperatures, which in turn constrains the temperature and rheology of Io's mantle and whether or not the heat flow is in equilibrium with tidal heating. The thermal mapper will be similar to THEMIS on Mars Odyssey, but with bandpasses designed to monitor volcanic activity, measure heat

  16. Laboratory volcano geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Færøvik Johannessen, Rikke; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    intrusion can be excavated and photographed from several angles to compute its 3D shape with the same photogrammetry method. Then, the surface deformation pattern can be directly compared with the shape of underlying intrusion. This quantitative dataset is essential to quantitatively test and validate classical volcano geodetic models.

  17. Geothermal alteration of Kamchatka rock physical properties: experimental and pore-scale modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, Violetta; Gerke, Kirill; Bichkov, Andrey; Korost, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    Alternative renewable energy sources research is getting more and more attention due to its importance for future exploitation and low ecological impacts. Geothermal energy is quite abundant and represents a cheap and easily extractable power source for electricity generation or central heating. For these purposes naturally heated geothermal fluids are extracted via drilled wells; after cooling water is usually pumped back to the reservoir to create a circle, or dumped into local streams. In addition to fundamental interest in understanding natural geothermal processes inside the reservoir, in both cases fluids can significantly alter rock properties around the well or stream bed, which is of great practical and ecological importance for the geothermal industry. Detailed knowledge of these transformations is necessary for power plant construction and well design, geophysical modeling and the prediction of geological properties. Under natural conditions such processes occur within geological time frames and are hard to capture. To accelerate geothermal alteration and model deep reservoir high temperature and pressure conditions we use autoclave laboratory experiments. To represent different geothermal conditions, rock samples are autoclaved using a wide range of parameters: temperature (100-450°C), pressure (16-1000 Bars), solution chemistry (from acidic to alkali artificial solutions and natural geothermal fluids sampled in Kamchatka), duration (from weeks to 1 year). Rock samples represent unaltered andesite-dacite tuffs, basalts and andesite collected at the Kamchatka peninsula. Numerous rock properties, e.g., density (bulk and specific), porosity (total and effective), hygroscopicity, P/S wave velocities, geomechanical characteristics (compressive and tensile strength, elastic modulus), etc., were thoroughly analyzed before and after alteration in laboratory autoclave or natural conditions (in situ). To reveal structural changes, some samples were scanned using

  18. Geysers Valley, Kamchatka: Why Landslide of 3-June-2007 Took Place and What Happens After

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryukhin, A. V.; Rychkova, T. V.; Chernykh, E. V.; Vergasova, L. P.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of the hydrogeological conditions of the landslide, which took place in the Geysers Valley, Kamchatka on June 3-rd, 2007 shows that possible reason of this was a long term steam upflow occurred along slightly inclined bottom of the Geyzernaya pumice tuffs unit, which finally resulted into deep hydrothermal alteration of the pumice to highly silicified zeolites and montmorillonite, with corresponding loosing of the stability. Landslide triggers may associate with different events including plumbing magma system pressure increase, seasons waterfloods or steam explosions. Landslide took place in a few minutes yielded 10 mln m3 of mud, debris, and blocks of rocks. As a result of this - some geysers located at lower elevations were sealed under 10-30 m thick caprock and a rock dumb trap Geysernaya river into 20 m deep Lake. One year monitoring of the two key geysers eruptions cycling (Velikan and Bolshoy), lake level and thermal discharge into the Lake floor yield to the following results: 1. Velikan maintains stable geysers activity cycling with an average time period 372 min (31 July 2007 - 6 July 2008), slightly exceeding time period before landslide - 339 min (17 Aug - 5 Oct 2003). Time period increase after landslide off-load and some response to the barometric pressure maximums - may characterize geyser sensitivity to the stress; 2. Bolshoy maintained geysers activity with average time period 64-84 min during Sept 2007 - May 2008 at low Lake levels, the rest of the time cold water from Lake inflows into the geysers channel, terminating its activity. Note, Bolshoy time period before landslide was estimated as 108 min (17 Aug - 5 Oct 2003); 3. Thermal discharge into the Lake floor is sensitive to the Lake level, significantly increasing in the winter time.

  19. Anaerobic transformation of carbon monoxide by microbial communities of Kamchatka hot springs.

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Rusanov, Igor I; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Sokolova, Tatyana G

    2011-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the common gaseous compounds found in hot volcanic environments. It is known to serve as the growth substrate for a number of thermophilic prokaryotes, both aerobic and anaerobic. The goal of this work was to study the process of anaerobic transformation of CO by microbial communities inhabiting natural thermal environments: hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. The anaerobic microbial community of Treshchinny Spring (80°C, pH 6.5) was found to exhibit two peaks of affinity for CO (K (S1) = 54 nM and K (S2) = 1 μM). The actual rate of anaerobic CO transformation by the microbial community of this spring, calculated after obtaining the concentration dependence curve and extrapolated to the natural concentration of CO dissolved in the hot spring water (20 nM), was found to be 120 μmol l(-1) of sediment day(-1). In all the hot springs studied, more than 90% of the carbon of (14)CO upon anaerobic incubation was recovered as (14)CO(2). From 1 to 5% of (14)CO was transformed to volatile fatty acids (VFA). The number of microorganisms capable of anaerobic CO oxidation determined by dilution-to-extinction method reached 10(6) cells ml(-1) of sediment. CO-transforming anaerobic thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the springs under study exhibited hydrogenogenic type of CO oxidation and belonged to the bacterial genera Carboxydocella and Dictyoglomus. These data suggest a significant role of hydrogenogenic carboxydotrophic prokaryotes in anaerobic CO transformation in Uzon Caldera hot springs.

  20. Microbial life in Bourlyashchy, the hottest thermal pool of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka.

    PubMed

    Chernyh, Nikolay A; Mardanov, Andrey V; Gumerov, Vadim M; Miroshnichenko, Margarita L; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Merkel, Alexander Y; Crowe, Douglas; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Rusanov, Igor I; Ravin, Nikolay V; Moran, Mary Ann; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2015-11-01

    Bourlyashchy is the largest and hottest pool in the Uzon Caldera, located in the territory of Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russia, with sediment surface temperatures at the margins ranging from 86 to 97 °C, and pH from 6.0 to 7.0. The microbial communities of the pool water and sediments were studied comprehensively from 2005 to 2014. Radioisotopic tracer studies revealed the processes of inorganic carbon assimilation, sulfate reduction, lithotrophic methanogenesis and potentially very active process of acetate oxidation to CO2. The total number of microbial cells in water was different in different years ranging from 5.2 to 7.0 × 10(6); in sediments, it changed from year to year between 6.3 × 10(6) and 1.75 × 10(8), increasing with a decrease in temperature. FISH with Archaea- and Bacteria-specific probes showed that the share of Bacteria differed with year, changing from 34 to 71%. According to 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data, lithoautotrophs (Aquificales and Thermoproteales) predominated in water samples, while in sediments they shared the niche with organotrophic Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota, and bacteria of the genus Caldimicrobium (phylum Thermodesulfobacteria). The majority of organisms in water belonged to cultivated orders of prokaryotes; the only large uncultured group was that representing a novel order in class Thermoprotei. In sediments, unclassified Aquificeae comprised a significant part of the bacterial population. Thus, we showed that the hottest of the terrestrial hot pools studied contains numerous and active microbial populations where Bacteria represent a significant part of the microbial community, and planktonic and sediment populations differ in both composition and function.

  1. Comparative geochemical and microbiological characterization of two thermal pools in the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Unrine, Jason M; Mills, Gary L; Romanek, Christopher S; Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-04-01

    Arkashin Schurf (Arkashin) and Zavarzin Spring (Zavarzin), two active thermal pools in the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia, were studied for geochemical and microbiological characterization. Arkashin, the smaller of the two pools, had broader temperature and pH ranges, and the sediments had higher concentrations of total As (4,250 mg/kg) relative to Zavarzin (48.9 mg/kg). Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether profiles represented distinct archaeal communities in each pool and agreed well with previous studies of these pools. Although no archaeal 16S rRNA sequences were recovered from Arkashin, sequences recovered from Zavarzin were mostly representatives of the Crenarchaeota and "Korarchaeota," and 13% of the sequences were unclassifiable. The bacterial community in Arkashin was dominated by uncultured "Bacteroidetes," Hydrogenobaculum of the Aquificales and Variovorax of the Betaproteobacteria, and 19% of the sequences remained unclassified. These results were consistent with other studies of As-rich features. The most abundant members of the Zavarzin bacterial community included the Chloroflexi, as well as members of the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia. In addition, 24% of the sequences were unclassified and at least 5% of those represent new groups among the established Bacterial phyla. Ecological structure in each pool was inferred from taxonomic classifications and bulk stable isotope δ values of C, N, and S. Hydrogenobaculum was responsible for primary production in Arkashin. However, in Zavarzin, the carbon source appeared to be allochthonous to the identified bacterial community members. Additionally, sequences related to organisms expected to participate in N and S cycles were identified from both pools.

  2. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  3. Infrared surveys of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, W. A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, F.; Landis, G.H.

    1964-01-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain.Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities.Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected.Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  4. What Happened to Our Volcano?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand…

  5. Ceboruco Volcano Gravimetric Analysis, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Cordoba, J.; Espindola, J. M.; Gutierrez, Q. J.; Garcia Serrano, A.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Pinzon, J. I.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Ceboruco is a late Quaternary dacitic-andesitic stratovolcano, is located in the Tepic-Zacoalco graben in the western part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) near to Ahuacatlan and Jala towns in Mexico. There have been at least eight eruptions from this volcano in the last thousand years, and for this reason Ceboruco must be considered an active volcano whit the possibility of erupting again in the future. This work aims to contribute with a regional density contrasts model from gravity measurements of volcano area. 163 observations were measured every 500 meters with a Scintrex CG-5 gravimeter. We corrected data were measured in the area to filter information dependent of external gravitational fields or outside to object of study. Post-filtering of data, we obtained gravity anomalies distribution and with other supporting data (aeromagnetic and geological data) we made 8 profiles around Ceboruco to build an approximate model of density changes in the lithological units under the volcano.

  6. Iridium emissions from Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.

  7. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  8. Seismic Attenuation beneath Tateyama Volcano, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, K.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface structures beneath active volcanoes have frequently been investigated (e.g., Oikawa et al., 1994: Sudo et al., 1996), and seismic attenuation beneath some active volcanoes are reported to be strong. On the other hand, few local subsurface structures beneath volcanoes whose volcanic activities are low have been investigated in detail, though it is important to study them to understand the potential of volcanic activity of these volcanoes. Then, we analyzed the seismic attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano (Midagahara volcano) located in central Japan, whose volcanic activity is quite low. We used seismograms obtained by Hi-net deployed by NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention). Hi-net is one of the densest seismic station networks in the world, and the spatial interval of their seismographs is about 20 km, which is suitable for investigating local structure beneath an individual volcano. We estimated S-wave attenuation using seismograms at five stations near Tateyama volcano for nineteen small, local, shallow earthquakes (M 2.7-4.0) that occurred from January 2012 to December 2013. We divided these earthquakes into six groups according to their hypocenter locations. We used twofold spectral ratios around the first S-arrivals to investigate the S-wave attenuation when S-waves passed through the region beneath Tateyama volcano. We focused on station pairs located on opposite sides of Tateyama volcano to each other, and earthquake pairs whose epicenters were located almost along the line connecting Tateyama volcano and the two stations, so that the spectral ratios reflect a local structure beneath Tateyama volcano. Twofold spectral ratios of all seismograms for S waves having northwestern or southeastern sources show strong attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano. On the other hand, those of seismograms having northeastern or southwestern sources show much weaker attenuation, which suggested that the region of strong

  9. Remote sensing and petrological observations on the 2012-2013 fissure eruption at Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka: Implications for reconstruction of the eruption chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, Dmitry; Volynets, Anna O.

    2015-12-01

    We present a reconstruction of the chronological sequence of events that took place during the first days of the 2012-2013 Tolbachik fissure eruption using petrological data and remote sensing methods. We were forced to use this approach because bad weather conditions did not allow direct observations during the first two days of the eruption. We interpreted infrared images from the scanning radiometer VIIRS Suomi NPP and correlated the output with the results of the geochemical study, including comparison of the ash, deposited at the period from 27 to 29 November, with the samples of lava and bombs erupted from the Menyailov and Naboko vents. We argue that the compositional change observed in the eruption products (the decrease of SiO2 concentration and K2O/MgO ratio, increase of MgO concentration and Mg#) started approximately 24 h after the eruption began. At this time the center of activity moved to the southern part of the fissure, where the Naboko group of vents was formed; therefore, this timeframe also characterizes the timing of the Naboko vent opening. The Naboko group of vents remained active until the end of eruption in September 2013.

  10. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Dorava, Joseph M.; Miller, Thomas P.; Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    Redoubt Volcano is a stratovolcano located within a few hundred kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. This volcano has erupted explosively at least six times since historical observations began in 1778. The most recent eruption occurred in 1989-90 and similar eruptions can be expected in the future. The early part of the 1989-90 eruption was characterized by explosive emission of substantial volumes of volcanic ash to altitudes greater than 12 kilometers above sea level and widespread flooding of the Drift River valley. Later, the eruption became less violent, as developing lava domes collapsed, forming short-lived pyroclastic flows associated with low-level ash emission. Clouds of volcanic ash had significant effects on air travel as they drifted across Alaska, over Canada, and over parts of the conterminous United States causing damage to jet aircraft. Economic hardships were encountered by the people of south-central Alaska as a result of ash fallout. Based on new information gained from studies of the 1989-90 eruption, an updated assessment of the principal volcanic hazards is now possible. Volcanic hazards from a future eruption of Redoubt Volcano require public awareness and planning so that risks to life and property are reduced as much as possible.

  11. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  12. The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovieva, N.; Klimaschewski, A.; Self, A. E.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund., D.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Nazarova, L.

    2015-11-01

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history. The 6500-year environmental history of Lifebuoy Lake correlates with the broad regional patterns of vegetation development and climate dynamics with both diatoms and chironomids showing near-synchronous changes. Between ca. 6300 and 3900 cal yr BP, the lake ecosystem was naturally enriched, with several Stephanodiscus species dominating the diatom plankton. This natural eutrophication state is likely to be due to a combination of the base-rich catchment geology, the fertilisation effect of several fires in the catchment, silica input from tephra layers and, possibly, nitrogen input from seabirds. The substantial tephra deposit at about 3850 cal yr BP might have stopped sedimentary phosphorus from entering the lake water thus decreasing the trophic state of the lake and facilitating the shift in diatom composition to a benthic Fragiliariaceae complex. Both diatoms and chironomids showed simultaneous compositional changes, which are also reflected by statistically significant changes in their rates of change 300-400 years after the arrival of Pinus pumila in the lake catchment. The rapid increase in both total diatom concentration and the percentage abundance of the large heavy species, Aulacoseira subarctica might be a response to the change in timing and intensity of lake spring turn-over due to the changes in the patterns of North Pacific atmospheric circulation, most notably westward shift of the Aleutian Low. The two highest peaks in A. subarctica abundance at Lifebouy Lake occurred during opposite summer temperature inferences: the earlier peak (3500-2900 cal yr BP) coincided with warm summers and the latter peak (300 cal yr BP-present) occurred during the cold summer period. These imply that A. subarctica shows no direct

  13. Laboratory simulation of volcano seismicity.

    PubMed

    Benson, Philip M; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Meredith, Philip G; Young, R Paul

    2008-10-10

    The physical processes generating seismicity within volcanic edifices are highly complex and not fully understood. We report results from a laboratory experiment in which basalt from Mount Etna volcano (Italy) was deformed and fractured. The experiment was monitored with an array of transducers around the sample to permit full-waveform capture, location, and analysis of microseismic events. Rapid post-failure decompression of the water-filled pore volume and damage zone triggered many low-frequency events, analogous to volcanic long-period seismicity. The low frequencies were associated with pore fluid decompression and were located in the damage zone in the fractured sample; these events exhibited a weak component of shear (double-couple) slip, consistent with fluid-driven events occurring beneath active volcanoes.

  14. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  15. Glaciation of Haleakala volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Mark, R. ); Porter, S.C. . Quaternary Research Center)

    1993-04-01

    Early debates regarding the large (5 [times] 10 km) summit crater'' of Haleakala volcano (3,055 m altitude) on the island of Maui attributed its origin to renting, rifting, caldera collapse, or erosion. It now is commonly assumed to have resulted from headward expansion of giant canyons by stream erosion (Stearns, 1942). Slope maps and shaded relief images based on new USGS digital elevation data point to the apparent overfit of the canyons that drain the summit depression. Studies of drowned coral reefs and terraces on the offshore east rift of Haleakala indicate that this part of the volcano has undergone submergence of about 2 km, as well as tilting, since 850 ka ago. Such subsidence indicates that the summit altitude at the end of the shield-building phase reached ca. 5,000 m, well above both the present and full-glacial snowlines. A comparison with the radiometrically dated glacial record of Mauna Kea and its reconstructed snowline history suggests that Haleakala experienced 10 or more glaciations, the most extensive during marine isotope stages 20, 18, and 16. By isotope stage 10, the summit had subsided below the full-glacial snowline. Diamictons on the south slope of the volcano, previously described as mudflows, contain lava clasts with superchilled margins, identical to margins of subglacially erupted lavas on Mauna Kea. Glacier ice that mantled the upper slopes of the volcano continuously for several hundred thousand years and intermittently thereafter, is inferred to have carved Haleakala crater and the upper reaches of large canyons radiating from it.

  16. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Skoog, R.

    2006-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Google Earth is being used as a visualization tool for operational satellite monitoring of the region's volcanoes. Through the abilities of the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) utilized by Google Earth, different datasets have been integrated into this virtual globe browser. Examples include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays with dynamic control, to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through the Google Earth interface to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits; and animated models of ash plumes within Google Earth, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages. The globe also provides an ideal interface for displaying near real-time information on detected thermal anomalies or "hotspot"; pixels in satellite images with elevated brightness temperatures relative to the background temperature. The Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska collects AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) through its own receiving station. The automated processing that follows includes application of algorithms that search for hotspots close to volcano location, flagging those that meet certain criteria. Further automated routines generate folders of KML placemarkers, which are linked to Google Earth through the network link function. Downloadable KML files have been created to provide links to various data products for different volcanoes and past eruptions, and to demonstrate examples of the monitoring tools developed. These KML files will be made accessible through a new website that will become publicly available in December 2006.

  17. 2. PARKING LOT AT JAGGAR MUSEUM, VOLCANO OBSERVATORY. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PARKING LOT AT JAGGAR MUSEUM, VOLCANO OBSERVATORY. VIEW OF MEDIAN. NOTE VOLCANIC STONE CURBING (EDGING) TYPICAL OF MOST PARKING AREAS; TRIANGLING AT END NOT TYPICAL. MAUNA LOA VOLCANO IN BACK. - Crater Rim Drive, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  18. Active Deformation of Etna Volcano Combing IFSAR and GPS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The surface deformation of an active volcano is an important indicator of its eruptive state and its hazard potential. Mount Etna volcano in Sicily is a very active volcano with well documented eruption episodes.

  19. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP

  20. Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

  1. Time-space distribution of tsunamigenic earthquakes along the Pacific and Bering coasts of Kamchatka: insight from paleotsunami deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinegina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    Kamchatka and Kurile islands are the most seismically active regions of our planet. Strong earthquakes along Kuril-Kamchatka subduction and the west margin of Bering Sea usually generate tsunami. All intensive tsunami leave the geological traces at the coasts. Data about past tsunami, obtained during last ~20 yr, extend significantly the short historical catalogue of such events. Basing on the distribution of tsunami deposits the runup height and inundation distance for historical tsunami and paleotsunami were estimated, as well as sources and magnitudes of tsunamigenic earthquakes for the past ~2000 years. In excavations along the Bering Sea coast 10 layers of tsunami deposits within this period of time were identified. Earthquakes magnitudes (Mt) calculated from tsunami height at the nearest coasts by Abe relation (Abe, 1999) vary between 7.0 and 8.3, and their recurrence interval is 175 to 250 years. In sections along the Kamchatsky Bay coast 15 layers with tsunami deposits for the past ~2000 years were identified. Average recurrence interval of strong tsunami (with runup >3-4 m) there is 125-145 year, and estimated Mt vary between 7.6 and 8.4. Two earthquakes, which took place in the Kamchatsky Bay during the past ~2000 year, caused 1 to 2 m of coseismic subsidence of the coast. At the Kronotsky Bay coast for the past ~2000 years average recurrence interval of tsunami with runup >3-5 m is ~100 year. At the Avachinsky Bay coast the average recurrence interval of all detected tsunami (for the past ~2000 years) is about 100 years. At the southern Kamchatka and northern Kurile Island it lowers to 70-80 years, and calculated magnitudes Mt of tsunamigenic earthquakes fall in an interval from 6.7 to 8.7. Average recurrence of tsunami with runup >5 m at the open bays and >2 m at the closed bays from Avachinsky Bay to northern Kuriles is 130-150 year. Three tsunamigenic earthquakes (1952 AD, 1737 AD, ~600 AD) were accompanied by coastal coseismic subsidence. Each of

  2. New records of the chaetiferous leech-like annelid Paracanthobdella livanowi (Epshtein, 1966) (Annelida: Clitellata: Acanthobdellida) from Kamchatka, Russia.

    PubMed

    Utevsky, Serge Y; Sokolov, Sergei G; Shedko, Marina B

    2013-01-01

    Acanthobdellidans are unique in their organisation and phylogenetic relationships due to having transitional characters that combine features of oligochaetous and achaetous annelids. Alongside the relatively well-studied Acanthobdella peledina Grube, 1851, there is another member of the group, Paracanthobdella livanowi (Epshtein, 1966), with five rows of chaetae and an anterior sucker. It appears that the anterior sucker is weakly developed in small juveniles but acquires a deep cavity in adults. Smaller individuals of P. livanowi can be distinguished from A. peledina, which does not possess an anterior sucker, by the varying breadth of their chaetae. The mid-body segment consists of two doubled annuli in juveniles and is quadri-annulate in large individuals. In Kamchatka freshwaters, hosts of P. livanowi mostly include Salvelinus spp. and more rarely Gasterosteus aculeatus, Oncorhynchus mykiss and O. kisutch. New information on the distribution and the biology of P. livanowi is presented.

  3. Smithsonian Volcano Data on Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venzke, E.; Siebert, L.; Luhr, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    Interactive global satellite imagery datasets such as hosted by Google Earth provide a dynamic platform for educational outreach in the Earth Sciences. Users with widely varied backgrounds can easily view geologic features on a global-to-local scale, giving access to educational background on individual geologic features or events such as volcanoes and earthquakes. The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) volcano data became available as a Google Earth layer on 11 June 2006. Locations for about 1550 volcanoes with known or possible Holocene activity are shown as red triangles with associated volcano names that appear when zooming in to a regional-scale view. Clicking on a triangle opens an informational balloon that displays a photo, geographic data, and a brief paragraph summarizing the volcano's geologic history. The balloon contains links to a larger version of the photo with credits and a caption and to more detailed information on the volcano, including eruption chronologies, from the GVP website. Links to USGS and international volcano observatories or other websites focusing on regional volcanoes are also provided, giving the user ready access to a broad spectrum of volcano data. Updates to the GVP volcano layer will be provided to Google Earth. A downloadable file with the volcanoes organized regionally is also available directly from the GVP website (www.volcano.si.edu) and provides the most current volcano data set. Limitations of the implied accuracy of spacially plotted data at high zoom levels are also apparent using platforms such as Google Earth. Real and apparent mismatches between plotted locations and the summits of some volcanoes seen in Google Earth satellite imagery occur for reasons including data precision (deg/min vs. deg/min/sec) and the GVP convention of plotting the center-point of large volcanic fields, which often do not correspond to specific volcanic vents. A more fundamental problem originates from the fact that

  4. Volcanic hazards at Atitlan volcano, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haapala, J.M.; Escobar Wolf, R.; Vallance, James W.; Rose, William I.; Griswold, J.P.; Schilling, S.P.; Ewert, J.W.; Mota, M.

    2006-01-01

    Atitlan Volcano is in the Guatemalan Highlands, along a west-northwest trending chain of volcanoes parallel to the mid-American trench. The volcano perches on the southern rim of the Atitlan caldera, which contains Lake Atitlan. Since the major caldera-forming eruption 85 thousand years ago (ka), three stratovolcanoes--San Pedro, Toliman, and Atitlan--have formed in and around the caldera. Atitlan is the youngest and most active of the three volcanoes. Atitlan Volcano is a composite volcano, with a steep-sided, symmetrical cone comprising alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. Eruptions of Atitlan began more than 10 ka [1] and, since the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-1400's, eruptions have occurred in six eruptive clusters (1469, 1505, 1579, 1663, 1717, 1826-1856). Owing to its distance from population centers and the limited written record from 200 to 500 years ago, only an incomplete sample of the volcano's behavior is documented prior to the 1800's. The geologic record provides a more complete sample of the volcano's behavior since the 19th century. Geologic and historical data suggest that the intensity and pattern of activity at Atitlan Volcano is similar to that of Fuego Volcano, 44 km to the east, where active eruptions have been observed throughout the historical period. Because of Atitlan's moderately explosive nature and frequency of eruptions, there is a need for local and regional hazard planning and mitigation efforts. Tourism has flourished in the area; economic pressure has pushed agricultural activity higher up the slopes of Atitlan and closer to the source of possible future volcanic activity. This report summarizes the hazards posed by Atitlan Volcano in the event of renewed activity but does not imply that an eruption is imminent. However, the recognition of potential activity will facilitate hazard and emergency preparedness.

  5. Fault plane orientations of intermediate-depth and deep-focus earthquakes in the Japan-Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Linda M.; Baluyut, Elena C.; Osburg, Timothy; Lisac, Kristen; Kokkinen, Siiri

    2015-12-01

    In the northwestern Pacific, the Pacific plate subducts to the west at the Japan, Kuril, and Kamchatka trenches. Throughout most of the subduction zone, the subducting slab is planar and dipping at an angle of 30°-60°, with the exception of a fold in the southern Kuril segment. To investigate how the slab deforms in response to the applied forces and which mechanism generates the earthquakes, we analyze the rupture properties of 111 large (MW≥5.7) intermediate-depth and deep-focus earthquakes (60-656 km depth) from 1990 to 2014 in the Japan-Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone. For each earthquake, we use rupture directivity to estimate rupture direction and rupture speed and to distinguish the fault plane from the auxiliary plane of the focal mechanism. Seventy six percent of the earthquakes with sufficient station coverage are well modeled by unilateral rupture propagation. The estimated rupture speeds range from zero to supershear. The estimated rupture directions allow identification of the fault plane as the more horizontal nodal plane for 30 earthquakes, while an additional 11 earthquakes rupture toward the intersection of the nodal planes, so the fault plane cannot be identified. Combining our newly identified fault planes with previously identified fault planes in the region, we observe that in planar slab segments, most earthquakes slip along a dominant fault orientation. For a steeply dipping slab, this orientation is subhorizontal. In more sharply bent slab segments, such as the Kuril fold, deformation is accommodated along more variable fault orientations, including subvertical faults. The correlation of slab geometry with fault orientation suggests that the local stress field controls fault orientations.

  6. Palaeoglacial and palaeoclimatic conditions in the NW Pacific, as revealed by a morphometric analysis of cirques upon the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Iestyn D.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2013-06-01

    The distribution of glacial cirques upon the Kamchatka peninsula, Far Eastern Russia, is systematically mapped from satellite images and digital elevation model data. A total of 3758 cirques are identified, 238 of which are occupied by active glaciers. The morphometry of the remaining 3520 cirques is analysed. These cirques are found to show a very strong N bias in their azimuth (orientation), likely resulting from aspect-related variations in insolation. The strength of this N bias is considered to indicate that former glaciation upon the peninsula was often 'marginal', and mainly of cirque-type, with peaks extending little above regional equilibrium-line altitudes. This is supported by the fact that S and SE-facing cirques are the highest in the dataset, suggesting that glacier-cover was rarely sufficient to allow S and SE-facing glaciers to develop at low altitudes. The strength of these azimuth-related variations in cirque altitude is thought to reflect comparatively cloud-free conditions during former periods of glaciation. It is suggested that these characteristics, of marginal glaciation and comparatively cloud-free conditions, reflect the region's former aridity, which was likely intensified at the global Last Glacial Maximum, and during earlier periods of ice advance, as a result of the development of negative pressure anomalies over the North Pacific (driven by the growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet), combined with other factors, including an increase in the extent and duration of sea ice, a reduction in global sea levels, cooler sea surface temperatures, and the localised growth of mountain glaciers. There is published evidence to suggest extensive glaciation of the Kamchatka Peninsula at times during the Late Quaternary, yet the data presented here appear to suggest that such phases were comparatively short-lived, and that smaller cirque-type glaciers were generally more characteristic of the period.

  7. Water in Aleutian Arc Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, T.; Zimmer, M. M.; Hauri, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    In the past decade, baseline data have been obtained on pre-eruptive water contents for several volcanic arcs worldwide. One surprising observation is that parental magmas contain ~ 4 wt% H2O on average at each arc worldwide [1]. Within each arc, the variation from volcano to volcano is from 2 to 6 w% H2O, with few exceptions. The similar averages at different arcs are unexpected given the order of magnitude variations in the concentration of other slab tracers. H2O is clearly different from other tracers, however, being both a major driver of melting in the mantle and a major control of buoyancy and viscosity in the crust. Some process, such as mantle melting or crustal storage, apparently modulates the water content of mafic magmas at arcs. Mantle melting may deliver a fairly uniform product to the Moho, if the wet melt process includes a negative feedback. On the other hand, magmas with variable water content may be generated in the mantle, but a crustal filter may lead to magma degassing up to a common mid-to-upper crustal storage region. Testing between these two end-member scenarios is critical to our understanding of subduction dehydration, global water budgets, magmatic plumbing systems, melt generation and eruptive potential. The Alaska-Aleutian arc is a prime location to explore this fundamental problem in the subduction water cycle, because active volcanoes vary more than elsewhere in the world in parental H2O contents (based on least-degassed, mafic melt inclusions hosted primarily in olivine). For example, Shishaldin volcano taps magma with among the lowest H2O contents globally (~ 2 wt%) and records low pressure crystal fractionation [2], consistent with a shallow magma system (< 1 km bsl). At the other extreme, Augustine volcano is fed by a mafic parent that contains among the highest H2O globally (~ 7 wt%), and has evolved by deep crystal fractionation [2], consistent with a deep magma system (~ 14 km bsl). Do these magmas stall at different depths

  8. ASTER Images Mt. Usu Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image of Mt Usu volcano is dominated by Lake Toya, an ancient volcanic caldera. On the south shore is the active Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 11,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. 'Mount Usu has had seven significant eruptions that we know of, and at no time has it ended quickly with only a small scale eruption,' said Yoshio Katsui, a professor at Hokkaido University. This was the seventh major eruption of Mount Usu in the past 300 years. Fifty people died when the volcano erupted in 1822, its worst known eruption.

    In the image, most of the land is covered by snow. Vegetation, appearing red in the false color composite, can be seen in the agricultural fields, and forests in the mountains. Mt. Usu is crossed by three dark streaks. These are the paths of ash deposits that rained out from eruption plumes two days earlier. The prevailing wind was from the northwest, carrying the ash away from the main city of Date. Ash deposited can be traced on the image as far away as 10 kilometers (16

  9. Microbial metabolism and the geochemistry of bioactive gases in Kamchatka and Lassen hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, B.; Robb, F. T.; Colman, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic metabolisms include several pathways that involve dissolved gases as carbon sources, energy sources, and/or waste products. In hot springs, dissolved gas concentrations are often compared with concentrations predicted based upon equilibration with free phase gases bubbling up in the same springs. This comparison guides the inference of metabolic modes in the subsurface, spring vents, and outflow channels. Supersaturation is invoked as a signal of a biogenic source for the gas, while undersaturation is interpreted to indicate microbial consumption. However, these conventional interpretations of disequilibria between dissolved and free phase gases can be misleading. They ignore the decoupling of water and free phase gas transport in terrestrial hot springs and the effects on gas solubility of thermal and pressure gradients that exist as fluids travel from depth to vent. We have surveyed two significant geothermal regions: Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP), California, USA (July, 2009), and Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia (August, 2010) in past years. We collected and analyzed both free phase and dissolved gas composition from a number of hot springs in each region. We used Henry's Law to calculate apparent saturation state of the dissolved gases with respect to the free phases gases bubbling up in the springs. We then constructed a 1-D gas exchange-transport model to examine the thermodynamic drivers and potential kinetic hindrances to gas exchange and equilibration in water and gases ascending continental hot spring systems. Specifically, this model takes into account: (1) the vertical gradient in temperature and pressure, (2) interaction between the bioactive gases via water gas shift reaction, and (3) fluid transport from subsurface to vent. We have modeled several end-member transport-exchange scenarios: (1) gas and spring water co-ascend in a closed system, with instantaneous equilibration between free phase and dissolved

  10. The First Result of the Precursors Observation in Karymshina Observatory (Kamchatka, Russia) for Moderate Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, E.; Uyeda, S.; Nagao, T.; Molchanov, O.; Hattori, K.; Lutikov, A.; Gladyshev, V.; Schekotov, A.; Chebrov, V.

    2001-12-01

    In 1999 the complex geophysical observatory was created in Kamchatka, Russia under mutual Russian-Japanese scientific project. The main purpose of this project is to investigate electromagnetic and other phenomena in connection with earthquakes. The observatory is sited in the place without any sources of industrial noise. The seismic waveforms, acoustic emission, telluric currents, magnetic pulsation and chemical composition of underground water are measured continuously. The measurements of three components of ground displacement velocity is realized by seismometer in the frequency band 0.5-40 Hz with sensitivity threshold 10-8 m/s and dynamic range of 90 dB. Triaxial induction magnetometer measures geomagnetic pulsations in the frequency range 0.003-30 Hz with sensitivity threshold 20 pT/Hz1/2 at frequency 0.01 Hz and 0.02 pT/Hz1/2 at frequencies higher than 10 Hz. Dynamic range of the magnetometer is 90 dB. Measurements of NS and EW components of telluric currents with maximum distance between electrodes of about 500 m are carried out. The acoustic emission receiver (high-frequency seismometer) based on mechanical pendulum with ceramic transducer is installed in 30 m borehole. The output signals are filtered by 4 filters with central frequencies equal to 30, 160, 500 and 1000 Hz. In the same borehole was installed high-frequency seismic noise (HFSN) piezoceramic sensor with very narrow band around 30 Hz and sensitivity threshold 10-12 m. The chemical components Cl, HCO3, SO4, Na, K, Ca, H3BO3, H4SiO4, gases CH4, N2, O2, CO2, Ar, He, H2 and hydrocarbonates C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C3H6, C4H10, C4H10i are analysed in a few wells nearby the observatory. The atmospheric pressure, direction and velocity of the wind, humidity, precipitation, air and ground temperature are measured using meteorological station installed at observatory. Since June 2000 CGO Karymshina has started regular simultaneous monitoring of the above-mentioned parameters. Processing and analysis of the

  11. Io's Volcanoes: Possible Influence on Spin Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, P. R.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2002-03-01

    Massive outpourings of lava in short intervals could cause an instability in Io's rotation and a reorientation of its spin axis. The volcanos and mountains exhibit a complementary distribution, with the maximum principal inertia axis for volcanos close to the position of the rotation axis.

  12. Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

  13. Analytical volcano deformation source models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Primary volcanic landforms are created by the ascent and eruption of magma. The ascending magma displaces and interacts with surrounding rock and fluids as it creates new pathways, flows through cracks or conduits, vesiculates, and accumulates in underground reservoirs. The formation of new pathways and pressure changes within existing conduits and reservoirs stress and deform the surrounding rock. Eruption products load the crust. The pattern and rate of surface deformation around volcanoes reflect the tectonic and volcanic processes transmitted to the surface through the mechanical properties of the crust.

  14. Infrasound Studies of Alaskan Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.; Arnoult, K.; Szuberla, C.; Olson, J. V.; Wilson, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Infrasound has been used to study a number of Alaskan volcanic eruptions over the last 15 years. Arrays include the I53US array of 8 sensors in Fairbanks installed in 2002 under the CTBT umbrella; an array of 4 sensors installed at Okmok Volcano in summer 2010 by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO); and a 6-sensor array installed in Dillingham in September 2010 by the UAF Infrasound Group. Individual sensors have been installed by AVO at Pavlof (1996), Shishaldin (1997), Augustine (2006), Fourpeaked (2006), and Redoubt (2009) volcanoes. These have been especially valuable because they provide precise source timing and signal strength that allow the correct identification of atmospheric paths. Small volcanic explosions have been recorded at local stations only for Pavlof, Shishaldin and Fourpeaked volcanoes. The more interesting large explosive eruptions have been recorded on both local stations and arrays from eruptions at Augustine in 2006 (13 events), Fourpeaked in 2006 (2 events), Cleveland in 2007 (1 event), Okmok in 2008 (1 sustained event), Kasatochi in 2008 (5 events), and Redoubt in 2009 (over 30 events). Pressures up to 6 Pa have been recorded for the largest Redoubt event at a distance of 547 km from the array, and 1.2 Pa for the largest Kasatochi event at a distance of 2104 km. We determined reduced pressures (equivalent pressure at 1 km assuming 1/r decay) and find that Kasatochi exceeds 2500 Pa and Redoubt 1600 Pa. The smaller explosive eruptions at Augustine yield reduced pressures of 40 to 300 Pa. There is reasonable correlation between measured pressures and signal durations and the ash cloud heights and tephra volumes, hence the infrasound data are useful for hazard assessment. However, the long travel times (3 sec per km) suggest that infrasound array data arrive too late for primary detection but are good for estimating other attributes such as size. Infrasound data may also be combined with seismic data to determine the partitioning of energy

  15. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  16. MATLAB tools for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam imagery; applications at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren

    2010-01-01

    Webcams are now standard tools for volcano monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, Hawai'i, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other volcano monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation)

    PubMed Central

    Bryanskaya, Alla V.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Kotenko, Anastasia V.; Peltek, Sergey E.

    2014-01-01

    The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1T strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°С) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25′51.40″N, 160°7′41.40″E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes. PMID:25342695

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation).

    PubMed

    Bryanskaya, Alla V; Rozanov, Aleksey S; Logacheva, Maria D; Kotenko, Anastasia V; Peltek, Sergey E

    2014-10-23

    The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1(T) strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°С) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25'51.40″N, 160°7'41.40″E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes.

  19. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The central caldera is visible in the lower right corner of the center map, outlined by the black dashed line. The caldera collapsed about 75,000 years ago when massive explosions sent volcanic ash as far as the San Francisco Bay area and created a 3,000-ft-deep hole in the center of the volcano. The caldera is now partly refilled by Paulina and East Lakes, and the byproducts from younger eruptions, including Newberry Volcano’s youngest rhyolitic lavas, shown in red and orange. The majority of Newberry Volcano’s many lava flows and cinder cones are blanketed by as much as 5 feet of volcanic ash from the catastrophic eruption of Mount Mazama that created Crater Lake caldera approximately 7,700 years ago. This ash supports abundant tree growth and obscures the youthful appearance of Newberry Volcano. Only the youngest volcanic vents and lava flows are well exposed and unmantled by volcanic ash. More than one hundred of these young volcanic vents and lava flows erupted 7,000 years ago during Newberry Volcano’s northwest rift zone eruption.

  20. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr{sup -1} and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr{sup -1}. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr{sup - 1}, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr{sup -1}, extending past the year 4,000.

  1. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  2. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  3. A scale for ranking volcanoes by risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandone, Roberto; Bartolini, Stefania; Martí, Joan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple volcanic risk coefficient (VRC) useful for comparing the degree of risk arising from different volcanoes, which may be used by civil protection agencies and volcano observatories to rapidly allocate limited resources even without a detailed knowledge of each volcano. Volcanic risk coefficient is given by the sum of the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of the maximum expected eruption from the volcano, the logarithm of the eruption rate, and the logarithm of the population that may be affected by the maximum expected eruption. We show how to apply the method to rank the risk using as examples the volcanoes of Italy and in the Canary Islands. Moreover, we demonstrate that the maximum theoretical volcanic risk coefficient is 17 and pertains to the large caldera-forming volcanoes like Toba or Yellowstone that may affect the life of the entire planet. We develop also a simple plugin for a dedicated Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) software to graphically display the VRC of different volcanoes in a region.

  4. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  5. Volcanoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... there are no guarantees of safety during a volcanic eruption, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety, and ... help in finding ways to cope. Federal Emergency Management Agency

  6. Volcanoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber Incident Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber Incident Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ...

  7. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  8. [Genetic Differentiation of Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from Kamchatka River Basin and the Lake-River Systems of the West Coast of the Bering Sea as Inferred from Data on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Khrustaleva, A M; Klovach, N V; Vedischeva, E V; Seeb, J E

    2015-10-01

    The variability of 45 single nucleotide polymorphism loci (SNP) was studied in sockeye salmon from the Kamchatka River basin and four lake-river systems of the west coast of the Bering Sea. Based on the genetic differentiation estimates for the largest sockeye salmon populations of Eastern Kamchatka and Chukotka, the examined samples were combined into two regional groups represented by the population of the Kamchatka River drainage, which included numerous local subpopulations and seasonal races, and the northern population grouping from the rivers of Olutorsko-Navarinsky raion, wherein the sockeye salmon from Maynypilginskaya Lake-River system was relatively isolated. Considerable divergence was observed between the island (Sarannoe Lake, Bering Island) and continental populations. Genetic heterogeneity was revealed and groups of early- and late-maturing individuals were isolated in the sample of late-run sockeye salmon from Kamchatka River. In Apuka River, subdivision of the spawning run into two genetically distinct spatial and temporal groupings was also observed. The results suggest that the differentiation of sockeye salmon samples by single nucleotide substitution frequencies was largely due to differences in the direction and strength of local selection at some loci in the population complexes and intrapopulation groupings from the examined river basins of Eastern Kamchatka, Chukotka, and Commander Islands.

  9. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  10. Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of rocks is likely to have on magma degassing and hydrothermal processes, and on the likely chemical variations in brine and gas compositions that occur as a result of movement of aqueous-rich fluids from plastic into brittle rock at different depths. To a great extent, the model of hydrothermal processes in sub-volcanic systems that is presented here is inferential, based in part on information obtained from deep drilling for geothermal resources, and in part on the study of ore deposits that are thought to have formed in volcanic and shallow plutonic environments.

  11. Volcanoes can muddle the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists and politicians anxiously eye signs of global greenhouse warming, climatologists are finding the best evidence yet that a massive volcanic eruption can temporarily bring the temperature down a notch or two. Such a cooling could be enough to set the current global warming back more than a decade, confusing any efforts to link it to the greenhouse effect. By effectively eliminating some nonvolcanic climate changes from the record of the past 100 years, researchers have detected drops in global temperature of several tenths of a degree within 1 to 2 years of volcanic eruptions. Apparently, the debris spewed into the stratosphere blocked sunlight and caused the temperature drops. For all their potential social significance, the climate effects of volcanoes have been hard to detect. The problem has been in identifying a volcanic cooling among the nearly continuous climate warmings and coolings of a similar size that fill the record. The paper reviews how this was done.

  12. Volcano Monitoring Using Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, W.; Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.

    2009-12-01

    At the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of volcanoes. AVO’s remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites, and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) data. AVHRR and MODIS data are collected by receiving stations operated by the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska’s Geophysical Institute. An additional AVHRR data feed is supplied by NOAA’s Gilmore Creek satellite tracking station. GOES data are provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Monterey Bay. The ability to visualize these images and their derived products is critical for the timely analysis of the data. To this end, AVORS has developed javascript web interfaces that allow the user to view images and metadata. These work well for internal analysts to quickly access a given dataset, but they do not provide an integrated view of all the data. To do this AVORS has integrated its datasets with Keyhole Markup Language (KML) allowing them to be viewed by a number of virtual globes or other geobrowsers that support this code. Examples of AVORS’ use of KML include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through KML to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the location and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits using polygons; and animated models of ash plumes, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages.

  13. The hydrogeology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Scholl, M.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The hydrogeology of Kilauea volcano and adjacent areas has been studied since the turn of this century. However, most studies to date have focused on the relatively shallow, low-salinity parts of the ground-water system, and the deeper hydrothermal system remains poorly understood. The rift zones of adjacent Mauna Loa volcano bound the regional ground-water flow system that includes Kilauea, and the area bounded by the rift zones of Kilauea and the ocean may comprise a partly isolated subsystem. Rates of ground-water recharge vary greatly over the area, and discharge is difficult to measure, because streams are ephemeral and most ground-water discharges diffusely at or below sea level. Hydrothermal systems exist at depth in Kilauea's east and southwest rift zone, as evidenced by thermal springs at the coast and wells in the lower east-rift zone. Available data suggest that dike-impounded, heated ground water occurs at relatively high elevations in the upper east- and southwest-rift zones of Kilauea, and that permeability at depth in the rift zones. Available data suggest that dike-impounded, heated ground water occurs at relatively high elevations in the upper east- and southwest-rift zones of Kilauea, and that permeability at depth in the rift zones (probably [le]10[sup [minus]15] m[sup 2]) is much lower than that of unaltered basalt flows closer to the surface ([ge]10[sup [minus]10] m[sup 2]). Substantial variations in permeability and the presence of magmatic heat sources influence that structure of the fresh water-salt water interface, so the Ghyben-Herzberg model will often fail to predict its position. Numerical modeling studies have considered only subsets of the hydrothermal system, because no existing computer code solves the coupled fluid-flow, heat- and solute-transport problem over the temperature and salinity range encountered at Kilauea. 73 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A field guide to Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.

  15. Eruption of Alaska volcano breaks historic pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina A.; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (~2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud "thunder," lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  16. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  17. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  18. Investigation of prototype volcano-surveillance network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Ward, P. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The equipment installed in the volcano surveillance network continues to work quite reliably and earthquakes are being recorded at all sites. A summary of platform receptions per day has been prepared.

  19. Motivations for muon radiography of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.

    2010-02-01

    Muon radiography represents an innovative tool for investigating the interior of active volcanoes. This method integrates the conventional geophysical techniques and provides an independent way to estimate the density of the volcano structure and reveal the presence of magma conduits. The experience from the pioneer experiments performed at Mt. Asama, Mt. West Iwate, and Showa-Shinzan (Japan) are very encouraging. Muon radiography could be applied, in principle, at any stratovolcano. Here we focus our attention on Vesuvius and Stromboli (Italy).

  20. TRANSIENT SOUNDING INVESTIGATION OF NEWBERRY VOLCANO, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, David V.; Neev, Deborah K.

    1985-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic soundings were used to map the geoelectrical structure of Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. An extensive conductor was found to underlie the volcano and to have resistivities from 20 OMEGA m to 72 OMEGA m. The depth to the conductor ranges from 410 m to 870 m. Inside the caldera, low basement resistivities are the result of hot fluids. The cause of the conductor outside the caldera is not known; however, we speculate that it is due to the water table.

  1. Geology and petrology of Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Moore, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The submarine Mahukona Volcano, west of the island of Hawaii, is located on the Loa loci line between Kahoolawe and Hualalai Volcanoes. The west rift zone ridge of the volcano extends across a drowned coral reef at about-1150 m and a major slope break at about-1340 m, both of which represent former shoreines. The summit of the volcano apparently reached to about 250 m above sea level (now at-1100 m depth) did was surmounted by a roughly circular caldera. A econd rift zone probably extended toward the east or sutheast, but is completely covered by younger lavas from the adjacent subaerial volcanoes. Samples were vecovered from nine dredges and four submersible lives. Using subsidence rates and the compositions of flows which drape the dated shoreline terraces, we infer that the voluminous phase of tholeiitic shield growth ended about 470 ka, but tholeiitic eruptions continued until at least 435 ka. Basalt, transitional between tholeiitic and alkalic basalt, erupted at the end of tholeiitic volcanism, but no postshield-alkalic stage volcanism occurred. The summit of the volcano apparently subcided below sea level between 435 and 365 ka. The tholeiitic lavas recovered are compositionally diverse. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Evolution of large shield volcanoes on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Robert R.; Dufek, Josef; McGovern, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the geologic history, topographic expression, and gravity signature of 29 large Venusian shield volcanoes with similar morphologies in Magellan synthetic aperture radar imagery. While they appear similar in imagery, 16 have a domical topographic expression and 13 have a central depression. Typical dimensions for the central depression are 150 km wide and 500 m deep. The central depressions are probably not calderas resulting from collapse of a shallow magma chamber but instead are the result of a corona-like sagging of a previously domical volcano. The depressions all have some later volcanic filling. All but one of the central depression volcanoes have been post-dated by geologic features unrelated to the volcano, while most of the domical volcanoes are at the top of the stratigraphic column. Analysis of the gravity signatures in the spatial and spectral domains shows a strong correlation between the absence of post-dating features and the presence of dynamic support by an underlying plume. We infer that the formation of the central depressions occurred as a result of cessation of dynamic support. However, there are some domical volcanoes whose geologic histories and gravity signatures also indicate that they are extinct, so sagging of the central region apparently does not always occur when dynamic support is removed. We suggest that the thickness of the elastic lithosphere may be a factor in determining whether a central depression forms when dynamic support is removed, but the gravity data are of insufficient resolution to test this hypothesis with admittance methods.

  3. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  4. Observations on lava, snowpack and their interactions during the 2012-13 Tolbachik eruption, Klyuchevskoy Group, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Benjamin R.; Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Melnikov, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Observations made during January and April 2013 show that interactions between lava flows and snowpack during the 2012-13 Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka, Russia, were controlled by different styles of emplacement and flow velocities. `A`a lava flows and sheet lava flows generally moved on top of the snowpack with few immediate signs of interaction besides localized steaming. However, lavas melted through underlying snowpack 1-4 m thick within 12 to 24 h, and melt water flowed episodically from the beneath flows. Pahoehoe lava lobes had lower velocities and locally moved beneath/within the snowpack; even there the snow melting was limited. Snowpack responses were physical, including compressional buckling and doming, and thermal, including partial and complete melting. Maximum lava temperatures were up to 1355 K (1082 °C; type K thermal probes), and maximum measured meltwater temperatures were 335 K (62.7 °C). Theoretical estimates for rates of rapid (e.g., radiative) and slower (conductive) snowmelt are consistent with field observations showing that lava advance was fast enough for `a`a and sheet flows to move on top of the snowpack. At least two styles of physical interactions between lava flows and snowpack observed at Tolbachik have not been previously reported: migration of lava flows beneath the snowpack, and localized phreatomagmatic explosions caused by snowpack failure beneath lava. The distinctive morphologies of sub-snowpack lava flows have a high preservation potential and can be used to document snowpack emplacement during eruptions.

  5. Triticella minini - a new ctenostome bryozoan from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grischenko, Andrei V.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.

    2015-01-01

    A new species of ctenostome bryozoan, Triticella minini sp. nov., is described from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, based on material collected by the Russian-German deep-sea expedition KuramBio 2012. Colonies of T. minini sp. nov. were found attached to the oral spines of irregular sea urchin Echinosigra (Echinogutta) amphoraMironov, 1974 by means of rhizoid fibers that penetrated the substratum through circular borings. The specimens were examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy with phalloidin and nuclear labeling. The description of T. minini sp. nov. combines a general taxonomic description with a description of the anatomy of the muscular system. The new species differs from congeners in lacking a stolon. It has an intertentacular organ. T. minini sp. nov. is the eleventh species described in the genus TriticellaDalyell, 1848, and the first record for this genus from the northwestern Pacific. The new species is the fifth ctenostome bryozoan known to occur in 5001-5500 m depth interval worldwide, and the deepest record reported for Triticella.

  6. Caldimicrobium rimae gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, facultatively lithoautotrophic, anaerobic bacterium from the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka.

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, Margarita L; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Chernyh, N A; Tourova, Tatyana P; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Spring, Stefan; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2009-05-01

    An extremely thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacterium designated strain DS(T) was isolated from Treshchinnyi Spring, one of the hottest springs of the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka, Russia). Cells of the novel organism were Gram-negative rods, about 1.0-1.2 microm long and 0.5 microm wide. The temperature range for growth was 52-82 degrees C, with an optimum at 75 degrees C. Growth was observed at pH 6.8-7.4, and the optimum pH was 7.0-7.2. Strain DS(T) was able to grow lithoautotrophically with hydrogen in the presence of CO(2) as a carbon source and thiosulfate or elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor. It also grew well with ethanol, fumarate, succinate or malate in the presence of thiosulfate. Yeast extract was not required for growth and did not stimulate growth. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel organism was a member of the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological considerations, it is proposed that strain DS(T) represents a new genus and species, Caldimicrobium rimae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Caldimicrobium rimae is DS(T) (=DSM 19393(T) =VKM B-2460(T)).

  7. Basaltic scoria plates at Llaima volcano, Chile; preserved bubble walls from large strombolian bubble bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, D. C.; Calder, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    ) they were transported in the volcanic plume alongside the principal scoria and do not represent a separate population of ballistic clasts. Somewhat similar tephra have been observed, though not described in detail, in other deposits from violent Strombolian eruptions, namely the 'cinertic' activity at Paricutin volcano, Mexico and the great fissural eruption of Tolbachick volcano, Kamchatka. The presence of the plate tephra in other deposits suggests that the process by which they form may be important during violent strombolian eruptions in terms of fragmentation mechanisms and plume energetics. For preservation at distal locations from the vent, we infer these bubbles fragmented at significant heights (10-100's m) above the vent, implying especially large bubbles/slugs. Moreover, the plume must be energetic enough to entrain the plates to allow for transport. These distinctive clasts can therefore help to complete our understanding of violent Strombolian activity at basaltic andesite volcanoes.

  8. Redoubt Volcano: 2009 Eruption Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, K. F.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano is a 3110-m glaciated stratovolcano located 170 km SW of Anchorage, Alaska, on the W side of Cook Inlet. The edifice comprises a <1500-m-thick sequence of mid-Pleistocene to recent, basaltic to dacitic pyroclastic-, block-and-ash- and lava-flow deposits built on Jurassic tonalite. Magma-ice contact features are common. A dissected earlier cone underlies the E flank of Redoubt. Alunite-bearing debris flows to the SE, E and N suggest multiple flank collapses over Redoubt's history. Most recent eruptions occurred in 1966-68, and 1989-90. In March 2009, Redoubt erupted to produce pyroclastic flows, voluminous lahars, and tephra that fell over large portions of south-central Alaska. Regional and local air traffic was significantly disrupted, Anchorage airport was closed for over 12 hours, and oil production in Cook Inlet was halted for nearly five months. Unrest began in August, 2008 with reports of H2S odor. In late September, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)’s seismic network recorded periods of volcanic tremor. Throughout the fall, AVO noted increased fumarolic emissions and accompanying ice- and snow-melt on and around the 1990 dome, and gas measurements showed elevated H2S and CO2 emissions. On January 23, seismometers recorded 48 hrs of intermittent tremor and discrete, low-frequency to hybrid events. Over the next 6 weeks, seismicity waxed and waned, an estimated 5-6 million m3 of ice were lost due to melting, volcanic gas emissions increased, and debris flows emerged repeatedly from recently formed ice holes near the 1990 dome, located on the crater’s N (“Drift”) side. On March 15, a phreatic explosion deposited non-juvenile ash from a new vent in the summit ice cap just S of the 1990 dome. Ash from the explosion rose to ~4500 m above sea level (asl). The plume was accompanied by weak seismicity. The first magmatic explosion occurred on March 22. Over the next two weeks, more than 19 explosions destroyed at least two lava domes and

  9. An Admittance Survey of Large Volcanoes on Venus: Implications for Volcano Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brian, A. W.; Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of the thickness of the venusian crust and elastic lithosphere are important in determining the rheological and thermal properties of Venus. These estimates offer insights into what conditions are needed for certain features, such as large volcanoes and coronae, to form. Lithospheric properties for much of the large volcano population on Venus are not well known. Previous studies of elastic thickness (Te) have concentrated on individual or small groups of edifices, or have used volcano models and fixed values of Te to match with observations of volcano morphologies. In addition, previous studies use different methods to estimate lithospheric parameters meaning it is difficult to compare their results. Following recent global studies of the admittance signatures exhibited by the venusian corona population, we performed a similar survey into large volcanoes in an effort to determine the range of lithospheric parameters shown by these features. This survey of the entire large volcano population used the same method throughout so that all estimates could be directly compared. By analysing a large number of edifices and comparing our results to observations of their morphology and models of volcano formation, we can help determine the controlling parameters that govern volcano growth on Venus.

  10. Spreading and collapse of big basaltic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These

  11. Volcano Monitoring and Eruption Response in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, S.; Morita, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Although the start of eruption was forecasted at Miyakejima in June 2000, its change since then was largely different from what we expected; the countermeasures always became one step behind. There was a sudden lateral intrusion of the enormous amount magma as far as 30 km away from the volcano. The failure in forecasting comes partly from insufficient consideration of the eruption history and simple analogy of recent, near-steady state eruption events. The 2000 eruption may be reappearance of that of 2.5 ka at Miyakejima. The national project of eruption prediction researches has focused on seismological and geomagnetic investigations to detect the temporal change in the subsurface structure for active volcanoes, together with repeated, multidiscipline intensive observation. These were considered important to understand magma storage and movement, to evaluate the eruption potential, and to forecast the future eruption. Although direct detection of the magma chamber was incomplete, the convex distribution of dense material beneath the summit became common throughout examined volcanoes. It became clear that the part consists of the dike swarms through the conduit drilling project at Unzen. Understanding of the velocity structure by the seismic experiments was very useful to determine the detail location of volcano earthquakes in those volcanoes. Furthermore, combination of seismic, geodetic, geomagnetic and petrological investigations provided us a better imaging of the subsurface structure of several volcanoes. New technology such as the cosmic-ray (muon) radiography, which made the volcano interior visible, will give us the important information on magma ascent in the shallowest part of volcano. Recently, seismological and geodetic monitoring at densely-located observation sites makes possible to image the magma’s ascent and accumulation under volcanoes from the middle to upper crust. This process, of course, needs knowledge on the subsurface structure (depth of

  12. Nyiragongo Volcano before the Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano situated on the Eastern African Rift; it is part of Africa's Virunga Volcanic Chain. In a massive eruption that occurred on January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo sent a vast plume of smoke and ash skyward, and three swifly-moving rivers of lava streaming down its western and eastern flanks. Previous lava flows from Nyiragongo have been observed moving at speeds of up to 40 miles per hour (60 kph). The lava flows from the January 17 eruption destroyed more than 14 villages in the surrounding countryside, forcing tens of thousands to flee into the neighboring country of Rwanda. Within one day the lava ran to the city of Goma, situated on the northern shore of Lake Kivu about 12 miles (19 km) south of Nyiragongo. The lava cut a 200 foot (60 meter) wide swath right through Goma, setting off many fires, as it ran into Lake Kivu. Goma, the most heavily populated city in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, is home to about 400,000 people. Most of these citizens were forced to flee, while many have begun to return to their homes only to find their homes destroyed. This true-color scene was captured by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, on December 11, 2001, just over a month before the most recent eruption. Nyiragongo's large crater is clearly visible in the image. As recently as June 1994, there was a large lava lake in the volcano's crater which had since solidified. The larger Nyamuragira Volcano is located roughly 13 miles (21 km) to the north of Nyiragongo. Nyamuragira last erupted in February and March 2001. That eruption was also marked by columns of erupted ash and long fluid lava flows, some of which are apparent in the image as dark greyish swaths radiating away from Nyamuragira. Both peaks are also notorious for releasing large amounts of sulfur dioxide, which presents another health hazard to people and animals living in close proximity. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data supplied

  13. Geochemistry of volcanic gas at the 2012-13 New Tolbachik eruption, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplygin, I. V.; Lavrushin, V. Y.; Dubinina, E. O.; Bychkova, Y. V.; Inguaggiato, S.; Yudovskaya, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    We report measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of gas emitted from the lava flow at the 2012-13 New Tolbachik eruption. Gas and condensate samples were taken from two vents over a lava tube in May 2013. The 1030 °C gas sample was collected in evacuated Giggenbach bottle from a periodically pumping-to-venting outlet above active lava flow ~ 300 m from Naboko cone. Concentrations of major components in the 1030 °C gas sample are (mol%): 95.5 H2O, 0.47 CO2, 2.01 SO2, 1.18 HCl, 0.34 HF that are within a range of gas compositions for subduction zone volcanoes. Isotopic analysis of He gives a corrected to atmosphere R/Ra ratio = 7.24 (He/Ne ratio = 1.41) that is close to MORB values. The 1030 °C condensate contained 9.7 ppm Cu, 2.5 ppm Zn, 1.5 ppm Tl, 20 ppb Re and 3 ppb Au, and can be considered as a representative sample for the metal composition of exsolved magmatic gases at the 2012-13 Tolbachik eruption. Isotopic data on the 1030 °C condensate (δ18O = 6.4‰, δD = - 32‰) indicate a magmatic source. Another condensate sample taken at 690 °C was found to be drastically different from the magmatic 1030 °C condensate. We suggest that the disproportional enrichment in trace elements of this 690 °C condensate as compared to the 1030 °C condensate could result from evaporation at forced pumping during sampling and possible dissolution of earlier precipitated sublimates in the gas conduit. Unusual isotopic composition of the 690 °C condensate (δ18O = 18.9‰, δD = - 68.5‰) can be explained by the isotopic exchange between volcanic vapor and atmospheric O2 (δ18O = 23.5‰).

  14. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  15. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  16. Spreading And Collapse Of Big Basaltic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.; Bonforte, A.; Guglielmino, F.; Peltier, A.; Poland, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. Our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These volcanoes, due to their similarities and differences, coupled with

  17. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  18. Monitoring volcanoes using seismic noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenguier, Florent; Clarke, Daniel; Aoki, Yosuke; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Campillo, Michel; Ferrazzini, Valérie

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we summarize some recent results of measurements of temporal changes of active volcanoes using seismic noise cross-correlations. We first present a novel approach to estimate volcano interior temporal seismic velocity changes. The proposed method allows to measure very small velocity changes (≈ 0.1%) with a time resolution as small as one day. The application of that method to Piton de la Fournaise Volcano (La Réunion Island) shows velocity decreases preceding eruptions. Moreover, velocity changes from noise cross-correlations over 10 years allow to detect transient velocity changes that could be due to long-lasting intrusions of magma without eruptive activity or to pressure buildup associated to the replenishing of the magma reservoir. We also present preliminary results of noise cross-correlation waveform perturbation associated with the occurrence of dike injection and volcanic eruption. We show that such an analysis leads us to locate the areas of dike injection and eruptive fissures at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano. These recent results suggest that monitoring volcanoes using seismic noise correlations should improve our ability to forecast eruptions, their intensity and thus potential environmental impact.

  19. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  20. Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.

    1988-01-01

    Newberry Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7-0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data. -Authors

  1. Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.

    1988-09-10

    Newberry, Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7--0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data.

  2. Volcanoes in the Classroom--an Explosive Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Susan A.; Thompson, Keith S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes for third- and fourth-grade students. Includes demonstrations; video presentations; building a volcano model; and inviting a scientist, preferably a vulcanologist, to share his or her expertise with students. (JRH)

  3. Volcanostratigraphic Approach for Evaluation of Geothermal Potential in Galunggung Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, Q. S.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Pratopo, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    he geothermal systems in Indonesia are primarily associated with volcanoes. There are over 100 volcanoes located on Sumatra, Java, and in the eastern part of Indonesia. Volcanostratigraphy is one of the methods that is used in the early stage for the exploration of volcanic geothermal system to identify the characteristics of the volcano. The stratigraphy of Galunggung Volcano is identified based on 1:100.000 scale topographic map of Tasikmalaya sheet, 1:50.000 scale topographic map and also geological map. The schematic flowchart for evaluation of geothermal exploration is used to interpret and evaluate geothermal potential in volcanic regions. Volcanostratigraphy study has been done on Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano, West Java, Indonesia. Based on the interpretation of topographic map and analysis of the dimension, rock composition, age and stress regime, we conclude that both Galunggung Volcano and Talaga Bodas Volcano have a geothermal resource potential that deserve further investigation.

  4. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture radar studies of Alaska volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Power, John A.; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Masterlark, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we summarize our recent InSAR studies of 13 Alaska volcanoes, including New Trident, Okmok, Akutan, Kiska, Augustine, Westdahl, Peulik, Makushin, Seguam, Shishaldin, Pavlof, Cleveland, and Korovin volcanoes.

  5. Book Review: Dangerous Neighbors: Volcanoes and Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre

    2013-01-01

    Here, Grant Heiken, a world-renowned volcanologist, has written a book based on his long history investigating volcanic hazards that is absolutely riveting. Eight of the ten chapters focus on the interplay between major metropolises and destructive volcanoes. The introductory chapter sets the stage for the remainder of the book. This chapter touches on various types of volcanic events; from Nyiragongo lava flows that disrupted the city of Goma, DRC, to debris flows from Nevado del Ruiz that killed 23,000 residents in Armero, Columbia, to the Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland which spewed an ash column into the jet stream and disrupted air travel to 32 European countries for 6 days. Other issues weaved into the introduction are the social and political fallout when a predicted eruption does not occur (Soufriere de Guadeloupe), how hazard evaluation processes change, and why do major populations reside near high risk volcanoes.

  6. Kilauea volcano eruption seen from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 crew had a clear view of the erupting Kilauea volcano during the early morning pass over the Hawaiian islands. Kilauea, on the southwest side of the island of Hawaii, has been erupting almost continuously since January, 1983. Kilauea's summit caldera, with the smaller Halemaumau crater nestled within, is highlighted in the early morning sun (just above the center of the picture). The lava flows which covered roads and subdivisions in 1983-90 can be seen as dark flows to the east (toward the upper right) of the steam plumes on this photo. The summit crater and lava flows of Mauna Loa volcano make up the left side of the photo. Features like the Volcano House and Kilauea Visitor Center on the edge of the caldera, the small subdivisions east of the summit, Ola's Rain Forest north of the summit, and agricultural land along the coast are easily identified.

  7. Book Review: Dangerous Neighbors: Volcanoes and Cities

    DOE PAGES

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre

    2013-01-01

    Here, Grant Heiken, a world-renowned volcanologist, has written a book based on his long history investigating volcanic hazards that is absolutely riveting. Eight of the ten chapters focus on the interplay between major metropolises and destructive volcanoes. The introductory chapter sets the stage for the remainder of the book. This chapter touches on various types of volcanic events; from Nyiragongo lava flows that disrupted the city of Goma, DRC, to debris flows from Nevado del Ruiz that killed 23,000 residents in Armero, Columbia, to the Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland which spewed an ash column into the jet stream and disruptedmore » air travel to 32 European countries for 6 days. Other issues weaved into the introduction are the social and political fallout when a predicted eruption does not occur (Soufriere de Guadeloupe), how hazard evaluation processes change, and why do major populations reside near high risk volcanoes.« less

  8. Renewed unrest at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO),a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has detected unrest at Mount Spurr volcano, located about 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska, at the northeast end of the Aleutian volcanic arc.This activity consists of increased seismicity melting of the summit ice cap, and substantial rates of C02 and H2S emission.The current unrest is centered beneath the volcano's 3374-m-high summit, whose last known eruption was 5000–6000 years ago. Since then, Crater Peak, 2309 m in elevation and 4 km to the south, has been the active vent. Recent eruptions occurred in 1953 and 1992.

  9. Oxygen isotope composition of diatoms as Late Holocene climate proxy at Two-Yurts Lake, Central Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hanno; Chapligin, Bernhard; Hoff, Ulrike; Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Especially in combination with other proxies, the oxygen isotope composition of diatom silica (δ18Odiatom) from lake sediments is useful for interpreting past climate conditions. This paper presents the first oxygen isotope data of fossil diatoms from Kamchatka, Russia, derived from sediment cores from Two-Yurts Lake (TYL). For reconstructing Late Holocene climate change, palaeolimnological investigations also included diatom, pollen and chironomid analysis. The most recent diatom sample (δ18Odiatom = + 23.3‰) corresponds well with the present day isotopic composition of the TYL water (mean δ18O = - 14.8‰) displaying a reasonable isotope fractionation in the system silica-water. Nonetheless, the TYL δ18Odiatom record is mainly controlled by changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water. TYL is considered as a dynamic system triggered by differential environmental changes closely linked with lake-internal hydrological factors. The diatom silica isotope record displays large variations in δ18Odiatom from + 27.3‰ to + 23.3‰ from about ~ 4.5 kyr BP until today. A continuous depletion in δ18Odiatom of 4.0‰ is observed in the past 4.5 kyr, which is in good accordance with other hemispheric environmental changes (i.e. a summer insolation-driven Mid- to Late Holocene cooling). The overall cooling trend is superimposed by regional hydrological and atmospheric-oceanic changes. These are related to the interplay between Siberian High and Aleutian Low as well as to the ice dynamics in the Sea of Okhotsk. Additionally, combined δ18Odiatom and chironomid interpretations provide new information on changes related to meltwater input to lakes. Hence, this diatom isotope study provides further insight into hydrology and climate dynamics of this remote, rarely investigated area.

  10. Multilocus sequence analysis of Thermoanaerobacter isolates reveals recombining, but differentiated, populations from geothermal springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Isaac D.; Varghese, Litty B.; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wiegel, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Thermal environments have island-like characteristics and provide a unique opportunity to study population structure and diversity patterns of microbial taxa inhabiting these sites. Strains having ≥98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the obligately anaerobic Firmicutes Thermoanaerobacter uzonensis were isolated from seven geothermal springs, separated by up to 1600 m, within the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka, Russian Far East). The intraspecies variation and spatial patterns of diversity for this taxon were assessed by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 106 strains. Analysis of eight protein-coding loci (gyrB, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, recG, rplB, and rpoB) revealed that all loci were polymorphic and that nucleotide substitutions were mostly synonymous. There were 148 variable nucleotide sites across 8003 bp concatenates of the protein-coding loci. While pairwise FST values indicated a small but significant level of genetic differentiation between most subpopulations, there was a negligible relationship between genetic divergence and spatial separation. Strains with the same allelic profile were only isolated from the same hot spring, occasionally from consecutive years, and single locus variant (SLV) sequence types were usually derived from the same spring. While recombination occurred, there was an “epidemic” population structure in which a particular T. uzonensis sequence type rose in frequency relative to the rest of the population. These results demonstrate spatial diversity patterns for an anaerobic bacterial species in a relative small geographic location and reinforce the view that terrestrial geothermal springs are excellent places to look for biogeographic diversity patterns regardless of the involved distances. PMID:23801987

  11. Carboxydothermus siderophilus sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic, dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a Kamchatka hot spring.

    PubMed

    Slepova, Tatiana V; Sokolova, Tatyana G; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Tourova, Tatyana P; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2009-02-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, Fe(III)-reducing, CO-utilizing bacterium, strain 1315(T), was isolated from a hot spring of Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Cells of the new isolate were Gram-positive, short rods. Growth was observed at 52-70 degrees C, with an optimum at 65 degrees C, and at pH 5.5-8.5, with an optimum at pH 6.5-7.2. In the presence of Fe(III) or 9,10-anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), the bacterium was capable of growth with CO and yeast extract (0.2 g l(-1)); during growth under these conditions, strain 1315(T) produced H(2) and CO(2) and Fe(II) or AQDSH(2), respectively. Strain 1315(T) also grew by oxidation of yeast extract, glucose, xylose or lactate under a N(2) atmosphere, reducing Fe(III) or AQDS. Yeast extract (0.2 g l(-1)) was required for growth. Isolate 1315(T) grew exclusively with Fe(III) or AQDS as an electron acceptor. The generation time under optimal conditions with CO as growth substrate was 9.3 h. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.5+/-0.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the organism in the genus Carboxydothermus (97.8 % similarity with the closest relative). On the basis of physiological features and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain 1315(T) should be assigned to a novel species, Carboxydothermus siderophilus sp. nov., with the type strain 1315(T) (=VKPM 9905B(T) =VKM B-2474(T) =DSM 21278(T)).

  12. Multilocus sequence analysis of Thermoanaerobacter isolates reveals recombining, but differentiated, populations from geothermal springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Isaac D; Varghese, Litty B; Hemme, Christopher L; Wiegel, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Thermal environments have island-like characteristics and provide a unique opportunity to study population structure and diversity patterns of microbial taxa inhabiting these sites. Strains having ≥98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the obligately anaerobic Firmicutes Thermoanaerobacter uzonensis were isolated from seven geothermal springs, separated by up to 1600 m, within the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka, Russian Far East). The intraspecies variation and spatial patterns of diversity for this taxon were assessed by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 106 strains. Analysis of eight protein-coding loci (gyrB, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, recG, rplB, and rpoB) revealed that all loci were polymorphic and that nucleotide substitutions were mostly synonymous. There were 148 variable nucleotide sites across 8003 bp concatenates of the protein-coding loci. While pairwise F ST values indicated a small but significant level of genetic differentiation between most subpopulations, there was a negligible relationship between genetic divergence and spatial separation. Strains with the same allelic profile were only isolated from the same hot spring, occasionally from consecutive years, and single locus variant (SLV) sequence types were usually derived from the same spring. While recombination occurred, there was an "epidemic" population structure in which a particular T. uzonensis sequence type rose in frequency relative to the rest of the population. These results demonstrate spatial diversity patterns for an anaerobic bacterial species in a relative small geographic location and reinforce the view that terrestrial geothermal springs are excellent places to look for biogeographic diversity patterns regardless of the involved distances.

  13. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  14. Mount st. Helens volcano: recent and future behavior.

    PubMed

    Crandell, D R; Mullineaux, D R; Rubin, M

    1975-02-07

    Mount St. Helens volcano in southern Washington has erupted many times during the last 4000 years, usually after brief dormant periods. This behavior pattern. suggests that the volcano, last active in 1857, will erupt again-perhaps within the next few decades. Potential volcanic hazards of several kinds should be considered in planning for land use near the volcano.

  15. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  16. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  17. GlobVolcano: Earth Observation Services for global monitoring of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampellini, L.; Ratti, R.; Borgström, S.; Seifert, F. M.; Solaro, G.

    2009-04-01

    The GlobVolcano project is part of the Data User Element (DUE) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objective of the project is to demonstrate EO-based (Earth Observation) services able to support the Volcanological Observatories and other mandate users (Civil Protection, scientific communities of volcanoes) in their monitoring activities. The information service is assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of active volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. Users are directly and actively involved in the validation of the Earth Observation products, by comparing them with ground data available at each site. The following EO-based information services have been defined, harmonising the user requirements provided by a worldwide selection of user organizations. - Deformation Mapping - Surface Thermal Anomalies - Volcanic Gas Emission (SO2) - Volcanic Ash Tracking During the first phase of the project (completed in June 2008) a pre-operational information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations (i.e. Piton de la Fournaise in La Reunion Island, Karthala in Comore Islands, Stromboli, Volcano and Etna in Italy, Soufrière Hills in Montserrat Island, Colima in Mexico, Merapi in Indonesia). The second phase of the project (currently on-going) concerns the service provision on pre-operational basis. Fifteen volcanic sites located in four continents are regularly monitored and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. Based on user requirements, the GlobVolcano Information System has been developed following system engineering rules and criteria, besides most recent interoperability standards for geospatial data. The GlobVolcano Information System includes two main elements: 1. The GlobVolcano Data Processing System, which consists of seven of EO data processing subsystems

  18. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  19. In search of ancestral Kilauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Sisson, T.W.; Ui, T.; Naka, J.

    2000-01-01

    Submersible observations and samples show that the lower south flank of Hawaii, offshore from Kilauea volcano and the active Hilina slump system, consists entirely of compositionally diverse volcaniclastic rocks; pillow lavas are confined to shallow slopes. Submarine-erupted basalt clasts have strongly variable alkalic and transitional basalt compositions (to 41% SiO2, 10.8% alkalies), contrasting with present-day Kilauea tholeiites. The volcaniclastic rocks provide a unique record of ancestral alkalic growth of an archetypal hotspot volcano, including transition to its tholeiitic shield stage, and associated slope-failure events.

  20. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  1. Venus small volcano classification and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1993-03-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep

  2. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Okubo, Paul G; Shearer, Peter M

    2003-04-18

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (>/=13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  3. Seismic Structure Beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, S. H.; Gung, Y.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Lin, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The very active Taal Volcano is situated 60 km south of Metro Manila in the southern part of Luzon Island. Based on its frequent explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of several million, Taal Volcano is chosen as one of the 15 most dangerous "Decade Volcanoes" in the world. We deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of 8 stations since March 2008. The temporal network was operated from late March 2008 to mid March 2010 and recorded over 2270 local earthquakes. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified from ambient noise cross-correlation functions for a number of stations. The drifting rates of all problematic stations were determined as references to correct timing errors prior to further processing. Initial locations of earthquakes were determined from manually picking P- and S-phases arrivals with a general velocity model based on AK135. We used travel times of 305 well-located local events to derive a minimum 1-D model using VELEST. Two major earthquake groups were noticed from refined locations. One was underneath the western shore of Taal Lake with a linear feature, and the other spread at shallower depths showing a less compact feature around the eastern flank of Taal Volcano Island. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal Volcano using a well-established algorithm, LOTOS. Some interesting features are noted in the tomographic results, such as a probable solidified past magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal Volcano Island, characterized by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a potential large hydrothermal reservoir beneath the central of Taal Volcano Island, characterized by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Combining the results of seismicity and tomographic images, we also suggest the potential existence of a magma chamber beneath the southwestern Taal Lake, and a magma conduit or fault extending from there to the

  4. Venus small volcano classification and description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubele, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep

  5. Monitoring Anak Krakatau Volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann-Rothe, Arne; Ibs-von Seht, Malte; Knieβ, Rudolf; Faber, Eckhard; Klinge, Klaus; Reichert, Christian; Atje Purbawinata, Mas; Patria, Cahya

    2006-12-01

    Krakatau volcano, in Indonesia, showed its destructive vigor when it exploded in 1883 [Self and Rampino, 1981]. The eruption and subsequent tsunami caused more than 35,000 casualties along the coasts of the Sunda Strait. In 1928, the `child' of Krakatau, Anak Krakatau, emerged from the sea at the same location as its predecessor and has since grown to a height of 315 meters. The volcano exhibits frequent activity-on average one large eruption every four years-yet again posing risk for the coastal population of Java and Sumatra and for the economically important shipping routes through the Sunda Strait.

  6. The New USGS Volcano Hazards Program Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venezky, D. Y.; Graham, S. E.; Parker, T. J.; Snedigar, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Volcano Hazard Program (VHP) has launched a revised web site that uses a map-based interface to display hazards information for U.S. volcanoes. The web site is focused on better communication of hazards and background volcano information to our varied user groups by reorganizing content based on user needs and improving data display. The Home Page provides a synoptic view of the activity level of all volcanoes for which updates are written using a custom Google® Map. Updates are accessible by clicking on one of the map icons or clicking on the volcano of interest in the adjacent color-coded list of updates. The new navigation provides rapid access to volcanic activity information, background volcano information, images and publications, volcanic hazards, information about VHP, and the USGS volcano observatories. The Volcanic Activity section was tailored for emergency managers but provides information for all our user groups. It includes a Google® Map of the volcanoes we monitor, an Elevated Activity Page, a general status page, information about our Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes, monitoring information, and links to monitoring data from VHP's volcano observatories: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The YVO web site was the first to move to the new navigation system and we are working on integrating the Long Valley Observatory web site next. We are excited to continue to implement new geospatial technologies to better display our hazards and supporting volcano information.

  7. Deep-sea epibiotic hydroids from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench with description of Garveia belyaevi sp. nov. (Hydrozoa, Bougainvilliidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.; Chernyshev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of material collected by the German-Russian KuramBio Deep-Sea Expedition to the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench revealed about 17 hydroid species, including two species presumably new to science. Before the KuramBio Expedition only fragments of the unidentified hydroids and Cryptolaria sp. were collected in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from depths exceeding 3000 m. Descriptions of three species of epibiotic hydroids (including one new species, Garveia belyaevi sp. nov.) are presented herein. A colony of G. belyaevi sp. nov. (the third deep-sea and deepest species of the wide distributed genus Garveia) was attached to the spines of unidentified irregular sea urchins from depths 5217 to 5229 m. Нalitholus (?) sp. (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) colonized the skin of spoon worms (Echiura) but could not be identified to species level because the mature medusa stage was absent in the material. An unidentified juvenile polyp (Pandeidae) was found on the bryozoan Tricitella minini attached to spines of irregular sea urchins Echinosigra amphora. Colonial sedentary organisms inhabiting abyssal plains with soft bottoms may colonize invertebrates which are seldom used as substrates for epibiota in shallow waters. Epibiosis among abyssal colonial invertebrates, though extremely poorly studied, appears to be rather frequent.

  8. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Moon, H.-B.; Yun, S.-H.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. [Karyological differences of the Northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma malma and the white char Salvelinus albus from the Kamchatka River basin].

    PubMed

    Frolov, S V

    2001-03-01

    The karyotypes of northern Dolly Varden and white char, sympathrically inhabiting the Kamchatka River basin, were studied. The karyotype of Dolly Varden was stable: 2n = 78 and NF = 98 + 2, while in white char, polymorphism and mosaicism for the chromosome number were revealed: 2n = 76-79, NF = 98 + 2. Using a routine chromosome staining technique, the karyotype of white char (2n = 78) was shown to be identical to that of Dolly Varden. In both karyotypes, similar sets of marker chromosomes were present: two pairs of submetacentric (SM), one pair of submeta-subtelocentric (SM-ST), one pair of large acrocentric (A), and one pair of large sub-telocentric (ST) chromosomes. However, the karyotypes of Dolly Varden and white char differed in the number and location of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). In Dolly Varden, single NORs located in the telomeric regions of the marker SM-ST chromosomes were observed. In white char, NORs were multiple and located both in the telomeric regions of the marker SM-ST chromosomes and on the short and long arms of large ST chromosomes. The identical marker chromosomes indicate considerable phylogenetic relatedness between Dolly Varden and white char from the Kamchatka River basin. Variation in NORs provides evidence for the reproductive isolation of these chars and their species status.

  10. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yun, Se Hun; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations.

  11. Radioactive contamination of the soil-plant cover at certain locations of Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and Kamchatka Peninsula: Assessment of the Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Mikhailovskaya, L N; Molchanova, I V; Pozolotina, V N; Zhuravlev, Yu N; Timofeeva, Ya O; Burdukovsky, M L

    2017-03-10

    The contamination densities of soil-plant cover at certain locations within the Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and Kamchatka Peninsula attributable to (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu were 500-1390 Bq m(-2), 980-2300 Bq m(-2) and 37-74 Bq m(-2), respectively. These values do not exceed average global background levels, typical for mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The spatial distribution of radionuclides depends on the climatic conditions of the region. A positive dependence of the (90)Sr and (137)Cs contamination densities, as well as additional (137)Cs from NPP "Fukushima" in the soil, was determined based on the sum of annual atmospheric precipitation within the study areas. No trends in the spatial distribution of Pu isotopes were observed. The (137)Cs contribution from the "Fukushima" NPP constitutes 11-300 Bq m(-2) in the Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and at the Kamchatka peninsula, i.e., 1-22% of the total amount of radionuclides in the soil. The contribution of this radionuclide to the contamination of moss-lichen vegetation ranged from 7 to 42%.

  12. Deep down: Isopod biodiversity of the Kuril-Kamchatka abyssal area including a comparison with data of previous expeditions of the RV Vityaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Golovan, Olga A.; Brenke, Nils; Riehl, Torben; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    This study focusses on the isopod biodiversity in the abyssal area southeast of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. The KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition in summer 2012 collected altogether 10,169 isopods from 21 C-EBS hauls at 12 stations, belonging to 19 families, 73 genera and 207 species from the depth range between 4830 and 5780 m. Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae were the most abundant and species-rich families, Eurycope (Munnopsidae) and Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) the most abundant genera. An nMDS plot on the basis of the Cosine similarity index reveals no clear pattern and all hauls to be different from each other. We compared our data with 12 stations from the same depth range sampled by the Russian RV Vityaz about 50 years ago and were able to identify several species collected by the RV Vityaz. The identified isopod species belonged to the families Munnopsidae, Macrostylidae, Haploniscidae, Desmosomatidae, Ischnomesidae and Nannoniscidae. Of the 333 individuals collected by the RV Vityaz, Haploniscidae and Munnopsidae were the most abundant families. Desmosomatidae were only represented by <1% of the isopod individuals. However, the rarefaction curves of both the KuramBio and the Vityaz samples are not approaching an asymptote, indicating that even after repeated sampling just a part of the local fauna has been recorded so far.

  13. Mapping resource use over a Russian landscape: an integrated look at harvesting of a non-timber forest product in central Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitztaler, Stephanie K.; Bergen, Kathleen M.

    2013-12-01

    Small-scale resource use became an important adaptive mechanism in remote logging communities in Russia at the onset of the post-Soviet period in 1991. We focused on harvesting of a non-timber forest product, lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), in the forests of the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East). We employed an integrated geographical approach to make quantifiable connections between harvesting and the landscape, and to interpret these relationships in their broader contexts. Landsat TM images were used for a new classification; the resulting land-cover map was the basis for linking non-spatial data on harvesters’ gathering behaviors to spatial data within delineated lingonberry gathering sites. Several significant relationships emerged: (1) mature forests negatively affected harvesters’ initial choice to gather in a site, while young forests had a positive effect; (2) land-cover type was critical in determining how and why gathering occurred: post-disturbance young and maturing forests were significantly associated with higher gathering intensity and with the choice to market harvests; and (3) distance from gathering sites to villages and main roads also mattered: longer distances were significantly correlated to more time spent gathering and to increased marketing of harvests. We further considered our findings in light of the larger ecological and social dynamics at play in central Kamchatka. This unique study is an important starting point for conservation- and sustainable development-based work, and for additional research into the drivers of human-landscape interactions in the Russian Far East.

  14. Volcano shapes, entropies, and eruption probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-05-01

    We propose that the shapes of polygenetic volcanic edifices reflect the shapes of the associated probability distributions of eruptions. In this view, the peak of a given volcanic edifice coincides roughly with the peak of the probability (or frequency) distribution of its eruptions. The broadness and slopes of the edifices vary widely, however. The shapes of volcanic edifices can be approximated by various distributions, either discrete (binning or histogram approximation) or continuous. For a volcano shape (profile) approximated by a normal curve, for example, the broadness would be reflected in its standard deviation (spread). Entropy (S) of a discrete probability distribution is a measure of the absolute uncertainty as to the next outcome/message: in this case, the uncertainty as to time and place of the next eruption. A uniform discrete distribution (all bins of equal height), representing a flat volcanic field or zone, has the largest entropy or uncertainty. For continuous distributions, we use differential entropy, which is a measure of relative uncertainty, or uncertainty change, rather than absolute uncertainty. Volcano shapes can be approximated by various distributions, from which the entropies and thus the uncertainties as regards future eruptions can be calculated. We use the Gibbs-Shannon formula for the discrete entropies and the analogues general formula for the differential entropies and compare their usefulness for assessing the probabilities of eruptions in volcanoes. We relate the entropies to the work done by the volcano during an eruption using the Helmholtz free energy. Many factors other than the frequency of eruptions determine the shape of a volcano. These include erosion, landslides, and the properties of the erupted materials (including their angle of repose). The exact functional relation between the volcano shape and the eruption probability distribution must be explored for individual volcanoes but, once established, can be used to

  15. The Submarine Flanks of Anatahan Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; Johnson, P. D.; Merle, S. G.; Ristau, S.

    2003-12-01

    The submarine flanks of Anatahan volcano were surveyed with EM300 multibeam sonar and the MR1 sidescan sonar from the R/V Thomas G. Thompson in February 2003. This was part of a larger survey of over 50 submarine volcanoes within the Marianas volcanic arc between 13° 10'N and 23° 10'N (see Embley et al. and Baker et al. abstracts, this meeting). This work was part of a multi-year study of seafloor volcanism in diverse tectonic settings, funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration. (see: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03fire/). The island of Anatahan has a maximum elevation of 798 m, but its submarine flanks descend to depths of 2000-2600 m, so most of the volcano lies below sea level. The submarine part of the volcano is elongated in the east-west direction, like the island. Conspicuous in the bathymetry are numerous small parasitic cones and hummocky ridges on the southwest and east submarine flanks of the island that radiate outward (downslope) from the island. These features appear as areas of high reflectivity in the MR1 sidescan sonar and some have distinctly lobate outlines, suggesting that they are areas of relatively young lava flows. Some of these lava flows extend up to 15 km from the coastline of the island and to depths below 2000 m. The upslope sources of these lavas are often ambiguous, but we interpret that they were erupted underwater (as opposed to erupted on land and then flowing into the ocean) because they are associated with cones and ridges that may be vent areas. The other flanks of the island appear to be draped in volcaniclastic material that has been transported downslope from the shoreline, in some cases as distinct flows that radiate outward in braided channels that have slightly higher reflectivity than surrounding areas in the sidescan imagery. These fragmental flows also extend to depths below 2000 m, especially on the west and south flanks of the island. The most prominent feature in the bathymetry around Anatahan is a

  16. Special issue: The changing shapes of active volcanoes: Recent results and advances in volcano geodesy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Newman, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The 18 papers herein report on new geodetic data that offer valuable insights into eruptive activity and magma transport; they present new models and modeling strategies that have the potential to greatly increase understanding of magmatic, hydrothermal, and volcano-tectonic processes; and they describe innovative techniques for collecting geodetic measurements from remote, poorly accessible, or hazardous volcanoes. To provide a proper context for these studies, we offer a short review of the evolution of volcano geodesy, as well as a case study that highlights recent advances in the field by comparing the geodetic response to recent eruptive episodes at Mount St. Helens. Finally, we point out a few areas that continue to challenge the volcano geodesy community, some of which are addressed by the papers that follow and which undoubtedly will be the focus of future research for years to come.

  17. Mobile Response Team Saves Lives in Volcano Crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewert, John W.; Miller, C. Dan; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    The world's only volcano crisis response team, organized and operated by the USGS, can be quickly mobilized to assess and monitor hazards at volcanoes threatening to erupt. Since 1986, the team has responded to more than a dozen volcano crises as part of the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), a cooperative effort with the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the U.S. Agency for International Development. The work of USGS scientists with VDAP has helped save countless lives, and the valuable lessons learned are being used to reduce risks from volcano hazards in the United States.

  18. The changing shapes of active volcanoes: History, evolution, and future challenges for volcano geodesy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Newman, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    At the very heart of volcanology lies the search for the 'plumbing systems' that form the inner workings of Earth’s active volcanoes. By their very nature, however, the magmatic reservoirs and conduits that underlie these active volcanic systems are elusive; mostly they are observable only through circumstantial evidence, using indirect, and often ambiguous, surficial measurements. Of course, we can infer much about these systems from geologic investigation of materials brought to the surface by eruptions and of the exposed roots of ancient volcanoes. But how can we study the magmatic processes that are occurring beneath Earth’s active volcanoes? What are the geometry, scale, physical, and chemical characteristics of magma reservoirs? Can we infer the dynamics of magma transport? Can we use this information to better forecast the future behavior of volcanoes? These questions comprise some of the most fundamental, recurring themes of modern research in volcanology. The field of volcano geodesy is uniquely situated to provide critical observational constraints on these problems. For the past decade, armed with a new array of technological innovations, equipped with powerful computers, and prepared with new analytical tools, volcano geodesists have been poised to make significant advances in our fundamental understanding of the behavior of active volcanic systems. The purpose of this volume is to highlight some of these recent advances, particularly in the collection and interpretation of geodetic data from actively deforming volcanoes. The 18 papers that follow report on new geodetic data that offer valuable insights into eruptive activity and magma transport; they present new models and modeling strategies that have the potential to greatly increase understanding of magmatic, hydrothermal, and volcano-tectonic processes; and they describe innovative techniques for collecting geodetic measurements from remote, poorly accessible, or hazardous volcanoes. To provide

  19. Digital data set of volcano hazards for active Cascade Volcanos, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists at the Cascade Volcano Observatory have completed hazard assessments for the five active volcanos in Washington. The five studies included Mount Adams (Scott and others, 1995), Mount Baker (Gardner and others, 1995), Glacier Peak (Waitt and others, 1995), Mount Rainier (Hoblitt and others, 1995) and Mount St. Helens (Wolfe and Pierson, 1995). Twenty Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets have been created that represent the hazard information from the assessments. The twenty data sets have individual Open File part numbers and titles

  20. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Akutan Volcano east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Power, John A.; Richter, Donlad H.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is a 1100-meter-high stratovolcano on Akutan Island in the east-central Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska. The volcano is located about 1238 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 56 kilometers east of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. Eruptive activity has occurred at least 27 times since historical observations were recorded beginning in the late 1700?s. Recent eruptions produced only small amounts of fine volcanic ash that fell primarily on the upper flanks of the volcano. Small amounts of ash fell on the Akutan Harbor area during eruptions in 1911, 1948, 1987, and 1989. Plumes of volcanic ash are the primary hazard associated with eruptions of Akutan Volcano and are a major hazard to all aircraft using the airfield at Dutch Harbor or approaching Akutan Island. Eruptions similar to historical Akutan eruptions should be anticipated in the future. Although unlikely, eruptions larger than those of historical time could generate significant amounts of volcanic ash, fallout, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that would be hazardous to life and property on all sectors of the volcano and other parts of the island, but especially in the major valleys that head on the volcano flanks. During a large eruption an ash cloud could be produced that may be hazardous to aircraft using the airfield at Cold Bay and the airspace downwind from the volcano. In the event of a large eruption, volcanic ash fallout could be relatively thick over parts of Akutan Island and volcanic bombs could strike areas more than 10 kilometers from the volcano.

  1. Results of repeated leveling surveys at Newberry Volcano, Oregon, and near Lassen Peak Volcano, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory conducted first-order, class-II leveling surveys near Lassen Peak, California, in 1991 and at Newberry Volcano, Oregon, in 1985, 1986, and 1994. Near Lassen Peak no significant vertical displacements had occurred along either of two traverses, 33 and 44 km long, since second-order surveys in 1932 and 1934. At Newberry, however, the 1994 survey suggests that the volcano's summit area had risen as much as 97??22 mm with respect to a third-order survey in 1931. The 1931 and 1994 surveys measured a 37-km-long, east-west traverse across the entire volcano. The 1985 and 1986 surveys, on the other hand, measured only a 9-km-long traverse across the summit caldera with only one benchmark in common with the 1931 survey. Comparison of the 1985, 1986, and 1994 surveys revealed no significant differential displacements inside the caldera. A possible mechanism for uplift during 1931-1994 is injection of approximately 0.06 km3 of magma at a depth of approximately 10 km beneath the volcano's summit. The average magma supply rate of approximately 1 x 10-3 km3/year would be generally consistent with the volcano's growth rate averaged over its 600,000-year history (0.7-1.7 x 10-3 km3/year).

  2. Biological Studies on a Live Volcano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes scientific research on an Earthwatch expedition to study Arenal, one of the world's most active volcanoes, in north central Costa Rica. The purpose of the two-week project was to monitor and understand the past and ongoing development of a small, geologically young, highly active stratovolcano in a tropical, high-rainfall environment.…

  3. Different types of small volcanos on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slyuta, E. N.; Shalimov, I. V.; Nikishin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the studies of volcanic activity on Venus is the comparison of that with the analogous volcanic activity on Earth. The preliminary report of such a comparison and description of a small cluster of small venusian volcanos is represented in detail in this paper.

  4. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... 1 Right: Figure 2   After a brief pause in eruptions that occurred in late March 2010, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in ... travelers around the world. The particles contained in volcanic ash clouds can cause significant damage to jet engines and the outside ...

  5. Mapping tremor at Kīlauea volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wech, A.; Thelen, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mapping the magma pathway geometry beneath active volcanoes is vital to providing an understanding of how each system works, what drives its dynamics and what eventually controls the surface expression of volcanism. Seismicity can provide clues about the subsurface plumbing, but the seismic catalog is often incomplete. The broad spectrum of seismic phenomena at volcanoes, from discrete earthquakes to the continuous hum of tremor, hampers event identification, and there are no standard seismological tools to resolve this problem. Even at Kīlauea, one of the best-instrumented and most studied volcanoes in the world, a detailed source geometry remains elusive. Here we present the first map of a volcano's deep plumbing system by taking a new approach to seismic monitoring. Using envelope cross-correlation, we systematically scan through 2.5 years of continuous seismic data to identify and locate thousands of undocumented volcanic sources, which we interpret to map the path of magma ascent from the deep mantle, offshore south of the Big Island, to the lava lake in Kīlauea's crater. The results offer a fundamental insight into the source of Kīlauea volcanism and generate a baseline understanding that increases our ability to interpret pre- and co-eruptive observations.

  6. Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.

  7. Preliminary radon measurements at Villarrica volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigolini, C.; Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Ulivieri, G.

    2013-10-01

    We report data from a radon survey conducted at Villarrica volcano. Measurements have been obtained at selected sites by E-PERM® electrets and two automatic stations utilizing DOSEman detectors (SARAD Gmbh). Mean values for Villarrica are 1600 (±1150) Bq/m3 are similar to values recorded at Cerro Negro and Arenal in Central America. Moderately higher emissions, at measurement sites, were recorded on the NNW sector of the volcano and the summit, ranging from 1800 to 2400 Bq/m3. These measurements indicate that this area could potentially be a zone of flank weakness. In addition, the highest radon activities, up to 4600 Bq/m3, were measured at a station located near the intersection of the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone with the Gastre Fault Zone. To date, the Villarrica radon measurements reported here are, together with those collected at Galeras (Colombia), the sole radon data reported from South American volcanoes. This research may contribute to improving future geochemical monitoring and volcano surveillance.

  8. Volcano hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Matías, O.; Rose, William I.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fuego-Acatenango massif comprises a string of five or more volcanic vents along a north-south trend that is perpendicular to that of the Central American arc in Guatemala. From north to south known centers of volcanism are Ancient Acatenango, Yepocapa, Pico Mayor de Acatenango, Meseta, and Fuego. Volcanism along the trend stretches back more than 200,000 years. Although many of the centers have been active contemporaneously, there is a general sequence of younger volcanism, from north to south along the trend. This massive volcano complex towers more than 3500 meters (m) above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan Highlands to the north. The volcano complex comprises remnants of multiple eruptive centers, which periodically have collapsed to form huge debris avalanches. The largest of these avalanches extended more than 50 kilometers (km) from its source and covered more than 300 square km. The volcano has potential to produce huge debris avalanches that could inundate large areas of the Pacific coastal plain. In areas around the volcanoes and downslope toward the coastal plain, more than 100,000 people are potentially at risk from these and other flowage phenomena.

  9. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  10. Volcano deformation and gravity workshop synopsis and outcomes: the 2008 volcano deformation and temporal gravity change workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lu, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A volcano workshop was held in Washington State, near the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cascades Volcano Observatory. The workshop, hosted by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program (VHP), included more than 40 participants from the United States, the European Union, and Canada. Goals were to promote (1) collaboration among scientists working on active volcanoes and (2) development of new tools for studying volcano deformation. The workshop focused on conventional and emerging techniques, including the Global Positioning System (GPS), borehole strain, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), gravity, and electromagnetic imaging, and on the roles of aqueous and magmatic fluids.

  11. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  12. The Anatahan volcano-monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marso, J. N.; Lockhart, A. B.; White, R. A.; Koyanagi, S. K.; Trusdell, F. A.; Camacho, J. T.; Chong, R.

    2003-12-01

    A real-time 24/7 Anatahan volcano-monitoring and eruption detection system is now operational. There had been no real-time seismic monitoring on Anatahan during the May 10, 2003 eruption because the single telemetered seismic station on Anatahan Island had failed. On May 25, staff from the Emergency Management Office (EMO) of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a replacement telemetered seismic station on Anatahan whose data were recorded on a drum recorder at the EMO on Saipan, 130 km to the south by June 5. In late June EMO and USGS staff installed a Glowworm seismic data acquisition system (Marso et al, 2003) at EMO and hardened the Anatahan telemetry links. The Glowworm system collects the telemetered seismic data from Anatahan and Saipan, places graphical display products on a webpage, and exports the seismic waveform data in real time to Glowworm systems at Hawaii Volcano Observatory and Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO). In early July, a back-up telemetered seismic station was placed on Sarigan Island 40 km north of Anatahan, transmitting directly to the EMO on Saipan. Because there is currently no population on the island, at this time the principal hazard presented by Anatahan volcano would be air traffic disruption caused by possible erupted ash. The aircraft/ash hazard requires a monitoring program that focuses on eruption detection. The USGS currently provides 24/7 monitoring of Anatahan with a rotational seismic duty officer who carries a Pocket PC-cell phone combination that receives SMS text messages from the CVO Glowworm system when it detects large seismic signals. Upon receiving an SMS text message notification from the CVO Glowworm, the seismic duty officer can use the Pocket PC - cell phone to view a graphic of the seismic traces on the EMO Glowworm's webpage to determine if the seismic signal is eruption related. There have been no further eruptions since the monitoring system was

  13. Space radar image of Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding the Galeras volcano in southern Colombia shows the ability of a multi-frequency radar to map volcanic structures that can be dangerous to study on the ground. Galeras has erupted more than 20 times since the area was first visited by European explorers in the 1500s. Volcanic activity levels have been high in the last five years, including an eruption in January 1993 that killed nine people on a scientific expedition to the volcano summit. Galeras is the light green area near the center of the image. The active cone, with a small summit pit, is the red feature nestled against the lower right edge of the caldera (crater) wall. The city of Pasto, with a population of 300,000, is shown in orange near the bottom of the image, just 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the volcano. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 96th orbit on April 15, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 49.1 by 36.0 kilometers (30.5 by 22.3 miles), centered at 1.2 degrees north latitude and 77.4 degrees west longitude. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The false colors in this image were created using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Galeras is one of 15 volcanoes worldwide that are being monitored by the scientific community as an 'International Decade Volcano' because of the hazard that it represents to the local population.

  14. Fatty acid compositions and trophic relationships of shelled molluscs from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamenko, Vladimir I.; Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Borisovets, Evgeny E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) compositions of 12 species of shelled molluscs (gastropods, bivalves, and scaphopods) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain were studied. According to the results of multivariate statistical analysis, molluscs were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of three scaphopod species, the bivalve Nucula profundorum and the gastropod Solariella delicata. FA compositions of this group were characterized by high levels of 20:4(n-6). We suggest that the FA pattern found in scaphopods with high values of 20:4(n-6) is most likely typical for that of benthic organisms feeding preferentially on foraminiferans. Group II included the bivalves Neilonella politissima, Bentharca asperula, and Rhinoclama filatovae. Bivalves from the second group had elevated concentrations of 22:6(n-3), and the ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 20:5(n-3) was lower than 1. Bivalves from the second group had elevated concentrations of 22:6(n-3). We propose that high concentrations of this FA can be used as a specific marker for a carnivorous feeding mode of deep-sea benthic invertebrates. The bivalve Bathyspinula calcarella as well as the scaphopod Polyschides sakuraii could not unambiguously be assigned to one group. Within the similarity analysis they rather clustered together with the foraminiferans feeders (group I), but forming an own subgroup. In the PCA on the other hand, P. sakuraii showed a position close to the other bivalves, while B. calcarella had an intermediate position between all three groups. Group III consisted of the gastropods Tacita holoserica and Paracteocina sp., which contained high concentrations of 20:5(n-3) and 22:5(n-3). Both are known to exhibit a carnivorous/scavenging feeding strategy. The very low content of DHA in both species is on first sight not consistent with the suggested carnivorous feeding behavior. A characteristic feature of Paracteocina sp. and T. holoserica was a high level of 22:5(n-3), and HUFA ratios indicate that DHA

  15. Abyssal macrofauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (Northwest Pacific) collected by means of a camera-epibenthic sledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A.; Elsner, N. O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O. A.; Lavrenteva, A. V.; Riehl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abyssal macrofaunal composition of 21 epibenthic sledge hauls from twelve stations taken in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (KKT) and at the adjacent abyssal plain, Northwest Pacific, is presented. Sampling with the fine meshed epibenthic sledge yielded higher abundances and species richness than was reported from previous expeditions from board of RV Vityaz. In total 84,651 invertebrates were sampled with RV Sonne between July and September of 2012 (31,854 invertebrates if standardised for 1000 m2 trawled distances) from 41 taxa of different taxonomic ranks (15 phyla, 28 classes, 7 orders) were sampled from a trawled area of 53,708 m² and have been analyzed. Few taxa were frequent and most taxa were rare in the samples, twelve taxa occurred with more than 1% frequency. Of these, the Polychaeta were most abundant followed by the benthic Copepoda and Isopoda. Total numbers of individuals varied between stations and were highest with 4238 individuals at station 2-10 close to the KKT in 4865 m depth and lowest with 374 individuals at station 6-11 in 5305 m depth. At this station also the lowest number of taxa occurred (18 taxa) while the highest number occurred with 31 taxa at station 3-9 in 4991 m depth. Numbers of individuals decreased with increasing depth between 4830 and 5780 m. Crustaceans of the superorder Peracarida were one of the dominating taxa with four orders occurring frequently in most samples. In total, Isopoda were most important and occurred with 59% of all peracarid orders sampled, followed by Amphipoda with 21%, Tanaidacea with 11%, Cumacea with 9%, and Mysidacea with <1%. The communities of the stations (and hauls) of the KKT abyssal area differ in terms of taxon composition from each other. A cluster analysis (nMDS) performed for all sampled stations revealed no clear pattern of community similarity between stations or hauls. All hauls close to the trench (2-9 and 2-10 close to the eastern slope of the KKT; and 3-9 and 4-3 at the western slope) were

  16. The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain lake in central Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, A. E.; Klimaschewski, A.; Solovieva, N.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.; Brooks, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4-5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid

  17. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  18. Shear wave attenuation estimated from the spectral decay rate in the vicinity of the Petropavlovsk station, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. A.; Guseva, E. M.

    2016-07-01

    The parameters of S-wave attenuation (the total effect of absorption and scattering) near the Petropavlovsk (PET) station in Kamchatka were estimated by means of the spectral method through an original procedure. The spectral method typically analyzes the changes with distance of the shape of spectra of the acceleration records assuming that the acceleration spectrum at the earthquake source is flat. In reality, this assumption is violated: the source acceleration spectra often have a high-frequency cutoff (the source-controlled f max) which limits the spectral working bandwidth. Ignoring this phenomenon not only leads to a broad scatter of the individual estimates but also causes systematic errors in the form of overestimation of losses. In the approach applied in the present study, we primarily estimated the frequency of the mentioned high-frequency cutoff and then constructed the loss estimates only within the frequency range where the source spectrum is approximately flat. The shape of the source spectrum was preliminarily assessed by the approximate loss compensation technique. For this purpose, we used the tentative attenuation estimates which are close to the final ones. The difference in the logarithms of the spectral amplitudes at the edges of the working bandwidth is the input for calculating the attenuation. We used the digital accelerograms from the PET station, with 80 samples per second digitization rate, and based on them, we calculated the averaged spectrum of the S-waves as the root mean square along two horizontal components. Our analysis incorporates 384 spectra from the local earthquakes with M = 4-6.5 at the hypocentral distances ranging from 80 to 220 km. By applying the nonlinear least-square method, we found the following parameters of the loss model: the Q-factor Q 0 = 156 ± 33 at frequency f = 1 Hz for the distance interval r = 0-100 km; the exponent in the power-law relationship describing the growth of the Q-factor with frequency,

  19. Tree Growth and Competition in a Betula platyphylla–Larix cajanderi Post-fire Forest in Central Kamchatka

    PubMed Central

    DOLEŽAL, JIŘÍ; ISHII, HIROAKI; VETROVA, VALENTINA P.; SUMIDA, AKIHIRO; HARA, TOSHIHIKO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Fire is the dominant disturbance in central Kamchatka boreal forests, yet patterns and mechanisms of stand recovery have not been investigated. • Methods Measurements were made of 1433 stems ≥1·3 m height and annual radial increments of 225 randomly selected trees in a 0·4-ha plot of a 53-year-old fire-origin mixed-species stand to examine the spatio-temporal variation in establishment, growth, size inequality and the mode of competition among individual trees. Growth variations were related to tree size, age and local interference with neighbours. • Key Results Betula platyphylla formed the main canopy following a fire in 1947, with Larix cajanderi and Pinus pumila progressively reinvading the lower tree and shrub stratum. Most B. platyphylla originated from sprouts in small patches (polycormons) during the first 15 post-fire years. Betula platyphylla had normal distributions of diameter and age classes, but negatively skewed height distribution, as expected from shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Larix cajanderi had fewer tall and many short individuals. The smaller and younger B. platyphylla grew disproportionately more in diameter than larger trees from 1950 to 1975, and hence stem size inequalities decreased. The reverse trend was observed from 1995 to 2000: larger trees grew more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Betula platyphylla had steady diameter growth in the first 25 post-fire years, after which the growth declined in smaller trees. Neighbourhood analysis showed that the decline resulted from increased competition from taller neighbours. • Conclusions The observed growth patterns suggest that mode of interactions altered during stand development from early stages of weak competition for soil resources released by fire to later stages of asymmetric competition for light. Asymmetric crown competition started later than reported in other studies, which can be attributed to the lower stem

  20. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  1. Common processes at unique volcanoes - a volcanological conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine; Biggs, Juliet

    2014-11-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or “personality”). In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  2. Cladistic analysis applied to the classification of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hone, D. W. E.; Mahony, S. H.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Martin, K. T.

    2007-11-01

    Cladistics is a systematic method of classification that groups entities on the basis of sharing similar characteristics in the most parsimonious manner. Here cladistics is applied to the classification of volcanoes using a dataset of 59 Quaternary volcanoes and 129 volcanic edifices of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Volcano and edifice characteristics recorded in the database include attributes of volcano size, chemical composition, dominant eruptive products, volcano morphology, dominant landforms, volcano age and eruptive history. Without characteristics related to time the volcanic edifices divide into two groups, with characters related to volcano size, dominant composition and edifice morphology being the most diagnostic. Analysis including time based characteristics yields four groups with a good correlation between these groups and the two groups from the analysis without time for 108 out of 129 volcanic edifices. Thus when characters are slightly changed the volcanoes still form similar groupings. Analysis of the volcanoes both with and without time yields three groups based on compositional, eruptive products and morphological characters. Spatial clusters of volcanic centres have been recognised in the Tohoku region by Tamura et al. ( Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:105 106, 2002). The groups identified by cladistic analysis are distributed unevenly between the clusters, indicating a tendency for individual clusters to form similar kinds of volcanoes with distinctive but coherent styles of volcanism. Uneven distribution of volcano types between clusters can be explained by variations in dominant magma compositions through time, which are reflected in eruption products and volcanic landforms. Cladistic analysis can be a useful tool for elucidating dynamic igneous processes that could be applied to other regions and globally. Our exploratory study indicates that cladistics has promise as a method for classifying volcanoes and potentially elucidating dynamic

  3. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE RESOLVES VOLCANOES ON IO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This picture is a composite of a black and white near infrared image of Jupiter and its satellite Io and a color image of Io at shorter wavelengths taken at almost the same time on March 5, 1994. These are the first images of a giant planet or its satellites taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since the repair mission in December 1993. Io is too small for ground-based telescopes to see the surface details. The moon's angular diameter of one arc second is at the resolution limit of ground based telescopes. Many of these markings correspond to volcanoes that were first revealed in 1979 during the Voyager spacecraft flyby of Jupiter. Several of the volcanoes periodically are active because Io is heated by tides raised by Jupiter's powerful gravity. The volcano Pele appears as a dark spot surrounded by an irregular orange oval in the lower part of the image. The orange material has been ejected from the volcano and spread over a huge area. Though the volcano was first discovered by Voyager, the distinctive orange color of the volcanic deposits is a new discovery in these HST images. (Voyager missed it because its cameras were not sensitive to the near-infrared wavelengths where the color is apparent). The sulfur and sulfur dioxide that probably dominate Io's surface composition cannot produce this orange color, so the Pele volcano must be generating material with a more unusual composition, possibly rich in sodium. The Jupiter image, taken in near-infrared light, was obtained with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera in wide field mode. High altitude ammonia crystal clouds are bright in this image because they reflect infrared light before it is absorbed by methane in Jupiter's atmosphere. The most prominent feature is the Great Red Spot, which is conspicuous because of its high clouds. A cap of high-altitude haze appears at Jupiter's south pole. The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced

  4. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  5. Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.

    1988-05-01

    The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

  6. Volcano hazard mitigation program in Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sudradjat, A.

    1990-01-01

    Volcanological investigations in Indonesia were started in the 18th century, when Valentijn in 1726 prepared a chronological report of the eruption of Banda Api volcno, Maluku. Modern and intensive volcanological studies did not begin until the catastrophic eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, in 1919. The eruption took 5,011 lives and destroyed thousands of acres of coffee plantation. An eruption lahar generated by the crater lake water mixed with volcanic eruptions products was the cause of death for a high number of victims. An effort to mitigate the danger from volcanic eruption was first initiated in 1921 by constructing a tunnel to drain the crater lake water of Kelut volcano. At the same time a Volcanological Survey was established by the government with the responsibility of seeking every means for minimizing the hazard caused by volcanic eruption. 

  7. Vulcan's fury: Man against the volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, Johan C.

    I read this book on an 11-hour flight back from a field trip in the Andes, where I got first-hand insight into how people live with a volcano that now and then explodes. Appropriate reading, I felt, especially as the fascination of the human world with volcanoes and eruptive disasters is indeed long standing. This book is a recent addition to a list of titles in this genre (e.g., the new book by Sigurdsson to be reviewed in Eos shortly). The scope of the book is summarized in the introductory sentence of the preface: “This book is about an unequal contest. It describes human reactions to volcanic eruptions.” This is the perspective of the book's descriptions of 16 large and not-so-large eruptions over the last two millennia.

  8. Embayed intermediate volcanoes on Venus: constraints on the evolution of the volcanic plains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, I.

    2007-08-01

    Volcanoes on Venus are divided into three classes based on diameter (e.g. Crumpler et al., 1997): 1) large volcanoes (>=100 km); intermediate volcanoes (>=20 km and < 100 km; and 3) small volcanoes (< 20 km). Some authors (Guest and Stofan, 1999; Crumpler et al., 1997) propose that some intermediate volcanoes could be indeed large volcanoes with embayed flow aprons. We analyze the global population of embayed intermediate-size volcanoes and compare their summits with edifices classified as large volcanoes. We define an intermediate-size volcano as embayed when: 1) we observe flows from another source that clearly overlap the volcano slopes, and 2) we observe intermediate-size volcanoes with their summits presenting scarps related to flank-failure processes but with the products of the modification (i.e. collapse deposits) embayed. As result of the survey more than 100 embayed intermediate-size volcanoes have been catalogued and integrated into a Geographic Information System. Many if not most of these volcanoes have summit characteristics similar to other large volcanoes and therefore could indeed be large volcanoes with their flow aprons embayed. Large volcanoes on Venus (~165 catalogued features) have been traditionally considered to represent a late type of activity on the evolution of the volcanic plains (e.g. Price and Suppe, 1994). If a representative fraction of the observed intermediate-size embayed volcanoes are indeed embayed large volcanoes the stratigraphic significance of large volcanoes on the evolution of the plains should be reevaluated.

  9. Imaging Magma Plumbing Beneath Askja Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, T. S.; White, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Using a dense seismic network we have imaged the plumbing system beneath Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland. Local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. We find a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at a depth of ~7 km around the depth of the brittle-ductile transition. The anomaly is ~10% slower than the initial best fitting 1D model and has a Vp/Vs ratio higher than the surrounding crust, suggesting the presence of increased temperature or partial melt. We use relationships between mineralogy and seismic velocities to estimate that this region contains ~10% partial melt, similar to observations made at other volcanoes such as Kilauea. This low-velocity body is deeper than the depth range suggested by geodetic studies of a deflating source beneath Askja. Beneath the large low-velocity zone a region of reduced velocities extends into the lower crust and is coincident with seismicity in the lower crust. This is suggestive of a high temperature channel into the lower crust which could be the pathway for melt rising from the mantle. This melt either intrudes into the lower crust or stalls at the brittle-ductile boundary in the imaged body. Above this, melt can travel into the fissure swarm through large dikes or erupt within the Askja caldera itself.We generate travel time tables using a finite difference technique and the residuals used to simultaneously solve for both the earthquake locations and velocity structure. The 2014-15 Bárðarbunga dike intrusion has provided a 45 km long, distributed source of large earthquakes which are well located and provide accurate arrival time picks. Together with long-term background seismicity these provide excellent illumination of the Askja volcano from all directions.hhhh

  10. Space Radar Image of Teide Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Teide volcano on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The Canary Islands, part of Spain, are located in the eastern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Morocco. Teide has erupted only once in the 20th Century, in 1909, but is considered a potentially threatening volcano due to its proximity to the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, shown in this image as the purple and white area on the lower right edge of the island. The summit crater of Teide, clearly visible in the left center of the image, contains lava flows of various ages and roughnesses that appear in shades of green and brown. Different vegetation zones, both natural and agricultural, are detected by the radar as areas of purple, green and yellow on the volcano's flanks. Scientists are using images such as this to understand the evolution of the structure of Teide, especially the formation of the summit caldera and the potential for collapse of the flanks. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 11, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 28.3 degrees North latitude and 16.6 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The area shown measures 90 kilometers by 54.5 kilometers (55.8 miles by 33.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  11. Degassing and differentiation in subglacial volcanoes, Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Calk, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Within the neovolcanic zones of Iceland many volcanoes grew upward through icecaps that have subsequently melted. These steep-walled and flat-topped basaltic subglacial volcanoes, called tuyas, are composed of a lower sequence of subaqueously erupted, pillowed lavas overlain by breccias and hyaloclastites produced by phreatomagmatic explosions in shallow water, capped by a subaerially erupted lava plateau. Glass and whole-rock analyses of samples collected from six tuyas indicate systematic variations in major elements showing that the individual volcanoes are monogenetic, and that commonly the tholeiitic magmas differentiated and became more evolved through the course of the eruption that built the tuya. At Herdubreid, the most extensively studies tuya, the upward change in composition indicates that more than 50 wt.% of the first erupted lavas need crystallize over a range of 60??C to produce the last erupted lavas. The S content of glass commonly decreases upward in the tuyas from an average of about 0.08 wt.% at the base to < 0.02 wt.% in the subaerially erupted lava at the top, and is a measure of the depth of water (or ice) above the eruptive vent. The extensive subsurface crystallization that generates the more evolved, lower-temperature melts during the growth of the tuyas, apparently results from cooling and degassing of magma contained in shallow magma chambers and feeders beneath the volcanoes. Cooling may result from percolation of meltwater down cracks, vaporization, and cycling in a hydrothermal circulation. Degassing occurs when progressively lower pressure eruption (as the volcanic vent grows above the ice/water surface) lowers the volatile vapour pressure of subsurface melt, thus elevating the temperature of the liquidus and hastening liquid-crystal differentiation. ?? 1991.

  12. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  13. On the morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low angle edifices that have convex up topographic profiles and are built primarily by the accumulation of lava flows. This generic view of shields' morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galapagos). Here, the morphometry of over 150 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes, identified inthe Global Volcanism Network database, are analysed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 20 volcanoes identified as stratovolcanoes but having low slopes and being dominantly built up by accumulation of lava flows are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes range from 0.1 to >1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width ratios range from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients, elongation and summit truncation. Correlation and principal component analysis of the obtained quantitative database enables to identify 4 key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Using these descriptors through clustering analysis, a new classification scheme is proposed. It highlights the control of the magma feeding system - either central, along a linear structure, or spatially diffuse - on the resulting shield volcano morphology. Genetic relationships and evolutionary trends between contrasted morphological end-members can be highlighted within this new scheme. Additional findings are that the Galapagos-type morphology with a central deep caldera and steep upper flanks are characteristic of other shields. A series of large oceanic shields have slopes systematically much steeper than the low gradients (<4-8°) generally attributed to large Hawaiian-type shields. Finally, the continuum of morphologies from flat shields to steeper complex volcanic constructs considered as stratovolcanoes calls for a revision of this oversimplified

  14. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  15. The geologic history of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, A.B.; Yount, M.E.; Bevier, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Redoubt Volcano is a composite cone built on continental crust at the northeast end of the Aleutian arc. Magmas erupted at Redoubt are medium-K calc-alkaline basalts, andesites, and dacites. The eruptive history of the volcano can be divided into four parts: the early explosive stage, early cone-building stage, late cone-building stage, and post-glacial stage. The most silicic products of the volcano were erupted during the early explosive stage about 0.888 Ma and include pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposits, block-and-ash flow deposits, and a dome or shallow intrusive complex. Basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows and scoria and ash flows were produced during the early cone-building stage, which was underway by 0.340 Ma. During the late cone-building stage, andesitic lava flows and block-and-ash flows were emplaced. Airfall deposits produced during post-glacial eruptions are silicic andesite in composition. Since the early cone-building stage, magmas have become progressively more silicic, but none are as silicic as those in the early explosive stage. Limited Pb and Sr isotopic data suggest that Redoubt magmas were contaminated by North American continental crust. ?? 1994.

  16. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Waibel, Albert F.; Frone, Zachary S.; Blackwell, David D.

    2014-12-01

    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  17. Seismic Tomography of Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, Daria; Kyle, Philip; Miller, Pnina; Snelson, Catherine; Aster, Richard

    2010-02-01

    Mount Erebus (77°32'S, 167°10'E elevation 3794 meters) is the most active volcano in Antarctica and is well known for its persistent lava lake. The lake constitutes an “open window” into the conduit and underlying feeding system and offers a rare opportunity to observe a shallow convecting magmatic system. Imaging and modeling of the internal structure of Erebus volcano are best done through compiling information from arrays of seismometers positioned strategically around the volcano. From these data, the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the conduit can be pieced together. Building this 3-D model of Erebus was a main goal of the seismic tomographic experiment Tomo Erebus (TE). During the 2007-2008 austral field season, 23 intermediate-period seismometers were installed to contribute data, through the winter, for the passive-source aspect of the experiment. One year later, 100 three-component short-period stations were deployed to record 16 chemical blasts (see Figure 1).

  18. Quantifying shapes of volcanoes on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    A large population of discrete volcanic edifices on Venus has been identified and cataloged by means of Magellan SAR images, and an extensive database describing thousands of such features is in final preparation. Those volcanoes categorized as Intermediate to Large in scale, while relatively small in number (approx. 400), nonetheless constitute a significant volumetric component (approx. 13 x 10(exp 6) cu km) of the total apparent crustal volume of Venus. For this reason, we have focused attention on the morphometry of a representative suite of the larger edifices on Venus and, in particular, on ways of constraining the eruptive histories of these possibly geologically youthful landforms. Our approach has been to determine a series of reproducible morphometric parameters for as many of the discrete volcanoes on Venus that have an obvious expression within the global altimetry data acquired by Magellan. In addition, we have attempted to objectively and systematically define the mathematical essence of the shapes of these larger volcanoes using a polynomial cross-section approximation involving only parameters easily measured from digital topography, as well as with simple surface cylindrical harmonic expansions. The goal is to reduce the topological complexities of the larger edifices to a few simple parameters which can then be related to similar expressions for well-studied terrestrial and martian features.

  19. Deep structure of Medicine Lake volcano, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, J.R.R.; Evans, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) in northeastern California is the largest-volume volcano in the Cascade Range. The upper-crustal structure of this Quaternary shield volcano is well known from previous geological and geophysical investigations. In 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a teleseismic tomography experiment on MLV to explore its deeper structure. The images we present, calculated using a modern form of the ACH-inversion method, reveal that there is presently no hint of a large (> 100 km3), hot magma reservoir in the crust. The compressional-wave velocity perturbations show that directly beneath MLV's caldera there is a zone of increased seismic velocity. The perturbation amplitude is +10% in the upper crust, +5% in the lower crust, and +3% in the lithospheric mantle. This positive seismic velocity anomaly presumably is caused by mostly subsolidus gabbroic intrusive rocks in the crust. Heat and melt removal are suggested as the cause in the upper mantle beneath MLV, inferred from petro-physical modeling. The increased seismic velocity appears to be nearly continuous to 120 km depth and is a hint that the original melts come at least partly from the lower lithospheric mantle. Our second major finding is that the upper mantle southeast of MLV is characterized by relatively slow seismic velocities (-1%) compared to the northwest side. This anomaly is interpreted to result from the elevated temperatures under the northwest Basin and Range Province.

  20. Mineralized microbes from Giggenbach submarine volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Renaut, Robin W.

    2008-08-01

    The Giggenbach submarine volcano, which forms part of the Kermadec active arc front, is located ˜780 km NNE of the North Island of New Zealand. Samples collected from chimneys associated with seafloor hydrothermal vents on this volcano, at a depth of 160-180 m, contain silicified microbes and microbes entombed in reticular Fe-rich precipitates. The mineralized biota includes filamentous, rod-shaped, and rare coccoid microbes. In the absence of organic carbon for rDNA analysis or preserved cells, the taxonomic affinity of these microbes, in terms of extant taxa, remains questionable because of their architectural simplicity and the paucity of taxonomically significant features. The three-dimensional preservation of the microbes indicates rapid mineralization with a steady supply of supersaturated fluids to the nucleation sites present on the surfaces of the microbes. The mineralization styles evident in the microbes from the Giggenbach submarine volcano are similar to those associated with mineralized microbes found in terrestrial hot spring deposits in New Zealand, Iceland, Yellowstone, and Kenya. These similarities exist even though the microbes are probably different and the fluids become supersaturated with respect to opal-A by different mechanisms. For ancient rocks it means that interpretations of the depositional settings cannot be based solely on the silicified microbes or their style of silicification.

  1. Deep structure of Medicine Lake volcano, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Joachim R. R.; Evans, John R.

    1997-07-01

    Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) in northeastern California is the largest-volume volcano in the Cascade Range. The upper-crustal structure of this Quaternary shield volcano is well known from previous geological and geophysical investigations. In 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a teleseismic tomography experiment on MLV to explore its deeper structure. The images we present, calculated using a modern form of the ACH-inversion method, reveal that there is presently no hint of a large (> 100 km3), hot magma reservoir in the crust. The compressional-wave velocity perturbations show that directly beneath MLV's caldera there is a zone of increased seismic velocity. The perturbation amplitude is +10% in the upper crust, +5% in the lower crust, and +3% in the lithospheric mantle. This positive seismic velocity anomaly presumably is caused by mostly subsolidus gabbroic intrusive rocks in the crust. Heat and melt removal are suggested as the cause in the upper mantle beneath MLV, inferred from petro-physical modeling. The increased seismic velocity appears to be nearly continuous to 120 km depth and is a hint that the original melts come at least partly from the lower lithospheric mantle. Our second major finding is that the upper mantle southeast of MLV is characterized by relatively slow seismic velocities (-1%) compared to the northwest side. This anomaly is interpreted to result from the elevated temperatures under the northwest Basin and Range Province.

  2. Nanoscale volcanoes: accretion of matter at ion-sculpted nanopores.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Stein, Derek; Kim, Young-Rok; Hoogerheide, David; Golovchenko, J A

    2006-01-27

    We demonstrate the formation of nanoscale volcano-like structures induced by ion-beam irradiation of nanoscale pores in freestanding silicon nitride membranes. Accreted matter is delivered to the volcanoes from micrometer distances along the surface. Volcano formation accompanies nanopore shrinking and depends on geometrical factors and the presence of a conducting layer on the membrane's back surface. We argue that surface electric fields play an important role in accounting for the experimental observations.

  3. New deep-sea large free-living nematodes from macrobenthos in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (the North-Western Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The composition of deep-sea nematode assemblages of the North-Western (NW) Pacific is poorly-studied. According to the available literature data more than 700 valid species of nematodes were reported from the depth of 400 m and deeper, out of that only 6 species were registered in the NW Pacific: 2 species from the coast of the Japanese Islands and 4 from the Sea of Japan. Ecological studies of the deep-sea nematode communities of this region are scanty and represent very scarce and fragmentary information. The first recent study of free-living nematodes collected from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench has revealed more than 50 species of nematodes in macrobenthic samples. Families Anticomidae, Comesomatidae, Desmodoridae, Leptosomatidae, Oncholaimidae, Oxystominidae, Phanodermatidae, Siphonolaimidae and Thoracostomopsidae were the most abundant and diverse. Such taxonomic composition differs greatly from previously described meiobenthical nematode communities of NW Pacific and even World Ocean and similar to macrofaunal nematode assemblages of the Atlantic and Arctic regions. Several genera of nematodes can be considered as new records for the NW Pacific region. Micoletzkyia kamchatika sp. nov., Metaphanoderma improvisa sp. nov., and Phylloncholaimus palmaris sp. nov. are described from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. Micoletzkyia kamchatika sp. nov. is particularly characterized by a developed cuticular cephalic capsule underlying amphids, relatively small amphids, and the shape of the gubernaculum. Metaphanoderma improvisa sp. nov. is particularly characterized by a developed cuticular cephalic capsule, relatively large amphids, and the absence of pigmented eye spots. Phylloncholaimus palmaris sp. nov. is similar to the type species in many measurements but may be differentiated from that by the smaller amphid, shape of spicules and gubernaculums and by large precloacal papillae with four setae.

  4. Citizen Empowerment in Volcano Monitoring, Communication and Decision-Making at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, B.; Mothes, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Trained citizen volunteers called vigías have worked to help monitor and communicate warnings about Tungurahua volcano, in Ecuador, since the volcano reawoke in 1999. The network, organized by the scientists of Ecuacor's Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Geophysical Institute) and the personnel from the Secretaría Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos (Risk Management, initially the Civil Defense), has grown to well over 20 observers living around the volcano who communicate regularly via handheld two-way radios. Interviews with participants in 2010 indicate that the network enables direct communication between communities and authorities, engenders trust in scientists and emergency response personnel, builds community, and empowers communities to make decisions in times of crisis.

  5. Citizen empowerment in volcano monitoring, communication and decision-making at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, B. A.; Mothes, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Trained citizen volunteers called vigías have worked to help monitor and communicate warnings about Tungurahua volcano, in Ecuador, since the volcano reawoke in 1999. The network, organized by the scientists of Ecuador's Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Geophysical Institute) and the personnel from the Secretaría Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos (Risk Management, initially the Civil Defense), has grown to more than 20 observers living around the volcano who communicate regularly via handheld two-way radios. Interviews with participants conducted in 2010 indicate that the network enables direct communication between communities and authorities; engenders trust in scientists and emergency response personnel; builds community; and empowers communities to make decisions in times of crisis.

  6. Geologic map of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano forms a broad, seemingly nondescript highland, as viewed from any angle on the ground. Seen from an airplane, however, treeless lava flows are scattered across the surface of this potentially active volcanic edifice. Lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, cover more than 2,000 km2 east of the main axis of the Cascade Range in northern California. Across the Cascade Range axis to the west-southwest is Mount Shasta, its towering volcanic neighbor, whose stratocone shape contrasts with the broad shield shape of Medicine Lake volcano. Hidden in the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of Medicine Lake volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 8,000 ft (2,440 m). The maximum extent of lavas from this half-million-year-old volcano is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to its total estimated volume of 600 km3, and it is considered to be the largest by volume among volcanoes of the Cascades arc. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascades arc volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.

  7. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2008-01-01

    Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks - ground-based as well space-based - has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions) are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA) in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines) in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  8. Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    People on the Island of Hawai'i face many hazards that come with living on or near active volcanoes. These include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and tsunamis (giant seawaves). As the population of the island grows, the task of reducing the risk from volcano hazards becomes increasingly difficult. To help protect lives and property, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory closely monitor and study Hawai'i's volcanoes and issue timely warnings of hazardous activity.

  9. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    2008-01-01

    Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks - ground-based as well space-based - has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions) are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines) in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-ofthe-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  10. July 1973 ground survey of active Central American volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground survey has shown that thermal anomalies of various sizes associated with volcanic activity at several Central American volcanoes should be detectable from Skylab. Anomalously hot areas of especially large size (greater than 500 m in diameter) are now found at Santiaguito and Pacaya volcanoes in Guatemala and San Cristobal in Nicaragua. Smaller anomalous areas are to be found at least seven other volcanoes. This report is completed after ground survey of eleven volcanoes and ground-based radiation thermometry mapping at these same points.

  11. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  13. Analyzing Sulfur Dioxide Emissions of Nyamuragira Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, A. L.; Bluth, G. J.; Carn, S. A.

    2002-05-01

    Nyamuragira volcano, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is Africa's most active volcano, having erupted 13 times (every 1-3 years) since 1980. The eruption frequency, and the large amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted by this rift volcano, may produce a significant impact on the global sulfur budget. In this project we are attempting to quantify the sulfur dioxide emissions from this volcano over the past 20+ years using satellite data. Since 1978, satellites carrying NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have been orbiting the earth collecting atmospheric data. These instruments use six wavelength bands located within the ultraviolet spectrum to measure solar irradiance and the energy reflected and backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Sunlit planetary coverage is provided once per day by TOMS data. The spatial resolution of these satellites varies from 24 km (Earth Probe, 1996-1997, but raised to 39 km from 1997 to present) to 62 km (Meteor-3, 1991-1994). Nimbus-7, the satellite operating for the longest span of time (1978-1993), had a nadir footprint of 50 km. The (instantaneous) mass retrievals of sulfur dioxide cloud masses are derived using several different image processing schemes and net tonnages are calculated using a background correction. Volcanic activity associated with this volcano typically consists of long term (weeks to months), and often continuous, effusive emissions. Work to date has discovered over 120 days in which sulfur dioxide plumes were observed from the 13 eruptions (ranging from a minimum of one day to a maximum of 32 days). Most (82%) of the sulfur dioxide clouds measured are relatively low-level, below 100 kilotonnes (kt); 16% of the emissions are between 100 and 1000 kt, and 1.5% were measured to have more than 1000 kt. Current work is focusing on deriving net emission fluxes, integrating the TOMS instantaneous measurements of relatively continuous emission activity. The eruptive activity

  14. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with < 20 % error. Using the same protocol, I establish a record of the degassing patterns at Semeru volcano (Indonesia), a volcano that has been producing cycles of repeated explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range

  15. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Large Hawaiian volcanoes can persist as islands through the rapid subsidence by building upward rapidly enough. But in the long run, subsidence, coupled with surface erosion, erases any volcanic remnant above sea level in about 15 m.y. One consequence of subsidence, in concert with eustatic changes in sea level, is the drowning of coral reefs that drape the submarine flanks of the actively subsiding volcanoes. At least six reefs northwest of the Island of Hawai‘i form a stairstep configuration, the oldest being deepest.

  16. Carbon isotope curve and iridium anomaly in the Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic deposits of the Eastern Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, D. P.; Savelyeva, O. L.; Palechek, T. N.; Pokrovsky, B. G.

    2012-04-01

    We studied Albian-Cenomanian paleoceanic carbonate-siliceous deposits of the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). They are deposited in association with pillow-basalts and hyaloclastites. The thickness of the studied section is about 10 m. The deposits are represented mainly by rhythmical intercalation of red-brown radiolarian jaspers, pink nannoplankton limestones as well as siliceous limestones. In the middle and upper parts of the section there are two beds enriched by organic carbon. The largest organic matter contents in this beds amount to 68%. The calculated values of the hydrogen and oxygen indexes indicate that the carbonaceous beds consist of marine organic matter. The accumulation of the carbonaceous beds reflects oxygen depletion in intermediate oceanic waters (ocean anoxic events, OAE). The structure of the studied section emphasizes its similarity to the contemporary deposits recovered by ODP and DSDP sites on Hess and Shatsky Rises. Two orders of rhythmicity were observed in the section. The rhythmicity of the first order (average thickness of a rhythm is 5-7 cm) is an alternation of reddish brown radiolarian jaspers and pink nannofossil limestones. The rhythmicity of the second order is characterized by an increase in thickness of the jasper or limy layer in every 4th-5th rhythm of the first order and marked by an elevation of the silica content in calcareous layers. The rhythmicity formation can be attributed to fluctuation of astronomical parameters (Milankovitch cycles) with periods of 21 and 100 kyr. The character of atmospheric circulation and ocean currents served as transmission link. The section was sampled layerwise and more than 100 samples were taken. The radiolarians were extracted from the samples of jaspers and siliceous limestones lying between carbonaceous beds. The educed radiolarian complexes allowed us to define the age of the deposits as Cenomanian. For more detailed dating of members of the section we have

  17. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Gareloi Volcano, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2008-01-01

    Gareloi Volcano (178.794 degrees W and 51.790 degrees N) is located on Gareloi Island in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, about 2,000 kilometers west-southwest of Anchorage and about 150 kilometers west of Adak, the westernmost community in Alaska. This small (about 8x10 kilometer) volcano has been one of the most active in the Aleutians since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though because of its remote location, observations have been scant and many smaller eruptions may have gone unrecorded. Eruptions of Gareloi commonly produce ash clouds and lava flows. Scars on the flanks of the volcano and debris-avalanche deposits on the adjacent seafloor indicate that the volcano has produced large landslides in the past, possibly causing tsunamis. Such events are infrequent, occurring at most every few thousand years. The primary hazard from Gareloi is airborne clouds of ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize and describe the major volcanic hazards associated with Gareloi.

  18. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  19. SO2 camera measurements at Lastarria volcano and Lascar volcano in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Dinger, Florian; Klein, Angelika; Kuhn, Jonas; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    The SO2 camera is a remote-sensing technique that measures volcanic SO2 emissions via the strong SO2 absorption structures in the UV using scattered solar radiation as a light source. The 2D-imagery (usually recorded with a frame rate of up to 1 Hz) allows new insights into degassing processes of volcanoes. Besides the large advantage of high frequency sampling the spatial resolution allows to investigate SO2 emissions from individual fumaroles and not only the total SO2 emission flux of a volcano, which is often dominated by the volcanic plume. Here we present SO2 camera measurements that were made during the CCVG workshop in Chile in November 2014. Measurements were performed at Lastarria volcano, a 5700 m high stratovolcano and Lascar volcano, a 5600 m high stratovolcano both in northern Chile on 21 - 22 November, 2014 and on 26 - 27 November, 2014, respectively. At both volcanoes measurements were conducted from a distance of roughly 6-7 km under close to ideal conditions (low solar zenith angle, a very dry and cloudless atmosphere and an only slightly condensed plume). However, determination of absolute SO2 emission rates proves challenging as part of the volcanic plume hovered close to the ground. The volcanic plume therefore is in front of the mountain in our camera images. An SO2 camera system consisting of a UV sensitive CCD and two UV band-pass filters (centered at 315 nm and 330 nm) was used. The two band-pass filters are installed in a rotating wheel and images are taken with both filter sequentially. The instrument used a CCD with 1024 x 1024 pixels and an imaging area of 13.3 mm x 13.3 mm. In combination with the focal length of 32 mm this results in a field-of-view of 25° x 25°. The calibration of the instrument was performed with help of a DOAS instrument that is co-aligned with the SO2 camera. We will present images and SO2 emission rates from both volcanoes. At Lastarria gases are emitted from three different fumarole fields and we will attempt

  20. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  1. A Submarine Perspective on Hawaiian Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Postwar improvements in navigation, sonar-based mapping, and submarine photography enabled the development of bathymetric maps, which revealed submarine morphologic features that could be dredged or explored and sampled with a new generation of manned and unmanned submersibles. The maps revealed debris fields from giant landslides, the great extent of rift zones radiating from volcanic centers, and two previously unknown submarine volcanoes named Mahukona and Loihi, the youngest Hawaiian volcano. About 70 major landslides cover half the flanks of the Hawaiian Ridge out to Midway Island. Some of the landslides attain lengths of 200 km and have volumes exceeding 5,000 km3. More recent higher resolution bathymetry and sidescan data reveal that many submarine eruptions construct circular, flat-topped, monogenetic cones; that large fields of young strongly alkalic lava flows, such as the North Arch and South Arch lava fields, erupt on the seafloor within several hundred km of the islands; and that alkalic lavas erupt during the shield stage on Kilauea and Mauna Loa. The North Arch flow field covers about 24,000 km2, has an estimated volume between about 1000 and 1250 km3, has flows as long as 108 km, and erupted from over 100 vents. The source and melting mechanisms for their production is still debated. The maps also displayed stair-step terraces, mostly constructed of drowned coral reefs, which form during early rapid subsidence of the volcanoes during periods of oscillating sea level. The combination of scuba and underwater photography facilitated the first motion pictures of the mechanism of formation of pillow lava in shallow water offshore Kilauea. The age progression known from the main islands was extended westward along the Hawaiian Ridge past Midway Island, around a bend in the chain and northward along the Emperor Seamounts. Radiometric dating of dredged samples from these submarine volcanoes show that the magma source that built the chain has been active for

  2. Lahar Hazard Modeling at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, O. E.; Rose, W. I.; Jaya, D.

    2003-04-01

    Tungurahua Volcano (Lat. 01^o28'S; Long. 78^o27'W), located in the central Ecuadorian Andes, is an active edifice that rises more than 3 km above surrounding topography. Since European settlement in 1532, Tungurahua has experienced four major eruptive episodes: 1641-1646, 1773-1781, 1886-1888 and 1916-1918 (Hall et al, JVGR V91; p1-21, 1999). In September 1999, Tungurahua began a new period of activity that continues to the present. During this time, the volcano has erupted daily, depositing ash and blocks on its steep flanks. A pattern of continuing eruptions, coupled with rainfall up to 28 mm in a 6 hour period (rain data collected in Baños at 6-hr intervals, 3000 meters below Tungurahua’s summit), has produced an environment conducive to lahar mobilization. Tungurahua volcano presents an immediate hazard to the town of Baños, an important tourist destination and cultural center with a population of about 25,000 residents located 8 km from the crater. During the current eruptive episode, lahars have occurred as often as 3 times per week on the northern and western slopes of the volcano. Consequently, the only north-south trending highway on the west side of Tungurahua has been completely severed at the intersection of at least ten drainages, where erosion has exceeded 10 m since 1999. The La Pampa quebrada, located 1 km west of Baños, is the most active of Tungurahua's drainages. At this location, where the slope is moderate, lahars continue to inundate the only highway linking Baños to the Pan American Highway. Because of steep topography, the conventional approach of measuring planimetric inundation areas to determine the scale of lahars could not be employed. Instead, cross sections were measured in the channels using volume/cross-sectional inundation relationships determined by (Iverson et al, GSABull V110; no. 8, p972-984, 1998). After field observations of the lahars, LAHARZ, a program used in a geographic information system (GIS) to objectively map

  3. Using Google Earth to Study the Basic Characteristics of Volcanoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and national standards. Volcanoes exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of volcanoes; in turn, students can relate these…

  4. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  5. Iceland: Grímsvötn Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Grímsvötn Volcano Injects Ash into the Stratosphere     ... p.m. local time (1730 UTC) on Saturday, May 21, 2011. The volcano, located approximately 140 miles (220 kilometers) east of the capital ...

  6. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  8. Volcano ecology: Disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biolo...

  9. Structural map of the summit area of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The map shows the faults, sets of fissures, eruptive vent lines and collapse features in the summit area of the volcano. It covers most of the USGS Kilauea Crater 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, together with parts of Volcano, Makaopuhi Crater, and Kau Desert 7-1/2 minute quadrangles. (ACR)

  10. Kilauea volcano, hawaii: a search for the volcanomagnetic effect.

    PubMed

    Davis, P M; Jackson, D B; Field, J; Stacey, F D

    1973-04-06

    Brief excursions of magnetic field differences between a base station and two satellite station magnetometers show only slight correlation with ground tilt at Kilauea Volcano. This result suggests that only transient, localized stresses occur during prolonged periods of deformation and that the volcano can support no large-scale pattern of shear stresses.

  11. Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: A search for the volcanomagnetic effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.M.; Jackson, D.B.; Field, J.; Stacey, F.D.

    1973-01-01

    Brief excursions of magnetic field differences between a base station and two satellite station magnetometers show only slight correlation with ground tilt at Kilauea Volcano. This result suggests that only transient, localized stresses occur during prolonged periods of deformation and that the volcano can support no large-scale pattern of shear stresses.

  12. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Park