Science.gov

Sample records for mx devices

  1. Surgical treatment of facial fracture by using unsintered hydroxyapatite particles/poly l-lactide composite device (OSTEOTRANS MX(®)): a clinical study on 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Minoru; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Masahide; Tomizuka, Yosuke; Inoue, Mayuko; Yoshimoto, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    In Japan we currently use absorption properties for facial fractures. OSTEOTRANS MX(®) (Takiron co., ltd, Japan) is an absorption device, which is called Super FIXSORB MX(®) in Japan. This absorbable osteosynthetic device constitutes unsintered hydroxyapatite particles/poly l-lactide (u-HA/PLLA) composites. This study focuses on reporting clinical cases of using OSTEOTRANS MX(®). Seventeen patients (16 men and 1 woman) aged 10-80 years (mean: 39.9 years, SD: ±20.7) with 86 fracture sites were treated. In all cases we used 1.0 mm plates and 5 mm or 7 mm screws. The postoperative observation period was 6-60 months (mean: 21.8 months, SD: ±14.5). The fracture site recovered in all cases. Complications included one bone excess on the forehead and one foreign-body reaction on the frontozygomatic suture, but the fracture sites were recovered and had no problems. In the case with the longest observation time 60 months, the plate was almost fully absorbed. However, in other cases the plate was not fully absorbed because of a shorter observation time. OSTEOTRANS MX(®) is a useful device because of its suitable intensity, thinness, radiopaque, and few complications. A longer observation time is required for a plate to be absorbed completely. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Arms control and the MX

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    By 1969, Soviet ballistic missile deployments led the United States to project the vulnerability of Minuteman Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos along with an imbalance in ICBM capabilities. The Nixon Administration planned two simultaneous responses: strategic arms negotiations, to limit the threat through mutually agreed restraints; and the Safeguard Anti-Ballistic Missile defense program, to defend, as necessary, the threatened ICBM force. The US succeeded in neither. The planned defense did not materialize, even though SALT failed to limit the growth of the Soviet threat. In the years after SALT I, the US planned, but again did not carry through, ICBM programs to enhance ICBM survivability and at the same time to approach essential equivalence with Soviet capabilities. This dissertation examines the relationship of the two US responses and how arms control affected the MX ICBM system. First, the effects of US arms control objectives and optimism on the MX are analyzed from the first MX systems study in 1974, supporting the new Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, to the deployment of MX in current Minuteman silos, supporting the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks. Here US arms control contributed to MX delays and highlighted ICBM capability over ICBM survivability. Second, the effect of specific arms control provisions are addressed topically for each strategic arms agreement. The framework they establish allowed ICBM capabilities to increase, but constrained ICBM survivability.

  3. MX optical fiber communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, G.

    The fiber optic (FO) network for the proposed MX mobile basing scheme is described. C3 operations would be implemented through 15,000 km of FO links between 4800 sites. Burying the cables would ensure continued C3 operations in a hostile environment, although protection would be needed from burrowing rodents. Technology development criteria, such as optical sources and photodetectors for the 1300-1600 nm long wavelength region, are noted, together with construction of a test site at an Air Force base in California.

  4. Mx1 and Mx2 key antiviral proteins are surprisingly lost in toothed whales

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Benjamin A.; Marcovitz, Amir; Camp, J. Gray; Jia, Robin; Bejerano, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Viral outbreaks in dolphins and other Delphinoidea family members warrant investigation into the integrity of the cetacean immune system. The dynamin-like GTPase genes Myxovirus 1 (Mx1) and Mx2 defend mammals against a broad range of viral infections. Loss of Mx1 function in human and mice enhances infectivity by multiple RNA and DNA viruses, including orthomyxoviruses (influenza A), paramyxoviruses (measles), and hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B), whereas loss of Mx2 function leads to decreased resistance to HIV-1 and other viruses. Here we show that both Mx1 and Mx2 have been rendered nonfunctional in Odontoceti cetaceans (toothed whales, including dolphins and orcas). We discovered multiple exon deletions, frameshift mutations, premature stop codons, and transcriptional evidence of decay in the coding sequence of both Mx1 and Mx2 in four species of Odontocetes. We trace the likely loss event for both proteins to soon after the divergence of Odontocetes and Mystocetes (baleen whales) ∼33–37 Mya. Our data raise intriguing questions as to what drove the loss of both Mx1 and Mx2 genes in the Odontoceti lineage, a double loss seen in none of 56 other mammalian genomes, and suggests a hitherto unappreciated fundamental genetic difference in the way these magnificent mammals respond to viral infections. PMID:26080416

  5. Mx1 and Mx2 key antiviral proteins are surprisingly lost in toothed whales.

    PubMed

    Braun, Benjamin A; Marcovitz, Amir; Camp, J Gray; Jia, Robin; Bejerano, Gill

    2015-06-30

    Viral outbreaks in dolphins and other Delphinoidea family members warrant investigation into the integrity of the cetacean immune system. The dynamin-like GTPase genes Myxovirus 1 (Mx1) and Mx2 defend mammals against a broad range of viral infections. Loss of Mx1 function in human and mice enhances infectivity by multiple RNA and DNA viruses, including orthomyxoviruses (influenza A), paramyxoviruses (measles), and hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B), whereas loss of Mx2 function leads to decreased resistance to HIV-1 and other viruses. Here we show that both Mx1 and Mx2 have been rendered nonfunctional in Odontoceti cetaceans (toothed whales, including dolphins and orcas). We discovered multiple exon deletions, frameshift mutations, premature stop codons, and transcriptional evidence of decay in the coding sequence of both Mx1 and Mx2 in four species of Odontocetes. We trace the likely loss event for both proteins to soon after the divergence of Odontocetes and Mystocetes (baleen whales) ∼33-37 Mya. Our data raise intriguing questions as to what drove the loss of both Mx1 and Mx2 genes in the Odontoceti lineage, a double loss seen in none of 56 other mammalian genomes, and suggests a hitherto unappreciated fundamental genetic difference in the way these magnificent mammals respond to viral infections.

  6. Comparison of MX-857 versus MX-641 chemistries for type 2485 film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourque, P. F.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate Kodak MX-857 and MX-641 chemistry systems for use with film Type 2485 to be used in the dim light experiments on Apollo 16. The test program objectives were to: (1) retain a minimum ASA speed of at least 4000; (2) maintain a base-plus-fog level of 0.21 density units or less; and (3) minimize the granularity but do not exceed the granularity level of the Apollo 15 imagery. Test results on the Versamat processor indicate that the use of MX-857 chemistry is preferred over MX-641 chemistry in satisfying the stated test objectives.

  7. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of monolayer MX2 with metallic nano particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Duan; Wu, Ye-Cun; Yang, Mei; Liu, Xiao; Coileáin, Cormac Ó; Abid, Mourad; Abid, Mohamed; Wang, Jing-Jing; Shvets, Igor; Xu, Hongjun; Chun, Byong Sun; Liu, Huajun; Wu, Han-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S) exhibit remarkable electronic and optical properties, making them candidates for application within flexible nano-optoelectronics. The ability to achieve a high optical signal, while quantitatively monitoring strain in real-time is the key requirement for applications in flexible sensing and photonics devices. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) allows us to achieve both simultaneously. However, the SERS depends crucially on the size and shape of the metallic nanoparticles (NPs), which have a large impact on its detection sensitivity. Here, we investigated the SERS of monolayer MX2, with particular attention paid to the effect of the distribution of the metallic NPs. We show that the SERS depends crucially on the distribution of the metallic NPs and also the phonon mode of the MX2. Moreover, strong coupling between MX2 and metallic NPs, through surface plasmon excitation, results in splitting of the and modes and an additional peak becomes apparent. For a WS2-Ag system the intensity of the additional peak increases exponentially with local strain, which opens another interesting window to quantitatively measure the local strain using SERS. Our experimental study may be useful for the application of monolayer MX2 in flexible nano-optoelectronics. PMID:27457808

  8. A class of monolayer metal halogenides MX{sub 2}: Electronic structures and band alignments

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Feng; Wang, Weichao; Luo, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Yahui; Dong, Hong; Liu, Hui; Wang, Wei-Hua; Xie, Xinjian

    2016-03-28

    With systematic first principles calculations, a class of monolayer metal halogenides MX{sub 2} (M = Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Ge, Pb; M = Cl, Br, I) has been proposed. Our study indicates that these monolayer materials are semiconductors with the band gaps ranging from 2.03 eV of ZnI{sub 2} to 6.08 eV of MgCl{sub 2}. Overall, the band gap increases with the increase of the electronegativity of the X atom or the atomic number of the metal M. Meanwhile, the band gaps of monolayer MgX{sub 2} (X = Cl, Br) are direct while those of other monolayers are indirect. Based on the band edge curvatures, the derived electron (m{sub e}) and hole (m{sub h}) effective masses of MX{sub 2} monolayers are close to their corresponding bulk values except that the m{sub e} of CdI{sub 2} is three times larger and the m{sub h} for PbI{sub 2} is twice larger. Finally, the band alignments of all the studied MX{sub 2} monolayers are provided using the vacuum level as energy reference. These theoretical results may not only introduce the monolayer metal halogenides family MX{sub 2} into the emerging two-dimensional materials, but also provide insights into the applications of MX{sub 2} in future electronic, visible and ultraviolet optoelectronic devices.

  9. A Study of MX Environmental Management Information System (MXEMIS) Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MXEMIS) NEEDS by Ronald Webster Ralph Mitchell Valorie Young -J : 2 34 LA--. Approved for public release...System (SAIFS) The MX Management Information System (MX MIS) The Mobilization Early Warning System (MEWS) The Computer-Aided Environmental Baseline...26 REFERENCES DISTRIBUTION I5 S’ t A STUDY OF MX ENVIRONMENTAL 2 EXISTING SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MXEMIS

  10. Mx Proteins: Antiviral Gatekeepers That Restrain the Uninvited

    PubMed Central

    Verhelst, Judith; Hulpiau, Paco

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Fifty years after the discovery of the mouse Mx1 gene, researchers are still trying to understand the molecular details of the antiviral mechanisms mediated by Mx proteins. Mx proteins are evolutionarily conserved dynamin-like large GTPases, and GTPase activity is required for their antiviral activity. The expression of Mx genes is controlled by type I and type III interferons. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Mx genes are present in almost all vertebrates, usually in one to three copies. Mx proteins are best known for inhibiting negative-stranded RNA viruses, but they also inhibit other virus families. Recent structural analyses provide hints about the antiviral mechanisms of Mx proteins, but it is not known how they can suppress such a wide variety of viruses lacking an obvious common molecular pattern. Perhaps they interact with a (partially) symmetrical invading oligomeric structure, such as a viral ribonucleoprotein complex. Such an interaction may be of a fairly low affinity, in line with the broad target specificity of Mx proteins, yet it would be strong enough to instigate Mx oligomerization and ring assembly. Such a model is compatible with the broad “substrate” specificity of Mx proteins: depending on the size of the invading viral ribonucleoprotein complexes that need to be wrapped, the assembly process would consume the necessary amount of Mx precursor molecules. These Mx ring structures might then act as energy-consuming wrenches to disassemble the viral target structure. PMID:24296571

  11. Phonon and thermal expansion properties in Weyl semimetals MX (M = Nb, Ta; X = P, As): ab initio studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dahu; Liu, Yaming; Rao, Fengfei; Wang, Fei; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2016-06-07

    Weyl semimetal (WSM) is a new type of topological quantum material for future spintronic devices. Using the first-principles density functional theory, we systematically investigated the thermal expansion properties, and the temperature dependence of isovolume heat capacity and bulk modulus in WSMs MX (M = Nb, Ta; X = P, As). We also presented the phonon dispersion curves and its variation under stress in MX and the anisotropic thermal expansion properties due to the anisotropic crystal structure in WSMs have been predicted in our calculations. Intriguing, we found that the heat capacities increase more rapidly with increasing temperature in the low temperature region for all MX. Furthermore, our results showed that the thermal expansion properties are determined mainly by the isovolume heat capacity at low temperatures, while the bulk modulus has the major effect at high temperatures. These results are useful for applications of WSMs in electronic and spintronic devices.

  12. Host and Viral Determinants of Mx2 Antiretroviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Busnadiego, Idoia; Kane, Melissa; Rihn, Suzannah J.; Preugschas, Hannah F.; Hughes, Joseph; Blanco-Melo, Daniel; Strouvelle, Victoria P.; Zang, Trinity M.; Willett, Brian J.; Boutell, Chris

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myxovirus resistance 2 (Mx2/MxB) has recently been uncovered as an effector of the anti-HIV-1 activity of type I interferons (IFNs) that inhibits HIV-1 at an early stage postinfection, after reverse transcription but prior to proviral integration into host DNA. The mechanistic details of Mx2 antiviral activity are not yet understood, but a few substitutions in the HIV-1 capsid have been shown to confer resistance to Mx2. Through a combination of in vitro evolution and unbiased mutagenesis, we further map the determinants of sensitivity to Mx2 and reveal that multiple capsid (CA) surfaces define sensitivity to Mx2. Intriguingly, we reveal an unanticipated sensitivity determinant within the C-terminal domain of capsid. We also report that Mx2s derived from multiple primate species share the capacity to potently inhibit HIV-1, whereas selected nonprimate orthologs have no such activity. Like TRIM5α, another CA targeting antiretroviral protein, primate Mx2s exhibit species-dependent variation in antiviral specificity against at least one extant virus and multiple HIV-1 capsid mutants. Using a combination of chimeric Mx2 proteins and evolution-guided approaches, we reveal that a single residue close to the N terminus that has evolved under positive selection can determine antiviral specificity. Thus, the variable N-terminal region can define the spectrum of viruses inhibited by Mx2. IMPORTANCE Type I interferons (IFNs) inhibit the replication of most mammalian viruses. IFN stimulation upregulates hundreds of different IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but it is often unclear which ISGs are responsible for inhibition of a given virus. Recently, Mx2 was identified as an ISG that contributes to the inhibition of HIV-1 replication by type I IFN. Thus, Mx2 might inhibit HIV-1 replication in patients, and this inhibitory action might have therapeutic potential. The mechanistic details of how Mx2 inhibits HIV-1 are currently unclear, but the HIV-1 capsid protein is the

  13. Behind the Scowcroft report - The MX saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    A development history is presented for the MX ICBM, with emphasis on the major Soviet ICBM development and deployment trends which prompted its conception and on the political and diplomatic considerations which alternatively encouraged and hampered its acceptance in various bodies of government and the military. Attention is given to the findings of the Scowcroft Commission report of 1983, whose recommendations were criticized by technical commentators for being unduly influenced by nontechnical considerations. The major technical issue, however, that of the basing mode for the missile, is still being debated. The basing of the MX in a modified Minuteman silo has nevertheless already been determined to offer the least expensive and most environmentally benign of the basing options.

  14. Mx Magnetometry Optimisation in Unshielded Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingleby, Stuart; Griffin, Paul; Arnold, Aidan; Riis, Erling; Hunter, Dominic

    2016-05-01

    Optically pumped magnetometry in unshielded environments is potentially of great advantage in a wide range of surveying and security applications. Optimisation of OPM modulation schemes and feedback in the Mx scheme offers enhanced sensitivity through noise cancellation and decoherence suppression. The work presented demonstrates capability for software-controlled optimisation of OPM performance in ambient fields in the 0 . 5 G range. Effects on magnetometer bandwidth and sensitivity are discussed. Supported by UK National Quantum Technologies Programme.

  15. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  16. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  17. Mx proteins: antiviral proteins by chance or by necessity?

    PubMed

    Arnheiter, H; Meier, E

    1990-10-01

    The interferon-inducible Mx1 protein is responsible for inborn resistance of mice to influenza. It is now recognized that this protein is a member of a family of interferon-inducible, putative GTP-binding proteins found in many organisms. Thus, these proteins, called the Mx proteins, are found in species that are naturally infected with influenza virus, and also in species that are not. Some Mx proteins display a broader antiviral profile than the one observed for Mx1 in mice. Others, however, may not be antiviral. Two recently discovered GTP-binding proteins, Vps1p in yeast and dynamin in rat, are also related to Mx1. These proteins are synthesized constitutively and serve basic cellular functions.

  18. Carter's Plan for MX Lives On.

    PubMed

    Smith, R J

    1982-04-30

    Early this year, the U.S. land-based force of nuclear missiles became vulnerable-on paper-to destruction in a preemptive attack by the Soviet Union. The Air Force has worried about this problem for a long time, searching high and low for a better place to put both the existing, silo-based Minuteman missiles and a new missile, the MX. Under the Carter Admnistration, the Air Force agreed to a missle basing plan known as MPS, for multiple protective shelters. The Reagan Administration has ostensibly dropped this plan in favour of several alternatives. Previous articles in this series explored why U.S. officials became alarmed about missile vulnerability; the genesis of a short-term plan to put more missiles into silos; continuing Air Force opposition to a plan for missiles on constantly roving aricraft; and a bizare plan to bury missiles deep underground.

  19. Interferon but not MxB inhibits foamy retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Bähr, Ariane; Singer, Anna; Hain, Anika; Vasudevan, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva; Schilling, Mirjam; Reh, Juliane; Riess, Maximilian; Panitz, Sylvia; Serrano, Vanessa; Schweizer, Matthias; König, Renate; Chanda, Sumit; Häussinger, Dieter; Kochs, Georg; Lindemann, Dirk; Münk, Carsten

    2016-01-15

    Foamy viruses (FV) are retroviruses that are widely distributed in primate and non-primate animal species. We tested here FV with capsids of simian and non-simian origin for sensitivity to interferon-β (IFN-β). Our data show significant inhibition of FV by IFN-β early in infection of human HOS and THP-1 but not of HEK293T cells. The post-entry restriction of FV was not mediated by the interferon-induced MxB protein that was recently identified as a capsid-interacting restriction factor targeting Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) before integration. Neither the ectopic expression of MxA or MxB in HEK293T cells nor the lack of MxB expression in CRISPR/CAS MxB THP-1 knockout cells impacted the infection of the tested FV. IFN-β treated THP-1 and THP-1 KO MxB cells showed the same extend of restriction to FV. Together, the data demonstrate that IFN-β inhibits FV early in infection and that MxB is not a restriction factor of FV.

  20. Characterization of four Mx isoforms in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bei; Huang, Wen Shu; Nie, P

    2013-09-01

    Mx protein is known to play an important role in vertebrate immune response to viral infection. In this study, cDNA sequences of four Mx isoforms, designated as MxA, B, C and D were characterized in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. These sequences contained an open reading frame of 1899, 1896, 1866, 1779 bp, flanked by 95, 53, 138, 69 bp of 5' untranslated region and 389, 241, 136, 124 bp of 3' untranslated region, respectively. A phylogenetic tree constructed with Mx peptide sequences from vertebrates revealed that MxA, C and D in the European eel formed into a clade containing zebrafish MxA and MxB and Mx proteins in other teleosts, whereas MxB in the eel was clustered together with zebrafish MxD, MxG and MxF. The transcription level of all Mx isoforms increased in a poly I:C dose-dependent manner in peripheral blood leukocytes of eels, as revealed by real-time PCR. A further experiment was conducted to reveal the temporal change in expression of these isoforms in various organs/tissues following poly I:C stimulation, and significant increase in expression was observed at various degrees in different organs or in different sampling occasions within the 12 h experimental period. In particular, MxA had the highest level of increase, while MxB had the lowest; and three isoforms, MxA, MxB and MxD had the highest increase in intestine, while the highest increase of MxC expression was observed in liver. These four isoforms of eel Mx are thus expressed differentially, and further work is certainly required to clarify the activity of promoter elements and antiviral activity of these Mx isoforms.

  1. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are…

  2. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are…

  3. Transcriptional activation of the mouse Mx gene by type I interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Staeheli, P; Danielson, P; Haller, O; Sutcliffe, J G

    1986-01-01

    Mouse cells of the Mx+ genotype accumulate Mx mRNA in response to type I interferon (IFN). Nuclear runoff experiments show that IFN stringently regulates Mx gene expression at the level of transcription. Mx mRNA synthesis peaks about 3 h after IFN treatment, and within 5 h, Mx mRNA concentration rises from undetectable levels to about 0.1% of polyadenylated RNA. Images PMID:3796617

  4. Mx Is Not Responsible for the Antiviral Activity of Interferon-α against Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Wang, Shi-Qi; Wei, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Gao, Zhi-Can; Liu, Ke; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Pu-Yan; Zhou, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Mx proteins are interferon (IFN)-induced dynamin-like GTPases that are present in all vertebrates and inhibit the replication of myriad viruses. However, the role Mx proteins play in IFN-mediated suppression of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is unknown. In this study, we set out to investigate the effects of Mx1 and Mx2 expression on the interferon-α (IFNα) restriction of JEV replication. To evaluate whether the inhibitory activity of IFNα on JEV is dependent on Mx1 or Mx2, we knocked down Mx1 or Mx2 with siRNA in IFNα-treated PK-15 cells and BHK-21 cells, then challenged them with JEV; the production of progeny virus was assessed by plaque assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that depletion of Mx1 or Mx2 did not affect JEV restriction imposed by IFNα, although these two proteins were knocked down 66% and 79%, respectively. Accordingly, expression of exogenous Mx1 or Mx2 did not change the inhibitory activity of IFNα to JEV. In addition, even though virus-induced membranes were damaged by Brefeldin A (BFA), overexpressing porcine Mx1 or Mx2 did not inhibit JEV proliferation. We found that BFA inhibited JEV replication, not maturation, suggesting that BFA could be developed into a novel antiviral reagent. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that IFNα inhibits JEV infection by Mx-independent pathways. PMID:28075421

  5. Structure of mouse Mx1 protein. Molecular assembly and GTP-dependent conformational change.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, M; Yazaki, K; Kusano, A; Nagata, K; Hanai, N; Ishihama, A

    1993-07-15

    Mouse Mx1 protein is an interferon-inducible nuclear protein and confers resistance to influenza virus infection. The Mx1 protein purified from interferon-induced A2G mouse liver exhibited GTPase activity as did the Mx1 protein purified from the Mx1 cDNA-expressing Escherichia coli (Nakayama, M., Nagata, K., Kato, A., and Ishihama, A. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 21404-21408; Nakayama, M., Nagata, K., and Ishihama, A. (1992) Virus Res. 22, 227-234). The Mx1 protein purified from both mouse liver and Mx1-cDNA expressing E. coli was found to exist as assembled polymeric states judged from gel filtration pattern. By making a set of deletion derivatives of the Mx1 cDNA, the main motif for self-assembly of the Mx1 protein was mapped between amino acid residues 51-99. This motif is highly conserved not only in the Mx family of proteins but also in Mx-related proteins. The polymeric form of Mx1 from E. coli was observed as "horseshoe"-like structure by negative staining microscopy. When the Mx1 protein was incubated with GTP, this horseshoe structure was transformed to larger and tightly stacked helical forms. Electron microscopic analysis of immunostained liver of the interferon-induced mice indicated that the Mx1 protein exists in nuclei, forming giant complexes of about half the size of nucleoli.

  6. Sarcoplasmic MxA expression: A valuable marker of dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Uruha, Akinori; Nishikawa, Atsuko; Tsuburaya, Rie S; Hamanaka, Kohei; Kuwana, Masataka; Watanabe, Yurika; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Norihiro; Nishino, Ichizo

    2017-01-31

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of myxovirus resistance A (MxA) expression in the cytoplasm of myofibers in the diagnosis of dermatomyositis (DM). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the sarcoplasmic expression of MxA in muscles with DM by immunohistochemistry in consecutive cases of DM (n = 34) and other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (n = 120: 8 with polymyositis, 16 with anti-tRNA-synthetase antibody-associated myositis, 46 with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, and 50 with inclusion body myositis) and compared them with conventional pathologic hallmarks of DM, including perifascicular atrophy (PFA) and membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition on endomysial capillaries. The sensitivity and specificity of sarcoplasmic MxA expression were 71% and 98%, respectively. While the specificity was almost comparable to that of PFA and capillary MAC deposition, the sensitivity was higher, with PFA showing 47% sensitivity and 98% specificity and capillary MAC deposition showing 35% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Of note, in patients with DM with typical skin rash but no PFA, 44% of the samples showed sarcoplasmic MxA expression, which was higher than the 17% sensitivity of capillary MAC deposition in the population. Sarcoplasmic MxA expression detected by immunohistochemistry is a more sensitive marker of DM than the conventional hallmarks, indicating its practical utility in the diagnosis of DM. It may well be included in the routine immunohistochemistry panel for myositis. This study provides Class II evidence that immunohistochemistry-detected sarcoplasmic MxA expression accurately identifies patients with dermatomyositis. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Owen, Robin L.; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Moreover, it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choicemore » for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. One main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. Furthermore, we discuss the most critical optical components, aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing.« less

  8. ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF VERACRUZ, MX ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an international technology transfer activity between EPA's Office of Research and Development and the state of Veracruz's Sub-secretary of the Environment, 50 stations within estuaries along the gulf coast of the state of Veracruz MX, were sampled during June and July...

  9. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robin L.; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualization and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. PMID:27046341

  10. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Robin L.; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Moreover, it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. One main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. Furthermore, we discuss the most critical optical components, aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing.

  11. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Robin L.; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing.

  12. Remote access and automation of SPring-8 MX beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Go Hikima, Takaaki; Yamashita, Keitaro; Hirata, Kunio; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Murakami, Hironori; Furukawa, Yukito; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Kumasaka, Takashi

    2016-07-27

    At SPring-8 MX beamlines, a remote access system has been developed and started user operation in 2010. The system has been developed based on an automated data collection and data management architecture utilized for the confirmed scheme of SPring-8 mail-in data collection. Currently, further improvement to the remote access and automation which covers data processing and analysis are being developed.

  13. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robin L; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-15

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Deep mutational scanning identifies sites in influenza nucleoprotein that affect viral inhibition by MxA

    PubMed Central

    Ashenberg, Orr; Padmakumar, Jai

    2017-01-01

    The innate-immune restriction factor MxA inhibits influenza replication by targeting the viral nucleoprotein (NP). Human influenza virus is more resistant than avian influenza virus to inhibition by human MxA, and prior work has compared human and avian viral strains to identify amino-acid differences in NP that affect sensitivity to MxA. However, this strategy is limited to identifying sites in NP where mutations that affect MxA sensitivity have fixed during the small number of documented zoonotic transmissions of influenza to humans. Here we use an unbiased deep mutational scanning approach to quantify how all single amino-acid mutations to NP affect MxA sensitivity in the context of replication-competent virus. We both identify new sites in NP where mutations affect MxA resistance and re-identify mutations known to have increased MxA resistance during historical adaptations of influenza to humans. Most of the sites where mutations have the greatest effect are almost completely conserved across all influenza A viruses, and the amino acids at these sites confer relatively high resistance to MxA. These sites cluster in regions of NP that appear to be important for its recognition by MxA. Overall, our work systematically identifies the sites in influenza nucleoprotein where mutations affect sensitivity to MxA. We also demonstrate a powerful new strategy for identifying regions of viral proteins that affect inhibition by host factors. PMID:28346537

  15. A single nucleotide polymorphism of porcine MX2 gene provides antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Tungtrakoolsub, Pullop; Morozumi, Takeya; Uenishi, Hirohide; Kawahara, Manabu; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MX2 gene affect its antiviral potential. MX proteins are known to suppress the multiplication of several viruses, including influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). In domestic animals possessing highly polymorphic genome, our previous research indicated that a specific SNP in chicken Mx gene was responsible for its antiviral function. However, there still has been no information about SNPs in porcine MX2 gene. In this study, we first conducted polymorphism analysis in 17 pigs of MX2 gene derived from seven breeds. Consequently, a total of 30 SNPs, of which 11 were deduced to cause amino acid variations, were detected, suggesting that the porcine MX2 is very polymorphic. Next, we classified MX2 into eight alleles (A1-A8) and subsequently carried out infectious experiments with recombinant VSVΔG*-G to each allele. In A1-A5 and A8, position 514 amino acid (514 aa) of MX2 was glycine (Gly), which did not inhibit VSV multiplication, whereas in A6 and A7, 514 aa was arginine (Arg), which exhibited the antiviral ability against VSV. These results demonstrate that a SNP at 514 aa (Gly-Arg) of porcine MX2 plays a pivotal role in the antiviral activity as well as that at 631 aa of chicken Mx.

  16. Mx1 of black carp functions importantly in the antiviral innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Yan, Jun; Chen, Hui; Li, Jun; Tian, Yu; Tang, Luosheng; Feng, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Mx (myxovirus resistance) is an important antiviral protein in the innate immune responses of vertebrates to microbial pathogens. In this study, we cloned and characterized Mx1 of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp Mx1 (bcMx1) consists of 2781 nucleotides and the predicted bcMx1 protein contains 631 amino acids. bcMx1 contains a GTPase domain at the N-terminnus, a "central interactive domain" in the middle and a GTPase effector domain at the C-terminus. bcMx1 mRNA was constitutively transcribed in all tissues tested, including the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle, skin and gill; and bcMx1 mRNA levels increased in all but the gill after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) or viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. Quantitative PCR analysis of Mylopharyngodon piceus fin (MPF) cells indicated that bcMx1 mRNA levels increased after GCRV or SVCV infection at different multiplicities of infection (MOI). Western blotting demonstrated that the molecular weight of bcMx1 is ∼75 kDa and immunofluorescent staining data of both HeLa cells and EPC cells showed that bcMx1 is a cytosolic protein. EPC cells transfected with plasmid expressing bcMx1 showed increased antiviral activity against SVCV and GCRV. All our data suggest that bcMx1 is an antiviral protein in the innate immune response of the black carp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. AmeriFlux MX-Lpa La Paz

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oechel, Walter [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site MX-Lpa La Paz. Site Description - As evident by some very large Cardon (5-7 meters), according to Coyle and Roberts, 1975, extent vegetation has likely been around at least 200 years. Until about 15 years ago from 1996, site was used for livestock production and selective firewood extraction. However, when I look over the fence where there has been livestock activity, not much difference

  18. Self-assembly of human MxA GTPase into highly ordered dynamin-like oligomers.

    PubMed

    Kochs, Georg; Haener, Markus; Aebi, Ueli; Haller, Otto

    2002-04-19

    Human MxA protein is a member of the interferon-induced Mx protein family and an important component of the innate host defense against RNA viruses. The Mx family belongs to a superfamily of large GTPases that also includes the dynamins and the interferon-regulated guanylate-binding proteins. A common feature of these large GTPases is their ability to form high molecular weight oligomers. Here we determined the capacity of MxA to self-assemble into homo-oligomers in vitro. We show that recombinant MxA protein assembles into long filamentous structures with a diameter of about 20 nm at physiological salt concentration as demonstrated by sedimentation assays and electron microscopy. In the presence of guanosine nucleotides the filaments rearranged into rings and more compact helical arrays. Our data indicate that binding and hydrolysis of GTP induce conformational changes in MxA that may be essential for viral target recognition and antiviral activity.

  19. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Socioeconomic Impact Estimates for Texas ROI Counties. Detailed Tables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    and identify by block number) MX Socioeconomic Impact Siting Analysis Texas Ř 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reveree aide If necessary end Identify by...block number) The detailed socioeconomic impacts reported in this volume form background information for the analysis contained in the M-X Deployment...information for the analysis contained in the M-X Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS

  20. Resistance of paramyxoviridae to type I interferon-induced Bos taurus Mx1 dynamin.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Michael; Baise, Etienne; Pire, Grégory; Gérardin, Joel; Desmecht, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Typical targets of type I interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral Mx proteins known to date have been shown to share a common profile: single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses. Among them, human MxA is known to interfere with the replication of measles, human, and bovine parainfluenza-3 viruses (BoPi3V), that is, three members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Recently, bovine Mx1 protein (BoMx1) was included in the group of Mx proteins with authenticated antiviral potential, as it dramatically represses the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). As replication in bovine cells of Pi3, respiratory syncytial (RS), and Sendai (Se) viruses, all members of the same family, is known to be reduced on IFN-alpha incorporation into the culture medium, it was hypothesized that the BoMx1 pathway possibly was involved, its antiviral spectrum thus probably extending to Paramyxoviridae. In this study, probing of BoMx1-inhibiting effects was carried out by infecting a transgenic Vero cell line that allows tightly regulated conditional expression of BoMx1 after doxycycline treatment with a wide array of Paramyxoviridae. Expressing and nonexpressing cells displayed similar viability, cytopathic effects (CPEs), and amounts of infectious virus yields, whatever the infecting virus or the multiplicity of infection (moi) imposed. It is, therefore, concluded that BoMx1 does not interfere with Paramyxoviridae.

  1. Polymorphisms and the Differential Antiviral Activity of the Chicken Mx Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jae-Hong; Jin, Hee-Kyung; Asano, Atsushi; Takada, Ayato; Ninomiya, Ai; Kida, Hiroshi; Hokiyama, Hironao; Ohara, Mutsuo; Tsuzuki, Masaoki; Nishibori, Masahide; Mizutani, Makoto; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2002-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of chicken Mx cDNA was reported earlier using the White Leghorn breed in Germany, but it showed no enhanced resistance to viruses. In this study, the nucleotide sequences of chicken Mx cDNA were determined in many breeds. A total of 25 nucleotide substitutions, of which 14 were deduced to cause amino acid exchanges, were detected, suggesting that the chicken Mx gene is very polymorphic. Transfected cell clones expressing chicken Mx mRNA were established after the Mx cDNA was constructed with an expression vector and introduced into mouse 3T3 cells, and the Mx genes from some breeds were demonstrated to confer positive antiviral responses to influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. On the basis of the comparison among the antiviral activities associated with many Mx variations, a specific amino acid substitution at position 631 (Ser to Asn) was considered to determine the antivirally positive or negative Mx gene. Thus, a single amino acid substitution influences the antiviral activity of Mx in domesticated chickens. PMID:11932243

  2. Legislative Environmental Impact Statement. M-X Closely Spaced Basing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-18

    near Roswell, New Mexico, Amarilio/ Dalhart , Texas , and in central Nevada. If M-X were to be deployed in these areas, a new main operating base would...University, Tempe Years of Experience: 25 25043 5-40 Stephen C. Helfert, Wildlife Biologist B.A., 1976, Fish and Wildlife Biology, Texas A&M University...M.S., 1978, Biology, University of Texas at El Paso Years of Experience: 6 Ching-San Huang, E.E., P.E. B.S., 1966, Civil Engineering, Cheng-Kung

  3. Project MX-981: John Paul Stapp and Deceleration Research.

    PubMed

    Chandler, R F

    2001-11-01

    Project MX-981, Effects of Deceleration Forces of High Magnitude on Man, was initiated in 1945 by the U.S. Army Air Force Aero Medical Laboratory at Wright Field, Ohio to confirm the feasibility of a "40 g" crash restraint system for pilots of military aircraft. Captain John Paul Stapp, MD, was selected to carry out this work. This paper provides historical background and perspective for that project, and summarizes Dr. Stapp's work on that Project at Edwards AFB, California, and his subsequent tests at Holloman AFB, New Mexico.

  4. Evolutionary Analyses Suggest a Function of MxB Immunity Proteins Beyond Lentivirus Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Patrick S.; Young, Janet M.; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses impose diverse and dynamic challenges on host defenses. Diversifying selection of codons and gene copy number variation are two hallmarks of genetic innovation in antiviral genes engaged in host-virus genetic conflicts. The myxovirus resistance (Mx) genes encode interferon-inducible GTPases that constitute a major arm of the cell-autonomous defense against viral infection. Unlike the broad antiviral activity of MxA, primate MxB was recently shown to specifically inhibit lentiviruses including HIV-1. We carried out detailed evolutionary analyses to investigate whether genetic conflict with lentiviruses has shaped MxB evolution in primates. We found strong evidence for diversifying selection in the MxB N-terminal tail, which contains molecular determinants of MxB anti-lentivirus specificity. However, we found no overlap between previously-mapped residues that dictate lentiviral restriction and those that have evolved under diversifying selection. Instead, our findings are consistent with MxB having a long-standing and important role in the interferon response to viral infection against a broader range of pathogens than is currently appreciated. Despite its critical role in host innate immunity, we also uncovered multiple functional losses of MxB during mammalian evolution, either by pseudogenization or by gene conversion from MxA genes. Thus, although the majority of mammalian genomes encode two Mx genes, this apparent stasis masks the dramatic effects that recombination and diversifying selection have played in shaping the evolutionary history of Mx genes. Discrepancies between our study and previous publications highlight the need to account for recombination in analyses of positive selection, as well as the importance of using sequence datasets with appropriate depth of divergence. Our study also illustrates that evolutionary analyses of antiviral gene families are critical towards understanding molecular principles that govern host-virus interactions and

  5. Polymorphism in chicken Mx gene influences susceptibility to avian influenza virus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Mx protein is produced by host cells in response to IFN-alpha, and has been shown to confer protection against influenza in mammalian studies. Chickens have a single Mx gene with multiple alleles. In previous experiments, transfecting cDNAs of various alleles into mouse 3T3 cells, a single nuc...

  6. Mx Is Dispensable for Interferon-Mediated Resistance of Chicken Cells against Influenza A Virus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Schusser, Benjamin; Reuter, Antje; von der Malsburg, Alexander; Penski, Nicola; Weigend, Steffen; Kaspers, Bernd; Staeheli, Peter; Härtle, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    The type I interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in antiviral defense against influenza A viruses (FLUAV), which are natural chicken pathogens. Studies of mice identified the Mx1 protein as a key effector molecule of the IFN-induced antiviral state against FLUAV. Chicken Mx genes are highly polymorphic, and recent studies suggested that an Asn/Ser polymorphism at amino acid position 631 determines the antiviral activity of the chicken Mx protein. By employing chicken embryo fibroblasts with defined Mx-631 polymorphisms and retroviral vectors for the expression of Mx isoforms in chicken cells and embryonated eggs, we show here that neither the 631Asn nor the 631Ser variant of chicken Mx was able to confer antiviral protection against several lowly and highly pathogenic FLUAV strains. Using a short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown approach, we noted that the antiviral effect of type I IFN in chicken cells was not dependent on Mx, suggesting that some other IFN-induced factors must contribute to the inhibition of FLUAV in chicken cells. Finally, we found that both isoforms of chicken Mx protein appear to lack GTPase activity, which might explain the observed lack of antiviral activity. PMID:21632756

  7. Porewater chemistry in compacted re-saturated MX-80 bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Michael H.; Baeyens, Bart

    2003-03-01

    Bentonites of various types are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Being able to understand the chemistry of the porewater in compacted bentonite is very important since it is critical to predicting radionuclide solubilities and to the synthesis of sorption data bases, and hence to repository safety studies. In this paper, porewater compositions in compacted bentonites are calculated, taking into consideration such factors as montmorillonite swelling, semi-permeable membrane effects, very low "free water" volumes, and the highly effective buffering characteristics of the exchangeable cations and the amphoteric edge sites. The former buffer the cation concentrations and the latter fix the pH in the porewater of a re-saturated bentonite. The above considerations are used in conjunction with previously measured physico-chemical characterisation data on MX-80 powder to calculate porewater compositions in compacted bentonites. For the MX-80 material specified, the porewaters calculated for initial dry densities between 1200 and 1600 kg m -3 had relatively high ionic strengths (I ˜0.3 M), similar cation concentrations and a pH equal to 8.0. The porewaters changed from being Na 2SO 4-rich at 1200 kg m -3 to a NaCl/Na 2SO 4 type water at 1600 kg m -3.

  8. Characterization of alpha-glucosyltransferase from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Y; Sugitani, T; Tsuyuki, K

    1994-10-01

    alpha-Glucosyltransferase was purified from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45. The molecular weight was estimated to be 63,000 by SDS-PAGE, and the isoelectric point was pI 5.4. For enzyme activity based on sucrose decomposition, the optimum pH and the optimum temperature were pH 5.8 and 40 degrees C, respectively. The ranges of stable pH and temperature were pH 5.1-6.7 and below 40 degrees C, respectively. The purified enzyme of MX-45 converted sucrose into trehalulose (1-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl- D-fructose) and isomaltulose (palatinose, 6-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose) simultaneously, and the ratio of trehalulose to isomaltulose increased at lower reaction temperatures. Therefore, optimum conditions for trehalulose production were pH 5.5-6.5 at 20 degrees C. The yield of trehalulose from sucrose (20-40% solution) was 91%. The Km for sucrose was 19.2 +/- 3.3 mM estimated by the Hanes-Woolf plot. Product inhibition was observed, and the product inhibition constant was 0.17 M. Hg2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Ag+, Pb2+, glucono-1,5-lactone, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane inhibited the reaction.

  9. Resilient data staging through MxN distributed transactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwan, Karsten; Oldfield, Ron A.; Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick, II; Dayal, Jai

    2011-11-01

    Scientific computing-driven discoveries are frequently driven from workflows that use persistent storage as a staging area for data between operations. With the bad and progressively worse bandwidth vs. data size issues as we continue towards exascale, eliminating persistent storage through techniques like data staging will both enable these workflows to continue online, but also enable more interactive workflows reducing the time to scientific discoveries. Data staging has shown to be an effective way for applications running on high-end computing platforms to offload expensive I/O operations and to manage the tremendous amounts of data they produce. This data staging approach, however, lacks the ACID style guarantees traditional straight-to-disk methods provide. Distributed transactions are a proven way to add ACID properties to data movements, however distributed transactions follow 1xN data movement semantics, where our highly parallel HPC environments employ MxN data movement semantics. In this paper we present a novel protocol that extends distributed transaction terminology to include MxN semantics which allows our data staging areas to benefit from ACID properties. We show that with our protocol we can provide resilient data staging with a limited performance penalty over current data staging implementations.

  10. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework.

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-04-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the R statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced - these novel structures define the user interface framework and provide new opportunities for model specification. Two short example scripts for the specification and fitting of a confirmatory factor model are next presented. We end with an abbreviated list of modeling applications available in OpenMx 1.0 and a discussion of directions for future development.

  11. Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María M; Sanchez-Puig, Juana M; Blasco, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Here, we investigated if some well characterized DNA viruses belonging to the Poxviridae family are sensitive to human MxA. A cell line inducibly expressing MxA to inhibitory levels showed no anti-Vaccinia virus (VACV) virus activity, indicating either lack of susceptibility of the virus, or the existence of viral factors capable of counteracting MxA inhibition. To determine if VACV resistance to MxA was due to a virus-encoded anti-MxA activity, we performed coinfections of VACV and the MxA-sensitive Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV), and show that VACV does not protect VSV from MxA inhibition in trans. Those results were extended to several VACV strains and two CPXV strains, thus confirming that those Orthopoxviruses do not block MxA action. Overall, these results point to a lack of susceptibility of the Poxviridae to MxA antiviral activity.

  12. MX MPS Deployment, An On-Site Fallout Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-29

    AD-AO84 643 SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INC MCLEAN VA F/O 1S/S-7 MPS DEPLOYMENT, AN ON-SITE FALLOUT EVALUATION. CU) DEC TO R H CRAVER , J1 T MCSAHAN, E...MULLER ONAOOI-7S-C-O35O WdNCLASSIFIEO SAX-79-8ŚWA ONA-’&813F N ( ’/DNA 4813F zMX MPS DEPLOYMENT ’ An On-Site Fallout Evaluation R. H. Craver J. T. McGahan...Fal lout Evaluation 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER SAI-79-866-WA v’ 7. AUTHOR(,) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) R. H. Craver -1 J. T. McGahan DNA

  13. Classical swine fever virus replicated poorly in cells from MxA transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wang, Tiedong; Yao, Li; Liu, Bo; Teng, Chunbo; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2016-08-17

    In addition to their value as livestock, pigs are susceptible to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and can serve as reservoirs for CSFV, allowing it to develop into an epizootic. CSFV, a pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, has a single-stranded RNA genome. Recent research has indicated that the human MxA protein inhibits the life cycles of certain RNA viruses, such as members of the Bunyaviridae family, the Flaviviridae family and others. To produce pigs with antiviral protection against CSFV, transgenic pigs expressing human MxA were generated by nuclear transplantation. Cells from three MxA transgenic piglets were used to investigate in vitro antiviral activity of MxA aganist CSFV, and the results of in vitro indirect immunofluorescence assays, virus titration and real-time PCR indicated that the MxA transgenic pig has an antiviral capacity against CSFV. Transgene with human MxA on pigs is feasible. High levels of MxA expression do inhibit CSFV in vitro at early time points post-infection at 60-96dpi.

  14. Protective role of interferon-induced Mx GTPases against influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Haller, O; Staeheli, P; Kochs, G

    2009-04-01

    Mx proteins are interferon-induced large GTPases with antiviral activities. They inhibit a wide range of viruses by blocking early stages of the replication cycles. Importantly, Mx GTPases also suppress the growth of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, such as currently circulating H5N1 viruses or the pandemic H1N1 virus strain of 1918. In this paper, the authors review the properties of Mx proteins and discuss their role in host defence against highly pathogenic viruses. The authors further suggest that mammalian Mx proteins may normally provide a barrier against zoonotic transmission of avian influenza A viruses and that acquired resistance to the antiviral action of human MxA may be one factor, among many others, that facilitates the spread of pandemic strains in human populations. The presently available evidence suggests that Mx proteins of domestic chickens lack the ability to efficiently combat avian influenza viruses known to cause devastating infections in this species. The deliberate introduction of an antivirally active Mx gene originating from resistant birds or mammals may confer some degree of protection and thus stop commercial birds from serving as amplifying hosts of potentially pandemic influenza virus strains.

  15. MX2 is an interferon-induced inhibitor of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Kane, Melissa; Yadav, Shalini S; Bitzegeio, Julia; Kutluay, Sebla B; Zang, Trinity; Wilson, Sam J; Schoggins, John W; Rice, Charles M; Yamashita, Masahiro; Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2013-10-24

    HIV-1 replication can be inhibited by type I interferon (IFN), and the expression of a number of gene products with anti-HIV-1 activity is induced by type I IFN. However, none of the known antiretroviral proteins can account for the ability of type I IFN to inhibit early, preintegration phases of the HIV-1 replication cycle in human cells. Here, by comparing gene expression profiles in cell lines that differ in their ability to support the inhibitory action of IFN-α at early steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, we identify myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) as an interferon-induced inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. Expression of MX2 reduces permissiveness to a variety of lentiviruses, whereas depletion of MX2 using RNA interference reduces the anti-HIV-1 potency of IFN-α. HIV-1 reverse transcription proceeds normally in MX2-expressing cells, but 2-long terminal repeat circular forms of HIV-1 DNA are less abundant, suggesting that MX2 inhibits HIV-1 nuclear import, or destabilizes nuclear HIV-1 DNA. Consistent with this notion, mutations in the HIV-1 capsid protein that are known, or suspected, to alter the nuclear import pathways used by HIV-1 confer resistance to MX2, whereas preventing cell division increases MX2 potency. Overall, these findings indicate that MX2 is an effector of the anti-HIV-1 activity of type-I IFN, and suggest that MX2 inhibits HIV-1 infection by inhibiting capsid-dependent nuclear import of subviral complexes.

  16. Strong room-temperature ultraviolet to red excitons from inorganic organic-layered perovskites, (MX4 (M=Pb, Sn, Hg; X=I-, Br-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Many varieties of layered inorganic-organic (IO) perovskite of type (MX4 (where R: organic moiety, M: divalent metal, and X: halogen) were successfully fabricated and characterized. X-ray diffraction data suggest that these inorganic and organic structures are alternatively stacked up along c-axis, where inorganic mono layers are of extended corner-shared MX6 octahedra and organic spacers are the bi-layers of organic entities. These layered perovskites show unusual room-temperature exciton absorption and photoluminescence due to the quantum and dielectric confinement-induced enhancement in the exciton binding energies. A wide spectral range of optical exciton tunability (350 to 600 nm) was observed experimentally from systematic compositional variation in (i) divalent metal ions (M=Pb, Sn, Hg), (ii) halides (X=I and Br-), and (iii) organic moieties (R). Specific photoluminescence features are due to the structure of the extended MX42- network and the eventual electronic band structure. The compositionally dependent photoluminescence of these IO hybrids could be useful in various photonic and optoelectronic devices.

  17. Interferon-induced human protein with homology to protein Mx of influenza virus-resistant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Staeheli, P; Haller, O

    1985-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies with specificity for protein Mx (a karyophilic 75,000-dalton protein induced by interferon [IFN] in mouse cells carrying the influenza virus resistance allele Mx+) detected an IFN-induced 80,000-dalton protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in fibroblasts of healthy human donors. The human protein, like protein Mx, was induced by IFN-alpha but not by IFN-gamma. Unlike the mouse protein, it was predominantly localized in the cell cytoplasm. Images PMID:3939324

  18. Precipitation of Nanosized MX at Coherent Cu-Rich Phases in Super304H Austenitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ping; Xing, Hui; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation of transmission electron microscopy reports the precipitation of nanosized and cubical-shaped incoherent Nb-rich MX at the coherent Cu-rich phases in the austenitic matrix of the Super304H steel. In addition, the nanosized Nb-rich MX phases were often observed to precipitate on dislocations during creep. It is concluded that the dense incoherent Nb-rich MX and coherent Cu-rich precipitates with a nanosized diameter contribute excellent creep resistance in the steel.

  19. Reductive mineralization of cellulose with vanadium, iron and tungsten chlorides and access to MxOy metal oxides and MxOy/C metal oxide/carbon composites.

    PubMed

    Henry, Aurélien; Hesemann, Peter; Alauzun, Johan G; Boury, Bruno

    2017-10-15

    MxOy and MxOy/C composites (M=V, Fe and W) were obtained by mineralization of cellulose with several metal chlorides. Cellulose was used both as a templating agent and as an oxygen and a carbon source. Soluble chloride molecules (VOCl3 and WCl6) and a poorly soluble ionic chloride compound (FeCl3) were chosen as metal oxide precursors. In a first time, primary metal oxide/cellulose composites were obtained via a thermal treatment by reacting urea impregnated filter paper with the corresponding metal chlorides in an autoclave at 150°C after 3days. After either pyrolysis or calcination steps of these intermediate materials, interesting metal oxides with various morphologies were obtained (V2O5, V2O3, Fe3O4, WO3, H0.23WO3), composites (V2O3/C) as well as carbides (hexagonal W2C and WC, Fe3C) This result highlight the reductive role that can play cellulose during the pyrolysis step that allows to tune the composition of MxOy/C composites. The materials were characterized by FTIR, Raman, TGA, XRD and SEM. This study highlights that cellulose can be used for a convenient preparation of a variety of highly demanded MxOy and MxOy/C composites with original shapes and morphologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of MX type particles on creep strength of ferritic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, M.; Sakasegawa, H.; Kohyama, A.; Esaka, H.; Shinozuka, K.

    2003-09-01

    Creep rupture strength at 650 °C and microstructures of the plain ferritic steels with fine particles of the NaCl type (MX) were studied. Precipitation hardening by the fine MX type particles is more effective than solid solution hardening by tungsten. Excess precipitation of MX type particles relatively weakens the grain boundaries as compared with the matrix and, as a consequence, lowers the rupture strength. The equivalent obstacle spacing for mobile dislocations is calculated from the rupture data and is comparable to the interparticle distance observed by transmission electron microscopy. By controlling the interparticle distance of MX type particles with some adjustments of the chemical composition to meet the engineering requirements, it is feasible to develop a new alloy with high rupture strength at 650 °C which is superior to the conventional ferritic steels.

  1. Computational Search for Two-Dimensional MX2 Semiconductors with Possible High Electron Mobility at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhishuo; Zhang, Wenxu; Zhang, Wanli

    2016-08-01

    We calculated the electron mobility of 14 two dimensional semiconductors with composition of MX$_2$, where M (= Mo, W, Sn, Hf, Zr and Pt) is the transition metal, and X is S, Se and Te. We treated the scattering matrix by deformation potential approximation. Long wave longitudinal acoustical and optical phonon scatterings are included. Piezoelectric scattering in the compounds without inversion symmetry is also taken into account. We found that out of the 14 compounds, WSe$_2$, PtS$_2$ and PtSe$_2$, are promising regarding to the possible high electron mobility and finite band gap. The phonon limited mobility in PtSe$_2$ reaches about 3000 cm$^2$V$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$ at room temperature which is the highest among the compounds. The bandgap under the local density approximation is 1.25 eV. Our results can be a guide for experiments to search for better two-dimensional materials for future semiconductor devices.

  2. MX Siting Investigation. Water Resources Program, Technical Summary Report. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-30

    on a regional scale. To assess the potential for water-supply development in this relatively arid region, the MX Water Resources Program was initiated...assessment of state water law, and development of water management plans. A more comprehensive description of the MX Water Resources Program and...suspended sediments, should be constructed and maintained during the construction phase. It should be noted that the development of water resources for

  3. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation Verification Study - Pine Valley Utah. Volume I. Synthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-24

    e.g., igneous , metamorphic, sedimentary). ROTARY WASH DRILLING - A boring technique in which advancement of the hole through overburden is accomplished...tract No. F04704-8O-C0006, CDRL Item 004A6. It contains an evaluation of the suitability of Pine Valley, Utah, for siting the MX Land Mobile Advanced ...process is to identify and rank geotechnically suit- T able areas which are sufficiently large for deployment of the MissilQ-X (MX), an advanced

  4. ABCG2-overexpressing H460/MX20 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice maintained original biochemical and cytological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Likun; Wang, Fang; Li, Furong; Wang, Xiaokun; Fu, Liwu

    2017-01-01

    H460/MX20 are derived from large cell lung cancer H460 cell line and then transformed into ABCG2-overexpressing cells by mitoxantrone’s induction, which are widely used in study of multidrug resistance (MDR) in vitro. To establish and spread the model of H460/MX20 cell xenografts, we investigated whether cell biological characteristics and the MDR phenotype were maintained in vivo model. Our results demonstrated that the cell proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in xH460/MX20 cells isolated from H460/MX20 cell xenografts were similar to H460/MX20 cells in vitro. Importantly, xH460/MX20 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan as H460/MX20 cells did. Furthermore, lapatinib, the inhibitor of ABCG2, potently reversed mitoxantrone- and topotecan-resistance of xH460/MX20 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that H460/MX20 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice still retain their original cytological characteristics and MDR phenotype. Thus, the H460/MX20 cell xenografts model could serve as a sound model in vivo for study on reversal MDR. PMID:28059154

  5. ABCG2-overexpressing H460/MX20 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice maintained original biochemical and cytological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Likun; Wang, Fang; Li, Furong; Wang, Xiaokun; Fu, Liwu

    2017-01-06

    H460/MX20 are derived from large cell lung cancer H460 cell line and then transformed into ABCG2-overexpressing cells by mitoxantrone's induction, which are widely used in study of multidrug resistance (MDR) in vitro. To establish and spread the model of H460/MX20 cell xenografts, we investigated whether cell biological characteristics and the MDR phenotype were maintained in vivo model. Our results demonstrated that the cell proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in xH460/MX20 cells isolated from H460/MX20 cell xenografts were similar to H460/MX20 cells in vitro. Importantly, xH460/MX20 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan as H460/MX20 cells did. Furthermore, lapatinib, the inhibitor of ABCG2, potently reversed mitoxantrone- and topotecan-resistance of xH460/MX20 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that H460/MX20 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice still retain their original cytological characteristics and MDR phenotype. Thus, the H460/MX20 cell xenografts model could serve as a sound model in vivo for study on reversal MDR.

  6. Iron deficiency stress can induce MxNRAMP1 protein endocytosis in M. xiaojinensis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haifa; Wang, Yi; Zha, Qian; Yuan, Mudan; Yin, Lili; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai

    2015-08-10

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders in plants, especially in fruit trees grown in calcareous soil. Iron deficiency stress can induce a series of adaptive responses in plants, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of which remain unclear. NRAMPs (natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins) play an important role in divalent metal ion transportation. In this study, we cloned MxNRAMP1, an NRAMP family gene from a highly iron-efficient apple genotype, Malus xiaojinensis. Further research showed that iron deficiency stress could induce MxNRAMP1 expression in roots and leaves. A protoplast transient expression system and immune electron microscopy localization techniques were used to prove that MxNRAMP1 mainly exists in the plasma membrane and vesicles. Interestingly, iron deficiency stress could induce the MxNRAMP protein to transport iron ions to specific organelles (lysosome and chloroplast) through vesicle endocytosis. Stable transgenic tobacco showed that MxNRAMP1 over-expression could promote iron absorption and accumulation in plants, and increase the plant's resistance against iron deficiency stress. These results showed that, in M. xiaojinensis, MxNRAMP1 not only plays an important role in iron absorption and transportation, it can also produce adaptive responses against iron deficiency through endocytosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brief communication: Population variation in human maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR).

    PubMed

    Burnett, Scott E; Hawkey, Diane E; Turner, Christy G

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to report the results of an analysis of maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR), a common but understudied accessory ridge that may occur both mesial and distal to the central ridge of the buccal cusp of upper premolars. We developed a new five-grade scoring plaque to better categorize MxPAR variation. Subsequently, we conducted a population analysis of MxPAR frequency in 749 dental casts of South African Indian, American Chinese, Alaskan Eskimo, Tohono O'odham (Papago), Akimel O'odham (Pima), Solomon Islander, South African Bantu, and both American and South African Whites. Northeast Asian and Asian-derived populations exhibited the highest MxPAR frequencies while Indo-European samples (South African Indians, American and South African Whites) exhibited relatively low frequencies. The Solomon Islanders and South African Bantu samples exhibited intermediate frequencies. Our analysis indicates that statistically significant differences in MxPAR frequency exist between major geographic populations. As a result, the MxPAR plaque has now been added to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System, an important contribution as maxillary premolar traits are underrepresented in analyses of dental morphology. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Characterization of MxFIT, an iron deficiency induced transcriptional factor in Malus xiaojinensis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lili; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Mudan; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai

    2014-02-01

    Iron deficiency often results in nutritional disorder in fruit trees. Transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of iron uptake. In this study, we isolated an iron deficiency response transcription factor gene, MxFIT, from an iron-efficient apple genotype of Malus xiaojinensis. MxFIT encoded a basic helix-loop-helix protein and contained a 966 bp open reading frame. MxFIT protein was targeted to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells and showed strong transcriptional activation in yeast cells. Spatiotemporal expression analysis revealed that MxFIT was up-regulated in roots under iron deficiency at both mRNA and protein levels, while almost no expression was detected in leaves irrespective of iron supply. Ectopic expression of MxFIT resulted in enhanced iron deficiency responses in Arabidopsis under iron deficiency and stronger resistance to iron deficiency. Thus, MxFIT might be involved in iron uptake and plays an important role in iron deficiency response.

  9. Nanosized MX Precipitates in Ultra-Low-Carbon Ferritic/Martensitic Heat-Resistant Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Feng-Shi; Jung, Woo-Sang

    2009-02-01

    Nanosized MX precipitates in ultra-low-carbon ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant 9Cr-W-Mo-VNbTiN steels were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) using carbon film replicas. The steels were prepared by vacuum induction melting followed by hot forging and rolling into plates. The plates were normalized at 1100 °C for 1 hour, cooled in air, and tempered at 700 °C for 1 hour. The results show that bimodal nanosized MX precipitates distribute densely and homogeneously in the matrix within martensitic lath after normalizing-and-tempering heat treatment. The larger nanosized MX precipitates with the size of 30 to 50 nm are rich in Nb, while the smaller ones with the size of about 10 nm contain less Nb but more V. Small addition of Ti causes an increase in the number of the larger nanosized MX precipitates. The total number density of the nanosized MX precipitates in the ultra-low-carbon ferritic/martensitic steels is measured to be over 300/ μm2, much higher than that in conventional ferritic/martensitic steels. Short-term creep test results show that the ultra-low-carbon ferritic/martensitic steels with high dense nanosized MX precipitates have much higher creep rupture strength than conventional ASME-P92 steel. The strength degradation of the ultra-low-carbon ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels during creep is also discussed in this article.

  10. New polymorphism of the influenza virus resistance Mx1 gene in Iberian domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Godino, R F; Fernández, A I

    2016-09-01

    Mx1 (Myxovirus (Influenza virus) resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78) gene has been implicated in the resistance to a wide range of RNA viruses including influenza A in several species such as Sus scrofa. In the present study a 28-bp deletion in exon 14 of the Mx1 gene has been identified in Iberian domestic pigs but not in other domestic breeds neither in wild boars. The mutation produces a frameshift giving a protein with 6 amino acid substitutions and the extension of the C-terminal region with additional 20 amino acids with respect to the wild type MX1 protein. The new allelic polymorphism affects the antiviral domain of the MX1 protein and therefore might impact its anti-influenza virus activity. It has been demonstrated that polymorphisms in the Mx1 murine locus, affect the survival rate of mice upon experimental infection with influenza virus. It might be possible to improve the innate resistance of pigs to influenza virus infection by determining the porcine Mx1 alleles with more potent antiviral activity and genetically selecting animals bearing such alleles.

  11. New polymorphism of the influenza virus resistance Mx1 gene in Iberian domestic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Godino, RF; Fernández, AI

    2016-01-01

    Mx1 (Myxovirus (Influenza virus) resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78) gene has been implicated in the resistance to a wide range of RNA viruses including influenza A in several species such as Sus scrofa. In the present study a 28-bp deletion in exon 14 of the Mx1 gene has been identified in Iberian domestic pigs but not in other domestic breeds neither in wild boars. The mutation produces a frameshift giving a protein with 6 amino acid substitutions and the extension of the C-terminal region with additional 20 amino acids with respect to the wild type MX1 protein. The new allelic polymorphism affects the antiviral domain of the MX1 protein and therefore might impact its anti-influenza virus activity. It has been demonstrated that polymorphisms in the Mx1 murine locus, affect the survival rate of mice upon experimental infection with influenza virus. It might be possible to improve the innate resistance of pigs to influenza virus infection by determining the porcine Mx1 alleles with more potent antiviral activity and genetically selecting animals bearing such alleles. PMID:27774491

  12. Automatic sample Dewar for MX beam-line

    SciTech Connect

    Charignon, T.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.; Theveneau, P.

    2014-01-29

    It is very common for crystals of large biological macromolecules to show considerable variation in quality of their diffraction. In order to increase the number of samples that are tested for diffraction quality before any full data collections at the ESRF*, an automatic sample Dewar has been implemented. Conception and performances of the Dewar are reported in this paper. The automatic sample Dewar has 240 samples capability with automatic loading/unloading ports. The storing Dewar is capable to work with robots and it can be integrated in a full automatic MX** beam-line. The samples are positioned in the front of the loading/unloading ports with and automatic rotating plate. A view port has been implemented for data matrix camera reading on each sample loaded in the Dewar. At last, the Dewar is insulated with polyurethane foam that keeps the liquid nitrogen consumption below 1.6 L/h. At last, the static insulation also makes vacuum equipment and maintenance unnecessary. This Dewar will be useful for increasing the number of samples tested in synchrotrons.

  13. Optics Concept for a Pair of Undulator Beamlines for MX.

    PubMed

    Berman, L E; Allaire, M; Chance, M R; Hendrickson, W A; Héroux, A; Jakoncic, J; Liu, Q; Orville, A M; Robinson, H H; Schneider, D K; Shi, W; Soares, A S; Stojanoff, V; Stoner-Ma, D; Sweet, R M

    2011-09-01

    We describe a concept for x-ray optics to feed a pair of macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines which view canted undulator radiation sources in the same storage ring straight section. It can be deployed at NSLS-II and at other low-emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources where canted undulators are permitted, and makes the most of these sources and beamline floor space, even when the horizontal angle between the two canted undulator emissions is as little as 1-2 mrad. The concept adopts the beam-separation principles employed at the 23-ID (GM/CA-CAT) beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), wherein tandem horizontally-deflecting mirrors separate one undulator beam from the other, following monochromatization by a double-crystal monochromator. The scheme described here would, in contrast, deliver the two tunable monochromatic undulator beams to separate endstations that address rather different and somewhat complementary purposes, with further beam conditioning imposed as required. A downstream microfocusing beamline would employ dual-stage focusing for work at the micron scale and, unique to this design, switch to single stage focusing for larger beams. On the other hand, the upstream, more highly automated beamline would only employ single stage focusing.

  14. Optics Concept for a Pair of Undulator Beamlines for MX*

    PubMed Central

    Berman, L.E.; Allaire, M.; Chance, M.R.; Hendrickson, W.A.; Héroux, A.; Jakoncic, J.; Liu, Q.; Orville, A.M.; Robinson, H.H.; Schneider, D.K.; Shi, W.; Soares, A.S.; Stojanoff, V.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a concept for x-ray optics to feed a pair of macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines which view canted undulator radiation sources in the same storage ring straight section. It can be deployed at NSLS-II and at other low-emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources where canted undulators are permitted, and makes the most of these sources and beamline floor space, even when the horizontal angle between the two canted undulator emissions is as little as 1-2 mrad. The concept adopts the beam-separation principles employed at the 23-ID (GM/CA-CAT) beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), wherein tandem horizontally-deflecting mirrors separate one undulator beam from the other, following monochromatization by a double-crystal monochromator. The scheme described here would, in contrast, deliver the two tunable monochromatic undulator beams to separate endstations that address rather different and somewhat complementary purposes, with further beam conditioning imposed as required. A downstream microfocusing beamline would employ dual-stage focusing for work at the micron scale and, unique to this design, switch to single stage focusing for larger beams. On the other hand, the upstream, more highly automated beamline would only employ single stage focusing. PMID:21822346

  15. The Cytoplasmic Location of Chicken Mx Is Not the Determining Factor for Its Lack of Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Benfield, Camilla T. O.; Lyall, Jon W.; Tiley, Laurence S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chicken Mx belongs to the Mx family of interferon-induced dynamin-like GTPases, which in some species possess potent antiviral properties. Conflicting data exist for the antiviral capability of chicken Mx. Reports of anti-influenza activity of alleles encoding an Asn631 polymorphism have not been supported by subsequent studies. The normal cytoplasmic localisation of chicken Mx may influence its antiviral capacity. Here we report further studies to determine the antiviral potential of chicken Mx against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an economically important cytoplasmic RNA virus of chickens, and Thogoto virus, an orthomyxovirus known to be exquisitely sensitive to the cytoplasmic MxA protein from humans. We also report the consequences of re-locating chicken Mx to the nucleus. Methodology/Principal Findings Chicken Mx was tested in virus infection assays using NDV. Neither the Asn631 nor Ser631 Mx alleles (when transfected into 293T cells) showed inhibition of virus-directed gene expression when the cells were subsequently infected with NDV. Human MxA however did show significant inhibition of NDV-directed gene expression. Chicken Mx failed to inhibit a Thogoto virus (THOV) minireplicon system in which the cytoplasmic human MxA protein showed potent and specific inhibition. Relocalisation of chicken Mx to the nucleus was achieved by inserting the Simian Virus 40 large T antigen nuclear localisation sequence (SV40 NLS) at the N-terminus of chicken Mx. Nuclear re-localised chicken Mx did not inhibit influenza (A/PR/8/34) gene expression during virus infection in cell culture or influenza polymerase activity in A/PR/8/34 or A/Turkey/50-92/91 minireplicon systems. Conclusions/Significance The chicken Mx protein (Asn631) lacks inhibitory effects against THOV and NDV, and is unable to suppress influenza replication when artificially re-localised to the cell nucleus. Thus, the natural cytoplasmic localisation of the chicken Mx protein does not account for its

  16. Inactivation of the Progesterone Receptor in Mx1+ Cells Potentiates Osteogenesis in Calvaria but Not in Long Bone

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhendong A.; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Lane, Nancy E.; Yao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effect of progesterone on bone remains elusive. We previously reported that global progesterone receptor (PR) knockout mice displayed high bone mass phenotype, suggesting that PR influences bone growth and modeling. Recently, Mx1+ cells were characterized to be mesenchymal stem cell-like pluripotent Cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the PR in Mx1+ cells regulates osteogenesis. Using the Mx1-Cre;mT/mG reporter mouse model, we found that the calvarial cells exhibited minimal background Mx1-Cre activity prior to Cre activation by IFNα treatment as compared to the bone marrow stromal cells. IFNα treatment significantly activated Mx1-Cre in the calvarial cells. When the PR gene was deleted in the Mx1-Cre;PR-flox calvarial cells in vitro, significantly higher levels of expression of osteoblast maturation marker genes (RUNX2, Osteocalcin, and Dmp1) and osteogenic potential were detected. The PR-deficient calvariae exhibited greater bone volume, especially in the males. Although Mx1-Cre activity could be induced on the bone surface in vivo, the Mx1+ cells did not differentiate into osteocytes in long bones. Bone volumes at the distal femurs and the bone turnover marker serum Osteocalcin were similar between the Mx1-Cre;PR-flox mutant mice and the corresponding wild types in both sexes. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that blocking progesterone signaling via PRs in calvarial Mx1+ cells promoted osteoblast differentiation in the calvaria. Mx1+ was expressed by heterogeneous cells in bone marrow and did not differentiate into osteocyte during long bone development in vivo. Selectively inactivating the PR gene in Mx1+ cells affected the membrane bone formation but did not affect peripheral skeletal homeostasis. PMID:26431032

  17. Effects of Nb and V on the Precipitation Phases of MX in Q345E Applicable to Cryogenic Flange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Dingdong; Xia, Yunjin

    2015-04-01

    Thermodynamic software (Thermo-Calc) is utilized to Q345E applicable to cryogenic flange. The aim is to study the equilibrium precipitation phases between 400 and 1600 °C, and the solubility of Nb and V in austenite. The effects of alloying elements, such as C, N, Nb and V, on these equilibrium precipitation phases are also discussed. Besides theoretical calculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to observe these precipitation phases. The results show that main equilibrium precipitation phases are M7C3, MX#1 (Nb-rich), MX#2 (V-rich) and AlN. Among them, the MX#1 phase is composed of major elements (Nb, C, and N) and minor elements (V and Cr). For MX#2 phase, its major elements are V, C, Nb, and N, and minor element is Cr. The precipitation amount and temperature of MX#1 phase were controlled by Nb content, and little affected by the contents of C, N and V. TEM results reveal that the size of precipitation phases varied from several nanometers to more than 100 nm. Large precipitation particles belong to MX#1 phase (Nb-rich), and their morphology tends to be cubic. On the other side, the small precipitation particles are attributed to MX#2 phase (V-rich), and their morphology is spherical or elliptical. These results are consistent with the thermodynamic calculation results about phase composition and precipitation temperature of MX#1 and MX#2.

  18. A functional GTP-binding motif is necessary for antiviral activity of Mx proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Pitossi, F; Blank, A; Schröder, A; Schwarz, A; Hüssi, P; Schwemmle, M; Pavlovic, J; Staeheli, P

    1993-01-01

    Mx proteins are interferon-induced GTPases that inhibit the multiplication of certain negative-stranded RNA viruses. However, it has been unclear whether GTPase activity is necessary for antiviral function. Here, we have introduced mutations into the tripartite GTP-binding consensus elements of the human MxA and mouse Mx1 proteins. The invariant lysine residue of the first consensus motif, which interacts with the beta- and gamma-phosphates of bound GTP in other GTPases, was deleted or replaced by methionine or alanine. These Mx mutants and appropriate controls were then tested for antiviral activity, GTP-binding capacity, and GTPase activity. We found a direct correlation between the GTP-binding capacities and GTP hydrolysis activities of the purified Mx mutants in vitro and their antiviral activities in transfected 3T3 cells, demonstrating that a functional GTP-binding motif is necessary for virus inhibition. Our results, thus, firmly establish antiviral activity as a novel function of a GTPase, emphasizing the enormous functional diversity of GTPase superfamily members. Images PMID:8411374

  19. Evolutionary analysis identifies an MX2 haplotype associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Manuela; Biasin, Mara; Cagliani, Rachele; Gnudi, Federica; Saulle, Irma; Ibba, Salomè; Filippi, Giulia; Yahyaei, Sarah; Tresoldi, Claudia; Riva, Stefania; Trabattoni, Daria; De Gioia, Luca; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Mazzotta, Francesco; Forni, Diego; Pontremoli, Chiara; Pineda, Juan Antonio; Pozzoli, Uberto; Rivero-Juarez, Antonio; Caruz, Antonio; Clerici, Mario

    2014-09-01

    The protein product of the myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) gene restricts HIV-1 and simian retroviruses. We demonstrate that MX2 evolved adaptively in mammals with distinct sites representing selection targets in distinct branches; selection mainly involved residues in loop 4, previously shown to carry antiviral determinants. Modeling data indicated that positively selected sites form a continuous surface on loop 4, which folds into two antiparallel α-helices protruding from the stalk domain. A population genetics-phylogenetics approach indicated that the coding region of MX2 mainly evolved under negative selection in the human lineage. Nonetheless, population genetic analyses demonstrated that natural selection operated on MX2 during the recent history of human populations: distinct selective events drove the frequency increase of two haplotypes in the populations of Asian and European ancestry. The Asian haplotype carries a susceptibility allele for melanoma; the European haplotype is tagged by rs2074560, an intronic variant. Analyses performed on three independent European cohorts of HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals with different geographic origin and distinct exposure route showed that the ancestral (G) allele of rs2074560 protects from HIV-1 infection with a recessive effect (combined P = 1.55 × 10(-4)). The same allele is associated with lower in vitro HIV-1 replication and increases MX2 expression levels in response to IFN-α. Data herein exploit evolutionary information to identify a novel host determinant of HIV-1 infection susceptibility.

  20. Cytosine deaminase MX cassettes as positive/negative selectable markers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hartzog, Phillip E; Nicholson, Bradly P; McCusker, John H

    2005-07-30

    We describe positive/negative selectable cytosine deaminase MX cassettes for use in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The basis of positive selection for cytosine deaminase (Fcy1) activity is that (a) fcy1 strains are unable to grow on medium containing cytosine as a sole nitrogen source and (b) fcy1 ura3 strains are unable to grow on medium containing cytosine as the sole pyrimidine source. Conversely, as 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) is toxic to cytosine deaminase-producing cells, fcy1 strains are resistant to 5FC. FCY1MX and FCA1MX cassettes, containing open reading frames (ORFs) of S. cerevisiae FCY1 and Candida albicans FCA1, respectively, were constructed and used to disrupt targeted genes in S. cerevisiae fcy1 strains. In addition, new direct repeat cassettes, kanPR, FCA1PR, FCY1PR and CaURA3PR, were developed to allow efficient deletion of target genes in cells containing MX3 repeats. Finally, the FCY1- and FCA1MX3 or PR direct repeat cassettes can be readily recycled after 5FC counter-selection on both synthetic and rich media.

  1. Optically pumped quantum Mx-MR magnetometer with high oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhi-Chao; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Kai-Yong; Luo, Hui

    2015-08-01

    A dip of the transverse component of the magnetic moment as a function of resonance frequency-detuning will emerge when the intensity of oscillating magnetic field exceeds a specific value, which is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. The linewidth of magnetic-resonance signal can be much smaller than when the Mx-MR magnetometer operates on condition that the intensity of oscillating magnetic field is smaller than this specific value, and the Mx-MR magnetometer can possess a much higher signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental result shows that the sensitivity of Mx-MR magnetometer can be improved by an order of magnitude under this condition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475192) and the Science Research Program of National University of Defense Technology, China (Grant No. JC140702).

  2. Improvement influenza HA2 DNA vaccine cellular and humoral immune responses with Mx bio adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Sina; Shahsavandi, Shahla; Maddadgar, Omid

    2017-03-01

    Immunization with DNA vaccines as a novel alternative to conventional vaccination strategy requires adjuvant for improving vaccine efficacy. The conserved immunogenic HA2 subunit, which harbors neutralizing epitopes is a promising vaccine candidate against influenza viruses. In this study, for the first time we explore the idea of using host interferon inducible Mx protein to increase the immunogenicity of HA2 H9N2 influenza DNA vaccine. The potency and safety of the Mx adjuvanted-HA2 vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice by different prime-boost strategies. To assess the effect of the vaccination on the virus clearance rate, mice were challenged with homologous influenza virus. Administration of the adjuvanted vaccine and boosting with the same regimen could effectively enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses in treated mice. These data demonstrated that Mx as host defense peptide can be potentiated for improving influenza vaccine efficacy.

  3. Genomic structure, organisation, and promoter analysis of the bovine (Bos taurus) Mx1 gene.

    PubMed

    Gérardin, Joël A; Baise, Etienne A; Pire, Grégory A; Leroy, Michaël P-P; Desmecht, Daniel J-M

    2004-02-04

    Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility that the identification of an antiviral isoform of a bovine MX protein would allow the implementation of genetic selection programs aimed at improving innate resistance of cattle. With this potential application in mind, the present study was designed to isolate the bovine Mx1 gene including its promoter region and to investigate its genomic organisation and promoter reactivity. The bovine Mx1 gene is made up of 15 exons. All exon-intron boundaries conformed to the consensus sequences. A PCR product that contained a approximately 1-kb, 5'-flanking region upstream from the putative transcription start site was sequenced. Unexpectedly, this DNA region did not contain TATA or CCAAT motifs. A computer scan of the region disclosed a series of putative binding sites for known cytokines and transcription factors. There was a GAAAN(1-2)GAAA(C/G) motif, typical of an interferon-sensitive responsive element, between -118 and -107 from the putative transcription start site. There were also a NF-kappaB, two interleukin-6 binding sites, two Sp1 sites and five GC-rich boxes. The region also contained 12 stretches of the GAAA type, as described in all IFN-inducible genes. Bovine Mx1 expression was assessed by Northern blotting and immunofluorescence in the Madin Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK) cell line treated with several stimuli. In conclusion, the bovine Mx1 gene and promoter region share the major structural and functional characteristics displayed by their homologs described in the rainbow trout, chicken, mouse and man.

  4. P-NITROPHENOL AND GLUTATHIONE RESPONSE IN MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) EXPOSED TO MX, A DRINKING WATER CARCINOGEN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    When chlorine is introduced into public drinking water for disinfection, it can react with organic compounds in surface waters to form toxic by-products such as 3-chloro-4- (dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX). We investigated the effect of exposure to MX on cytochr...

  5. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenen, Antje; Gillespie, Leah; Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der; Khromykh, Alexander; Mackenzie, Jason

    2014-01-05

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV{sub KUN} particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV{sub KUN} under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV{sub KUN} assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV{sub KUN} assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition.

  6. p-Nitrophenol and glutathione response in medaka (Oryzias latipes)exposed to MX, a drinking water carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    When chlorine is introduced into public drinking water for disinfection, it can react with organic compounds in surface waters to form toxic by-products such as 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX). We investigated the effect of exposure to MX on cytochrome ...

  7. Pandemic Influenza A Viruses Escape from Restriction by Human MxA through Adaptive Mutations in the Nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Veronika; Zell, Roland; Zimmermann, Petra; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg; Schwemmle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The interferon-induced dynamin-like MxA GTPase restricts the replication of influenza A viruses. We identified adaptive mutations in the nucleoprotein (NP) of pandemic strains A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 (1918) and A/Hamburg/4/2009 (pH1N1) that confer MxA resistance. These resistance-associated amino acids in NP differ between the two strains but form a similar discrete surface-exposed cluster in the body domain of NP, indicating that MxA resistance evolved independently. The 1918 cluster was conserved in all descendent strains of seasonal influenza viruses. Introduction of this cluster into the NP of the MxA-sensitive influenza virus A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/04 (H5N1) resulted in a gain of MxA resistance coupled with a decrease in viral replication fitness. Conversely, introduction of MxA-sensitive amino acids into pH1N1 NP enhanced viral growth in Mx-negative cells. We conclude that human MxA represents a barrier against zoonotic introduction of avian influenza viruses and that adaptive mutations in the viral NP should be carefully monitored. PMID:23555271

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Commensalibacter papalotli MX01, a Symbiont Identified from the Guts of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Sánchez-Quinto, Andrés; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-03-06

    We report the draft genome sequence of Commensalibacter papalotli strain MX01, isolated from the intestines of an overwintering monarch butterfly. The 2,332,652-bp AT-biased genome of C. papalotli MX01 is the smallest genome for a member of the Acetobacteraceae family and provides the first evidence of plasmids in Commensalibacter.

  9. p-Nitrophenol and glutathione response in medaka (Oryzias latipes)exposed to MX, a drinking water carcinogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    When chlorine is introduced into public drinking water for disinfection, it can react with organic compounds in surface waters to form toxic by-products such as 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX). We investigated the effect of exposure to MX on cytochrome ...

  10. Interferon-induced, antiviral human MxA protein localizes to a distinct subcompartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Stertz, Silke; Reichelt, Mike; Krijnse-Locker, Jacomine; Mackenzie, Jason; Simpson, Jeremy C; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg

    2006-09-01

    Human MxA protein belongs to the superfamily of dynamin-like large GTPases that are involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. MxA is induced by interferons-alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) and is a key component of the antiviral response against RNA viruses. Here, we show that MxA localizes to membranes that are positive for specific markers of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, such as Syntaxin17, but is excluded from other membrane compartments. Overexpression of MxA leads to a characteristic reorganization of the associated membranes. Interestingly, Hook3, mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and Lamp-1, which normally accumulate in cis- Golgi, endosomes, and lysosomes, respectively, also colocalized with MxA, indicating that these markers were redistributed to the MxA-positive compartment. Functional assays, however, did not show any effect of MxA on endocytosis or the secretory pathway. The present results demonstrate that MxA is an IFN-induced antiviral effector protein that resembles the constitutively expressed large GTPase family members in its capacity to localize to and reorganize intracellular membranes.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Commensalibacter papalotli MX01, a Symbiont Identified from the Guts of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quinto, Andrés; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Commensalibacter papalotli strain MX01, isolated from the intestines of an overwintering monarch butterfly. The 2,332,652-bp AT-biased genome of C. papalotli MX01 is the smallest genome for a member of the Acetobacteraceae family and provides the first evidence of plasmids in Commensalibacter. PMID:24604647

  12. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    8217 AD-AI13 146 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 B/7 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN AGOITI--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED E-TR...50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY SEVEN ADDITIONAL VALLEYS NEVADA/UTAH SITING AREA VOLUME IV 4Prepared for: U. S. Department of the Air Force Ballistic...VALLEY MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEfV STUDY AREA OXJNOARY SEPT. 26, 1960 I MX SITING INVESTIGATION 27 FEDC t97 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE I ik 320’- 36 37 4

  13. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    AO-AI13 14𔃾 ERTEC WESTERN INC LONG BEACH CA F/6 7/4 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN ADDITI-ETC(U) JUN Al F04704-80-C-OGO6...DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC ocT :g 70A -- ~’ .9 ’I K ii I / "~1 - i~ / . . ..1’ ~ ~- .. ~ ~1 I E-TR-50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY...144 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 7/4 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY. SEVEN AOOITI-ETCIU) JUN 81 FON7O-80-C-0006

  14. Recent progress of photodetectors based on MX2/graphene van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang; Qin, Shiqiao; Fang, Jinyue; Peng, Gang; Zhang, Xueao

    2016-10-01

    Recently, heterostructures, combining the unique advantages of both graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, also known as MX2), have exhibited extraordinary photo-electrical properties, thus attracted tremendous interests worldwide. In this paper, we overviewed recent progress of MX2/Graphene van der Waals heterostructures, including the preparation methods, relevant parameters in opto-electronic measurements, physical mechanisms, existing experimental results and encountered problems. Here, we focus to cover the development of entire field, and provide a comprehensive and accurate understanding concerning this field, which may be helpful for interested researchers in this area.

  15. Possibilities and limitations of A2MX4 and AMX3 crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchanska, Malgorzata; Kaluza, Stanislaw; Belka, Radoslaw; Plaza, M.

    2003-07-01

    Materials with non-linear properties such as thermal hysteresis of birefringence, electrooptic, thermooptic, piezooptic and thermochromic phenomena are very interesting both from scientific and practical points of view. They can be applied to photonic technology as optical memories, optical modulators, temperature and stress sensors. The examples of such materials are A2MX4 and AMX3 crystals (where A organic cation, M transition metal, X halogens). Possibilities and limitation of the A2MX4 and AMX3 crystals growth from water and organic solution have been discussed in order to determine the optimal parameters of the growth.

  16. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) Mx gene promoters respond differentially to IPNV and VHSV infections in RTG-2 cells.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, J A; Fernández-Trujillo, M A; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Álvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2016-03-01

    The understanding of virus-host interactions relies on the knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the type I interferon (IFN I)-stimulated genes (ISGs). Among ISGs, those coding Mx proteins play a main role due to their direct antiviral activity. The study of these genes in gilthead seabream is interesting, since this species displays high natural resistance to viral diseases, being asymptomatic carrier of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Gilthead seabream has three Mx genes (Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3), encoding proteins with a wide spectrum of antiviral activity. The structure of the three promoters (pMx1, pMx2 and pMx3) has been previously disclosed, and their response to poly I:C in RTG-2 cells characterized. To further analyze these promoters, their response to two viral infections has been evaluated in the present study. For that purpose, RTG-2 cells transiently transfected with the luciferase gene under the control of each promoter were inoculated with either IPNV or VHSV at two different doses. The highest and lowest fold induction values were recorded for pMx2 and pMx3, respectively. The promoter induction was always stronger after VHSV inoculation than in IPNV-inoculated cells. In addition, the higher dose of VHSV tested induced higher response of the three promoters, whereas in IPNV-infected cells the highest induction was recorded after inoculation with the lower viral dose. To further study the response of the Mx2 promoter, RTG-2 cells stably transfected with the luciferase gene under the control of pMx2 were stimulated with poly I:C and subsequently infected with IPNV or VHSV. Interestingly, IPNV infection inhibited the induction caused by poly I:C, suggesting an antagonistic activity of IPNV on Mx2 transcription. In contrast, VHSV infection did not alter the response triggered by poly I:C. These results highlight the specific regulation that controls the activity of each promoter, and support the

  17. Expression of the interferon-alpha/beta-inducible bovine Mx1 dynamin interferes with replication of rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Leroy, M; Pire, G; Baise, E; Desmecht, D

    2006-03-01

    Rabies is a fatal anthropozoonotic viral infection of the central nervous system that remains a serious public health problem in many countries. As several animal cases of spontaneous survival to infection were reported and because type 1 interferons were shown to protect against the virus, it was suggested that innate resistance mechanisms exist. Among the antiviral proteins that are synthesized in response to interferon-alpha/beta stimulation, Mx proteins from several species are long known to block the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). As both VSV and rabies virus belongs to the Rhabdoviridae family, this study was started with the aim to establish whether the anti-VSV activity of a mammalian Mx protein could be extended to rabies virus. This question was addressed by inoculating the virus onto a bovine Mx1 or human MxA-expressing Vero cell clone. Plaque formation was unambiguously blocked, and viral yields were reduced 100- to 1000-fold by bovine Mx1 expression for both SAG2 and SADB19 viral strains. In opposition, only SAG2 strain could be inhibited by the expression of human MxA protein. The effect of both proteins expression was then evaluated at the viral protein expression level. Again, boMx1 was able to repress protein expression in both strain, whereas only SAG2 proteins were inhibited in human MxA-expressing cells. These results suggest that protection conferred by interferon-alpha/beta against rabies could be, at least partially, attributable to the Mx pathway. Alternatively, bovine Mx1 could be unique in its ability to repress rabies virus which, if confirmed in vivo, would open an avenue for the development of new antirabies therapeutic strategies.

  18. Functional Comparison of Mx1 from Two Different Mouse Species Reveals the Involvement of Loop L4 in the Antiviral Activity against Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Verhelst, Judith; Spitaels, Jan; Nürnberger, Cindy; De Vlieger, Dorien; Ysenbaert, Tine; Staeheli, Peter; Fiers, Walter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interferon-induced Mx1 gene is an important part of the mammalian defense against influenza viruses. Mus musculus Mx1 inhibits influenza A virus replication and transcription by suppressing the polymerase activity of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). Here, we compared the anti-influenza virus activity of Mx1 from Mus musculus A2G with that of its ortholog from Mus spretus. We found that the antiviral activity of M. spretus Mx1 was less potent than that of M. musculus Mx1. Comparison of the M. musculus Mx1 sequence with the M. spretus Mx1 sequence revealed 25 amino acid differences, over half of which were present in the GTPase domain and 2 of which were present in loop L4. However, the in vitro GTPase activity of Mx1 from the two mouse species was similar. Replacement of one of the residues in loop L4 in M. spretus Mx1 by the corresponding residue of A2G Mx1 increased its antiviral activity. We also show that deletion of loop L4 prevented the binding of Mx1 to influenza A virus nucleoprotein and, hence, abolished the antiviral activity of mouse Mx1. These results indicate that loop L4 of mouse Mx1 is a determinant of antiviral activity. Our findings suggest that Mx proteins from different mammals use a common mechanism to inhibit influenza A viruses. IMPORTANCE Mx proteins are evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates and inhibit a wide range of viruses. Still, the exact details of their antiviral mechanisms remain largely unknown. Functional comparison of the Mx genes from two species that diverged relatively recently in evolution can provide novel insights into these mechanisms. We show that both Mus musculus A2G Mx1 and Mus spretus Mx1 target the influenza virus nucleoprotein. We also found that loop L4 in mouse Mx1 is crucial for its antiviral activity, as was recently reported for primate MxA. This indicates that human and mouse Mx proteins, which have diverged by 75 million years of evolution, recognize and inhibit influenza A viruses by a common

  19. Temperate Myxococcus xanthus phage Mx8 encodes a DNA adenine methylase, Mox.

    PubMed

    Magrini, V; Salmi, D; Thomas, D; Herbert, S K; Hartzell, P L; Youderian, P

    1997-07-01

    Temperate bacteriophage Mx8 of Myxococcus xanthus encapsidates terminally repetitious DNA, packaged as circular permutations of its 49-kbp genome. During both lytic and lysogenic development, Mx8 expresses a nonessential DNA methylase, Mox, which modifies adenine residues in occurrences of XhoI and PstI recognition sites, CTCGAG and CTGCAG, respectively, on both phage DNA and the host chromosome. The mox gene is necessary for methylase activity in vivo, because an amber mutation in the mox gene abolishes activity. The mox gene is the only phage gene required for methylase activity in vivo, because ectopic expression of mox as part of the M. xanthus mglBA operon results in partial methylation of the host chromosome. The predicted amino acid sequence of Mox is related most closely to that of the methylase involved in the cell cycle control of Caulobacter crescentus. We speculate that Mox acts to protect Mx8 phage DNA against restriction upon infection of a subset of natural M. xanthus hosts. One natural isolate of M. xanthus, the lysogenic source of related phage Mx81, produces a restriction endonuclease with the cleavage specificity of endonuclease BstBI.

  20. Induction of Abasic Sites by the Drinking-Water Mutagen MX in Salmonella TA100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagen X (MX) is a chlorinated furanone that accounts for more of the mutagenic activity of drinking water than any other disinfection by-product. It is one of the most potent base-substitution mutagens in the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay, producing primarily GC to TA mu...

  1. MX, A DRINKING WATER CARCINOGEN, DOES NOT INDUCE MUTATIONS IN THE LIVER OF CII TRANSGENIC MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX, a drinking water carcinogen, does not induce mutations in the liver of cII transgenic medaka
    Geter, DR; Winn, RN; Fournie, JW; Norris, MB; DeAngelo, AB; and Hawkins, WE

    Abstract

    Geter et al., page 2
    Abstract
    "Salmonella" mutagenicity assays have shown t...

  2. MxCuBE: a synchrotron beamline control environment customized for macromolecular crystallography experiments

    PubMed Central

    Gabadinho, José; Beteva, Antonia; Guijarro, Matias; Rey-Bakaikoa, Vicente; Spruce, Darren; Bowler, Matthew W.; Brockhauser, Sandor; Flot, David; Gordon, Elspeth J.; Hall, David R.; Lavault, Bernard; McCarthy, Andrew A.; McCarthy, Joanne; Mitchell, Edward; Monaco, Stéphanie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Nurizzo, Didier; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Thibault, Xavier; Walsh, Martin A.; Leonard, Gordon A.; McSweeney, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    The design and features of a beamline control software system for macromolecular crystallography (MX) experiments developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. This system, MxCuBE, allows users to easily and simply interact with beamline hardware components and provides automated routines for common tasks in the operation of a synchrotron beamline dedicated to experiments in MX. Additional functionality is provided through intuitive interfaces that enable the assessment of the diffraction characteristics of samples, experiment planning, automatic data collection and the on-line collection and analysis of X-ray emission spectra. The software can be run in a tandem client-server mode that allows for remote control and relevant experimental parameters and results are automatically logged in a relational database, ISPyB. MxCuBE is modular, flexible and extensible and is currently deployed on eight macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the ESRF. Additionally, the software is installed at MAX-lab beamline I911-3 and at BESSY beamline BL14.1. PMID:20724792

  3. MxCuBE: a synchrotron beamline control environment customized for macromolecular crystallography experiments.

    PubMed

    Gabadinho, José; Beteva, Antonia; Guijarro, Matias; Rey-Bakaikoa, Vicente; Spruce, Darren; Bowler, Matthew W; Brockhauser, Sandor; Flot, David; Gordon, Elspeth J; Hall, David R; Lavault, Bernard; McCarthy, Andrew A; McCarthy, Joanne; Mitchell, Edward; Monaco, Stéphanie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Nurizzo, Didier; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Thibault, Xavier; Walsh, Martin A; Leonard, Gordon A; McSweeney, Sean M

    2010-09-01

    The design and features of a beamline control software system for macromolecular crystallography (MX) experiments developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. This system, MxCuBE, allows users to easily and simply interact with beamline hardware components and provides automated routines for common tasks in the operation of a synchrotron beamline dedicated to experiments in MX. Additional functionality is provided through intuitive interfaces that enable the assessment of the diffraction characteristics of samples, experiment planning, automatic data collection and the on-line collection and analysis of X-ray emission spectra. The software can be run in a tandem client-server mode that allows for remote control and relevant experimental parameters and results are automatically logged in a relational database, ISPyB. MxCuBE is modular, flexible and extensible and is currently deployed on eight macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the ESRF. Additionally, the software is installed at MAX-lab beamline I911-3 and at BESSY beamline BL14.1.

  4. MX, A DRINKING WATER CARCINOGEN, DOES NOT INDUCE MUTATIONS IN THE LIVER OF CII TRANSGENIC MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX, a drinking water carcinogen, does not induce mutations in the liver of cII transgenic medaka
    Geter, DR; Winn, RN; Fournie, JW; Norris, MB; DeAngelo, AB; and Hawkins, WE

    Abstract

    Geter et al., page 2
    Abstract
    "Salmonella" mutagenicity assays have shown t...

  5. MoS2/MX2 heterobilayers: bandgap engineering via tensile strain or external electrical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ning; Guo, Hongyan; Li, Lei; Dai, Jun; Wang, Lu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Wu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-02-01

    We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se, all heterobilayers show semiconducting characteristics with an indirect bandgap with the exception of the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer which retains the direct-bandgap character of the constituent monolayer. For M = Fe, V; X = S, Se, the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers exhibit metallic characters. Particular attention of this study has been focused on engineering the bandgap of the TMD heterobilayer materials via application of either a tensile strain or an external electric field. We find that with increasing either the biaxial or uniaxial tensile strain, the MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can undergo a semiconductor-to-metal transition. For the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer, a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition may occur beyond a critical biaxial or uniaxial strain. For M (=Fe, V) and X (=S, Se), the magnetic moments of both metal and chalcogen atoms are enhanced when the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers are under a biaxial tensile strain. Moreover, the bandgap of MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can be reduced by the vertical electric field. For two heterobilayers MSe2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr), PBE calculations suggest that the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition may occur under an external electric field. The transition is attributed to the enhanced spontaneous polarization. The tunable bandgaps in general and possible indirect-direct bandgap transitions due to tensile strain or external electric field make the TMD heterobilayer materials a viable candidate for optoelectronic applications.We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For

  6. [MxA gene-88 G/T polymorphism influences the outcomes of HBV infection].

    PubMed

    Yin, Si-chun; Peng, Xiao-mou; Gu, Lin; Huang, Yang-su; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2006-06-01

    To study the relationship between a G/T substitution at position -88 of myxovirus resistance-1 gene (MxA) and the self-limiting or chronic infection of HBV. Blood samples from 100 patients with self-limiting HBV infection (positive anti-HBs and anti-HBc) and from 340 patients with chronic HBV infection were collected. MxA-88 G/T polymorphism was typed using a protocol based on competitively differentiated-polymerase chain reaction. For statistical analysis, odds ratio and chi-square test were used. The detective rate of G/G genotype (low expression genotype) of MxA-88 G/T was 50.2% (221/440), those of T/T genotype (high expression genotype) and G/T heterozygous genotype were 5.5% (24/440) and 44.3% (195/440). Compared to patients with chronic infection, patients with self-limiting infection had lower frequency of G/G genotype (41.0% vs 52.9%, P < 0.05) or G allele (62.5% vs 75.9%, P < 0.01) and had higher frequency of T/T genotype (16.0% vs 2.4%, P < 0.01) or T allele (37.5% vs 24.1%, P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference in the G/T heterozygous genotype. MxA gene -88 G/T polymorphism influences the natural outcomes of HBV infection to some extent. This SNP of MxA gene may be used as a clinical prognostic marker of HBV infection.

  7. Permeability and expansibility of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longcheng; Neretnieks, Ivars; Moreno, Luis

    Natural bentonite MX-80 differs from the purified and fully Na-exchanged bentonite in that it contains approximately 20.0% accessory minerals, in addition to the montmorillonite particles. Since the accessory minerals and montmorillonite particles have very different physical and chemical properties, natural bentonite MX-80 is found to expand much more slowly in distilled water, leading actually to a three-component system that has very different hydraulic properties from that of the fully Na-exchanged bentonite. To better understand and simulate the special features of expansion of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water, the focus is put primarily on the development of a Kozeny-Carman-like equation for its hydraulic permeability in the same way as it was done for Na-exchanged bentonite. With this permeability model, the dynamic force balance model that was originally developed for colloidal expansion of montmorillonite in a two-component system is applied to the natural MX-80 system. Without making any changes to the model, however, two strategies are used to account for both physical and chemical effects of the accessory minerals. The “lumped” strategy assumes that the accessory minerals are stuck onto the montmorillonite particles in such a way that they behave just like one solid component. The “stepwise” strategy changes the pore water chemistry gradually from initially distilled water to eventually achievement of the equilibrium condition. These strategies are simple but proved to function well. The agreement between the simulations and the experimental results indicates that the two-component dynamic force balance model works well in predicting the general features and the behavior of upward expansion of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water in a vertical test tube.

  8. MoS2/MX2 heterobilayers: bandgap engineering via tensile strain or external electrical field.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Guo, Hongyan; Li, Lei; Dai, Jun; Wang, Lu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Wu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-03-07

    We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se, all heterobilayers show semiconducting characteristics with an indirect bandgap with the exception of the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer which retains the direct-bandgap character of the constituent monolayer. For M = Fe, V; X = S, Se, the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers exhibit metallic characters. Particular attention of this study has been focused on engineering the bandgap of the TMD heterobilayer materials via application of either a tensile strain or an external electric field. We find that with increasing either the biaxial or uniaxial tensile strain, the MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can undergo a semiconductor-to-metal transition. For the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer, a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition may occur beyond a critical biaxial or uniaxial strain. For M (=Fe, V) and X (=S, Se), the magnetic moments of both metal and chalcogen atoms are enhanced when the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers are under a biaxial tensile strain. Moreover, the bandgap of MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can be reduced by the vertical electric field. For two heterobilayers MSe2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr), PBE calculations suggest that the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition may occur under an external electric field. The transition is attributed to the enhanced spontaneous polarization. The tunable bandgaps in general and possible indirect-direct bandgap transitions due to tensile strain or external electric field make the TMD heterobilayer materials a viable candidate for optoelectronic applications.

  9. Characterization of Multi-subunit Protein Complexes of Human MxA Using Non-denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel-electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Patricia E; Pavlovic, Jovan

    2016-10-28

    The formation of oligomeric complexes is a crucial prerequisite for the proper structure and function of many proteins. The interferon-induced antiviral effector protein MxA exerts a broad antiviral activity against many viruses. MxA is a dynamin-like GTPase and has the capacity to form oligomeric structures of higher order. However, whether oligomerization of MxA is required for its antiviral activity is an issue of debate. We describe here a simple protocol to assess the oligomeric state of endogenously or ectopically expressed MxA in the cytoplasmic fraction of human cell lines by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in combination with Western blot analysis. A critical step of the protocol is the choice of detergents to prevent aggregation and/or precipitation of proteins particularly associated with cellular membranes such as MxA, without interfering with its enzymatic activity. Another crucial aspect of the protocol is the irreversible protection of the free thiol groups of cysteine residues by iodoacetamide to prevent artificial interactions of the protein. This protocol is suitable for a simple assessment of the oligomeric state of MxA and furthermore allows a direct correlation of the antiviral activity of MxA interface mutants with their respective oligomeric states.

  10. Evolution and Antiviral Specificities of Interferon-Induced Mx Proteins of Bats against Ebola, Influenza, and Other RNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jonas; Hölzer, Martin; Schilling, Mirjam; Patzina, Corinna; Schoen, Andreas; Hoenen, Thomas; Zimmer, Gert; Marz, Manja; Weber, Friedemann; Müller, Marcel A; Kochs, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Bats serve as a reservoir for various, often zoonotic viruses, including significant human pathogens such as Ebola and influenza viruses. However, for unknown reasons, viral infections rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats. A tight control of viral replication by the host innate immune defense might contribute to this phenomenon. Transcriptomic studies revealed the presence of the interferon-induced antiviral myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins in bats, but detailed functional aspects have not been assessed. To provide evidence that bat Mx proteins might act as key factors to control viral replication we cloned Mx1 cDNAs from three bat families, Pteropodidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phylogenetically these bat Mx1 genes cluster closely with their human ortholog MxA. Using transfected cell cultures, minireplicon systems, virus-like particles, and virus infections, we determined the antiviral potential of the bat Mx1 proteins. Bat Mx1 significantly reduced the polymerase activity of viruses circulating in bats, including Ebola and influenza A-like viruses. The related Thogoto virus, however, which is not known to infect bats, was not inhibited by bat Mx1. Further, we provide evidence for positive selection in bat Mx1 genes that might explain species-specific antiviral activities of these proteins. Together, our data suggest a role for Mx1 in controlling these viruses in their bat hosts.IMPORTANCE Bats are a natural reservoir for various viruses that rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats but are dangerous zoonotic pathogens, like Ebola or rabies virus. It has been hypothesized that the interferon system might play a key role in controlling viral replication in bats. We speculate that the interferon-induced Mx proteins might be key antiviral factors of bats and have coevolved with bat-borne viruses. This study evaluated for the first time a large set of bat Mx1 proteins spanning three major bat families for their antiviral potential, including activity

  11. Imposing nonlinear constraints when estimating genetic and cultural transmission under assortative mating: a simulation study using Mx and BUGS.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Stéphanie M

    2009-01-01

    Modeling both genetic and cultural transmission in parent-offspring data in the presence of phenotypic assortment requires the imposition of nonlinear constraints. This article reports a simulation study that determined how well the structural equation modeling software package Mx and the Bayesian-oriented BUGS software package can handle such nonlinear constraints under various conditions. Results generally showed good and comparable results for Mx and BUGS, although BUGS was much slower than Mx. However, since BUGS uses Markov-chain Monte Carlo estimation it could be used for parent-offspring models with non-normal data and/or item-response theory models.

  12. Molecular identification and comparative transcriptional analysis of myxovirus resistance GTPase (Mx) gene in goose (Anser cygnoide) after H9N2 AIV infection.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Miao; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-08-01

    Interferon (IFN)-induced myxovirus resistance (Mx) GTPases belong to the family of dynamin-like GTPases and control a diverse range of viruses. In this study, the identified goose Mx (goMx) mRNA is 2009bp long, shares partially conserved exons with other homologues, and shares highly conserved domains in its primary structure. The amino acid position 629 (629aa) of the goMx protein was identified as serine (Ser), in contrast to the Ser located at 631aa in chicken Mx, which is considered to be responsible for the lack of chicken Mx antiviral activity. In addition, the goMx 142aa residue in the dynamin family signature differs from that of other functional Mx proteins. Transcriptional analysis revealed that goMx was mainly expressed in the digestive, respiratory and immune systems in an age-specific manner. GoMx transcript levels in goose peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were found to be significantly up-regulated by various agonists and avian viruses. Furthermore, a time course study of the effects of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) on goMx expression in infected goslings suggested that H9N2 AIV affected goMx expression. However, significant changes in goMx expression were observed in the trachea, lung and small intestine of infected birds. Altogether, these results indicate that goMx protein may have acquired its broad antiviral activity by changing only a few amino acids at select sites, even as it shares a conserved architectures with species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer simulation of the CSPAD, ePix10k, and RayonixMX170HS X-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tina, Adrienne

    2015-08-21

    The invention of free-electron lasers (FELs) has opened a door to an entirely new level of scientific research. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is an X-ray FEL that houses several instruments, each with its own unique X-ray applications. This light source is revolutionary in that while its properties allow for a whole new range of scientific opportunities, it also poses numerous challenges. For example, the intensity of a focused X-ray beam is enough to damage a sample in one mere pulse; however, the pulse speed and extreme brightness of the source together are enough to obtain enough information about that sample, so that no further measurements are necessary. An important device in the radiation detection process, particularly for X-ray imaging, is the detector. The power of the LCLS X-rays has instigated a need for better performing detectors. The research conducted for this project consisted of the study of X-ray detectors to imitate their behaviors in a computer program. The analysis of the Rayonix MX170-HS, CSPAD, and ePix10k in particular helped to understand their properties. This program simulated the interaction of X-ray photons with these detectors to discern the patterns of their responses. A scientist’s selection process of a detector for a specific experiment is simplified from the characterization of the detectors in the program.

  14. Mutation spectra in salmonella of chlorinated, chloraminated, or ozonated drinking water extracts: comparison to MX.

    PubMed

    DeMarini, D M; Abu-Shakra, A; Felton, C F; Patterson, K S; Shelton, M L

    1995-01-01

    Drinking water samples were prepared in a pilot-scale treatment plant by chlorination (Cl2), chloramination (NH2Cl), ozonation (O3), or O3 followed by Cl2 or NH2Cl; and the nonvolatile acidic organics of the raw and treated waters were extracted by XAD/ethyl acetate and evaluated for mutagenicity in Salmonella (-S9). The extracts were 2-8 times more mutagenic in TA100 than in TA98, and the mutagenic potencies of the water extracts ranked similarly in both strains: Cl2 > O3 + Cl2 > NH2Cl > O3 + NH2Cl > O3 > raw. 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), which was estimated to account for approximately 20% of the mutagenic activity of the extracts, was shown to be the most potent compound tested thus far in a prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli and a forward-mutation assay in Salmonella TM677. The mutations in approximately 2,000 revertants of TA98 and TA100 induced by MX and the water extracts were analyzed by colony probe hybridization and polymerase chain reaction/DNA sequence analysis. The water extracts and MX produced similar mutation spectra, which consisted in TA100 of predominantly of GC-->TA transversions in the second position of the CCC (or GGG) target of the hisG46 allele. This spectrum resembles that produced by large aromatic compounds and is distinct from that produced by alkylating agents and the semivolatile drinking water mutagen dichloroacetic acid. In TA98, MX and those water extracts resulting from the introduction of the chlorine atom produced 50-70% hotspot 2-base deletions and 30-50% complex frameshifts (frameshifts with an adjacent base substitution--mostly GC-->TA transversions as found in TA100). No other compound or mixture is known to induce such high frequencies of complex frameshifts. These results suggest that MX and "MX-like" compounds (possibly halogenated aromatics, such as halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) account for much of the mutagenic activity and specificity of the nonvolatile organics

  15. Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis" Issoire-Mx1, a Third Thermoplasmatales-Related Methanogenic Archaeon from Human Feces.

    PubMed

    Borrel, Guillaume; Harris, Hugh M B; Parisot, Nicolas; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Mihajlovski, Agnès; Deane, Jennifer; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Bardot, Olivier; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre; O'Toole, Paul W; Brugère, Jean-François

    2013-07-11

    "Candidatus Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis" Issoire-Mx1 is a methanogenic archaeon found in the human gut and is a representative of the novel order of methanogens related to Thermoplasmatales. Its complete genome sequence is presented here.

  16. Ozonation of reactive dye, Procion red MX-5B catalyzed by metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pachhade, K; Sandhya, S; Swaminathan, K

    2009-08-15

    Ozonation of aqueous solution of Procion red MX-5B, a commercial azo reactive dye was investigated. The effect of various experimental variables on decolorization and degradation of the dye has been studied. Color removal was faster than organic removal. Dye mineralization was evident by the generation of sulphate, chloride, nitrate, oxalic and acetic acid during ozonation. The decolorization and organic removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Among the metal ions studied, manganese catalyzed ozonation showed better decolorization and organic removal. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated the disappearance of bands for aromatics and appearance of bands due to carboxylic acids in the ozonated samples. Acetyl benzoic acid, diethyl phthalate and phthalic anhydride were identified as intermediates by gas chromatography mass spectra (GC/MS). Based on these findings a tentative pathway for the degradation MX-5B was postulated.

  17. OpenMx 2.0: Extended Structural Equation and Statistical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Neale, Michael C; Hunter, Michael D; Pritikin, Joshua N; Zahery, Mahsa; Brick, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Estabrook, Ryne; Bates, Timothy C; Maes, Hermine H; Boker, Steven M

    2016-06-01

    The new software package OpenMx 2.0 for structural equation and other statistical modeling is introduced and its features are described. OpenMx is evolving in a modular direction and now allows a mix-and-match computational approach that separates model expectations from fit functions and optimizers. Major backend architectural improvements include a move to swappable open-source optimizers such as the newly written CSOLNP. Entire new methodologies such as item factor analysis and state space modeling have been implemented. New model expectation functions including support for the expression of models in LISREL syntax and a simplified multigroup expectation function are available. Ease-of-use improvements include helper functions to standardize model parameters and compute their Jacobian-based standard errors, access to model components through standard R $ mechanisms, and improved tab completion from within the R Graphical User Interface.

  18. Oligomerization and GTP-binding Requirements of MxA for Viral Target Recognition and Antiviral Activity against Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Patricia E; Pavlovic, Jovan

    2015-12-11

    The IFN-induced human myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) exhibits a broad antiviral activity against many viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). MxA belongs to the family of dynamin-like GTPases and assembles in vitro into dimers, tetramers, and oligomeric ring-like structures. The molecular mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, it is not clear whether MxA exerts its antiviral activity in a monomeric and/or multimeric form. Using a set of MxA mutants that form complexes with defined stoichiometry, we observed that, in the presence of guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate), purified MxA disassembled into tetramers and dimers. Dimeric forms did not further disassemble into monomers. Infection experiments revealed that besides wild-type MxA, dimeric and monomeric variants of MxA also efficiently restricted IAV at a replication step after primary transcription. Moreover, only dimeric MxA was able to form stable complexes with the nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV. MxA interacted with NP independently of other viral components. Interestingly, the dimeric form of MxA was able to efficiently bind to NP from several MxA-sensitive strains but interacted much more weakly with NP from the MxA-resistant PR8 strain derived from the H1N1 1918 lineage. Taken together, these data suggest that, during infection, a fraction of MxA disassembles into dimers that bind to NP synthesized following primary transcription in the cytoplasm, thereby preventing viral replication. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Full-Scale Model of the Hughes MX-904 Missile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the stability and control characteristics of a full-size model of the Hughes MX-904 missile. Aerodynamic characteristics of the complete model through moderate ranges of angles of attack and yaw, with an additional test made through an angle of attack of 180 degrees, are presented. The effects of horizontal tail deflection are also included.

  20. DNA vaccines encoding viral glycoproteins induce nonspecific immunity and Mx protein synthesis in fish.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Johnson, M C; Drennan, J D; Simon, B E; Thomann, E; Leong, J A

    2000-08-01

    Protective immunity by vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding a viral glycoprotein (G) has long been assumed to result from the induction of a specific immune response. We report here that the initial protection may be due to the induction of alpha/beta interferon, with long-term protection due to a specific response to the encoded viral G. DNA vaccines encoding the Gs of three serologically unrelated fish rhabdoviruses were used to vaccinate rainbow trout against a lethal challenge with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). All three vaccines, each encoding the G gene of either IHNV (IHNV-G), snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) (SHRV-G), or spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) (SVCV-G), elicited protective immunity against IHNV. Vaccinated fish were challenged at 30 or 70 days postvaccination with lethal doses of IHNV. At 30 days postvaccination, only 5% of fish that had received any of the G vaccines died, whereas more than 50% of the control fish succumbed to virus challenge. When fish were vaccinated and challenged at 70 days postvaccination, only 12% of the IHNV-G-vaccinated fish died compared to 68% for the SHRV-G- and 76% for the SVCV-G-vaccinated fish. Assays for trout Mx protein, an indicator of alpha/beta interferon induction, showed that only fish vaccinated with a G-containing plasmid produced high levels of Mx protein in the kidneys and liver. Interestingly, at day 7 after virus challenge, all of the fish vaccinated with the IHNV-G plasmid were negative for Mx, but the SHRV-G- and SVCV-G-vaccinated fish still showed detectable levels of Mx. These results suggest that DNA vaccines in fish induce an early, nonspecific antiviral protection mediated by an alpha/beta interferon and, later, a specific immune response.

  1. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Verification Study - Pahroc Valley, Nevada. Volume I. Synthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    characteristics (e.g., igneous , metamorphic, sedimentary). ROTARY WASH DRILLING - A boring technique in which advancement of the hole through overburden...Mobile Advanced ICBM system and presents the geological, geophysical, and soils engineering data upon which the evaluation is based. It is one of a...Missile-X (MX), an advanced intercontinental ballistic mis- sile system. The phases included are called Screening, Char- acterization, Ranking, and

  2. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation Conterminous United States. Volume I. Coarse Screening.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    States (CONUS) for MX siting. In the initial stage, Coarse Screening, the fol- lowing primary exclusion criteria were applied: surface rock , or rock ...EVALUATION ................ 30 FN-TR-16 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number Page 1 PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCES OF THE UNITED STATES 6 2 GEOTECHNICAL SUITABILITY - ROCK ...increasingly narrow focus of attention on the most reasonable, viable candi - date sites, ultimately leading to selection of preferred and Aalternate

  3. MX Missile MOA Between Four Corners Regional Commission and the United States Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-20

    area, experience with the full range of data collection methods identified above. 2.3.2.3. Field Forms. Several important decisions will need to be made...concerning this important aspect of MX for all of the different utility systems. Specific Comments on Deliverable 15: Utility Systems Chapter P Para...0 3. It is important that EDAW continue to coordinate with the Local Policy Board to avoid overloading the small rural staffs in the deployment area

  4. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Alternative Potential Operating Base Locations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    Development Plan also identifies the ’-*-vier River Valley area around( Delta as the pririarv /one of irrigated arid dry crop agr t tilt tire in) Millard...notirttain Powver Project will interact with the socioeconomic impacts Of M-X basing at Delta. The Corps of Engineers map, prepared on the basis of 13LM...character. Delta is the center for alfalfa seed production in the state and is dependent on irrigation from the Sevier River . Millard County population

  5. Improved ambient-pressure organic superconductor. [Bis(ethylenedithio)TTF-MX/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Williams, J.M.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Beno, M.A.

    1985-05-29

    Disclosed is a new class of organic superconductors having the formula (ET)/sub 2/MX/sub 2/ wherein ET represents bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene, M is a metal such as Au, Ag, In, Tl, Rb, Pd and the like and X is a halide. The superconductor (ET)/sub 2/AuI/sub 2/ exhibits a transition temperature of 5/sup 0/K which is high for organic superconductors.

  6. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Summary. Prime Characterization Sites, Great Basin, Candidate Siting Province.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-15

    RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUR[AU OF STANDARDS 1464 A %m MX SITING INVESTIGATION GEOTECHNICAL SUMMARY (N PRIME CHARACTERIZATION SITES GREAT BASIN...Characterization Site in northwestern Arizona. This report presents representative data collected and analyzed for these sites. Access to the remaining data can be...FINE ___________________ STANDARD SIEVE OPENING US STANDARD SIEVE NUMBER HYDROMETER 3" 3 4" 3 S’ 4 a 20 40 r. a 󈧄 200 0. - - -J

  7. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A.; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic. PMID:26988202

  8. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import.

    PubMed

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-03-18

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic.

  9. Utilization Chitosan-p-t-Butylcalix[4]Arene for Red MX 8B Adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. S.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Hak, L. A.

    2017-02-01

    Adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using chitosan dan chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene has been done. The research aimed to understand the adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using chitosan p-t-butylcalix[4]arene compared to ordinary chitosan. The research was conducted in a batch process varying in pH, contact time and initial concentration of the Procion Red MX 8B. The amount of dye adsorbed was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the adsorben was characterized using FTIR and SEM-EDX spectrophotometer. The result showed that the optimum condition was achieved when the pH was set at 4, contact time 135 minutes and initial concentration at 200 ppm. The kinetic analysis showed that the adsorption followed Ho kinetic model and pseudo second order with the adsorption rate constant was 3.69×10-3 g/mg.minute and 2.03×10-3 g/mg.minute. The isotherm analysis showed that the adsorption process tend to occur following the Langmuir model with maximum capacity for chitosan and chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene 136.09 mg/g and 147.35 mg/g respectively. The adsorption energy of chitosan and chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene at 30.53 kJ/mole and 33.65 kJ/mole.

  10. Inhibition of bunyaviruses, phleboviruses, and hantaviruses by human MxA protein.

    PubMed Central

    Frese, M; Kochs, G; Feldmann, H; Hertkorn, C; Haller, O

    1996-01-01

    Viruses of the Bunyaviridae family cause a variety of diseases ranging from uncomplicated fever to potentially lethal encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. Little is known about the factors determining pathogenicity in the vertebrate host. Interferons have been reported to be inhibitory, but their mode of action against members of the Bunyaviridae has not yet been elucidated. The interferon-induced MxA protein encoded on human chromosome 21 is a large GTPase with antiviral activity against distinct negative-strand RNA viruses, notably influenza viruses. Here we show that MxA inhibits representative members of the Bunyaviridae family by interacting with an early step of virus replication. When constitutively expressed in stably transfected Vero cells, MxA prevented the accumulation of viral transcripts and proteins of Hantaan virus (genus Hantavirus). Other members of the family such as La Crosse virus (genus Bunyavirus) and Rift Valley fever virus and sandfly fever virus (both genus Phlebovirus) were likewise inhibited, and virus titers were reduced up to 10(4)-fold. Our data indicate that humans have evolved a mechanism of controlling these viruses irrespective of differences in viral coding strategies. PMID:8551631

  11. Band gap modulation of transition-metal dichalcogenide MX2 nanosheets by in-plane strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiangying; Ju, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruizhi; Guo, Chongfeng; Yong, Yongliang; Cui, Hongling; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    The electronic properties of quasi-two-dimensional honeycomb structures of MX2 nanosheets (M=Mo, W and X=S, Se) subjected to in-plane biaxial strain have been investigated using first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that the band gap of MX2 nanosheets can be widely tuned by applying tensile or compressive strain, and these ultrathin materials undergo a universal reversible semiconductor-metal transition at a critical strain. Compared to WX2, MoX2 need a smaller critical tensile strain for the band gap close, and MSe2 need a smaller critical compressive strain than MS2. Taking bilayer MoS2 as an example, the variation of the band structures was studied and the semiconductor-metal transition involves a slightly different physical mechanism between tensile and compressive strain. The ability to tune the band gap of MX2 nanosheets in a controlled fashion over a wide range of energy opens up the possibility for its usage in a range of application.

  12. Inhibition of nuclear import and cell-cycle progression by mutated forms of the dynamin-like GTPase MxB.

    PubMed

    King, Megan C; Raposo, Graça; Lemmon, Mark A

    2004-06-15

    Mx proteins form a subfamily of the dynamin-like GTPases, which have well established roles in cellular trafficking. Some Mx proteins (e.g., human MxA) have antiviral activity and are tightly regulated by type I IFNs. Others (e.g., human MxB) lack antiviral activity and are thought to have normal cellular functions that remain undefined. Consistent with this hypothesis, we report that MxB is expressed without IFN treatment. MxB seems to be exclusively extranuclear and is concentrated at the cytoplasmic face of nuclear pores, suggesting a role in their regulation. We find that expression of dominant negative (GTPase-defective) MxB mutants efficiently blocks nuclear import and causes a delay in G(1)/S cell-cycle progression. MxB depletion using RNA interference (RNAi) leads to a similar cell-cycle defect but does not block nuclear import. MxB therefore seems not to be required for nuclear import per se but may instead regulate its efficiency and/or kinetics. These studies indicate an unexpected role for a dynamin-like protein in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and suggest that a related function might be usurped by its antiviral relatives.

  13. Interfacial interaction in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide/metal oxide heterostructures and its effects on electronic and optical properties: The case of MX2/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ke; Huang, Wei-Qing; Hu, Wangyu; Huang, Gui-Fang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-01-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT), we systematically study the interfacial interaction in monolayer MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se)/CeO2 heterostructures and its effects on electronic and optical properties. The interfacial interaction in the MX2/CeO2 heterostructures depends largely on chalcogens, and its strength determines the band gap variation and important electronic states at the band edges of the heterostructures. The MX2/CeO2 heterostructures with the same chalcogen have similar absorption spectra, from ultraviolet to near-infrared regions. These results suggest that chalcogens importantly determine the properties of MX2/metal oxide heterostructures.

  14. Biological markers of interferon-beta therapy: comparison among interferon-stimulated genes MxA, TRAIL and XAF-1.

    PubMed

    Gilli, F; Marnetto, F; Caldano, M; Sala, A; Malucchi, S; Capobianco, M; Bertolotto, A

    2006-02-01

    Biological activity of interferon-beta (IFNbeta) can be assessed by measuring IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Among them, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) appears to have the highest specificity, but it has no role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the reliability of MxA as a biomarker, we compared its expression to that of two other ISGs: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis factor-1 (XAF-1). Both were shown to be involved in immunoregulatory mechanisms and might play a role in MS. Quantitative-PCR measurements were performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 73 MS patients after short-term and long-term treatment with IFNbeta. A time-dependent response for multiple ISGs was observed in all patients after short-term treatment. In contrast, long-term treatment induced concurrent inhibition of ISGs in 12.3% (9/73) of patients, in whom neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were detectable. Besides, 22% (16/73) of chronically treated patients showed a non-NAbs-related abrogation of TRAIL expression. In summary, 1) MxA expression was significantly higher than both TRAIL and XAF-1, and 2) MxA was the most sensitive gene to detect decreased bioavailability due to NAbs. These findings identify MxA as an appropriate biomarker for IFNbeta, although there is no evidence for a functional role of it in MS.

  15. Mutagenic activity in disinfected waters and recovery of the potent bacterial mutagen "MX" from water by XAD resin adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, Peter; Wondergem, Erik; Kronberg, Leif

    Chlorination of humic water generated mutagenic activity in the Ames test. The formation of the potent bacterial mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity were favoured by acidic chlorination conditions and high chlorine doses. Chlorinated humic waters from different locations differed slightly in the level of mutagenicity as well as in the proportion of activity derived from MX. Chlorination of an industrially polluted surface water with a low content of humic material generated an approximately equal level of mutagenicity (per mg of DOC) as that of chlorinated humic water, but only a minor part (26%) of the activity could be explained by the presence of MX. The mutagenicity and the amount of MX generated were substantially lower when using combined treatment methods (ClO2+Cl2, O3+Cl2) or when substituting chlorine by monochloramine or chlorine dioxide. The recovery of MX by XAD adsorption from water acidified to pH 2 was found to be quantitative.

  16. 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Vartiainen, Terttu; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Altshul, Larisa; Harrington, Joseph J; Dockery, Douglas W

    2002-01-01

    There is limited information on the prevalence of the potent mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in U.S. water supplies. We measured MX concentrations and mutagenic activity in tap water samples from 36 surface water systems throughout Massachusetts. We found MX levels much higher (up to 80 ng/L) than previously reported in the United States. We also evaluated the role of water treatment on mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. After adjusting for other covariates, chloramination and filtration were the most important treatment options for reducing mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. Multiple chlorine application (before and after filtration) was associated with increased mutagenicity. Chlorine dose, pH, and total organic carbon were also associated with mutagenicity, MX, and total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentration. Seasonal variation was evident for MX and mutagenic activity, with higher levels occurring in the spring compared to the fall. In contrast, TTHM concentrations were greater in the fall. PMID:11836144

  17. 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wright, J Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Vartiainen, Terttu; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Altshul, Larisa; Harrington, Joseph J; Dockery, Douglas W

    2002-02-01

    There is limited information on the prevalence of the potent mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in U.S. water supplies. We measured MX concentrations and mutagenic activity in tap water samples from 36 surface water systems throughout Massachusetts. We found MX levels much higher (up to 80 ng/L) than previously reported in the United States. We also evaluated the role of water treatment on mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. After adjusting for other covariates, chloramination and filtration were the most important treatment options for reducing mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. Multiple chlorine application (before and after filtration) was associated with increased mutagenicity. Chlorine dose, pH, and total organic carbon were also associated with mutagenicity, MX, and total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentration. Seasonal variation was evident for MX and mutagenic activity, with higher levels occurring in the spring compared to the fall. In contrast, TTHM concentrations were greater in the fall.

  18. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Power and Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    energy impacts of analysis of site-specific impacts for each M-X deployment alternative. Each analysis identifies the cause-and- effect relationships for...Power 70 3.9 Alternative 8 - Coyote Spring Valley; Clovis 70 4.0 Effects on Energy Systevr.s 73 4.1 Energy Supply - Nevada/Utah 73 4.1.1 Fuel Supply...73 4.1.2 Electric Power 73 4.2 Energy Supply - Texas/New Mexico 73 4.2.1 Fuel Supply 73 4.2.2 Electric Power 73 4.3 Effect on Energy Systems near

  19. Mx mRNA expression and RFLP analysis of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss genetic crosses selected for susceptibility or resistance to IHNV.

    PubMed

    Trobridge, G D; LaPatra, S E; Kim, C H; Leong, J C

    2000-02-24

    Three interferon-inducible Mx genes have been identified in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and their roles in virus resistance have yet to be determined. In mice, expression of the Mx1 protein is associated with resistance to influenza virus. We report a study to determine whether there was a correlation between the expression of Mx in rainbow trout and resistance to a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). A comparison of Mx mRNA expression was made between different families of cultured rainbow trout selected for resistance or for susceptibility to IHNV. A trout-specific Mx cDNA gene probe was used to determine whether there was a correlation between Mx mRNA expression and resistance to the lethal effects of IHNV infection. Approximately 99% of trout injected with a highly virulent strain of the fish rhabdovirus, IHNV, were able to express full length Mx mRNA at 48 h post infection. This is markedly different from the expression of truncated, non-functional Mx mRNA found in most laboratory strains of mice, and the ability of only 25% of wild mice to express functional Mx protein. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was developed to compare the Mx locus between individual fish and between rainbow trout genetic crosses bred for IHNV resistance or susceptibility. The assay was able to discriminate 7 distinct RFLP patterns in the rainbow trout crosses. One cross was identified that showed a correlation between homozygosity at the Mx locus and greater susceptibility to IHN-caused mortality.

  20. Long non-coding RNA lnc-MX1-1 is associated with poor clinical features and promotes cellular proliferation and invasiveness in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Chen-Yi; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xing-Jie; Ruan, Yuan; Bei, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Hai; Jing, Yi-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, Qi; Li, Jia; Han, Bang-Min; Xia, Shu-Jie; Zhao, Fu-Jun

    2016-02-12

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in human cancer genesis and progression, including prostate cancer. Large amount of lncRNAs have been found that differentially expressed between prostate cancer tissues and normal prostate tissues. Whether these lncRNAs could serve as a novel biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis or prognosis, and their biological functions in prostate cancer need further investigation. In the present study, we identified that lncRNA lnc-MX1-1 is over-expressed in prostate cancer tissues compared with their adjacent normal prostate tissues by gene expression array profiling. The expression of lnc-MX1-1 in 60 prostate cancer cases was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the correlations between lnc-MX1-1 expression and patients' clinical features were further analyzed. Next, we impaired lnc-MX1-1 expression using RNAi in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells to explore the effects of lnc-MX1-1 on proliferation and invasiveness of the cells. Our results showed that there was a significant association between over-expression of lnc-MX1-1 and patients' clinical features such as PSA, Gleason score, metastasis, and recurrence free survival. Moreover, knockdown of lnc-MX1-1 reduced both proliferation and invasiveness of LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that lnc-MX1-1 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for prostate cancer. - Highlights: • LncRNA lnc-MX1-1 is up-regulated in prostate cancer. • Overexpression of lnc-MX1-1 is correlated with poor prostate cancer clinical features. • Knockdown of lnc-MX1-1 reduces proliferation and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells.

  1. High miR156 Expression Is Required for Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation via MxSPL26 Independent of PINs and ARFs in Malus xiaojinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaozhao; Li, Xu; Hu, Xingwang; Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Xu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai

    2017-01-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of perennial woody plants. During the juvenile-to-adult phase change mediated by the microRNA156 (miR156), the adventitious rooting ability decreases dramatically in many species, including apple rootstocks. However, the mechanism underlying how miR156 affects adventitious root formation is unclear. In the present study, we showed that in the presence of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), semi-lignified leafy cuttings from juvenile phase (Mx-J) and rejuvenated (Mx-R) Malus xiaojinensis trees exhibited significantly higher expression of miR156, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), PIN10, and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots-like (RTCS-like) genes, thus resulting in higher adventitious rooting ability than those from adult phase (Mx-A) trees. However, the expression of SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE26 (SPL26) and some auxin response factor (ARF) gene family members were substantially higher in Mx-A than in Mx-R cuttings. The expression of NbRTCS-like but not NbPINs and NbARFs varied with miR156 expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants transformed with 35S:MdMIR156a6 or 35S:MIM156 constructs. Overexpressing the miR156-resistant MxrSPL genes in tobacco confirmed the involvement of MxSPL20, MxSPL21&22, and MxSPL26 in adventitious root formation. Together, high expression of miR156 was necessary for auxin-induced adventitious root formation via MxSPL26, but independent of MxPINs and MxARFs expression in M. xiaojinensis leafy cuttings. PMID:28674551

  2. Activity of feline interferon-omega after ocular or oral administration in cats as indicated by Mx protein expression in conjunctival and white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Bracklein, Thorsten; Theise, Sandra; Metzler, Alfred; Spiess, Bernhard M; Richter, Marianne

    2006-06-01

    To assess the biological response to recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN-omega) following ocular or oral administration in cats via estimation of Mx protein expression in conjunctival cells (CCs) and WBCs. 10 specific pathogen-free cats. In multiple single-dose drug experiments, each cat received various concentrations of rFeIFN-omega administered topically into both eyes (50 to 10,000 U/eye) and orally (200 to 20,000 units). The same cats received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution topically and orally as control treatments. The CCs and WBCs were collected prior to treatment (day 0), on day 1, and every third or seventh day thereafter until samples yielded negative results for Mx protein. Samples were examined for Mx protein expression via immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting procedures involving murine anti-Mx protein monoclonal antibody M143. After topical application of 10,000 U of rFeIFN-omega/eye, CCs stained for Mx protein for a minimum of 7 days, whereas WBCs were positive for Mx protein for a minimum of 31 days. After topical application of lower concentrations, CCs did not express Mx protein, in contrast to WBCs, which stained for Mx protein at 1,000 units for at least 1 day. Following oral administration, Mx protein was expressed in WBCs at rFeIFN-omega concentrations as low as 200 units, whereas CCs did not stain for Mx protein at any concentration. Results indicate that Mx protein expression (a marker of the biological response to rFeIFN-omega) in CCs and WBCs of rFeIFN-omega-treated cats depends on the dose of rFeIFN-omega, site of administration, and cell type.

  3. Insight into HIV of IFN-Induced Myxovirus Resistance 2 (MX2) Expressed by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Chan, Yueh-Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an important topic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been published in 2013. In this report, the expression of the IFN-induced myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) had been defined the function to kill the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The screening from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) database by simulating molecular docking and molecular dynamics could select candidate compounds, which may express MX2 against HIV. Saussureamine C, Crotalaburnine, and Precatorine are selected based on the highest docking score and other TCM compounds. The data from molecular dynamics are helpful in the analysis and detection of protein-ligand interactions. According to the docking poses, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bond with structure variations, this research could assess the interaction between protein and ligand interaction. In addition to the detection of TCM compound efficacy, we suggest that Saussureamine C is better than the others in protein-ligand interaction and the structural variation to express MX2. PMID:25045710

  4. Selected test-well data from the MX-missile siting study, Tooele, Juab, Millard, Beaver, and Iron counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James; Atwood, J.W.; Buettner, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water data obtained from the MX-missile siting study in western Utah are presented in this report. The test drilling was divided into two phases, verification and water resources. In the verification phase, numerous borings ranging in depth from 92 to 205 feet were made to obtain data necessary for the design of the MX-basing system. Test wells drilled for the water resources phase ranged in depth from 310 to 1,399 feet; they were designed to determine ground-water availability and to estimate the effects of ground-water withdrawals planned for construction of the MX-basing system. This report includes: well-completion data, water-level measurements, and lithologic logs of selected wells. (USGS)

  5. Insight into HIV of IFN-induced myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) expressed by traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Chan, Yueh-Chiu; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an important topic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been published in 2013. In this report, the expression of the IFN-induced myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) had been defined the function to kill the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The screening from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) database by simulating molecular docking and molecular dynamics could select candidate compounds, which may express MX2 against HIV. Saussureamine C, Crotalaburnine, and Precatorine are selected based on the highest docking score and other TCM compounds. The data from molecular dynamics are helpful in the analysis and detection of protein-ligand interactions. According to the docking poses, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bond with structure variations, this research could assess the interaction between protein and ligand interaction. In addition to the detection of TCM compound efficacy, we suggest that Saussureamine C is better than the others in protein-ligand interaction and the structural variation to express MX2.

  6. A putative GTP binding protein homologous to interferon-inducible Mx proteins performs an essential function in yeast protein sorting.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J H; Raymond, C K; Gilbert, T; O'Hara, P J; Stevens, T H

    1990-06-15

    Members of the Mx protein family promote interferon-inducible resistance to viral infection in mammals and act by unknown mechanisms. We identified an Mx-like protein in yeast and present genetic evidence for its cellular function. This protein, the VPS1 product, is essential for vacuolar protein sorting, normal organization of intracellular membranes, and growth at high temperature, implying that Mx-like proteins are engaged in fundamental cellular processes in eukaryotes. Vps1p contains a tripartite GTP binding motif, which suggests that binding to GTP is essential to its role in protein sorting. Vps1p-specific antibody labels punctate cytoplasmic structures that condense to larger structures in a Golgi-accumulating sec7 mutant; thus, Vps1p may associate with an intermediate organelle of the secretory pathway.

  7. Early diagnosis of a Mexican variant of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV-Mx) by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Moreno, E; Ramirez-Prado, J H; Moreno-Valenzuela, O A; Lopez-Ochoa, L A

    2015-02-06

    Papaya meleira disease was identified in Brazil in the 1980s. The disease is caused by a double-stranded RNA virus known as Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), which has also been recently reported in Mexico. However, previously reported PMeV primers failed to diagnose the Mexican form of the disease. A genomic approach was used to identify sequences of the Mexican virus isolate, referred here to as PMeV-Mx, to develop a diagnostic method. A mini cDNA library was generated using total RNA from the latex of fruits; this RNA was also sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences corresponding to the previously reported 669-base pair sequence for PMeV from Brazil (PMeV-Br) were identified within the PMeV-Mx genome, exhibiting 79-92% identity with PMeV-Br. In addition, a new sequence of 1154-base pairs encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified in PMeV-Mx. Primers designed against this sequence detected both virus isolates, 2 amplicons of 173 and 491 base pairs from PMeV-Br and PMeV-Mx, and shared 100 and 98% identity, respectively. PMeV-Mx was found in the latex of fruits, in seedlings, and in the leaves, flowers, petioles, and seeds of mature plants. PMeV-Mx was more abundant in the latex of fruits than in the leaves. The limit of detection of the CB38/CB39 primer pair was 1 fg and 1 pg using total RNA extracted from the latex of fruits and from seedlings, respectively. A sensitive and early diagnosis protocol was developed; this method will enable the certification of seeds and seedlings prior to transplantation to the field.

  8. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA.

  9. An uncleaved signal peptide directs the Malus xiaojinensis iron transporter protein Mx IRT1 into the ER for the PM secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tan, Song; Berry, James O; Li, Peng; Ren, Na; Li, Shuang; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei-Bing; Qi, Xiao-Ting; Yin, Li-Ping

    2014-11-07

    Malus xiaojinensis iron-regulated transporter 1 (Mx IRT1) is a highly effective inducible iron transporter in the iron efficient plant Malus xiaojinensis. As a multi-pass integral plasma membrane (PM) protein, Mx IRT1 is predicted to consist of eight transmembrane domains, with a putative N-terminal signal peptide (SP) of 1-29 amino acids. To explore the role of the putative SP, constructs expressing Mx IRT1 (with an intact SP) and Mx DsIRT1 (with a deleted SP) were prepared for expression in Arabidopsis and in yeast. Mx IRT1 could rescue the iron-deficiency phenotype of an Arabidopsis irt1 mutant, and complement the iron-limited growth defect of the yeast mutant DEY 1453 (fet3fet4). Furthermore, fluorescence analysis indicated that a chimeric Mx IRT1-eGFP (enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) construct was translocated into the ER (Endoplasmic reticulum) for the PM sorting pathway. In contrast, the SP-deleted Mx DsIRT1 could not rescue either of the mutant phenotypes, nor direct transport of the GFP signal into the ER. Interestingly, immunoblot analysis indicated that the SP was not cleaved from the mature protein following transport into the ER. Taken together, data presented here provides strong evidence that an uncleaved SP determines ER-targeting of Mx IRT1 during the initial sorting stage, thereby enabling the subsequent transport and integration of this protein into the PM for its crucial role in iron uptake.

  10. An Uncleaved Signal Peptide Directs the Malus xiaojinensis Iron Transporter Protein Mx IRT1 into the ER for the PM Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Tan, Song; Berry, James O.; Li, Peng; Ren, Na; Li, Shuang; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei-Bing; Qi, Xiao-Ting; Yin, Li-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Malus xiaojinensis iron-regulated transporter 1 (Mx IRT1) is a highly effective inducible iron transporter in the iron efficient plant Malus xiaojinensis. As a multi-pass integral plasma membrane (PM) protein, Mx IRT1 is predicted to consist of eight transmembrane domains, with a putative N-terminal signal peptide (SP) of 1–29 amino acids. To explore the role of the putative SP, constructs expressing Mx IRT1 (with an intact SP) and Mx DsIRT1 (with a deleted SP) were prepared for expression in Arabidopsis and in yeast. Mx IRT1 could rescue the iron-deficiency phenotype of an Arabidopsis irt1 mutant, and complement the iron-limited growth defect of the yeast mutant DEY 1453 (fet3fet4). Furthermore, fluorescence analysis indicated that a chimeric Mx IRT1-eGFP (enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) construct was translocated into the ER (Endoplasmic reticulum) for the PM sorting pathway. In contrast, the SP-deleted Mx DsIRT1 could not rescue either of the mutant phenotypes, nor direct transport of the GFP signal into the ER. Interestingly, immunoblot analysis indicated that the SP was not cleaved from the mature protein following transport into the ER. Taken together, data presented here provides strong evidence that an uncleaved SP determines ER-targeting of Mx IRT1 during the initial sorting stage, thereby enabling the subsequent transport and integration of this protein into the PM for its crucial role in iron uptake. PMID:25387073

  11. CHARACTERISTICS AND TOXICITY OF THE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT 3-CHLORO-4(DICHLOROMETHYL)-5-HYDROXY-2[5H]-FURANONE (MX) TO MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compound 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, also known as MX, is a by-product of wood pulp manufacture and a contaminant of chlorinated drinking and sewage water. MX has recently been shown to be carcinogenic to rodents. However, no data exist for its effec...

  12. Mx1-Based Resistance to Thogoto Virus in A2G Mice Is Bypassed in Tick-Mediated Virus Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dessens, Johannes T.; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    The interferon-induced mouse Mx1 protein has intrinsic antiviral activity against orthomyxoviruses, including Thogoto virus. Thus, Mx1+ A2G mice are apparently resistant to infection following needle- or tick-borne virus challenge. However, tick-borne challenge and, to a lesser degree, injection of virus mixed with tick salivary gland extract resulted in virus transmission to uninfected ticks feeding on the A2G mice. The data indicate that immunomodulatory components in tick saliva can overcome a natural antiviral mechanism. PMID:9733885

  13. Feedback on the use of the MX6 Mox Fuel transport cask: reduction of the dose uptake during operations

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Lallemant, Th.

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the quality, safety and environment policy of AREVA, TN International has implemented a global management system according to ISO 9001, OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001 requirements with certification obtained from third part organization (1). The design of the MX6 cask is an example of the implementation of this system in order to guarantee safety and the health of everyone involved and the protection of the environment. The MX6 design has allowed ALARA dose rates for the workers during all the phases of use of the cask, to be significantly reduced compared to previous design. The MX6 cask was developed by TN International for the transport of either BWR or PWR fresh MOX fuel assemblies. Replacing the previous SIEMENS type III and SIEMENS BWR packaging, the MX6 has been firstly used in the German Nuclear Power Plants. Complying with the TS-R-1 (IAEA 1996) regulations, the MX6 cask is based on innovative solutions implemented at each step of the design and the manufacturing. Its design includes an efficient neutron shielding for high Plutonium content and an easy use content restraining system. The large payload of the MX6 cask, 6 PWR MOX fuel assemblies or 16 BWR MOX fuel assemblies, minimizes the doses uptake during its unloading at the NPP. Moreover, new sequences of loading and unloading operations were proposed for testing and implementation in each Nuclear Facility. Concurrently, total dose uptakes by the operators were assessed in order to prove the efficiency of the packaging and the proposed sequences. In this paper, the main contributors to the transports to Germany with the MX6 cask will present their involvement and feedback for the reduction of the dose uptakes by the operators during the loading and unloading operations. Presently in use at GUNDREMMINGEN and ISAR Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), the MX6 cask use will be extended to other German and Swiss NPPs from 2006 onwards. (1) AFAQ-AFNOR Certification for ISO 9001, OHSAS 18001 and ISO

  14. Adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using spent tea leaves as adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Osa, Riesta Ramdhaniyati; Suryanti, Venty

    2016-02-01

    The adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using spent tea leaves (STL) as adsorbent, has been studied by batch adsorption technique. The adsorbent was activated by NaOH 4% for 24 hours for delignification process. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR to indetify the functional groups of cellulose was shown by uptake -OH, C-H and C-O. The optimum conditions of adsorption experiments were achieved when pH was set as 6 with contact time of 75 minutes and capacity of adsorption was 3.28 mg/g. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Isotherm Freundlichs. The kinetic models, pseudo first order and pseudo second order were employed to describe the adsorption mechanism. The experimental results showed that the pseudo second order equation was the best model that described the adsorption behavior with the coefficient of correlation (R2) was equal higher than 0.99 The results suggested that STL had high potential to be used as effective adsorbent for Procion Red MX 8B removal.

  15. Relationship between structure, magnetism, and thermoelectricity in CePd3Mx alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boona, Stephen R.; Morelli, Donald T.

    2012-09-01

    A series of CePd3Mx compounds (M = Na, Mg, Ca, B, Al, Ga, Si, Ge, S, Te, In, and Sn) has been synthesized and their structural, magnetic, and thermoelectric properties measured. The formation of an ordered CePd3M0.125 phase appears to be a gradual transition for elements from rows 2-4 of the periodic table while a miscibility gap appears to exist in the pseudo binary CePd3-CePd3M0.125 phase diagram for M elements from row 5. We report for the first time the existence of alloys with M = Te and S synthesized through a novel precursor approach, with the S-filled compounds showing an unusual contraction of the unit cell. The average valence of the Ce ions in CePd3Mx appears to be strongly correlated with both the electron count and filling fraction of the M elements, while the thermal conductivity reduction achieved through partial filling appears to saturate for M elements with masses above ˜25 amu and at filling levels above ˜5%. The combination of these effects results in a modest enhancement in the thermoelectric figure of merit from 0.07 to 0.11 at 100 K for samples filled with Mg and Ca at a nominal filling level of x = 0.02. Further modest increases may be possible using this approach if improved synthesis procedures can be developed.

  16. Mini-beam modes on standard MX beamline BL17U at SSRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qisheng; Yu, Feng; Cui, Ying; Zhang, Kunhao; Pan, Qiangyan; Zhong, Changyou; Liu, Ke; Zhou, Huan; Sun, Bo; He, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    The macromolecular crystallography beamlines at third-generation synchrotron facilities play a central role in solving macromolecular crystal structures and also in understanding the biological function at molecular levels. The MX beamline BL17U at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is a typical standard MX beamline with a focused beam size (H × V) of FWHM around 80 μm × 45 μm. However the protein samples brought to the beamline are down to 5-10 m from the important and challenging science project now. These samples require smaller size beam. In order to achieve the mini-size beamline, two mini-beam modes have been developed on BL17U: the pinhole-based mini-beam and the focused mini-beam by compound refractive lens (CRL). Compared to the pinhole-based mode, three times increase in flux is obtained by the CRL mode at a similar beam size. The flux gain obtained by the CRL needs to be considered for data collection strategies. It takes few minutes to switch the beamline from the normal to CRL mini-beam mode.

  17. Reevaluation of the toxicity of chlorinated water and the usefulness of MX as an index.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Sadahiko; Nakano, Atsushi; Araki, Toshiaki

    2006-12-01

    Changes in the toxicity in chlorinated water after chlorine addition were examined. For toxicity evaluation, the chromosomal aberration test and the transformation test were conducted as indexes of initiation activity and promotion activity, respectively, in the carcinogenesis process. Activity inducing chromosomal aberrations in chlorinated Lake Biwa water gradually decreased over time after chlorination. In contrast, activity inducing transformations determined by the two-stage assay gradually increased. Thus, toxicity that decreases or increases is present in chlorinated water. Furthermore, activity inducing transformations determined by the non-two-stage assay gradually decreased over time. This direction of change is opposite to that of activity inducing transformations determined by the two-stage assay and is consistent with that of activity inducing chromosomal aberrations. The drastic decrease in initiation activity detected as activity inducing chromosomal aberrations could be the main cause for the decrease in activity inducing transformations determined by the non-two-stage assay (an index of the sum of initiation and promotion activity). MX change was quantitatively consistent with those of activity inducing chromosomal aberrations and transformations determined by the non-two-stage assay. On the other hand, directions of changes in concentrations of typical by-products such as chloroform were consistent only with that of activity inducing transformations determined by the two-stage assay. Findings of this study suggest that MX is appropriate as an index for comparing the carcinogenicity of tap water near and far from a water purification plant.

  18. TOXICOGENOMIC ANALYSIS INCORPORATING OPERON-TRANSCRIPTIONAL COUPLING AND TOXICANT CONCENTRATRION-EXPRESSION RESPONSE: Analysis of MX-Treated Salmonella

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study? This study is the first to use microarray analysis in the Ames strains of Salmonella. The microarray chips were custom-designed for this study and are not commercially available, and we evaluated the well-studied drinking water mutagen, MX. Because much inform...

  19. Intramolecular backfolding of the carboxyl-terminal end of MxA protein is a prerequisite for its oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, C; Hefti, H P; Meli, M; Landis, H; Pavlovic, J

    1999-11-05

    Mx proteins are large GTPases, which play a pivotal role in the interferon type I-mediated response against viral infections. The human MxA inhibits the replication of several RNA viruses and is organized in oligomeric structures. Using two different experimental approaches, the mammalian two-hybrid system and an interaction dependent nuclear translocation approach, three domains in the carboxyl-terminal moiety were identified that are involved in the oligomerization of MxA. The first consists of a carboxyl-terminal amphipathic helix (LZ1), which binds to a more proximal part of the same molecule. This intramolecular backfolding is a prerequisite for the formation of an intermolecular complex. This intermolecular interaction is mediated by two domains, a poorly defined region generated by the intramolecular interaction and a domain located between amino acids 363 and 415. Co-expression of wild-type MxA with various mutant fragments thereof revealed that the presence of the carboxyl-terminal region comprising the amphipathic helices LZ1 and LZ2 is necessary and sufficient to exert a dominant negative effect. This finding suggests that the functional interference of the carboxyl-terminal region is due to competition for binding of an as yet unidentified cellular or viral target molecules.

  20. Molecular signatures associated with Mx-1 mediated resistance to highlyl pathogenic influenza virus infections: mechanisms of survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the role of host factors during lethal influenza virus infection is critical to deciphering the events that will determine the fate of the host. One such factor is encoded by the Mx1 gene, which confers resistance to influenza virus infection. Here, we compared pathology and global g...

  1. TOXICOGENOMIC ANALYSIS INCORPORATING OPERON-TRANSCRIPTIONAL COUPLING AND TOXICANT CONCENTRATRION-EXPRESSION RESPONSE: Analysis of MX-Treated Salmonella

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study? This study is the first to use microarray analysis in the Ames strains of Salmonella. The microarray chips were custom-designed for this study and are not commercially available, and we evaluated the well-studied drinking water mutagen, MX. Because much inform...

  2. p-Nitrophenol and glutathione response in medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to MX, a drinking water carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Geter, David R; Fournie, John W; Brouwer, Marius H; DeAngelo, Anthony B; Hawkins, William E

    2003-03-01

    When chlorine is introduced into public drinking water for disinfection, it can react with organic compounds in surface waters to form toxic by-products such as 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX). We investigated the effect of exposure to MX on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-like activity and total glutathione (GSH) in the liver of the small fish model, medaka (Oryzias latipes). The multi-site carcinogen methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAMAc) was the positive control compound. Both medaka liver microsome preparations and S-9 fractions catalyzed the hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol (PNP), suggesting CYP2E1-like activity in the medaka. Male medaka exposed for 96 h to the CYP2E1 inducers ethanol and acetone under fasted conditions showed significant increases in PNP-hydroxylation activity. Furthermore, total reduced hepatic GSH was reduced in fish fasted for 96 h, indicating that normal feeding is a factor in maintaining xenobiotic defenses. Exposure to MX and MAMAc induced significant increases in hepatic CYP2E1-like activity, however MX exposure did not alter hepatic GSH levels. These data strengthen the role of the medaka as a suitable species for examining cytochrome P450 and GSH detoxification processes and the role these systems play in chemical carcinogenesis.

  3. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS BYPRODUCTS OF OZONATION AND CHLORINATION - PART I: STUDIES OF CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF MX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gas chromatographic (GC) and Fourier transform infrared and mass spectroscopic (FT-IR and MS, respectively) properties of (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)4-oxobutenoic acid (MX) (a highly mutagenic byproduct of drinking water chlorination) and several related compounds were st...

  4. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS BYPRODUCTS OF OZONATION AND CHLORINATION - PART I: STUDIES OF CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF MX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gas chromatographic (GC) and Fourier transform infrared and mass spectroscopic (FT-IR and MS, respectively) properties of (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)4-oxobutenoic acid (MX) (a highly mutagenic byproduct of drinking water chlorination) and several related compounds were st...

  5. Theoretical investigation of lithium adsorption, diffusion and coverage on MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = O, S, Se, Te) monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersan, F.; Ozaydin, H. D.; Gökoğlu, G.; Aktürk, E.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to improve the high-efficient anode materials for Li batteries, which require the large capacity, high stability and mobility. In this work, we present the adsorption and diffusion properties of lithium atom on MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = O, S, Se, Te) transition metal dichalcogenide structures using first principles calculations within density functional theory. All the MX2 systems considered are semiconductor in bare state with band gaps between 0.93 eV (MoO2) and 1.79 eV (WS2). They turn into metal upon single Li adsorption. Li atom is adsorbed on MoO2 and WO2 rather stronger than other systems. The energy barrier for diffusion of single Li on MX2 varies between 0.15 eV and 0.28 eV which are lower or comparable to that of graphene or silicene. Two Li atoms are preferably adsorbed on MX2 monolayer symmetrically at opposite sides with high adsorption energy. The increasing number of Li atoms does not remarkably affect the adsorption energy per Li atom. This can be attributed to that Li atoms do not accumulate on certain regions of the surface. The systems under investigation provide insights into exploring electronic properties which are rather adequate for possible applications in Li-ion batteries.

  6. Coarsening behavior of MX carbonitrides in type 347H heat-resistant austenitic steel during thermal aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying-hui; Liu, Chen-xi; Liu, Yong-chang; Guo, Qian-ying; Li, Hui-jun

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the growth kinetics of MX (M = metal, X = C/N) nanoprecipitates in type 347H austenitic steel was systematically studied. To investigate the coarsening behavior and the growth mechanism of MX carbonitrides during long-term aging, experiments were performed at 700, 800, 850, and 900°C for different periods (1, 24, 70, and 100 h). The precipitation behavior of carbonitrides in specimens subjected to various aging conditions was explored using carbon replicas and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The corresponding sizes of MX carbonitrides were measured. The results demonstrates that MX carbonitrides precipitate in type 347H austenitic steel as Nb(C,N). The coarsening rate constant is time-independent; however, an increase in aging temperature results in an increase in coarsening rate of Nb(C,N). The coarsening process was analyzed according to the calculated diffusion activation energy of Nb(C,N). When the aging temperature was 800-900°C, the mean activation energy was 294 kJ·mol-1, and the coarsening behavior was controlled primarily by the diffusion of Nb atoms.

  7. Toxicogenomic analysis incorporating operon-transcriptional coupling and toxicant concentration-expression response: analysis of MX-treated Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Ward, William O; Swartz, Carol D; Porwollik, Steffen; Warren, Sarah H; Hanley, Nancy M; Knapp, Geremy W; McClelland, Michael; DeMarini, David M

    2007-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in microarray technology cause unwanted variation in the hybridization signal, obscuring the true measurements of intracellular transcript levels. Here we describe a general method that can improve microarray analysis of toxicant-exposed cells that uses the intrinsic power of transcriptional coupling and toxicant concentration-expression response data. To illustrate this approach, we characterized changes in global gene expression induced in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 by 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), the primary mutagen in chlorinated drinking water. We used the co-expression of genes within an operon and the monotonic increases or decreases in gene expression relative to increasing toxicant concentration to augment our identification of differentially expressed genes beyond Bayesian-t analysis. Results Operon analysis increased the number of altered genes by 95% from the list identified by a Bayesian t-test of control to the highest concentration of MX. Monotonic analysis added 46% more genes. A functional analysis of the resulting 448 differentially expressed genes yielded functional changes beyond what would be expected from only the mutagenic properties of MX. In addition to gene-expression changes in DNA-damage response, MX induced changes in expression of genes involved in membrane transport and porphyrin metabolism, among other biological processes. The disruption of porphyrin metabolism might be attributable to the structural similarity of MX, which is a chlorinated furanone, to ligands indigenous to the porphyrin metabolism pathway. Interestingly, our results indicate that the lexA regulon in Salmonella, which partially mediates the response to DNA damage, may contain only 60% of the genes present in this regulon in E. coli. In addition, nanH was found to be highly induced by MX and contains a putative lexA regulatory motif in its regulatory region, suggesting that it may be regulated by lex

  8. High Lithium Capacity MxV 2O 5Ay· nH 2O for Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torardi, C. C.; Miao, C. R.; Lewittes, M. E.; Li, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The aqueous synthesis and electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline MxV2O5Ay·nH2O are described. It is easily and quickly prepared by precipitation from acidified vanadate solutions. MxV2O5Ay·nH2O has been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, TGA, chemical analyses, and electrochemical studies. The atomic structure is related to that of xerogel-derived V2O5·nH2O. In MxV2O5Ay·nH2O, M is a cation from the starting vanadate salt and A is an anion from the mineral acid. This material exhibits high, reversible Li capacity and may be considered for use in a cathode in primary and secondary batteries. The lithium capacity of an electrode composed of MxV2O5Ay·nH2O/EPDM/carbon (88/4/8) is ∼380(mA h)/g (C/80 rate) and the energy density is ∼1000(W h)/kg (120-μm-thick cathode, 4-1.5 V, versus Li metal anode). Critical parameters identified in the synthesis of MxV2O5Ay·nH2O, with respect to achieving high Li-ion insertion capacity, are acid/vanadium ratio, starting vanadate salt, and temperature. Inclusion of carbon black in the synthesis yields a composite that maintains the high Li capacity, lowers the electrochemical-cell polarization, and preserves the lithium capacity at higher discharge rates. Li-ion coin cells, using pre-lithiated graphite anodes, exhibit electrochemical performance comparable to that of Li-metal coin cells.

  9. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-02-01

    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  10. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Atmospheric Resources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-15

    Introduction 1-1 2.0 Atmospheric Resources 2-1 2.1 Existing Environment 2-1 2.1.1 Nevada/Utah 2-1 2.1.2 Texas/New Mexico 2-41 2.2 Future Air Quality...Environment Without the M-X 2-85 2.2.1 Nevada/Utah 2-85 2.2.2 Texas/New Mexico 2-86 3.0 Air Quality Model Descriptions 3-1 3.1 Integrated Model for...Concentrations - Texas/New Mexico 5-34 5.1.5 Surface Plcl 5-38 5.2 Hiway 5-39 5.3 PAL 5-128 5.4 ISC (Industrial Source Complex) Model 5-132 6.0 Impact

  11. Superconductivity in SmFe1-xMxASO (M = Co, Rh, Ir)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yan-Peng; Wang, Lei; Gao, Zhao-Shun; Wang, Don-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Ma, Yan-Wei

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we report the comparative study of superconductivity by 3d (Co), 4d (Rh), 5d (Ir) element doping in SmFeAsO. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the material has formed the ZrCuSiAs-type structure with a space group P4/nmm. It is found that the antiferromagnetic spin-density-wave (SDW) order in the parent compounds is rapidly suppressed by Co, Rh, and Ir doping, and superconductivity emerges. The diamagnetism, consistent with the R-T data, conforms to the bulk superconductivity in our SmFe1-xMxAsO (M=Co, Rh, Ir) samples. Co, Rh and Ir locate in the same column in the periodic table of the elements but have different electronic band structure, so a comparative study would add more ingredients to the underlying physics of iron-based superconductors.

  12. Complex Interplay between HIV-1 Capsid and MX2-Independent Alpha Interferon-Induced Antiviral Factors.

    PubMed

    Bulli, Lorenzo; Apolonia, Luis; Kutzner, Juliane; Pollpeter, Darja; Goujon, Caroline; Herold, Nikolas; Schwarz, Sarah-Marie; Giernat, Yannick; Keppler, Oliver T; Malim, Michael H; Schaller, Torsten

    2016-08-15

    Type I interferons (IFNs), including IFN-α, upregulate an array of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and potently suppress Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in CD4(+) T cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and dendritic cells. Recently, we and others identified ISG myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) as an inhibitor of HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, additional antiviral blocks exist upstream of nuclear import, but the ISGs that suppress infection, e.g., prior to (or during) reverse transcription, remain to be defined. We show here that the HIV-1 CA mutations N74D and A105T, both of which allow escape from inhibition by MX2 and the truncated version of cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6), as well as the cyclophilin A (CypA)-binding loop mutation P90A, all increase sensitivity to IFN-α-mediated inhibition. Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology, we demonstrate that the IFN-α hypersensitivity of these mutants in THP-1 cells is independent of MX2 or CPSF6. As expected, CypA depletion had no additional effect on the behavior of the P90A mutant but modestly increased the IFN-α sensitivity of wild-type virus. Interestingly, the infectivity of wild-type or P90A virus could be rescued from the MX2-independent IFN-α-induced blocks in THP-1 cells by treatment with cyclosporine (Cs) or its nonimmunosuppressive analogue SDZ-NIM811, indicating that Cs-sensitive host cell cyclophilins other than CypA contribute to the activity of IFN-α-induced blocks. We propose that cellular interactions with incoming HIV-1 capsids help shield the virus from recognition by antiviral effector mechanisms. Thus, the CA protein is a fulcrum for the dynamic interplay between cell-encoded functions that inhibit or promote HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 is the causative agent of AIDS. During acute HIV-1 infection, numerous proinflammatory cytokines are produced, including type I interferons (IFNs). IFNs can limit HIV-1

  13. President's report on continuing the acquisition of the Peacekeeper (MX) missile. (Includes the Executive Summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The report and Executive Summary on the Peacekeeper missile contains the President's assessment of the requirement for Peacekeeper and the anticipated impact of the continued procurement of Peacekeeper missiles, pursuant to the provisions of Public Law 98-525, Section 110 of October 19, 1984. After thorough analysis, the President has concluded that the continued production and deployment of Peacekeeper (M-X) missiles in existing Minuteman silos is required in order to maintain U.S. national security interests, is consistent with U.S. arms control policy, and enhances the prospects for global stability. As a result, the President seeks to remove Congressional restrictions on the Fiscal Year 1985 funds that were authorized and appropriated by the Congress for the Peacekeeper missile program. The report provides the President's reasons and furnishes additional information as required by the Congress.

  14. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-02-01

    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  15. Anisotropy of the superconducting properties of misfit layer compounds (MX) n(NbX 2) m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monceau, P.; Chen, J.; Laborde, O.; Briggs, A.; Auriel, C.; Roesky, R.; Meerschaut, A.; Rouxel, J.

    1994-02-01

    We have synthetized new compounds of the misfit layer family of general formula (MX) n(NbX 2) m with X:S, Se, M: Pb, Sn, rare earth metals, 1.1

  16. Nonlinear Structured Growth Mixture Models in Mplus and OpenMx

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne

    2014-01-01

    Growth mixture models (GMMs; Muthén & Muthén, 2000; Muthén & Shedden, 1999) are a combination of latent curve models (LCMs) and finite mixture models to examine the existence of latent classes that follow distinct developmental patterns. GMMs are often fit with linear, latent basis, multiphase, or polynomial change models because of their common use, flexibility in modeling many types of change patterns, the availability of statistical programs to fit such models, and the ease of programming. In this paper, we present additional ways of modeling nonlinear change patterns with GMMs. Specifically, we show how LCMs that follow specific nonlinear functions can be extended to examine the presence of multiple latent classes using the Mplus and OpenMx computer programs. These models are fit to longitudinal reading data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort to illustrate their use. PMID:25419006

  17. Results of the Flight Test of a Dummy of the MX-656 Rocket-Propelled Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Jesse L.; Peck, Robert F.

    1950-01-01

    The data obtained from the flight of a simplified (dummy) rocket-propelled model of the MX-656 have been analyzed to determine the booster-model characteristics and the model-alone characteristics up to a Mach number of 1.3. The data indicate that the model-booster combination is satisfactory. The model alone is longitudinally stable i n the Mach number range covered by the test (0.9 to 1.3) with the center of gravity at -15 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. With the stabilizer setting at 0 deg. the variation of normal-force coefficient with Mach number is not large. The total-drag-coefficient variation with Mach number is not unusual. About 12 percent of the total drag at a Mach number of 1.3 can be attributed to body base drag.

  18. Strengthened Synergistic Effect of Metallic Mx Py (M = Co, Ni, and Cu) and Carbon Layer via Peapod-Like Architecture for Both Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Reactions.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuanjuan; Fang, Ling; Xu, Haitao; Gu, Xiao; Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Yu

    2017-02-06

    The smooth electric transmission is crucial for the high-efficient electrocatalysis. Herein, a series of peapod-like metallic Mx Py /C (M = Co, Ni, and Cu) composites is developed as bifunctional catalysts toward hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. For the first time, the metallic property of Cu3 P is confirmed through the theoretical calculation. The in-depth composition, structural and catalytic mechanism analysis of Mx Py /C discloses that the comparable activity and considerable durability of these catalysts mainly result from the strengthened synergistic effect between metallic Mx Py and carbon layer based on the unique peapod-like architecture. Especially, the atomic contact between Mx Py and carbon not only provides an open channel for electronic transmission but also ensures the integrity of peapod-like structure. Furthermore, the high electric conductivity of the inner metallic Mx Py and the outer carbon layer endows the Mx Py /C catalyst with rapid charge migration during the electrocatalytic pathway. These findings shed light on the origin of high catalytic activity of Mx Py /C and open a path for purposefully rationally synthesizing superior electrocatalysts.

  19. Determination of the band parameters of bulk 2H-MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Seo; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Beomyoung; Kim, Changyoung; Park, Seung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Monolayer MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) has recently been drawn much attention due to their application possibility as well as the novel valley physics. On the other hand, it is also important to understand the electronic structures of bulk MX2 for material applications since it is very challenging to grow large size uniform and sustainable monolayer MX2. We performed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and tight binding calculations to investigate the electronic structures of bulk 2H-MX2. We could extract all the important electronic band parameters for bulk 2H-MX2, including the band gap, direct band gap size at K (-K) point and spin splitting size. Upon comparing the parameters for bulk 2H-MX2 (our work) with mono- and multi-layer MX2 (published), we found that stacked layers, substrates for thin films, and carrier concentration significantly affect the parameters, especially the band gap size. The origin of such effect is discussed in terms of the screening effect. PMID:27805019

  20. Conditional expression of type I interferon-induced bovine Mx1 GTPase in a stable transgenic vero cell line interferes with replication of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Baise, Etienne; Pire, Grégory; Leroy, Michaël; Gérardin, Joël; Goris, Nesya; De Clercq, Kris; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Desmecht, Daniel

    2004-09-01

    In some vertebrate species, type I interferon(IFN)-induced Mx gene expression has been shown to confer resistance to some single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses in vitro. Because the bovine species is subject to an exceptionally wide array of infections caused by such viruses, it is anticipated that an antiviral allele should have been retained by evolution at the bovine Mx locus. The identification of such allele may help in evaluating the real significance of the Mx genotype for disease resistance in vivo, in deciphering host-virus molecular interactions involved, or in improving innate disease resistance of livestock through marker-assisted selection. We validated a double transgenic Vero cell clone in which the bovine Mx1 reference allele is placed under control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer-promoter sequence containing elements from the bacterial tetracycline resistance operon to regulate transcription. In the selected clone, transgene repression was very tight, and derepression by doxycycline led to homogeneous 48-h duration expression of physiologic levels of bovine Mx1. Expression of the transgene caused a dramatic decrease in cytopathic efficiency and a 500-5000-fold yield reduction of the Indiana and New Jersey serotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To our knowledge, the transgenic clone developed here is the first ever reported that allows conditional expression of an Mx protein, thus providing a valuable tool for studying functions of Mx proteins in general and that of bovine Mx1 in particular. This latter may henceforward be included in the group of Mx proteins with authenticated anti-VSV activity, which offers new research avenues into the field of host-virus interactions. Copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  1. Human/bovine chimeric MxA-like GTPases reveal a contribution of N-terminal domains to the magnitude of anti-influenza A activity.

    PubMed

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Cornet, Anne; Desmecht, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) provide powerful and universal innate intracellular defense mechanisms against viruses. Among the antiviral effectors induced by IFN-α/β, Mx proteins of some species appear as key components of defense against influenza A viruses. The body of work published to date suggests that to exert anti-influenza activity, an Mx protein should possess a GTP-binding site, structural bases allowing multimerisation, and a specific C-terminal GTPase effector domain (GED). Both the human MxA and bovine Mx1 proteins meet these minimal requirements, but the bovine protein is more active against influenza viruses. Here, we measured the anti-influenza activity exerted by 2 human/bovine chimeric Mx proteins. We show that substituting the bovine GED for the human one in human MxA does not affect the magnitude of anti-influenza activity. Strikingly, however, substituting the human GED for the bovine one in bovine Mx1 yields a chimeric protein with a much higher anti-influenza activity than the human protein. We conclude, in contradiction to the hypothesis currently in vogue in the literature, that the GED is not the sole determinant controlling the magnitude of the anti-influenza activity exercised by an Mx protein that can bind GTP and multimerise. Our results suggest that 1 or several motifs that remain to be discovered, located N-terminally with regard to the GED, may interact with a viral component or a cellular factor so as to alter the viral cycle. Identifying, in the N-terminal portion of bovine Mx1, the motif(s) responsible for its higher anti-influenza activity could contribute to the development of new anti-influenza molecules.

  2. The Relationship between MX [3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone], Routinely Monitored Trihalomethanes, and Other Characteristics in Drinking Water in a Long-Term Survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel B; Bennett, James E; Rantakokko, Panu; Martinez, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Toledano, Mireille B

    2015-06-02

    MX (3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone) is a drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP). It is a potent mutagen and is of concern to public health. Data on MX levels in drinking water, especially in the UK, are limited. Our aim was to investigate factors associated with variability of MX concentrations at the tap, and to evaluate if routinely measured trihalomethanes (THMs) are an appropriate proxy measure for MX. We conducted quarterly water sampling at consumers' taps in eight water supply zones in and around Bradford, UK, between 2007 and 2010. We collected 79 samples which were analyzed for MX using GC-HRMS. Other parameters such as pH, temperature, UV-absorbance and free chlorine were measured concurrently, and total THMs were modeled from regulatory monitoring data. To our knowledge this is the longest MX measurement survey undertaken to date. Concentrations of MX varied between 8.9 and 45.5 ng/L with a median of 21.3 ng/L. MX demonstrated clear seasonality with concentrations peaking in late summer/early fall. Multivariate regression showed that MX levels were associated with total trihalomethanes, UV-absorbance and pH. However, the relationship between TTHM and MX may not be sufficiently consistent across time and location for TTHM to be used as a proxy measure for MX in exposure assessment.

  3. Measurement of MxA mRNA or protein as a biomarker of IFNbeta bioactivity: detection of antibody-mediated decreased bioactivity (ADB).

    PubMed

    Pachner, Andrew R; Bertolotto, Antonio; Deisenhammer, Florian

    2003-11-11

    Myxovirus A (MxA) is a protein that is specifically induced by treatment with type I cytokines and has proven to be a reliable biomarker of interferon-beta (IFNbeta) bioactivity. IFNbeta-induced MxA can be measured as either protein or mRNA in the blood of IFNbeta-treated patients with MS. In patients with MS who are treated with IFNbeta, loss of the MxA response is caused by high levels of anti-IFNbeta antibodies and is a sensitive marker of lost bioactivity.

  4. Ballistic performance comparison of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide MX{sub 2} (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jiwon; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2014-02-28

    We study the transport properties of monolayer MX{sub 2} (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) n- and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) using full-band ballistic non-equilibrium Green's function simulations with an atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian with hopping potentials obtained from density functional theory. We discuss the subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), as well as gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) for different monolayer MX{sub 2} MOSFETs. We also report the possibility of negative differential resistance behavior in the output characteristics of nanoscale monolayer MX{sub 2} MOSFETs.

  5. Ballistic performance comparison of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jiwon; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2014-02-01

    We study the transport properties of monolayer MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) n- and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) using full-band ballistic non-equilibrium Green's function simulations with an atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian with hopping potentials obtained from density functional theory. We discuss the subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), as well as gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) for different monolayer MX2 MOSFETs. We also report the possibility of negative differential resistance behavior in the output characteristics of nanoscale monolayer MX2 MOSFETs.

  6. Synthesis of a New Cubic Conductive Cu6O8-yMX (M=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, X=NO3, Cl) Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugise, Ryoji; Ohdan, Kyoji; Hamamoto, Toshikazu; Kashiwagi, Kouichi; Shirai, Masashi; Yazawa, Ichiro; Ihara, Hideo

    1993-07-01

    A new cubic Cu6O8-yMX family (M=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, X=NO3, Cl) was prepared. These compounds showed metallic resistivity and paramagnetism. The Cu6O8-yMX compounds could be easily synthesized when a trivalent metal element (M) whose oxide (M2O3) has a cubic Tl2O3-type structure was used. These compounds were prepared in the thermal decomposition process of a mixed copper nitrate, copper chloride and metal element oxide solution. The lattice constants of the Cu6O8-yMX compounds were related to those of M2O3.

  7. Superconducting Properties of (Mx/YBa2Cu3O7-delta y)N Multilayer Films with Variable Layer Thickness x (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0132 SUPERCONDUCTING PROPERTIES OF (Mx/YBa2Cu3O7-δy)N MULTILAYER FILMS WITH VARIABLE LAYER THICKNESS x (POSTPRINT...April 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SUPERCONDUCTING PROPERTIES OF (Mx/YBa2Cu3O7-δy)N MULTILAYER FILMS WITH VARIABLE LAYER THICKNESS x (POSTPRINT) 5a...effort was completed in 2007. Paper has color content. 14. ABSTRACT The superconducting properties of (Mx /YBa2Cu3O7-dy)N multilayer films were

  8. The Nucleoprotein of Newly Emerged H7N9 Influenza A Virus Harbors a Unique Motif Conferring Resistance to Antiviral Human MxA

    PubMed Central

    Riegger, David; Hai, Rong; Dornfeld, Dominik; Mänz, Benjamin; Leyva-Grado, Victor; Sánchez-Aparicio, Maria T; Albrecht, Randy A.; Palese, Peter; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon-induced Mx proteins show strong antiviral activity against influenza A viruses (IAVs). We recently demonstrated that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) determines resistance of seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses to Mx, while avian isolates retain Mx sensitivity. We identified a surface-exposed cluster of amino acids in NP of pandemic A/BM/1/1918 (H1N1), comprising isoleucine-100, proline-283, and tyrosine-313, that is essential for reduced Mx sensitivity in cell culture and in vivo. This cluster has been maintained in all descendant seasonal strains, including A/PR/8/34 (PR/8). Accordingly, two substitutions in the NP of PR/8 [PR/8(mut)] to the Mx-sensitive amino acids (P283L and Y313F) led to attenuation in Mx1-positive mice. Serial lung passages of PR/8(mut) in Mx1 mice resulted in a single exchange of tyrosine to asparagine at position 52 in NP (in close proximity to the amino acid cluster at positions 100, 283, and 313), which partially compensates loss of Mx resistance in PR/8(mut). Intriguingly, the NP of the newly emerged avian-origin H7N9 virus also contains an asparagine at position 52 and shows reduced Mx sensitivity. N52Y substitution in NP results in increased sensitivity of the H7N9 virus to human Mx, indicating that this residue is a determinant of Mx resistance in mammals. Our data strengthen the hypothesis that the human Mx protein represents a potent barrier against zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses. However, the H7N9 viruses overcome this restriction by harboring an NP that is less sensitive to Mx-mediated host defense. This might contribute to zoonotic transmission of H7N9 and to the severe to fatal outcome of H7N9 infections in humans. IMPORTANCE The natural host of influenza A viruses (IAVs) are aquatic birds. Occasionally, these viruses cross the species barrier, as in early 2013 when an avian H7N9 virus infected humans in China. Since then, multiple transmissions of H7N9 viruses to humans have occurred

  9. Single layer of MX3(M = Ti, Zr; X = S, Se, Te): a new platform for nano-electronics and optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yingdi; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

    A serial of two dimensional titanium and zirconium trichalcogenides nanosheets MX3 (M=Ti, Zr; X=S, Se, Te) are investigated based on first-principles calculations. The evaluated low cleavage energy indicates that stable two dimensional monolayers can be exfoliated from their bulk crystals in experiment. Electronic studies reveal very rich electronic properties in these monolayers, including metallic TiTe3 and ZrTe3, direct band gap semiconductor TiS3 and indirect band gap semiconductors TiSe3, ZrS3 and ZrSe3. The band gaps of all the semiconductors are between 0.57~1.90 eV, which implies their potential applications in nano-electronics. And the calculated effective masses demonstrate highly anisotropic conduction properties for all the semiconductors. Optically, TiS3 and TiSe3 monolayers exhibit good light absorption in the visible and near-infrared region respectively, indicating their potential applications in optical devices. In particular, the highly anisotropic optical absorption of TiS3 monolayer suggests it could be used in designing nano optical waveguide polarizers.

  10. Electronic structures and elastic properties of monolayer and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = O, S, Se, Te): A comparative first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan; Zhang, Wei-Bing; Tang, Bi-Yu

    2015-09-01

    First-principle calculations with different exchange-correlation functionals, including LDA, PBE, and vdW-DF functional in the form of optB88-vdW, have been performed to investigate the electronic and elastic properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with the formula of MX2(M = Mo, W; X = O, S, Se, Te) in both monolayer and bilayer structures. The calculated band structures show a direct band gap for monolayer TMDCs at the K point except for MoO2 and WO2. When the monolayers are stacked into a bilayer, the reduced indirect band gaps are found except for bilayer WTe2, in which the direct gap is still present at the K point. The calculated in-plane Young moduli are comparable to that of graphene, which promises possible application of TMDCs in future flexible and stretchable electronic devices. We also evaluated the performance of different functionals including LDA, PBE, and optB88-vdW in describing elastic moduli of TMDCs and found that LDA seems to be the most qualified method. Moreover, our calculations suggest that the Young moduli for bilayers are insensitive to stacking orders and the mechanical coupling between monolayers seems to be negligible. Project supported by the Construct Program of the Key Discipline in Hunan Province, China and Aid Program for Science and Technology Innovative Research Team in Higher Educational Institutions of Hunan Province, China.

  11. Fabrication of CuAl1-xMxO2 (M = Fe, Cr)/Ni film delafossite compounds using spin coating and their microstructure and dielectric constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diantoro, Markus; Yuwita, Pelangi Eka; Olenka, Desyana; Nasikhudin

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of delafossite compound has encouraged more rapid technological developments particularly in transparent electronic devices. Copper oxide-based transparent thin films delafossite semiconductor recently give much attention in the field of optoelectronic technology, after the discovery of p-type CuAlO2. The potential applications of a p-type semiconductor transparent conductive oxides (TCO) have been applied in broad field of optoelectronics. To explore a broad physical properties interms of magnetic conducting subtitution is understudied. In this work we report the fabrication of delafossite film on Ni substrate and their characterization of CuAl1-xMxO2 delafossite compounds doped with Cr3+ and Fe3+ from the raw material of Cu(NO3)2˙3H2O, Al(NO3)3˙9H2O, Fe(NO3)3˙9H2O and Cr(NO3)3˙9H2O. The films were prepared using spin coating through a sol-gel technique at various concentrations of x = 0, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05 for chromium and x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 for iron doped. Crystal and microstructure were characterized by means of Cu-Kα Bragg-Brentano X-RD followed by High Score Plus and SEM-EDAX. The dielectric constants of the films were characterized using LCR meter. It was found that the CuAl1-xMxO2/Ni delafossite films were successfully fabricated. The CuAl1-xFexO2 compound crystallized with lattice parameters of a = b ranged from 2.8603 Å to 2.8675 Å and c ranged from 16.9576 to 17.0763 Å. The increase of the dopant give rise to the increase of the lattice parameters. Since iron has bigger ionic radius (69 pm) than original site of Al3+ with radius of 53 pm the crystal volume lattice also increase. Further analyses of increasing volume of the crystal, as expected, affected to the decreasing of its dielectric constant. The similar trends also shown by Cr3+ doped of CuAl1-xCrxO2 films with smaller effects.

  12. Effects of salmonid fish viruses on Mx gene expression and resistance to single or dual viral infections.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jean, Sylvia Rodríguez; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I

    2007-08-01

    We examined the ability of several fish viruses to induce protection against homologous or heterologous viruses in single or double infections, and assessed whether such protection is correlated with innate immunity or expression of the Mx gene. Monolayers of BF2 cells pre-treated with supernatants of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) macrophage cultures that had been stimulated with either polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or viruses, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or a mixture of the two, showed varying degrees of protection against viral infections. The virus showing the strongest induction was IPNV, and the antiviral activity against IHNV was also high: around 6 log(10) reduction of virus yield. Consequently, the IPNV-IHNV co-infection yield was also reduced by varying amounts. In vivo, the cumulative mortality observed in the IPNV-IHNV co-infected fish was always less than that in those with a single infection. Stimulation with poly I:C for 7 days significantly reduced cumulative mortality in single-infected fish, but not in the double-infected, in which the IPNV was the only virus isolated from moribund animals. By RT-PCR, Mx was expressed in all the organ samples tested (kidney, liver and spleen) from virus-stimulated fish at 1, 2 and 3 days. By qRT-PCR the extent and timing of Mx expression was shown to differ in the poly I:C and the single or dual viral infections. The highest increase in Mx expression (21.6-fold above basal levels) occurred (after 24 h) in fish infected with the IHNV, and expression remained high until day 7. Mx expression in fish infected with IPNV peaked later, at 2 days post infection, and also remained high until day 7. The dual infection with IPNV-IHNV induced high Mx expression on day 1, which peaked on day 2 and remained high until day 7. These results indicate that activation of the immune system could explain the interference and loss of IHNV in the IPNV

  13. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis” Issoire-Mx1, a Third Thermoplasmatales-Related Methanogenic Archaeon from Human Feces

    PubMed Central

    Borrel, Guillaume; Harris, Hugh M. B.; Parisot, Nicolas; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Mihajlovski, Agnès; Deane, Jennifer; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Bardot, Olivier; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre; O’Toole, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    “Candidatus Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis” Issoire-Mx1 is a methanogenic archaeon found in the human gut and is a representative of the novel order of methanogens related to Thermoplasmatales. Its complete genome sequence is presented here. PMID:23846268

  14. Expression of Malus xiaojinensis IRT1 (MxIRT1) protein in transgenic yeast cells leads to degradation through autophagy in the presence of excessive iron.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Xiu-Yue; Xiao, Wei; Berry, James O; Li, Peng; Jin, Si; Tan, Song; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Yin, Li-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Iron is essential for plants, but highly toxic when present in excess. Consequently, iron uptake by root transporters must be finely tuned to avoid excess uptake from soil under iron excess. The iron-regulated transporter of Malus xiaojinensis (MxIRT1), induced in roots under iron deficiency, is a highly effective iron(II) transporter. Here, we investigated how the presence of excessive iron leads to MxIRT1 degradation in yeast expressing this plant iron transporter protein. To determine the relationship between iron abundance and MxIRT1 degradation, relative levels of autophagy-related gene-8 (ATG8) mRNA and the active ATG8-phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated (PE) protein were measured in wild-type yeast and the autophagic mutant strains atg1∆, atg5∆, atg7∆, ypt7∆ and tor1∆ under normal and excessive iron conditions. The data showed that the exposure of MxIRT1-eGFP-transformed wild-type and tor1∆ strains to excessive iron led to significantly increased levels of ATG8 transcript and ATG8-PE protein, which resulted in enhanced MxIRT1 degradation. Co-localization of mCherry-ATG8 and MxIRT1-eGFP provided evidence that these proteins interact during autophagy in yeast. While inhibition of autophagic initiation, autophagosome formation and vacuole fusion all decreased MxIRT1 degradation. PMSF inhibition of autophagy prevented degradation, leading to the accumulation of MxIRT1-containing vesicles in the vacuoles. MxIRT1-vesicles were sorted into autophagosomes for iron-induced degradation in yeast, whereas the endogenous iron(II) transporter Fet4 was degraded in an autophagy-independent manner. Moreover, immunoprecipitation showed that multimono-ubiquitins provided MxIRT1 with the ubiquitination signal. Together, three factors, iron excess, autophagy and mono-ubiquitination, affect the functional activity and stability of exogenous MxIRT1 in yeast, thereby preventing iron uptake via this root transporter.

  15. Microstructural investigation of MX-80 bentonite and Na/Ca-montmorillonite using basal spacing determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmboe, M.; Wold, S.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge about the microstructure of saturated compacted bentonite is of fundamental importance in order to describe and predict diffusive transport through the bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository. If the mineral composition is well characterized, microstructural models of compacted bentonite on the nanoscale can be based on accurate information of the basal spacings and corresponding interlayer distances within the montmorillonite particles. From the average basal spacing, the interlayer and the so-called interparticle or free porosity can be calculated [1]. The basal spacings of the montmorillonite particles can be measured by neutron and X-ray small-angle scattering or diffraction. However, due to microstructural heterogeneity and interstratification of different hydration states, profile fitting through mixed layered modeling is necessary although challenging [2,3]. In this study, we have used low-angle XRD in reflection mode together with one-dimensional analysis of mixed layered clays [2] in order to compare both the relative layer distribution and average basal spacing of MX-80 bentonite and Na/Ca-montmorillonite samples. Two different methods for water saturation commonly used in the literature were compared, saturation by constant relative humidity (adsorption and desorption) and saturation under constant volume conditions, forming compacted clay with dry densities of 0.5-1.8 g/cm3. No significant difference in basal spacings was observed between highly compacted (< 4 H2O layers) homoionic montmorillonite and MX-80 bentonite samples saturated under volume constricted conditions, if the accessory minerals and lower smectite content was accounted for. This was however not the case for the samples saturated at constant RH%, which indicates mixing of the exchangeable cations in the interlayers. Interestingly, even if the total water content was the same water uptake restricted by water activity did not always result in the same magnitude of

  16. Modelling of geochemical reactions and experimental cation exchange in MX 80 bentonite.

    PubMed

    Montes-H, G; Fritz, B; Clement, A; Michau, N

    2005-10-01

    Bentonites are widely used for waste repository systems because of their hydrodynamic, surface and chemical-retention properties. MX 80 bentonite (bentonite of Wyoming) contains approximately 85% Na/Ca-montmorillonite and 15% accessory minerals. The dominant presence of Na/Ca-montmorillonite in this clay mineral could cause it to perform exceptionally well as an engineered barrier for a radioactive waste repository because this buffer material is expected to fill up by swelling the void between canisters containing waste and the surrounding ground. However, the Na/Ca-montmorillonite could be transformed to other clay minerals as a function of time under repository conditions. Previous modelling studies based on the hydrolysis reactions have shown that the Na/Ca-montmorillonite-to-Ca-montmorillonite conversion is the most significant chemical transformation. In fact, this chemical process appears to be a simple cation exchange into the engineered barrier. The purpose of the present study was two-fold. Firstly, it was hoped to predict the newly formed products of bentonite-fluid reactions under repository conditions by applying a thermokinetic hydrochemical code (KIRMAT: Kinetic Reactions and Mass Transport). The system modelled herein was considered to consist of a 1-m thick zone of water-saturated engineered barrier. This non-equilibrated system was placed in contact with a geological fluid on one side, which was then allowed to diffuse into the barrier, while the other side was kept in contact with iron-charged water. Reducing initial conditions ( [P(O)2 approximately equals 0] ; Eh=-200 mV) and a constant reaction temperature (100 degrees C) were considered. Secondly, it was hoped to estimate the influence of inter-layer cations (Ca and Na) on the swelling behaviour of the MX 80 bentonite by using an isothermal system of water vapour adsorption and an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) coupled with a digital image analysis (DIA) program. Here, the

  17. Photoinduced Charge Separation in Q1D Heterojunction Materials: Evidence for Electron-Hole Pair Separation in Mixed-Halide MX Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    between MX and MX’. Moreover, the [3] M. Haruki and S. Kurita, Phys. Rev. B 39, 5706 (1989). halogen atoms at the edge are involved in charge transfer [4...2341 is polarized, with distinctive local infrared and Raman (1989). "edge" modes. Thus, the mixed-halide systems are of [5] S. Kurita, M. Haruki ...and K. Miyagawa, J. Phys. Soc. significant interest in utilizing charge separation in po- Jpn. 57, 1789 (1988); S. Kurita and M. Haruki , Synth. tential

  18. Probing hydrodesulfurization over bimetallic phosphides using monodisperse Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Samuel J.; Liyanage, D. Ruchira; Hitihami-Mudiyanselage, Asha; Ilic, Boris; Brock, Stephanie L.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Metal phosphide nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica provide a well-defined system for probing the fundamental chemistry of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction over this new class of hydrotreating catalysts. To investigate composition effects in bimetallic phosphides, the HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out over a series of Ni-rich Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 (M = Co, Fe) nanocatalysts (x ≤ 0.50). The Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles (average diameters: 11-13 nm) were prepared by solution-phase arrested precipitation and encapsulated in mesoporous silica, characterized by a range of techniques (XRD, TEM, IR spectroscopy, BET surface area, CO chemisorption) and tested for DBT HDS activity and selectivity. The highest activity was observed for a Ni1.92Co0.08P@mSiO2 nanocatalyst, but the overall trend was a decrease in HDS activity with increasing Co or Fe content. In contrast, the highest turnover frequency (TOF) was observed for the most Co- and Fe-rich compositions based on sites titrated by CO chemisorption. IR spectral studies of adsorbed CO on the Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 catalysts indicate that an increase in electron density occurs on Ni sites as the Co or Fe content is increased, which may be responsible for the increased TOFs of the catalytic sites. The Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 nanocatalysts exhibit a strong preference for the direct desulfurization pathway (DDS) for DBT HDS that changes only slightly with increasing Co or Fe content.

  19. Redox biotransformation of arsenic along with plant growth promotion by multi-metal resistance Pseudomonas sp. MX6.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Maria; Jawaid, Aqsa; Rehman, Yasir

    Remediation of toxic metal-polluted sites by microorganisms is an environment-friendly remediation technique. Multi-metal-resistant bacteria were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant showing resistance against As(III), As(V), Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. Maximum resistance against all metals was shown by the bacterial isolate MX-6 (As 20mM, Cd 30mM, Cr 5.0mM, Co 25mM, Cu 25mM, Ni 20mM, Zn 30mM, Pb 15mM, Se 20mM and Hg 2.5mM), which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. through 16S rDNA sequencing. Pseudomonas sp. MX-6 reduced 506μM As(V) and also oxidized 160μM As(III). The genes for As, Cd, Se and Zn resistance in Pseudomonas sp. MX-6 were found to be plasmid borne, as indicated by transformation. Pseudomonas sp. MX-6 produced 49.37μg·mL(-1) IAA and was also positive for HCN production and phosphate solubilisation. The bacterial isolate also supported Vigna radiata growth, both in the absence and presence of the aforementioned metals. Such bacteria can be used as biofertilizers to reclaim the polluted lands and to enhance crop production in metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Wilderness and Significant Natural Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    policy to avoid deployment of M-X system components in these areas to the maximum degree possible. The National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS...areas administered by such federal land-managing agencies as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife...surrounding proposed additions to the wilderness system, make wilderness preservation a public issue. The mandate to preserve wilderness is based

  1. Lateral flow immunoassay with upconverting nanoparticle-based detection for indirect measurement of interferon response by the level of MxA.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, Etvi; Salminen, Teppo; Talha, Sheikh M; Martiskainen, Iida; Soukka, Tero; Pettersson, Kim; Waris, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is a biomarker of interferon-induced gene expression state involved in many viral infections and some autoimmune disorders. It has a variety of potential utilities in clinical diagnostics, including distinguishing between bacterial and viral infections. Currently, MxA-assays are used for monitoring of IFN-β therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. As a proof-of-concept for rapid quantitative measurement of interferon response, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) with upconverting nanoparticle (UCNP) reporters was developed and evaluated with clinical whole blood samples to assess the potential for a rapid and user-friendly quantitative assay for MxA, since the currently available rapid test for MxA (FebriDX) produces only qualitative result. The high detection sensitivity enabled by the UCNP reporter technology allowed the sample pre-treatment with dilution of whole blood into lysis buffer at a detectable analyte concentration. The assay can be done within 2 hr and the results correlate with the reference MxA-ELISA, which requires an overnight incubation. With 36 samples, R(2) for linear regression was 0.86. The assay detected 96% of the IFN-β responders with 89% specificity using a cut-off level of 100 μg/L for an elevated MxA-concentration. J. Med. Virol. 89:598-605, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Possible reappearance of the charge density wave transition in MxTiSe2 compounds intercalated with 3d metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, N. V.; Maksimov, V. I.; Mesot, J.; Pleschov, V. G.; Podlesnyak, A.; Pomjakushin, V.; Selezneva, N. V.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity have been performed on MxTiSe2 compounds intercalated with 3d metals (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) up to x = 0.5. The charge density wave (CDW) transition which is observed in pure TiSe2 below ~200 K disappears for intercalation x>0.1, while a further increase of the intercalant content (x>=0.25, M = Cr, Mn or Fe) leads to the appearance of pronounced anomalies in the temperature dependences of the resistivity in the same temperature range where the CDW transition takes place in the pure TiSe2 compound. These anomalies in highly intercalated MxTiSe2 are associated with the reappearance of a superstructure formation and associated CDW state. For Mn0.33TiSe2, the structural phase transition was evidenced from both powder neutron diffraction measurements and specific heat data. The observed results are discussed in terms of the degree of deformation of Se-Ti-Se sandwiches, which we believe play a key role in the disappearance and reappearance of the CDW state in MxTiSe2 as a function of increasing M concentration. The change in the electronic structure due to the intercalation seems not to strongly influence the presence of the CDW.

  3. Polymorphisms of interferon-inducible genes OAS-1 and MxA associated with SARS in the Vietnamese population.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Emi; Hijikata, Minako; Itoyama, Satoru; Quy, Tran; Phi, Nguyen Chi; Long, Hoang Thuy; Ha, Le Dang; Ban, Vo Van; Matsushita, Ikumi; Yanai, Hideki; Kirikae, Fumiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Kuratsuji, Tadatoshi; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Keicho, Naoto

    2005-04-22

    We hypothesized that host antiviral genes induced by type I interferons might affect the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1), myxovirus resistance-A (MxA), and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in 44 Vietnamese SARS patients with 103 controls. The G-allele of non-synonymous A/G SNP in exon 3 of OAS-1 gene showed association with SARS (p=0.0090). The G-allele in exon 3 of OAS-1 and the one in exon 6 were in strong linkage disequilibrium and both of them were associated with SARS infection. The GG genotype and G-allele of G/T SNP at position -88 in the MxA gene promoter were found more frequently in hypoxemic group than in non-hypoxemic group of SARS (p=0.0195). Our findings suggest that polymorphisms of two IFN-inducible genes OAS-1 and MxA might affect susceptibility to the disease and progression of SARS at each level.

  4. The role of TM's (M's) d valence electrons in TM@X12 and M@X12 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhiyun; Zhou, Tingwei; Yang, Youchang

    2016-12-01

    Using the density functional theory method, the icosahedral TM@X12 (M@X12) clusters (TM=Mn, Tc, Re; M=Zn, Cd, Hg; and X=Sn, Ge), which are composed of Sn12 (Ge12) shell covering a single TM (M) atom, have been systematically examined to explore the role of TM's (M's) d valence electrons playing in the clusters. The results show that the magnetism originate from the contribution of TM's d valence electrons to TM@X12 clusters, where TM's (M's) d valence electrons are not included in the superatomic electronic states to TM@X12 (M@X12) clusters. Taking into account the structural stability (imaginary frequency, binding energy, embedding energy, and core-shell interaction) as well as the chemical stability (HOMO-LUMO gap) after, we proposed that TM@X12 and M@X12 clusters can be assigned as the protyle superatoms. Furthermore, the results suggest that M@C60 clusters can not be superatoms, because their negative embedding energies and the distance from the center atom (M) to C atom is larger than the sum of their Van Waals radii. Interestingly enough, we may obtain a simple judging method: for a magnetic superatom, the smaller the energy gap between the highest occupied magnetic state (HOMS) and Fermi level or HOMO (MOgap, or MFgap), the easier on the change of its spin magnetic moment.

  5. Genomic and Transcriptional Mapping of PaMx41, Archetype of a New Lineage of Bacteriophages Infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Plancarte, Indira; Cazares, Adrián; Guarneros, Gabriel

    2016-11-15

    Previously, a collection of virulent phages infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from open water reservoirs and residual waters. Here, we described the comparative genomics of a set of five related phages from the collection, the physical structure of the genome, the structural proteomics of the virion, and the transcriptional program of archetypal phage PaMx41. The phage genomes were closely associated with each other and with those of two other P. aeruginosa phages, 119X and PaP2, which were previously filed in the databases. Overall, the genomes were approximately 43 kb, harboring 53 conserved open reading frames (ORFs) and three short ORFs in indel regions and containing 45% GC content. The genome of PaMx41 was further characterized as a linear, terminally redundant DNA molecule. A total of 16 ORFs were associated with putative functions, including nucleic acid metabolism, morphogenesis, and lysis, and eight virion proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. However, the coding sequences without assigned functions represent 70% of the ORFs. The PaMx41 transcription program was organized in early, middle, and late expressed genomic modules, which correlated with regions containing functionally related genes. The high genomic conservation among these distantly isolated phages suggests that these viruses undergo selective pressure to remain unchanged. The 119X lineage represents a unique set of phages that corresponds to a novel phage group. The features recognized in the genomes and the broad host range of clinical strains suggest that these phages are candidates for therapy applications.

  6. Emergence of superconductivity in (NH3)yMxMoSe2 (M: Li, Na and K)

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiao; Nishiyama, Saki; Zheng, Lu; Goto, Hidenori; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Ota, Hiromi; Kambe, Takashi; Terashima, Kensei; Yokoya, Takayoshi; Nguyen, Huyen T. L.; Kagayama, Tomoko; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo; Ishii, Hirofumi; Liao, Yen-Fa; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report syntheses of new superconducting metal-doped MoSe2 materials (MxMoSe2). The superconducting MxMoSe2 samples were prepared using a liquid NH3 technique, and can be represented as ‘(NH3)yMxMoSe2’. The Tcs of these materials were approximately 5.0 K, independent of x and the specific metal atom. X-ray diffraction patterns of (NH3)yNaxMoSe2 were recorded using polycrystalline powders. An increase in lattice constant c showed that the Na atom was intercalated between MoSe2 layers. The x-independence of c was observed in (NH3)yNaxMoSe2, indicating the formation of a stoichiometric compound in the entire x range, which is consistent with the x-independence of Tc. A metallic edge of the Fermi level was observed in the photoemission spectrum at 30 K, demonstrating its metallic character in the normal state. Doping of MoSe2 with Li and K also yielded superconductivity. Thus, MoSe2 is a promising material for designing new superconductors, as are other transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:27404919

  7. Insights into the flexibility of ZrMxOy (M = Na, Mg, Al) nanofibrous membranes as promising infrared stealth materials.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xue; Bai, Ying; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-04-21

    A surprising brittle to flexible transition in ZrMxOy (M = Na, Mg, Al) nanofibrous membranes was found by varying the undersized dopant species and content. The fiber morphology, crystalline structure, and pore structure of the ZrMxOy nanofibrous membranes can be significantly modulated by varying the dopant valence from +1 to 3 and the dopant content from 1 to 20 mol%, respectively. Meanwhile, a classical Hall-Petch effect was revealed for the ZrMxOy nanofibrous membranes systems, which corresponded to a nanocrystalline size of 22.8 nm and an enhanced flexibility of 23 mN. Moreover, the substitutional solid solution and interstitial solid solution dissolution processes of Na, Mg, and Al into ZrO2 were analyzed using vacancy compensation and dopant interstitial compensation mechanisms, respectively. Most importantly, the flexible Al doped zirconia nanofibrous membranes exhibit a low infrared emissivity of 0.589 and 0.703 in the 3-5 μm and 8-14 μm wavebands, respectively, which suggests them to be a promising candidate for infrared stealth materials in the confrontation strategy field for personnel, aircraft, missiles, satellites, etc.

  8. The performance and calibration of TDH39 earphones fitted with Model 51 and MX41/AR cushions.

    PubMed

    Dowson, S P; McNeill, H A; Torr, G R

    1991-12-01

    Coupler measurements were made to compare the performances of new-style Model 51 cushions and old-style MX41/AR cushions fitted to TDH39 earphones. In addition, the calibration, using an artificial ear, of TDH39 earphones fitted with Model 51 cushions was compared with the calibration, using a reference coupler, of the same earphones fitted with MX41/AR cushions. It is concluded that the two cushion types can be taken as identical when fitted to TDH39 earphones, except at 6 kHz where differences in earphone sensitivity of up to 2.8 dB were observed. Likewise, output hearing levels of TDH39 earphones measured using a reference coupler and an artificial ear were found to be similar, except at 6 kHz where differences of up to 6.4 dB were observed. The data support the decision by ISO to declare the Model 51 equivalent to the MX41/AR cushion, thereby requiring TDH39 earphones to be calibrated using a reference coupler whichever cushion is fitted. However, they also highlight once again the ill-defined performance of TDH39 earphones at 6 kHz.

  9. In vitro inhibition of fish rhabdoviruses by Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Mx.

    PubMed

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

    2003-12-20

    A homologous fish cell line stably expressing the recombinant Japanese flounder Mx (JFMx) was infected with hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), both of which are negative single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family. Analysis of primary transcription of the two rhabdoviruses showed that there was lower expression level and copy number of the viral nucleoprotein transcript in the JFMx-transfected cell line than the infected, control cells, although no significant difference was observed. This suggests that JFMx may not be a potent inhibitor of rhabdoviral primary transcription. Kinetics of rhabdovirus expression by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed reduced levels of the rhabdoviral glycoprotein and nucleoprotein transcripts over time, indicating the possible role of JFMx in blocking rhabdoviral replication by interfering with the transcription of the viral subgenomic mRNAs. Significant inhibition in rhabdovirus replication consequently resulted in the synthesis of fewer viral particles. This may explain why JFMx-expressing cells are less susceptible to virus-induced cell lysis, and thus, why they would have a significantly higher survival than the infected, control cells. These results provide direct evidence that JFMx has an antiviral effect in vitro.

  10. Anion-π interactions involving [MX(n)](m-) anions: a comprehensive theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Estarellas, Carolina; Quiñonero, David; Deyà, Pere M; Frontera, Antonio

    2013-01-14

    In this manuscript we perform a systematic study on the geometric and energetic features of anion-π complexes, wherein the anion is a metal complex of variable shapes and charges. Such a study is lacking in the literature. For the calculations we used the ab initio RI-MP2/def2-TZVPP level of theory. A search in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) provides the experimental starting point that inspired the subsequent theoretical study. The influence of [MX(n)](m-) on the anion-π interaction was analyzed in terms of energetic, geometric, and charge transfer properties and Bader's theory of "atom-in-molecules" (AIM). The binding energy depends on the coordination index, geometric features and different orientations adopted by the metallic anion. The binding mode resembling a stacking interaction for linear, trigonal planar and square-planar anions is the most favorable. For tetrahedral and octahedral anions the most favorable orientation is the one with three halogen atoms pointing to the ring.

  11. Mx1-Cre mediated Rgs12 conditional knockout mice exhibit increased bone mass phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuying; Li, Yi-ping; Liu, Tongjun; He, Xiaoning; Yuan, Xue; Li, Chunyi; Cao, Jay; Kim, Yunjung

    2013-01-01

    Regulators of G-protein Signaling (Rgs) proteins are the members of a multigene family of GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAP) for the Galpha subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Rgs proteins play critical roles in the regulation of G protein couple receptor (GPCR) signaling in normal physiology and human diseases such as cancer, heart diseases and inflammation. Rgs12 is the largest protein of the Rgs protein family. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated that Rgs12 plays a critical role in regulating cell differentiation and migration; however its function and mechanism in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we generated a floxed Rgs12 allele (Rgs12flox/flox) in which the exon 2, containing both PDZ and PTB_PID domains of Rgs12, was flanked with two loxp sites. By using the inducible Mx1-cre and Poly I:C system to specifically delete Rgs12 at postnatal 10 days in interferon-responsive cells including monocyte and macrophage cells, we found that Rgs12 mutant mice had growth retardation with the phenotype of increased bone mass. We further found that deletion of Rgs12 reduced osteoclast numbers and had no significant effect on osteoblast formation. Thus, Rgs12flox/flox conditional mice provide a valuable tool for in vivo analysis of Rgs12 function and mechanism through time- and cell-specific deletion of Rgs12. PMID:23349096

  12. Effective tight-binding model for MX2 under electric and magnetic fields

    DOE PAGES

    Shanavas, Kavungal Veedu; Satpathy, S.

    2015-06-15

    We present a systematic method for developing a five band Hamiltonian for the metal d orbitals that can be used to study the effect of electric and magnetic fields on multilayer MX2 (M=Mo,W and X=S,Se) systems. On a hexagonal lattice of d orbitals, the broken inversion symmetry of the monolayers is incorporated via fictitious s orbitals at the chalcogenide sites. A tight-binding Hamiltonian is constructed and then downfolded to get effective d orbital overlap parameters using quasidegenerate perturbation theory. The steps to incorporate the effects of multiple layers, external electric and magnetic fields are also detailed. We find that anmore » electric field produces a linear-k Rashba splitting around the Γ point, while a magnetic field removes the valley pseudospin degeneracy at the ±K points. Lastly, our model provides a simple tool to understand the recent experiments on electric and magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer dichalcogendies.« less

  13. Host genetics of severe influenza: from mouse Mx1 to human IRF7

    PubMed Central

    Ciancanelli, Michael J.; Abel, Laurent; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause mild to moderate respiratory illness in most people, and only rarely devastating or fatal infections. The virulence factors encoded by viral genes can explain seasonal or geographic differences at the population level but are unlikely to account for inter-individual clinical variability. Inherited or acquired immunodeficiencies may thus underlie severe cases of influenza. The critical role of host genes was first demonstrated by forward genetics in inbred mice, with the identification of interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible Mx as a canonical influenza susceptibility gene. Reverse genetics has subsequently characterized the in vivo role of other mouse genes involved in IFN-α/β and –λ immunity. A series of in vitro studies with mouse and human cells have also refined the cell-intrinsic mechanisms of protection against influenza viruses. Population-based human genetic studies have not yet uncovered variants with a significant impact. Interestingly, human primary immunodeficiencies affecting T and B cells were also not found to predispose to severe influenza. Recently however, human IRF7 was shown to be essential for IFN-α/β- and IFN-λ-dependent protective immunity against primary influenza in vivo, as inferred patient with life-threatening influenza revealed to be IRF7-deficient by whole exome sequencing. Next generation sequencing of human exomes and genomes will facilitate the analysis of the human genetic determinism of severe influenza. PMID:26761402

  14. Measurements of Eh and pH in Compacted MX-80 Bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson, Torbjoern; Muurinen, Arto

    2007-07-01

    The low-content free water and high swelling pressure in compacted bentonite, planned to be used as a buffer in nuclear waste repositories, create adverse conditions for direct measurements of the chemical conditions. This paper presents laboratory results from online measurements with Eh and pH electrodes in water-saturated compacted MX-80 bentonite. The Eh was measured with Au and Pt wires as electrodes, while the pH was determined with IrOx electrodes. The latter were prepared in accordance with the method by Yao et al. [1]. The measurements were carried out in two types of cells: 'squeezing cells' and 'diffusion cells'. The squeezing cell excludes almost completely all chemical interactions between the sample and the surrounding environment outside the cell. The diffusion cell, on the other hand, contains a sample that stays in contact with an external solution and therefore allows following of the physico-chemical interaction between the sample and the external solution. The measuring electrodes were positioned inside the cell in the compacted bentonite, while the reference electrode was positioned outside the cell. (authors)

  15. In vivo virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss correlates inversely with in vitro Mx gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cano, Irene; Collet, Bertrand; Pereira, Clarissa; Paley, Richard; Aerle, Ronny van; Stone, David; Taylor, Nick G H

    2016-05-01

    The in vitro replication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from each VHSV genotype and the associated cellular host Mx gene expression were analysed. All the isolates were able to infect RTG-2 cells and induce increased Mx gene expression (generic assay detecting isoforms 1 and 3 [Mx1/3]). A trout pathogenic, genotype Ia isolate (J167), showing high replication in RTG-2 cells (by infective titre and N gene expression) induced lower Mx1/3 gene expression than observed in VHSV isolates known to be non-pathogenic to rainbow trout: 96-43/8, 96-43/10 (Ib); 1p49, 1p53 (II); and MI03 (IVb). Paired co-inoculation assays were analysed using equal number of plaque forming units per ml (PFU) of J167 (Ia genotype) with other less pathogenic VHSV genotypes. In these co-inoculations, the Mx1/3 gene expression was significantly lower than for the non-pathogenic isolate alone. Of the three rainbow trout Mx isoforms, J167 did not induce Mx1 up-regulation in RTG-2 or RTgill-W1 cells. Co-inoculating isolates resulted in greater inhibition of Mx in both rainbow trout cell lines studied. Up-regulation of sea bream Mx in SAF-1 cells induced by 96-43/8 was also lower in co-inoculation assays with J167. The RTG-P1 cell line, expressing luciferase under the control of the interferon-induced Mx rainbow trout gene promoter, showed low luciferase activity when inoculated with pathogenic strains: J167, DK-5131 (Ic), NO-A-163/68 (Id), TR-206239-1, TR-22207111 (Ie), 99-292 (IVa), and CA-NB00-01 (IVc). Co-inoculation assays showed a J167-dose dependent inhibition of the luciferase activity. The data suggest that virulent VHSV isolates may interfere in the interferon pathways, potentially determining higher pathogenicity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA damage induced by the drinking water mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX) in mammalian cells in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Holme, J A; Haddeland, U; Haug, K; Brunborg, G

    1999-04-26

    3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX) formed during chlorination of water containing natural organic substances, is a very potent bacterial mutagen. Recently, tumours at multiple sites were reported in rats given MX-containing drinking water. We have investigated the genotoxicity of MX in mammalian cells exposed in vitro and in vivo using alkaline filter elution to detect DNA single-strand breaks and/or alkali-labile sites (SSBs). Concentrations as high as 100 and 300 microM MX were required to induce detectable levels of SSBs in the HL-60 cells. If MX treatment was carried out in the presence of DNA repair inhibitors (AraC plus hydroxyurea), the sensitivity of the assay to detect MX-induced SSBs was increased by a factor of 100. The presence of serum proteins during exposure resulted in a minor reduction of the MX-induced DNA damage in HL-60 cells at the lowest MX concentrations. In primary cultures of testicular cells as well as in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a slightly increased level of SSBs was observed at MX-concentrations above 30 microM, this effect was not further increased by repair inhibitors. In LLC-PK1 renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and in growth stimulated human peripheral PBMC, increased SSBs were detected at MX concentrations as low as low as 3-10 microM and higher using repair inhibitors, and at 10 times higher concentrations without repair inhibitors. No dose dependent DNA damage was detected in the liver, kidney, spleen and colon of male B6C3F1 mice administrated high doses of MX (40 and 80 mg kg-1). Moderately increased and dose dependent SSBs were detected in the liver and kidney in the presence of DNA repair inhibitors during MX treatment, but no such increase was observed in the spleen and colon.

  17. Expression of porcine Mx1 with FMDV IRES enhances the antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in PK-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bing; Fang, Hui; Shen, Chao; Zheng, Congyi

    2015-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen in cloven-hoofed (two-toed) animals. Due to the rapid replication and spread of FMDV, novel therapeutic strategies are greatly needed to reduce or block FMDV shedding in cases of disease outbreak. Here, we generated an IRES-Mx1 construct in which the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of FMDV was inserted between the promoter and open reading frame (ORF) of porcine myxovirus resistance protein 1 (poMx1). This construct provides more powerful protection against FMDV infection than the IRES-IFN construct that was previously generated by our group. The results indicate that this IRES-Mx1 construct was able to express poMx1 12 h after transfection and induce a robust immune response. In contrast to the control, the proliferation of virus in transfected cells was significantly inhibited, as evaluated by morphology monitoring, real-time RT-PCR, virus titration and Western blot. In addition, we also found that the antiviral activity in cells transfected with pc-IRES-Mx1 was abolished when the JAK/STAT pathway was repressed, which indicates that the antiviral mechanism of poMx1 is JAK/STAT pathway dependent. Taken together, our data suggest that the antiviral activity of poMx1 is possibly produced by affecting the host cells themselves, instead of interacting with the virus directly. The new construct reported here could be used as a novel effective therapy against FMDV infection.

  18. Hepatitis B virus core protein with hot-spot mutations inhibit MxA gene transcription but has no effect on inhibition of virus replication by interferon α

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can inhibit the transcription of human interferon-induced MxA gene. In this study, we investigated whether HBc protein mutations at hot spots (L60V, S87G and I97L) could still inhibit MxA transcription and the potential significance of this inhibition in virus replication in vitro. Our data indicated that the IFN-induced MxA mRNA expression level and MxA promoter activity was significantly down-regulated by mutant protein of HBc(I97L), compared to WT and the other two mutated HBc proteins(L60V or S87G). However, in Huh7 cells stably expressing WT or the mutated HBc proteins (L60V, S87G or I97L), IFN-α could inhibit the extra- and intracellular HBV DNA level and HBsAg secretion to a similar level compared to that in cells transfected with control plasmids. In conclusion, HBc protein with I97L mutation may play an especial role in suppressing the transcription of MxA gene. Moreover, the inhibitory effect on MxA gene transcription by the WT or mutated HBc proteins (L60V, S87G and I97L) has no impact on inhibition of HBV replication by IFN-α in Huh7 cells. The clinical significance of the inhibitory effect of MxA gene transcription by HBc protein requires further study. PMID:20959021

  19. Hepatitis B virus core protein with hot-spot mutations inhibit MxA gene transcription but has no effect on inhibition of virus replication by interferon α.

    PubMed

    Zhijian, Yu; Zhen, Huang; Fan, Zhang; Jin, Yang; Qiwen, Deng; Zhongming, Zeng

    2010-10-20

    It has been reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can inhibit the transcription of human interferon-induced MxA gene. In this study, we investigated whether HBc protein mutations at hot spots (L60V, S87G and I97L) could still inhibit MxA transcription and the potential significance of this inhibition in virus replication in vitro. Our data indicated that the IFN-induced MxA mRNA expression level and MxA promoter activity was significantly down-regulated by mutant protein of HBc(I97L), compared to WT and the other two mutated HBc proteins(L60V or S87G). However, in Huh7 cells stably expressing WT or the mutated HBc proteins (L60V, S87G or I97L), IFN-α could inhibit the extra- and intracellular HBV DNA level and HBsAg secretion to a similar level compared to that in cells transfected with control plasmids. In conclusion, HBc protein with I97L mutation may play an special role in suppressing the transcription of MxA gene. Moreover, the inhibitory effect on MxA gene transcription by the WT or mutated HBc proteins (L60V, S87G and I97L) has no impact on inhibition of HBV replication by IFN-α in Huh7 cells. The clinical significance of the inhibitory effect of MxA gene transcription by HBc protein requires further study.

  20. Bat Mx1 and Oas1, but not Pkr are highly induced by bat interferon and viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Cowled, Christopher; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Bats harbour many emerging and re-emerging viruses, several of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals but cause no diseases in bats. As the interferon (IFN) response represents a first line of defence against viral infection, the ability of bats to control viral replication may be linked to the activation of the IFN system. The three most studied antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in other mammals; Pkr, Mx1 and Oas1 were examined in our model bat species, Pteropus alecto. Our results demonstrate that the three ISGs from P. alecto are highly conserved in their functional domains and promoter elements compared to corresponding genes from other mammals. However, P. alecto Oas1 contains two IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) in its promoter region compared with the single ISRE present in human OAS1 which may lead to higher IFN inducibility of the bat gene. Both Oas1 and Mx1 were induced in a highly IFN-dependent manner following stimulation with IFN or synthetic double-strand RNA (dsRNA) whereas Pkr showed evidence of being induced in an IFN-independent manner. Furthermore, bat Oas1 appeared to be the most inducible of the three ISGs following either IFN stimulation or viral infection, providing evidence that Oas1 may play a more important role in antiviral activity in bats compared with Mx1 or Pkr. Our results have important implications for the different roles of ISGs in bats and provide the first step in understanding the role of these molecules in the ability of bats to coexist with viruses.

  1. Characteristics and performance of an intensity-modulated optically pumped magnetometer in comparison to the classical M(x) magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Volkmar; Ijsselsteijn, Rob; Scholtes, Theo; Woetzel, Stefan; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2012-06-18

    We compare the performance of two methods for the synchronization of the atomic spins in optically pumped magnetometers: intensity modulation of the pump light and the classical M(x) method using B(1) field modulation. Both techniques use the same set-up and measure the resulting features of the light after passing a micro-fabricated Cs cell. The intensity-modulated pumping shows several advantages: better noise-limited magnetic field sensitivity, misalignment between pumping and spin synchronization is excluded, and magnetometer arrays without any cross-talk can be easily set up.

  2. Hydrogen storage of Mg1-xMxH2 (M = Ti, V, Fe) studied using first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhihi, M.; Lakhal, M.; Labrim, H.; Benyoussef, A.; A. El, Kenz; Mounkachi, O.; K. Hlil, E.

    2012-09-01

    In this work, the hydrogen storage properties of the Mg-based hydrides, i.e., Mg1-x Mx H2 (M = Ti, V, Fe, 0 <= x <= 0.1), are studied using the Korringa—Kohn—Rostoker (KKR) calculation with the coherent potential approximation (CPA). In particular, the nature and concentrations of the alloying elements and their effects are studied. Moreover, the material's stability and hydrogen storage thermodynamic properties are discussed. In particular, we find that the stability and the temperature of desorption decrease without significantly affecting the storage capacities.

  3. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Socioeconomic Impact Estimates for Salt Lake/Utah Counties, Utah. Detailed Tables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    Report: Social Model (M-X ETR-28). Many of the tables contained in this volume relate either to a trend (low-growth) baseline or to a high-growth baseline...Alaw, 4 L j * I’ V. , w Q (L C 49 IUl.Cz7C, U AJ, ONN 0000000-rn 000000 W) 0 D -1 0 0 -oED ’No I n 0 0 va-.o0 n in- prq rro inr, -aN4 in 000000)0 000000

  4. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  5. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  6. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  7. Complete mitochondrial and plastid genomes of the green microalga Trebouxiophyceae sp. strain MX-AZ01 isolated from a highly acidic geothermal lake.

    PubMed

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-11-01

    We report the complete organelle genome sequences of Trebouxiophyceae sp. strain MX-AZ01, an acidophilic green microalga isolated from a geothermal field in Mexico. This eukaryote has the remarkable ability to thrive in a particular shallow lake with emerging hot springs at the bottom, extremely low pH, and toxic heavy metal concentrations. Trebouxiophyceae sp. MX-AZ01 represents one of few described photosynthetic eukaryotes living in such a hostile environment. The organelle genomes of Trebouxiophyceae sp. MX-AZ01 are remarkable. The plastid genome sequence currently presents the highest G+C content for a trebouxiophyte. The mitochondrial genome sequence is the largest reported to date for the Trebouxiophyceae class of green algae. The analysis of the genome sequences presented here provides insight into the evolution of organelle genomes of trebouxiophytes and green algae.

  8. Complete Mitochondrial and Plastid Genomes of the Green Microalga Trebouxiophyceae sp. Strain MX-AZ01 Isolated from a Highly Acidic Geothermal Lake

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete organelle genome sequences of Trebouxiophyceae sp. strain MX-AZ01, an acidophilic green microalga isolated from a geothermal field in Mexico. This eukaryote has the remarkable ability to thrive in a particular shallow lake with emerging hot springs at the bottom, extremely low pH, and toxic heavy metal concentrations. Trebouxiophyceae sp. MX-AZ01 represents one of few described photosynthetic eukaryotes living in such a hostile environment. The organelle genomes of Trebouxiophyceae sp. MX-AZ01 are remarkable. The plastid genome sequence currently presents the highest G+C content for a trebouxiophyte. The mitochondrial genome sequence is the largest reported to date for the Trebouxiophyceae class of green algae. The analysis of the genome sequences presented here provides insight into the evolution of organelle genomes of trebouxiophytes and green algae. PMID:23104370

  9. CHARACTERISTICS AND TOXICITY OF THE CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT 3-CHLORO-4-(DICHLOROMETHYL)-5-HYDROXY-2[5H]-FURANONE (MX) TO MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compound 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, also know as MX, is a by-product of wood pulp manufacture and a contaminant of chlorinated drinking and sewage water. MX has recently been shown to be a multi-site carcinogen in rodents. We investigated the acute...

  10. MxA Is a Novel Regulator of Endosome-Associated Transcriptional Signaling by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 4 and 9 (BMP4 and BMP9)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Huijuan; Sehgal, Pravin B.

    2016-01-01

    There is confusion about the role that IFN-α plays in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with different investigators reporting a causative or a protective role. There is now clear evidence in PAH pathogenesis for the involvement of BMP4 and BMP9 signaling, and its disruption by mutations in BMPR2. In the present study, we investigated MxA, an IFN-α-inducible cytoplasmic dynamin-family GTPase for effects on BMP4/9 signaling, including in the presence of PAH-disease-associated mutants of BMPR2. In human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs), IFN-α-induced endogenous as well as exogenously expressed MxA was associated with endosomes that aligned alongside microtubules and tubules of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, IFN-α and MxA stimulated basal and BMP4/9 signaling to a Smad1/5/8-responsive pBRE-Luc reporter. In HEK293T cells, immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the association of MxA with endosomes, and immunofluorescence methods showed these to be positive for early endosome markers (early endosomal antigen 1, clathrin light chain and Rab5) and RSmad1/5/8. Functionally, using different genetic and inhibitor approaches, we observed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis enhanced and caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibited the transcriptional response to BMP4 and BMP9. MxA produced a further 3-4-fold enhancement of the BMP-induced response in a clathrin-endocytosis dependent manner. The microtubule inhibitor nocodazole and stabilizer paclitaxel respectively attenuated and enhanced the effect of MxA, implicating microtubule integrity in this process. MxA enhanced BMP-induced signaling in the presence of wild-type BMPR2, and partially rescued signaling from some PAH-disease-associated BMPR2 mutants. Taken together, the data identify MxA as a novel stimulator of BMP4 and BMP9 transcriptional signaling, and suggest it to be a candidate IFN-α-inducible mechanism that might have a protective role against development of PAH and

  11. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume IV. Part II. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    these historic trends. There is a significant probability that other projects, notably the reopening of Kennecott Copper Company mine near Ruth and...tOPERATZNS BABE NEAR DELTA) 430 23.0 - JI 0 4-307ALT*O POPULATION GROWTH WITHOUT M-Xv WITH M-X, RO WITH M-X PLUS OTHER PROJECTS WHITE PINE COUNTY. NEVND...demand for land develop- ment, with lesser effects likely in Ruth and McGill. In 1976 White Pine County had 1,872 acres of developed urban land and 893

  12. Structural Requirements for the Antiviral Activity of the Human MxA Protein against Thogoto and Influenza A Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Patzina, Corinna; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The interferon-induced dynamin-like MxA protein has broad antiviral activity against many viruses, including orthomyxoviruses such as influenza A and Thogoto virus and bunyaviruses such as La Crosse virus. MxA consists of an N-terminal globular GTPase domain, a connecting bundle signaling element, and the C-terminal stalk that mediates oligomerization and antiviral specificity. We previously reported that the disordered loop L4 that protrudes from the compact stalk is a key determinant of antiviral specificity against influenza A and Thogoto virus. However, the role of individual amino acids for viral target recognition remained largely undefined. By mutational analyses, we identified two regions in the C-terminal part of L4 that contribute to an antiviral interface. Mutations in the proximal motif, at positions 561 and 562, abolished antiviral activity against orthomyxoviruses but not bunyaviruses. In contrast, mutations in the distal motif, around position 577, abolished antiviral activity against both viruses. These results indicate that at least two structural elements in L4 are responsible for antiviral activity and that the proximal motif determines specificity for orthomyxoviruses, whereas the distal sequence serves a conserved structural function. PMID:24448803

  13. A Novel Martensitic Creep-Resistant Steel Strengthened by MX Carbonitrides with Extremely Low Coarsening Rates: Design and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; Ma, Wenjie; Yan, Wei; Yang, Ke; Toda, Yoshiaki; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Xu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A general computational alloy design approach, based on thermodynamics and thermokinetics and coupled with a genetic algorithm optimization routine, was applied to the design of novel creep martensitic resistant steels. The optimal alloy suggested by the model has a high density of barely coarsening MX carbonitride precipitates. The model yielded precise values for the concentrations of the 10 alloying elements considered. The model alloy was produced on a 10 kg lab scale. Samples of the new alloy of one of the best commercial martensitic steels on the market P92 were subjected to a high aging temperature of 923 K (650 °C) for times up to 1000 hours. The microstructure of the new alloy in the as-produced state as well as after 1000 hours exposure has all the intended features as predicted by the model. The coarsening rate of the MX rate carbonitrides was substantially lower than that of the precipitates in the P92 steel. The very low coarsening rate explains the superior hardness at very long exposure times.

  14. Constitutive expression of Atlantic salmon Mx1 protein in CHSE-214 cells confers resistance to Infectious Salmon Anaemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Kibenge, Molly JT; Munir, Khalid; Kibenge, Frederick SB

    2005-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a highly fatal viral disease affecting marine-farmed Atlantic salmon which is caused by ISA virus (ISAV), a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. Mx proteins are among the interferon (IFN)-induced proteins responsible for the development of an antiviral state in vertebrate cells. We used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells constitutively expressing Atlantic salmon Mx1 protein (ASMx1) to examine the antiviral properties of ASMx1 against two ISAV strains, NBISA01 and HKS-36, having phenotypically different growth properties (cytopathic vs non-cytopathic) in the CHSE-214 cell line. We present evidence that ISAV is sensitive to ASMx1. CHSE-214 cells constitutively expressing ASMx1 showed increased resistance to infection with the cytopathic ISAV strain NBISA01, manifested as delayed development of cytopathic effects (CPE) and significant reduction in the severity of CPE, as well as a 10-fold reduction in virus yield. However, by real-time RT-PCR we observed no significant difference in the mean threshold cycle (Ct) values of ISAV RNA levels, suggesting that the ASMx1 activity on ISAV occurs at the post-transcription steps of virus replication, possibly in the cytoplasm. PMID:16124877

  15. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  16. Sealing device

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  17. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  18. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  19. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  20. BRAKE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  1. Josephson Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Antonio; Pagano, Sergio

    In this chapter we briefly review the main applications of Josephson effect together with the most successful devices realized. We will give an overview of the various devices, providing also some basic concepts of the underlying physical mechanisms involved, and the associated limit performances. Some considerations on the concrete possibilities of successful "market ready" implementation will also be given.

  2. Optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Leslie H.; Murphy, Clarence J.; Rosen, Warren A.; Jain, Himanshu

    1990-07-01

    This invention relates to acrylic polymers and more specifically to polyacrylamides and polyacrylates such as poly(2-((N-2-methyl-5-nitrophenylamino) ethyl acrylate)) and poly((N-2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)acrylamide). These acrylic polymers are particularly useful as nonlinear optical components in various electrical devices for processing optical signals including interferometors, optical switches, optical amplifiers, generators, computational devices and the like.

  3. Electrochromic devices

    DOEpatents

    Allemand, Pierre M.; Grimes, Randall F.; Ingle, Andrew R.; Cronin, John P.; Kennedy, Steve R.; Agrawal, Anoop; Boulton, Jonathan M.

    2001-01-01

    An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

  4. Superconducting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, S.T. . Dept. of Physics); Rudman, D.A. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of the theory, fabrication, and qualification of superconducting device elements and integrated circuitry. A look at issues key to the development of practical superconducting devices and systems is presented. Integrated systems, including the fabrication and application of SQUIDs, Josephson arrays, microwave detectors, digital signal processors and computers, and analog signal processors are discussed.

  5. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  6. Evaluation of the Pioneer PDP-502MX 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 50 Inch Diagonal Color Plasma Display Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    NIDL evaluated the thin, large screen, flat panel Pioneer 50 inch plasma display panel (PDP) to determine its usefulness to the display of images that are of interest to imagery analysts and GI specialists, As NIDL's ratings show, the Pioneer PDP-502MX is not going to be useful as the primary imagery analysis display on an IEC workstation, It fails many of the IEC requirements so we rate it "F" for IEC workstation monoscopic and stereo applications, Rather, its usefulness comes from its large, 50 inch diagonal size and its high pixel count for a PDP, up to 1280 x 768 pixels in the 16:9 and 1024 x 768 pixels in the 4:3 format, that could make it appropriate for group conference discussions, The Pioneer PDP-502MX has a relatively good gray scale capability; it can display 245 of 256 differences in input levels for a 7,94 bit depth, Its linearity surpasses that we have measured for CRT monitors, and comes about because of its precisely formed pixel structure, This pixel structure, like in LCD monitors, can have several non- operating pixels, It has a very high (exceeds 60% over the entire screen) and a very uniform 1-pixel-on/1-pixel-off contrast modulation for both the horizontal and vertical directions, The PDP can have a maximum luminance up to 40 fL for a small patch of white, and a minimum luminance of 0.2 fL For full screen white, its luminance is 18 fL, limited by internal circuitry to minimize panel heat generation and its luminance is more uniform than a CRT monitor, The reflectivity and the viewing angle are about the same as for a CRT monitor, It has a capability to do stereo imaging at 43 Hz per eye, which is on the borderline of visible flicker, and its dynamic range in stereo is good, The extinction ratio is poor, and is probably limited by the long persistence of the green phosphor, Most who have seen the Pioneer PDP-502MX would love to have one, at least for football games, The price is about 18,000.

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaMx25 reveals a novel siphovirus group related to phages infecting hosts of different taxonomic classes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Víctor; Sepúlveda-Robles, Omar; Cazares, Adrián; Kameyama, Luis; Guarneros, Gabriel

    2017-08-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are estimated to be the most abundant and diverse entities in the biosphere harboring vast amounts of novel genetic information. Despite the genetic diversity observed, many phages share common features, such as virion morphology, genome size and organization, and can readily be associated with clearly defined phage groups. However, other phages display unique genomes or, alternatively, mosaic genomes composed of regions that share homology with those of phages of diverse origins; thus, their relationships cannot be easily assessed. In this work, we present a functional and comparative genomic analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaMx25, a virulent member of the Siphoviridae family. The genomes of PaMx25 and a highly homologous phage NP1, bore sequence homology and synteny with the genomes of phages that infect hosts different than Pseudomonas. In order to understand the relationship of the PaMx25 genome with that of other phages, we employed several computational approaches. We found that PaMx25 and NP1 effectively bridged several phage groups. It is expected that as more phage genomes become available, more gaps will be filled, blurring the boundaries that currently separate phage groups.

  8. Aetiology of febrile pharyngitis in children: Potential of myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker of viral infection.

    PubMed

    Ivaska, Lauri; Niemelä, Jussi; Lempainen, Johanna; Österback, Riikka; Waris, Matti; Vuorinen, Tytti; Hytönen, Jukka; Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Peltola, Ville

    2017-04-01

    Besides group A streptococcus (GAS), microbial causes of pharyngitis in children are not well known. We aimed to document the viral and bacterial aetiology of pharyngitis and to assess the pathogenic role of viruses by determining the myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) in the blood as a marker of interferon response. In this prospective observational study, throat swabs and blood samples were collected from children (age 1-16 years) presenting to the emergency department with febrile pharyngitis. Microbial cause was sought by bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology. Blood MxA level was determined. A potential pathogen was detected in 88% of 83 patients: GAS alone in 10%, GAS and viruses in 13%, group C or G streptococci alone in 2% and together with viruses in 3%, and viruses alone in 59% of cases. Enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, and adenoviruses were the most frequently detected viruses. Blood MxA levels were higher in children with viral (880 [245-1250] μg/L; median [IQR]) or concomitant GAS-viral (340 [150-710] μg/L) than in those with sole GAS (105 [80-160] μg/L) infections. Detection of respiratory viruses simultaneously with elevated blood MxA levels supports the causative role of viruses in the majority of children with pharyngitis. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Methanomethylophilus alvus” Mx1201, a Methanogenic Archaeon from the Human Gut Belonging to a Seventh Order of Methanogens

    PubMed Central

    Borrel, Guillaume; Harris, Hugh M. B.; Tottey, William; Mihajlovski, Agnès; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre; Gribaldo, Simonetta; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Methanomethylophilus alvus” Mx1201, a methanogen present in the human gut. It was enriched from human feces under anaerobic conditions with methanol as the substrate. Its circular genome, of around 1.7 Mb, contains genes needed for methylotrophic methanogenesis from methanol and tri-, di-, and monomethylamine. PMID:23209209

  10. Magnetic properties of the iron sublattice in the YFe12-xMx compounds (M = Ti, Mo or V; x = 1-3.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnard, O.; Pop, V.

    2009-10-01

    The magnetic properties of the YFe12-xMx compounds (M = Ti, Mo or V; x = 1-3.5) have been determined in the ordered ferromagnetic state as well as in the paramagnetic state. The iron magnetic moment has been determined from 4 K up to the Curie temperature whereas the analysis of the paramagnetic region has led to the determination of the effective iron magnetic moment. The number of spins has been calculated below and above the Curie temperature in order to discuss the degree of itinerancy of the Fe magnetic behavior in the YFe12-xMx compounds. All the YFe12-xMx compounds (M = Ti, Mo or V; x = 1-3.5) have very similar crystalline properties: they crystallize in the same crystal structure and all the M elements used here are known to substitute for iron on the same crystal site. In contrast, they exhibit a wide range of magnetic behavior; the Curie temperature varies from 63 to 539 K and the mean magnetic moment per iron atom is also very dependent upon the M element used and its concentration. Furthermore the degree of itinerancy of the iron is not preserved along YFe12-xMx compounds but is found to depend significantly upon the nature of the substituting element M and its concentration. The results are discussed and compared to earlier published results obtained on binary R-Fe and ternary R-Fe-B compounds.

  11. Transitional Metal/Chalcogen Dependant Interactions of Hairpin DNA with Transition Metal Dichalcogenides, MX2.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Sofer, Zdenek; Pumera, Martin

    2015-08-03

    Owing to the attractive properties that transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) display, they have found recent application in the fabrication of biosensing devices. These devices involve the immobilization of a recognition element such as DNA onto the surface of TMDs. Therefore, it is imperative to examine the interactions between TMDs and DNA. Herein, we explore the effect of different transition metals (Mo and W) and chalcogens (S and Se) on the interactions between hairpin DNA and TMDs of both bulk and t-BuLi exfoliated forms. We discovered that the interactions are strongly dependent on the metal/chalcogen composition in TMDs.

  12. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diets: effects on hepatic Mx expression and some immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Grasso, V; Izquierdo, M S; Ganga, R; Real, F; Tort, L; Caballero, M J; Acosta, F

    2008-02-01

    The use of vegetable oils in fish nutrition has been extensively studied; and recent work has focused attention on replacing fish oil with alternative fatty acid sources and their effect on the immune system. However, little is known about the effect of these oils on immune parameters such as the fish interferon system. In this study we evaluate the effect of two vegetable oils (linseed and soybean) on gilthead sea bream Mx expression and other innate immune parameters. Experimental diets were formulated where fish oil was totally replaced by vegetable oils or for a mixture of them (50% linseed and 50% soybean). Another diet prepared with pure fish oil was used as a control. Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate growth, feed utilization, serum alternative complement pathway activity, serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity of head kidney leucocytes as well as Mx expression in the liver. In the first experiment fish were fed with experimental diets for 6 months and then, growth and feed utilization as well as immune parameters were analyzed. In the second experiment, fish from the previous feeding trial were injected with either a sub-lethal dose of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (94/99) or a synthetic dsRNA (Poly I:C) in order to stimulate an Mx response. The results show that total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils decreased the growth of gilthead sea bream juveniles. Furthermore, both phagocytic activity and serum alternative complement pathway activity were significantly reduced by the inclusion of either vegetable oil individually in the sea bream diets, but the diet with mixed vegetable oils had no significant effect. There was no effect on serum lysozyme levels but the basal constitutive levels of Mx transcript expression in the liver were elevated in the fish fed the vegetable oil diets. The time-course of the Mx response to injection of Poly I:C was shorter in the fish fed the fish oil diet and the fish fed the diet based

  13. In vivo distribution of avidin-conjugated MX35 and (211)At-labeled, biotinylated poly-L-lysine for pretargeted intraperitoneal α-radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frost, Sofia Helena Linnea; Bäck, Tom; Chouin, Nicolas; Jensen, Holger; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jacobsson, Lars; Lindegren, Sture

    2011-12-01

    Avidin-coupled monoclonal antibody MX35 (avidin-MX35) and astatine-211-labeled, biotinylated, succinylated poly-l-lysine ((211)At-B-PL(suc)) were administered in mice to assess potential efficacy as an intraperitoneal (i.p.) therapy for microscopic tumors. We aimed to establish a timeline for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using these substances, and estimate the maximum tolerable activity. (125)I-avidin-MX35 and (211)At-B-PL(suc) were administered i.p. in nude mice. Tissue distributions were studied at various time points and mean absorbed doses were estimated from organ uptake of (211)At-B-PL(suc). Studies of myelotoxicity were performed after administration of different activities of (211)At-B-PL(suc). We observed low blood content of both (125)I-avidin-MX35 and (211)At-B-PL(suc), indicating fast clearance. After sodium perchlorate blocking, the highest (211)At uptake was found in kidneys. Red bone marrow (RBM) accumulated some (211)At activity. Mean absorbed doses of special interest were 2.3 Gy/MBq for kidneys, 0.4 Gy/MBq for blood, and 0.9 Gy/MBq for RBM. An absorbed dose of 0.9 Gy to the RBM was found to be safe. These values suggested that RBM would be the key dose-limiting organ in the proposed pretargeting scheme, and that blood data alone was not sufficient for predicting its absorbed dose. To attain a favorable distribution of activity and avoid major toxicities, at least 1.0 MBq of (211)At-B-PL(suc) can be administered 24 hours after an i.p. injection of avidin-MX35. These results provide a basis for future i.p. therapy studies in mice of microscopic ovarian cancer.

  14. Mx1, OAS1 and OAS2 polymorphisms are associated with the severity of liver disease in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Mónica; Berenguer, Juan; Jiménez-Sousa, María A.; Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Aldámiz-Echevarria, Teresa; Tejerina, Francisco; Diez, Cristina; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Resino, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the chronic hepatitis C progression are incompletely understood. The aim was to analyze the association between 2′5′oligoadenylate synthetase 1,2 and 3 (OAS1-3) and myxovirus resistance proteins 1 (Mx1) polymorphisms and severity of liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients. We performed a cross-sectional study in 219 patients that underwent a liver biopsy. DNA genotyping for Mx1 (rs469390), OAS1 (rs2285934), OAS2 (rs1293762) and OAS3 (rs2010604) was performed by using GoldenGate assay. The outcome variables ion liver biopsy were: (i) significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2); (ii) moderate activity grade (A ≥ 2). Additive model of inheritance for genetic association test was used. The likelihood of having significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2) was lower in patients carrying OAS2 rs1293762 A allele [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.51; p = 0.040]. Besides, the likelihood of having moderate activity grade (A ≥ 2) was higher in patients carrying Mx1 rs464397 C allele (aOR = 1.63; p = 0.028) and Mx1 rs469390 G allele (aOR = 1.97; p = 0.005), while it was lower in patients carrying OAS1 rs2285934 A allele (aOR = 0.64; p = 0.039) and OAS2 rs1293762 A allele (aOR = 0.41; p = 0.009). In conclusion, Mx1 and OAS1-2 polymorphisms were associated with the severity of liver disease in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, suggesting a significant role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:28139728

  15. Excitonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butov, L. V.

    2017-08-01

    Indirect excitons can be controlled by voltage, can travel over large distances before recombination, and can cool down close to the temperature of semiconductor crystal lattice and below the temperature of quantum degeneracy. These properties form the basis for the development of excitonic devices with indirect excitons. In this contribution, we overview our studies of excitonic devices. We present traps, lattices, conveyers, and ramps for studying basic properties of cold indirect excitons - cold bosons in semiconductor materials. We also present proof-of-principle demonstration for excitonic signal processing devices.

  16. A solution of Mx(double dot) + Cx(dot) + Kx = 0 applicable to the design of active dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the equations of motion for the damped linear oscillator, Mx(double dot) + Cx(dot) + Kx = 0. The algorithm solves a transformed set of equations in terms of the modal variables of the undamped system and, at the same time, solves the adjoint equation of the transformed problem. The adjoint solution is normalized to give the inverse of the solution matrix of the transformed problem. The normalized inverse is useful in design for direct computation of sensitivity derivatives of damping ratios with respect to damping rates. The algorithm is programmed to reduce storage requirements by a factor of three-fourths compared to standard complex eigenvalue subroutines. A numerical example is included.

  17. Robust paramagnetism in Bi2- xMxRu2O7 (M=Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu) pyrochlore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, M. K.; Cava, R. J.; Avdeev, M.; Jorgensen, J. D.

    2002-09-01

    We report magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, and Seebeck coefficients for Bi2-xMxRu2O7 pyrochlore. The solid solution exists up to x=0.5 for M=Cu,Ni,Co and up to x=0.1 for M=Fe,Mn. The doped materials do not exhibit ferromagnetism or any localized ruthenium moment behavior. Instead we find the Ru-O and Bi-O sublattices to be essentially independent, with any magnetism resulting from the unpaired first-row transition metal dopant spins. Cobalt substitution for bismuth results in localized Co2+ and low-temperature spin-glass transitions in several cases. Nickel moments on the pyrochlore lattice display properties intermediate to localized and itinerant. Finally, copper doping results in an enhancement of the Pauli metallic density of states.

  18. Analysis of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and its brominated analogues in chlorine-treated water by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Planas, Carles; Ventura, Francesc; Caixach, Josep; Martín, Jordi; Boleda, M Rosa; Paraira, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive method for the analysis of the strong mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and its brominated analogues (BMXs) in chlorine-treated water has been developed. The method is based on gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS), previous liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a smaller sample volume compared to other methods and on-line derivatization with a silylation reactive. GC-QqQ-MS/MS has been raised as an alternative easier to perform than gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) for the analysis of MX and BMXs, and it allows to achieve low LODs (0.3 ng/L for MX and 0.4-0.9 ng/L for BMXs). This technique had not been previously described for the analysis of MX and BMXs. Quality parameters were calculated and real samples related to 3 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), tap water and both untreated and chlorinated groundwater were analyzed. Concentrations of 0.3-6.6 ng/L for MX and 1.0-7.3 ng/L for BMXs were detected. Results were discussed according to five of the main factors affecting MX and BMXs formation in chlorine-treated water (organic precursors, influence of bromide ions, evolution of MX and BMXs in the drinking water distribution system, groundwater chlorination and infiltration of water coming from chlorination processes in groundwater).

  19. Cleaning devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes.

  20. Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Device Performance group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we measure the performance of PV cells and modules with respect to standard reporting conditions--defined as a reference temperature (25 C), total irradiance (1000 Wm-2), and spectral irradiance distribution (IEC standard 60904-3). Typically, these are ''global'' reference conditions, but we can measure with respect to any reference set. To determine device performance, we conduct two general categories of measurements: spectral responsivity (SR) and current versus voltage (I-V). We usually perform these measurements using standard procedures, but we develop new procedures when required by new technologies. We also serve as an independent facility for verifying device performance for the entire PV community. We help the PV community solve its special measurement problems, giving advice on solar simulation, instrumentation for I-V measurements, reference cells, measurement procedures, and anomalous results. And we collaborate with researchers to analyze devices and materials.

  1. Association of Mx1 Asn631 variant alleles with reductions in morbidity, early mortality, viral shedding, and cytokine responses in chickens infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Sandra J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Livant, Emily J; Suarez, David L; Ralph, John; McLeod, Scott; Miller, Carolyn

    2011-06-01

    Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins are produced by host cells in response to type I interferons, and some members of the Mx gene family in mammals have been shown to limit replication of influenza and other viruses. According to an early report, chicken Mx1 variants encoding Asn at position 631 have antiviral activity, whereas variants with Ser at 631 lack activity in experiments evaluating Mx1 complementary DNA (cDNA) expressed ectopically in a cell line. We evaluated whether the Mx1 631 dimorphism influenced pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chickens of two commercial broiler lines, each segregating for Asn631 and Ser631 variants. Following intranasal infection with HPAIV strain A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/1995 H5N2, chickens homozygous for Asn631 allele were significantly more resistant to disease based on early mortality, morbidity, or virus shedding than Ser631 homozygotes. Higher amounts of splenic cytokine transcripts were observed in the Ser631 birds after infection, consistent with higher viral loads seen in this group and perhaps contributing to their higher morbidity. Nucleotide sequence determination of Mx1 cDNAs demonstrated that the Asn631 variants in the two chicken lines differed at several amino acid positions outside 631. In vitro experiments with a different influenza strain (low pathogenicity) failed to demonstrate an effect of Mx1 Asn631 on viral replication suggesting that in vivo responses may differ markedly from in vitro, or that choice of virus strain may be critical in demonstrating effects of chicken Mx1. Overall, these studies provide the first evidence that Mx1 has antiviral effects in chickens infected with influenza virus.

  2. Device Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    effecting change in the electrical properties of the material. Due to the heating requirement in setting the state, stray radiation does not affect the...device as in traditional binary RAM, thus giving the device radiation-hard properties . Uniformity of the heater elements at a small size below 100 nm is...Molybdenum was chosen for the cathode tube material because it has a low sputtering coefficient, and it’s high temperature properties .. The tubes are

  3. Microchannel devices

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, David E.; Wilson, Rick D.

    2001-09-01

    The fabrication of stainless steel microchannel heat exchangers was examined through microlamination, the process of diffusion bonding precision machined metallic foils. The influence of diffusion bonding parameters, as well as the device geometry on the strength of the bond between the foils and embedded channel integrity, was investigated. During diffusion bonding, high temperatures and/or pressures result in well bonded foils, but these conditions cause the embedded channels to deform, which will degrade the efficiency of fluid flow through the channels. Alternatively, low temperatures and/or pressures result in undeformed channels but weakly bonded foils. This causes failure of the device due to fluid leakage. Thus, a processing envelope exists for producing a sound device with no fluid leakage and no degradation of fluid flow properties. The theoretical limit on aspect ratio within two-fluid counter-flow microchannel heat exchangers was also investigated. A counter-flow device is comprised of alternating layers of microchannels, which allow the two fluids to flow in opposite directions separated by fins. A theoretical model for interpreting the span of the fin as a function of the fin thickness was established. The model was verified experimentally by fabricating specimens to simulate the counter-flow device. The results of these investigations were used to aid in the design and processing of prototype microchannel devices.

  4. Structure and optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) - MX2 (M = Mo, W & X = S, Se) under high pressure and high temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, Nirup

    Layered structured materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have gained immense interest in recent times due to their exceptional structural, electrical and optical properties. Recent studies show semiconducting TMDs such as MX2 (M= Mo, W & X = S, Se) could be used as potential shock absorbing material, which has resulted in extensive studies on structural stability of these materials under the influence of high pressure. Understanding the structural stability of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 under high pressure has been very challenging due to contradicting observations and interpretations reported in the past. Hence, the main objective of this work is to study the crystal structure and optical properties of bulk MX 2 at high hydrostatic pressures up to 51 GPa using a diamond anvil cell with synchrotron radiation in addition to high pressure Raman spectroscopic and high temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments. Crystal structures of MX2 materials are observed to be stable up to 500 °C with nonlinear thermal coefficients of expansion. Results of high pressure experiments show a pressure induced isostructural hexagonal distortion to a 2Ha-hexagonal P63/mmc phase, in MoS2 around 26 GPa as predicted by theoretical calculations reported earlier. No pressure induced phase transformation is observed in other MX2 (MoSe2, WS2, WSe 2). A semi empirical model based on the energy of interaction of bond electrons is proposed to explain the observed inconsistency between MoS 2 and other TMDs studied. Using this model, it is shown that except MoS2, no other MX2 within the scope of this study undergoes pressure induced phase transition in the pressure range 0 -- 50 GPa. High pressure Raman results show continuous red shifts in dominant vibrational modes with increase in pressure in MX2. Additionally, emergence of a new peak, namely 'd - band' associated with 2Ha structure in MoS2 supports the observation of a

  5. Effects of TiO2 coating dosage and operational parameters on a TiO2/Ag photocatalysis system for decolorizing Procion red MX-5B.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Lee, Ho-Shan

    2010-07-15

    In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) powder was coated onto the surface of a dendritic silver (Ag) carrier to synthesize TiO(2)/Ag for decolorizing Procion red MX-5B (MX-5B), and related operation factors were also studied. The results showed that even without ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation, the Ag carrier from the TiO(2)/Ag catalyst had oxidizing ability, which could effectively degrade MX-5B color, but TiO(2) was ineffective. In addition, TiO(2) from TiO(2)/Ag demonstrated photocatalysis performance when irradiated, and the Ag carrier further showed an electron-scavenging ability to mitigate electron-hole pair recombination, which can improve the photocatalytic efficacy. With the oxidization and electron-scavenging ability of Ag and the photocatalysis ability of TiO(2), TiO(2)/Ag can decolor MX-5B more efficiently than TiO(2). The heavier Ag carrier also improves the solid-liquid separation of nano-TiO(2), making TiO(2)/Ag more suitable for application in slurry systems of photocatalytic water treatment. When the TiO(2)/Ag coating ratio was 50% by weight, there was a sufficient amount of TiO(2) on Ag's surface with a good distribution, and it exhibited a good photocatalysis decolorizing effect. In a study of how operational factors impact the decolorizing of MX-5B in the TiO(2)/Ag photocatalysis system with UVA irradiation (UVA-TiO(2)/Ag), the decolorization efficiency was optimal when the solution was maintained at pH 6.35. The addition of 0.01 M hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) aided the photocatalysis decolorization efficiency, although excessive H(2)O(2) reacted with hydroxyl free radicals and decreased the active groups in the system, thereby reducing the photocatalysis activity. An operating temperature of 40 degrees C was conducive to MX-5B decolorization, which was better than operating at room temperature.

  6. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Brathenahl, A.; Furth, H.P.

    1962-04-10

    A device for producing a confined high temperature plasma is described. In the device the concave inner surface of an outer annular electrode is disposed concentrically about and facing the convex outer face of an inner annular electrode across which electrodes a high potential is applied to produce an electric field there between. Means is provided to create a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field and a gas is supplied at reduced pressure in the area therebetween. Upon application of the high potential, the gas between the electrodes is ionized, heated, and under the influence of the electric and magnetic fields there is produced a rotating annular plasma disk. The ionized plasma has high dielectric constant properties. The device is useful as a fast discharge rate capacitor, in controlled thermonuclear research, and other high temperature gas applications. (AEC)

  7. Analytical Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In the mid 60s under contract with NASA, Dr. Benjamin W. Grunbaum was responsible for the development of an automated electrophoresis device that would work in the weightless environment of space. The device was never used in space but was revived during the mid 70s as a technology utilization project aimed at an automated system for use on Earth. The advanced system became known as the Grunbaum System for electrophoresis. It is a versatile, economical assembly for rapid separation of specific blood proteins in very small quantities, permitting their subsequent identification and quantification.

  8. Geometrical and electronic structure of the molybdenum and tungsten halides MX3 and MX4 (M = Mo, W; X = F, Cl): Jahn-Teller effect and spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliznev, Valery V.; Belova, Natalya V.

    2017-03-01

    The ground and lower-lying excited electronic states of MX3 and MX4 (M = Mo, W; X = F, Cl) molecules were systematically studied by the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multiconfigurational quasi-degenerate second-order perturbation (XMCQDPT2) methods. Scalar-relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling were taken into account employing the third-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonian and full Breit-Pauli operator. The ground orbital state of MoF3 and MoCl3 complexes is quadruplet 4A2‧ state in the equilibrium configuration with D3h symmetry. If the spin-orbit interaction is taken into account the calculations result in two 4E1/2 and 4E3/2 spin-orbit states with 11-14 cm-1 energy differences instead of one 4A2‧ state. Spin-orbit interaction quenches the Jahn-Teller effect in 2E″ ground orbital state of WF3 complex in D3h configuration, and C2v configuration with (4E1/2 + 4E3/2) spin-mixed state corresponds to the minimum on the PES. The WCl3 complex reveals strong interaction of the spin-orbit states of different multiplicity. For WCl3 complex the configuration with D3h symmetry corresponds to the minimum on the PES for four lowest spin-mixed electronic states. The MoF4, MoCl4 and WCl4 complexes possess the tetrahedral equilibrium configuration with 3A2 orbital electronic state. If the spin-orbit interaction is taken into account the ground state changes to the threefold degenerated 3T2 spin-orbit state with weak Jahn-Teller effect. In the case of WF4 complex the strong Jahn-Teller effect has been discovered in the first excited 1E singlet electronic state of the tetrahedral structure, and D2d configuration with 1A1 electronic state possesses the lowest energy. The comparison with available experimental data has been performed. The tendencies in molecular parameters of complexes studied were analyzed.

  9. Cleaning devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner nozzle with a sharp rim for directing incoming air down against the floor; a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes; a vacuum cleaner head having slots that form a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and that includes an outlet that blows a stream of air at the floor region which lies between the vortices; a cleaning device that sweeps a group of brushes against the ground along a first direction, and then sweeps them along the same ground area but in a second direction angled from the first by an amount such as 90.degree., to sweep up particles lying in crevices extending along any direction; a device that gently cleans a surface to remove bacteria for analysis, including an inclined wall along which cleaning fluid flows onto the surface, a vacuum chamber for drawing in the cleaning fluid, and a dividing wall spaced slightly from the surface to separate the fluid source from the vacuum cleaner chamber; and a device for providing pulses of pressured air including a chamber to which pressured air is supplied, a ball that circulates around the chamber to repeatedly close an outlet, and an air source that directs air circumferentially to move the ball around the chamber.

  10. Detection device

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber, (2) a central chamber, and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  11. Detection device

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  12. Electrochemical device

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  13. [Intrauterine devices].

    PubMed

    Delavest, P; Engelmann, P

    1980-12-11

    Medicated IUDs such as copper IUDs and progesterone-releasing IUDs represent a new development in this form of contraception. All IUDs act by causing an inflammatory reaction at the endometrial level. Techniques of insertion vary from one model to the other; insertion always requires an experienced practitioner, and postabortion or midmenstruation insertions are to be preferred. Pregnancy with IUD in situ is a rare occurrence; the IUD must then be immediately removed. Ectopic pregnancies are about 5-10% of all pregnancies with the device in situ. IUD complications are uterine perforation, mostly done at time of insertion, and pelvic infection which, if untreated, can cause infertility; this is the reason why an IUD is never recommended to a nullipara. Pain and bleeding are the most common side effects. When the strings of the device are not visible, translocation of the device inside the uterine cavity must be suspected. The choice of the wrong type of IUD or a bad insertion can cause spontaneous expulsion of the device. IUD wearers must be regularly seen by a doctor; there is no correlation between IUD use and cervical or endometrial carcinoma.

  14. Effects of NV gene knock-out recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on Mx gene expression in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether the NV gene of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is related to the type I interferon response of hosts, expression of Mx gene in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in response to infection with either wild-type VHSV or recombinant VHSVs (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP and rVHSV-wild) was investigated. A reporter vector was constructed for measuring Mx gene expression using olive flounder Mx promoter, in which the reporter Metridia luciferase was designed to be excreted to culture medium to facilitate measurement. The highest increase of luciferase activity was detected from supernatant of cells infected with rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP. In contrast cells infected with wild-type VHSV showed a slight increase of the luciferase activity. Interestingly, cells infected with rVHSV-wild that has artificially changed nucleotides just before and after the NV gene ORF, also showed highly increased luciferase activity, but the increased amplitude was lower than that by rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP. These results strongly suggest that the NV protein of VHSV plays an important role in suppressing interferon response in host cells, which provides a condition for the viruses to efficiently proliferate in host cells. In an in vivo experiment, the Mx gene expression in olive flounder challenged with the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP was clearly higher than fish challenged with rVHSV-wild or wild-type VHSV, suggesting that lacking of the NV gene in the genome of rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP brought to strong interferon response that subsequently inhibit viral replication in fish.

  15. SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 inhibit IFN-alpha-induced expression of the antiviral proteins 2,5-OAS and MxA.

    PubMed

    Vlotides, George; Sörensen, Astrid S; Kopp, Florian; Zitzmann, Kathrin; Cengic, Neziha; Brand, Stephan; Zachoval, Reinhart; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2004-07-30

    Although the use of IFN-alpha in combination with ribavirin has improved the treatment efficacy of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, 20-50% of patients still fail to eradicate the virus depending on the HCV genotype. Recently, overexpression of HCV core protein has been shown to inhibit IFN signaling and induce SOCS-3 expression. Aim of this study was to examine the putative role of SOCS proteins in IFN resistance. By Western blot analysis, a 4-fold induction of STAT-1/3 phosphorylation by IFN-alpha was observed in mock-transfected HepG2 clones. In contrast, IFN-induced STAT-1/3 phosphorylation was considerably downregulated by SOCS-1/3 overexpression. In mock-transfected cells, IFN-alpha induced 2',5'-OAS and myxovirus resistance A (MxA) promoter activity 40- to 80-fold and 10- to 35-fold, respectively, and this effect was abrogated in SOCS-1/3 overexpressing cells. As detected by Northern blot technique, IFN-alpha potently induced 2',5'-OAS and MxA mRNA expression in the control clones. Overexpression of SOCS-1 completely abolished both 2',5'-OAS and MxA mRNA expression, whereas SOCS-3 mainly inhibited 2',5'-OAS mRNA expression. Our results demonstrate that SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 proteins inhibit IFN-alpha-induced activation of the Jak-STAT pathway and expression of the antiviral proteins 2',5'-OAS and MxA. These data suggest a potential role of SOCS proteins in IFN resistance during antiviral treatment.

  16. MxMn8O16 (M = Ag or K) as promising cathode materials for secondary Mg based batteries: The role of the cation M

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Jianping; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Altug S. Poyraz; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, AgxMn8O16 (Ag-OMS-2) and KxMn8O16 (K-OMS-2) were investigated as high voltage cathode materials for Mg based batteries. Both MxMn8O16 materials delivered high initial capacities (>180 mA h g–1), and KxMn8O16 showed high cycle stability with a reversible capacity of >170 mA h g–1 after 20 cycles.

  17. Human cell mutagenicity of chlorinated and unchlorinated water and the disinfection byproduct 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX).

    PubMed

    Woodruff, N W; Durant, J L; Donhoffner, L L; Penman, B W; Crespi, C L

    2001-08-22

    Extracts of three water samples--humic acid-enriched water-both peatland water and drinking water, both with and without chlorination were tested for mutagenicity at the tk locus in MCL-5 cells, a line of human B-lymphoblastoid cells that express cytochrome P450 enzymes and microsomal epoxide hydrolase. Our results show that chlorination caused a 5.5-fold increase (P<0.0001) in the mutagenicity of the humic acid-enriched water. The unchlorinated peatland water was mutagenic at the two highest doses (240 and 480 microg equivalent total organic carbon (TOC)/ml), possibly due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that were measured in the peat. In contrast, the chlorinated peatland water was non-mutagenic at low doses, while at the highest dose (240 microg equivalent TOC/ml) the sample was so toxic that an insufficient number of cells survived treatment to allow plating. The chlorinated and unchlorinated drinking water were both non-mutagenic. 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a potent bacterial mutagen and chlorine-disinfection byproduct, was also tested in MCL-5 cells as well as in two other human B-lymphoblastoid cell-lines, AHH-1 TK+/- and h1A1v2 cells, which differ from each other and from MCL-5 cells in the amounts of cytochrome P450 enzymes they can express. MX was mutagenic to all three cell-lines, but there was no apparent correlation between cytochrome P450 enzyme expression and the mutagenicity of MX. Overall, our results show that samples of chlorinated humic acid-enriched water and MX, a model chlorine-disinfection byproduct, are moderately mutagenic to human cells.

  18. A comparative investigation into relative bond strengths of Damon3, Damon3MX, and APC II brackets using different primer and adhesive combinations.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Maryam I; Sherriff, Martyn; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2012-12-01

    This investigation measured and compared shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant indices (ARIs) of Damon3 and Damon3MX brackets bonded with their recommended primer/adhesive combination or Transbond XT primer/adhesive, with APC II brackets bonded using Transbond XT. Sixty non-carious human third molars were collected and randomly divided into six equal groups of 10. Amongst these, one group was used to standardize the testing methodology, with the remainder constituting the five experimental groups. Upper right central incisor brackets represented each bracket type. Specifically, Damon3 brackets were bonded using either OrthoSolo primer/Blugloo (recommended) or Transbond XT primer/adhesive; Damon3MX brackets were bonded using OrthoSolo primer/Grengloo (recommended) or Transbond XT primer/adhesive, and APC II brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. Brackets were debonded by shear force using an Instron machine and the SBS measured. Scores for ARI were determined for all groups after bracket failure by magnified inspection of the tooth surface. Logrank tests showed a significantly higher SBS with Damon3 brackets bonded with OrthoSolo/Blugloo compared with Transbond XT, but no significant differences between the SBS of Damon3MX brackets bonded with OrthoSolo/Grengloo compared with Transbond XT. There were no significant differences in SBS of all three bracket types when bonded with Transbond XT. Pearson's chi-square test showed no difference in the locus of debond. All three adhesive systems are reliable when bonding Damon3 and Damon3MX brackets. Some caution should be taken when using Damon3 brackets bonded with OrthoSolo/Blugloo due to the higher SBS, although no enamel fractures were noted in this study.

  19. Administered activity and metastatic cure probability during radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in nude mice with {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Elgqvist, Joergen . E-mail: jorgen.elgqvist@radfys.gu.se; Andersson, Hakan; Bernhardt, Peter; Baeck, Tom; Claesson, Ingela; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Bengt R.; Lindegren, Sture; Olsson, Marita; Palm, Stig; Warnhammar, Elisabet; Jacobsson, Lars

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of {alpha}-radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in mice. This study: (i) estimated the minimum required activity (MRA), giving a reasonable high therapeutic efficacy; and (ii) calculated the specific energy to tumor cell nuclei and the metastatic cure probability (MCP) using various assumptions regarding monoclonal-antibody (mAb) distribution in measured tumors. The study was performed using the {alpha}-particle emitter Astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) labeled to the mAb MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}. Methods and Materials: Animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with {approx}1 x 10{sup 7} cells of the cell line NIH:OVCAR-3. Four weeks later animals were treated with 25, 50, 100, or 200 kBq {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2} (n = 74). Another group of animals was treated with a nonspecific mAb: 100 kBq {sup 211}At-Rituximab F(ab'){sub 2} (n = 18). Eight weeks after treatment the animals were sacrificed and presence of macro- and microscopic tumors and ascites was determined. An MCP model was developed and compared with the experimentally determined tumor-free fraction (TFF). Results: When treatment was given 4 weeks after cell inoculation, the TFFs were 25%, 22%, 50%, and 61% after treatment with 25, 50, 100, or 200 kBq {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}, respectively, the specific energy to irradiated cell nuclei varying between {approx}2 and {approx}400 Gy. Conclusion: As a significant increase in the therapeutic efficacy was observed between the activity levels of 50 and 100 kBq (TFF increase from 22% to 50%), the conclusion was that the MRA is {approx}100 kBq {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}. MCP was most consistent with the TFF when assuming a diffusion depth of 30 {mu}m of the mAbs in the tumors.

  20. Diversity of interferon inducible Mx gene in horses and association of variations with susceptibility vis-à-vis resistance against equine influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Manuja, Balvinder K; Manuja, Anju; Dahiya, Rajni; Singh, Sandeep; Sharma, R C; Gahlot, S K

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is primarily an infection of the upper respiratory tract and is one of the major infectious respiratory diseases of economic importance in equines. Re-emergence of the disease, species jumping by H3N8 virus in canines and possible threat of human pandemic due to the unpredictable nature of the virus have necessitated research on devising strategies for preventing the disease. The myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) has been reported to confer resistance to Orthomyxo virus infection by modifying cellular functions needed along the viral replication pathway. Polymorphisms and differential antiviral activities of Mx gene have been reported in pigs and chicken. Here we report the diversity of Mx gene, its expression in response to stimulation with interferon (IFN) α/β and their association with EI resistance and susceptibility in Marwari horses. Blood samples were collected from horses declared positive for equine influenza and in contact animals with a history of no clinical signs. Mx gene was amplified by reverse transcription from total RNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with IFN α/β using gene specific primers. The amplified gene products from representative samples were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed. Out of a total 24 amino acids substitutions sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) analysis predicted 13 substitutions with functional consequences. Five substitutions (V67A, W123L, E346Y, N347Y, S689N) were observed only in resistant animals. Evolutionary distances based on nucleotide sequences with in equines ranged between 0.3-2.0% and 20-24% with other species. On phylogenetic analysis all equine sequences clustered together while other species formed separate clades.

  1. A recombinant CHSE-214 cell line expressing an Mx1 promoter-reporter system responds to both interferon type I and type II from salmonids and represents a versatile tool to study the IFN-system in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jorunn B; Johansen, Audny; Hegseth, Marit N; Zou, Jun; Robertsen, Børre; Collet, Bertrand; Secombes, Christopher J

    2007-12-01

    A transgenic cell line for the detection of salmon interferons (IFNs) has been established. It is based on a CHSE-214 cell line containing a reporter construct expressing firefly luciferase under the control of the rainbow trout promoter for the IFN-induced Mx1 gene. This cell line, named CHSE-Mx10, showed IFN-induced luciferase expression after more than 80 passages, confirming the stability of this cell line. Interestingly, the Mx promoter was shown to respond to both salmon IFN-alpha/beta and trout IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner, while there was no response to TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. IFN-alpha/beta activity could be measured at a range of 9-150 U/ml, and IFN-gamma showed activity between 10 and 100 ng/ml. The reproducibility of both responses was good. The CHSE-Mx10 reporter system constitutes a versatile tool to study the induction and regulation of IFN signaling in teleost fish. A preliminary study presented herein suggests that both infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV) and salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) may block activation of the Mx promoter in CHSE-Mx10 stimulated with IFN-alpha/beta.

  2. Immunization of sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida by short bath: Effect on some pro-inflammatory molecules and the Mx gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grasso, V; Padilla, D; Bravo, J; Román, L; Rosario, I; Acosta, B; Vega, B; El Aamri, F; Escuela, O; Ramos-Vivas, J; Acosta, F

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines are a family of proteins derived from macrophages, lymphocytes, granulocytes, mast cells and epithelial cells and can be divided into interferons (IFNs), Interleukins (ILs) and Tumor Necrosis factors (TNFs) among others. The presence of cytokines in a wide number of fish species has been proved and several molecules types have been already cloned and sequenced. In this work some proinflamatory molecules and Mx gene were detected in the liver of vaccinated sea bream juveniles with an average body weight of 5 g. The method of immunization was by short bath and three different bacterins against the marine pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida were designed and used to immunize fish. Five genes encoding for five different molecules were analyzed by real time PCR: IL-1β, IL Ir-2, Cox-2, Mx and TNFα. Gene expression was quantified along four days after fish immunization and results were compared among groups. Results show that the heat-inactivated vaccine stimulates the up-regulation of IL-1β, IL Ir-2, Cox-2 and TNFα genes whereas the UV-light inactivated vaccine was the unique vaccine which stimulates the expression of Mx gene. The present is a novel study that shows by the first time the effect of the inactivation process of vaccines on the expression levels of genes involved in the defense against Photobacterium damselae subsp piscicida. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Binding Affinity, Specificity and Comparative Biodistribution of the Parental Murine Monoclonal Antibody MX35 (Anti-NaPi2b) and Its Humanized Version Rebmab200.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Sture; Andrade, Luciana N S; Bäck, Tom; Machado, Camila Maria L; Horta, Bruno Brasil; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Moro, Ana Maria; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith; Jacobsson, Lars; Cederkrantz, Elin; Washiyama, Kohshin; Aneheim, Emma; Palm, Stig; Jensen, Holger; Tuma, Maria Carolina B; Chammas, Roger; Hultborn, Ragnar; Albertsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate the characteristics of the monoclonal antibody Rebmab200, which is a humanized version of the ovarian-specific murine antibody MX35. This investigation contributes to the foundation for future clinical α-radioimmunotherapy of minimal residual ovarian cancer with 211At-Rebmab200. Here, the biodistribution of 211At-Rebmab200 was evaluated, as was the utility of 99mTc-Rebmab200 for bioimaging. Rebmab200 was directly compared with its murine counterpart MX35 in terms of its in-vitro capacity for binding the immobilized NaPi2B epitope and live cells; we also assessed its biodistribution in nude mice carrying subcutaneous OVCAR-3 tumors. Tumor antigen and cell binding were similar between Rebmab200 and murine MX35, as was biodistribution, including normal tissue uptake and in-vivo tumor binding. We also demonstrated that 99mTc-Rebmab200 can be used for single-photon emission computed tomography of subcutaneous ovarian carcinomas in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, our data support the further development of Rebmab200 for radioimmunotherapy and diagnostics.

  4. Binding Affinity, Specificity and Comparative Biodistribution of the Parental Murine Monoclonal Antibody MX35 (Anti-NaPi2b) and Its Humanized Version Rebmab200

    PubMed Central

    Lindegren, Sture; Andrade, Luciana N. S.; Bäck, Tom; Machado, Camila Maria L.; Horta, Bruno Brasil; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Moro, Ana Maria; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith; Jacobsson, Lars; Cederkrantz, Elin; Washiyama, Kohshin; Aneheim, Emma; Palm, Stig; Jensen, Holger; Tuma, Maria Carolina B.; Chammas, Roger; Hultborn, Ragnar; Albertsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate the characteristics of the monoclonal antibody Rebmab200, which is a humanized version of the ovarian-specific murine antibody MX35. This investigation contributes to the foundation for future clinical α-radioimmunotherapy of minimal residual ovarian cancer with 211At-Rebmab200. Here, the biodistribution of 211At-Rebmab200 was evaluated, as was the utility of 99mTc-Rebmab200 for bioimaging. Rebmab200 was directly compared with its murine counterpart MX35 in terms of its in-vitro capacity for binding the immobilized NaPi2B epitope and live cells; we also assessed its biodistribution in nude mice carrying subcutaneous OVCAR-3 tumors. Tumor antigen and cell binding were similar between Rebmab200 and murine MX35, as was biodistribution, including normal tissue uptake and in-vivo tumor binding. We also demonstrated that 99mTc-Rebmab200 can be used for single-photon emission computed tomography of subcutaneous ovarian carcinomas in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, our data support the further development of Rebmab200 for radioimmunotherapy and diagnostics. PMID:25970341

  5. Goose Mx and OASL Play Vital Roles in the Antiviral Effects of Type I, II, and III Interferon against Newly Emerging Avian Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shun; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Jinyue; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2017-01-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV), an emerging avian flavivirus, is highly pathogenic to birds and has the potential to become a zoonotic pathogen. Here, the molecular antiviral mechanism of goose type I, II, and III interferon (goIFNα, goIFNγ, and goIFNλ), the key components of the innate immune pathway, against TMUV was studied. We found that the transcription of goIFNs was obviously driven by TMUV infection in vivo and in vitro, and the titers and copies of TMUV were significantly reduced following treatment with goIFNs. The results of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that goIFN stimulation triggered a set of differentially expressed genes at different levels and a positive regulatory feedback loop of IFN release against infection. Two important interferon-stimulated genes, goMx and goOASL, were identified as workhorse IFNs in the inhibition of TMUV replication. The antiviral effects of goMx and goOASL were confirmed by transient overexpression and knockdown assay in vitro. Overall, our findings defined that goose Mx and OASL play key roles in the antiviral effects of type I, II, and III interferon against the TMUV. These results extend our understanding of the transcriptional profile of the goose IFN-mediated signaling pathway and provide insight into the antiviral mechanism of goIFNs against flavivirus infection. PMID:28878774

  6. Comparative study on structural, elastic, dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of Weyl semimetals MX (M = Ta or Nb; X = As or P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Hu, Cui-E.; Cheng, Yan; Ji, Guang-Fu

    2017-09-01

    We present a comparative investigation on structural, elastic, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of Weyl semimetals MX (M = Ta or Nb; X = As or P) using density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation. The elastic properties of NbAs, TaP and NbP are obtained for the first time, then we compared them with each other and with some well-studied materials. Among four Weyl semimetals, TaP and NbAs possess the largest and smallest bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, and Young's modulus E, respectively, while NbP and TaAs own the maximum and minimum elastic Debye temperature. Through the analysis of three dimensional (3D) representations and two dimensional (2D) projections of Young's modulus, MX series exhibit distinct elastic anisotropy, especially for TaAs and NbAs. The calculated phonon dispersions of four Weyl semimetals show no imaginary frequency throughout the Brillouin zone, indicating they are dynamically stable. In addition, compared with other theoretical results, our calculated Brillouin-zone-center frequencies of MX series are more in line with experimental data. Furthermore, Phonon velocities are obtained using phonon spectra, and anisotropic phonon group velocities are responsible for their anisotropic lattice thermal conductivity. Additionally, thermodynamic properties are also predicted using the calculated phonon density of states. The results are in good agreement with available experimental values. We expect our work can provide more information for further experimental studies.

  7. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2008-08-19

    A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

  8. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  9. Electrooptical Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    to monolithically integrate a passive waveguide with a GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure laser for potential use in fabricating modulators and...HETEROSTRUCTURE DIODE LASERS 5 Ill. INTRACAVITY LOSS MODULATION OF GaInAsP DIODE LASERS 19 IV. MONOLITHIC INTEGRATION OF GaInAsP/InP LASERS WITH PASSIVE... integrating an electroabsorption modulator section with a waveguide section and an optical amplifier section as shown in Fig. III-1. The device

  10. Latching device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, G. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A latching device is suited for use in establishing a substantially motionless connection between a stationary receiver and a movable latching mechanism. The latching mechanism includes a pivotally supported restraining hook continuously urged into a capturing relationship with the receiver, characterized by a spring-biased pawl having a plurality of aligned teeth. The teeth are seated in the surface of the throat of the hook and positionable into restraining engagement with a rigid restraining shoulder projected from the receiver.

  11. Electrooptical Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    Si N ’or Pl. The surface-related nature of the leakage currents was confirmed by testing the uncoated devices in several gaseous environments (O, NH ...later- tinre. Z-I.. Liau D. E. Mull .1. J. Ilsiebl J. N. Walpole T. A. Lind 711 G&InkA.P/ p I 643 6-C Fig. IV- t. Intensity distribution of an X-ray beam

  12. The Effect of Different Boiling and Filtering Devices on the Concentration of Disinfection By-Products in Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Goñi, Fernando; Rantakokko, Panu; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4) (chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)), MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97%) and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies. PMID:23476675

  13. The effect of different boiling and filtering devices on the concentration of disinfection by-products in tap water.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Villanueva, Cristina M; Goñi, Fernando; Rantakokko, Panu; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4) (chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)), MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97%) and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of an Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/Poly-L-Lactide Osteoconductive Composite Device for the Internal Fixation of Maxillofacial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Katase, Naoki; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    OSTEOTRANS MX (Takiron Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) is a resorbable osteosynthetic material composed of an unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide composite, and its osteoconductive capacity has been documented. The authors here report their clinical experience using OSTEOTRANS MX. The authors treated 35 patients (19 men, 16 women; age, 14-88 years; mean ± standard deviation, 38.4 ± 19.9 years) with maxillofacial fractures. The authors used standard surgery to stabilize fractures in all patients, fitting resorbable plates (thickness, 1.0 or 1.4 mm) and screws (diameter, 2 mm) according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association (AO) for the Study of Internal Fixation guidelines. All patients eventually achieved satisfactory healing with favorable restoration of form and function without foreign body reaction. Complications occurred in 3 patients-plate exposure in 2 and discomfort in 1. However, fracture sites healed in all patients. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the devices bonded directly to the bone without interposition of nonmineralized tissue. OSTEOTRANS MX is a useful material with few complications. Its osteoconductive bioactivity is advantageous for the early functional improvement of maxillofacial fractures.

  15. Clinical Evaluation of an Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/Poly-L-Lactide Osteoconductive Composite Device for the Internal Fixation of Maxillofacial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Katase, Naoki; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: OSTEOTRANS MX (Takiron Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) is a resorbable osteosynthetic material composed of an unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-l-lactide composite, and its osteoconductive capacity has been documented. The authors here report their clinical experience using OSTEOTRANS MX. Methods: The authors treated 35 patients (19 men, 16 women; age, 14–88 years; mean ± standard deviation, 38.4 ± 19.9 years) with maxillofacial fractures. The authors used standard surgery to stabilize fractures in all patients, fitting resorbable plates (thickness, 1.0 or 1.4 mm) and screws (diameter, 2 mm) according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association (AO) for the Study of Internal Fixation guidelines. Results: All patients eventually achieved satisfactory healing with favorable restoration of form and function without foreign body reaction. Complications occurred in 3 patients—plate exposure in 2 and discomfort in 1. However, fracture sites healed in all patients. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the devices bonded directly to the bone without interposition of nonmineralized tissue. Conclusion: OSTEOTRANS MX is a useful material with few complications. Its osteoconductive bioactivity is advantageous for the early functional improvement of maxillofacial fractures. PMID:27428913

  16. Closure device

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D. E.

    1985-06-11

    A closure device connectible to a well head through which the polished rod of a rod string extends into a well tubing for operating pump means for moving well fluids to a surface flow conductor, the closure device having a tubular ram provided with a packing or plug for closing an annular passage between the polished rod and a tubular body connected to the well head above a lateral port of the tubular body, the tubular ram and the tubular body having thread means for moving the plug between an operative lower position wherein it closes the annular passage when the rod string is stationary and on inoperative upper position; seal means between the ram and the polished rod spaced above the plug; and a plurality of independent seal means between the ram and the tubular body operative when the plug is in its inoperative position. The plug of the closure device is especially adapted to operate under high temperature and pressure conditions of the well, as during steam injection operations when the rod string is stationary, to protect the seal means from high pressures and temperatures as well as any fluids which may be corrosive or otherwise deleterious to the substance of which the seal means are made.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and quantum-chemical studies of Ni(CN)2MX (M = Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Speldrich, Manfred; Kögerler, Paul; Dronskowski, Richard; Tchougréeff, Andrei L

    2010-08-16

    A new series of coordination-network compounds containing Ni(CN)(2) and MX (M = Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br) quasi two-dimensional sheets has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The tetragonal crystal structure (I4/mmm, no. 139) can be derived from the distorted perovskite type. Chemically, the Lewis-acidic Ni(CN)(2) moieties accept halide ligands, resulting both in slightly elongated [Ni(NC)(4)X(2)](4-) octahedra and strongly elongated [Ni(CN)(4)X(2)](4-) octahedra that are charge-balanced by M(+) cations. Quantum-chemical calculations of the effective Hamiltonian crystal field (EHCF) type indicate the simultaneous presence of high- and low-spin Ni(2+) in a 1:1 ratio, in agreement with GGA+U and UV studies reported here. Our magnetic susceptibility data also corroborate the theoretical findings. An analysis of the magnetic superexchange paths in the new series of compounds is performed as well as that of the tentative magnetic state of the series.

  18. Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi, M=Ir,Os

    DOE PAGES

    Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; ...

    2015-03-31

    The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. In this paper, our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads tomore » softened interatomic force-constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q,E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Finally, our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.« less

  19. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Matthew A; Prola, Lizie D T; Lima, Eder C; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S; Vaghetti, Julio C P; da Silva, Leandro G; Ruggiero, Reinaldo

    2014-03-15

    A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al(3+) (CML-Al) and Mn(2+) (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pHPZC. The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16mgg(-1) at 298K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone+50% of 0.05molL(-1) NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Superconducting and normal state properties of the systems La1 -xMxPt4Ge12 (M = Ce ,Th )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; Jeon, I.; Breindel, A. J.; Pouse, N.; Maple, M. B.

    2016-09-01

    Electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat measurements were performed on polycrystalline samples of the filled-skutterudite systems La1 -xMxPt4Ge12(M =Ce and Th ) . Superconductivity in LaPt4Ge12 was quickly suppressed with Ce substitution and no evidence for superconductivity was found down to 1.1 K for x >0.2 . Temperature-dependent specific heat data at low temperatures for La1 -xCexPt4Ge12 show a change from power-law to exponential behavior, which may be an indication for multiband superconductivity in LaPt4Ge12 . A similar crossover was observed in the Pr1 -xCexPt4Ge12 system. However, the suppression rates of the superconducting transition temperatures Tc(x ) in the two systems are quite disparate, indicating a difference in the nature of superconductivity, which is conventional in LaPt4Ge12 and unconventional in PrPt4Ge12 . In comparison, a nearly linear and smooth evolution of Tc with increasing Th was observed in the La1 -xThxPt4Ge12 system, with no change of the superconducting energy gap in the temperature dependence of the specific heat, suggesting similar types of superconductivity in both the LaPt4Ge12 and ThPt4Ge12 compounds.

  1. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Versus Mexameter(®) MX18 Measurements of Melanin and Erythema in an African Population.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Karsten, Aletta E; Wilkes, Marcus; Singh, Ann; du Plessis, Johan; Albers, Patricia N; Karsten, Petrus A

    2016-07-01

    Melanin provides protection against excess exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and related adverse health effects. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can be used to calculate cutaneous melanin and erythema, but this is complex and has been mostly used for light-to-medium pigmented skin. Handheld reflectance spectrophotometers, such as the Mexameter(®) MX18, can also be used. We compared DRS-calculated melanin and erythema values with Mexameter melanin and erythema index values to understand how these techniques/measurements correlate in an African population of predominantly deeply pigmented skin. Five hundred and three participants comprised 68.5% self-identified Black African, 9.9% Indian/Asian, 18.4% White and 2.9% Colored. The majority of Black African (45%), Indian/Asian (34%) and Colored (53%) participants self-identified their skin as being "brown." Measured melanin levels increased with darker self-reported skin color. DRS-calculated and Mexameter melanin values demonstrated a positive correlation (Spearman rho = 0.87, P < 0.001). The results from both instruments showed erythema values were strongly correlated with their own melanin values. This finding is considered spurious and may result from the complexity of separating brown and red pigment when using narrowband reflectance techniques. Further work is needed to understand melanin, erythema and color in Black skin given sun-related health risks in vulnerable groups in Africa.

  2. Preparation and characterization of ZnS:Fe/MX (M = Cd, Zn; X = S, Se) core-shell nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lihua; Xie, Ruishi; Gu, Yongjun; Huang, Jinliang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    ZnS:Fe/MX (M = Cd, Zn; X = S, Se) nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Compared to ZnS:Fe nanocrystals, the diffraction peaks intensity of ZnS:Fe/ZnS nanocrystals reduced and the diffraction peaks of ZnS:Fe/ZnSe nanocrystals moved to lower angles. TEM photos show that ZnS:Fe and ZnS:Fe/ZnSe nanocrystals are spheroidal and the average particles size is about 2-4 nm. The selected-area electron diffraction pattern of ZnS:Fe/ZnSe nanocrystals shows the diffraction rings, indicating the ZnS:Fe/ZnSe nanocrystals have a polycrystalline structure. XPS shows that the divalent and trivalent of Fe ion are coexisted in ZnS:Fe nanocrystals. The emission peaks of ZnS:Fe nanocrystals were from S and Zn ions vacancy defects and surface defects for the range of 200-900 nm. The use of ZnS (CdS, ZnSe) as surface modifying reagent inhibited the luminescent intensity of ZnS:Fe nanocrystallines at 420 nm. The PL spectra of ZnS:Fe/CdS nanocrystals show a new peak at 554 nm.

  3. Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi (M =Ir , Os )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, I. I.; May, A. F.; Li, C. W.; Sales, B. C.; Niedziela, J. L.; Ma, J.; Matsuda, M.; Abernathy, D. L.; Berlijn, T.

    2015-03-01

    The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M = Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x =0 ,0.02 ,0.04 ,0.1 ) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. Our INS measurements on single crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S (Q ,E ) , for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers, leads to softened interatomic force constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S (Q ,E ) from INS through a Green's-function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory simulations, and we study the disorder-induced lifetimes on large supercells. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.

  4. Superconductivity, magnetism and oxygen nonstoichiometry of Ba2Y( Cu1- xMx) 3Oy (M = Zn and Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ruixing; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Itoh, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Tetsurō

    1990-09-01

    The effects of both the atomic substitutions and the change of oxygen content on the superconductivity and magnetic properties of Ba2Y( Cu1- xMx) 3Oy (M = Zn and Ni) solid solution systems have been investigated. The Ni ion in the solid solution was found to be trivalent and have a magnetic moment of ≈ 2.4μ B. At the same oxygen content, the substitution of Cu by Zn always gives a steeper depression of Tc than the substitution by Ni. The dependence of Tc on the oxygen content indicates that Tc is not depressed by the change of the hole concentration through the substitutions of Cu by Zn and Ni. The Zn ion in the solid solution plays a similar role to the over-doped holes in the two aspects of (i) weakening significantly the antiferromagnetic correlation among Cu spins and (ii) inducing a deviation of the band structure from the simple Mott-Hubbard model.

  5. Antiviral Effects of Geranylgeranylacetone: Enhancement of MxA Expression and Phosphorylation of PKR during Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Unoshima, Masako; Iwasaka, Hideo; Eto, Junko; Takita-Sonoda, Yoshiko; Noguchi, Takayuki; Nishizono, Akira

    2003-01-01

    A cyclic polyisoprenoid compound, geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), has been used as antiulcer drug. GGA is also a potent inducer of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs are considered to induce an antiviral effect; however, the detailed mechanism is unknown. To determine whether GGA might show antiviral activity and what the mechanism is, the effect of GGA against influenza virus (strain PR8) infection in vivo and in vitro was investigated. The results demonstrated that GGA treatment strongly suppressed the deleterious consequences of PR8 replication and was accompanied by an increase in HSP70 gene expression in mice. Results from in vitro analyses demonstrated that GGA significantly inhibited the synthesis of PR8-associated proteins and prominently enhanced expression of human myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA) followed by increased HSP70 transcription. Moreover, GGA augmented the expression of an interferon-inducible double-strand RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) gene and promoted PKR autophosphorylation and concomitantly α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 phosphorylation during PR8 infection. It is proposed that GGA-induced HSP70 has potent antiviral activity by enhancement of antiviral factors and can clinically achieve protection from influenza virus infection. PMID:12936994

  6. Predicting solid solubility in CoCrFeNiMx (M = 4d transition metal) high-entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Saad; Mao, Huahai; Guo, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    CoCrFeMnNi is a prototype fcc-structured high-entropy alloy. Numerous efforts have been paid to strengthen CoCrFeMnNi, by replacing Mn with other elements for an enhancement of the solid solution strengthening. 4d transition metals, including Zr, Nb, and Mo, are of interest for this purpose, since they have much larger atomic radii than that of Mn. However, Nb and Mo are known to have a low solid solubility in fcc-structured CoCrFeNi. Compared to Nb and Mo, Zr has an even larger atomic radius. The solid solubility of Zr in fcc-structured CoCrFeNi was investigated in this work, combining both experimental studies and thermodynamic calculations. In addition, based on previous results and new results obtained here, methods to predict the solid solubility in CoCrFeNiMx (M = Zr, Nb, and Mo) alloys were developed. Particularly, the average d-orbital energy level, Md, was re-evaluated in the present work, for an improved predictability of the solid solubility in fcc-structured high entropy alloys containing 4d transition metals.

  7. Electrooptical Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    Table 1-1 10 II-5 Calculated Ij as a Function of the Cap p-Doping 12 III-1 L-I Characteristics of the Five Mass-Transported BH Lasers with Different...343, a = 5.0 /im, W = 1.5 nmy and b = 2.0 pm 9 vni ELECTROOPTICAL DEVICES I. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MASS-TRANSPORTED GalnAsP/InP BURIED...HETEROSTRUCTURE LASERS As a potentially very important class of sources in fiber optical communication and inte- grated optics, GalnAsP/InP buried

  8. Electrospray device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmons, Nathaniel (Inventor); Martin, Roy (Inventor); Hruby, Vladimir (Inventor); Roy, Thomas (Inventor); Spence, Douglas (Inventor); Ehrbar, Eric (Inventor); Zwahlen, Jurg (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electrospray device includes an electrospray emitter adapted to receive electrospray fluid; an extractor plate spaced from the electrospray emitter and having at least one aperture; and a power supply for applying a first voltage between the extractor plate and emitter for generating at least one Taylor cone emission through the aperture to create an electrospray plume from the electrospray fluid, the extractor plate as well as accelerator and shaping plates may include a porous, conductive medium for transporting and storing excess, accumulated electrospray fluid away from the aperture.

  9. Electrochromic device

    SciTech Connect

    Schwendemanm, Irina G; Polcyn, Adam D; Finley, James J; Boykin, Cheri M; Knowles, Julianna M

    2011-03-15

    An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A first electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive member. The first electrochromic material includes an organic material. A second conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. A second electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive member. The second electrochromic material includes an inorganic material. An ionic liquid is positioned between the first electrochromic material and the second electrochromic material.

  10. Diversionary device

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    A diversionary device has a housing having at least one opening and containing a non-explosive propellant and a quantity of fine powder packed within the housing, with the powder being located between the propellant and the opening. When the propellant is activated, it has sufficient energy to propel the powder through the opening to produce a cloud of powder outside the housing. An igniter is also provided for igniting the cloud of powder to create a diversionary flash and bang, but at a low enough pressure to avoid injuring nearby people.

  11. Device Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have to take numerous factors/data into their therapeutic decisions in daily life. Connecting the devices they are using by feeding the data generated into a database/app is supposed to help patients to optimize their glycemic control. As this is not established in practice, the different roadblocks have to be discussed to open the road. That large telecommunication companies are now entering this market might be a big help in pushing this forward. Smartphones offer an ideal platform for connectivity solutions. PMID:25614015

  12. Cooling device

    SciTech Connect

    Teske, L.

    1984-02-21

    A cooling device is claimed for coal dust comprising a housing, a motor-driven conveyor system therein to transport the coal dust over coolable trays in the housing and conveyor-wheel arms of spiral curvature for moving the coal dust from one or more inlets to one or more outlets via a series of communicating passages in the trays over which the conveyor-wheel arms pass under actuation of a hydraulic motor mounted above the housing and driving a vertical shaft, to which the conveyor-wheel arms are attached, extending centrally downwardly through the housing.

  13. OLED devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sapochak, Linda Susan; Burrows, Paul Edward; Bimalchandra, Asanga

    2011-02-22

    An OLED device having an emission layer formed of an ambipolar phosphine oxide host material and a dopant, a hole transport layer in electrical communication with an anode, an electron transport layer in communication with a cathode, wherein the HOMO energy of the hole transport layer is substantially the same as the HOMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer, and the LUMO energy of the electron transport layer is substantially the same as the LUMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer.

  14. Electroexplosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An electroexplosive device is presented which employs a header having contact pins hermetically sealed with glass passing through from a connector end of the header to a cavity filled with a shunt layer of a new nonlinear resistive composition and a heat-sink layer of a new dielectric composition having good thermal conductivity and capacity. The nonlinear resistive layer and the heat-sink layer are prepared from materials by mixing with a low temperature polymerizing resin. The resin is dissolved in a suitable solvent and later evaporated. The resultant solid composite is ground into a powder, press formed into the header and cured (polymerized) at about 250 to 300 F.

  15. MX [3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone], a drinking-water carcinogen, does not induce mutations in the liver of cII transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Geter, David R; Winn, Richard N; Fournie, John W; Norris, Michelle B; DeAngelo, Anthony B; Hawkins, William E

    2004-03-12

    Mutagenicity assays with Salmonella have shown that 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX), a drinking-water disinfection by-product, is a potent mutagen, accounting for about one-third of the mutagenic potency/potential of chlorinated drinking water. The ability of MX to induce mutations was investigated in the liver of medaka (Oryzias latipes), a small fish model, utilizing the cII transgenic medaka strain that allows detection of in vivo mutations. Methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAMAc), a carcinogen in medaka, served as a positive control. Fish were exposed to MX at 0, 1, 10, or 30 mg/L for 96 h, whereas the MAMAc exposures were for 2 h at 0, 0.1, 1, or 10 mg/L. Both exposures were conducted under static water conditions and with fasted medaka. Following exposure, fish were returned to regular culture conditions to allow mutation expression for 15 or 40 d for MX or for 15 or 32 d for MAMAc. Mutations were not induced in medaka exposed to MX for 96 h. However, a concentration- and time-dependent increase in mutations was observed from the livers of fish exposed to 1 and 10 mg/L MAMAc. In conclusion, mutation induction was not observed in the livers of cII medaka exposed to MX for 96 h; however, studies are planned to examine mutation induction in the gills and skin to explore the possibility that MX-induced DNA damage occurs primarily in the tissues of initial contact.

  16. A highly conserved redox-active Mx(2)CWx(6)R motif regulates Zap70 stability and activity

    PubMed Central

    Thurm, Christoph; Poltorak, Mateusz P.; Reimer, Elisa; Brinkmann, Melanie M.; Leichert, Lars; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    ζ-associated protein of 70 kDa (Zap70) is crucial for T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Loss of Zap70 in both humans and mice results in severe immunodeficiency. On the other hand, the expression of Zap70 in B-cell malignancies correlates with the severity of the disease. Because of its role in immune-related disorders, Zap70 has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of human diseases. It is well-established that the activity/expression of Zap70 is regulated by post-translational modifications of crucial amino acids including the phosphorylation of tyrosines and the ubiquitination of lysines. Here, we have investigated whether also oxidation of cysteine residues regulates Zap70 functions. We have identified C575 as a major sulfenylation site of Zap70. A C575A substitution results in protein instability, reduced activity, and increased dependency on the Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone system. Indeed, Cdc37 overexpression reconstituted partially the expression but fully the function of Zap70C575A. C575 lies within a Mx(2)CWx(6)R motif which is highly conserved among almost all human tyrosine kinases. Mutation of any of the conserved amino acids, but not of a non-conserved residue preceding the cysteine, also results in Zap70 instability. Collectively, we have identified a new redox-active motif which is crucial for the regulation of Zap70 stability/activity. We believe that this motif has the potential to become a novel target for the development of therapeutic tools to modulate the expression/activity of kinases. PMID:28415650

  17. Defect engineering of complex semiconductor alloys: Cu2-2xMxO1-yXy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lany, Stephan; Stevanovic, Vladan

    2013-03-01

    The electrical properties of semiconductors are generally controlled via doping, i.e., the incorporation of dilute concentrations of aliovalent impurity atoms, whereas the band structure properties (gap, effective masses, optical properties) are manipulated by alloying, i.e., the incorporation of much larger amounts of isovalent elements. Theoretical approaches usually address either doping or alloying, but rarely both problems at the same time. By combining defect supercell calculations, GW quasi-particle energy calculation, and thermodynamic modeling, we study the range of electrical and band structure properties accessible by alloying aliovalent cations (M = Mg, Zn, Cd) and isovalent anions (X = S, Se) in Cu2O. In order to extend dilute defect models to higher concentrations, we take into account the association/dissociation of defect pairs and complexes, as well as the composition dependence of the band gap and the band edge energies. Considering a composition window for the Cu2-2xMxO1-yXy alloys of 0 <= (x,y) <= 0.2, we predict a wide range of possible band gaps from 1.7 to 2.6 eV, and net doping concentrations between p = 1019 cm-3 and n = 1017cm-3, notably achieving type conversion from p- to n-type at Zn or Cd compositions around x = 0.1. This work is supported as part of the SunShot initiative by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 to NREL.

  18. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  19. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  20. Optoelectronic device

    DOEpatents

    Bonekamp, Jeffrey E.; Boven, Michelle L.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2014-09-09

    The invention is an optoelectronic device comprising an active portion which converts light to electricity or converts electricity to light, the active portion having a front side for the transmittal of the light and a back side opposite from the front side, at least two electrical leads to the active portion to convey electricity to or from the active portion, an enclosure surrounding the active portion and through which the at least two electrical leads pass wherein the hermetically sealed enclosure comprises at the front side of the active portion a barrier material which allows for transmittal of light, one or more getter materials disposed so as to not impede the transmission of light to or from the active portion, and a contiguous gap pathway to the getter material which pathway is disposed between the active portion and the barrier material.

  1. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  2. Electrophoresis device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  3. The d3/d2 alkyne complexes [MX2(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp']z (X = halide, z = 0 and 1+): final links in a d6-d2 redox family tree.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher J; Anderson, Kirsty M; Connelly, Neil G; Harding, David J; Hayward, Owen D; Orpen, A Guy; Patrón, Elena; Rieger, Philip H

    2009-01-21

    The d4 halide complexes [MX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp'] [R = Me, M = W, X = F; R = Ph, M = Mo or W, X = F or Cl; Tp' = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate] undergo two-electron oxidation in the presence of a halide source to give the d2 monocations [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ (R = Me, M = W, X1 = X2 = F; R = Ph, M = Mo, X1 = X2 = F or Cl; M = W, X1 = X2 = F or Cl; X1 = F, X2 = Cl). Each monocation (R = Ph) shows two reversible one-electron reductions (the second process was not detected for R = Me) corresponding to the stepwise formation of the neutral d3 and monoanionic d4 analogues, [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] and [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']- respectively; the potentials for the two processes can be 'tuned' over a range of ca. 1.0 V by varying M and X. Chemical one-electron reduction of [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ gave [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] (M = Mo or W, X = F or Cl). X-Ray structural studies on the redox pairs [WX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']z (X = F and Cl, z = 0 and 1+) show the alkyne to bisect the X-W-X angle in the d2 cations but align more closely with one M-X bond in the neutral d3 molecules, consistent with the anisotropic ESR spectra of the latter; the solution ESR spectrum of [MoF2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] showed equivalent fluorine atoms, i.e the alkyne oscillates at room temperature. The successful isolation of [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ and [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] completes a series in which d6 to d2 alkyne complexes are linked in a redox family tree by sequential one-electron transfer and substitution reactions. The implications for such trees in the production of new species and the selective synthesis of paramagnetic complexes acting as synthetically useful 'alkyne radicals' are discussed.

  4. General formation of three-dimensional (3D) interconnected MxSy (M = Ni, Zn, and Fe)-graphene nanosheets-carbon nanotubes aerogels for lithium-ion batteries with excellent rate capability and cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Yixuan; Wang, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Metal sulfides have a highly promising potential as anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their environmental friendliness, abundant resources, and low-cost. Unfortunately, the implementation of such novel anodes is severely hindered by their low electronic conductivity and large volume expansion during the repetitive lithiation/delithiation process. Herein, we report a specifically designed anode structure to overcome these obstacles, that is, to incorporate MxSy (M = Ni, Zn, and Fe) with graphene nanosheets (GNS) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form three-dimensional interconnected MxSy-graphene nanosheets-carbon nanotubes aerogels. Morphology and structure results confirm that MxSy particles were uniformly and closely attached on the 3D complex network structure of GNS-CNT. As a result, when used as anode materials for half and full LIBs, the MxSy-GNS-CNT aerogels exhibit remarkable high reversible capacities, ultra-long cycle life, and super high rate performance (For example, the NiS-GNS-CNT, ZnS-GNS-CNT, and FeS2-GNS-CNT aerogels could deliver high capacities of 735, 800, and 850 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles, respectively). Our results indicate that 3D interconnected MxSy-GNS-CNT aerogels are promising anode materials for the next generation LIBs with high-performance.

  5. Intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Gromko, L

    1980-01-01

    IUDs were 1st used in Poland in 1909 when Richter introduced a silkworm gut device. Grafenberg's ring, made 1st of silkworm gut and later of gold or silver, was used in Berlin in the 1920s, but dangerous infections were associated with these IUDs. In the early 1960s new biologically inert materials (stainless steel and plastic) were used for the Lippes Loop, the Saf-T-Coil, and the Spiral (associated with a higher expulsion rate). The stainless tell Majzlin Spring was recalled by the FDA because of embedding in the uterine wall. The Dalkon Shield, introduced in the early 1970s, was implicated in midtrimester septic abortions and deaths, and was later withdrawn. Progestasert containing progesterone was 1st used in the mid-1970s, however, side effects included dysmenorrhea, vaso-vagal reaction, and higher ectopic pregnancy rates. Stimulation of the vagus nerve occurring during tenaculum placement can induce symptoms known as the vaso-vagal reaction: bradycardia, hypotension, nausea, pallor, syncope, and cardiac arrest. Moderate symptoms may be relieved by atropine sulfate (.6 mg iv). Baseline pulse and blood pressure must be routinely read before IUD fitting. Sounding the uterus during menstruation and a follow-up visit within 3 months with x-ray if necessary is recommended to rule out perforation. Reported expulsion rates vary from 1 to 24%, mostly among nulliparas. Copper-bearing devices usually require laparotomy for removal. Pregnancy occurs in 1-5% of IUD users. Removal may trigger spontaneous abortion, but the in situ IUD poses more danger. The theoretical efficacy of IUDs is 97-99% (of 100 women correctly using IUDs for 1 year, 1-3 become pregnant). Their disadvantages include increased dysmenorrhea, menstrual cramps, and bleeding. An estimated 5-10% of pregnancies occurring with an IUD in situ are ectopic. Women who use IUDs are several times more likely to develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) than nonusers. Recent research substantiates a 4.4 to 9-fold

  6. Integrated device architectures for electrochromic devices

    DOEpatents

    Frey, Jonathan Mack; Berland, Brian Spencer

    2015-04-21

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for creating monolithically integrated electrochromic devices which may be a flexible electrochromic device. Monolithic integration of thin film electrochromic devices may involve the electrical interconnection of multiple individual electrochromic devices through the creation of specific structures such as conductive pathway or insulating isolation trenches.

  7. Polymorphisms in interferon-induced genes and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection: roles of MxA, OAS-1 and PKR.

    PubMed

    Knapp, S; Yee, L J; Frodsham, A J; Hennig, B J W; Hellier, S; Zhang, L; Wright, M; Chiaramonte, M; Graves, M; Thomas, H C; Hill, A V S; Thursz, M R

    2003-09-01

    Interferon stimulates the expression of a number of genes encoding enzymes with antiviral activities, including myxovirus resistance-1 (MxA), 2-5-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1) and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). We examined whether polymorphisms in these genes influenced the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We observed a lower frequency of the GG genotype at position -88 in the MxA gene promoter in self-limiting HCV infection (OR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.35-0.8; P=0.010) and in nonresponders to therapy (OR=0.49; 95% CI: 0.25-0.95; P=0.020). This genotype predominantly influenced the outcome of treatment in patients with viral genotype 1 (OR=0.22 95% CI: 0.07-0.67; P=0.002). A polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the OAS-1 gene was associated with outcome of infection (GG genotype less frequent in self-limiting infection: OR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.21-0.86; P=0.010). A polymorphism at position -168 in the promoter region of the PKR gene was associated with self-limiting infection (CT genotype: OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.45-5.24; P=0.002). Further associations were found with a CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5'UTR region of the PKR gene. Polymorphisms in the interferon-induced genes, MxA, OAS-1 and PKR appear thus associated with HCV outcome.

  8. Prospective Analysis of the Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Cryoablation for pT1NxMx Biopsy-Proven Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Ronald; Cizman, Ziga; Hong, Kelvin; Koliatsos, Alexandra; Georgiades, Christos

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Our objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of image-guided, percutaneous cryoablation for American Joint Committee on Cancer pT1ANxMx and pT1BNxMx biopsy-proven renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: Computed tomography (CT)-guided, percutaneous cryoablation was used to treat 117 renal lesions in 113 consecutive patients with pT1NxMx RCC. All 117 ablations were included in the safety analysis, and complications were categorized according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). Eighty-one lesions were biopsy-proven RCC and were included in the efficacy analysis. Technical success was defined as the 'ice-ball' covering the entire lesion plus a minimum 5-mm margin. Efficacy was defined as complete lack of enhancement and continuous decrease in size on subsequent follow-up imaging studies. Results: Technical success was 100%, with 15% of ablations requiring air or saline injection to prevent nontarget ablation. We recorded a 7% rate of clinically significant complications (CTCAE category {>=}2) and 0% mortality. Renal function was not adversely affected. Seventy percent of patients were discharged to home on the same day. Efficacy was 98.7% for a median follow-up of 67 weeks (range 7-172). For the subgroup of patients that reached a median follow-up of 2 (n = 59) and 3 years (n = 13), efficacy was 98.3 and 92.3%, respectively. Cancer specific survival was 100%. Conclusions: CT-guided, percutaneous cryoablation has an excellent safety and efficacy profile for stage T1A and T1B RCC; however, longer follow-up is needed to compare it with other nephron-sparing surgical treatments. It is a great option for nonsurgical patients, those in whom renal function cannot be further sacrificed, and those at risk for metachronous lesions.

  9. Non-monotonic course of protein solubility in aqueous polymer-salt solutions can be modeled using the sol-mxDLVO model.

    PubMed

    Herhut, Marcel; Brandenbusch, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Protein purification is often performed using cost-intensive chromatographic steps. To discover economic alternatives (e.g., crystallization), knowledge on protein solubility as a function of temperature, pH, and additives in solution as well as their concentration is required. State-of-the-art models for predicting protein solubility almost exclusively consider aqueous salt systems, whereas "salting-in" and "salting-out" effects induced by the presence of an additional polymer are not considered. Thus, we developed the sol-mxDLVO model. Using this newly developed model, protein solubility in the presence of one salt and one polymer, especially the non-monotonic course of protein solubility, could be predicted. Systems considered included salts (NaCl, Na-p-Ts, (NH(4))(2) SO(4)) and the polymer polyethylene glycol (MW: 2000 g/mol, 12000 g/mol) and proteins lysozyme from chicken egg white (pH 4 to 5.5) and D-xylose ketol-isomerase (pH 7) at 298.15 K. The results show that by using the sol-mxDLVO model, protein solubility in polymer-salt solutions can be modeled in good agreement with the experimental data for both proteins considered. The sol-mxDLVO model can describe the non-monotonic course of protein solubility as a function of polymer concentration and salt concentration, previously not covered by state-of-the-art models. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  11. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  12. Qualitative Results from a Flight Investigation to Determine Aileron Effectiveness of Two Rocket-Propelled 1/20-Scale Models of the MX -76 Missile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Joseph E.

    1955-01-01

    Free-flight tests of two rocket-propelled l/20-scale models of the Bell MX-776 missile have been conducted to obtain measurements of the aileron deflection required to counteract the induced rolling moments caused by combined angles of attack and sideslip and thus to determine whether the ailerons provided were capable of controlling the model at the attitudes produced by the test conditions. Inability to obtain reasonably steady-state conditions and superimposed high-frequency oscillations in the data precluded any detailed analysis of the results obtained from the tests. For these reasons, the data presented are limited largely to qualitative results.

  13. 4H-Chromene-based anticancer agents towards multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 human leukemia: SAR at the 4th and 6th positions.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Manohar; Zhao, Xinghua; Casemore, Denise; Zhou, Bo; Aridoss, Gopalakrishnan; Narayanapillai, Sreekanth; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-03-15

    4H-Chromene-based compounds, for example, CXL017, CXL035, and CXL055, have a unique anticancer potential that they selectively kill multi-drug resistant cancer cells. Reported herein is the extended structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, focusing on the ester functional group at the 4th position and the conformation at the 6th position. Sharp SARs were observed at both positions with respect to cellular cytotoxic potency and selectivity between the parental HL60 and the multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 cells. These results provide critical guidance for future medicinal optimization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Physical measurement and evaluation of skin color changes under normal condition and post-ultraviolet radiation: a comparison study of Chromameter CM 2500d and Maxmeter MX18.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan; Wang, Y X; Gu, W J; Zhang, P; Sun, Y; E, Y; Liu, W

    2011-08-01

    To compare the data correlation between two kinds of instruments, Chromameter CM2500d and Maxmeter MX18, in the measurement of skin color changes under normal condition and post-ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The data points of Chromameter CM2500d are based on L a values, while Maxmeter MX18 are based on M and E values, in order to compare the data correlation between these two kinds of instruments in skin color measurement on both non-exposed and exposed sites. In addition, an evaluation of the correlation of post-UV irradiation between these two instruments was conducted. Four different kinds of parameters post-UV radiation were measured including minimal erythema dose (MED), immediate pigmentation dose (IPD), minimal persistent pigmentation dose (MPPD) and repeated UV radiation. The following UV radiation dosages were applied as Day 1=1.0 MED, Day 2=0.5 MED and Day 3=0.5 MED for repeated UV radiation, of which the erythema and pigmentation changes were recorded. Chromameter CM2500d and Maxmeter MX18 showed good data correlation when measuring both non-exposed and exposed sites on normal skin. L values were affected more easily by UV-induced erythema than M values on skin color changes after 1 MED and repeated UV exposures. IPD, MPPD and the pigmentation data showed good correlations with the measurement of the intensive erythema formation induced by repeated UV exposures. a value was shown to be equally effective as E value with skin erythema measurements in response to various MEDs. However, increased erythema induced by repeated UV radiations was able to reduce the correlations between a and E values. On the other hand, a and E were shown to be equally effective in recording the erythema change courses after strong erythema responses post-UV radiations. This comparative study showed that the data correlations between the two kinds of instruments were different depending on measurement conditions. Both Chromameter CM2500d and Maxmeter MX18 instrumental measurement

  15. The Synthesis of New Cubic Conductive Cu7-xO8-yMX (M=In, Sc, X=NO3, Cl) Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazawa, Ichiro; Sugise, Ryoji; Terada, Norio; Jo, Masatoshi; Oka, Kunihiko; Ihara, Hideo

    1990-09-01

    New cubic conductive Cu6O8-yMX (M=In, Sc, X=NO3, Cl) compounds were synthesized for the first time. These compounds were prepared in the thermal decomposition process of a mixed copper and metal-element nitrate and chloride solution. The decomposition temperatures of the Cu6O8-yMNO3 were raised by replacing the NO3- ion by the Cl- ion. The lattice constant of the cubic compound was related to the value of the ion radius of M and X.

  16. Kinetics and Mechanism of Cationic Flexible Nanoparticles (CFN) - Catalyzed Piperidinolysis of Anionic Phenyl Salicylate: CFN = TTABr/MX/H2O with MX = NaCl, NaBr; CnH2n+1CO2Na, n = 4, 5, 6 and 7.

    PubMed

    Mohd Noh, Muhammad Azri; Khalid, Khalisanni; Ariffin, Azhar; Khan, Mohammad Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the effect of the TTABr/MX/H2O-nanoparticles on the rate of piperidinolysis of ionized phenyl salicylate where TTABr represents tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide and MX = NaCl, NaBr and CnH2n+1CO2Na with n = 4, 5, 6 and 7. Pseudo-first-order rate constant for the piperidinolysis of ionized phenyl salicylate at 35°C and constant concentration [PSa(-)]T = 0.2 mM, [Pip]T = 0.1 M, [NaOH] = 30 mM, [TTABr]T and different [MX] follow an empirical relationship which gives two empirical constant, (X)kcat and K(X/S). The value of relative counterion (X) binding constant, RX(Br) were calculated from the relationship; RX(Br) = (X)kcat/(Br)kcat. The values of RX(Br) for X = C4H9CO2(-), C5H11CO2(-), C6H13CO2(-), and C7H15CO2(-) are increasing with increase in the number of alkyl chain of counterion X.

  17. Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation Is Preserved After Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Masahiro; Joshi, Brijen; Brady, Kenneth; Easley, R. Blaine; Kibler, Kathy; Conte, John; Shah, Ashish; Russell, Stuart D.; Hogue, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation in patients undergoing continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation with that in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design Prospective, observational, controlled study. Setting Academic medical center. Participants Fifteen patients undergoing LVAD insertion and 10 patients undergoing CABG surgery. Measurements and Main Results Cerebral autoregulation was monitored with transcranial Doppler and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A continuous, Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CBF velocity, and between MAP and NIRS data rendering the variables mean velocity index (Mx) and cerebral oximetry index (COx), respectively. Mx and COx approach zero when autoregulation is intact (no correlation between CBF and MAP), but approach 1 when autoregulation is impaired. Mx was lower during and immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the LVAD group than it was in the CABG surgery patients, indicating better preserved autoregulation. Based on COx monitoring, autoregulation tended to be better preserved in the LVAD group than in the CABG group immediately after surgery (p=0.0906). On postoperative day 1, COx was lower in LVAD patients than in CABG surgery patients, again indicating preserved CBF autoregulation (p=0.0410). Based on COx monitoring, 3 (30%) of the CABG patients had abnormal autoregulation (COx ≥ 0.3) on the first postoperative day but none of the LVAD patients had this abnormality (p=0.037). Conclusion These data suggest that CBF autoregulation is preserved during and immediately after surgery in patients undergoing LVAD insertion. PMID:23122299

  18. Tree-Ring Based Streamflow Reconstructions of the Yaqui River, MX and Implications for Drought and Water Management Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, K. J.; Ray, A. J.; Lukas, J. J.; Villanueva-Diaz, J.

    2008-05-01

    The Yaqui River is the irrigation source for an economically important agricultural region of Northwest Mexico. Currently, planning and forecasting are based on streamflow gauge data of only about 50 years. Understanding past variations in Yaqui streamflow is important to developing river forecasts and management plans. This presentation describes an effort to develop longer proxy records of streamflow to better understand the region's climate variability and drought history. The result is a 363-year dendrochronology based reconstruction model of Yaqui River streamflow. The model is based on a correlation between 44-years of Yaqui streamflow data and tree-ring chronologies dating to A.D. 1639. Chronologies are from Bisaloachi (28.66 N, 108.29 W), Cebadilla de Ocampo (28.122 N, 107.95 W) and Mesa de las Guacamayas (30.55 N, 108.62 W) in the state of Chihuahua, MX. The binary model uses a normalized index of annual total tree ring width (Tree-Ring Index, TRI). The model output is the probability that a given year experienced less than median streamflow, a possible indicator of drought. This model correctly predicts 100% of less than median streamflow years using a TRI input of <0.75. However, this model does not predict over 30% of less than median streamflow years, and thus is not adequate for assessing drought. The available data might limit assessment of low precipitation. Total ring width (TRW) is typically associated with winter precipitation (October-June, in this case), which represents less than 40% of annual streamflow in this region where much of the precipitation and streamflow are related to the North American Monsoon (NAM), typically from July-September. The late wood (LW) growth portion of tree-rings may better reflect the NAM precipitation and streamflow, and produce a better reconstruction model. These results show that representation of NAM streamflow is essential for a more accurate streamflow reconstruction model. More tree-ring chronologies from

  19. Variations of thermoelectric performance by electric fields in bilayer MX2 (M = W, Mo; X = S, Se).

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Ning; Dong, Guo-Yi; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jiang-Long

    2017-02-22

    A gate electrode is usually used to controllably tune the carrier concentrations, further modulating the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient to obtain the optimum thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in two-dimensional materials. On the other hand, it is necessary to investigate how an electric field induced by a gate voltage affects the electronic structures, further determining the thermoelectric properties. Therefore, by using density functional calculations in combination with Boltzmann theory, the thermoelectric properties of bilayer MX2 (M = W, Mo; X = S, Se) with or without a 1 V nm(-1) perpendicular electric field are comparatively investigated. First of all, the variations of the electrical conductivity (σ), electron thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient (S) with the carrier concentration are studied. Due to the trade-off relationship between S and σ, there is an optimum concentration to obtain the maximum ZT, which increases with the temperature due to the enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. Moreover, N-type bilayers have larger optimum ZTs than P-type bilayers. In addition, the electric field results in the increase of the Seebeck coefficient in low hole-doped MS2 bilayers and high hole-doped MSe2 bilayers, thus leading to similar variations in ZT. The optimum ZTs are reduced from 2.11 × 10(-2), 3.19 × 10(-2), 2.47 × 10(-2), and 2.58 × 10(-2) to 1.57 × 10(-2), 1.51 × 10(-2), 2.08 × 10(-2), and 1.43 × 10(-2) for the hole-doped MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2 bilayers, respectively. For N-type bilayers, the electric field shows a destructive effect, resulting in the obvious reduction of the Seebeck coefficient in the MSe2 layers and the low electron-doped MS2 bilayers. In electron-doped bilayers, the optimum ZTs will decrease from 3.03 × 10(-2), 6.64 × 10(-2), and 6.69 × 10(-2) to 2.81 × 10(-2), 3.59 × 10(-2), and 4.39 × 10(-2) for the MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2 bilayers, respectively.

  20. Initial clinical evaluation of radiolabeled MX-DTPA humanized BrE-3 antibody in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, E L; Liebes, L; Wasserheit, C; Noz, M E; Blank, E W; Zabalegui, A; Melamed, J; Furmanski, P; Peterson, J A; Ceriani, R L

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate radiometal-labeled humanized BrE-3 (huBrE-3) monoclonal antibody as a radioimmunolocalization and therapeutic agent in breast cancer patients, tumor localization, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, and immunogenicity of (111)In-labeled combined 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 3-methyl- and 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 4-methyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (MX-DTPA) huBrE-3 were studied. Seven women with BrE-3 antigen-positive, metastatic breast carcinoma underwent (111)In huBrE-3 infusion (5 mCi; 50 mg), followed by serial gamma camera imaging and plasma sampling. Region of interest analysis of images was used to make radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3. Data were extrapolated to 90Y huBrE-3. Human anti-human antibody (HAHA) response was measured in serum samples obtained up to 3 months after infusion. Patients tolerated infusions well. Seventy-six percent of 105 known sites of disease were identified on planar and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. For six of seven patients, a biexponential model fit the plasma time-activity curve best with an average T1/2alpha=10.6+/-8.5 (SD) h and average T1/2beta=114.2+/-39.2 h. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3 for whole body averaged 0.53+/-.08 rads/mCi. Dose estimates for 90Y huBrE-3 for marrow averaged 8.4+/-11.9 rads/mCi, and for tumors, 70+/-31.5 rads/mCi. Liver radioactivity uptake averaged 19.7+/-8.8% injected dose at 24 h after infusion, translating into an average radiation absorbed dose 21.1+/-12 rads/90Y mCi administered. Only one of seven patients demonstrated a low level of HAHA response. Although the plasma half-lives are longer and marrow dose higher for radiolabeled huBrE-3 compared with the murine construct, the excellent tumor localization, good tumor dosimetry, and low immunogenicity support the use of 90Y-huBrE-3 antibody for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer.

  1. Medical devices: US medical device regulation.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Baxley, John H

    2015-03-01

    Medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) within the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Center for Devices and Radiological Health is responsible for protecting and promoting the public health by ensuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices, ensuring the safety of radiation-emitting products, fostering innovation, and providing the public with accurate, science-based information about the products we oversee, throughout the total product life cycle. The FDA was granted the authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices in 1976. It does not regulate the practice of medicine. Devices are classified based on complexity and level of risk, and "pre-1976" devices were allowed to remain on the market after being classified without FDA review. Post-1976 devices of lower complexity and risk that are substantially equivalent to a marketed "predicate" device may be cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Clinical data are typically not needed for 510(k) clearance. In contrast, higher-risk devices typically require premarket approval. Premarket approval applications must contain data demonstrating reasonable assurance of safety and efficacy, and this information typically includes clinical data. For novel devices that are not high risk, the de novo process allows FDA to simultaneously review and classify new devices. Devices that are not legally marketed are permitted to be used for clinical investigation purposes in the United States under the Investigational Device Exemptions regulation.

  2. Crystal chemistry of anion-excess ReO3-related phases. III. γ-ZrF4, a high-pressure form of zirconiumtetra fluoride, and a comparison of MX4 structure types.

    PubMed

    Laval, Jean Paul

    2014-08-01

    The crystal structure of the high-pressure (4-8 GPa) form of zirconium tetrafluoride, γ-ZrF4, is based on the association by corner- and edge-sharing of ZrF8 triangulated dodecahedra, forming a three-dimensional framework. It presents some analogies with high-temperature α-ZrF4 but clearly constitutes a new MX4 structure type. The main MX4 ionic structure types, and especially those deriving from the `anion-excess ReO3-type', are compared and it is shown that the TeF4 structure can also be included in this family.

  3. A two force-constant model for complexes B⋯M-X (B is a Lewis base and MX is any diatomic molecule): Intermolecular stretching force constants from centrifugal distortion constants D(J) or Δ(J).

    PubMed

    Bittner, Dror M; Walker, Nicholas R; Legon, Anthony C

    2016-02-21

    A two force-constant model is proposed for complexes of the type B⋯MX, in which B is a simple Lewis base of at least C2v symmetry and MX is any diatomic molecule lying along a Cn axis (n ≥ 2) of B. The model assumes a rigid subunit B and that force constants beyond quadratic are negligible. It leads to expressions that allow, in principle, the determination of three quadratic force constants F11, F12, and F22 associated with the r(B⋯M) = r2 and r(M-X) = r1 internal coordinates from the equilibrium centrifugal distortion constants DJ (e) or ΔJ (e), the equilibrium principal axis coordinates a1 and a2, and equilibrium principal moments of inertia. The model can be applied generally to complexes containing different types of intermolecular bond. For example, the intermolecular bond of B⋯MX can be a hydrogen bond if MX is a hydrogen halide, a halogen-bond if MX is a dihalogen molecule, or a stronger, coinage-metal bond if MX is a coinage metal halide. The equations were tested for BrCN, for which accurate equilibrium spectroscopic constants and a complete force field are available. In practice, equilibrium values of DJ (e) or ΔJ (e) for B⋯MX are not available and zero-point quantities must be used instead. The effect of doing so has been tested for BrCN. The zero-point centrifugal distortion constants DJ (0) or ΔJ (0) for all B⋯MX investigated so far are of insufficient accuracy to allow F11 and F22 to be determined simultaneously, even under the assumption F12 = 0 which is shown to be reasonable for BrCN. The calculation of F22 at a series of fixed values of F11 reveals, however, that in cases for which F11 is sufficiently larger than F22, a good approximation to F22 is obtained. Plots of F22 versus F11 have been provided for Kr⋯CuCl, Xe⋯CuCl, OC⋯CuCl, and C2H2⋯AgCl as examples. Even in cases where F22 ∼ F11 (e.g., OC⋯CuCl), such plots will yield either F22 or F11 if the other becomes available.

  4. A two force-constant model for complexes B⋯M-X (B is a Lewis base and MX is any diatomic molecule): Intermolecular stretching force constants from centrifugal distortion constants DJ or ΔJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Dror M.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Legon, Anthony C.

    2016-02-01

    A two force-constant model is proposed for complexes of the type B⋯MX, in which B is a simple Lewis base of at least C2v symmetry and MX is any diatomic molecule lying along a Cn axis (n ≥ 2) of B. The model assumes a rigid subunit B and that force constants beyond quadratic are negligible. It leads to expressions that allow, in principle, the determination of three quadratic force constants F11, F12, and F22 associated with the r(B⋯M) = r2 and r(M-X) = r1 internal coordinates from the equilibrium centrifugal distortion constants DJ e or ΔJ e , the equilibrium principal axis coordinates a1 and a2, and equilibrium principal moments of inertia. The model can be applied generally to complexes containing different types of intermolecular bond. For example, the intermolecular bond of B⋯MX can be a hydrogen bond if MX is a hydrogen halide, a halogen-bond if MX is a dihalogen molecule, or a stronger, coinage-metal bond if MX is a coinage metal halide. The equations were tested for BrCN, for which accurate equilibrium spectroscopic constants and a complete force field are available. In practice, equilibrium values of DJ e or ΔJ e for B⋯MX are not available and zero-point quantities must be used instead. The effect of doing so has been tested for BrCN. The zero-point centrifugal distortion constants DJ 0 or ΔJ 0 for all B⋯MX investigated so far are of insufficient accuracy to allow F11 and F22 to be determined simultaneously, even under the assumption F12 = 0 which is shown to be reasonable for BrCN. The calculation of F22 at a series of fixed values of F11 reveals, however, that in cases for which F11 is sufficiently larger than F22, a good approximation to F22 is obtained. Plots of F22 versus F11 have been provided for Kr⋯CuCl, Xe⋯CuCl, OC⋯CuCl, and C2H2⋯AgCl as examples. Even in cases where F22 ˜ F11 (e.g., OC⋯CuCl), such plots will yield either F22 or F11 if the other becomes available.

  5. Anomalous thermodynamic properties and phase stability of δ -Pu1 -xMx (M =Ga andAl ) alloys from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Mei; Yang, Rui; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2016-12-01

    The composition-dependent crystal structure, volume, elastic constants, and electronic structure of δ -Pu1 -xMx (M =Ga and Al,0 ≤x ≤0.1 ) alloys are systematically studied by using first-principles EMTO-CPA calculations. It is shown that the fcc and L 12 structures co-exist in the alloys with x ≤0.04 whereas for x >0.04 , the L 12 structure is more and more preferable and around x =0.1 , it tends to be stabilized alone. The evaluated V ˜x of the L 12 structure, being negative deviation from Vegard's law, turns out to be in good agreement with the experimental result. For x ≤0.04 , the estimated E , G , ν , and Θ of both the fcc and L 12 structures are in line with the measured data, whereas when x >0.04 , only those of the L 12 structure are close to the experimental results. The electronic hybridization between Pu and M atoms is dominated by Pu for the s ,d , and f states but M for the p state. The strong interactions between Pu and M atoms in the same site of the L 12 structure should be responsible for its relative stability in the alloys with x >0.04 . The electron-phonon coupling further decreases the phase stability of δ -Pu1 -xMx with increasing x .

  6. Contribution of MX dynamin, oligoadenylate synthetase, and protein kinase R to anti-paramyxovirus activity of type 1 interferons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Michaël P-P; Baise, Etienne A; Pire, Grégory A; Desmecht, Daniel J-M

    2007-09-01

    To determine the contribution of MX dynamin, oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) to the antiviral effects of type 1 interferons (IFNs) against bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V) infection of Vero cells. Vero cell cultures. PI-3V yield was first compared between control and transfected type 1 IFNs-incompetent Vero cells expressing recombinant OAS or MX proteins. Afterwards, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) was used to scale the degree of PKR activation upon infection of Vero cells by PI-3V. Overexpression of OAS did not result in significantly decreased viral replication. Phosphorylated eIF2alpha forms, the hallmark of PKR activation, were not increased in IFNalpha-primed infected Vero cells. Although human MXA contributed to partial blockade of replication of bovine PI-3V, the antiviral effect was not as strong as that of IFNalpha. The powerful anti-Paramyxovirus activity of type 1 IFNs is mediated by noncanonic pathways.

  7. Gene Cloning, Protein Characterization, and Alteration of Product Selectivity for the Trehalulose Hydrolase and Trehalulose Synthase from “Pseudomonas mesoacidophila” MX-45▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Mattes, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The naturally occurring structural isomer of sucrose, trehalulose, is produced by sucrose isomerase (SI). Screening of chromosomal DNA from “Pseudomonas mesoacidophila” MX-45 with an SI-specific probe facilitated the cloning of two adjacent gene homologs, mutA and mutB. Both genes were expressed separately in Escherichia coli, and their enzyme products were characterized. MutA hydrolyzed the substrates trehalulose, isomaltulose, and sucrose into glucose and fructose. Due to its highest activity on trehalulose, MutA was referred to as trehalulase. mutB encodes the SI (trehalulose synthase) and catalyzes the isomerization of sucrose to mainly trehalulose. From Northern blot analysis it is apparent that the mutB gene is not transcribed as part of an operon and was transcriptionally upregulated when P. mesoacidophila MX-45 cells were grown in sucrose medium, whereas under investigated conditions no transcript for mutA was detected. Mutants of mutB were created by a random mutagenesis approach in order to alter the product specificity of MutB. Two types of mutants have emerged, one type that prefers the hydrolytic reaction on sucrose and another type that still acts as an SI but with a significant shift in the product from trehalulose to isomaltulose. The hydrolytic character of MutB R311C was demonstrated through its higher catalytic efficiency for glucose production over trehalulose production. MutB D442N favored the transfer reaction, with an isomer preference for isomaltulose. PMID:19783746

  8. Ti/ZnO-MxOy composites (M = Al, Cr, Fe, Ce): synthesis, characterization and application as highly efficient photocatalysts for hexachlorobenzene degradation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shengjie; Shao, Mengmeng; Zhou, Xiaobo; Pan, Guoxiang; Ni, Zheming

    2015-10-28

    A series of novel organic-inorganic nanoscale layered materials were synthesized by intercalating the Ti-containing Schiff base complex into the interlayer of the ZnM layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M = Al, Cr, Fe, Ce). The hybrid material was further calcined to make metal oxide composites with highly dispersed Ti elements (Ti/ZnO-MxOy). The structural characterization and photocatalytic results showed that, after intercalation and calcination, the metal oxide composites with a unique flower-like crystal morphology not only had high specific surface area, uniform pore size distribution and narrow band gap, but also showed extremely high photocatalytic performance for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) degradation. The Ti/ZnO-Cr2O3 composite with the narrowest band gap (2.40 eV) and the highest surface area (227 m(2)) showed the highest photocatalytic performance for HCB (95.5% within 240 min) among the four metal oxide composites. Particularly, it was found that composites derived from layered materials with different supramolecular structure of the host and guest showed different photocatalytic properties. In addition, based on the results from ESR, GC-MS and HPLC-MS, the type and amount of hydroxyl radicals, the decomposition intermediates and the pathway of HCB degradation photocatalyzed by Ti/ZnO-MxOy composites are also discussed in detail.

  9. Gene cloning, protein characterization, and alteration of product selectivity for the trehalulose hydrolase and trehalulose synthase from "Pseudomonas mesoacidophila" MX-45.

    PubMed

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Mattes, Ralf

    2009-11-01

    The naturally occurring structural isomer of sucrose, trehalulose, is produced by sucrose isomerase (SI). Screening of chromosomal DNA from "Pseudomonas mesoacidophila" MX-45 with an SI-specific probe facilitated the cloning of two adjacent gene homologs, mutA and mutB. Both genes were expressed separately in Escherichia coli, and their enzyme products were characterized. MutA hydrolyzed the substrates trehalulose, isomaltulose, and sucrose into glucose and fructose. Due to its highest activity on trehalulose, MutA was referred to as trehalulase. mutB encodes the SI (trehalulose synthase) and catalyzes the isomerization of sucrose to mainly trehalulose. From Northern blot analysis it is apparent that the mutB gene is not transcribed as part of an operon and was transcriptionally upregulated when P. mesoacidophila MX-45 cells were grown in sucrose medium, whereas under investigated conditions no transcript for mutA was detected. Mutants of mutB were created by a random mutagenesis approach in order to alter the product specificity of MutB. Two types of mutants have emerged, one type that prefers the hydrolytic reaction on sucrose and another type that still acts as an SI but with a significant shift in the product from trehalulose to isomaltulose. The hydrolytic character of MutB R311C was demonstrated through its higher catalytic efficiency for glucose production over trehalulose production. MutB D442N favored the transfer reaction, with an isomer preference for isomaltulose.

  10. Expression of IFN-Inducible Genes with Antiviral Function OAS1 and MX1 in Health and under Conditions of Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection.

    PubMed

    Karaulov, A V; Shulzhenko, A E; Karsonova, A V

    2017-07-01

    We studied the expression of IFN-inducible genes OAS1 and Mx1 in lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients suffering from recurrent Herpes simplex infections in comparison with healthy people. To induce the expression of the studied genes, blood mononuclears were incubated with recombinant IFN-α2b in concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 U/ml for 3 h and then the content of the studied transcripts was evaluated. Relative expression of OAS1 and Mx1 in patients with recurrent forms of Herpes simplex both during the acute stage and clinical remission did not differ significantly from that in healthy people after stimulation with IFN-α2b in a concentration of 1 U/ml and in higher concentrations (10 and 100 U/ml). It was concluded that intracellular signal transduction in IFN-α-activated cells in vitro was not disturbed in patients with recurrent forms of Herpes simplex infection. Thus, the reported phenomenon of IFN-signalling distortion by Herpes simplex virus proteins observed in experiments on model cell lines infected with Herpes simplex virus was not confirmed in our experiments on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Herpes simplex infection.

  11. β-Glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Pionnier, Nicolas; Pietretti, Danilo; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2014-02-01

    We have previously observed that in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), administration of β-glucan (MacroGard®) as feed additive leads to a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting that this immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potentially dangerous response to infection, particularly in the gut. However, in general, mechanisms to detect and eliminate pathogens must also be induced in order to achieve an efficient clearance of the infection. Protection against viral diseases acquired through β-glucan-supplemented feed has been extensively reported for several experimental models in fish but the underlining mechanisms are still unknown. Thus, in order to better characterize the antiviral action induced by β-glucans in fish, MacroGard® was administered daily to common carp in the form of supplemented commercial food pellets. Carp were fed for a period of 25 days prior to intra-peritoneal injection with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a well-known double-stranded RNA mimic that triggers a type-I interferon (IFN) response. Subsequently, a set of immune related genes, including mx, were analysed by real-time PCR on liver, spleen, head kidney and mid gut tissues. Results obtained confirmed that treatment with β-glucan alone generally down-regulated the mRNA expression of selected cytokines when compared to untreated fish, while mx gene expression remained stable or was slightly up-regulated. Injection with poly(I:C) induced a similar down-regulated gene expression pattern for cytokines in samples from β-glucan fed fish. In contrast, poly(I:C) injection markedly increased mx gene expression in samples from β-glucan fed fish but hardly in samples from fish fed control feed. In an attempt to explain the high induction of mx, we studied Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene expression in these carp. TLR3 is a prototypical pattern recognition receptor considered important for the binding of viral double-stranded RNA and triggering of a

  12. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleerman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2015-11-10

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  13. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2014-06-03

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  14. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Medical Device Recalls Recent Medical Device Safety Communications FDA analyses and recommendations for patients and health ... about ongoing medical device safety issues. FDA Safety Communication Date FDA Warns Of Potentially Contaminated SPS-1 ...

  15. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They range ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep instructions ...

  16. Infrared criminalistic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Savkov, E. V.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.

  17. CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    DeShong, J.A.

    1960-03-01

    A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

  18. Absorbed Doses and Risk Estimates of (211)At-MX35 F(ab')2 in Intraperitoneal Therapy of Ovarian Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Cederkrantz, Elin; Andersson, Håkan; Bernhardt, Peter; Bäck, Tom; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jacobsson, Lars; Jensen, Holger; Lindegren, Sture; Ljungberg, Michael; Magnander, Tobias; Palm, Stig; Albertsson, Per

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage with dissemination in the peritoneal cavity. Most patients achieve clinical remission after surgery and chemotherapy, but approximately 70% eventually experience recurrence, usually in the peritoneal cavity. To prevent recurrence, intraperitoneal (i.p.) targeted α therapy has been proposed as an adjuvant treatment for minimal residual disease after successful primary treatment. In the present study, we calculated absorbed and relative biological effect (RBE)-weighted (equivalent) doses in relevant normal tissues and estimated the effective dose associated with i.p. administration of (211)At-MX35 F(ab')2. Patients in clinical remission after salvage chemotherapy for peritoneal recurrence of ovarian cancer underwent i.p. infusion of (211)At-MX35 F(ab')2. Potassium perchlorate was given to block unwanted accumulation of (211)At in thyroid and other NIS-containing tissues. Mean absorbed doses to normal tissues were calculated from clinical data, including blood and i.p. fluid samples, urine, γ-camera images, and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images. Extrapolation of preclinical biodistribution data combined with clinical blood activity data allowed us to estimate absorbed doses in additional tissues. The equivalent dose was calculated using an RBE of 5 and the effective dose using the recommended weight factor of 20. All doses were normalized to the initial activity concentration of the infused therapy solution. The urinary bladder, thyroid, and kidneys (1.9, 1.8, and 1.7 mGy per MBq/L) received the 3 highest estimated absorbed doses. When the tissue-weighting factors were applied, the largest contributors to the effective dose were the lungs, stomach, and urinary bladder. Using 100 MBq/L, organ equivalent doses were less than 10% of the estimated tolerance dose. Intraperitoneal (211)At-MX35 F(ab')2 treatment is potentially a well-tolerated therapy for locally confined microscopic

  19. Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2009-12-01

    Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary

  20. MX [3-Chloro-4-(Dichloromethyl)-5-Hydroxy-2[5H]-Furanone], A Drinking-Water Carcinogen, Does Not Induce Mutations in the Liver of Cii Transgenic Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity assays with Salmonella have shown that 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX), a drinking water disinfection by-product is a potent mutagen, accounting for about one third of the mutagenic potency/potential of chlorinated drinking water. The abilit...

  1. MX [3-Chloro-4-(Dichloromethyl)-5-Hydroxy-2[5H]-Furanone], A Drinking-Water Carcinogen, Does Not Induce Mutations in the Liver of Cii Transgenic Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity assays with Salmonella have shown that 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (MX), a drinking water disinfection by-product is a potent mutagen, accounting for about one third of the mutagenic potency/potential of chlorinated drinking water. The abilit...

  2. URINE MUTAGENICITY AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF THE DRINKING WATER MUTAGEN, 3-CHLORO-4-(DICHLOROMETHYL)-5-HYDROX-2[5H]-FURANONE (MX), FOLLOWING REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity analysis of urine from rats treated by oral gavage with MX at a dose of 64 mg/kg for 14 days revealed that only 0.3% of the administered cmpound was excreted in a genotoxically active form. At lower doses, mutagenicity was not detectable. No evidence of micronucleu...

  3. Human fibroblasts and 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation: evaluation of DNA damage after exposure and co-exposure to 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5h)-furanone (MX).

    PubMed

    Sannino, A; Di Costanzo, G; Brescia, F; Sarti, M; Zeni, O; Juutilainen, J; Scarfì, M R

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate DNA damage in human dermal fibroblasts from a healthy subject and from a subject affected by Turner's syndrome that were exposed for 24 h to radiofrequency (RF) radiation at 900 MHz. The RF-radiation exposure was carried out alone or in combination with 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a well-known environmental mutagen and carcinogen produced during the chlorination of drinking water. Turner's syndrome fibroblasts were also exposed for a shorter time (1 h). A signal similar to that emitted by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phones was used at a specific absorption rate of 1 W/kg under strictly controlled conditions of temperature and dosimetry. To evaluate DNA damage after RF-radiation exposure alone, the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay were used. In the combined-exposure experiments, MX was given at a concentration of 25 microM for 1 h immediately after the RF-radiation exposure, and the effects were evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. The results revealed no genotoxic and cytotoxic effects from RF radiation alone in either cell line. As expected, MX treatment induced an increase in DNA migration in the comet assay, but no enhancement of the MX-induced DNA damage was observed in the cells exposed to RF radiation.

  4. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

  5. Light-shift suppression in a miniaturized Mx optically pumped Cs magnetometer array with enhanced resonance signal using off-resonant laser pumping.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, Theo; Schultze, Volkmar; IJsselsteijn, Rob; Woetzel, Stefan; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2012-12-31

    The performance of an optically pumped Mx magnetometer with miniaturized Cs cell at earth's magnetic field strength (50 μT) is investigated. Operation using detuned high intensity laser light is shown to be superior to the conventional resonant operation in terms of the projected shot-noise-limited ( 50 fT/√Hz) and the actual noise-limited sensitivity using a noise compensation method. The Zeeman light shift effect, emerging due to the off-resonant circularly polarized laser radiation and leading to a strong orientational dependence of the measurement, is suppressed by averaging two identical magnetometer configurations pumped with oppositely circularly polarized light. A residual heading error within the range of 14 nT, limited by the present experimental characterization setup, was achieved.

  6. Critical behavior of amorphous Fe80 - xMxB14Si6 alloys with M=Mo, V, Mn, and 2 <= x <= 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, S. U.; Lee, C. C.; Huang, P. L.; Lin, S. T.

    1990-05-01

    Amorphous Fe80-xMxB14Si6 alloys with M=Mo, V, Mn, and 2≤x≤14 have been made by the rapid quenching method. The critical exponents β, γ, δ, and Tc were determined by two independent methods: the method of Kouvel-Fisher and the scaling plot. With the addition of M, β, and γ deviate more from the values predicted by the three-dimensional Heisenberg model, and are closer to the values proposed by Sobotta and Wagner. δ remains less changed. The magnetic inhomogeneity of these alloys is evidenced by the specific heat, the forced magnetoresistance, and the Mössbauer measurements. By increasing x, the peak of specific heat becomes smeared and less divergent, and forced magnetoresistance changes from negative to positive around Tc.

  7. Half-metallic ferromagnetism in chalcopyrite type compounds ZnMX{sub 2} (M=Sc, V, Mn, Fe; X = P, As)

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayalakshmi, D.; Kalpana, G. E-mail: g-kalpa@annauniv.edu

    2015-06-24

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZnMX{sub 2} (M=Sc, V, Mn and Fe; X= As and P) compounds in body centred tetragonal chalcopyrite structure have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) within the local spin density approximation (LSDA). The spin-polarized electronic band structure and density of states of all these compounds show that the spin-up electrons have metallic and the spin-down electrons have a semiconducting gap and the magnetic moment mainly originates from the strong spin polarization of 3d states of transition metal (M=Sc, V, Mn and Fe) atoms and p-like states of anion X (P and As) atoms.

  8. Lipid extraction from the biomass of Trichoderma koningiopsis MX1 produced in a non-stirring culture for potential biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios; Velez-Martínez, Daniel; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; García-Barradas, Oscar; Sánchez-Viveros, Gabriela; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald

    2016-04-20

    Oleaginous microorganisms such as microalgae, yeasts, bacteria and filamentous fungi are alternative sources of vegetal or animal fats for biodiesel production. This research evaluated the lipid production by the biomass Trichoderma koningiopsis MX1 with a non-stirring culture at room temperature, and fungal lipids were extracted through three techniques for biodiesel generation purposes. The three modified lipid extraction techniques yielded 18.4, 10.3 and 17.1 % of fungal lipids. The trans-esterification of lipids indicated that the controlling components for biodiesel were palmitic (40.8 %) and linoleic acids (ranging from 37.6 % to 41.2 %). Results show that fungal cultural conditions and the lipid extraction technique are determinants for producing biodiesel from fungal lipids. Therefore, the modification of some of these conditions could increase their efficiency and viability.

  9. Logarithmic temperature dependence of samarium ion valence in the heavy-fermion S mxL a1 -xO s4S b12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushiya, Kengo; Miyazaki, Ryoichi; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Yamada, Akira; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Suemitsu, Bunya; Sato, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    We have measured x-ray absorption spectra at the Sm L3 edge to investigate the Sm-ion valence of (S mxL a1 -x) O s4S b12 , in which field-insensitive heavy-fermion behavior appears at low temperatures for x =1 . It has been found that the Sm-ion valance shifts to 2 + with La ion substitution; from v =+2.78 (x =1 ) to v =+2.73 (x =0.2 ) at 10 K. For all x investigated, its temperature dependence shows a logT behavior, indicating that the valence change is caused by "an unconventional Kondo effect" associated with Sm 4 f -electron charge degrees of freedom. Almost x independence of "the associated Kondo temperature" (T˜K=56 ±10 K ) indicates that the Kondo effect has a local nature, attributable to the cage structure of the filled skutterudite.

  10. Pattern recognition receptor mediated downregulation of microRNA‐650 fine‐tunes MxA expression in dendritic cells infected with influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Khatamzas, Elham; Liu, Xiao; Brain, Oliver; Delmiro Garcia, Magno; Leslie, Alasdair; Danis, Benedicte; Mayer, Alice; Baban, Dilair; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Weber, Alexander N. R.; Simmons, Alison

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, which have been shown to fine‐tune innate immune responses downstream of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling. This study identifies miR‐650 as a novel PRR‐responsive microRNA that is downregulated upon stimulation of primary human monocyte‐derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) with a variety of different microbe‐associated molecular patterns. A comprehensive target search combining in silico analysis, transcriptional profiling, and reporter assays reveals that miR‐650 regulates several well‐known interferon‐stimulated genes, including IFIT2 and MXA. In particular, downregulation of miR‐650 in influenza A infected MDDCs enhances the expression of MxA and may therefore contribute to the establishment of an antiviral state. Together these findings reveal a novel link between miR‐650 and the innate immune response in human MDDCs. PMID:26460926

  11. The NQR observation of spin-Peierls transition in an antiferromagnetic MX-chain complex [NiBr(chxn)2]Br2.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Shinya; Tobu, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Okubo, Takashi; Mitani, Tadaoki; Ikeda, Ryuichi

    2004-02-18

    81Br Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement was performed in an S = 1/2 one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic metal complex [NiBr(chxn)2]Br2 (chxn: 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane), having a halogen-bridged MX chain structure -Br-Ni3+-Br-Ni3+-Br-. Two 81Br NQR signals were observed below 40 K, while a single signal was observed above 130 K, showing the presence of two nonequivalent bridging Br sites below 40 K. This NQR result together with previously reported magnetic susceptibility and X-ray results indicate the occurrence of a transition into a spin-Peierls state between 40 and 130 K. This communication reports the first spin-Peierls transition in metal complexes in which pure d electrons contribute to the magnetism. In addition, we demonstrated a new experimental method for studying a spin-Peierls system.

  12. IL-29 and IFN-α regulate the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR genes in association with the activation of Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signal pathways in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yu; Huang, Hai-Liang; Hu, Dao-Jun; Luo, Xin; Tao, Qian-Shan; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Sheng-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) can activate the PI3K-AKT and Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathways and induce antiviral proteins (MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR) expression in specific cell lines. However, the relationship between those antiviral proteins expression and signal pathways remains unknown at present. Thus our experiments were designed to determine the exact relationship in HepG2.2.15 cell line. The results demonstrated that IFN-α and IL-29 were both able to activate PI3K-AKT and Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathways, and IFN-α up-regulated the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR whereas IL-29 increased mRNA expression of MxA and 2',5'-OAS and had no influence on PKR. Furthermore, MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR expression were down-regulated while PI3K-AKT signal pathway was blocked by LY294002. And MxA was up-regulated after Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathway being blocked by PD98059. These findings indicate that the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR are up-regulate by PI3K-AKT signal pathway, and Raf-MEK-ERK signal pathway has a negative regulatory effect on the expression of MxA and no significant effect on 2',5'-OAS and PKR.

  13. Comparative study of toxicity of azo dye Procion Red MX-5B following biosorption and biodegradation treatments with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, E J R; Corso, C R

    2014-10-01

    Azo dyes are an important class of environmental contaminants and are characterized by the presence of one or more azo bonds (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. Effluents containing these compounds resist many types of treatments due to their molecular complexity. Therefore, alternative treatments, such as biosorption and biodegradation, have been widely studied to solve the problems caused by these substances, such as their harmful effects on the environment and organisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biosorption and biodegradation of the azo dye Procion Red MX-5B in solutions with the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. Decolorization tests were performed, followed by acute toxicity tests using Lactuca sativa seeds and Artemia salina larvae. Thirty percent dye removal of the solutions was achieved after 3 h of biosorption. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that removal of the dye molecules occurred without major molecular changes. The acute toxicity tests confirmed lack of molecular degradation following biosorption with A. niger, as toxicity to L. sativa seed reduced from 5% to 0%. For A. salina larvae, the solutions were nontoxic before and after treatment. In the biodegradation study with the fungus A. terreus, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy revealed molecular degradation and the formation of secondary metabolites, such as primary and secondary amines. The biodegradation of the dye molecules was evaluated after 24, 240 and 336 h of treatment. The fungal biomass demonstrated considerable affinity for Procion Red MX-5B, achieving approximately 100% decolorization of the solutions by the end of treatment. However, the solutions resulting from this treatment exhibited a significant increase in toxicity, inhibiting the growth of L. sativa seeds by 43% and leading to a 100% mortality rate among the A. salina larvae. Based on the present findings, biodegradation was effective in the decolorization of the samples, but generated

  14. On the junction physics of Schottky contact of (10, 10) MX2 (MoS2, WS2) nanotube and (10, 10) carbon nanotube (CNT): an atomistic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Amretashis

    2017-04-01

    Armchair nanotubes of MoS2 and WS2 offer a sizeable band gap, with the advantage of a one dimensional (1D) electronic material, but free from edge roughness and thermodynamic instability of nanoribbons. Use of such semiconducting MX2 (MoS2, WS2) armchair nanotubes (NTs) in conjunction with metallic carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be useful for nanoelectronics and photonics applications. In this work, atomistic simulations of MoS2 NT-CNT and WS2 NT-CNT junctions are carried out to study the physics of such junctions. With density functional theory (DFT) we study the carrier density distribution, effective potential, electron difference density, electron localization function, electrostatic difference potential and projected local density of states of such MX2 NT-CNT 1D junctions. Thereafter the conductance of such a junction under moderate bias is studied with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. From the forward bias characteristics simulated from NEGF, we extract diode parameters of the junction. The electrostatic simulations from DFT show the formation of an inhomogeneous Schottky barrier with a tendency towards charge transfer from metal and chalcogen atoms towards the C atoms. For low bias conditions, the ideality factor was calculated to be 1.1322 for MoS2 NT-CNT junction and 1.2526 for the WS2 NT-CNT junction. The Schottky barrier heights displayed significant bias dependent modulation and are calculated to be in the range 0.697-0.664 eV for MoS2 NT-CNT and 0.669-0.610 eV for the WS2 NT-CNT, respectively.

  15. Study of Pt-Rh/CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy (M = Y, La)/Al2O3 three-way catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiaxiu, Guo; Zhonghua, Shi; Dongdong, Wu; Huaqiang, Yin; Maochu, Gong; Yaoqiang, Chen

    2013-05-01

    CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy (M = Y; La) mixed oxides, prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra (RM) and oxygen pulse reaction, were comparatively investigated to elucidate the combinational effects of Y and/or La oxide promoters on the catalytic activity and anti-aging performance of monolithic cordierite honeycomb catalysts with low Pt and Rh content. The catalytic activities, water-gas shift (WGS) and steam reforming reaction (SR) were studied under a simulated gas mixture. The catalysts were also characterized by H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and O2-temperature-programmed desorption (O2-TPD). The results showed that the prepared CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy oxides have a face-centered cubic fluorite structure and are nanosize. La3+ ions can significantly improve thermal stability and efficiently retard CeO2-ZrO2 crystal sintering and growth. Doped CeO2-ZrO2 with Y3+ and La3+ has 105 and 60 m2/g surface area and 460 and 390 μmol/g OSC before and after aging. The T50 of fresh Pt-Rh/CZYL/LA is 170 °C for CO, 222 °C for C3H8 and 189 °C for NO, and shift to 205, 262 and 228 °C after hydrothermal aging, which are better than those of Pt-Rh/CZY/LA or Pt-Rh/CZL/LA. WGS and SR are relate to the OSC of oxygen storage materials and absorbed oxygen species on the catalyst surface and affect the three-way catalytic activities of catalysts. The reductive property of noble metals and the dissociatively adsorbed O2 on the surface of catalysts are closely related to the catalytic activities.

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the trehalulose synthase MutB from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45

    SciTech Connect

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2005-01-01

    The trehalulose synthase MutB from P. mesoacidophila MX-45 has been crystallized in two different crystal forms and diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 and 1.8 Å, respectively. The trehalulose synthase (MutB) from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13, catalyses the isomerization of sucrose to trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) and isomaltulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose) as main products and glucose and fructose in residual amounts from the hydrolytic reaction. To date, a three-dimensional structure of a sucrose isomerase that produces mainly trehalulose, as is the case for MutB, has been lacking. Crystallographic studies of this 64 kDa enzyme have therefore been initiated in order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of sucrose decomposition, isomerization and of the selectivity of this enzyme that leads to the formation of different products. The MutB protein has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms have been obtained: one diffracts X-rays to 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.8, b = 72.0, c = 82.2 Å, α = 67.5, β = 73.1, γ = 70.8°, while the other form diffracts to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.7, b = 85.9, c = 119.7 Å, β = 97.7°. A molecular-replacement solution has been found using the structure of the isomaltulose synthase (PalI) from Klebsiella sp. LX3 as a search model.

  17. Fluid sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studenick, D. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inlet leak is described for sampling gases, more specifically, for selectively sampling multiple fluids. This fluid sampling device includes a support frame. A plurality of fluid inlet devices extend through the support frame and each of the fluid inlet devices include a longitudinal aperture. An opening device that is responsive to a control signal selectively opens the aperture to allow fluid passage. A closing device that is responsive to another control signal selectively closes the aperture for terminating further fluid flow.

  18. Alerts and Notices (Devices)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Safety Communications Safety Communications Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Older safety communications are listed below. Older Safety Communications 2015 Safety Communications 2014 Safety Communications 2013 Safety ...

  19. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  20. Sealed container sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Sampling device, by means of a tapered needle, pierces a sealed container while maintaining the seal and either evacuates or pressurizes the container. This device has many applications in the chemical, preservative and battery-manufacturing industries.

  1. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Arrol, W.J.; Jefferson, S.

    1957-08-27

    The construction of gas discharge devices where the object is to provide a gas discharge device having a high dark current and stabilized striking voltage is described. The inventors have discovered that the introduction of tritium gas into a discharge device with a subsequent electrical discharge in the device will deposit tritium on the inside of the chamber. The tritium acts to emit beta rays amd is an effective and non-hazardous way of improving the abovementioned discharge tube characteristics

  2. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  3. Devices for continence.

    PubMed

    Smith, D A

    1994-09-01

    Ameliorating the acute and chronic forms of incontinence is usually possible. When the functional status of the patient prohibits toileting, then devices are often necessary. The practicing nurse must make decisions on what devices are appropriate and how to teach clients to use them. Often, knowing the device exists is a start in the nurse's ability to eliminate functional incontinence. This article focuses on devices that collect urine, inhibit incontinence, and aid staff and clients to use the toilet.

  4. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  5. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  6. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  7. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  8. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  9. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1996-06-11

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

  10. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

  11. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  12. Biomechanics of Interspinous Devices

    PubMed Central

    Parchi, Paolo D.; Evangelisti, Gisberto; Vertuccio, Antonella; Piolanti, Nicola; Andreani, Lorenzo; Cervi, Valentina; Giannetti, Christian; Calvosa, Giuseppe; Lisanti, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A number of interspinous devices (ISD) have been introduced in the lumbar spine implant market. Unfortunately, the use of these devices often is not associated with real comprehension of their biomechanical role. The aim of this paper is to review the biomechanical studies about interspinous devices available in the literature to allow the reader a better comprehension of the effects of these devices on the treated segment and on the adjacent segments of the spine. For this reason, our analysis will be limited to the interspinous devices that have biomechanical studies published in the literature. PMID:25114923

  13. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  14. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  15. Theoretical study of interface structure and energetics in semicoherent Fe(001)/MX(001) systems ( M=Sc , Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta; X=C or N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fors, Dan H. R.; Wahnström, Göran

    2010-11-01

    We perform a systematic ab initio study of the electronic and atomic structure of semicoherent interfaces between bcc Fe and NaCl MX ( M=Sc , Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta; X=C or N). The interface energetics is accessed by using a Peierls-Nabarro framework, in which ab initio data for the chemical interactions across the interface are combined with a continuum description to account for the elastic distortions. The key factors to the trends in the interface energy are identified and discussed with respect to the size of the misfit and the electronic structure of the MX phase. Our approach shows that the inclusion of lattice misfit can have a significant contribution to the interface energy (up to 1.5J/m2 ) and must therefore be thoroughly accounted for in the interface description. The results will have important bearings on our ability to understand and describe precipitate stability in steels.

  16. Electrochromic display device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, M. M.

    1984-07-01

    This invention relates to electrochromic devices. In one aspect it relates to electrically controllable display devices. In another aspect it relates to electrically tunable optical or light filters. In yet another aspect it relates to a chemical sensor device which employs a color changing film. There are many uses for electrically controllable display devices. A number of such devices have been in commercial use for some time. These display devices include liquid crystal displays, light emitting diode displays, plasma displays, and the like. Light emitting diode displays and plasma display panels both suffer from the fact that they are active. Light emissive devices which require substantial power for their operation, In addition, it is difficult to fabricate light emitting diode displays in a manner which renders them easily distinguishable under bright ambient illumination. Liquid crystal displays suffer from the disadvantage that they are operative only over a limited temperature range and have substantially no memory within the liquid crystal material.

  17. A moments' analysis of quasi-exactly solvable systems: a new perspective on the sextic potential gx^6+bx^4+mx^2 +{\\beta \\over {x^2}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Carlos R.; Vrinceanu, Daniel; Gupta, Rahul

    2014-07-01

    symmetry as the QES states: their lower order ν-moments must be zero. We demonstrate our results in the context of the two sextic potentials: Vsa(x) = x6 + mx2 + bx4 and Vss(x) = x6 + mx2 + b/x2.

  18. The electronic structure of quasi-free-standing germanene on monolayer MX (M = Ga, In; X = S, Se, Te).

    PubMed

    Ni, Zeyuan; Minamitani, Emi; Ando, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2015-07-15

    For the first time by using the ab initio density functional theory, the stability and electronic structures of germanene on monolayer GaS, GaSe, GaTe and InSe have been investigated. Germanene preserves its buckled-honeycomb structure on all the studied substrates similar to the free-standing case. Moreover, germanene stays neutral and preserves its Dirac-cone-like band structure on monolayer GaTe and InSe. In these two cases, a bandgap of 0.14-0.16 eV opens at the Dirac point of germanene, while the effective masses remain as small as 0.05-0.06 times the free-electron mass. The estimated carrier mobility is up to 2.2 × 10(5) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). These features show that monolayer GaTe and InSe are promising as substrates for germanene devices.

  19. N,N-Dimethyl phytosphingosine sensitizes HL-60/MX2, a multidrug-resistant variant of HL-60 cells, to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity through ROS-mediated release of cytochrome c and AIF.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong Mo; Choi, Yun Jung; Lee, Yong Heon; Joe, Young Ae; Hong, Sung Hee

    2010-08-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used to treat a variety of tumors. However, resistance to this drug is common, making successful treatment more difficult. Previously, we introduced a novel phytosphingosine derivative, N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine (DMPS), as a potent anticancer therapeutic agent in human leukemia cells. This study was performed to investigate whether DMPS can sensitize HL-60/MX2, a multidrug-resistant variant of HL-60, to Dox-induced apoptosis. Low concentrations of DMPS sensitized HL-60/MX2 cells to Dox-induced apoptosis. Combined Dox + DMPS treatment-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 as well as PARP cleavage. Cytochrome c and AIF release were also observed in Dox + DMPS-treated HL60/MX2 cells. Pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk markedly prevented caspase-3 activation and moderately suppressed apoptosis, suggesting that Dox + DMPS-induced apoptosis is somewhat (not completely) dependent on caspase. Cytochrome c and AIF release were not affected by pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk. The ROS scavenger NAC efficiently suppressed not only ROS generation, but also caspase-3-mediated PARP cleavage, apoptosis, and release of cytochrome c and AIF, indicating a role of ROS in combined Dox + DMPS treatment-induced apoptotic death signaling. Taken together, these observations suggest that DMPS may be used as a therapeutic agent for overcoming drug-resistance in cancer cells by enhancing drug-induced apoptosis.

  20. New Insight into Phase Formation of MxMg2Al4+xSi5−xO18:Eu2+ Solid Solution Phosphors and Its Luminescence Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Xia, Zhiguo; Chen, Mingyue; Molokeev, Maxim S.; Liu, Quanlin

    2015-01-01

    Here we reported the phase formation of MxMg2Al4+xSi5−xO18:Eu2+ (M = K, Rb) solid solution phosphors, where M+ ions were introduced into the void channels of Mg2Al4Si5O18 via Al3+/Si4+ substitution to keep the charge balance. XRD results revealed that the as-prepared phosphors with different M+ contents were iso-structural with Mg2Al4Si5O18 phase. The combined analysis of the Rietveld refinement and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results proved that M+ ions were surely introduced into the intrinsic channels in Mg2Al4Si5O18. The emission peaks of MxMg2Al4+xSi5−xO18:Eu2+ (M = K, Rb) phosphors with various x values performed a systematic red-shift tendency, which was ascribed to the elongation of [MgO6] octahedra. The temperature stable photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency (QE) of MxMg2Al4+xSi5−xO18:Eu2+ (M = K, Rb) phosphors were enhanced owing to the filling of M+ in the void channels suggesting a new insight to design the solid solution phosphors with improved photoluminescence properties. PMID:26190348

  1. New Insight into Phase Formation of MxMg2Al(4+x)Si(5-x)O18:Eu2+ Solid Solution Phosphors and Its Luminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Xia, Zhiguo; Chen, Mingyue; Molokeev, Maxim S; Liu, Quanlin

    2015-07-20

    Here we reported the phase formation of MxMg2Al(4+x)Si(5-x)O18:Eu(2+) (M = K, Rb) solid solution phosphors, where M(+) ions were introduced into the void channels of Mg2Al4Si5O18 via Al(3+)/Si(4+) substitution to keep the charge balance. XRD results revealed that the as-prepared phosphors with different M(+) contents were iso-structural with Mg2Al4Si5O18 phase. The combined analysis of the Rietveld refinement and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results proved that M(+) ions were surely introduced into the intrinsic channels in Mg2Al4Si5O18. The emission peaks of MxMg2Al(4+x)Si(5-x)O18:Eu(2+) (M = K, Rb) phosphors with various x values performed a systematic red-shift tendency, which was ascribed to the elongation of [MgO6] octahedra. The temperature stable photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency (QE) of MxMg2Al(4+x)Si(5-x)O18:Eu(2+) (M = K, Rb) phosphors were enhanced owing to the filling of M(+) in the void channels suggesting a new insight to design the solid solution phosphors with improved photoluminescence properties.

  2. Smart portable rehabilitation devices.

    PubMed

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-07-12

    The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to meet their design

  3. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    PubMed Central

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to

  4. Electronic and magnetic properties of CdI2-type MX2 (M = V, Nb; X = Al, Ga and In) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiganesh, G.; Kalpana, G.

    2015-02-01

    First-principle calculations within the density-functional theory is used to investigate the possibility of existence of ferromagnetism in hypothetical CdI2-type MX2 (M = V, Nb; X = Al, Ga and In) compounds. The TBLMTO-ASA program is used for this purpose. Both spin-polarization and non-spin-polarization calculations are carried out for each compound. The spin-polarization calculation shows that VX2 (X = Al, Ga and In) compounds are ferromagnets whereas NbX2 (X = Al, Ga and In) compounds are non-magnets because no effective polarization of the energy states occurs at their equilibrium volume. However, the NbX2 (X = Al, Ga and In) compounds become ferromagnets under large volume expansion. Ferromagnetism in these compounds is predicted for the first time. The variation of lattice constant with magnetic moment for VX2 (X = Al, Ga and In) compounds are also analysed. The magnetism arises mainly from the cation d-like states. This result is similar to other transition-metal based pnictide and chalcogenide compounds. The ground-state properties like equilibrium lattice parameters, bulk modulus, heat of formation and total and partial magnetic moments are calculated.

  5. TECHNICAL NOTE: Structural and transport properties of the La1.85Sr0.15Cu1-xMxO4 superconducting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedky, A.; Almulhem, Abdalaziz A.; Ibrahim, Sobhy S.

    2006-08-01

    X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements were carried out on La1.85Sr0.15Cu1-xMxOy (La: 214) ceramic samples with different doping elements M and doping contents x (M = Li, Ni, Co and Mn, and x = 0.00,0.15 and 0.30). It is found that the substitutions of the above dopants at Cu sites cause lattice deformation and lead to the largest change in the transport properties of La: 214 systems. The pure sample with x = 0.00 exhibits superconductivity at 36 K, while the samples with x = 0.15 and 0.30 show semiconductor-like behavior with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 20 K. The magnetic doping samples show a rapid increase in the resistivity more effectively than samples with the nonmagnetic dopants. The rate of increase in the resistivity with doping follows the order Mn>Co>Ni>Li. On the other hand, the activation energy Ea is calculated in the three different temperature regions characterized in the (ρ T) curve. A good correlation in the behavior of Ea as well as resistivity with dopants is reported. Our data fit well with the Arbrikosov and Gork'ov theory, but disagree with those of Huang et al (2005 Physica C 421 56). Our comments on Huang et al' s samples are reported.

  6. Stability and crystal chemistry of the ternary borides M2(Ni21-xMx)B6 (M tbnd Ti, Zr, Hf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artini, C.; Provino, A.; Valenza, F.; Pani, M.; Cacciamani, G.

    2016-01-01

    A crystallochemical study was undertaken to investigate the structural stability and the compositional extent of the ternary borides M2(Ni21-xMx)B6 (M tbnd Ti, Zr, Hf). This phase often occurs during the production of MB2 joints by means of Ni-B brazing alloys. Samples with the nominal compositions M2Ni21B6 and M3Ni20B6 were synthesized by arc melting and characterized by optical and electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Crystal structure refinements were performed by the Rietveld method. The compositional boundaries of the ternary phases were experimentally determined and found strictly related to the M/Ni size ratio. The stability of this structure is mainly determined by the capability of the structure to expand under the effect of the Ni substitution by the M atom. The CALPHAD modeling of the three M-Ni-B ternary systems in the Ni-rich corner of the phase diagram, performed on the basis of the obtained structural data, shows a good agreement with experimental results.

  7. Systematics of the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity in Ba(Fe1-xMx)₂As₂ (M=Co, Rh, Ni, and Pd)

    DOE PAGES

    Tanatar, M. A.; Ni, N.; Thaler, A.; ...

    2011-07-27

    Temperature-dependent interplane resistivity ρc(T) was measured systematically as a function of transition-metal substitution in the iron-arsenide superconductors Ba(Fe1-xMx)₂As₂, M=Ni, Pd, Rh. The data are compared with the behavior found in Ba(Fe1-xCox)₂As₂, revealing resistive signatures of pseudogap. In all compounds we find resistivity crossover at a characteristic pseudogap temperature T* from nonmetallic to metallic temperature dependence on cooling. Suppression of T* proceeds very similarly in cases of Ni and Pd doping and much faster than in similar cases of Co and Rh doping. In cases of Co and Rh doping an additional minimum in the temperature-dependent ρc emerges for high dopings,more » when superconductivity is completely suppressed. These features are consistent with the existence of a charge gap covering part of the Fermi surface. The part of the Fermi surface affected by this gap is notably larger for Ni- and Pd-doped compositions than in Co- and Rh-doped compounds.« less

  8. SNPs in candidate genes MX dynamin-like GTPase and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-5 are associated with ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma progression in Latxa sheep.

    PubMed

    Larruskain, A; Esparza-Baquer, A; Minguijón, E; Juste, R A; Jugo, B M

    2015-12-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung cancer in sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). OPA is present in many sheep-rearing countries causing economic and welfare issues, as currently no efficient vaccines or treatments are available. Breed differences suggest a host genetic component may influence the pathogenesis of OPA, but so far few genes have been identified. In this work, a genetic association study was carried out in Latxa dairy sheep which were classified as cases/controls based on the presence/absence of OPA lung tumours. Candidate genes included cytokines and a receptor and innate immunity genes. After SNPs in the candidate genes were identified, the distribution of alleles in cases and controls was compared by means of logistic regression analyses at the allelic, genotypic and haplotypic levels. The association analysis showed that several candidate genes were significantly associated with resistance or susceptibility to OPA; two of the candidates, CCR5 and MX1, remained significantly associated with resistance and susceptibility respectively, even after Bonferroni correction.

  9. Study of cation distributions in spinel ferrites MxMn1-xFe2O4 (M=Zn, Mg, Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, L. L.; Xue, L. C.; Li, Z. Z.; Li, S. Q.; Tang, G. D.; Qi, W. H.; Wu, L. Q.; Ge, X. S.

    2016-10-01

    Powder samples of the ferrites MxMn1-xFe2O4 (M = Zn, Mg, Al) were prepared using a chemical co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the three series of samples had a single-phase cubic spinel structure and that there was a decrease in the lattice parameters with increasing x. There were different dependences on the doping level x of the magnetic moments ( μ exp ) for the three series of samples measured at 10 K. We found a non-monotonic behavior for μ exp as a function x for the Zn doped samples with a maximum at x = 0.4, while μ exp decreased monotonically with increasing x for the Mg and Al doped samples. On the basis of the O2p itinerant electron model, the magnetic moment direction of the Mn3+ cations is expected to be antiparallel to those of the Mn2+ and Fe cations in these samples. With this assumption, the curves of μ exp versus x for the three series of samples were fitted using a quantum-mechanical potential barrier model earlier proposed by our group, and the cation distributions were obtained.

  10. Structure and magnetic properties of nonsuperconducting doped Co and Fe Bi2Sr2Cu1-xMxOy phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarascon, J. M.; Miceli, P. F.; Barboux, P.; Hwang, D. M.; Hull, G. W.; Giroud, M.; Greene, L. H.; Lepage, Yvon; McKinnon, W. R.; Tselepis, E.; Pleizier, G.; Eibschutz, M.; Neumann, D. A.; Rhyne, J. J.

    1989-06-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of the Bi2Sr2Cu1-xMxOy (M=Co and Fe) materials were studied. The limits of solid solution formation are at x=0.5 for the Fe system and x=1 for the Co system. Crystals of the new Bi2Sr2CoOY phase were grown and the structure established by x-ray crystallography. The subcell is the same as that of the 10-K superconductor, Bi2Sr2CuOy, but the superstructure is different, as it exhibits a commensurate modulation of periodicity 4 instead of 5. Extra oxygen is accommodated in the Bi layers, as in Bi2Sr3Fe2Oy, and the structure of the Bi-O layers can be described as 50% rocksalt-type and 50% oxygen-deficient perovskite for x=1, but with disorder at the oxygen positions. The formal valence of Co in this compound is about 2.5+/-0.2 as deduced from structural and chemical measurements, whereas Fe adopts the oxidation state +3 as deduced by Mössbauer measurements. Bi2Sr2CoOy is an antiferromagnetic insulator with the spins lying within the CoO2 sheets and the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature (TN) is sensitive to processing conditions and composition changes. The high anisotropy of the susceptibility suggests that Bi2Sr2CoOy may be an Ising or XY antiferromagnet.

  11. En route to the conductivity bottleneck in p-type CuCr1-xMxO2-ySy (M = Li, Mg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, P.; Mazumder, N.; Akhtar, A. J.; Roy, R.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2017-05-01

    We extend our material design concept [P. Mandal et al. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49, 275109, (2016); N. Mazumder et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3539, (2013)] further aiming to overcome the conductivity bottleneck (1 Scm-1) in p-type transparent conducting oxide (TCO). In this work, we execute the strategy of simultaneous cationic-anionic hole doping in the prototype p-TCO CuCrO2. CuCr1-xMxO2-ySy (M = Li, Mg) is prepared by solid state heating at 1150 °C. Using Rietveld analysis, the presence of Mgcr•, Licr • and SO×areconfirmed and quantified. The diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra are acquired to determine the dominant optical gap (˜ 3.5 eV) and found to be affected little upon site selective hole doping. From temperature dependence (80 - 300 K) of DC conductivity (σdc), (Licr •+SO×)dopingcan be identified to be the more plausible alternative to reach the bottleneck threshold compared to (Mgcr •+SO×) albeit of smaller σdc at 300 K.

  12. Phase diagram of pressure-induced superconductor β-(BDA-TTP)2MX4 (M=Fe, Ga and X=Cl, Br) with localized magnetic moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E. S.; Graf, D.; Tokumoto, T.; Brooks, J. S.; Yamada, Jun-Ichi

    2007-03-01

    We have investigated transport and magnetization properties of β-(BDA-TTP)2MX4 (M=Fe, Ga and X=Cl, Br) as a function of pressure, temperature and magnetic field. The title material undergoes metal-insulator transitions above 100 K at ambient pressure. The insulating phase is suppressed with pressure and superconductivity eventually appears above Pc= 4.5 kbar (X=Cl) and 13 kbar (X=Br). The general temperature-pressure (TP) phase diagram is similar each other, while higher pressure is required for X=Br compounds to suppress the insulating state and induce the superconductivity. Pressure dependent DC magnetization studies on β-(BDA-TTP)2FeCl4 compound revealed that the AFM ordering persist well above Pc. In spite of similarity of phase diagram between M=Fe and M=Ga compounds, magnetoresistance results show distinct behaviors, which indicates the magnetic interaction with the conduction electrons are still effective. The comparison between X=Cl and X=Br compounds suggests the anion-size effect rather than the existence of localized magnetic moments plays more important role in determining the ground state.

  13. Photoelectrochemical and theoretical investigations of spinel type ferrites (MxFe3-xO4) for water splitting: a mini-review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffa, Dereje H.; Dillert, Ralf; Ulpe, Anna C.; Bauerfeind, Katharina C. L.; Bredow, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef W.; Wark, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Solar-assisted water splitting using photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) is one of the promising pathways for the production of hydrogen for renewable energy storage. The nature of the semiconductor material is the primary factor that controls the overall energy conversion efficiency. Finding semiconductor materials with appropriate semiconducting properties (stability, efficient charge separation and transport, abundant, visible light absorption) is still a challenge for developing materials for solar water splitting. Owing to the suitable bandgap for visible light harvesting and the abundance of iron-based oxide semiconductors, they are promising candidates for PECs and have received much research attention. Spinel ferrites are subclasses of iron oxides derived from the classical magnetite (FeIIFe2IIIO4) in which the FeII is replaced by one (some cases two) additional divalent metals. They are generally denoted as MxFe3-xO4 (M=Ca, Mg, Zn, Co, Ni, Mn, and so on) and mostly crystallize in spinel or inverse spinel structures. In this mini review, we present the current state of research in spinel ferrites as photoelectrode materials for PECs application. Strategies to improve energy conversion efficiency (nanostructuring, surface modification, and heterostructuring) will be presented. Furthermore, theoretical findings related to the electronic structure, bandgap, and magnetic properties will be presented and compared with experimental results.

  14. Mechanical and thermal properties of h-MX{sub 2} (M = Cr, Mo, W; X = O, S, Se, Te) monolayers: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Çakır, Deniz Peeters, François M.; Sevik, Cem

    2014-05-19

    Using density functional theory, we obtain the mechanical and thermal properties of MX{sub 2} monolayers (where M = Cr, Mo, W and X = O, S, Se, Te). The Γ-centered phonon frequencies (i.e., A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}{sup ″}, E′, and E″), relative frequency values of A{sub 1}, and E′ modes, and mechanical properties (i.e., elastic constants, Young modulus, and Poisson's ratio) display a strong dependence on the type of metal and chalcogenide atoms. In each chalcogenide (metal) group, transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with W (O) atom are found to be much stiffer. Consistent with their stability, the thermal expansion of lattice constants for TMDCs with O (Te) is much slower (faster). Furthermore, in a heterostructure of these materials, the difference of the thermal expansion of lattice constants between the individual components becomes quite tiny over the whole temperature range. The calculated mechanical and thermal properties show that TMDCs are promising materials for heterostructures.

  15. Interferon-induced inhibition of parainfluenza virus type 5; the roles of MxA, PKR and oligo A synthetase/RNase L.

    PubMed

    Carlos, T S; Young, D; Stertz, S; Kochs, G; Randall, R E

    2007-06-20

    We have previously reported that the addition of interferon (IFN) to the culture medium of Vero cells (which cannot produce IFN) that were infected with the CPI- strain of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5, formally known as SV5), that fails to block IFN signaling, rapidly induces alterations in the relative levels of virus mRNA and protein synthesis. In addition, IFN treatment also caused a rapid redistribution of virus proteins and enhanced the formation of cytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies. The most studied IFN-induced genes with known anti-viral activity are MxA, PKR and the Oligo A synthetase/RNase L system. We therefore examined the effects of these proteins on the replication cycle of PIV5. These studies revealed that while these proteins had some anti-viral activity against PIV5 they were not primarily responsible for the very rapid alteration in virus protein synthesis observed following IFN treatment, nor for the IFN-induced formation of virus inclusion bodies, in CPI- infected cells.

  16. Stretchable Organic Semiconductor Devices.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Zhang, Xinwen; Xie, Linghai; Qi, Dianpeng; Chandran, Bevita K; Chen, Xiaodong; Huang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Stretchable electronics are essential for the development of intensely packed collapsible and portable electronics, wearable electronics, epidermal and bioimplanted electronics, 3D surface compliable devices, bionics, prosthesis, and robotics. However, most stretchable devices are currently based on inorganic electronics, whose high cost of fabrication and limited processing area make it difficult to produce inexpensive, large-area devices. Therefore, organic stretchable electronics are highly attractive due to many advantages over their inorganic counterparts, such as their light weight, flexibility, low cost and large-area solution-processing, the reproducible semiconductor resources, and the easy tuning of their properties via molecular tailoring. Among them, stretchable organic semiconductor devices have become a hot and fast-growing research field, in which great advances have been made in recent years. These fantastic advances are summarized here, focusing on stretchable organic field-effect transistors, light-emitting devices, solar cells, and memory devices.

  17. Sensor sentinel computing device

    DOEpatents

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  18. Barrier breaching device

    DOEpatents

    Honodel, C.A.

    1983-06-01

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  19. Barrier breaching device

    DOEpatents

    Honodel, Charles A.

    1985-01-01

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  20. Highly effective and accurate weak point monitoring method for advanced design rule (1x nm) devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeongho; Seong, ShiJin; Yoon, Minjung; Park, Il-Suk; Kim, HyungSeop; Ihm, Dongchul; Chin, Soobok; Sivaraman, Gangadharan; Li, Mingwei; Babulnath, Raghav; Lee, Chang Ho; Kurada, Satya; Brown, Christine; Galani, Rajiv; Kim, JaeHyun

    2014-04-01

    Historically when we used to manufacture semiconductor devices for 45 nm or above design rules, IC manufacturing yield was mainly determined by global random variations and therefore the chip manufacturers / manufacturing team were mainly responsible for yield improvement. With the introduction of sub-45 nm semiconductor technologies, yield started to be dominated by systematic variations, primarily centered on resolution problems, copper/low-k interconnects and CMP. These local systematic variations, which have become decisively greater than global random variations, are design-dependent [1, 2] and therefore designers now share the responsibility of increasing yield with manufacturers / manufacturing teams. A widening manufacturing gap has led to a dramatic increase in design rules that are either too restrictive or do not guarantee a litho/etch hotspot-free design. The semiconductor industry is currently limited to 193 nm scanners and no relief is expected from the equipment side to prevent / eliminate these systematic hotspots. Hence we have seen a lot of design houses coming up with innovative design products to check hotspots based on model based lithography checks to validate design manufacturability, which will also account for complex two-dimensional effects that stem from aggressive scaling of 193 nm lithography. Most of these hotspots (a.k.a., weak points) are especially seen on Back End of the Line (BEOL) process levels like Mx ADI, Mx Etch and Mx CMP. Inspecting some of these BEOL levels can be extremely challenging as there are lots of wafer noises or nuisances that can hinder an inspector's ability to detect and monitor the defects or weak points of interest. In this work we have attempted to accurately inspect the weak points using a novel broadband plasma optical inspection approach that enhances defect signal from patterns of interest (POI) and precisely suppresses surrounding wafer noises. This new approach is a paradigm shift in wafer inspection

  1. Ion trap device

    DOEpatents

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  2. [New Medical Device Evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, as a member of the Harmonization by Doing (HBD) project, I discuss the significance of regulatory science in global medical device development and our experience in the international collaboration process for medical devices. In Japan, most innovative medical therapeutic devices were previously developed and exported by foreign-based companies. Due to this device lag, Japanese had minimal opportunities for receiving treatment with innovative medical devices. To address this issue, the Japanese government has actively accepted foreign clinical trial results and promoted global clinical trials in projects such as HBD. HBD is a project with stakeholders from academia, regulatory authorities, and industry in the US and Japan to promote global clinical trials and reduce device lags. When the project started, medical device clinical trials were not actively conducted in Japan at not just hospitals but also at medical device companies. We started to identify issues under the concept of HBD. After 10 years, we have now become key members in global clinical trials and able to obtain approvals without delay. Recently, HBD has started promoting international convergence. Physicians and regulatory authorities play central roles in compiling guidelines for the clinical evaluation of medical device development, which will be a more active field in the near future. The guidelines compiled will be confirmed with members of academia and regulatory authorities in the United Sates.

  3. New unorthodox semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, K.

    1985-12-01

    A range of new semiconductor devices, including a number of structures which rely entirely upon new phenomena, are discussed. Unipolar two-terminal devices, including impurity-controlled barriers and graded composition barriers, are considered, as are new transistor structures, including the hot-electron camel transistor, the planar-doped barrier transistor, the thermionic emission transistor, and the permeable base transistor. Regenerative switching devices are addressed, including the metal-tunnel insulator-semiconductor switch, the polysilicon switch, MIS, and MISIM switching structures, and the triangular-barrier switch. Heterostructure devices are covered, including the heterojunction bipolar transistor, the selectively doped heterojunction transistor, heterojunction lasers, and quantum-well structures.

  4. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  5. Simple piezoelectric translation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, Ph.; Emch, R.; Descouts, P.

    1988-02-01

    We describe a piezoelectric device which allows continuous movement and high-resolution micropositioning, without distance limitation. Both mechanical construction and the electronics for the device are very simple. The movement is obtained via a stick-slip mechanism, and steps as small as 10 nm are obtained. A displacement speed of 0.4 mm/s has been attained, and the device was capable of carrying several times its own weight, exerting a horizontal force, or climbing a plane inclined by 7°. Due to its compact construction, the device shows prospects for miniaturization.

  6. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Xu, Xi Xiang

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  7. The d4/d3 redox pairs [MX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp']z (z=0 and 1): structural consequences of electron transfer and implications for the inverse halide order.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher J; Bartlett, Ian M; Carlton, Susannah; Connelly, Neil G; Harding, David J; Hayward, Owen D; Orpen, A Guy; Patron, Elena; Ray, Christopher D; Rieger, Philip H

    2007-01-07

    The d4 halide complexes [MX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp'] {X=F, Cl, Br or I; R=Me or Ph; M=Mo or W; Tp'=hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate} undergo one-electron oxidation to the d3 monocations [MX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp']+, isolable for M=W, R=Me. X-Ray structural studies on the redox pairs [WX(CO)(eta-MeC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CMe)Tp']z (X=Cl and Br, z=0 and 1), the ESR spectra of the cations [WX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp']+ (X=F, Cl, Br or I; R=Me or Ph), and DFT calculations on [WX(CO)(eta-MeC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CMe)Tp']z (X=F, Cl, Br and I; z=0 and 1) are consistent with electron removal from a HOMO (of the d4 complexes) which is pi-antibonding with respect to the W-X bond, pi-bonding with respect to the W-C(O) bond, and delta-bonding with respect to the W-Calkyne bonds. The dependence of both oxidation potential and nu(CO) for [MX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp'] shows an inverse halide order which is consistent with an ionic component to the M-X bond; the small size of fluorine and its closeness to the metal centre leads to the highest energy HOMO and the lowest oxidation potential. In the cations [MX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp']+ electronegativity effects become more important, leading to a conventional order for Cl, Br and I. However, high M-F pi-donation is still facilitated by the short M-F distance.

  8. Assistive Listening Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warick, Ruth; Clark, Catherine; Dancer, Jesse; Sinclair, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    For most hard of hearing students, and for some who are deaf, hearing aids and related sound amplification devices are of great benefit in their communication and learning. Technology has more recently produced an additional array of electronic devices which benefit many hard of hearing students. This report will deal primarily with the relatively…

  9. Capillary interconnect device

    SciTech Connect

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  10. Devices and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Actor Network Theory to examine two cases of device-mediated educational change, one involving a computer-assisted interactive video module that provided a half-hour of instruction for a university course, the other an assistive communication device that proved a supposedly retarded pre-school child to be intelligent. The paper…

  11. Device for removing blackheads

    DOEpatents

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  12. Vaginal mechanical contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Barwin, B N

    1983-10-01

    The alleged adverse effects of oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices have led to increased consumer and physician demand for vaginal contraceptive devices. The efficacy and the advantages and disadvantages of vaginal sponges, cervical caps and diaphragms are discussed and compared in this article.

  13. Self-actuated device

    DOEpatents

    Hecht, Samuel L.

    1984-01-01

    A self-actuated device, of particular use as a valve or an orifice for nuclear reactor fuel and blanket assemblies, in which a gas produced by a neutron induced nuclear reaction gradually accumulates as a function of neutron fluence. The gas pressure increase occasioned by such accumulation of gas is used to actuate the device.

  14. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  15. Mechanical Device Traces Parabolas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soper, Terry A.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical device simplifies generation of parabolas of various focal lengths. Based on fundamental geometrical construction of parabola. Constancy of critical total distance enforced by maintaining cable in tension. Applications of device include design of paraboloidal antennas, approximating catenaries on drawings of powerlines or long-wire antennas, and general tracing of parabolas on drawings.

  16. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  17. Emergency-escape device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Relatively simple inexpensive device uses reeled steel cable, is controlled by automotive-type shock absorber, and allows safe descent from burning building. Device is cheap to manufacture and assemble and requires neither skill, special knowledge, or athletic ability to operate. It is reliable and fireproof and can be deployed instantly.

  18. STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

  19. Inverted organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Bailey-Salzman, Rhonda F.

    2016-12-06

    The present disclosure relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices grown in an inverted manner. An inverted organic photosensitive optoelectronic device of the present disclosure comprises a reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode on top of the donor-acceptor heterojunction.

  20. Assistive Listening Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warick, Ruth; Clark, Catherine; Dancer, Jesse; Sinclair, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    For most hard of hearing students, and for some who are deaf, hearing aids and related sound amplification devices are of great benefit in their communication and learning. Technology has more recently produced an additional array of electronic devices which benefit many hard of hearing students. This report will deal primarily with the relatively…

  1. STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

  2. Devices and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Actor Network Theory to examine two cases of device-mediated educational change, one involving a computer-assisted interactive video module that provided a half-hour of instruction for a university course, the other an assistive communication device that proved a supposedly retarded pre-school child to be intelligent. The paper…

  3. Emergency descent device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Device includes cable wound on reel; special assembly enclosed in fluid medium controls unwinding speed of cable during descent. Device is compact and reliable. It can be rewound quickly because reel disengages from latches when it is turned in opposite direction.

  4. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  5. Statement on intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    These policy statements and guidelines from the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) International Medical Advisory Panel (IMAP) concern IUDs. The following contraindications to IUD use are recognized: 1) pelvic inflaminatory disease, 2) known or suspected pregnancy, 3) history of previous ectopic pregnancy, 4) gynecological bleeding disorders, 5) suspected malignancy of the genital tract, 6) congenital uterine abnormalities or fibroids distorting the cavity, and 7) anemia, blood coagulation, severe cervical stenosis, copper allergy, Wilson's disease, and others. Generalities regarding appropriate IUDs are: 1) non-medicated devices (e.g. Lippes Loop) are studied for women who may not return for regular check-ups, 2) smaller medicated devices usually cause less menstrual blood loss than the non-medicated devices, 3) smaller devices are better for a smaller uterus and larger devices for the larger uterus, and 4) when a smaller device is expelled it is advisable to try a larger one and vice versa. Dalkon Shields should not be used by the IPPF system and all women using them should have the device removed. Correct insertion of IUDs is important and should be done by properly trained personnel. The timing of insertion is best during the menstrual period. Withdrawal of the applicator while leaving the device in place is the recommended insertion technique. Sterilization of IUDs should follow instructions on bulk-packaged IUDs. Complications include perforation, bleeding and pain, infection, and ectopic pregnancy. IUD removal should be done during menstruation. Good clinical management and follow-up care are recommended.

  6. Heat tube device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention discloses a heat tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer heat to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The heat tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the heat tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the heat tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the heat transfer from the heat tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.

  7. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-10

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  8. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; He, Rongrui [El Cerrito, CA; Goldberger, Joshua [Berkeley, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA; Wu, Yiying [Albany, CA; Li, Deyu [Albany, CA; Majumdar, Arun [Orinda, CA

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  9. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  10. Device for cutting protrusions

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  11. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-06-19

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  12. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson; Craig P. , Visco; Steven J. , De Jonghe; Lutgard C.

    2010-11-09

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  13. Optical thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  14. Hydrogeochemistry of Sn(IV) in the context of radioactive waste disposal: Solubility and adsorption on MX-80 bentonite and Callovo-Oxfordian argilite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedziorek, Monika A. M.; Bourg, Alain C. M.; Giffaut, Eric

    The hydrogeochemical properties of tin are poorly known. Because of its presence in radioactive wastes, its dissolved and sorptive behaviors need to be better understood so that we can quantify its solubility and potential retention in the context of containment by clayey engineered and natural geosphere barriers. According to current literature data [Séby, F., Potin-Gautier, M., Giffaut, E., Donard, O., 2001. A critical review of thermodynamic data for inorganic tin species, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65, 3041-3053] reassessed here, Sn(IV) is expected to be the tin species of greatest concern. Batch experiments in the pH range of 2-12 were done to study the solubility of Sn(IV) and its adsorption by solids proposed to contain radioactive wastes (near field and far field barriers). Indirect evidence seems to indicate that the ion pair Sn(OH)4rad (p K = 8.0) is a major dissolved species controlling the solubility of SnO 2(s) in the pH range 2-10. The adsorption of Sn(IV) by solids under consideration for radioactive waste storage (MX-80 bentonite and Callovo-Oxfordian argilite from the Bure site in Eastern France) is, within the range of our experimental conditions, independent of suspension pH, and of the nature of both the sorbent and the electrolyte (log Kd = 3.47 ± 0.61 ml/g). The sorbate is most likely the Sn(OH)4rad ion pair, the predominant species in that pH range, and the clays (most likely smectite minerals) present in both solids (bentonite and argilite) probably control adsorption. Modeling the adsorption of Sn(IV) by near- and far-field barriers in the proposed French containment concept for the storage of Sn-containing radioactive wastes using the Kd approach is therefore quite satisfactory.

  15. Librational modes of the water molecules in barium and strontium halide monohydrates, MX 2 · 1H 2O (M = Ba, Sr; X = Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, H. D.; Christian, H.

    1983-09-01

    The IR and Raman spectra of the isotypic alkaline earth halide monohydrates, MX 2 · 1H 2O, with M = Sr, Ba and X = Cl, Br, I, and of deuterated samples are presented for the range 200-700 cm -1 and discussed in terms of normal modes, assignment, coupling, correlation with structure data, and temperature dependence of both the H 2O (D 2O) and the HDO librational modes. The normal modes of the out-of-plane librations of HDO molecules are of the wagging and twisting type rather than H and D out-of-plane vibrations [4], at least for water molecules with C2v or nearly C2v symmetry. Thus the observed H 2O/HDO isotopic shifts can be used as a criterion for assigning the H 2O librations. The librational modes of the halide monohydrates (with tetrahedrally coordinated water oxygen atoms) are found in the order ν Rγ ≫ ν Rt ≫ ν Rr. The intensities of the IR and Raman spectra are in the order Rγ ≫ Rr ≫ Rt (or ˜ Rt in the case of strongly distorted H 2O molecules) and Rt ≫ Rr ≫ Rγ, respectively. Correlations of the H 2O librational modes with structural or bonding data are restricted by frequency shifts due to vibrational coupling and by the fact that the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms of the water molecules are generally affected in a different manner by bond interactions. However, in the case of the twisting vibrations, there are clear correlations with both the size of the metal ions, i.e. increase of ν Rt with decreasing size, and the intermolecular bonding of the hydrogen atoms, as shown by the OH stretching frequencies, i.e. increase of ν Rt with decreasing ν OH.

  16. Oxygen evolution from olivine M n1 -xMxP O4 (M =Fe ,Ni,Al,Mg) delithiated cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snydacker, David H.; Wolverton, C.

    2017-01-01

    Olivine LiMnP O4 is a promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries. One drawback of this material is the propensity of its delithiated phase, MnP O4 , to evolve oxygen gas above approximately 200 °C. During thermal runaway of cells, this oxygen gas can burn the electrolyte and other cell components and thereby jeopardize safety. Partial substitution of Mn with M =Fe , Ni, Al, or Mg has been used to improve the lithium intercalation kinetics of L ixMnP O4 ; however, the effect of these substitutions on oxygen evolution is not fully documented. In this paper, we calculate phase diagrams and oxygen evolution diagrams for these M n1 -xMxP O4 delithiated cathode materials. To generate the phase diagrams, we use subregular solid-solution models and fit the energetic parameters of these models to density functional theory calculations of special quasirandom structures. The resulting thermodynamic models describe the effect of mixing on the initial temperature of oxygen evolution and on the cumulative amount of oxygen evolution at elevated temperatures. We find that addition of Fe increases the initial temperature and decreases the cumulative amount of oxygen evolution. M n0.5F e0.5P O4 exhibits an initial temperature 50 °C higher than MnP O4 and releases 70% less oxygen gas at 300 °C. Al is insoluble in MnP O4 , so addition of Al has no affect on the initial temperature. However, Al addition does slightly decrease the amount of oxygen evolution due to an inactive AlP O4 component. Mg and Ni both decrease the initial temperature of oxygen evolution, and therefore may worsen the safety of MnP O4 .

  17. Supramolecular chemistry of halogens: complementary features of inorganic (M-X) and organic (C-X') halogens applied to M-X...X'-C halogen bond formation.

    PubMed

    Zordan, Fiorenzo; Brammer, Lee; Sherwood, Paul

    2005-04-27

    Electronic differences between inorganic (M-X) and organic (C-X) halogens in conjunction with the anisotropic charge distribution associated with terminal halogens have been exploited in supramolecular synthesis based upon intermolecular M-X...X'-C halogen bonds. The synthesis and crystal structures of a family of compounds trans-[MCl(2)(NC(5)H(4)X-3)(2)] (M = Pd(II), Pt(II); X = F, Cl, Br, I; NC(5)H(4)X-3 = 3-halopyridine) are reported. With the exception of the fluoropyridine compounds, network structures propagated by M-Cl...X-C halogen bonds are adopted and involve all M-Cl and all C-X groups. M-Cl...X-C interactions show Cl...X separations shorter than van der Waals values, shorter distances being observed for heavier halogens (X). Geometries with near linear Cl...X-C angles (155-172 degrees ) and markedly bent M-Cl...X angles (92-137 degrees ) are consistently observed. DFT calculations on the model dimers {trans-[MCl(2)(NH(3))(NC(5)H(4)X-3)]}(2) show association through M-Cl...X-C (X not equal F) interactions with geometries similar to experimental values. DFT calculations of the electrostatic potential distributions for the compounds trans-[PdCl(2)(NC(5)H(4)X-3)(2)] (X = F, Cl, Br, I) demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy to activate C-X groups toward halogen bond formation by enhancing their electrophilicity, and explain the absence of M-Cl...F-C interactions. The M-Cl...X-C halogen bonds described here can be viewed unambiguously as nucleophile-electrophile interactions that involve an attractive electrostatic contribution. This contrasts with some types of halogen-halogen interactions previously described and suggests that M-Cl...X-C halogen bonds could provide a valuable new synthon for supramolecular chemists.

  18. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1-xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange.

    PubMed

    van der Stam, Ward; Geuchies, Jaco J; Altantzis, Thomas; van den Bos, Karel H W; Meeldijk, Johannes D; Van Aert, Sandra; Bals, Sara; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; de Mello Donega, Celso

    2017-03-22

    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb(2+) is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1-xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+); 0 < x ≤ 0.1), with preservation of the original NC shape. The size of the parent NCs is also preserved in the product NCs, apart from a small (few %) contraction of the unit cells upon incorporation of the guest cations. The partial Pb(2+) for M(2+) exchange leads to a blue-shift of the optical spectra, while maintaining the high photoluminescence quantum yields (>50%), sharp absorption features, and narrow emission of the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. The blue-shift in the optical spectra is attributed to the lattice contraction that accompanies the Pb(2+) for M(2+) cation exchange and is observed to scale linearly with the lattice contraction. This work opens up new possibilities to engineer the properties of halide perovskite NCs, which to date are demonstrated to be the only known system where cation and anion exchange reactions can be sequentially combined while preserving the original NC shape, resulting in compositionally diverse perovskite NCs.

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the trehalulose synthase MutB from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45.

    PubMed

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2005-01-01

    The trehalulose synthase (MutB) from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13, catalyses the isomerization of sucrose to trehalulose (alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-D-fructofuranose) and isomaltulose (alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-D-fructofuranose) as main products and glucose and fructose in residual amounts from the hydrolytic reaction. To date, a three-dimensional structure of a sucrose isomerase that produces mainly trehalulose, as is the case for MutB, has been lacking. Crystallographic studies of this 64 kDa enzyme have therefore been initiated in order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of sucrose decomposition, isomerization and of the selectivity of this enzyme that leads to the formation of different products. The MutB protein has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms have been obtained: one diffracts X-rays to 1.6 A resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.8, b = 72.0, c = 82.2 A, alpha = 67.5, beta = 73.1, gamma = 70.8 degrees, while the other form diffracts to 1.8 A resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 63.7, b = 85.9, c = 119.7 A, beta = 97.7 degrees. A molecular-replacement solution has been found using the structure of the isomaltulose synthase (PalI) from Klebsiella sp. LX3 as a search model.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the trehalulose synthase MutB from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45

    PubMed Central

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2005-01-01

    The trehalulose synthase (MutB) from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13, catalyses the isomerization of sucrose to trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) and isomaltulose (α-­d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose) as main products and glucose and fructose in residual amounts from the hydrolytic reaction. To date, a three-dimensional structure of a sucrose isomerase that produces mainly trehalulose, as is the case for MutB, has been lacking. Crystallographic studies of this 64 kDa enzyme have therefore been initiated in order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of sucrose decomposition, isomerization and of the selectivity of this enzyme that leads to the formation of different products. The MutB protein has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms have been obtained: one diffracts X-rays to 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.8, b = 72.0, c = 82.2 Å, α = 67.5, β = 73.1, γ = 70.8°, while the other form diffracts to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.7, b = 85.9, c = 119.7 Å, β = 97.7°. A molecular-replacement solution has been found using the structure of the isomaltulose synthase (PalI) from Klebsiella sp. LX3 as a search model. PMID:16508103

  1. Use of a Standardized MxA Protein Measurement-Based Assay for Validation of Assays for the Assessment of Neutralizing Antibodies Against Interferon-β

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Meena; Goelz, Susan; Goyal, Jaya; Jethwa, Vijay; Jones, Wendy; Files, James G.; Kramer, Daniel; Bird, Chris; Dilger, Paula; Tovey, Michael; Lallemand, Christophe; Thorpe, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Effective monitoring of the development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against IFN-β in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients on IFN-β therapy is important for clinical decision making and disease management. To date, antiviral assays have been the favored approach for NAb determination, but variations in assay conditions between laboratories and the increasing use of novel assays have contributed to the reporting of inconsistent antibody data between laboratories and between products. This study, undertaken at the request of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA), is a joint effort by manufacturers of IFN-β products (approved in Europe) towards harmonization of a NAb assay that facilitates generation of comparable NAb data, which, in conjunction with clinical outcomes, should prove useful for clinicians treating MS patients with IFN-β products. This article describes the standardized cellular myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) protein measurement-based assay for detection of IFN-β NAbs and its use for the validation of assays used for the quantitative determination of such antibodies. Although titers varied between laboratories and the products used, utilization of IFN-β1a rather than IFN-β1b as the challenge antigen produced more consistent results in the NAb assay. Adoption of the standardized assay improves comparability between laboratories circumventing problems that arise when different, nonstandardized assays are employed for immunogenicity assessment. Based on the data, the EMA recommended for standardization purposes, the use of IFN-β1a in NAb assays, independent of the therapeutic product used for therapy and validation of new NAb procedures against the standardized assay described. PMID:23848523

  2. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1–xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb2+ is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1–xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+; 0 < x ≤ 0.1), with preservation of the original NC shape. The size of the parent NCs is also preserved in the product NCs, apart from a small (few %) contraction of the unit cells upon incorporation of the guest cations. The partial Pb2+ for M2+ exchange leads to a blue-shift of the optical spectra, while maintaining the high photoluminescence quantum yields (>50%), sharp absorption features, and narrow emission of the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. The blue-shift in the optical spectra is attributed to the lattice contraction that accompanies the Pb2+ for M2+ cation exchange and is observed to scale linearly with the lattice contraction. This work opens up new possibilities to engineer the properties of halide perovskite NCs, which to date are demonstrated to be the only known system where cation and anion exchange reactions can be sequentially combined while preserving the original NC shape, resulting in compositionally diverse perovskite NCs. PMID:28260380

  3. Role of weakly bound complexes in temperature-dependence and relative rates of MxOy- + H2O (M = Mo, W) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2016-02-01

    Results of a systematic comparison of the MoxOy- + H2O and WxOy- + H2O reaction rate coefficients are reported and compared to previous experimental and computational studies on these reactions. WxOy- clusters undergo more direct oxidation by water to yield WxOy+1- + H2, while for MoxOy- clusters, production of MoxOyH2- (trapped intermediates in the oxidation reaction) is comparatively more prevalent. However, MoxOy- clusters generally have higher rate coefficients than analogous WxOy- clusters if MoxOy+1H2- formation is included. Results of calculations on the M2Oy- + H2O (M = Mo, W; y = 4, 5) reaction entrance channel are reported. They include charge-dipole complexes formed from long-range interactions, and the requisite conversion to a Lewis acid-base complex that leads to MxOy+1H2- formation. The results predict that the Lewis acid-base complex is more strongly bound for MoxOy- clusters than for WxOy- clusters. The calculated free energies along this portion of the reaction path are also consistent with the modest anti-Arrhenius temperature dependence measured for most MoxOy- + H2O reactions, and the WxOy- + H2O reaction rate coefficients generally being constant over the temperature range sampled in this study. For clusters that exhibit evidence of both water addition and oxidation reactions, increasing the temperature increases the branching ratio toward oxidation for both species. A more direct reaction path to H2 production may therefore become accessible at modest temperatures for certain cluster stoichiometries and structures.

  4. Spin reorientation behavior in YMn1-xMxO3 (M=Ti, Fe, Ga; x=0, 0.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Neetika; Das, A.; Prajapat, C. L.; Meena, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of polycrystalline YMn1-xMxO3 (M=Ti, Fe, Ga; x=0, 0.1) have been studied by neutron powder diffraction and magnetic measurements to probe the effect of Mn site doping on the frustration behavior and magnetic structure of these compounds. The compounds are isostructural and crystallize with hexagonal structure in P63cm space group. We find that doping with these three ions, Ti4+ (d0), Fe3+ (d5) and Ga3+ (d10), influences both the TN and magnetic structure, unlike other Mn-site dopants reported previously. The magnetic structure of YMnO3 is described by considering a linear combination of irreducible representations Γ3 and Γ4 below TN~75 K and with decrease in temperature the ratio of Γ3 and Γ4 changes. The mixing ratio of these two irreducible representations remains constant on lowering of temperature in the Ga doped compounds. The magnetic structure is modified on doping with nonmagnetic ion Ti4+ (d0). It is described by the basis vectors of the irreducible representation Γ2 with moment 2.3 μB at 6 K. On doping with Fe3+ (d5) the magnetic structure immediately below TN is explained by considering the Γ3 irreducible representation. On further lowering of temperature, a spin reorientation at ~35 K is observed. Below this temperature, the magnetic structure of YMn0.9Fe0.1O3 is explained by considering Γ3 representation with 51% mixing of Γ4. The ordered moments are found to be reduced from the expected value for a Mn3+ ion in all these compounds indicating the frustrated nature of these compounds. However, the frustration parameter, f is significantly reduced in the case of Ti doped compound with Γ2 representation.

  5. Composition-driven phase boundary and electrical properties in (Ba₀.₉₄Ca₀.₀₆)(Ti₁-xMx)O₃ (M = Sn, Hf, Zr) lead-free ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunlin; Wang, Hui; Xiong, Jie; Wu, Jiagang

    2016-04-21

    In this study, we systematically investigated the composition dependence of the phase structure, microstructure, and electrical properties of (Ba0.94Ca0.06)(Ti1-xMx)O3 (M = Sn, Hf, Zr) ceramics synthesised by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase boundary type strongly depends on the composition, and then different electrical properties were exhibited. The addition of Hf and Zr can more quickly shift phase transition temperatures (TR-O and TO-T) to a higher temperature with respect to Sn, leading to the formation of different phase boundaries. In addition, different phase boundaries can also be affected by their doped contents. The R-O and O-T phase boundaries can be shown in the Sn-doped ceramics with x = 0.10, and the R-O phase boundary can exist in the Hf (x = 0.07) or Zr (x = 0.075)-doped ceramics. A high piezoelectric property of d33 = 600 pC N(-1) can be achieved in the Sn-doped ceramics due to the involvement of converging R-O/O-T phase boundaries, an enhanced ferroelectric performance with Pr = 14.54 μC cm(-2) and Ec = 1.82 kV cm(-1) can be attained in the Zr-doped ceramics, and Hf would benefit from obtaining a large strain behaviour (∼0.20%). We believe that the electrical properties and the related physical mechanisms of BaTiO3-based ceramics can be well unveiled by studying their chemical modification behavior.

  6. Human Papillomavirus Quantification in Urine and Cervical Samples by Using the Mx4000 and LightCycler General Real-Time PCR Systems▿

    PubMed Central

    Payan, Christopher; Ducancelle, Alexandra; Aboubaker, Mohamed H.; Caer, Julien; Tapia, Malena; Chauvin, Amelie; Peyronnet, Damien; Le Hen, Elodie; Arab, Zohra; Legrand, Marie-Christine; Tran, Adissa; Postec, Edith; Tourmen, Françoise; Avenel, Martine; Malbois, Chantal; De Brux, Marie-Anne; Descamps, Philippe; Lunel, Francoise

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, growing efforts have focused on human papillomavirus (HPV) detection using liquid hybridization, conventional PCR, and real-time PCR-based methods to increase the overall proportion of patients participating in cervical cancer screening procedures. We proposed a new general HPV DNA real-time PCR on the Mx4000 (Stratagene) and LightCycler (Roche Diagnostics) systems usable for both cervical scrape specimens and urine samples. A linear range was obtained from 5 DNA copies to 8 log10 DNA copies/ml, and intra- and interassay variations were between 1.8 and 4%. Cervical carcinoma and HPV DNA screening was performed in 333 individual women referred for gynecological examination at the university hospitals of Angers and Brest and enrolled in the PapU study. Among cervical specimens (n = 333), 45% were positive for HPV DNA, with a mean viral load at 5.00 log/ml (± 1.73). Among urine samples (n = 177), 37% were positive with a significant 50-fold-lower mean viral load (3.77 ± 1.32 log/ml; P < 0.0001). Kappa agreement for HPV DNA between cervical and urine specimens was excellent (93%). Thus, we developed a highly sensitive and quantitative general HPV DNA real-time PCR method that allows mass screening of patients with HPV infection. The ongoing longitudinal and prospective multicenter PapU study should give us the opportunity to validate this method adapted to HPV DNA screening in urine samples in a larger population. PMID:17229868

  7. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  8. Wireless quantified reflex device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoyne, Robert Charles

    The deep tendon reflex is a fundamental aspect of a neurological examination. The two major parameters of the tendon reflex are response and latency, which are presently evaluated qualitatively during a neurological examination. The reflex loop is capable of providing insight for the status and therapy response of both upper and lower motor neuron syndromes. Attempts have been made to ascertain reflex response and latency, however these systems are relatively complex, resource intensive, with issues of consistent and reliable accuracy. The solution presented is a wireless quantified reflex device using tandem three dimensional wireless accelerometers to obtain response based on acceleration waveform amplitude and latency derived from temporal acceleration waveform disparity. Three specific aims have been established for the proposed wireless quantified reflex device: 1. Demonstrate the wireless quantified reflex device is reliably capable of ascertaining quantified reflex response and latency using a quantified input. 2. Evaluate the precision of the device using an artificial reflex system. 3.Conduct a longitudinal study respective of subjects with healthy patellar tendon reflexes, using the wireless quantified reflex evaluation device to obtain quantified reflex response and latency. Aim 1 has led to the steady evolution of the wireless quantified reflex device from a singular two dimensional wireless accelerometer capable of measuring reflex response to a tandem three dimensional wireless accelerometer capable of reliably measuring reflex response and latency. The hypothesis for aim 1 is that a reflex quantification device can be established for reliably measuring reflex response and latency for the patellar tendon reflex, comprised of an integrated system of wireless three dimensional MEMS accelerometers. Aim 2 further emphasized the reliability of the wireless quantified reflex device by evaluating an artificial reflex system. The hypothesis for aim 2 is that

  9. Automobile maneuvering device

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciardi, R.

    1987-08-18

    An automobile maneuvering device is described which consists of: a chassis comprising transport wheels for permitting movement of the device along the ground, a drive wheel operably rotatably connected to the chassis, and means for rotating the drive wheel, clamp means operably connected to the chassis and spaced from and opposed to the drive wheel, the chassis including means to move the clamp means to engage one portion of an automobile tire with the drive wheel engaged at another portion of the automobile tire, and means to actuate the rotating means, so that with rotation of the drive wheel the automobile tire is rotated and the automobile and device moved along the ground.

  10. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Danny A.; Tomich, Stanley D.; Glover, Donald W.; Allen, Errol V.; Hales, Jeremy M.; Dana, Marshall T.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

  11. Contamination sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Felix A. (Inventor); Stern, Susan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A contamination sample collection device has a wooden dowel with a cotton swab at one end, the cotton being covered by a nylon cloth and the wooden dowel being encapsulated by plastic tubing which is heat shrunk onto the dowel and onto a portion of the cotton swab to secure the cotton in place. Another plastic tube is heat shrunk onto the plastic that encapsulates the dowel and a portion of the nylon cloth to secure the nylon cloth in place. The device may thereafter be covered with aluminum foil protector. The device may be used for obtaining samples of contamination in clean room environments.

  12. Corneal seal device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A corneal seal device is provided which, when placed in an incision in the eye, permits the insertion of a surgical tool or instrument through the device into the eye. The device includes a seal chamber which opens into a tube which is adapted to be sutured to the eye and serves as an entry passage for a tool. A sealable aperture in the chamber permits passage of the tool through the chamber into the tube and hence into the eye. The chamber includes inlet ports adapted to be connected to a regulated source of irrigation fluid which provides a safe intraocular pressure.

  13. SLUG HANDLING DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, J.R.

    1958-09-16

    A device is described for handling fuel elements of a neutronic reactor. The device consists of two concentric telescoped contalners that may fit about the fuel element. A number of ratchet members, equally spaced about the entrance to the containers, are pivoted on the inner container and spring biased to the outer container so thnt they are forced to hear against and hold the fuel element, the weight of which tends to force the ratchets tighter against the fuel element. The ratchets are released from their hold by raising the inner container relative to the outer memeber. This device reduces the radiation hazard to the personnel handling the fuel elements.

  14. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  15. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  16. Thermoelectric materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Talcott, Noel A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    New thermoelectric materials comprise highly [111]-oriented twinned group IV alloys on the basal plane of trigonal substrates, which exhibit a high thermoelectric figure of merit and good material performance, and devices made with these materials.

  17. Adhesion testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.

  18. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to use pain associated with using the product testing speed overall size ability to store test results ... Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  19. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  20. Devices for hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... sounds, such as the doorbell or a ringing phone. They can also alert you to things happening ... telephone. Devices called amplifiers make sound louder. Some phones have amplifiers built-in. You can also attach ...

  1. Water-walking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David L.; Prakash, Manu; Chan, Brian; Bush, John W. M.

    2007-11-01

    We report recent efforts in the design and construction of water-walking machines inspired by insects and spiders. The fundamental physical constraints on the size, proportion and dynamics of natural water-walkers are enumerated and used as design criteria for analogous mechanical devices. We report devices capable of rowing along the surface, leaping off the surface and climbing menisci by deforming the free surface. The most critical design constraint is that the devices be lightweight and non-wetting. Microscale manufacturing techniques and new man-made materials such as hydrophobic coatings and thermally actuated wires are implemented. Using high-speed cinematography and flow visualization, we compare the functionality and dynamics of our devices with those of their natural counterparts.

  2. Development of electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Pawlicka, A

    2009-01-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECD) are systems of considerable commercial interest due to their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, these devices are mainly applied to glare attenuation in automobile rearview mirrors and also in some smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings. Other possible applications of ECDs include solar cells, small- and large-area flat panel displays, and frozen food monitoring and document authentication also are of great interest. Over the past 20 years almost 1000 patents and 1500 papers in journals and proceedings have been published with the key words "electrochromic windows". Most of these documents report on materials for electrochromic devices and only some of them about complete electrochromic devices. This paper describes the first patents and some of the recent ones on ECDs, whose development is possible due to the advances in nanotechnology.

  3. External incontinence devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... devices have a drainable pouch attached to an adhesive wafer. This wafer has a hole cut through ... medicines and disposable garments such as Depends. The systems for men most often consist of a pouch ...

  4. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  5. Microreactor Array Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Labaer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented.

  6. Head Impact Measurement Devices.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richelle M; Dowling, Margaret; O'Connor, Kathryn L

    Concussive injuries are at the forefront of sports medicine research. Recently, researchers have used a variety of head- and helmet-based impact-monitoring devices to quantify impacts sustained during contact sport participation. This review provides an up-to-date collection of head accelerometer use at the youth, high school, and collegiate levels. PubMed was searched for articles published between 1980 and 2015 using the terms accelerometer and concussion, impact sensor and concussion, head impact telemetry system, head impact telemetry, and linear acceleration and concussion. An additional Google search was performed to capture devices without publications. Clinical review. Level 4. Twenty-four products track and/or record head impact for clinical or research use. Ten of these head impact devices have publications supporting their utility. Head impact measuring devices can describe athlete exposure in terms of magnitude and/or frequency, highlighting their utility within a multimodal approach for concussion assessment and diagnosis.

  7. Devices for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Devices for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 In a medical emergency, ... This content was last reviewed September 2016. Printable Arrhythmia Information Sheets What is Arrhythmia? What is Atrial ...

  8. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  9. Optical devices: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technological developments in the field of optics devices which have potential utility outside the aerospace community are described. Optical instrumentation, light generation and transmission, and laser techniques are among the topics covered. Patent information is given.

  10. Ferroelectric Light Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A light control device is formed by ferroelectric material and N electrodes positioned adjacent thereto to define an N-sided regular polygonal region or circular region there between where N is a multiple of four.

  11. Microreactor Array Device

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented. PMID:25736721

  12. Dielectrophoretically tunable optofluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Su; Ren, Hongwen; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-12-01

    Tunable optofluidic devices exhibit some unique characteristics that are not achievable in conventional solid-state photonic devices. They provide exciting opportunities for emerging applications in imaging, information processing, sensing, optical communication, lab-on-a-chip and biomedical engineering. A dielectrophoresis effect is an important physical mechanism to realize tunable optofluidic devices. Via balancing the voltage-induced dielectric force and interfacial tension, the liquid interface can be dynamically manipulated and the optical output reconfigured or adaptively tuned in real time. Dielectrophoretically tunable optofluidic devices offer several attractive features, such as rapid prototyping, miniaturization, easy integration and low power consumption. In this review paper, we first explain the underlying operation principles and then review some recent progress in this field, covering the topics of adaptive lens, beam steering, iris, grating, optical switch/attenuator and single pixel display. Finally, the future perspectives are discussed.

  13. Intrauterine device (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... uses copper as the active contraceptive, others use progesterone in a plastic device. IUDs are very effective ... less than 2% chance per year for the progesterone IUD, less than 1% chance per year for ...

  14. Authenticated sensor interface device

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Poland, Richard W.

    2016-10-18

    A system and method for the secure storage and transmission of data is provided. A data aggregate device can be configured to receive secure data from a data source, such as a sensor, and encrypt the secure data using a suitable encryption technique, such as a shared private key technique, a public key encryption technique, a Diffie-Hellman key exchange technique, or other suitable encryption technique. The encrypted secure data can be provided from the data aggregate device to different remote devices over a plurality of segregated or isolated data paths. Each of the isolated data paths can include an optoisolator that is configured to provide one-way transmission of the encrypted secure data from the data aggregate device over the isolated data path. External data can be received through a secure data filter which, by validating the external data, allows for key exchange and other various adjustments from an external source.

  15. Water-walking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David L.; Prakash, Manu; Chan, Brian; Bush, John W. M.

    We report recent efforts in the design and construction of water-walking machines inspired by insects and spiders. The fundamental physical constraints on the size, proportion and dynamics of natural water-walkers are enumerated and used as design criteria for analogous mechanical devices. We report devices capable of rowing along the surface, leaping off the surface and climbing menisci by deforming the free surface. The most critical design constraint is that the devices be lightweight and non-wetting. Microscale manufacturing techniques and new man-made materials such as hydrophobic coatings and thermally actuated wires are implemented. Using highspeed cinematography and flow visualization, we compare the functionality and dynamics of our devices with those of their natural counterparts.

  16. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  17. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  18. Implantable Medical Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... Attack Introduction Medications Surgical Procedures Implantable Medical Devices • Life After a Heart Attack • Heart Attack Tools & Resources • Support ...

  19. Single molecule electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunwook; Reed, Mark A; Lee, Takhee

    2011-04-12

    Single molecule electronic devices in which individual molecules are utilized as active electronic components constitute a promising approach for the ultimate miniaturization and integration of electronic devices in nanotechnology through the bottom-up strategy. Thus, the ability to understand, control, and exploit charge transport at the level of single molecules has become a long-standing desire of scientists and engineers from different disciplines for various potential device applications. Indeed, a study on charge transport through single molecules attached to metallic electrodes is a very challenging task, but rapid advances have been made in recent years. This review article focuses on experimental aspects of electronic devices made with single molecules, with a primary focus on the characterization and manipulation of charge transport in this regime. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Gelatin in electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. M.; Barbosa, P. C.; Rodrigues, L. C.; Gonçalves, A.; Costa, C.; Fortunato, E.

    2010-04-01

    A gelatin-based electrolyte has been developed and characterized by impedance spectroscopy and thermal analysis. These electrolytes are promising materials to be applied in electrochromic devices because gelatine is a material available in nature, it is cheap, easy to handle and to prepare. In this study the characterization of a solid-state electrochromic device based on gelatin is reported and results obtained suggest that this electrolyte is very attractive for electrochemical device applications. Gelatin-based electrolytes were successfully used in the assembly of prototype electrochromic devices (ECDs) and exhibited good optical density. The ECD display incorporating gelatine I and gelatine II samples presented in the visible region an average transmittance above 68% in the bleached state. After coloration the structure assembled with gelatine I composition presented an average transmittance in the visible wavelength region above 21% and 36% for gelatin II.