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Sample records for myalgic human trapezius

  1. High Levels of N-Palmitoylethanolamide and N-Stearoylethanolamide in Microdialysate Samples from Myalgic Trapezius Muscle in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri, Nazdar; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Britt; Turkina, Maria V.; Karlsson, Linn; Fowler, Christopher J.; Gerdle, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Background N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous compounds that regulate inflammation and pain. These include the cannabinoid ligand anandamide (AEA) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α ligand palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). Little is known as to the levels of NAEs in pain states in human, particularly in the skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of these lipid mediators in muscle dialysate from women with chronic neck-/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls. Methods Eleven women with chronic neck-/shoulder pain and eleven healthy women participated in this study. All participants went through microdialysis procedures in the trapezius muscle. Muscle dialysate samples were collected during four hours and analysed by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). Results We were able to detect AEA, PEA, N-stearoylethanolamine (SEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in a single chromatographic run. Of the NAEs studied, PEA and SEA were clearly detectable in the muscle microdialysate samples. The muscle dialysate levels of PEA and SEA were significantly higher in myalgic subjects compared to healthy controls. Conclusion This study demonstrates that microdialysis in combination with mass spectrometry can be used for analysing NAE's in human muscle tissue regularly over time. Furthermore the significant group differences in the concentration of PEA and SEA in this study might fill an important gap in our knowledge of mechanisms in chronic myalgia in humans. In the long run this expanded understanding of nociceptive and anitinociceptive processes in the muscle may provide a base for ameliorating treatment and rehabilitation of pain. PMID:22125609

  2. Epitopes of Microbial and Human Heat Shock Protein 60 and Their Recognition in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Elfaitouri, Amal; Herrmann, Björn; Bölin-Wiener, Agnes; Wang, Yilin; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Zachrisson, Olof; Pipkorn, Rϋdiger; Rönnblom, Lars; Blomberg, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), a common disease with chronic fatigability, cognitive dysfunction and myalgia of unknown etiology, often starts with an infection. The chaperonin human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) occurs in mitochondria and in bacteria, is highly conserved, antigenic and a major autoantigen. The anti-HSP60 humoral (IgG and IgM) immune response was studied in 69 ME patients and 76 blood donors (BD) (the Training set) with recombinant human and E coli HSP60, and 136 30-mer overlapping and targeted peptides from HSP60 of humans, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and 26 other species in a multiplex suspension array. Peptides from HSP60 helix I had a chaperonin-like activity, but these and other HSP60 peptides also bound IgG and IgM with an ME preference, theoretically indicating a competition between HSP60 function and antibody binding. A HSP60-based panel of 25 antigens was selected. When evaluated with 61 other ME and 399 non-ME samples (331 BD, 20 Multiple Sclerosis and 48 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients), a peptide from Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60 detected IgM in 15 of 61 (24%) of ME, and in 1 of 399 non-ME at a high cutoff (p<0.0001). IgM to specific cross-reactive epitopes of human and microbial HSP60 occurs in a subset of ME, compatible with infection-induced autoimmunity. PMID:24312270

  3. Multivariate Modeling of Proteins Related to Trapezius Myalgia, a Comparative Study of Female Cleaners with or without Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hadrevi, Jenny; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Hellström, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic trapezius myalgia is high in women with high exposure to awkward working positions, repetitive movements and movements with high precision demands. The mechanisms behind chronic trapezius myalgia are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in protein content between healthy and myalgic trapezius muscle using proteomics. Muscle biopsies from 12 female cleaners with work-related trapezius myalgia and 12 pain free female cleaners were obtained from the descending part of the trapezius. Proteins were separated with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and selected proteins were identified with mass spectrometry. In order to discriminate the two groups, quantified proteins were fitted to a multivariate analysis: partial least square discriminate analysis. The model separated 28 unique proteins which were related to glycolysis, the tricaboxylic acid cycle, to the contractile apparatus, the cytoskeleton and to acute response proteins. The results suggest altered metabolism, a higher abundance of proteins related to inflammation in myalgic cleaners compared to healthy, and a possible alteration of the contractile apparatus. This explorative proteomic screening of proteins related to chronic pain in the trapezius muscle provides new important aspects of the pathophysiology behind chronic trapezius myalgia. PMID:24023854

  4. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Duodenum of Individuals Diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Are Uniquely Immunoreactive to Antibodies to Human Endogenous Retroviral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    De Meirleir, Kenny L.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Frémont, Marc; Hulstaert, Jan; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Palotás, András; Lombardi, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a debilitating illness of unknown etiology characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, inflammation, immune abnormalities and gastrointestinal distress. An increasing body of evidence suggests that disruptions in the gut may contribute to the induction of neuroinflammation. Therefore, reports of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) expression in association with neuroinflammatory diseases prompted us to investigate the gut of individuals with ME for the presence of HERV proteins. In eight out of 12 individuals with ME, immunoreactivity to HERV proteins was observed in duodenal biopsies. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was detected in any of the eight controls. Immunoreactivity to HERV Gag and Env proteins was uniquely co-localized in hematopoietic cells expressing the C-type lectin receptor CLEC4C (CD303/BDCA2), the co-stimulatory marker CD86 and the class II major histocompatibility complex HLA-DR, consistent with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Although the significance of HERVs present in the pDCs of individuals with ME has yet to be determined, these data raise the possibility of an involvment of pDCs and HERVs in ME pathology. To our knowledge, this report describes the first direct association between pDCs and HERVs in human disease. PMID:23422476

  5. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Symptoms and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Jasona, Leonard A.; Zinn, Marcie L.; Zinn, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) continues to cause significant morbidity worldwide with an estimated one million cases in the United States. Hurdles to establishing consensus to achieve accurate evaluation of patients with ME continue, fueled by poor agreement about case definitions, slow progress in development of standardized diagnostic approaches, and issues surrounding research priorities. Because there are other medical problems, such as early MS and Parkinson’s Disease, which have some similar clinical presentations, it is critical to accurately diagnose ME to make a differential diagnosis. In this article, we explore and summarize advances in the physiological and neurological approaches to understanding, diagnosing, and treating ME. We identify key areas and approaches to elucidate the core and secondary symptom clusters in ME so as to provide some practical suggestions in evaluation of ME for clinicians and researchers. This review, therefore, represents a synthesis of key discussions in the literature, and has important implications for a better understanding of ME, its biological markers, and diagnostic criteria. There is a clear need for more longitudinal studies in this area with larger data sets, which correct for multiple testing. PMID:26411464

  6. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M; van de Sande, M I; De Meirleir, K L; Klimas, N G; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, D S; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A R; Marshall-Gradisbik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, J A; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, M L; Stevens, S

    2011-01-01

    , Japan; A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia; Department of Biochemistry & Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR; Department of Sports Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA USA). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria (Review). J Intern Med 2011; 270: 327–338. The label ‘chronic fatigue syndrome’ (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term ‘myalgic encephalomyelitis’ (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400 years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50 000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the

  7. Pediatric Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Barker, Kristen; Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Research on pediatric Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is reviewed in this article. Many recent articles in this area highlight the existence of key differences between the adult and pediatric forms of the illness. This review article provides an overview of pediatric ME/CFS, including epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, treatment, and prognosis. Challenges to the field are identified with the hope that in the future pediatric cases of ME/CFS can be more accurately diagnosed and successfully managed. PMID:24340168

  8. Myalgic encephalomyelitis--a persistent enteroviral infection?

    PubMed Central

    Dowsett, E. G.; Ramsay, A. M.; McCartney, R. A.; Bell, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis is a common disability but frequently misinterpreted. Amongst 6,000 patients referred for general microbiological diagnosis between 1975 and 1987, 420 cases were recognized. Coxsackie B neutralization tests, in 205 of these, demonstrated significant titres in 103/205 (50%), while of 124 additionally investigated for enteroviral IgM, 38/124 (31%) were positive. This illness is distinguished from a variety of other post-viral states by an unique clinical and epidemiological pattern characteristic of enteroviral infection. Prompt recognition and advice to avoid over-exertion is mandatory. Routine diagnosis, specific therapy and prevention, await further technical advances. PMID:2170962

  9. Vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G

    2005-01-01

    From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.

  10. An Etiological Model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Sorenson, Matthew; Porter, Nicole; Belkairous, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Kindling might represent a heuristic model for understanding the etiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Kindling occurs when an organism is exposed repeatedly to an initially sub-threshold stimulus resulting in hypersensitivity and spontaneous seizure-like activity. Among patients with ME/CFS, chronically repeated low-intensity stimulation due to an infectious illness might cause kindling of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Kindling might also occur by high-intensity stimulation (e.g., brain trauma) of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Once this system is charged or kindled, it can sustain a high level of arousal with little or no external stimulus and eventually this could lead to hypocortisolism. Seizure activity may spread to adjacent structures of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the brain, which might be responsible for the varied symptoms that occur among patients with ME/CFS. In addition, kindling may also be responsible for high levels of oxidative stress, which has been found in patients with ME/CFS. PMID:21892413

  11. Identification of Proteins from Interstitium of Trapezius Muscle in Women with Chronic Myalgia Using Microdialysis in Combination with Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Olausson, Patrik; Gerdle, Björn; Ghafouri, Nazdar; Larsson, Britt; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2012-01-01

    Background Microdialysis (MD) of the trapezius muscle has been an attractive technique to investigating small molecules and metabolites in chronic musculoskeletal pain in human. Large biomolecules such as proteins also cross the dialysis membrane of the catheters. In this study we have applied in vivo MD in combination with two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the extracellular fluid of the trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods Dialysate from women with chronic trapezius myalgia (TM; n = 37), women with chronic wide spread pain (CWP; n = 18) and healthy controls (CON; n = 22) was collected from the trapezius muscle using a catheter with a cut-off point of 100 kDa. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Detected proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. Results Ninety-seven protein spots were identified from the interstitial fluid of the trapezius muscle; 48 proteins in TM and 30 proteins in CWP had concentrations at least two-fold higher or lower than in CON. The identified proteins pertain to several functional classes, e.g., proteins involved in inflammatory responses. Several of the identified proteins are known to be involved in processes of pain such as: creatine kinase, nerve growth factor, carbonic anhydrase, myoglobin, fatty acid binding protein and actin aortic smooth muscle. Conclusions In this study, by using in vivo microdialysis in combination with proteomics a large number of proteins in muscle interstitium have been identified. Several of the identified proteins were at least two-fold higher or lower in chronic pain patients. The applied techniques open up for the possibility of investigating protein changes associated with nociceptive processes of chronic myalgia. PMID:23300707

  12. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  13. Impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity of the trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Luijcks, Rosan; Vossen, Catherine J.; Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Hermens, Hermie J.; Lousberg, Richel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0–11 years) and adolescence (12–17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting. In a general population sample (n = 115), an anticipatory stress effect was generated by presenting a single unpredictable and uncontrollable electrical painful stimulus at t = 3 minutes. Subjects were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. Linear and nonlinear time courses in EMG activity were modeled using multilevel analysis. The study protocol included 2 experimental sessions (t = 0 and t = 6 months) allowing for examination of reliability. Results show that EMG stress reactivity during the stress paradigm was consistently stronger in people with higher levels of early life adverse events; early childhood adversity had a stronger moderating effect than adolescent adversity. The impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity may represent a reliable facet that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical studies. PMID:27684800

  14. Effect of trapezius muscle strength on three-dimensional scapular kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Elif; Duzgun, Irem; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of trapezius muscle isometric strength on three-dimensional scapular kinematics in asymptomatic shoulders. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty asymptomatic subjects were included to the study. Isometric strengths of the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscle were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Three-dimensional scapular kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic tracking device during frontal and sagittal plane elevation. For each muscle, the cut-off value for muscle strength was determined with the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval, and Student’s t-test was used to compare the scapular kinematics between subjects with relatively weaker or stronger trapezius muscles. [Results] Shoulders with stronger upper trapezius muscles showed greater upward scapular rotation at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of elevation in the frontal plane. Shoulders with stronger middle trapezius had greater scapular upward rotation at 90° of elevation in the frontal plane. Shoulders with stronger lower trapezius showed greater scapular posterior tilt at 90° of elevation in the sagittal plane. [Conclusion] This study’s findings showed that isometric strength of the trapezius muscle affects upward scapular rotation and posterior tilt in asymptomatic shoulders. Therefore, trapezius muscle strength should be assessed and potential weakness should be addressed in shoulder rehabilitation programs. PMID:27390435

  15. EMG analysis of trapezius and masticatory muscles: experimental protocol and data reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Sforza, C; Rosati, R; De Menezes, M; Musto, F; Toma, M

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to define a standardised protocol for the electromyographic evaluation of trapezius muscle in dentistry and to assess its within- and between-session repeatability. Surface electromyography of trapezius, masseter and temporal muscles was performed in 40 healthy subjects aged 20-35 years during shoulder elevation, and maximum teeth clenching with and without cotton rolls. Two repetitions were made both within (same electrodes) and between sessions (different electrodes). Maximum voluntary clench on cotton rolls was used to standardise the potentials of the six analysed muscles with tooth contact; shoulder elevation was used to standardise the upper trapezius potentials. From the standardised electromyographic potentials, several indices (muscle symmetry; masticatory muscle torque and relative activity; total masticatory muscle activity; trapezius cervical load, percentage co-contraction of trapezius during teeth clenching) were computed; random (technical error of measurement) and systematic (Student's t-test, Analysis of Variance) errors were assessed. For all indices, no systematic errors were found between the two separate data collection sessions. Within session, limited (lower than 8%) technical errors of measurement were found for temporalis and masseter symmetry, torque and activity indices, and the trapezius cervical load. Larger random errors were obtained for trapezius symmetry and total masticatory muscle activity (up to 20%). Between sessions, no significant differences were found for trapezius co-contraction. In conclusion, a protocol for the standardisation of trapezius muscle that may be used within dental clinical applications was defined, and the repeatability of masseter, temporalis and trapezius electromyographic recordings for serial assessments was assessed in healthy subjects.

  16. The Trapezius Muscle Flap: A Viable Alternative for Posterior Scalp and Neck Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Jun; Kim, Yang Woo; Lee, Sang Gu

    2016-01-01

    Background The trapezius muscle flap is not usually the first reconstructive option for skin and soft tissue defects in the posterior neck and scalp due to surgeons' unfamiliarity with the surgical anatomy and developments in free tissue transfer techniques. The goals of this study were to describe the clinical use of trapezius flaps in posterior neck and scalp reconstruction, and to investigate the vascular anatomy of trapezius flaps in Asians in order to obtain information facilitating the safe design and elevation of flaps in which most of the muscle is preserved. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of 10 patients who underwent trapezius muscle flap for posterior neck and scalp defects. We also performed an anatomical study of 16 flaps harvested from 8 preserved Asian adult cadavers and evaluated the main landmarks relevant for trapezius muscle flap. Results In the anatomical study, the mean vertical height from the inferior angle of the scapula to the point at which the superficial cervical artery penetrated the trapezius was 4.31±2.14 cm. The mean vertical height of the trapezius muscle flap pivot point was 9.53±2.08 cm from the external occipital protuberance. Among the 10 flaps, partial necrosis on the overlaid skin graft occurred in 1 patient and postoperative seroma occurred in another patient. Conclusions Vascular variations in the trapezius muscle flap are uncommon in Asians, but when present, such variations appear to have little impact on harvesting the flap or on its circulation. The trapezius muscle flap is a viable alternative for posterior neck and scalp reconstruction. PMID:27896183

  17. Comparing trapezius muscle activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ishida, Tomoya; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Motoki; Ezawa, Yuya; Sugawara, Makoto; Tohyama, Harukazu; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles’ activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation. [Subjects] Twenty male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity for each of the three regions of the trapezius muscles in the three different planes of elevation were collected while the participants maintained 30, 60, and 90 degrees of elevation in each plane. The EMG data were normalized with maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and compared among the planes at each angle of elevation. [Results] There were significantly different muscle activities among the elevation planes at each angle. [Conclusion] This study found that the three regions of the trapezius muscles changed their activity depending on the planes of shoulder elevation. These changes in the trapezius muscles could induce appropriate scapular motion to face the glenoid cavity in the correct directions in different planes of shoulder elevation. PMID:26157248

  18. Dorsoscapularis triangularis: embryological and phylogenetic characterization of a rare variation of trapezius

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Anita; Raheja, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    The muscle trapezius shows considerable morphological diversity. Variations include an anomalous origin and complete or partial absence of the muscle. The present study reported, a hitherto undocumented complete bilateral absence of the cervical part of trapezius. Based on its peculiar origin and insertion, it was named dorsoscapularis triangularis. The embryological, phylogenetic and molecular basis of the anomaly was elucidated. Failure of cranial migration of the trapezius component of the branchial musculature anlage to gain attachment on the occipital bone, cervical spinous processes, ligamentum nuchae between 11 mm and 16 mm stage of the embryo, resulted in this anomaly. A surgeon operating on the head and neck region or a radiologist analyzing a magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical region would find the knowledge of this morphological variation of trapezius useful in making clinical decisions. PMID:27722016

  19. Phylogeny-Directed Search for Murine Leukemia Virus-Like Retroviruses in Vertebrate Genomes and in Patients Suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, Jonas; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Elfaitouri, Amal; Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjösten, Anna; Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Källander, Clas; Öhrmalm, Christina; Sperber, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect “stealth” infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered. PMID:22315600

  20. Changes in microcirculation of the trapezius muscle during a prolonged computer task.

    PubMed

    Cagnie, B; Dhooge, F; Van Akeleyen, J; Cools, A; Cambier, D; Danneels, L

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if there is a change in oxygen saturation and blood flow in the different parts of the trapezius muscle in office workers with and without trapezius myalgia during a standardized computer task. Twenty right-handed office workers participated; ten were recruited based on pain in the trapezius and ten as matching controls. Subjects performed a combination of typing and mousing tasks for 60 min at a standardized workstation. Muscle tissue oxygenation and blood flow data were collected from the upper trapezius (UT), the middle trapezius (MT) and the lower trapezius (LT), both on the left and right side at seven moments (at baseline and every tenth minute during the 1-h typing task) by use of the oxygen to see device. In all three parts of the trapezius muscle, the oxygen saturation and blood flow decreased significantly over time in a similar pattern (p < 0.001). Oxygenation of the left and right UT was significantly higher compared to the other muscle parts (p < 0.001). Oxygen saturation for the MT was significantly lower in the cases compared to the control group (p = 0.027). Blood flow of the UT on the right side was significantly lower than the blood flow on the left side (p = 0.026). The main finding of this study was that 1 h of combined workstation tasks resulted in decreased oxygen saturation and blood flow in all three parts of the trapezius muscle. Future research should focus on the influence of intervention strategies on these parameters.

  1. Energy Conservation/Envelope Theory Interventions to Help Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Brown, Molly; Brown, Abigail; Evans, Meredyth; Flores, Samantha; Grant-Holler, Elisa; Sunnquist, Madison

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Treatment approaches for patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) have been controversial. This paper provides the theoretical and conceptual background for the Energy Envelope Theory to assist patients with ME/CFS and reviews evidence of its treatment efficacy. Methods Over a 15-year period, efforts were directed to develop a non-pharmacologic intervention that endeavored to help patients with ME/CFS self-monitor and self-regulate energy expenditures and learn to pace activities and stay within their energy envelope. Conclusions Studies show that the energy envelope approach, which involves rehabilitation methods, helps patients with ME/CFS pace activities and manage symptoms and can significantly improve their quality of life. PMID:23504301

  2. Kindling and Oxidative Stress as Contributors to Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jason, L. A.; Porter, N.; Herrington, J.; Sorenson, M.; Kubow, S.

    2010-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is one of the more complex illnesses involving multiple systems within the body. Onset of ME/CFS frequently occurs quickly, and many patients report a prior exposure to a viral infection. This debilitating illness can affect the immune, neuroendocrine, autonomic, and neurologic systems. Abnormal biological findings among some patients have included aberrant ion transport and ion channel activity, cortisol deficiency, sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, EEG spike waves, left ventricular dysfunction in the heart, low natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and a shift from Th1 to Th2 cytokines. We propose that the kindling and oxidative stress theories provide a heuristic template for better understanding the at times conflicting findings regarding the etiology and pathophysiology of this illness. PMID:21253446

  3. "United We Stand": Framing Myalgic Encephalomyelitis in a Virtual Symbolic Community.

    PubMed

    Lian, Olaug S; Nettleton, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we report on a study that seeks to explore how the contested chronic condition myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), one of the current medical diagnoses for medically unexplained long-term exhaustion, is negotiated within the context of Norwegian internet sites. From an analysis of discussions on 14 internet forums sustained by and for people living with ME, we seek to understand how their online activity sustains a virtual symbolic community (VSC). After exploring the content on these sites, we identified four discursive domains, or fields of conversation, that are demarcated by a discursive frame, or norms, values, and goals that define and reinforce the boundaries of the community. Interpreting discursive domains and their discursive frame provides insight not only to the culture of the ME VSC but also to its role in an international social health movement, including its potential for becoming politically influential.

  4. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  5. Effect of backpack shoulder straps length on cervical posture and upper trapezius pressure pain threshold

    PubMed Central

    Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Hamada, Hamada Ahmed; Selim, Ali; Shendy, Wael; Zakaria, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effect of the length of backpack shoulder straps on upper trapezius muscle pain threshold and craniovertebral angle. [Subjects and Methods] There were 25 participants, with ages from 15 to 23 years old. Upper trapezius pain threshold and craniovertebral angle were measured for all subjects without the backpack then re-measured after walking on a treadmill for 15 min under 2 conditions: 1) wearing a backpack with short straps; and 2) wearing a backpack with long straps. [Results] there was a significant reduction in upper trapezius pain threshold and craniovertebral angle while carrying a backpack with long shoulder straps, compared to use of a backpack with short shoulder straps or no backpack. [Conclusion] A backpack with short straps is less harmful than a backpack with long straps. This result should be considered in ergonomic design of backpacks to reduce the incidence of various physiological and biomechanical disorders. PMID:27799665

  6. [The modifed Eden-Lange procedure for paralysis of the trapezius muscle].

    PubMed

    Ozalp, Taçkin; Yercan, Hüseyin; Okçu, Güvenir; Erkan, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    Trapezius muscle paralysis results from injury to the spinal accessory nerve. Impairment in the trapezius muscle function may destabilize the muscle resulting in winged scapula. A 25-year-old university student who was active in sports had complaints of shoulder drop and pain on abduction. He had a three-year history of fall resulting in a scapular fracture for which he received conservative treatment. Physical examination showed asymmetry and drop of the right shoulder. Lateral scapular winging was apparent particularly above 90 degrees of abduction. Electromyography revealed isolated paralysis of the trapezius muscle. The patient underwent reconstruction with the modified Eden-Lange procedure. After a two-year follow-up, asymmetry in the shoulder decreased, there was no pain on active abduction, and the patient returned to active sports and was fully satisfied with the outcome.

  7. Different patterns of blood flow response in the trapezius muscle following needle stimulation (acupuncture) between healthy subjects and patients with fibromyalgia and work-related trapezius myalgia.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Margareta; Larsson, Britt; Lindberg, Lars-Göran; Gerdle, Björn

    2005-10-01

    Needle stimulation (acupuncture) has recently been shown to increase blood flow in the tibialis anterior muscle and overlying skin in healthy subjects (HS) and patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of needle stimulation on local blood flow in the trapezius muscle and overlying skin in HS and two groups of patients suffering from chronic pain in the trapezius muscle, i.e., FM and work-related trapezius myalgia (TM) patients. Two modes of needling, deep muscle stimulation (Deep) and subcutaneous needle insertion (SC), were performed at the upper part of the shoulder and blood flow was monitored for 60 min post-stimulation. Blood flow changes were measured non-invasively by using a new application of photoplethysmography. Increased blood flow in the trapezius muscle and overlying skin was found in all three groups following both Deep and SC. In HS, Deep was superior to SC in increasing skin and muscle blood flow, whereas in FM, SC was as effective as, or even more effective, than Deep. In the severely affected TM patients, no differences were found between the stimuli, and generally, a lesser blood flow response to the stimuli was found. At Deep, the muscle blood flow increase was significantly larger in HS, compared to the two patient groups. Positive correlations were found between muscle blood flow at Deep and pressure pain threshold in the trapezius muscle, neck movement and pain experienced at the stimulation, and negative correlations were found with spontaneous pain-related variables, symptom duration and age, pointing to less favorable results with worsening of symptoms, and to the importance of nociceptor activation in blood flow increase. It was hypothesized that the different patterns of muscle blood flow response to the needling may mirror a state of increased sympathetic activity and a generalized hypersensitivity in the patients. The intensity of stimulation should be taken into consideration when

  8. Physiological responses to low-force work and psychosocial stress in women with chronic trapezius myalgia

    PubMed Central

    Sjörs, Anna; Larsson, Britt; Dahlman, Joakim; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Gerdle, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background Repetitive and stressful work tasks have been linked to the development of pain in the trapezius muscle, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In earlier studies, it has been hypothesized that chronic muscle pain conditions are associated with imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, predominantly expressed as an increased sympathetic activity. This study investigates whether women with chronic trapezius myalgia show higher muscle activity and increased sympathetic tone at baseline and during repetitive low-force work and psychosocial stress, compared with pain-free controls. Methods Eighteen women with chronic trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 30 healthy female controls (CON) were studied during baseline rest, 100 min of repetitive low-force work, 20 min of psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), and 80 min recovery. The subjects rated their pain intensity, stress and energy level every 20 min throughout the experiment. Muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography in the trapezius muscle (EMGtrap) and deltoid muscle (EMGdelt). Autonomic reactivity was measured through heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SCL), blood pressure (MAP) and respiration rate (Resp). Results At baseline, EMGtrap, stress ratings, and HR were higher in MYA than in CON. Energy ratings, EMGdelt, SCL, MAP and Resp were, however, similar in the two groups. Significant main group effects were found for pain intensity, stress ratings and EMGtrap. Deltoid muscle activity and autonomic responses were almost identical in MYA and CON during work, stress and recovery. In MYA only, pain intensity and stress ratings increased towards the end of the repetitive work. Conclusion We found increased muscle activity during uninstructed rest in the painful muscle of a group of women with trapezius myalgia. The present study could not confirm the hypothesis that chronic trapezius myalgia is associated with increased sympathetic activity. The suggestion of

  9. The Neuroinflammatory Etiopathology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

    PubMed Central

    Glassford, Julian A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating multi-systemic chronic illness of unknown etiology, classified as a neurological disorder by the World Health Organization (WHO). The symptomatology of the condition appears to emanate from a variety of sources of chronic neurological disturbance and associated distortions, and chronicity, in noxious sensory signaling and neuroimmune activation. This article incorporates a summary review and discussion of biomedical research considered relevant to this essential conception perspective. It is intended to provide stakeholders with a concise, integrated outline disease model in order to help demystify this major public health problem. The primary etiopathological factors presented are: (A) Postural/biomechanical pain signaling, affecting adverse neuroexcitation, in the context of compression, constriction, strain, or damage of vertebral-regional bone and neuromuscular tissues; (B) Immune mediated inflammatory sequelae, in the context of prolonged immunotropic neurotrophic infection—with lymphotropic/gliotropic/glio-toxic varieties implicated in particular; (C) A combination of factors A and B. Sustained glial activation under such conditions is associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and neural sensitivity. These processes collectively enhance the potential for multi-systemic disarray involving endocrine pathway aberration, immune and mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurodegeneration, and tend toward still more intractable synergistic neuro-glial dysfunction (gliopathy), autoimmunity, and central neuronal sensitization. PMID:28261110

  10. Case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brurberg, Kjetil Gundro; Fønhus, Marita Sporstøl; Larun, Lillebeth; Flottorp, Signe; Malterud, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), and explore how the validity of case definitions can be evaluated in the absence of a reference standard. Design Systematic review. Setting International. Participants A literature search, updated as of November 2013, led to the identification of 20 case definitions and inclusion of 38 validation studies. Primary and secondary outcome measure Validation studies were assessed for risk of bias and categorised according to three validation models: (1) independent application of several case definitions on the same population, (2) sequential application of different case definitions on patients diagnosed with CFS/ME with one set of diagnostic criteria or (3) comparison of prevalence estimates from different case definitions applied on different populations. Results A total of 38 studies contributed data of sufficient quality and consistency for evaluation of validity, with CDC-1994/Fukuda as the most frequently applied case definition. No study rigorously assessed the reproducibility or feasibility of case definitions. Validation studies were small with methodological weaknesses and inconsistent results. No empirical data indicated that any case definition specifically identified patients with a neuroimmunological condition. Conclusions Classification of patients according to severity and symptom patterns, aiming to predict prognosis or effectiveness of therapy, seems useful. Development of further case definitions of CFS/ME should be given a low priority. Consistency in research can be achieved by applying diagnostic criteria that have been subjected to systematic evaluation. PMID:24508851

  11. Metabolic profiling indicates impaired pyruvate dehydrogenase function in myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mella, Olav; Bruland, Ove; Risa, Kristin; Dyrstad, Sissel E.; Alme, Kine; Rekeland, Ingrid G.; Sapkota, Dipak; Røsland, Gro V.; Fosså, Alexander; Ktoridou-Valen, Irini; Lunde, Sigrid; Sørland, Kari; Lien, Katarina; Herder, Ingrid; Thürmer, Hanne; Gotaas, Merete E.; Baranowska, Katarzyna A.; Bohnen, Louis M.L.J.; Schäfer, Christoph; McCann, Adrian; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Helgeland, Lars; Ueland, Per M.; Dahl, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology, with hallmark symptoms including postexertional malaise and poor recovery. Metabolic dysfunction is a plausible contributing factor. We hypothesized that changes in serum amino acids may disclose specific defects in energy metabolism in ME/CFS. Analysis in 200 ME/CFS patients and 102 healthy individuals showed a specific reduction of amino acids that fuel oxidative metabolism via the TCA cycle, mainly in female ME/CFS patients. Serum 3-methylhistidine, a marker of endogenous protein catabolism, was significantly increased in male patients. The amino acid pattern suggested functional impairment of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), supported by increased mRNA expression of the inhibitory PDH kinases 1, 2, and 4; sirtuin 4; and PPARδ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both sexes. Myoblasts grown in presence of serum from patients with severe ME/CFS showed metabolic adaptations, including increased mitochondrial respiration and excessive lactate secretion. The amino acid changes could not be explained by symptom severity, disease duration, age, BMI, or physical activity level among patients. These findings are in agreement with the clinical disease presentation of ME/CFS, with inadequate ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation and excessive lactate generation upon exertion. PMID:28018972

  12. Efficacy of rintatolimod in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, William M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic fatigue syndrome/ Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a poorly understood seriously debilitating disorder in which disabling fatigue is an universal symptom in combination with a variety of variable symptoms. The only drug in advanced clinical development is rintatolimod, a mismatched double stranded polymer of RNA (dsRNA). Rintatolimod is a restricted Toll-Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist lacking activation of other primary cellular inducers of innate immunity (e.g.- cytosolic helicases). Rintatolimod also activates interferon induced proteins that require dsRNA for activity (e.g.- 2ʹ-5ʹ adenylate synthetase, protein kinase R). Rintatolimod has achieved statistically significant improvements in primary endpoints in Phase II and Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials with a generally well tolerated safety profile and supported by open-label trials in the United States and Europe. The chemistry, mechanism of action, clinical trial data, and current regulatory status of rintatolimod for CFS/ME including current evidence for etiology of the syndrome are reviewed. PMID:27045557

  13. The trapezius muscle uniquely lacks adaptive process in response to a repeated moderate cognitive stressor.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Magali; Bolmont, Benoît

    2012-01-06

    The aim of this study was to examine the adaptive process of muscular responses in healthy subjects over two repeated exposures to the same moderate cognitive stressor. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the flexor pollicis brevis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was recorded in 35 males during video-recorded Stroop color-word interference tests. The results showed lower EMG activity in all muscles during the second exposure to the stressful task, but not in the trapezius muscle. These findings could help to the understanding of the role of stressful situations in the development of musculoskeletal disorders.

  14. Ultrasonography for the assessment of the upper trapezius properties in healthy females: a reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Adigozali, Hakimeh; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Ebrahimi, Esmail; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Naderi, Farrokh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background to date, an assessment of morphometric features, muscle stiffness and blood flow in the upper trapezius among healthy females at rest and contraction states has not been conducted. So, in the current research, the intra-rater reliability of ultrasonographic features of upper trapezius in healthy females was examined. Method in this study stiffness and thickness of the upper trapezius in rest and contraction states were measured by ultrasonography on 12 healthy female subjects (28.33±5.05 years old). Color Doppler imaging was used to assess muscle circulation in the rest state only. Every step and calculation of measurements was repeated 3 times with the same rater. Therefore, in total 36 measurements were done for each variable. Results according to the analysis, the value of intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) for total variables showed an excellent level of reliability. Thickness at contraction had maximum reliability (ICC= 0.993) and Minimum Diastolic Velocity had the lowest reliability (ICC=0.771). Conclusions the results of current research demonstrated that real time ultrasonography is a reliable method for measurement of various parameters of upper trapezius, including morphometric features, its stiffness and blood supply in non-symptomatic females. These mentioned variables can likely be used for objective assessment and provide numerical reference value for clinical plans. PMID:27331047

  15. A neuro-immune model of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a neuro-immune model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A wide range of immunological and neurological abnormalities have been reported in people suffering from ME/CFS. They include abnormalities in proinflammatory cytokines, raised production of nuclear factor-κB, mitochondrial dysfunctions, autoimmune responses, autonomic disturbances and brain pathology. Raised levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), together with reduced levels of antioxidants are indicative of an immuno-inflammatory pathology. A number of different pathogens have been reported either as triggering or maintaining factors. Our model proposes that initial infection and immune activation caused by a number of possible pathogens leads to a state of chronic peripheral immune activation driven by activated O&NS pathways that lead to progressive damage of self epitopes even when the initial infection has been cleared. Subsequent activation of autoreactive T cells conspiring with O&NS pathways cause further damage and provoke chronic activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways. The subsequent upregulation of proinflammatory compounds may activate microglia via the vagus nerve. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines together with raised O&NS conspire to produce mitochondrial damage. The subsequent ATP deficit together with inflammation and O&NS are responsible for the landmark symptoms of ME/CFS, including post-exertional malaise. Raised levels of O&NS subsequently cause progressive elevation of autoimmune activity facilitated by molecular mimicry, bystander activation or epitope spreading. These processes provoke central nervous system (CNS) activation in an attempt to restore immune homeostatsis. This model proposes that the antagonistic activities of the CNS response to peripheral inflammation, O&NS and chronic immune activation are responsible for the remitting-relapsing nature of ME/CFS. Leads for future research are suggested based on this

  16. A qualitative investigation of eating difficulties in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sarah; Gilbert, Matthew; Beasant, Lucy; Linney, Catherine; Broughton, Jessica; Crawley, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background: An estimated 10% of children and adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) experience eating difficulties; however, little is known about why these difficulties develop, what the impact is or how to manage them. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (aged 12–17 years) attending a specialist service who have a primary diagnosis of CFS/ME and experience nausea, abdominal pain and/or eating difficulties. A total of 11 adolescents were interviewed (eight female, mean age: 15 years). Transcripts were analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison which commenced soon after data collection and informed further interview protocols. Results: Adolescents perceived their eating difficulties were caused by abdominal symptoms, being too fatigued to eat and changes to their senses of taste and smell. Some of the adolescents recognised how their eating difficulties were exacerbated and maintained by psychological factors of low mood and anxiety. The adolescents eating difficulties had a negative impact on their weight, fatigue, socialising and family life. They perceived helpful interventions to include modifying their diets, families adjusting and also medical interventions (e.g. medication). Adolescents identified that early education and support about diet and eating habits would have been helpful. Conclusions: If adolescents diagnosed with CFS/ME develop eating difficulties, this has a significant impact on their quality of life, illness and on their families. Not eating increases fatigue, low mood and anxiety which further exacerbates the eating difficulties. Clinicians should screen for eating difficulties in those with symptoms of nausea and abdominal pain, warn adolescents and their families of the risk of developing eating difficulties and provide interventions and support as early as possible. PMID:27215228

  17. Variability of postural orthostatic tachycardia in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kunihisa

    2016-09-01

    Central nervous system dysfunction with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) has been suggested as the main cause of chronic fatigue syndrome. Fluctuation of the symptom severity and hierarchy is a characteristic feature in ME patients. The characteristics of the sympathetic activation may differ between the "good days" and "bad days" in them. Twenty-four ME patients with orthostatic intolerance underwent a conventional 10-min active standing test and echocardiography both on a "good day" and a "bad day", defined according to the severity of their symptoms. The mean heart rate at rest was significantly higher on the "bad days" than on the "good days". During the standing test on a "bad day", 5 patients (21 %) failed to maintain an upright posture for 10 min, whereas on a "good day" all the 24 patients maintained it. Postural orthostatic tachycardia (POT) (increase in heart rate ≥30 beats/min) or severe POT (heart rate ≥120 beats/min) was observed on the "bad days" in 10 patients (43 %) who did not suffer from the severe tachycardia on the "good days", suggesting the exaggerated sympathetic nervous activation. In contrast, POT did not occur or severe POT was attenuated on the "bad days" in 5 patients (21 %) who developed POT or severe POT on the "good days", suggesting the impaired sympathetic activation. Echocardiography revealed significantly lower mean values of both the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and stroke volume index on the "bad days" compared with the "good days". In conclusion, in ME patients with orthostatic intolerance, the exaggerated activation of the sympathetic nervous system while standing appears to switch to the impaired sympathetic activation after the system is loaded with the additional accentuated stimuli associated with the preload reduction.

  18. Cytokine expression provides clues to the pathophysiology of Gulf War illness and myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F; DeMeirleir, Kenny L; Rawat, Shanti; Berk, Grady S; Gaynor-Berk, Rory S; Mijatovic, Tatjana; Blatt, Natalia; Rizvanov, Albert A; Young, Sheila G; Lombardi, Vincent C

    2015-03-01

    Gulf War illness (GWI) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by persistent symptoms such as cognitive impairment, unexplained fatigue, pervasive pain, headaches, and gastrointestinal abnormalities. Current reports suggest that as many as 200,000 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War were afflicted. Several potential triggers of GWI have been proposed including chemical exposure, toxins, vaccines, and unknown infectious agents. However, a definitive cause of GWI has not been identified and a specific biological marker that can consistently delineate the disease has not been defined. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a disease with similar and overlapping symptomology, and subjects diagnosed with GWI typically fit the diagnostic criteria for ME. For these reasons, GWI is often considered a subgroup of ME. To explore this possibility and identify immune parameters that may help to understand GWI pathophysiology, we measured 77 serum cytokines in subjects with GWI and compared these data to that of subjects with ME as well as healthy controls. Our analysis identified a group of cytokines that identified ME and GWI cases with sensitivities of 92.5% and 64.9%, respectively. The five most significant cytokines in decreasing order of importance were IL-7, IL-4, TNF-α, IL-13, and IL-17F. When delineating GWI and ME cases from healthy controls, the observed specificity was only 33.3%, suggesting that with respect to cytokine expression, GWI cases resemble control subjects to a greater extent than ME cases across a number of parameters. These results imply that serum cytokines are representative of ME pathology to a greater extent than GWI and further suggest that the two diseases have distinct immune profiles despite their overlapping symptomology.

  19. Myofascial trigger points and innervation zone locations in upper trapezius muscles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable spots located in taut bands of muscle fibres. Electrophysiological studies indicate that abnormal electrical activity is detectable near MTrPs. This phenomenon has been described as endplate noise and it has been purported to be associated MTrP pathophysiology. Thus, it is suggested that MTrPs will be overlap the innervation zone (IZ). The purpose of this work was to describe the location of MTrPs and the IZ in the right upper trapezius. Methods We screened 71 individuals and eventually enrolled 24 subjects with neck pain and active MTrPs and 24 neck pain-free subjects with latent MTrPs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were detected using an electrode matrix during isometric contraction of the upper trapezius. A physiotherapist subsequently examined the subject’s trapezius to confirm the presence of MTrPs and establish their location. IZ locations were identified by visual analysis of sEMG signals. IZ and MTrPs locations were described using an anatomical coordinate system (ACS), with the skin area covered by the matrix divided into four quadrants. Results No significant difference was observed between active and latent MTrPs locations (P = 0.6). Forty-five MTrPs were in the third quadrant of the ACS, and 3 were included in second quadrant. IZs were located approximately midway between the seventh cervical vertebrae and the acromial angle in a limited area in the second and third quadrants. The mean distance between MTrP and IZ was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm. Conclusions According to the acquired results, we conclude that IZ and MTrPs are located in well-defined areas in upper trapezius muscle. Moreover, MTrPs in upper trapezius are proximally located to the IZ but not overlapped. PMID:23758854

  20. The effects of stretching exercise for upper trapezius on the asymmetric rate of bite force.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bomjin; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Heo, Kwangjin; Hwang, Hojin; Kim, Boyoung; Han, Dongwook

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of stretching the upper trapezius muscle on the asymmetric rate of bite force. [Subjects] Forty-seven female university students who had all their original teeth, had no disorders in the temporomandibular joints, and had never worn braces; participated in this study. [Methods] An occlusometer was used to measure biting forces. Subsequently, stretching exercises of the upper trapezius were performed. The subjects were divided into 3 groups at the start of the testing: the asymmetric rate of the first group was less than 10%; the asymmetric rate of the second group was between 10% and 20%; and the asymmetric rate of the third group was more than 20%. The stretching exercises were done on the dominant side of the upper trapezius. [Results] After the stretching exercises of the upper trapezius, the results showed that for the first group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was less than 10%, there was a significant increase in asymmetric rate (from 5.1% to 10.3%). For the second group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was measured to be between 10% and 20%, the asymmetric rate decreased from 14.7% to 14.3%, but the change was not statistically significant. For the third group, whose asymmetric rate of biting force was more than 20%, there was a significant decrease in asymmetric rate (from 27.8% to 12.6%). [Conclusion] We concluded that stretching exercises of the upper trapezius muscle had a direct effect on the asymmetric rate of biting force.

  1. Comparison of upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually.

  2. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Regland, Björn; Forsmark, Sara; Halaouate, Lena; Matousek, Michael; Peilot, Birgitta; Zachrisson, Olof; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years. Methods 38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer’s rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15) and Mild (n = 23) responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects. Results Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03) and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03) for a longer time (p<0.0005), higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003) in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02), and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005) used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09). Good responders rated themselves as “very much” or “much” improved, while Mild responders rated “much” or “minimally” improved. Conclusions Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It’s important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed. PMID

  3. Trapezius upper portion trigger points treatment purpose in positional release therapy with electromyographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelencz, Carlos Alberto; Tarini, Victor Alexandre F.; Amorim, Cesar Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Background: This quantification process is made through electromyography analysis. This technique of analysis is able to provide a general view of the tension decrease in the superior muscle fibers of the trapezius after therapy. Aims: The focus of the present work is to evaluate the treatment of the cervicobrachialgia by Positional Release Therapy (PRT). Material and Methods: The present work studies six patients, with ages 44 to 63 (1 male and 5 female) who present tension in the trapezius upper portion fibers. All patients were submitted to 10 session of 30 minutes each. The electromyography was collected on the first and tenth day of treatment. Results: The results demonstrated a progressive decrease of pain in each session. The tension was evaluated by the electromyography analysis, which showed the relations between time of treatment and less pain. Conclusion: With these results, it was possible to verify quantitatively the efficiency of the PRT in the improvement of life quality. PMID:22363082

  4. The supraclavicular artery island and trapezius myocutaneous flaps in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Carlos A; Fernandes, Rui P

    2014-08-01

    The supraclavicular artery island flap can be readily used to reconstruct defects within the neck, parotid, lateral temporal region, and lower third of the face. Benefits of the supraclavicular flap include good color and texture match, an ease of harvest, and minimal donor site morbidity; there is also no significant post-operative monitoring required. The trapezius muscle serves as a source for multiple myocutaneous flaps of which most are considered to be salvage flaps among head and neck reconstructive surgeons.

  5. Referred pain from trapezius muscle trigger points shares similar characteristics with chronic tension type headache.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the upper trapezius muscle was investigated in 20 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and 20 age- and gender-matched controls. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to confirm the diagnosis and record the pain history. Both upper trapezius muscles were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The local and referred pain intensities, referred pain pattern, and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were recorded. The results show that referred pain was evoked in 85% and 50% on the dominant and non-dominant sides in CTTH patients, much higher than 55% and 25% in controls (P<0.01). Referred pain spread to the posterior-lateral aspect of the neck ipsi-lateral to the stimulated muscle in both patients and controls, with additional referral to the temple in most patients, but none in controls. Nearly half of the CTTH patients (45%) recognized the referred pain as their usual headache sensation, i.e. active TrPs. CTTH patients with active TrPs in the right upper trapezius muscle showed greater headache intensity and frequency, and longer headache duration than those with latent TrPs. CTTH patients with bilateral TrPs reported significantly decreased PPT than those with unilateral TrP (P<0.01). Our results showed that manual exploration of TrPs in the upper trapezius muscle elicited referred pain patterns in both CTTH patients and healthy subjects. In CTTH patients, the evoked referred pain and its sensory characteristics shared similar patterns as their habitual headache pain, consistent with active TrPs. Our results suggest that spatial summation of perceived pain and mechanical pain sensitivity exists in CTTH patients.

  6. Effects of electrocardiography contamination and comparison of ECG removal methods on upper trapezius electromyography recordings.

    PubMed

    Marker, Ryan J; Maluf, Katrina S

    2014-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) recordings from the trapezius are often contaminated by the electrocardiography (ECG) signal, making it difficult to distinguish low-level muscle activity from muscular rest. This study investigates the influence of ECG contamination on EMG amplitude and frequency estimations in the upper trapezius during muscular rest and low-level contractions. A new method of ECG contamination removal, filtered template subtraction (FTS), is described and compared to 30 Hz high-pass filter (HPF) and averaged template subtraction (ATS) methods. FTS creates a unique template of each ECG artifact using a low-pass filtered copy of the contaminated signal, which is subtracted from contaminated periods in the original signal. ECG contamination results in an over-estimation of EMG amplitude during rest in the upper trapezius, with negligible effects on amplitude and frequency estimations during low-intensity isometric contractions. FTS and HPF successfully removed ECG contamination from periods of muscular rest, yet introduced errors during muscle contraction. Conversely, ATS failed to fully remove ECG contamination during muscular rest, yet did not introduce errors during muscle contraction. The relative advantages and disadvantages of different ECG contamination removal methods should be considered in the context of the specific motor tasks that require analysis.

  7. [The lower trapezius muscle island flap. Anatomic principles and clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Haas, F; Pierer, G; Weiglein, A; Moshammer, H; Schwarzl, F; Scharnagl, E

    1999-01-01

    Up to now, there is no uniform anatomic description neither of the branches of the subclavian artery nor of the pedicle of the lower myocutaneous trapezius flap. A dissection study was carried out on 140 necks in 70 cadavers. Variations of the subclavian artery and its branches, vessel diameter at different levels, the course of the pedicle under the levator scapulae muscle, the arc of rotation of the island flap, and the variations of the segmental intercostal branches to the lower part of the trapezius muscle were examined. Results of this study enable us to suggest a new nomenclature for the branches of the subclavian artery, a proper pedicle definition, and a technique for safe flap elevation. The lower trapezius island flap is a thin and pliable myocutaneous flap with a constant pedicle which ensures safe flap elevation. This flap has the potential for a wider acceptance due to minor donor site morbidity, large arc of rotation, and an ample range of clinical applications in the head and neck area as an island flap as well as a free flap.

  8. Specific proteins of the trapezius muscle correlate with pain intensity and sensitivity – an explorative multivariate proteomic study of the trapezius muscle in women with chronic widespread pain

    PubMed Central

    Olausson, Patrik; Ghafouri, Bijar; Ghafouri, Nazdar; Gerdle, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) including fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) has a high prevalence and is associated with prominent negative consequences. CWP/FMS exhibits morphological and functional alterations in the central nervous system. The importance of peripheral factors for maintaining the central alterations are under debate. In this study, the proteins from biopsies of the trapezius muscle from 18 female CWP/FMS patients and 19 healthy female controls were analyzed. Pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the trapezius muscles were registered. Twelve proteins representing five different groups of proteins were important regressors of pain intensity in CWP/FMS (R2=0.99; P<0.001). In the regression of PPT in CWP/FMS, it was found that 16 proteins representing six groups of proteins were significant regressors (R2=0.95, P<0.05). Many of the important proteins were stress and inflammation proteins, enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, and proteins associated with muscle damage, myopathies, and muscle recovery. The altered expression of these proteins may reflect both direct and indirect nociceptive/inflammatory processes as well as secondary changes. The relative importance of the identified proteins and central alterations in CWP need to be investigated in future research. Data from this and the previous study concerning the same cohorts give support to the suggestion that peripheral factors are of importance for maintaining pain aspects in CWP/FMS. PMID:27330327

  9. Gender effects on the coordination of subdivisions of the trapezius muscle during a repetitive box-folding task.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Thorbjørn I; Samani, Afshin; Antle, David M; Côté, Julie N; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating gender difference in the coordination of the subdivisions of the trapezius muscle during a repetitive box-folding movement task. Twenty-two healthy volunteers (11 males and 11 females) performed the repetitive box-folding task for 34 min. During the task, perceived exertion and surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from the upper, middle, and lower trapezius subdivisions were recorded. Absolute and normalised root mean square (RMS) values as well as normalised mutual information (NMI) values were calculated to assess, respectively, activation levels within muscle subdivisions and functional connectivity among subdivisions. Females compared with males were characterised by higher normalised RMS values in the upper trapezius (P < 0.05) and higher NMI values within the upper-middle subdivision pair (P < 0.05) during repetitive box-folding. The elevated normalised level of activation of the upper trapezius as well as the enhanced functional connectivity among upper-middle trapezius subdivisions underlined that females adopted a different motor strategy than males did during a dynamic repetitive task. Such differences within and among muscle subdivisions may not be a favourable trait and could partly contribute to the higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders reported in females.

  10. Temporal Co-Variation between Eye Lens Accommodation and Trapezius Muscle Activity during a Dynamic Near-Far Visual Task

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Camilla; Richter, Hans O.; Forsman, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Near work is associated with increased activity in the neck and shoulder muscles, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. This study was designed to determine whether a dynamic change in focus, alternating between a nearby and a more distant visual target, produces a direct parallel change in trapezius muscle activity. Fourteen healthy controls and 12 patients with a history of visual and neck/shoulder symptoms performed a Near-Far visual task under three different viewing conditions; one neutral condition with no trial lenses, one condition with negative trial lenses to create increased accommodation, and one condition with positive trial lenses to create decreased accommodation. Eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were continuously recorded. The trapezius muscle activity was significantly higher during Near than during Far focusing periods for both groups within the neutral viewing condition, and there was a significant co-variation in time between accommodation and trapezius muscle activity within the neutral and positive viewing conditions for the control group. In conclusion, these results reveal a connection between Near focusing and increased muscle activity during dynamic changes in focus between a nearby and a far target. A direct link, from the accommodation/vergence system to the trapezius muscles cannot be ruled out, but the connection may also be explained by an increased need for eye-neck (head) stabilization when focusing on a nearby target as compared to a more distant target. PMID:25961299

  11. Trains of electrical stimulation of the trapezius muscles redistribute the frequencies of body oscillations during stance.

    PubMed

    Nhouvannasak, V; Clément, S; Manto, M

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the postural effects of trains of electrical stimulation (TES) applied unilaterally or bilaterally on the trapezius muscle in 20 healthy subjects (mean age: 23.1 ± 1.33 years; F/M: 8/12). The anterior-posterior (AP) displacements (AP axis), medio-lateral displacements (ML axis) and total travelled distances (TTW) of the centre of pressure (COP) remained unchanged with TES. However, detailed spectral analysis of COP oscillations revealed a marked decrease of the magnitudes of peak power spectral density (peak PSD) following application of TES. Peak PSD was highly correlated with the intensity of stimulation (P < 0.001 both the AP and ML axes). For the AP axis, the integrals of the sub-bands 0-0.4, 0.4-1.5, 1.5-3 Hz were significantly decreased (P < 0.001), the integrals of the sub-bands 3-5 and 5-8 Hz were not significantly affected (P>0.30) and the integrals of the sub-band 8-10 Hz were significantly increased (P < 0.001). The ratios of the integrals of sub-bands 8-10 Hz/0-3 Hz were markedly enhanced with bilateral TES (P < 0.001). For the ML axis, the effects were striking (P < 0.001) for the sub-bands 0-0.4, 0.4-1.5 and 8-10 Hz. For both the AP and ML axes, a significant inverse linear relationship was found between the intensity of TES and the average speed of COP. We show that TES applied over the trapezius muscles exerts significant and so far unrecognised effects upon oscillations of the COP, decreasing low-frequency oscillations and enhancing high-frequency oscillations. Our data unravel a novel property of the trapezius muscles upon postural control. We suggest that this muscle plays a role of a distributor of low-frequency versus high-frequency sub-bands of frequency during stance. Previous studies have shown that patients with supra-tentorial stroke show an increased peak PSD in low frequencies of body oscillations. Therefore, our findings provide a rationale to assess neurostimulation of the

  12. Levator scapulae and rhomboid transfer for paralysis of trapezius. The Eden-Lange procedure.

    PubMed

    Romero, J; Gerber, C

    2003-11-01

    Spinal accessory nerve palsy leads to painful disability of the shoulder, carrying an uncertain prognosis. We reviewed the long-term outcome in 16 patients who were treated for pain, weakness of active elevation and asymmetry of the shoulder and the neck due to chronic paralysis of the trapezius muscle, as a result of nerve palsy. Of four patients who were treated conservatively, none regained satisfactory function, although two became pain-free. The other 12 patients were treated operatively with transfer of the levator scapulae to the acromion and the rhomboid muscles to the infraspinatus fossa (the Eden-Lange procedure). At a mean follow-up of 32 years, the clinical outcome of the operatively treated patients was excellent in nine, fair in two, and poor in one patient, as determined by the Constant score. Pain was adequately relieved in 11 and overhead function was restored in nine patients. Pre-operative electromyography had been carried out in four patients. In two, who eventually had a poor outcome, a concomitant long thoracic and dorsal scapular nerve lesion had been present. The Eden-Lange procedure gives very satisfactory long-term results for the treatment of isolated paralysis of trapezius. In the presence of an additional serratus anterior palsy or weak rhomboid muscles, the procedure is less successful in restoring shoulder function.

  13. Effects of Temperature on Chronic Trapezius Myofascial Pain Syndrome during Dry Needling Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on chronic trapezius myofascial pain syndrome during dry needling therapy. Sixty patients were randomized into two groups of dry needling (DN) alone (group A) and DN combined with heat therapy group (group B). Each patient was treated once and the therapeutic effect was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment. Evaluation based on VAS and PPT showed that the pain of patients in groups A and B was significantly (P < 0.05) relieved at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment Compared to before treatment. There was significantly (P < 0.05) less pain in group B than group A at one and three months after treatment. The SF-36 evaluation demonstrated that the physical condition of patients in both groups showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement at one month and three months after treatment than before treatment. Our study suggests that both DN and DN heating therapy were effective in the treatment of trapezius MPS, and that DN heating therapy had better long-term effects than DN therapy. PMID:25383083

  14. EMG spectral characteristics of masticatory muscles and upper trapezius during maximum voluntary teeth clenching.

    PubMed

    Lodetti, Gianluigi; Mapelli, Andrea; Musto, Federica; Rosati, Riccardo; Sforza, Chiarella

    2012-02-01

    To assess the surface electromyographic spectral characteristics of masticatory and neck muscles during the performance of maximum voluntary clench (MVC) tasks, 29 healthy young adults (15 men, 14 women, mean age 22years) were examined. Electromyography of masseter, temporalis and upper trapezius muscles was performed during 5-s MVCs either on cotton rolls or in intercuspal position. Using a fast Fourier transform, the median power frequency (MPF) was obtained for the first and last seconds of clench, and compared between sexes, muscles, sides, tests and time intervals using ANOVAs. On average, the MPFs did not differ between sexes or sides (p>0.05), but significant effects of muscle (MPF temporalis larger than masseter, larger than trapezius muscles), test (larger MPFs when clenching in intercuspal position than when clenching on cotton rolls) and time (larger MPFs in the first than in the fifth second of clench) were found. In conclusion, a set of data to characterize the sEMG spectral characteristics of jaw and neck muscles in young adult subjects performing MVC tasks currently in use within the dental field was obtained. Reference values may assist in the assessment of patients with alterations in the cranio-cervical-mandibular system.

  15. Changes in EMG activity in the upper trapezius muscle due to local vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Aström, Charlotte; Lindkvist, Markus; Burström, Lage; Sundelin, Gunnevi; Karlsson, J Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to vibration is suggested as a risk factor for developing neck and shoulder disorders in working life. Mechanical vibration applied to a muscle belly or a tendon can elicit a reflex muscle contraction, also called tonic vibration reflex, but the mechanisms behind how vibration could cause musculoskeletal disorders has not yet been described. One suggestion has been that the vibration causes muscular fatigue. This study investigates whether vibration exposure changes the development of muscular fatigue in the trapezius muscle. Thirty-seven volunteers (men and women) performed a sub-maximal isometric shoulder elevation for 3 min. This was repeated four times, two times with induced vibration and two times without. Muscle activity was measured before and after each 3-min period to look at changes in the electromyography parameters. The result showed a significantly smaller mean frequency decrease when performing the shoulder elevation with vibration (-2.51 Hz) compared to without vibration (-4.04 Hz). There was also a slightly higher increase in the root mean square when exposed to vibration (5.7% of maximal voluntary contraction) compared to without (3.8% of maximal voluntary contraction); however, this was not statistically significant. The results of the present study indicate that short-time exposure to vibration has no negative acute effects on the fatiguing of upper trapezius muscle.

  16. Ultrasonic Tissue Characterization of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P.; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in skeletal muscle that produce symptomatic referred pain when palpated. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Objective characterization and quantitative measurement of the properties of MTrPs can improve their localization and diagnosis, as well as lead to clinical outcome measures. MTrPs associated with soft tissue neck pain are often found in the upper trapezius muscle. We have previously demonstrated that MTrPs can be visualized using ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based image analysis can differentiate structural heterogeneity of symptomatic MTrPs and normal muscle. Patients with chronic (>3 months) neck pain with spontaneously painful, palpable MTrPs (active MTrPs) and healthy volunteers without spontaneous pain (normal) were recruited for this study. Entropy filtering was performed on B-mode images of the upper trapezius and mean entropy values of symptomatic muscles were compared with healthy ones. Entropy analysis was also used to evaluate the size of regions with low entropy. We found that sites with active MTrPs have significantly lower entropy (p<0.05), i.e. they have more homogenous texture, than asymptomatic ones. PMID:23366899

  17. Increased sternocleidomastoid, but not trapezius, muscle activity in response to increased chewing load.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Nordh, Erik; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2013-10-01

    Previous findings, during chewing, that boluses of larger size and harder texture result in larger amplitudes of both mandibular and head-neck movements suggest a relationship between increased chewing load and incremental recruitment of jaw and neck muscles. The present report evaluated jaw (masseter and digastric) and neck [sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius] muscle activity during the chewing of test foods of different sizes and textures by 10 healthy subjects. Muscle activity was recorded by surface electromyography and simultaneous mandibular and head movements were recorded using an optoelectronic technique. Each subject performed continuous jaw-opening/jaw-closing movements whilst chewing small and large boluses of chewing gum and rubber silicone (Optosil). For jaw opening/jaw closing without a bolus, SCM activity was recorded for jaw opening concomitantly with digastric activity. During chewing, SCM activity was recorded for jaw closing concomitantly with masseter activity. Trapezius activity was present in some, but not all, cycles. For the masseter and SCM muscles, higher activity was seen with larger test foods, suggesting increased demand and recruitment of these muscles in response to an increased chewing load. This result reinforces the previous notion of a close functional connection between the jaw and the neck motor systems in jaw actions and has scientific and clinical significance for studying jaw function and dysfunction.

  18. Increased plasma peroxides as a marker of oxidative stress in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michael; Kubera, Marta; Uytterhoeven, Marc; Vrydags, Nicolas; Bosmans, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background There is evidence that myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by activation of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. The present study was carried out in order to examine whether ME/CFS is accompanied by increased levels of plasma peroxides and serum oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies, two biomarkers of oxidative stress. Material/Methods Blood was collected from 56 patients with ME/CFS and 37 normal volunteers. Severity of ME/CFS was measured using the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale. Results Plasma peroxide concentrations were significantly higher in patients with ME/CFS than in normal controls. There was a trend towards significantly higher serum oxLDL antibodies in ME/CFS than in controls. Both biomarkers contributed significantly in discriminating between patients with ME/CFS and normal controls. Plasma peroxide and serum oxLDL antibody levels were both significantly related to one of the FF symptoms. Conclusions The results show that ME/CFS is characterized by increased oxidative stress. PMID:21455120

  19. Genome-wide association analysis identifies genetic variations in subjects with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, K A; Khaiboullina, S F; De Meirleir, K L; Rawat, S; Petereit, J; Rizvanov, A A; Blatt, N; Mijatovic, T; Kulick, D; Palotás, A; Lombardi, V C

    2016-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS, is a multifactorial and debilitating disease that has an impact on over 4 million people in the United States alone. The pathogenesis of ME/CFS remains largely unknown; however, a genetic predisposition has been suggested. In the present study, we used a DNA single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip representing over 906,600 known SNPs to analyze DNA from ME/CFS subjects and healthy controls. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) of an ME/CFS cohort conducted to date. Here 442 SNPs were identified as candidates for association with ME/CFS (adjusted P-value<0.05). Whereas the majority of these SNPs are represented in non-coding regions of the genome, 12 SNPs were identified in the coding region of their respective gene. Among these, two candidate SNPs resulted in missense substitutions, one in a pattern recognition receptor and the other in an uncharacterized coiled-coil domain-containing protein. We also identified five SNPs that cluster in the non-coding regions of T-cell receptor loci. Further examination of these polymorphisms may help identify contributing factors to the pathophysiology of ME/CFS, as well as categorize potential targets for medical intervention strategies. PMID:26859813

  20. A Role for the Intestinal Microbiota and Virome in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)?

    PubMed Central

    Navaneetharaja, Navena; Griffiths, Verity; Wileman, Tom; Carding, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a heterogeneous disorder of significant societal impact that is proposed to involve both host and environmentally derived aetiologies that may be autoimmune in nature. Immune-related symptoms of at least moderate severity persisting for prolonged periods of time are common in ME/CFS patients and B cell depletion therapy is of significant therapeutic benefit. The origin of these symptoms and whether it is infectious or inflammatory in nature is not clear, with seeking evidence of acute or chronic virus infections contributing to the induction of autoimmune processes in ME/CFS being an area of recent interest. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence supporting an infectious aetiology for ME/CFS leading us to propose the novel concept that the intestinal microbiota and in particular members of the virome are a source of the “infectious” trigger of the disease. Such an approach has the potential to identify disease biomarkers and influence therapeutics, providing much-needed approaches in preventing and managing a disease desperately in need of confronting. PMID:27275835

  1. Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Immune-Inflammatory Pathways in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has been classified as a disease of the central nervous system by the WHO since 1969. Many patients carrying this diagnosis do demonstrate an almost bewildering array of biological abnormalities particularly the presence of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and a chronically activated innate immune system. The proposal made herein is that once generated chronically activated O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways conspire to generate a multitude of self-sustaining and self-amplifying pathological processes which are associated with the onset of ME/CFS. Sources of continuous activation of O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways in ME/CFS are chronic, intermittent and opportunistic infections, bacterial translocation, autoimmune responses, mitochondrial dysfunctions, activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Radical Cycle, and decreased antioxidant levels. Consequences of chronically activated O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways in ME/CFS are brain disorders, including neuroinflammation and brain hypometabolism / hypoperfusion, toxic effects of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, secondary autoimmune responses directed against disrupted lipid membrane components and proteins, mitochondrial dysfunctions with a disruption of energy metabolism (e.g. compromised ATP production) and dysfunctional intracellular signaling pathways. The interplay between all of these factors leads to self-amplifying feed forward loops causing a chronic state of activated O&NS, immune-inflammatory and autoimmune pathways which may sustain the disease. PMID:24669210

  2. Treatment for paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and comorbid depression: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sheils, Elizabeth A; Crawley, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Objectives At least 30% of young people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) also have symptoms of depression. This systematic review aimed to establish which treatment approaches for depression are effective and whether comorbid depression mediates outcome. Setting A systematic review was undertaken. The search terms were entered into MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and the Cochrane library. Participants Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify relevant papers. Inclusion criteria were children age <18, with CFS/ME, defined using CDC, NICE or Oxford criteria, and having completed a valid assessment for depression. Results 9 studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria, but none specifically tested treatments for paediatric CFS/ME with depression and none stratified outcome for those who were depressed compared with those who were not depressed. There is no consistent treatment approach for children with CFS/ME and comorbid depression, although cognitive–behavioural therapy for CFS/ME and a multicomponent inpatient programme for CFS/ME have shown some promise in reducing depressive symptoms. An antiviral medication in a small scale, retrospective, uncontrolled study suggested possible benefit. Conclusions It is not possible to determine what treatment approaches are effective for depression in paediatric CFS/ME, nor to determine the impact of depression on the outcome of CFS/ME treatment. Young people with significant depression tend to have been excluded from previous treatment studies. PMID:27729349

  3. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank NM

    2015-01-01

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional “malaise”: a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional “malaise” and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274

  4. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Twisk, Frank Nm

    2015-06-26

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional "malaise": a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional "malaise" and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially.

  5. The influence of seat height, trunk inclination and hip posture on the activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus

    PubMed Central

    Bertolaccini, Guilherme da Silva; Nakajima, Rafael Kendi; Filho, Idinei Francisco Pires de Carvalho; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos; Medola, Fausto Orsi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the influence of seat height and body posture on the activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty two healthy subjects were instructed to perform a total of eight different body postures, varying according three main factors: seat height (low and high seat); trunk inclination (upright and leaning forward at 45°); and the hips in abduction and adduction. Electromyography of the superior trapezius and longissimus was collected bilaterally, and the average values were obtained and compared across all the postures. [Results] The activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus significantly changes according to the seat height and trunk inclination. For both seat heights, sitting with trunk leaning forward resulted in a significant increase in the activity of both muscles. When sitting in a high seat and the trunk leaning forward, the superior trapezius activity was significantly reduced when compared to the same posture in a low seat. [Conclusion] This study contributes to the knowledge on the influence of the body posture and seat configuration on the activity of postural muscles. Reducing the biomechanical loads on the postural muscles must be targeted in order to improve users’ comfort and safety. PMID:27313381

  6. Effect of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points on Strength Measurements of the Upper Trapezius: A Case-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anshul

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine whether strength is altered in the upper trapezius in the presence of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrP). Methods: This study was case controlled and used convenience sampling. The sample recruited was homogeneous with respect to age, sex, height, and body mass. Participants were assessed for the presence of latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and placed into two groups: an experimental group that had latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and a control group that did not. Eighteen women (mean age 21.4 y, SD 1.89; mean height 156.9 cm, SD 4.03; and mean body mass 51.7 kg, SD 5.84) made up the experimental group, and 19 women (mean age 20.3 y, SD 1.86; mean height 158.6 cm, SD 3.14; and mean body mass 53.2 kg, SD 5.17) made up the control group. We obtained strength measurements of the non-dominant arm using a handheld dynamometer and compared them between the two groups. Results: The difference in the strength measurements between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.59). Conclusions: The presence of latent MTrPs may not affect the strength of the upper trapezius. PMID:22942517

  7. Preferential distribution of nociceptive input to motoneurons with muscle units in the cranial portion of the upper trapezius muscle.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Holobar, Ales; Falla, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Pain is associated with changes in the neural drive to muscles. For the upper trapezius muscle, surface electromyography (EMG) recordings have indicated that acute noxious stimulation in either the cranial or the caudal region of the muscle leads to a relative decrease in muscle activity in the cranial region. It is, however, not known if this adaption reflects different recruitment thresholds of the upper trapezius motor units in the cranial and caudal region or a nonuniform nociceptive input to the motor units of both regions. This study investigated these potential mechanisms by direct motor unit identification. Motor unit activity was investigated with high-density surface EMG signals recorded from the upper trapezius muscle of 12 healthy volunteers during baseline, control (intramuscular injection of isotonic saline), and painful (hypertonic saline) conditions. The EMG was decomposed into individual motor unit spike trains. Motor unit discharge rates decreased significantly from control to pain conditions by 4.0 ± 3.6 pulses/s (pps) in the cranial region but not in the caudal region (1.4 ± 2.8 pps; not significant). These changes were compatible with variations in the synaptic input to the motoneurons of the two regions. These adjustments were observed, irrespective of the location of noxious stimulation. These results strongly indicate that the nociceptive synaptic input is distributed in a nonuniform way across regions of the upper trapezius muscle.

  8. A pilot study using Tissue Velocity Ultrasound Imaging (TVI) to assess muscle activity pattern in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia

    PubMed Central

    Peolsson, Michael; Larsson, Britt; Brodin, Lars-Åke; Gerdle, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Background Different research techniques indicate alterations in muscle tissue and in neuromuscular control of aching muscles in patients with chronic localized pain. Ultrasound can be used for analysis of muscle tissue dynamics in clinical practice. Aim This study introduces a new muscle tissue sensitive ultrasound technique in order to provide a new methodology for providing a description of local muscle changes. This method is applied to investigate trapezius muscle tissue response – especially with respect to specific regional deformation and deformation rates – during concentric shoulder elevation in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia and healthy controls before and after pain provocation. Methods Patients with trapezius myalgia and healthy controls were analyzed using an ultrasound system equipped with tissue velocity imaging (TVI). The patients performed a standardized 3-cm concentric shoulder elevation before and after pain provocation/exercise at a standardized elevation tempo (30 bpm). A standardized region of interest (ROI), an ellipsis with a size that captures the upper and lower fascia of the trapezius muscle (4 cm width) at rest, was placed in the first frame of the loop registration of the elevation. The ROI was re-anchored frame by frame following the same anatomical landmark in the basal fascia during all frames of the concentric phase. In cardiac measurement, tissue velocities are measured in the axial projection towards and against the probe where red colour represents shortening and red lengthening. In the case of measuring the trapezius muscle, tissue deformation measurements are made orthogonally, thus, indirectly. Based on the assumption of muscle volume incompressibility, blue represents tissue contraction and red relaxation. Within the ROI, two variables were calculated as a function of time: deformation and deformation rate. Hereafter, max, mean, and quadratic mean values (RMS) of each variable were calculated and compared before

  9. Acromiohumeral Distance During Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Trapezius and Serratus Anterior Muscles in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Bdaiwi, Alya H.; Mackenzie, Tanya Anne; Herrington, Lee; Horsley, Ian; Cools, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Context Compromise to the acromiohumeral distance has been reported in participants with subacromial impingement syndrome compared with healthy participants. In clinical practice, patients with subacromial shoulder impingement are given strengthening programs targeting the lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles to increase scapular posterior tilt and upward rotation. We are the first to use neuromuscular electrical stimulation to stimulate these muscle groups and evaluate how the muscle contraction affects the acromiohumeral distance. Objective To investigate if electrical muscle stimulation of the LT and SA muscles, both separately and simultaneously, increases the acromiohumeral distance and to identify which muscle-group contraction or combination most influences the acromiohumeral distance. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting Human performance laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty participants (10 men and 10 women, age = 26.9 ± 8.0 years, body mass index = 23.8) were screened. Intervention(s) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT and SA. Main Outcome Measure(s) Ultrasound measurement of the acromiohumeral distance. Results Acromiohumeral distance increased during contraction via neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT muscle (t19 = −3.89, P = .004), SA muscle (t19 = −7.67, P = .001), and combined LT and SA muscles (t19 = −5.09, P = .001). We observed no differences in the increased acromiohumeral distance among the 3 procedures (F2,57 = 3.109, P = .08). Conclusions Our results supported the hypothesis that the muscle force couple around the scapula is important in rehabilitation and scapular control and influences acromiohumeral distance. PMID:25933249

  10. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in skeletal muscle that produce symptomatic referred pain when palpated. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Objective characterization and quantitative measurement of the properties of MTrPs can improve their localization and diagnosis, as well as lead to clinical outcome measures. MTrPs associated with soft tissue neck pain are often found in the upper trapezius muscle. We have previously demonstrated that MTrPs can be visualized using ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based image analysis can differentiate structural heterogeneity of symptomatic MTrPs and normal muscle.

  11. Review of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management by clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bested, Alison C; Marshall, Lynn M

    2015-01-01

    This review was written from the viewpoint of the treating clinician to educate health care professionals and the public about Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). It includes: the clinical definition of ME/CFS with emphasis on how to diagnose ME/CFS; the etiology, pathophysiology, management approach, long-term prognosis and economic cost of ME/CFS. After reading this review, you will be better able to diagnose and treat your patients with ME/CFS using the tools and information provided. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex, chronic medical condition characterized by symptom clusters that include: pathological fatigue and malaise that is worse after exertion, cognitive dysfunction, immune dysfunction, unrefreshing sleep, pain, autonomic dysfunction, neuroendocrine and immune symptoms. ME/CFS is common, often severely disabling and costly. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) reviewed the ME/CFS literature and estimates that between 836,000 and 2.5 million Americans have ME/CFS at a cost of between 17 and 24 billion dollars annually in the US. The IOM suggested a new name for ME/CFS and called it Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). SEID's diagnostic criteria are less specific and do not exclude psychiatric disorders in the criteria. The 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey discovered that 29% of patients with ME/CFS had unmet health care needs and 20% had food insecurity--lack of access to sufficient healthy foods. ME/CFS can be severely disabling and cause patients to be bedridden. Yet most patients (80%) struggle to get a diagnosis because doctors have not been taught how to diagnose or treat ME/CFS in medical schools or in their post-graduate educational training. Consequently, the patients with ME/CFS suffer. They are not diagnosed with ME/CFS and are not treated accordingly. Instead of compassionate care from their doctors, they are often ridiculed by the very people from whom they seek help

  12. Shoulder Kinematics and Spatial Pattern of Trapezius Electromyographic Activity in Real and Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Afshin; Pontonnier, Charles; Dumont, Georges; Madeleine, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The design of an industrial workstation tends to include ergonomic assessment steps based on a digital mock-up and a virtual reality setup. Lack of interaction and system fidelity is often reported as a main issue in such virtual reality applications. This limitation is a crucial issue as thorough ergonomic analysis is required for an investigation of the biomechanics. In the current study, we investigated the biomechanical responses of the shoulder joint in a simulated assembly task for comparison with the biomechanical responses in virtual environments. Sixteen male healthy novice subjects performed the task on three different platforms: real (RE), virtual (VE), and virtual environment with force feedback (VEF) with low and high precision demands. The subjects repeated the task 12 times (i.e., 12 cycles). High density electromyography from the upper trapezius and rotation angles of the shoulder joint were recorded and split into the cycles. The angular trajectories and velocity profiles of the shoulder joint angles over a cycle were computed in 3D. The inter-subject similarity in terms of normalized mutual information on kinematics and electromyography was investigated. Compared with RE the task in VE and VEF was characterized by lower kinematic maxima. The inter-subject similarity in RE compared with intra-subject similarity across the platforms was lower in terms of movement trajectories and greater in terms of trapezius muscle activation. The precision demand resulted in lower inter- and intra-subject similarity across platforms. The proposed approach identifies biomechanical differences in the shoulder joint in both VE and VEF compared with the RE platform, but these differences are less marked in VE mostly due to technical limitations of co-localizing the force feedback system in the VEF platform. PMID:25768123

  13. Shoulder kinematics and spatial pattern of trapezius electromyographic activity in real and virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Samani, Afshin; Pontonnier, Charles; Dumont, Georges; Madeleine, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The design of an industrial workstation tends to include ergonomic assessment steps based on a digital mock-up and a virtual reality setup. Lack of interaction and system fidelity is often reported as a main issue in such virtual reality applications. This limitation is a crucial issue as thorough ergonomic analysis is required for an investigation of the biomechanics. In the current study, we investigated the biomechanical responses of the shoulder joint in a simulated assembly task for comparison with the biomechanical responses in virtual environments. Sixteen male healthy novice subjects performed the task on three different platforms: real (RE), virtual (VE), and virtual environment with force feedback (VEF) with low and high precision demands. The subjects repeated the task 12 times (i.e., 12 cycles). High density electromyography from the upper trapezius and rotation angles of the shoulder joint were recorded and split into the cycles. The angular trajectories and velocity profiles of the shoulder joint angles over a cycle were computed in 3D. The inter-subject similarity in terms of normalized mutual information on kinematics and electromyography was investigated. Compared with RE the task in VE and VEF was characterized by lower kinematic maxima. The inter-subject similarity in RE compared with intra-subject similarity across the platforms was lower in terms of movement trajectories and greater in terms of trapezius muscle activation. The precision demand resulted in lower inter- and intra-subject similarity across platforms. The proposed approach identifies biomechanical differences in the shoulder joint in both VE and VEF compared with the RE platform, but these differences are less marked in VE mostly due to technical limitations of co-localizing the force feedback system in the VEF platform.

  14. Trapezius muscle activity and body movement at the beginning and the end of a workday and during the lunch period in female office employees

    PubMed Central

    NICOLETTI, Corinne; LÄUBLI, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle and the arm acceleration during the course of a workday in office employees. It was examined if there are significant changes in trapezius muscle activity in the afternoon compared to the morning work period and relationships to the level of arm acceleration during lunchtime. Nineteen female office employees were recruited. A one hour period of the work in the morning, afternoon, and lunchtime were compared. The measures of the trapezius muscle activity and muscle rest time (TR) did not significantly differ between working in the morning (TR: median 10%; range 1%–49) or working in the afternoon (TR: median 18%; range 2%–34%). The 90th percentile of arm acceleration during lunch time significantly correlated with less trapezius muscle activity in the afternoon compared to the morning values (RT: Spearman R=0.80; p<0.01). Differences in the duration and level of trapezius muscle activity were bigger between the subjects than between different work periods or between lunchtime and work. Furthermore it seems that higher arm accelerations during lunch may be beneficial in reducing trapezius activity in the afternoon compared to the morning values. PMID:28090066

  15. Effect of the Neck Retraction Taping (NRT) on Forward Head Posture and the Upper Trapezius Muscle during Computer Work

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck retraction taping on forward head posture and the upper trapezius muscle of computer workers during computer work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–30 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured forward head angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work before and after NRT. [Results] The FHP angle significantly decreased during computer work performed with NRT compared to without NRT. The UT muscle activity was also significantly decreased during computer work performed with NRT compared to without NRT. [Conclusion] We think that the taping tension provided by NRT may have provided a mechanical effect that prevented FHP. NRT may also encourage a proper head posture in patients unfamiliar with the neck retraction posture. PMID:24259806

  16. Mental stress and trapezius muscle activation under psychomotor challenge: a focus on EMG gaps during computer work.

    PubMed

    Schleifer, Lawrence M; Spalding, Thomas W; Kerick, Scott E; Cram, Jeffrey R; Ley, Ronald; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2008-05-01

    Momentary reductions in the electrical activity of working muscles (EMG gaps) contribute to the explanation for the relationship between psychosocial stress and musculoskeletal problems in computer work. EMG activity and gaps in the left and right trapezii were monitored in 23 participants under low and high mental workload (LMW and HMW) demands during computer data entry. Increases in EMG activity and decreases in EMG-gap frequencies in both left and right trapezius muscles were greater during HMW than LMW. In addition, heart period and end-tidal CO2 were lower during HMW, whereas self-reported mood states were higher during HMW. The correspondence between lower end-tidal CO2 and lower EMG-gap frequencies suggests that hyperventilation (overbreathing) may mediate trapezius muscle activation. The reduction of EMG gaps suggests that the salutary benefits of momentary rest from musculoskeletal work are diminished during mental stress.

  17. Winged Scapula Caused by Rhomboideus and Trapezius Muscles Rupture Associated with Repetitive Minor Trauma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sam-Gyu; Lee, So-Young; Choi, In-Sung; Moon, Eun-Sun

    2006-01-01

    We experienced a rare case of winged scapula that was caused by the rupture of the rhomboideus major and the lower trapezius muscles without any nerve injury in a 12 yr old female after she had carried a heavy backpack. Electrodiagnostic study revealed that the onset latencies, amplitudes and conduction velocities were normal in the long thoracic nerve, the spinal accessory nerve and the dorsal scapular nerve. The needle EMG findings were normal as well. An explorative operation was performed and the rupture of the rhomboideus major and lower trapezius muscles was detected. Direct surgical repair of the ruptured muscle was carried out and the deformity was corrected. The anatomical and functional restoration was satisfactorily accomplished. PMID:16778411

  18. Winged scapula caused by rhomboideus and trapezius muscles rupture associated with repetitive minor trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sam-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Lee, So-Young; Choi, In-Sung; Moon, Eun-Sun

    2006-06-01

    We experienced a rare case of winged scapula that was caused by the rupture of the rhomboideus major and the lower trapezius muscles without any nerve injury in a 12 yr old female after she had carried a heavy backpack. Electrodiagnostic study revealed that the onset latencies, amplitudes and conduction velocities were normal in the long thoracic nerve, the spinal accessory nerve and the dorsal scapular nerve. The needle EMG findings were normal as well. An explorative operation was performed and the rupture of the rhomboideus major and lower trapezius muscles was detected. Direct surgical repair of the ruptured muscle was carried out and the deformity was corrected. The anatomical and functional restoration was satisfactorily accomplished.

  19. Postural Correction in Persons with Neck Pain (II. Integrated Electromyography of the Upper Trapezius in Three Simulated Neck Positions).

    PubMed

    Enwemeka, C S; Bonet, I M; Ingle, J A; Prudhithumrong, S; Ogbahon, F E; Gbenedio, N A

    1986-01-01

    In the previous paper (Enwemeka, Bonet, Ingle, et al. 8:235-239, 1986) we showed that patients with neck pain and spasm of the upper trapezius often assume a forward head position, and that two neck positions, axial extension, and neutral neck position are frequently used by physical therapists to correct this faulty neck posture. Because there is no scientific basis for recommending either of the two corrective neck positions, we simulated the three neck positions in 10 normal adults and compared the integrated electromyography (IEMG) of the upper trapezius to determine if the muscle shows less activity in any of the two corrective positions. The results showed significantly less IEMG of the upper trapezius in each of the two corrective neck positions than in the faulty neck position (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the IEMGs recorded in the two corrective neck positions (p > 0.10). The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed along with suggestions for future studies. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(5):240-242.

  20. Complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation treated with reconstructed ligament by trapezius muscle fascia and observation of fascial metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaoliang; Huang, Sufang; Wang, Yingzhen; Sun, Xuesheng; Zhu, Tao; Li, Qiang; Lin, Chu

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term clinical results of acute complete acromioclavicular dislocations treated by reconstruction of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament using trapezius muscle fascia. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using the clavicular hook plate in 12 patients with acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation, and the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments were reconstructed using trapezius muscle fascia. Radiographic evaluations were conducted postoperatively. We evaluated the functional results with constant scoring system and radiological results at the final follow-up visit. The mean Constant score at the final follow-up visit was 91.67 (range, 81 to 100). The results were excellent in eight patients (66.7%) and good in four patients (33.3%). Three patients with scores from 80 to 90 had mild pain during activity, but this did not affect the range of motion of the shoulder. All patients have returned to their preoperative work without any limitations. Compared with the contralateral side, radiography showed anatomical reposition in the vertical plane in all cases. The hook-plate fixation with ligament reconstruction was successful in treating AC dislocations. The acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament were reconstructed by trapezius muscle fascia that keep the distal clavicle stable both vertically and horizontally after type III injuries. PMID:28352721

  1. Changes in Gut and Plasma Microbiome following Exercise Challenge in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjay K.; Cook, Dane; Meyer, Jacob; Vernon, Suzanne D.; Le, Thao; Clevidence, Derek; Robertson, Charles E.; Schrodi, Steven J.; Yale, Steven; Frank, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by intense and debilitating fatigue not due to physical activity that has persisted for at least 6 months, post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, and accompanied by a number of secondary symptoms, including sore throat, memory and concentration impairment, headache, and muscle/joint pain. In patients with post-exertional malaise, significant worsening of symptoms occurs following physical exertion and exercise challenge serves as a useful method for identifying biomarkers for exertion intolerance. Evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis and systemic responses to gut microorganisms may play a role in the symptomology of ME/CFS. As such, we hypothesized that post-exertion worsening of ME/CFS symptoms could be due to increased bacterial translocation from the intestine into the systemic circulation. To test this hypothesis, we collected symptom reports and blood and stool samples from ten clinically characterized ME/CFS patients and ten matched healthy controls before and 15 minutes, 48 hours, and 72 hours after a maximal exercise challenge. Microbiomes of blood and stool samples were examined. Stool sample microbiomes differed between ME/CFS patients and healthy controls in the abundance of several major bacterial phyla. Following maximal exercise challenge, there was an increase in relative abundance of 6 of the 9 major bacterial phyla/genera in ME/CFS patients from baseline to 72 hours post-exercise compared to only 2 of the 9 phyla/genera in controls (p = 0.005). There was also a significant difference in clearance of specific bacterial phyla from blood following exercise with high levels of bacterial sequences maintained at 72 hours post-exercise in ME/CFS patients versus clearance in the controls. These results provide evidence for a systemic effect of an altered gut microbiome in ME/CFS patients compared to controls. Upon exercise challenge, there were significant

  2. Changes in Gut and Plasma Microbiome following Exercise Challenge in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sanjay K; Cook, Dane; Meyer, Jacob; Vernon, Suzanne D; Le, Thao; Clevidence, Derek; Robertson, Charles E; Schrodi, Steven J; Yale, Steven; Frank, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by intense and debilitating fatigue not due to physical activity that has persisted for at least 6 months, post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, and accompanied by a number of secondary symptoms, including sore throat, memory and concentration impairment, headache, and muscle/joint pain. In patients with post-exertional malaise, significant worsening of symptoms occurs following physical exertion and exercise challenge serves as a useful method for identifying biomarkers for exertion intolerance. Evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis and systemic responses to gut microorganisms may play a role in the symptomology of ME/CFS. As such, we hypothesized that post-exertion worsening of ME/CFS symptoms could be due to increased bacterial translocation from the intestine into the systemic circulation. To test this hypothesis, we collected symptom reports and blood and stool samples from ten clinically characterized ME/CFS patients and ten matched healthy controls before and 15 minutes, 48 hours, and 72 hours after a maximal exercise challenge. Microbiomes of blood and stool samples were examined. Stool sample microbiomes differed between ME/CFS patients and healthy controls in the abundance of several major bacterial phyla. Following maximal exercise challenge, there was an increase in relative abundance of 6 of the 9 major bacterial phyla/genera in ME/CFS patients from baseline to 72 hours post-exercise compared to only 2 of the 9 phyla/genera in controls (p = 0.005). There was also a significant difference in clearance of specific bacterial phyla from blood following exercise with high levels of bacterial sequences maintained at 72 hours post-exercise in ME/CFS patients versus clearance in the controls. These results provide evidence for a systemic effect of an altered gut microbiome in ME/CFS patients compared to controls. Upon exercise challenge, there were significant

  3. Reconstruction of the Head and Neck Region Using Lower Trapezius Musculocutaneous Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soo Kwang; Song, Seung Han; Kang, Nakheon; Yoon, Yeo-Hoon; Koo, Bon Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent literature has indicated that free flaps are currently considered the preferred choice for head and neck reconstruction. However, head and neck cancer patients are frequently treated with chemoradiotherapy, which is often associated with a poor general and local condition, and thus, such patients are ineligible for free flap reconstruction. Therefore, other reconstruction modalities should be considered. Methods We used lower trapezius musculocutaneous (LTMC) flap based on the dorsal scapular artery to reconstruct head and neck defects that arose from head and neck cancer in 8 patients. All of the patients had undergone preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Results There were no complications except one case of partial flap necrosis; it was treated with secondary intention. Healing in the remaining patients was uneventful without hematoma, seroma, or infection. The donor sites were closed primarily. Conclusions The LTMC flap is the preferred flap for a simple, reliable, large flap with a wide arc of rotation and minor donor-site morbidity. The authors recommend this versatile island flap as an alternative to microvascular free tissue transfer for the reconstruction of defects in the head and neck region, for patients that have undergone preoperative chemoradiotherapy. PMID:23233888

  4. A Multicenter Blinded Analysis Indicates No Association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and either Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus or Polytropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Harvey J.; Mikovits, Judy A.; Switzer, William M.; Ruscetti, Francis W.; Lo, Shyh-Ching; Klimas, Nancy; Komaroff, Anthony L.; Montoya, Jose G.; Bateman, Lucinda; Levine, Susan; Peterson, Daniel; Levin, Bruce; Hanson, Maureen R.; Genfi, Afia; Bhat, Meera; Zheng, HaoQiang; Wang, Richard; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lee, Li Ling; Sameroff, Stephen; Heneine, Walid; Coffin, John; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Although the associations were not confirmed in subsequent studies by other investigators, patients continue to question the consensus of the scientific community in rejecting the validity of the association. Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection. PMID:22991430

  5. Electromyographic analysis of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during push-ups on stable and unstable bases in subjects with scapular dyskinesis.

    PubMed

    Pirauá, André Luiz Torres; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Silva, Juliana Pereira; Pereira dos Passos, Muana Hiandra; Alves de Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly; Batista, Laísla da Silva Paixão; Cappato de Araújo, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to assess the electromyographic activity of the scapular muscles during push-ups on a stable and unstable surface, in subjects with scapular dyskinesis. Muscle activation (upper trapezius [UT]; lower trapezius [LT]; upper serratus anterior [SA_5th]; lower serratus anterior [SA_7th]) and ratios (UT/LT; UT/SA_5th; UT/ SA_7th) levels were determined by surface EMG in 30 asymptomatic men with scapular dyskinesis, during push-up performed on a stable and unstable surface. Multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. The unstable surface caused a decrease in the EMG activity of the serratus anterior and an increase in EMG activity of the trapezius (p=0.001). UT/SA_5th and UT/ SA_7th ratios were higher during unstable push-ups (p=0.001). The results suggest that, in individuals with scapular dyskinesis, there is increased EMG activity of the trapezius and decreased EMG activity of the serratus anterior in response to an unstable surface. These results suggest that the performance of the push up exercise on an unstable surface may be more favorable to produce higher levels of trapezius activation and lower levels of serratus anterior activation. However, if the goal of the exercise program is the strengthening of the SA muscle, it is suggested to perform the push up on a stable surface.

  6. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. Methods: In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. Results: There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG). PMID:26913258

  7. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd

    2014-11-14

    Context :  Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective :  To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design :  Cross-sectional study. Setting :  Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants :  A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s) :  Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results :  Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions :  Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited.

  8. Reliability of different methodologies of infrared image analysis of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dibai-Filho, Almir V.; Guirro, Elaine C. O.; Ferreira, Vânia T. K.; Brandino, Hugo E.; Vaz, Maíta M. O. L. L.; Guirro, Rinaldo R. J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infrared thermography is recognized as a viable method for evaluation of subjects with myofascial pain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of infrared image analysis of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. METHOD: A reliability study was conducted with 24 volunteers of both genders (23 females) between 18 and 30 years of age (22.12±2.54), all having cervical pain and presence of active myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle. Two trained examiners performed analysis of point, line, and area of the infrared images at two different periods with a 1-week interval. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) was used to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. RESULTS: With regard to the intra-rater reliability, ICC values were between 0.591 and 0.993, with temperatures between 0.13 and 1.57 °C for values of standard error of measurement (SEM) and between 0.36 and 4.35 °C for the minimal detectable change (MDC). For the inter-rater reliability, ICC ranged from 0.615 to 0.918, with temperatures between 0.43 and 1.22 °C for the SEM and between 1.19 and 3.38 °C for the MDC. CONCLUSION: The methods of infrared image analyses of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle employed in the present study are suitable for clinical and research practices. PMID:25993626

  9. Spatial distribution of surface EMG on trapezius and lumbar muscles of violin and cello players in single note playing.

    PubMed

    Afsharipour, Babak; Petracca, Francesco; Gasparini, Mauro; Merletti, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Musicians activate their muscles in different patterns, depending on their posture, the instrument being played, and their experience level. Bipolar surface electrodes have been used in the past to monitor such activity, but this method is highly sensitive to the location of the electrode pair. In this work, the spatial distribution of surface EMG (sEMG) of the right trapezius and right and left erector spinae muscles were studied in 16 violin players and 11 cello players. Musicians played their instrument one string at a time in sitting position with/without backrest support. A 64 sEMG electrode (16×4) grid, 10mm inter-electrode distance (IED), was placed over the middle and lower trapezius (MT and LT) of the bowing arm. Two 16×2 electrode grids (IED=10mm) were placed on the left and right erector spinae muscles. Subjects played each of the four strings of the instrument either in large (1bow/s) or detaché tip/tail (8bows/s) bowing in two sessions (two days). In each of two days, measurements were repeated after half an hour of exercise to see the effect of exercise on the muscle activity and signal stability. A "muscle activity index" (MAI) was defined as the spatial average of the segmented active region of the RMS map. Spatial maps were automatically segmented using the watershed algorithm and thresholding. Results showed that, for violin players, sliding the bow upward from the tip toward the tail results in a higher MAI for the trapezius muscle than a downward bow. On the contrary, in cello players, higher MAI is produced in the tail to tip movement. For both instruments, an increasing MAI in the trapezius was observed as the string position became increasingly lateral, from string 1 (most medial) toward string 4 (most lateral). Half an hour of performance did not cause significant differences between the signal quality and the MAI values measured before and after the exercise. The MAI of the left and right erector spinae was smaller in the case of

  10. The effectiveness of manual versus algometer pressure release techniques for treating active myofascial trigger points of the upper trapezius.

    PubMed

    Abu Taleb, Walaa; Rehan Youssef, Aliaa; Saleh, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Manual pressure release (MPR) is a popular treatment of trigger points. Yet, treatment response may be influenced by inconsistent application of pressure. Further, it may contribute to increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the wrist and hand in therapists. Therefore, this study aimed at introducing a novel method to apply pressure using the algometer and to compare its effectiveness to MPR. Forty-five volunteers with active trigger points of the upper trapezius received algometer pressure release (APR), MPR, or sham ultrasound (US). Pain pressure threshold (PPT) and contralateral active and passive neck side-bending ranges were assessed at baseline and immediately after a single session. Results showed no significant differences in post-treatment PPT between the study groups (p > 0.05). The APR group showed a significant increase in passive side-bending range compared with the two other groups, whereas active range improved in the APR compared with the US group (p < 0.05). Our results show that using algometer to apply pressure release to upper trapezius trigger points is more effective compared with manual release and sham US.

  11. Restoring shoulder abduction in children with Erb's palsy: when to add trapezius transfer to a teres major transfer.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, T H; Samir, S; Magdy, W

    2012-11-01

    A total of 35 children with Erb's palsy and shoulder abduction of < 90° underwent transfer of teres major. In 18 cases (group 1) a trapezius transfer was added (combined procedure). In 17 cases (group 2) teres major transfer was carried out in isolation (single procedure). The mean gain in abduction was 67.2° (60° to 80°) in group 1 and 37.6° (20° to 70°) in group 2, which reached statistical significance (p < 0.001). Group 2 was further divided into those who had deltoid power of < M3 (group 2a) and those with deltoid power ≥ M3 (group 2b). The difference in improvement of abduction between groups 2a and group 2b was statistically significant (p < 0.001) but the difference between group 2b and group 1 was not (p = 0.07). We recommend the following protocol of management: in children with abduction ≥ 90° a single procedure is indicated. In children with abduction < 90°: a combined procedure is indicated if deltoid power is < M3 and a single procedure is indicated if deltoid power is ≥ M3. If no satisfactory improvement is achieved, the trapezius can be transferred at a later stage.

  12. The immediate effect of changing mandibular position on the EMG activity of the masseter, temporalis, sternocleidomastoid, and trapezius muscles.

    PubMed

    Ceneviz, Caroline; Mehta, Noshir R; Forgione, Albert; Sands, M J; Abdallah, Emad F; Lobo Lobo, Silvia; Mavroudi, Sofia

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the immediate effect of changing mandibular position on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter (MS), temporalis (TM), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius (TR) muscles. Thirty-three (33) asymptomatic subjects (16 males and 17 females), ages 23 to 52 were selected. Surface EMG recordings were obtained for all muscles bilaterally with the mandible in a relaxed open position (relaxed) and during maximal voluntary clenching (fullbite) for the following: a non-repositioning appliance (NONREPOS) and repositioning appliance (REPOS). REPOS significantly reduced EMG activity of all muscles bilaterally during fullbite. During relaxation, reduction in EMG activity was only found for TR bilaterally. NONREPOS decreased the EMG activity bilaterally for TM and TR and unilaterally (left) for MS and SCM during fullbite. During relaxation, NONREPOS decreased muscle activity bilaterally for TR and SCM. A unilateral reduction was found for TM (right). These findings suggest that immediate alterations in mandibular position affect the cranio-cervical system. Both mandibular positions tested lowered the EMG activity of masticatory and cervical muscles in the relaxed and fullbite positions. The trapezius muscle was the most responsive to alterations in mandibular position.

  13. Increased Upper Trapezius Muscle Stiffness in Overhead Athletes with Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Hio Teng; Hug, François; Fu, Siu Ngor

    2016-01-01

    Although excessive tension of the upper trapezius (UT) is thought to contribute to rotator cuff tendinopathy, no study examined UT tension in athletes with and without rotator cuff tendinopathy. Here we used UT shear modulus measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography as an index of muscle stiffness/tension. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to determine whether the UT muscle shear modulus is altered in athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy compared to asymptomatic athletes, and 2) to detect optimal cut-off points of UT shear modulus in identifying athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Forty-three male volleyball players (17 asymptomatic and 26 with rotator cuff tendinopathy, mean age = 22.9±3.5 years) participated in the study. UT shear modulus was quantified during active arm holding at 30° and 60° of shoulder abduction and passive arm positioning at 0°, 30° and 60° of shoulder abduction. During the active tasks, the UT shear modulus was higher in athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy than the asymptomatic athletes (p = 0.002), regardless the arm position. During the passive tasks, athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy exhibited a higher UT shear modulus than asymptomatic athletes only at 0° of shoulder abduction (13.0±2.5 kPa vs 10.2±1.8 kPa, p = 0.001). When considering the active task, an optimal cut-off shear modulus of 12.0 kPa at 30° of shoulder abduction (sensitivity = 0.84, specificity = 0.57, AUC = 0.757, p = 0.008) and 9.5 kPa at 60° of shoulder abduction (sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.67, AUC = 0.816, p = 0.002) was detected. When considering the passive task at 0° of shoulder abduction, a cut-off of 12.2 kPa was found (sensitivity = 0.73, AUC = 0.817, p = 0.001). Findings from the present study show that monitoring passive and active UT muscle shear modulus may provide important information for the prevention/rehabilitation of rotator cuff tendinopathy. PMID:27159276

  14. Ultrasonic characterization of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Zaazhoa, Maryam; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2013-04-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in taut bands of skeletal muscle that are painful on compression. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Localization, diagnosis, and clinical outcome measures of painful MTrPs can be improved by objectively characterizing and quantitatively measuring their properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasound imaging and elastography can differentiate symptomatic (active) MTrPs from normal muscle. Patients with chronic (>3 months) neck pain with spontaneously painful, palpable (i.e., active) MTrPs and healthy volunteers without spontaneous pain (having palpably normal muscle tissue) were recruited for this study. The upper trapezius muscles in all subjects were imaged, and the echotexture was analyzed using entropy filtering of B-mode images. Vibration elastography was performed by vibrating the muscle externally at 100 Hz. Color Doppler variance imaging was used to quantify the regions of color deficit exhibiting low vibration amplitude. The imaging measures were compared against the clinical findings of a standardized physical exam. We found that sites with active MTrPs (n = 14) have significantly lower entropy (p < 0.05) and significantly larger nonvibrating regions (p < 0.05) during vibration elastography compared with normal, uninvolved muscle (n = 15). A combination of both entropy analysis and vibration elastography yielded 69% sensitivity and 81% specificity in discriminating active MTrPs from normal muscle. These results suggest that active MTrPs have more homogeneous texture and heterogeneous stiffness when compared with normal, unaffected muscle. Our methods enabled us to improve the imaging contrast between suspected MTrPs and surrounding muscle. Our results indicate that in subjects with chronic neck pain and active MTrPs, the abnormalities are not confined to discrete isolated nodules

  15. Ultrasonic Characterization of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P.; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Zaazhoa, Maryam; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in taut bands of skeletal muscle that are painful on compression. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Localization, diagnosis, and clinical outcome measures of painful MTrPs can be improved by objectively characterizing and quantitatively measuring their properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasound imaging and elastography can differentiate symptomatic (active) MTrPs from normal muscle. Patients with chronic (>3 months) neck pain with spontaneously painful, palpable (i.e., active) MTrPs and healthy volunteers without spontaneous pain (having palpably normal muscle tissue) were recruited for this study. The upper trapezius muscles in all subjects were imaged, and the echotexture was analyzed using entropy filtering of B-mode images. Vibration elastography was performed by vibrating the muscle externally at 100 Hz. Color Doppler variance imaging was used to quantify the regions of color deficit exhibiting low vibration amplitude. The imaging measures were compared against the clinical findings of a standardized physical exam. We found that sites with active MTrPs (n = 14) have significantly lower entropy (p < 0.05) and significantly larger nonvibrating regions (p < 0.05) during vibration elastography compared with normal, uninvolved muscle (n = 15). A combination of both entropy analysis and vibration elastography yielded 69% sensitivity and 81% specificity in discriminating active MTrPs from normal muscle. These results suggest that active MTrPs have more homogeneous texture and heterogeneous stiffness when compared with normal, unaffected muscle. Our methods enabled us to improve the imaging contrast between suspected MTrPs and surrounding muscle. Our results indicate that in subjects with chronic neck pain and active MTrPs, the abnormalities are not confined to discrete isolated nodules

  16. Upper trapezius muscle activity in healthy office workers: reliability and sensitivity of occupational exposure measures to differences in sex and hand dominance.

    PubMed

    Marker, Ryan J; Balter, Jaclyn E; Nofsinger, Micaela L; Anton, Dan; Fethke, Nathan B; Maluf, Katrina S

    2016-09-01

    Patterns of cervical muscle activity may contribute to overuse injuries in office workers. The purpose of this investigation was to characterise patterns of upper trapezius muscle activity in pain-free office workers using traditional occupational exposure measures and a modified Active Amplitude Probability Distribution Function (APDF), which considers only periods of active muscle contraction. Bilateral trapezius muscle activity was recorded in 77 pain-free office workers for 1-2 full days in their natural work environment. Mean amplitude, gap frequency, muscular rest and Traditional and Active APDF amplitudes were calculated. All measures demonstrated fair to substantial reliability. Dominant muscles demonstrated higher amplitudes of activity and less muscular rest compared to non-dominant, and women demonstrated less muscular rest with no significant difference in amplitude assessed by Active APDF compared to men. These findings provide normative data to identify atypical motor patterns that may contribute to persistence or recurrence of neck pain in office workers. Practitioner Summary: Upper trapezius muscle activity was characterised in a large cohort of pain-free workers using electromyographic recordings from office environments. Dominant muscles demonstrated higher activity and less rest than non-dominant, and women demonstrated less rest than men. Results may be used to identify atypical trapezius muscle activity in office workers.

  17. Analysis of motor fibers in the communicating branch between the cervical nerves and the spinal accessory nerve to innervate trapezius in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Hitomi, Jiro

    2006-11-01

    The communicating branch between the ventral rami of cervical nerves and the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) has been reported to also send motor fibers to supply the trapezius. However, the motor fiber type of the communicating branch and its peripheral distribution are still unclear. To determine the fiber elements within the branch and its peripheral distribution of the motor fibers in the trapezius, the anterograde tracing method was used in this study. The results show that a few a motor end plates from the communicating branch were observed on the extrafusal fibers, while in the muscle spindle the motor elements from the communicating branch were distributed to the polar portions of the intrafusal fibers. These results indicated that the motor fibers passing through the communicating branch to supply the trapezius are mainly y motor fibers, with some a motor fibers. Moreover, the a and y motor fibers from the communicating branch were observed in the clavotrapezius, acromiotrapezius and the rostral part of spinotrapezius. These findings also correlate with the clinical observation indicating that even when the spinal accessory nerve is injured, the trapezius is still capable of slight movement.

  18. Effects of static contraction and cold stimulation on cardiovascular autonomic indices, trapezius blood flow and muscle activity in chronic neck-shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Lindberg, Lars-Göran; Arnetz, Bengt B; Lyskov, Eugene

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate reactions in trapezius muscle blood flow (MBF), muscle activity, heart rate variability (HRV) and systemic blood pressure (BP) to autonomic tests in subjects with chronic neck-shoulder pain and healthy controls. Changes in muscle activity and blood flow due to stress and unfavourable muscle loads are known underlying factors of work-related muscle pain. Aberration of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is considered a possible mechanism. In the present study, participants (n = 23 Pain, n = 22 Control) performed autonomic tests which included a resting condition, static hand grip test (HGT) at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, a cold pressor test (CPT) and a deep breathing test (DBT). HRV was analysed in time and frequency domains. MBF and muscle activity were recorded from the upper trapezius muscles using photoplethysmography and electromyography (EMG). The pain group showed reduced low frequency-HRV (LF) and SDNN during rest, as well as a blunted BP response and increased LF-HRV during HGT (∆systolic 22 mm Hg; ∆LF(nu) 27%) compared with controls (∆systolic 27; ∆LF(nu) 6%). Locally, the pain group had attenuated trapezius MBF in response to HGT (Pain 122% Control 140%) with elevated trapezius EMG following HGT and during CPT. In conclusion, only HGT showed differences between groups in systemic BP and HRV and alterations in local trapezius MBF and EMG in the pain group. Findings support the hypothesis of ANS involvement at systemic and local levels in chronic neck-shoulder pain.

  19. Changes in H reflex and neuromechanical properties of the trapezius muscle after 5 weeks of eccentric training: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vangsgaard, Steffen; Taylor, Janet L; Hansen, Ernst A; Madeleine, Pascal

    2014-06-15

    Trapezius muscle Hoffman (H) reflexes were obtained to investigate the neural adaptations induced by a 5-wk strength training regimen, based solely on eccentric contractions of the shoulder muscles. Twenty-nine healthy subjects were randomized into an eccentric training group (n = 15) and a reference group (n = 14). The eccentric training program consisted of nine training sessions of eccentric exercise performed over a 5-wk period. H-reflex recruitment curves, the maximal M wave (Mmax), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, rate of force development (RFD), and electromyographic (EMG) voluntary activity were recorded before and after training. H reflexes were recorded from the middle part of the trapezius muscle by electrical stimulation of the C3/4 cervical nerves; Mmax was measured by electrical stimulation of the accessory nerve. Eccentric strength training resulted in significant increases in the maximal trapezius muscle H reflex (Hmax) (21.4% [5.5-37.3]; P = 0.01), MVC force (26.4% [15.0-37.7]; P < 0.01), and RFD (24.6% [3.2-46.0]; P = 0.025), while no significant changes were observed in the reference group. Mmax remained unchanged in both groups. A significant positive correlation was found between the change in MVC force and the change in EMG voluntary activity in the training group (r = 0.57; P = 0.03). These results indicate that the net excitability of the trapezius muscle H-reflex pathway increased after 5 wk of eccentric training. This is the first study to investigate and document changes in the trapezius muscle H reflex following eccentric strength training.

  20. A narrative review on the similarities and dissimilarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2013-03-08

    It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gastrointestinal symptoms, anorexia and weight loss) between sickness and ME/CFS. While sickness is an adaptive response induced by proinflammatory cytokines, ME/CFS is a chronic, disabling disorder, where the pathophysiology is related to activation of immunoinflammatory and oxidative pathways and autoimmune responses. While sickness behavior is a state of energy conservation, which plays a role in combating pathogens, ME/CFS is a chronic disease underpinned by a state of energy depletion. While sickness is an acute response to infection/injury, the trigger factors in ME/CFS are less well defined and encompass acute and chronic infections, as well as inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that sickness behavior and ME/CFS are two different conditions.

  1. A narrative review on the similarities and dissimilarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and sickness behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gastrointestinal symptoms, anorexia and weight loss) between sickness and ME/CFS. While sickness is an adaptive response induced by proinflammatory cytokines, ME/CFS is a chronic, disabling disorder, where the pathophysiology is related to activation of immunoinflammatory and oxidative pathways and autoimmune responses. While sickness behavior is a state of energy conservation, which plays a role in combating pathogens, ME/CFS is a chronic disease underpinned by a state of energy depletion. While sickness is an acute response to infection/injury, the trigger factors in ME/CFS are less well defined and encompass acute and chronic infections, as well as inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that sickness behavior and ME/CFS are two different conditions. PMID:23497361

  2. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Genotype and Haplotype Investigation of Natural Killer Cells from an Australian Population of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Huth, T K; Brenu, E W; Staines, D R; Marshall-Gradisnik, S M

    2016-01-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes encode for activating and inhibitory surface receptors, which are correlated with the regulation of Natural Killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity. Reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity has been consistently reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients, and KIR haplotypes and allelic polymorphism remain to be investigated. The aim of this article was to conduct a pilot study to examine KIR genotypes, haplotypes, and allelic polymorphism in CFS/ME patients and nonfatigued controls (NFCs). Comparison of KIR and allelic polymorphism frequencies revealed no significant differences between 20 CFS/ME patients and 20 NFCs. A lower frequency of the telomeric A/B motif (P < 0.05) was observed in CFS/ME patients compared with NFCs. This pilot study is the first to report the differences in the frequency of KIR on the telomeric A/B motif in CFS/ME patients. Further studies with a larger CFS/ME cohort are required to validate these results.

  3. A new shoulder orthosis for paralysis of the trapezius muscle after radical neck dissection: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Kalcioglu, M Tayyar; Saydam, Levent; Ersoy, Yuksel

    2006-05-01

    Despite recent advances using more conservative approaches, standard classical radical neck dissection is still one of the most frequently performed procedures in head and neck cancer patients who have advanced metastatic neck disease. The trapezius muscle paralysis following division of the spinal accessory nerve results in severe pain and cosmetic disturbance related to malalignment of the shoulder joint. The objective of this study is to report our results with a newly developed orthosis to prevent and correct shoulder dysfunction following standard radical neck dissection. Thirty-four patients who underwent standard radical neck dissection as a part of their surgical treatment from 1997-2002 were rehabilitated by the shoulder orthosis. Beginning 2 weeks after surgery, the patients were allowed to use their orthosis. By using a standard questionnaire, the pain and activity scores were recorded at the 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months postoperatively. Six patients were excluded from the study, of whom two succumbed to their disease and four discontinued the use of the orthosis. Of 28 patients included in the study, 20 (72%) were completely pain free within 3 months following the surgery. Four patients (14%) noted their pain level as tolerable, and four patients (14%) reported no considerable gain in the pain threshold and/or physical activity levels. Despite the fact that the active abduction range increased only 5 to 20 degrees , the relief of pain and improved malalignment of the scapula and consequently clavicle and humerus led to functional gains, which increased the patients' endurance. At the end of the study, 23 patients (82%) were able to return to their previous jobs or activity levels. Current preliminary reports suggest that this orthosis can be recommended to prevent significant disability in patients with trapezius palsy due to ablative cancer surgery or other reasons.

  4. Discharge behaviors of trapezius motor units during exposure to low and high levels of acute psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Jennifer L; Maluf, Katrina S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute psychosocial stress on trapezius single motor unit discharge behaviors. Twenty-one healthy women performed feedback-controlled isometric contractions under conditions of low and high psychosocial stress in the same experimental session. Psychosocial stress was manipulated using a verbal math task combined with social evaluative threat which significantly increased perceived anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure (P<0.001). Motor unit discharge behaviors including the threshold and discharge rate at recruitment (7.7 (5.7) %MVC and 7.3 (6.8) pps, P>0.121, N=103) and derecruitment (6.0(4.4) %MVC and 6.5(4.1) pps, P>0.223, N=99), the mean (11.3 (2.3) pps, P=0.309, N=106) and variability (2.5 (0.91) pps, P=0.958, N=106) of discharge rate, and the proportion of motor units exhibiting double discharges (21%, P=0.446) did not change across stress conditions. Discharge rate modulation with changes in contraction intensity was highly variable and similar across stress conditions (P>0.308, N=89). Rate-rate modulation of concurrently active motor units was also highly variable (r=−0.84–1.00, N=75). Estimates of ΔF for motor unit pairs with rate-rate modulation ≥0.7 were positive and similar across stress conditions (4.7(2.0) pps, P=0.405, N=16). Results indicate that acute psychosocial stress does not alter trapezius motor unit discharge behaviors during a precisely controlled motor task in healthy women. PMID:20087201

  5. Electromyographic amplitude ratio of serratus anterior and upper trapezius muscles during modified push-ups and bench press exercises.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jaqueline; Tucci, Helga T; Andrade, Rodrigo; Araújo, Rodrigo C; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Oliveira, Anamaria S

    2008-03-01

    Imbalance and weakness of the serratus anterior and upper trapezius force couple have been described in patients with shoulder dysfunction. There is interest in identifying exercises that selectively activate these muscles and including it in rehabilitation protocols. This study aims to verify the UT/SA electromyographic (EMG) amplitude ratio, performed in different upper limb exercises and on two bases of support. Twelve healthy men were tested (average age = 22.8 +/- 3.1 years), and surface EMG was recorded from the upper trapezius and serratus anterior using single differential surface electrodes. Volunteers performed isometric contractions over a stable base of support and on a Swiss ball during the wall push-up (WP), bench press (BP), and push-up (PU) exercises. All SEMG data are reported as a percentage of root mean square or integral of linear envelope from the maximal value obtained in one of three maximal voluntary contractions for each muscle studied. A linear mixed-effect model was performed to compare UT/SA ratio values. The WP, BP, and PU exercises showed UT/SA ratio mean +/- SD values of 0.69 +/- 0.72, 0.14 +/- 0.12, and 0.39 +/- 0.37 for stable surfaces, respectively, whereas for unstable surfaces, the values were 0.73 +/- 0.67, 0.43 +/- 0.39, and 0.32 +/- 0.30. The results demonstrate that UT/SA ratio was influenced by the exercises and by the upper limb base of support. The practical application is to show that BP on a stable surface is the exercise preferred over WP and PU on either surfaces for serratus anterior muscle training in patients with imbalance between the UT/SA force couple or serratus anterior weakness.

  6. Children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    Parslow, Roxanne M; Harris, Sarah; Broughton, Jessica; Alattas, Adla; Crawley, Esther; Haywood, Kirstie; Shaw, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Objective To synthesis the qualitative studies of children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Design Systematic review and meta-ethnography. Background CFS/ME is an important disabling illness, with uncertain cause and prognosis. As a result, children with CFS/ME can find themselves living with greater uncertainty and stigma, exacerbating the impact of the condition. There is a growing body of qualitative research in CFS/ME, yet there has been no attempt to systematically synthesis the studies involving children. Methods Studies exploring the experiences of children diagnosed with CFS/ME, published or unpublished, using qualitative methods were eligible. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases were searched as well as grey literature, reference lists and contacting authors. Quality assessment was done independently using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Studies were synthesised using techniques of meta-ethnography. Results Ten studies involving 82 children with CFS/ME aged 8–18 were included. Our synthesis describes four third-order constructs within children's experiences: (1) disruption and loss: physical, social and the self; (2) barriers to coping: suspension in uncertainty, problems with diagnosis and disbelief; (3) facilitators to coping: reducing uncertainty, credible illness narratives, diagnosis and supportive relationships and (4) hope, personal growth and recovery. CFS/ME introduces profound biographical disruption through its effects on children's ability to socialise, perform school and therefore how they see their future. Unfamiliarity of the condition, problems with diagnosis and felt stigma prevent children from forming a new illness identity. Children adopt coping strategies such as building credible explanations for their illness. Conclusions Physical, social, emotional and self-dimensions of life should be included when treating and measuring outcomes from healthcare in

  7. Developing resources to support the diagnosis and management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalitis (CFS/ME) in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background NICE guidelines emphasise the need for a confident, early diagnosis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalitis (CFS/ME) in Primary Care with management tailored to the needs of the patient. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to make the diagnosis and resources for management are currently inadequate. This study aimed to develop resources for practitioners and patients to support the diagnosis and management of CFS/ME in primary care. Methods Semi structured interviews were conducted with patients, carers, GPs, practice nurses and CFS/ME specialists in North West England. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed qualitatively using open explorative thematic coding. Two patient involvement groups were consulted at each stage of the development of resources to ensure that the resources reflect everyday issues faced by people living with CFS/ME. Results Patients and carers stressed the importance of recognising CFS/ME as a legitimate condition, and the need to be believed by health care professionals. GPs and practice nurses stated that they do not always have the knowledge or skills to diagnose and manage the condition. They expressed a preference for an online training package. For patients, information on getting the most out of a consultation and the role of carers was thought to be important. Patients did not want to be overloaded with information at diagnosis, and suggested information should be given in steps. A DVD was suggested, to enable information sharing with carers and family, and also for those whose symptoms act as a barrier to reading. Conclusion Rather than use a top-down approach to the development of training for health care practitioners and information for patients and carers, we have used data from key stakeholders to develop a patient DVD, patient leaflets to guide symptom management and a modular e-learning resource which should equip GPs to diagnose and manage CFS/ME effectively, meet NICE guidelines

  8. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), and Chronic Fatigue (CF) are distinguished accurately: results of supervised learning techniques applied on clinical and inflammatory data.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Twisk, Frank N M; Johnson, Cort

    2012-12-30

    There is much debate on the diagnostic classification of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and chronic fatigue (CF). Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is stressed as a key feature. This study examines whether CF and CFS, with and without PEM, are distinct diagnostic categories. Fukuda's criteria were used to diagnose 144 patients with chronic fatigue and identify patients with CFS and CF, i.e. those not fulfilling the Fukuda's criteria. PEM was rated by means of a scale with defined scale steps between 0 and 6. CFS patients were divided into those with PEM lasting more than 24h (labeled: ME) and without PEM (labeled: CFS). The 12-item Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale was used to measure severity of illness. Plasma interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and lysozyme, and serum neopterin were employed as external validating criteria. Using fatigue, a subjective feeling of infection and PEM we found that ME, CFS, and CF were distinct categories. Patients with ME had significantly higher scores on concentration difficulties and a subjective experience of infection, and higher levels of IL-1, TNFα, and neopterin than patients with CFS. These biomarkers were significantly higher in ME and CFS than in CF patients. PEM loaded highly on the first two factors subtracted from the data set, i.e. "malaise-sickness" and "malaise-hyperalgesia". Fukuda's criteria are adequate to make a distinction between ME/CFS and CF, but ME/CFS patients should be subdivided into ME (with PEM) and CFS (without PEM).

  9. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  10. The status of and future research into Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: the need of accurate diagnosis, objective assessment, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Twisk, Frank N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are used interchangeably, the diagnostic criteria define two distinct clinical entities. Cognitive impairment, (muscle) weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after a minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME. This latter phenomenon separates ME, a neuro-immune illness, from chronic fatigue (syndrome), other disorders and deconditioning. The introduction of the label, but more importantly the diagnostic criteria for CFS have generated much confusion, mostly because chronic fatigue is a subjective and ambiguous notion. CFS was redefined in 1994 into unexplained (persistent or relapsing) chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of eight symptoms, e.g., headaches and unrefreshing sleep. Most of the research into ME and/or CFS in the last decades was based upon the multivalent CFS criteria, which define a heterogeneous patient group. Due to the fact that fatigue and other symptoms are non-discriminative, subjective experiences, research has been hampered. Various authors have questioned the physiological nature of the symptoms and qualified ME/CFS as somatization. However, various typical symptoms can be assessed objectively using standardized methods. Despite subjective and unclear criteria and measures, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g., immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neurological anomalies, circulatory deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, to improve future research standards and patient care, it is crucial that patients with post-exertional malaise (ME) and patients without this odd phenomenon are acknowledged as separate clinical entities that the diagnosis of ME and CFS in research and clinical practice is based upon accurate criteria and an objective assessment of characteristic symptoms

  11. Intermittent and graded exercise effects on NK cell degranulation markers LAMP-1/LAMP-2 and CD8(+)CD38(+) in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Suzanne; Coutts, Rosanne

    2017-03-01

    There is substantial evidence of immune system dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) but little is understood of exercise training effects on lymphocyte function in this illness. This study investigated whether graded and intermittent exercise improved CD8(+) lymphocyte activation and natural killer cell degranulation markers compared to no exercise. Twenty-four chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients (50.2 ± 10 year) were randomized to graded exercise (GE), intermittent exercise (IE) or usual care (UC) groups; a control group (CTL) of 18 matched sedentary non-CFS/ME participants were included for immunological variable comparisons. Main outcome measures were pre- and postintervention expression of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD38(+) and CD3(-)CD16(+)56(+)CD107a(+) (LAMP-1) CD107b(+) (LAMP-2) and aerobic exercise capacity. The postintervention percentage of NK cells expressing LAMP-1 and -2 was significantly higher in IE compared to UC, and higher in GE compared to UC and CTL LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 expression (absolute numbers and percent positive) increased significantly pre-to-postintervention for both GE and IE Preintervention, the absolute number of CD8(+)CD38(+) cells was significantly lower in CTL compared to UC and IE There were no significant pre- to postintervention changes in CD8(+)CD38(+) expression for any group. Aerobic exercise capacity was significantly improved by GE and IE Twelve weeks of GE and IE increased the expression of NK cell activation and degranulation markers, suggesting enhanced immunosurveillance. Low-intensity exercise may also reduce CD8(+)CD38(+) expression, a marker of inflammation. Both GE and IE improved exercise capacity without worsening CFS/ME symptoms, and more robust trials of these exercise modalities are warranted.

  12. The effects of shoulder joint abduction angles on the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle while vibrations are applied.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da-Eun; Moon, Dong-Chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the ratio between the upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles during diverse shoulder abduction exercises applied with vibrations in order to determine the appropriate exercise methods for recovery of scapular muscle balance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed shoulder abduction at various shoulder joint abduction angles (90°, 120°, 150°, 180°) with oscillation movements. [Results] At 120°, all the subjects showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle in comparison with the upper trapezius muscle. However, no significant difference was found at angles other than 120°. [Conclusion] To selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, applying vibration stimuli at the 120° shoulder abduction position is considered to be appropriate.

  13. EMG activity of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during the different phases of the push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces and different hand positions.

    PubMed

    Gioftsos, George; Arvanitidis, Michail; Tsimouris, Dimitrios; Kanellopoulos, Assimakis; Paras, George; Trigkas, Panagiotis; Sakellari, Vasiliki

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The appropriate exercise prescription is crucial for achieving scapular stability and providing successful rehabilitation, and the Push-up Plus (PuP) exercise has an important role in shoulder rehabilitation. Consequently, this study examined the effect of support surface stability, hand positioning, and phase of exercise, on the trapezius and serratus anterior muscle contractions as well as on the EMG ratio of the upper/lower trapezius. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The subjects performed the PuP exercise on stable and unstable supporting surfaces with three different hand orientations. During the PuP exercise, the muscle activities of the upper (UT) and lower (LT) trapezius, as well as the serratus anterior (SA) were measured and expressed as percentages of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). [Results] The EMG activities of UT and LT were statistically greater during the push-up phase compared to the plus phase of the exercise. The contrary was recorded for the activity of the SA. SA was affected by the support surface as well as by the hand positioning. [Conclusion] The results suggest that different phases of the PuP exercise require different muscle stability actions with corresponding activations of appropriate muscle fibers. A detailed prescription of the required phase of the exercise can more effectively activate the scapula-thoracic musculature.

  14. Variability in spatio-temporal pattern of trapezius activity and coordination of hand-arm muscles during a sustained repetitive dynamic task.

    PubMed

    Samani, Afshin; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high-density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women. Root-mean-square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MNF) were calculated for all EMG signals. The barycenter of RMS values over the HD-EMG grid was also determined, as well as normalized mutual information (NMI) for each pair of muscles. Cycle-to-cycle variability of these metrics was also assessed. With time, EMG RMS increased for most of the muscles, and MNF decreased. Trapezius activity became higher on the lateral side than on the medial side of the HD-EMG grid and the barycenter moved in a lateral direction. NMI between muscle pairs increased with time while its variability decreased. The variability of the metrics during the initial 10 % of task performance was not associated with the time to task termination. Our results suggest that the considerable variability in force and posture contained in the dynamic task per se masks any possible effects of differences between subjects in initial motor variability on the rate of fatigue development.

  15. Effect of the cervical flexion angle during smart phone use on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT). [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy adults. [Methods] Each subject sat on a chair, with his/her back against the wall and held a smart phone with both hands. Fatigue of the neck and shoulder muscles at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°) was measured by electromyography. The following muscles were assessed: the right upper trapezius (RtUT), left upper trapezius (LtUT), right cervical erector spinae (RtCES), and left cervical erector spinae (LtCES). A cervical range of motion instrument was attached to the subjects' heads to measure the cervical angle during the experiment. [Results] The RtUT and LtUT showed the highest muscle fatigue at a cervical flexion angle of 50° and the lowest fatigue at an angle of 30°. There was no significant difference in the muscle fatigue of the RtCES and LtCES at any of the cervical flexion angles. [Conclusion] UT muscle fatigue depends on the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone.

  16. A case of adult-onset reducing body myopathy presenting a novel clinical feature, asymmetrical involvement of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayuki; Hayashi, Shintaro; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Higuchi, Masa-Aki; Tsugawa, Jun; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2014-08-15

    We herein report a 32-year-old woman with adult-onset reducing body myopathy (RBM) who had a mutation in the four-and-a-half LIM domain 1 gene (FHL1) and showed a marked asymmetrical involvement of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. At 30 years of age she noticed bilateral foot drop, and over the next two years developed difficulty raising her right arm. At 32 years of age she was admitted to our hospital for a diagnostic evaluation. Neurological examination showed moderate weakness and atrophy of her right sternocleidomastoid muscle, right trapezius muscle, and bilateral upper proximal muscles. There were severe weakness and atrophy of her bilateral tibialis anterior muscles. Her deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive in her upper extremities. Her serum creatine kinase level was mildly increased. Muscle biopsy specimens from the left tibialis anterior muscle revealed marked variation in fiber size, some necrotic or regenerating fibers, and reducing bodies. Gene analysis of FHL1 demonstrated a mutation: a heterozygous missense mutation of c.377G>A (p. C126T) in FHL1. Compared with previous adult-onset RBM cases harboring mutations in FHL1, our case was characterized by asymmetrical atrophy of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.

  17. Selective activation of intra-muscular compartments within the trapezius muscle in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, C M; Juul-Kristensen, B; Olsen, H B; Holtermann, A; Søgaard, K

    2014-02-01

    Neuromuscular control of the scapular muscles is important in the etiology of shoulder pain. Electromyographical (EMG) biofeedback in healthy people has been shown to support a selective activation of the lower compartment of the trapezius muscle, specifically. The aim of the present paper was to investigate whether patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) were able to selectively activate the individual compartments within the trapezius muscle, with and without EMG biofeedback to the same extent as healthy controls (No-SIS). Fifteen SIS and 15 No-SIS participated in the study. Sessions with and without visual biofeedback were conducted. Surface EMG was recorded from four compartments of the trapezius muscle. Selective activation was defined as activation above 12% with other muscle parts below 1.5% or activation ratio at or above 95% of the total activation. Without biofeedback significantly fewer SIS subjects than No-SIS achieved selective activation (p=0.02-0.03). The findings of the study show that without biofeedback No-SIS had a superior scapular muscle control. However, when provided with visual EMG feedback the SIS group performed equally well as the No-SIS group. This indicated that individuals with SIS may benefit from biofeedback training to gain control of the neuromuscular function of the scapular muscle.

  18. EMG activity of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during the different phases of the push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces and different hand positions

    PubMed Central

    Gioftsos, George; Arvanitidis, Michail; Tsimouris, Dimitrios; Kanellopoulos, Assimakis; Paras, George; Trigkas, Panagiotis; Sakellari, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The appropriate exercise prescription is crucial for achieving scapular stability and providing successful rehabilitation, and the Push-up Plus (PuP) exercise has an important role in shoulder rehabilitation. Consequently, this study examined the effect of support surface stability, hand positioning, and phase of exercise, on the trapezius and serratus anterior muscle contractions as well as on the EMG ratio of the upper/lower trapezius. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The subjects performed the PuP exercise on stable and unstable supporting surfaces with three different hand orientations. During the PuP exercise, the muscle activities of the upper (UT) and lower (LT) trapezius, as well as the serratus anterior (SA) were measured and expressed as percentages of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). [Results] The EMG activities of UT and LT were statistically greater during the push-up phase compared to the plus phase of the exercise. The contrary was recorded for the activity of the SA. SA was affected by the support surface as well as by the hand positioning. [Conclusion] The results suggest that different phases of the PuP exercise require different muscle stability actions with corresponding activations of appropriate muscle fibers. A detailed prescription of the required phase of the exercise can more effectively activate the scapula-thoracic musculature. PMID:27512278

  19. Trapezius activity of fibromyalgia patients is enhanced in stressful situations, but is similar to healthy controls in a quiet naturalistic setting: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle activity and pain development of fibromyalgia (FM) patients in response to mental stress show inconsistent results, when compared to healthy controls (HCs). A possible reason for the inconsistent results is the large variation in stress exposures in different studies. This study compares muscle responses of FM patients and HCs for different modes and levels of imposed stress, to elucidate features in stress exposures that distinguish stress responses of FM patients from HCs. Methods Upper trapezius (clavicular and acromial fibers), deltoid, and biceps surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity was recorded in FM patients (n=26) and HCs (n=25). Heart rate (HR) was recorded and used as indicator of autonomic activation. Tests included inspiratory breath holding (sympathetic activation procedure), mental stress tests (color-word test and backward counting; 28 min), instructed rest prior to stress test (30 min TV watching), and controlled arm movement. sEMG and HR was also recorded during an unrestrained evening stay at a patient hotel. The 5-min period with lowest trapezius muscle activity was determined. Pain (shoulder/neck, low back pain) and perceived tension were scored on VAS scales at the start and the end of the stress test and at bedtime. Results Trapezius sEMG responses of FM patients were significantly higher than HCs during sympathetic activation, mental stress, and instructed rest, but similar during arm movement and unrestrained evening activity. HR of FM patients and HCs was similar during mental stress and in the evening, including the 5-min period with lowest trapezius activity. Muscle activity of FM patients during the stress test (with shoulder/neck pain development) and the evening stay (no pain development) was similar. Conclusions FM patients show elevated muscle activity (in particular trapezius activity) in situations with imposed stress, including sympathetic activation, and putative anticipatory stress. Muscle activity and

  20. Thickness of the lower trapezius and serratus anterior using ultrasound imaging during a repeated arm lifting task.

    PubMed

    Day, Joseph M; Uhl, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish the reliability for measuring scapular muscle thickness, and to examine how scapular muscle thickness changes with respect to external loads. Participants were asymptomatic subjects recruited from a sample of convenience. Thickness Measures were taken using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) under 11 conditions, rest and 10 progressive loads, for the Lower Trapezius (LT) and Serratus Anterior (SA). The procedures were repeated 1 week later to determine reliability. Bland and Altman limits of agreement and Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine reliability. Separate repeated measure ANOVAs were performed to determine differences in muscle thickness for both muscles across 3 conditions; rest and the 2 loaded conditions that represented the lowest and highest torque values. Results demonstrate good within and between day reliability for the LT (ICC = .86 to .99) and SA (ICC = .88 to .99). For the LT and SA, there were significant differences between the resting thickness and 2 lifting conditions (p ≤ .01) but not between the two lifting conditions. It was concluded that RUSI is reliable in measuring scapular muscle thickness. RUSI is sensitive enough to detect absolute changes in thickness from resting to a contracted state but unable to detect differences between loads imposed on the shoulder.

  1. Evaluation of dynamic changes in interstitial fluid proteome following microdialysis probe insertion trauma in trapezius muscle of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Turkina, Maria V.; Ghafouri, Nazdar; Gerdle, Björn; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2017-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) has been shown to be a promising technique for sampling of biomarkers. Implantation of MD probe causes an acute tissue trauma and provokes innate response cascades. In order to normalize tissue a two hours equilibration period for analysis of small molecules has been reported previously. However, how the proteome profile changes due to this acute trauma has yet to be fully understood. To characterize the early proteome events induced by this trauma we compared proteome in muscle dialysate collected during the equilibration period with two hours later in “post-trauma”. Samples were collected from healthy females using a 100 kDa MW cut off membrane and analyzed by high sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in stress response, immune system processes, inflammatory responses and nociception from extracellular and intracellular fluid spaces were identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be differentially abundant in samples collected during first two hours in comparison to “post-trauma”. Our data suggests that microdialysis in combination with mass spectrometry may provide potentially new insights into the interstitial proteome of trapezius muscle, yet should be further adjusted for biomarker discovery and diagnostics. Moreover, MD proteome alterations in response to catheter injury may reflect individual innate reactivity. PMID:28266628

  2. Impaired calcium mobilization in natural killer cells from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients is associated with transient receptor potential melastatin 3 ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S.; Clarke, L.; Smith, P.; Staines, D.; Marshall‐Gradisnik, S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily 3 (TRPM3) ion channels play a role in calcium (Ca2+) cell signalling. Reduced TRPM3 protein expression has been identified in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients. However, the significance of TRPM3 and association with intracellular Ca2+ mobilization has yet to be determined. Fifteen CFS/ME patients (mean age 48·82 ± 9·83 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 39·2 ± 12·12 years) were examined. Isolated natural killer (NK) cells were labelled with fluorescent antibodies to determine TRPM3, CD107a and CD69 receptors on CD56dimCD16+NK cells and CD56brightCD16dim/– NK cells. Ca2+ flux and NK cytotoxicity activity was measured under various stimulants, including pregnenolone sulphate (PregS), thapsigargin (TG), 2‐aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) and ionomycin. Unstimulated CD56brightCD16dim/– NK cells showed significantly reduced TRPM3 receptors in CFS/ME compared with healthy controls (HC). Ca2+ flux showed no significant difference between groups. Moreover, PregS‐stimulated CD56brightCD16dim/–NK cells showed a significant increase in Ca2+ flux in CFS/ME patients compared with HC. By comparison, unstimulated CD56dimCD16+ NK cells showed no significant difference in both Ca2+ flux and TRPM3 expression. PregS‐stimulated CD56dimCD16+ NK cells increased TRPM3 expression significantly in CFS/ME, but this was not associated with a significant increase in Ca2+ flux. Furthermore, TG‐stimulated CD56dimCD16+ NK cells increased K562 cell lysis prior to PregS stimulation in CFS/ME patients compared with HC. Differential expression of TRPM3 and Ca2+ flux between NK cell subtypes may provide evidence for their role in the pathomechanism involving NK cell cytotoxicity activity in CFS/ME. PMID:27727448

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and genotypes of transient receptor potential ion channel and acetylcholine receptor genes from isolated B lymphocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Johnston, Samantha; Chacko, Anu; Nguyen, Thao; Smith, Peter; Staines, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Objective The pathomechanism of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is unknown; however, a small subgroup of patients has shown muscarinic antibody positivity and reduced symptom presentation following anti-CD20 intervention. Given the important roles of calcium (Ca(2+)) and acetylcholine (ACh) signalling in B cell activation and potential antibody development, we aimed to identify relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotypes in isolated B cells from CFS/ME patients. Methods A total of 11 CFS/ME patients (aged 31.82 ± 5.50 years) and 11 non-fatigued controls (aged 33.91 ± 5.06 years) were included. Flow cytometric protocols were used to determine B cell purity, followed by SNP and genotype analysis for 21 mammalian TRP ion channel genes and nine mammalian ACh receptor genes. SNP association and genotyping analysis were performed using ANOVA and PLINK analysis software. Results Seventy-eight SNPs were identified in nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes in the CFS/ME group, of which 35 were in mAChM3. The remaining SNPs were identified in nAChR delta (n = 12), nAChR alpha 9 (n = 5), TRPV2 (n = 7), TRPM3 (n = 4), TRPM4 (n = 1) mAChRM3 2 (n = 2), and mAChRM5 (n = 3) genes. Nine genotypes were identified from SNPs in TRPM3 (n = 1), TRPC6 (n = 1), mAChRM3 (n = 2), nAChR alpha 4 (n = 1), and nAChR beta 1 (n = 4) genes, and were located in introns and 3' untranslated regions. Odds ratios for these specific genotypes ranged between 7.11 and 26.67 for CFS/ME compared with the non-fatigued control group. Conclusion This preliminary investigation identified a number of SNPs and genotypes in genes encoding TRP ion channels and AChRs from B cells in patients with CFS/ME. These may be involved in B cell functional changes, and suggest a role for Ca(2+) dysregulation in AChR and TRP ion channel signalling in the pathomechanism of CFS/ME.

  4. Natural killer cells and single nucleotide polymorphisms of specific ion channels and receptor genes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Huth, Teilah; Chacko, Anu; Johnston, Samantha; Smith, Pete; Staines, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this paper was to determine natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity and if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotypes in transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels and acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) were present in isolated NK cells from previously identified myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. Subjects and methods A total of 39 ME/CFS patients (51.69±2 years old) and 30 unfatigued controls (47.60±2.39 years old) were included in this study. Patients were defined according to the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Flow cytometry protocols were used to examine NK cytotoxic activity. A total of 678 SNPs from isolated NK cells were examined for 21 mammalian TRP ion channel genes and for nine mammalian AChR genes via the Agena Bioscience iPlex Gold assay. SNP association and genotype was determined using analysis of variance and Plink software. Results ME/CFS patients had a significant reduction in NK percentage lysis of target cells (17%±4.68%) compared with the unfatigued control group (31%±6.78%). Of the 678 SNPs examined, eleven SNPs for TRP ion channel genes (TRPC4, TRPC2, TRPM3, and TRPM8) were identified in the ME/CFS group. Five of these SNPs were associated with TRPM3, while the remainder were associated with TRPM8, TRPC2, and TRPC4 (P<0.05). Fourteen SNPs were associated with nicotinic and muscarinic AChR genes: six with CHRNA3, while the remainder were associated with CHRNA2, CHRNB4, CHRNA5, and CHRNE (P<0.05). There were sixteen genotypes identified from SNPs in TRP ion channels and AChRs for TRPM3 (n=5), TRPM8 (n=2), TRPC4 (n=3), TRPC2 (n=1), CHRNE (n=1), CHRNA2 (n=2), CHRNA3 (n=1), and CHRNB4 (n=1) (P<0.05). Conclusion We identified a number of SNPs and genotypes for TRP ion channels and AChRs from isolated NK cells in patients with ME/CFS, suggesting these SNPs and genotypes may be involved in changes in NK cell function and the development of ME/CFS pathology

  5. Impaired calcium mobilization in natural killer cells from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients is associated with transient receptor potential melastatin 3 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T; Johnston, S; Clarke, L; Smith, P; Staines, D; Marshall-Gradisnik, S

    2017-02-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily 3 (TRPM3) ion channels play a role in calcium (Ca(2+) ) cell signalling. Reduced TRPM3 protein expression has been identified in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients. However, the significance of TRPM3 and association with intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization has yet to be determined. Fifteen CFS/ME patients (mean age 48·82 ± 9·83 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 39·2 ± 12·12 years) were examined. Isolated natural killer (NK) cells were labelled with fluorescent antibodies to determine TRPM3, CD107a and CD69 receptors on CD56(dim) CD16(+) NK cells and CD56(bright) CD16(dim/-) NK cells. Ca(2+) flux and NK cytotoxicity activity was measured under various stimulants, including pregnenolone sulphate (PregS), thapsigargin (TG), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) and ionomycin. Unstimulated CD56(bright) CD16(dim/-) NK cells showed significantly reduced TRPM3 receptors in CFS/ME compared with healthy controls (HC). Ca(2+) flux showed no significant difference between groups. Moreover, PregS-stimulated CD56(bright) CD16(dim/-) NK cells showed a significant increase in Ca(2+) flux in CFS/ME patients compared with HC. By comparison, unstimulated CD56(dim) CD16(+) NK cells showed no significant difference in both Ca(2+) flux and TRPM3 expression. PregS-stimulated CD56(dim) CD16(+) NK cells increased TRPM3 expression significantly in CFS/ME, but this was not associated with a significant increase in Ca(2+) flux. Furthermore, TG-stimulated CD56(dim) CD16(+) NK cells increased K562 cell lysis prior to PregS stimulation in CFS/ME patients compared with HC. Differential expression of TRPM3 and Ca(2+) flux between NK cell subtypes may provide evidence for their role in the pathomechanism involving NK cell cytotoxicity activity in CFS/ME.

  6. Prevalence of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in three regions of England: a repeated cross-sectional study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been used to name a range of chronic conditions characterized by extreme fatigue and other disabling symptoms. Attempts to estimate the burden of disease have been limited by selection bias, and by lack of diagnostic biomarkers and of agreed reproducible case definitions. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS in three regions in England, and discussed the implications of frequency statistics and the use of different case definitions for health and social care planning and for research. Methods We compared the clinical presentation, prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS based on a sample of 143,000 individuals aged 18 to 64 years, covered by primary care services in three regions of England. Case ascertainment involved: 1) electronic search for chronic fatigue cases; 2) direct questioning of general practitioners (GPs) on cases not previously identified by the search; and 3) clinical review of identified cases according to CDC-1994, Canadian and Epidemiological Case (ECD) Definitions. This enabled the identification of cases with high validity. Results The estimated minimum prevalence rate of ME/CFS was 0.2% for cases meeting any of the study case definitions, 0.19% for the CDC-1994 definition, 0.11% for the Canadian definition and 0.03% for the ECD. The overall estimated minimal yearly incidence was 0.015%. The highest rates were found in London and the lowest in East Yorkshire. All but one of the cases conforming to the Canadian criteria also met the CDC-1994 criteria, however presented higher prevalence and severity of symptoms. Conclusions ME/CFS is not uncommon in England and represents a significant burden to patients and society. The number of people with chronic fatigue who do not meet specific criteria for ME/CFS is higher still. Both groups have high levels of need for service provision, including health and social care. We suggest

  7. A Pair of Identical Twins Discordant for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Differ in Physiological Parameters and Gut Microbiome Composition

    PubMed Central

    Giloteaux, Ludovic; Hanson, Maureen R.; Keller, Betsy A.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 34 Final Diagnosis: ME/CFS Symptoms: Exertion intolerance • loss of functional capacity • pain • severe fatigue Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cardiopulmonary exercise test Specialty: Sports Medicine Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) present with profound fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, post-exertional malaise (PEM), and exacerbation of some or all of the baseline symptoms. Case Report: We report on a pair of 34-year-old monozygotic twins discordant for ME/CFS, with WELL, the non-affected twin, and ILL, the affected twin. Both twins performed a two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), preand post-exercise blood samples were drawn, and both provided stool samples for biochemical and molecular analyses. At peak exertion for both CPETs, ILL presented lower VO2peak and peak workload compared to WELL. WELL demonstrated normal reproducibility of VO2@ventilatory/anaerobic threshold (VAT) during CPET2, whereas ILL experienced an abnormal reduction of 13% in VAT during CPET2. A normal rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, creatinine, and ferritin content was observed following exercise for both WELL and ILL at each CPET. ILL showed higher increases of resistin, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) after exercise compared to WELL. The gut bacterial microbiome and virome were examined and revealed a lower microbial diversity in ILL compared to WELL, with fewer beneficial bacteria such as Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium, and an expansion of bacteriophages belonging to the tailed dsDNA Caudovirales order. Conclusions: Results suggest dysfunctional immune activation in ILL following exercise and that prokaryotic viruses may contribute to mucosal inflammation and bacterial dysbiosis. Therefore, a two-day CPET and molecular

  8. Why myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) may kill you: disorders in the inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways may explain cardiovascular disorders in ME/CFS.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Twisk, Frank Nm

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that disorders in inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways and a lowered antioxidant status are important pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Important precipitating and perpetuating factors for ME/CFS are (amongst others) bacterial and viral infections; bacterial translocation due to an increased gut permeability; and psychological stress. Recently, Jason et al (2006) reported that the mean age of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome dying from heart failure, i.e. 58.7 years, is significantly lower than the age of those dying from heart failure in the general US population, i.e. 83.1 years. These findings implicate that ME/CFS is a risk factor to cardio-vascular disorder. This review demonstrates that disorders in various IO&NS pathways provide explanations for the earlier mortality due to cardiovascular disorders in ME/CFS. These pathways are: a) chronic low grade inflammation with extended production of nuclear factor kappa B and COX-2 and increased levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha; b) increased O&NS with increased peroxide levels, and phospholipid oxidation including oxidative damage to phosphatidylinositol; c) decreased levels of specific antioxidants, i.e. coenzyme Q10, zinc and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate; d) bacterial translocation as a result of leaky gut; e) decreased omega-3 polyunsatutared fatty acids (PUFAs), and increased omega-6 PUFA and saturated fatty acid levels; and f) the presence of viral and bacterial infections and psychological stressors. The mechanisms whereby each of these factors may contribute towards cardio-vascular disorder in ME/CFS are discussed. ME/CFS is a multisystemic metabolic-inflammatory disorder. The aberrations in IO&NS pathways may increase the risk for cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Taping across the upper trapezius muscle reduces activity during a standardized typing task - an assessor-blinded randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Delbridge, Blane Michael; Johnston, Venerina

    2015-02-01

    Clinically, taping is believed to alter muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate: (1) whether taping across the upper trapezius (UT) muscle influenced the level of UT and lower trapezius (LT) muscle activity and the ratio of these activities (UT/LT ratio) during a static typing task; and (2) if the activity of these muscles varied with the application of tensioned taping. Forty-two healthy participants performed a 15-min typing task on three separate occasions under one of three conditions: taping applied perpendicular to the UT fibers with tension; taping without tension; and no taping. Activity of the UT and LT muscles was assessed using surface electromyography. Between conditions, significant differences were found in the change of the normalized amplitude in the UT activity (p=.027) and UT/LT ratio (p=.024) but not in the LT activity (p=.93). Compared with the no taping condition, the UT activity was less in both the tensioned taping (p=.009) and the non-tensioned taping (p=.004). There was no difference between the two taping conditions in the change of the UT (p=.91) activity and the UT/LT ratio (p=.92). In conclusion, both tensioned and non-tensioned taping across the UT muscle reduces its activity during a typing task.

  10. The neurophysiological effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: study protocol of a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). There is no report on the neurophysiological effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. The aim of the present study will be to assess the immediate neurophysiological efficacy of deep DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. Methods and analysis A prospective, controlled clinical trial was designed to include patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and volunteered healthy participants to receive one session of DN. The primary outcome measures are neuromuscular junction response and sympathetic skin response. The secondary outcomes are pain intensity and pressure pain threshold. Data will be collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has been approved by the Research Council, School of Rehabilitation and the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results of the study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. PMID:23793673

  11. The effect of over-commitment and reward on trapezius muscle activity and shoulder, head, neck, and torso postures during computer use in the field

    PubMed Central

    Bruno Garza, Jennifer L.; Eijckelhof, Belinda H.W.; Huysmans, Maaike A.; Catalano, Paul J.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Johnson, Peter W.; van Dieen, Jaap H.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reported associations of psychosocial factors and computer related musculoskeletal symptoms, we investigated the effects of a workplace psychosocial factor, reward, in the presence of over-commitment, on trapezius muscle activity and shoulder, head, neck, and torso postures during computer use. Methods We measured 120 office workers across four groups (lowest/highest reward/over-commitment), performing their own computer work at their own workstations over a 2 hour period. Results Median trapezius muscle activity (p=0.04) and median neck flexion (p=0.03) were largest for participants reporting simultaneously low reward and high over-commitment. No differences were observed for other muscle activities or postures. Conclusions These data suggest that the interaction of reward and over-commitment can affect upper extremity muscle activity and postures during computer use in the real work environment. This finding aligns with the hypothesized biomechanical pathway connecting workplace psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms of the neck and shoulder. PMID:23818000

  12. Trapezius muscle rest time during standardised computer work--a comparison of female computer users with and without self-reported neck/shoulder complaints.

    PubMed

    Thorn, S; Søgaard, K; Kallenberg, L A C; Sandsjö, L; Sjøgaard, G; Hermens, H J; Kadefors, R; Forsman, M

    2007-08-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the shoulder/neck area are a common and increasing problem among European computer workers, especially women. Long-term low-level workloads with low degree of muscle rest are a potential risk factor for developing WMSDs. The purpose of the present study of female computer users (age 45-65 years) in Denmark and Sweden was to investigate if subjects with self-reported neck/shoulder complaints (cases, N=35) show less trapezius muscle relative rest time (RRT) than controls (N=44) when performing standardised short-term computer work tasks in controlled laboratory conditions. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded bilaterally from the upper trapezius muscles during a type, edit, precision and colour word stress task. Besides RRT, 10th percentile RMS values were calculated. On the average, 15 of the cases and 18 of the controls showed analysable EMG files per task. For the colour word stress task, the results showed lower RRT values and higher 10th percentile RMS amplitude levels among cases compared to controls. No such signs could be found for the other tasks performed. The present results indicate an increased motor response to a psychological stressor among subjects with self-reported neck/shoulder complaints.

  13. Evidence for the Use of Ischemic Compression and Dry Needling in the Management of Trigger Points of the Upper Trapezius in Patients with Neck Pain: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cagnie, Barbara; Castelein, Birgit; Pollie, Flore; Steelant, Lieselotte; Verhoeyen, Hanne; Cools, Ann

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the effects of ischemic compression and dry needling on trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle in patients with neck pain and compare these two interventions with other therapeutic interventions aiming to inactivate trigger points. Both PubMed and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials using different key word combinations related to myofascial neck pain and therapeutic interventions. Four main outcome parameters were evaluated on short and medium term: pain, range of motion, functionality, and quality-of-life, including depression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included in this systematic review. There is moderate evidence for ischemic compression and strong evidence for dry needling to have a positive effect on pain intensity. This pain decrease is greater compared with active range of motion exercises (ischemic compression) and no or placebo intervention (ischemic compression and dry needling) but similar to other therapeutic approaches. There is moderate evidence that both ischemic compression and dry needling increase side-bending range of motion, with similar effects compared with lidocaine injection. There is weak evidence regarding its effects on functionality and quality-of-life. On the basis of this systematic review, ischemic compression and dry needling can both be recommended in the treatment of neck pain patients with trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Additional research with high-quality study designs are needed to develop more conclusive evidence.

  14. Palmitoylethanolamide and stearoylethanolamide levels in the interstitium of the trapezius muscle of women with chronic widespread pain and chronic neck-shoulder pain correlate with pain intensity and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, Nazdar; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Britt; Stensson, Niclas; Fowler, Christopher J; Gerdle, Björn

    2013-09-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a complex condition characterized by central hyperexcitability and altered descending control of nociception. However, nociceptive input from deep tissues is suggested to be an important drive. N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid mediators involved in regulation of inflammation and pain. Previously we have reported elevated levels of the 2 NAEs, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α ligand N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-stearoylethanolamine (SEA) in chronic neck/shoulder pain (CNSP). In the present study, the levels of PEA and SEA in women with CWP (n=18), CNSP (n=34) and healthy controls (CON, n=24) were investigated. All subjects went through clinical examination, pressure pain threshold measurements and induction of experimental pain in the tibialis anterior muscle. Microdialysis dialysate of the trapezius was collected before and after subjects performed a repetitive low-force exercise and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The levels of PEA and SEA in CNSP were significantly higher post exercise compared with CWP, and both pre and post exercise compared with CON. Levels of both NAEs decreased significantly pre to post exercise in CWP. Intercorrelations existed between aspects of pain intensity and sensitivity and the level of the 2 NAEs in CWP and CNSP. This is the first study demonstrating that CNSP and CWP differ in levels of NAEs in response to a low-force exercise which induces pain. Increases in pain intensity as a consequence of low-force exercise were associated with low levels of PEA and SEA in CNSP and CWP. These results indicate that PEA and SEA have antinociceptive roles in humans.

  15. Comparison of Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, and Serratus Anterior Muscle Activity during Push-up plus Exercise on Slings and a Stable Surface.

    PubMed

    Jeong, So Young; Chung, Sin Ho; Shim, Jae Hun

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify effects of push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces on upper extremity muscular activity. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 students (10 males, 18 females) at B University. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up plus exercises either on slings or on a fixed support. [Results] Push-up plus exercises on slings showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the trapezius (upper fiber), deltoid (anterior fiber), and serratus anterior muscles compared with stabilization exercises on a fixed support. [Conclusion] Based on these results, it is considered that performance of the push-up plus exercise on slings will increase scapular muscle activity.

  16. Evaluation of the Immediate Effect of Auricular Acupuncture on Pain and Electromyographic Activity of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Nonspecific Neck Pain: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Sham-Controlled, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andréia Cristina de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; dos Santos, Douglas Meira; Melo, Nivea Cristina De; Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Amorim, César Ferreira; Politti, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of auricular acupuncture (AA) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper trapezius muscle and pain in nonspecific neck pain (NS-NP) patients. Twelve patients with NS-NP (NS-NP group) and 12 healthy subjects (HS Group) were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Each subject received a single session of AA and sham AA (SAA). Surface EMG activity was measured in the upper trapezius muscle at different “step contractions” of isometric shoulder elevation (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% MVC). The outcome measure in patients with NS-NP was based on the numerical pain rating scale (NRS). AA treatment led to a significant decrease in EMG activity in both groups (NS-NP group: p = 0.0001; HS group: p < 0.0001—ANOVA test). This was not the case for the SAA treatment (NS-NP group: p = 0.71; HS group: p < 0.54). Significant decreases (p < 0.001) in the NRS were found for both treatments (AA and SAA). This study demonstrated the immediate effect of auricular acupuncture on the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle but the effect of this intervention on pain symptoms in patients with nonspecific neck pain was inconclusive. PMID:26451155

  17. Support for the Microgenderome: Associations in a Human Clinical Population

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Amy; Butt, Henry; Ball, Michelle; Lewis, Donald P.; Bruck, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    The ‘microgenderome’ provides a paradigm shift that highlights the role of sex differences in the host-microbiota interaction relevant for autoimmune and neuro-immune conditions. Analysis of cross-sectional self-report and faecal microbial data from 274 patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) suggests that commensal gut microorganisms may play both protective and deleterious roles in symptom expression. Results revealed significant sex-specific interactions between Firmicutes (Clostridium, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus) and ME/CFS symptoms (including neurological, immune and mood symptoms), regardless of compositional similarity in microbial levels across the sexes. Extending animal studies, we provide support for the microgenderome in a human clinical population. Applied and mechanistic research needs to consider sex-interactions when examining the composition and function of human microbiota. PMID:26757840

  18. Genetic parameters for image analysis traits on M. longissimus thoracis and M. trapezius of carcass cross section in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Osawa, T; Kuchida, K; Hidaka, S; Kato, T

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, the degree of marbling in ribeye (M. longissimus thoracis) is evaluated in the beef meat grading process. However, other muscles (e.g., M. trapezius) are also important in determining the meat quality and carcass market prices. The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for M. longissimus thoracis (M-LONG) and M. trapezius (M-TRAP) of carcass cross section of Japanese Black steers by computer image analysis. The number of records of Japanese Black steers and the number of pedigree records were 2,925 and 10,889, respectively. Digital images of the carcass cross section were taken between the sixth and seventh ribs by photographing equipment. Muscle area (MA), fat area ratio (FAR), overall coarseness of marbling particles (OCM), and coarseness of maximum marbling particle (MMC) in M-LONG and M-TRAP were calculated by image analysis. Genetic parameters for these traits were estimated using the AIREMLF90 program with an animal model. Fixed effects that were included in the model were dates of arrival at the carcass market and slaughter age (mo), and random effects of fattening farms, additive genetic effects and residuals were included in the model. For M-LONG, heritability estimates (+/-SE) were 0.46 +/- 0.06, 0.59 +/- 0.06, 0.47 +/- 0.06, and 0.20 +/- 0.05 for MA, FAR, OCM, and MMC, respectively. Heritability estimates (+/-SE) in M-TRAP were 0.47 +/- 0.06, 0.57 +/- 0.07, 0.49 +/- 0.07, and 0.13 +/- 0.04 for the same traits. Genetic correlations between subcutaneous fat thickness and FAR for M-LONG and M-TRAP were negative (-0.21 and -0.19, respectively). Those correlations between M-LONG and M-TRAP were moderate to high for MA, FAR, OCM, and MMC (0.38, 0.52, 0.39, and 0.60, respectively). These results indicate that other muscles including M-LONG should be evaluated for more efficient genetic improvement.

  19. Combining microdialysis and near-infrared spectroscopy for studying effects of low-load repetitive work on the intramuscular chemistry in trapezius myalgia.

    PubMed

    Flodgren, Gerd M; Crenshaw, Albert G; Hellström, Fredrik; Fahlström, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological research provides strong evidence for a link between repetitive work (RW) and the development of chronic trapezius myalgia (TM). The aims were to further elucidate if an accumulation of sensitising substances or impaired oxygenation is evident in painful muscles during RW. Females with TM (n = 14) were studied during rest, 30 minutes RW and 60 minutes recovery. Microdialysate samples were obtained to determine changes in intramuscular microdialysate (IMMD) [glutamate], [PGE(2)], [lactate], and [pyruvate] (i.e., [concentration]) relative to work. Muscle oxygenation (%StO(2)) was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy. During work, all investigated substances, except PGE(2), increased significantly: [glutamate] (54%, P < .0001), [lactate] (26%, P < .005), [pyruvate] (19%, P < .0001), while the %StO(2) decreased (P < .05). During recovery [PGE(2)] decreased (P < .005), [lactate] remained increased (P < .001), [pyruvate] increased progressively (P < .0001), and %StO(2) had returned to baseline. Changes in substance concentrations and oxygenation in response to work indicate normal increase in metabolism but no ongoing inflammation in subjects with TM.

  20. Comparative study of shock wave therapy and Laser therapy effect in elimination of symptoms among patients with myofascial pain syndrome in upper trapezius

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Parisa; Vahdatpour, Babak; Andalib, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of laser therapy and shock wave therapy for symptoms treatment among patients with MPS in the upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 46 patients were selected based on the clinical criteria and physiathrist diagnosis. Subjects were randomized into two groups as follows: Twenty individuals were assigned to exercise-medication-laser therapy group, and 26 to exercise-medication-shock wave therapy group. The pain was assessed based on visual analog scale (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), and SPADI in three stages: Before treatment, subsequently after treatment, and a month after treatment. Results: One man and 19 women, age group of 45.3 ± 7.7 years, were assigned into laser therapy group. Two men and 24 women, average age group of 42.3 ± 10.4 were assigned into shock wave therapy group. A significant difference was found among our study groups before treatment and after starting treatment for VAS, NDI, and SPDI indices, that is, two methods of treatments were effective (P < 0.001). However, among these two treatment methods, laser therapy provided higher effect on VAS and NDI as compared to the radial shock wave method (P < 0.05) in 2 weeks from starting the treatment (consequent to treatment). Conclusion: According to this study results, we can conclude that shock wave and laser therapy results on similar effect in long-term for relieve of pain and eliminating symptoms in patients with myofascial but laser provides a faster optimal results. PMID:27656607

  1. Efficacy of EMLA cream phonophoresis comparison with ultrasound therapy on myofascial pain syndrome of the trapezius: a single-blind, randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ustun, Nilgun; Arslan, Fatma; Mansuroglu, Ayhan; Inanoglu, Deniz; Yagız, Abdullah Erman; Guler, Hayal; Turhanoglu, Ayse Dicle

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream phonophoresis superior to conventional US over the trigger points (TPs) in terms of improvements of pain, range of motion and disability in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Fifty patients (42 female, 8 male) diagnosed with MPS were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including phonophoresis (PH) group (n = 25) and ultrasound (US) group (n = 25). PH group received EMLA cream phonophoresis (2.5 % lidocaine, 2.5 % prilocaine); US group received conventional ultrasound therapy over the all active TPs on trapezius muscle for 10 min a day for 15 sessions. Outcome measures were performed before the treatment course and at the end of a 15-session course of treatment. Student T, Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. At the end of the therapy, there was statistically significant decrease in both PH group and US group in terms of number of trigger point (NTP) (p = 0.001, p = 0.029), pain intensity on movement (p = 0.001 vs. 0.002) and right/left cervical lateral ROMs (p = 0.001/p = 0.001, p = 0.009/p = 0.020) relative to baseline. The NTP decrease in PH group was significantly higher than that in US group (1.84 ± 1.46 vs. 0.72 ± 1.45; p = 0.01). Pain intensity at rest (p = 0.001) and NPDI scores (p = 0.001) were statistically improvement in only PH group. EMLA cream phonophoresis is more effective than conventional ultrasound therapy in terms of pain and associated neck disability, and it seems the complementary treatment option for MPS.

  2. Serum BAFF and APRIL Levels, T-Lymphocyte Subsets, and Immunoglobulins after B-Cell Depletion Using the Monoclonal Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Sigrid; Kristoffersen, Einar K.; Sapkota, Dipak; Risa, Kristin; Dahl, Olav; Bruland, Ove; Mella, Olav; Fluge, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease of unknown etiology. We have previously suggested clinical benefit from B-cell depletion using the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in a randomized and placebo-controlled study. Prolonged responses were then demonstrated in an open-label phase-II study with maintenance rituximab treatment. Using blood samples from patients in the previous two clinical trials, we investigated quantitative changes in T-lymphocyte subsets, in immunoglobulins, and in serum levels of two B-cell regulating cytokines during follow-up. B-lymphocyte activating factor of the tumor necrosis family (BAFF) in baseline serum samples was elevated in 70 ME/CFS patients as compared to 56 healthy controls (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences in baseline serum BAFF levels between patients with mild, moderate, or severe ME/CFS, or between responders and non-responders to rituximab. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) serum levels were not significantly different in ME/CFS patients compared to healthy controls at baseline, and no changes in serum levels were seen during follow-up. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets and T-cell activation markers at multiple time points during follow-up showed no significant differences over time, between rituximab and placebo groups, or between responders and non-responders to rituximab. Baseline serum IgG levels were significantly lower in patients with subsequent response after rituximab therapy compared to non-responders (p = 0.03). In the maintenance study, slight but significant reductions in mean serum immunoglobulin levels were observed at 24 months compared to baseline; IgG 10.6–9.5 g/L, IgA 1.8–1.5 g/L, and IgM 0.97–0.70 g/L. Although no functional assays were performed, the lack of significant associations of T- and NK-cell subset numbers with B-cell depletion, as well as the lack of associations to clinical responses, suggest that B

  3. Comparison between ultrasound-guided interfascial pulsed radiofrequency and ultrasound-guided interfascial block with local anesthetic in myofascial pain syndrome of trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ik Tae; Cho, Yun Woo; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Chang, Min Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the trapezius muscle (TM) is a frequently occurring musculoskeletal disorder. However, the treatment of MPS of the TM remains a challenge. We investigated the effects of ultrasound (US)-guided pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation on the interfascial area of the TM. In addition, we compared its effect with that of interfascial block (IFB) with 10 mL of 0.6% lidocaine on the interfascial area of the TM. Thirty-six patients with MPS of the TM were included and randomly assigned into 2 groups. Eighteen patients underwent PRF stimulation on the interfascial area of the TM (PRF group) and 18 patients underwent IFB with lidocaine on the same area (IFB group). Pain intensity was evaluated using a numerical rating scale (NRS) at pretreatment, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatment. At pretreatment and 8 weeks after treatment, quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), which includes the physical component score (PCS) and the mental component score (MCS). One patient in the PRF group was lost to follow-up. Patients in both groups showed a significant decrease in NRS scores at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments and a significant increase in PCS and MCS of the SF-36 at 8 weeks after treatments. Two weeks after each treatment, the decrements of NRS scores were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, 4 and 8 weeks after the procedures, we found that the NRS score was significantly lower in the PRF group than in the IFB group. At 8 weeks after the treatments, PCS and MCS of the SF-36 in the PRF group were significantly higher than those in the IFB group. For the management of MPS of the TM, US-guided interfascial PRF had a better long-term effect on reducing the pain and the quality of life compared to US-guided IFB. Therefore, we think US-guided PRF stimulation on the interfascial area of the TM can be a beneficial alternative to manage the pain following MPS of the TM. PMID:28151904

  4. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p < 0.001, KT—p < 0.001, and sham—p < 0.01). The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  5. Comparison of the Short-Term Outcomes after Postisometric Muscle Relaxation or Kinesio Taping Application for Normalization of the Upper Trapezius Muscle Tone and the Pain Relief: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Slupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Kołcz-Trzęsicka, Anna; Zwierzchowski, Kamil; Halska, Urszula; Przestrzelska, Monika; Mucha, Dariusz; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the resting bioelectrical activity of the upper trapezius muscle (the UT muscle) before and after one of the two interventions: postisometric muscle relaxation (PIR) and Kinesio Taping (KT). Moreover a comparison between group results was conducted. From the initial 61 volunteers, 52 were selected after exclusion criteria and were allocated randomly to 2 groups: PIR group and KT group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and completion of the intervention. The primary outcome measure was change in bioelectrical activity of UT muscle evaluated by surface electromyography (sEMG). Secondary outcomes included subjective assessment of pain using visual analogue scale (VAS). Significant differences were found only in KT group: the average resting bioelectrical activity decreased by 0.8 μV (p = 0.0237) and the average VAS result reduced by 2.0 points (p = 0.0001). Greater decrease of VAS results was recorded in KT group compared to PIR group (p = 0.0010). Both PIR and KT intervention did not influence significantly the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle. KT application was better for pain relief in the studied sample compared with PIR intervention. PMID:26347792

  6. Herpesviruses dUTPases: A New Family of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Proteins with Implications for Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Marshall V.; Cox, Brandon; Ariza, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    The human herpesviruses are ubiquitous viruses and have a prevalence of over 90% in the adult population. Following a primary infection they establish latency and can be reactivated over a person’s lifetime. While it is well accepted that human herpesviruses are implicated in numerous diseases ranging from dermatological and autoimmune disease to cancer, the role of lytic proteins in the pathophysiology of herpesvirus-associated diseases remains largely understudies. Only recently have we begun to appreciate the importance of lytic proteins produced during reactivation of the virus, in particular the deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolases (dUTPase), as key modulators of the host innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review, we provide evidence from animal and human studies of the Epstein–Barr virus as a prototype, supporting the notion that herpesviruses dUTPases are a family of proteins with unique immunoregulatory functions that can alter the inflammatory microenvironment and thus exacerbate the immune pathology of herpesvirus-related diseases including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. PMID:28036046

  7. Herpesviruses dUTPases: A New Family of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Proteins with Implications for Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marshall V; Cox, Brandon; Ariza, Maria Eugenia

    2016-12-28

    The human herpesviruses are ubiquitous viruses and have a prevalence of over 90% in the adult population. Following a primary infection they establish latency and can be reactivated over a person's lifetime. While it is well accepted that human herpesviruses are implicated in numerous diseases ranging from dermatological and autoimmune disease to cancer, the role of lytic proteins in the pathophysiology of herpesvirus-associated diseases remains largely understudies. Only recently have we begun to appreciate the importance of lytic proteins produced during reactivation of the virus, in particular the deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolases (dUTPase), as key modulators of the host innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review, we provide evidence from animal and human studies of the Epstein-Barr virus as a prototype, supporting the notion that herpesviruses dUTPases are a family of proteins with unique immunoregulatory functions that can alter the inflammatory microenvironment and thus exacerbate the immune pathology of herpesvirus-related diseases including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

  8. Sensitivity of PCR Assays for Murine Gammaretroviruses and Mouse Contamination in Human Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li Ling; Lin, Lin; Bell, David S.; Levine, Susan; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2012-01-01

    Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV) have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples. PMID:22629404

  9. Reflex (unloading) and (defensive capitulation) responses in human neck muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Corna, S; Ito, Y; von Brevern, M; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1996-01-01

    1. We studied unloading and stretch responses in human neck muscle during manoeuvres in which the head pulled against a 2-3 kg weight which could be abruptly released or applied electromagnetically. 2. During head tracking in pitch, unloading of the weight induced inhibition of EMG in the contracting sternocleidomastoid at a mean latency of 24.9 ms in normal subjects and at 41 ms in bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects, with antagonist (trapezius) excitation at 30.5 and 41.3 ms, respectively. During tracking in yaw, unloading induced inhibition in the contracting splenius capitis (SpC) at a mean latency of 20.4 ms in normal subjects and 25 ms in labyrinthine-defective subjects, with excitation in the antagonist SpC at 22.2 and 24 ms, respectively. 3. If subjects tried to resist an unexpected sideways tug on the head a burst occurred in the stretched SpC at a mean latency of 53.5 ms. When subjects relaxed there was excitation of the shortening of SpC at 75.9 ms, which assisted the imposed motion and is possibly a "defensive reflex". PMID:8910241

  10. Distribution of Neuron Cell Bodies in the Intraspinal Portion of the Spinal Accessory Nerve in Humans.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Karl E; Kondrashov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The spinal accessory nerve is often identified as a purely motor nerve innervating the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Although it may contain proprioceptive neurons found in cervical spinal levels C2-C4, limited research has focused on the histology of the spinal accessory nerve. The objective of the present study was to examine the spinal accessory nerve to determine if there are neuronal cell bodies within the spinal accessory nerve in humans. Cervical spinal cords were dissected from eight cadavers that had previously been used for dissection in other body regions. The segmental rootlets were removed to quantify the neuron cell bodies present at each spinal level. Samples were embedded in paraffin; sectioned; stained with hematoxylin and eosin; and examined using a microscope at 4×, 10×, and 40× magnification. Digital photography was used to image the samples. Neuronal cell bodies were found in 100% of the specimens examined, with non-grossly visible ganglia found at spinal levels C1-C4. The C1 spinal level of the spinal accessory nerve had the highest number of neuron cell bodies.

  11. 78 FR 15371 - Drug Development for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... treatment regimens. On April 26, 2013, there will be discussions with academic and Government experts... interventions. Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on April 25, 2013, from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m., and on... Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm....

  12. An 'overwhelming illness': women's experiences of learning to live with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Catherine R; Thompson, Andrew R; Blair, Alan

    2007-03-01

    The processes through which people learn to live with CFS/ME are poorly understood and have not been rigorously explored within the literature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants initially described being 'overwhelmed' by CFS/ME. Attempts at seeking help were unsatisfactory and participants described feeling let down and disbelieved. Participants reacted to this by identifying types of 'self-help' and assertively taking more responsibility for their illness and its treatment. Acquiring social support and greater knowledge were key mediating factors in the emergence of control and acceptance. The relevance of the themes to existing research and the implications for clinical practice are considered.

  13. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  14. Humanizing the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dennis

    1983-01-01

    Reviews some of the steps taken at Shoreline Community College to develop cooperative programs involving vocational and academic faculty, including the creation of a Humanities Advisory Council. Briefly describes some of the cooperative programs, e.g., symposia on critical issues in higher education, guest lectures, and high school outreach. (AYC)

  15. Humanity and human DNA.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Genetics has marked the second half of the 20th century by addressing such formidable problems as the identification of our genes and their role, their interaction with the environment, and even their therapeutic uses. The identification of genes raises questions about differences between humans and non-humans, as well as about the evolution towards trans-humanism and post-humanism. In practise, however, the main question concerns the limits of prenatal genetic diagnosis, not only on account of the seriousness of the affections involved but also because of the choice to be made between following-up the medical indication and engaging in a systematic public health strategy aimed at eliminating children with certain handicaps. History reminds us that genetic science has already been misused by political forces influenced by the ideas of eugenics, particularly in the Nazi period. We may wonder whether it is reasonable to formulate a judgement on the life of a child yet to be born, merely on the basis of a DNA analysis. My experience as a practising geneticist and my involvement in French politics forces me to stress the dangers of a new eugenics hiding behind a medical mask. As demonstrated by epigenetics, human beings cannot be reduced to their DNA alone. In our society, one of the problems concerns individuals whose lives may be considered by some as simply not worth living. Another problem is the place and the social significance of the handicapped amongst us. Fortunately, recent progresses in gene therapy, biotherapy, and even pharmacology, appear to be opening up promising therapeutic perspectives. We should bear in mind that the chief vocation of medical genetics, which fully belongs to the art of medicine, is to heal and to cure. This is precisely where genetics should concentrate its efforts software.

  16. Human Augmentics: augmenting human evolution.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Robert V; Leigh, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Human Augmentics (HA) refers to technologies for expanding the capabilities, and characteristics of humans. One can think of Human Augmentics as the driving force in the non-biological evolution of humans. HA devices will provide technology to compensate for human biological limitations either natural or acquired. The strengths of HA lie in its applicability to all humans. Its interoperability enables the formation of ecosystems whereby augmented humans can draw from other realms such as "the Cloud" and other augmented humans for strength. The exponential growth in new technologies portends such a system but must be designed for interaction through the use of open-standards and open-APIs for system development. We discuss the conditions needed for HA to flourish with an emphasis on devices that provide non-biological rehabilitation.

  17. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  18. Evaluation of Physiological and Psychological Impairment of Human Performance in Cold Stressed Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-23

    instruction and practice in use of the Firearms Training System (F.A.T.S.)(Firearms Training System, Inc ., Norcroqs, Georgia), Complex Cognitive Assessment...Battery I5 (CCAB)(USARI, 1988), step climbing exerciser (Precor 718e, Precor, Inc .) and the rest of the procedures and protocol (electrode hookup... Inc .) approximately 8 cm past the anus. Surface 5 electromyogram electrodes (Model #D550. AA Biomedical, Inc .) were placed on the trapezius, pectoralis

  19. Teaching humanism.

    PubMed

    Stern, David T; Cohen, Jordan J; Bruder, Ann; Packer, Barbara; Sole, Allison

    2008-01-01

    As the "passion that animates authentic professionalism," humanism must be infused into medical education and clinical care as a central feature of medicine's professionalism movement. In this article, we discuss a current definition of humanism in medicine. We will also provide detailed descriptions of educational programs intended to promote humanism at a number of medical schools in the United States (and beyond) and identify the key factors that make these programs effective. Common elements of programs that effectively teach humanism include: (1) opportunities for students to gain perspective in the lives of patients; (2) structured time for reflection on those experiences; and (3) focused mentoring to ensure that these events convert to positive, formative learning experiences. By describing educational experiences that both promote and sustain humanism in doctors, we hope to stimulate the thinking of other medical educators and to disseminate the impact of these innovative educational programs to help the profession meet its obligation to provide the public with humanistic physicians.

  20. Changes in respiratory activity induced by mastication during oral breathing in humans.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effect of oral breathing on respiratory movements, including the number of respirations and the movement of the thoracic wall at rest and while chewing gum. Forty normal nose breathers were selected by detecting expiratory airflow from the mouth using a CO2 sensor. Chest measurements were recorded using a Piezo respiratory belt transducer, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and trapezius muscles were recorded at rest and while chewing gum during nasal or oral breathing. Oral breathing was introduced by completely occluding the nostrils with a nose clip. During oral breathing, the respiration rate was significantly lower while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). While chewing gum, the respiration rate was significantly lower during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). During oral breathing, thoracic movement was significantly higher while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). Thoracic movement was significantly greater during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). The trapezius muscle exhibited significant EMG activity when chewing gum during oral breathing. The activity of the trapezius muscle coincided with increased movement of the thoracic wall. Chewing food while breathing through the mouth interferes with and decreases the respiratory cycle and promotes unusual respiratory movement of the thoracic wall, which is directed by the activity of accessory muscles of respiration.

  1. Human cloning and human dignity.

    PubMed

    Birnbacher, Dieter

    2005-03-01

    Judging from the official documents dealing with the moral and legal aspects of human reproductive cloning there seems to be a nearly worldwide consensus that reproductive cloning is incompatible with human dignity. The certainty of this judgement is, however, not matched by corresponding arguments. Is the incompatibility of reproductive with human dignity an ultimate moral intuition closed to further argument? The paper considers several ways by which the intuition might be connected with more familiar applications of the concept of human dignity, and argues that there is no such connection. It concludes that the central objections to human reproductive cloning are not objections relating to dignity but objections relating to risk, especially the risks imposed on children born in the course of testing the method's safety.

  2. Human rights

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J Enoch

    1977-01-01

    What are human rights? In this article Enoch Powell, MP (a former Conservative Minister of Health), approaches this question through a critical discussion of Article 25 (I) of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Professor R S Downie in his accompanying commentary analyses Mr Powell's statements and takes up in particular Mr Powell's argument that claiming rights for one person entails compulsion on another person. In Professor Downie's view there is nothing in Article 25 (I) that cannot embody acceptable moral rights, the commonly accepted interpretation of that Article of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights which many people think is wholly acceptable. PMID:604483

  3. Human Infrastructure & Human Activity Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    researchers are developing sensors systems that detect footfalls (or gait ) [1, 2], speech, the spectral response of human skin, etc [3]. Little work has...cone shaped field of view. • Visible imagers can capture color or grayscale video for human gait detection and object recognition. • Infrared...his/her gait produces a unique signature [13]. Indirect means of detecting personnel include the usage of acoustic, seismic, magnetic, passive

  4. Human monkeypox.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus with a presentation similar to smallpox. Clinical differentiation of the disease from smallpox and varicella is difficult. Laboratory diagnostics are principal components to identification and surveillance of disease, and new tests are needed for a more precise and rapid diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where surveillance in rural areas with poor infrastructure is difficult but can be accomplished with evidence-guided tools and educational materials to inform public health workers of important principles. Contemporary epidemiological studies are needed now that populations do not receive routine smallpox vaccination. New therapeutics and vaccines offer hope for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox; however, more research must be done before they are ready to be deployed in an endemic setting. There is a need for more research in the epidemiology, ecology, and biology of the virus in endemic areas to better understand and prevent human infections.

  5. Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in the treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) - a clinical audit

    PubMed Central

    Myhill, Sarah; Booth, Norman E; McLaren-Howard, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on an audit of 138 ME/CFS patients who attended a private practice and took the ATP Profile biomedical test. The results revealed that all of these patients had measureable mitochondrial dysfunction. A basic treatment regime, based on 1) eating the evolutionary correct stone-age diet, 2) ensuring optimum hours of good quality sleep, 3) taking a standard package of nutritional supplements, and 4) getting the right balance between work and rest, was recommended for all patients. Additions to the basic regime were tailored for each patient according to the results of the ATP Profile and additional nutritional tests and clues from the clinical history. Mitochondrial function is typically impaired in two ways: substrate or co-factor deficiency, and inhibition by chemicals, exogenous or endogenous. For the former, additional nutrients are recommended where there is a deficiency, and for the latter, improvement of anti-oxidant status and selective chelation therapy or far-infrared saunas are appropriate. We show case histories of nine patients who have taken the ATP Profile on three or four occasions, and a before-and-after treatment summary of the 34 patients who have had at least two ATP Profile tests separated by some months. Finally, we summarize the results for the 30 patients who followed all aspects of the treatment regime and compare them with the 4 patients who were lax on two or more aspects of the treatment regime. All patients who followed the treatment regime improved in mitochondrial function by on average a factor of 4. PMID:23236553

  6. Human Interface to Netcentricity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    to human communication involves communications initiated by applications or devices for human consumption. Examples include intelligent agents...AKO) are all examples of human to machine communication. • Human to Human: Human to human communication in a net-centric environment can be...the discussion will center on providing options for improving human to human communication . It is our position that an emphasis on human to human

  7. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  8. Classical Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donn; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot course in humanities team-taught by three teachers, two from a senior high-school and one from a junior high-school, in Brookfield, Wisconsin. The specific subject matter is Greek and Roman culture. The curriculum is outlined and the basic reading list is included. (CLK)

  9. Humanizing Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the history and the mathematics used by Newton and Leibniz in their invention of calculus. The exploration of this topic is intended to show students that mathematics is a human invention. Suggestions are made to help teachers incorporate the mathematics and the history into their own lessons. (Contains 3…

  10. Nothing Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  11. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  12. Human Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Inman, Verne T.

    1966-01-01

    The development of bipedal plantigrade progression is a purely human, and apparently learned, accomplishment. Experimental findings confirm the hypothesis that the human body will integrate the motion of various segments of the body and control the activity of muscles to minimize energy expenditure. Movements which are integrated for this purpose include vertical displacement of the body, horizontal rotation of the pelvis, mediolateral pelvic tilt, flexion of the knee, plantar flexion of the ankle and foot, lateral displacement of the torso and rotation of the shoulder girdle. Raising and lowering the body results in gains and losses of potential energy, and acceleration and deceleration result in gains and losses of kinetic energy. The motions are so co-ordinated that a transfer of energy back and forth from kinetic to potential occurs during walking, which tends to minimize total energy expenditure as well as muscle work. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5942660

  13. Humane reproduction.

    PubMed

    1974-03-01

    Discusses social, economic, and humane considerations in population control. Mental health aspects of controlled fertility are considered in relation to the family's psychosocial and material resources, the effects of reproduction on the individual the family, and community, and the advantages and disadvantages of controlled reproduction. A distinction between family planning and population control is outlined. It is suggested that there is hardly a single more effective tool for preventing psychological disorders than the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Analyses of educational and medical services and methods of birth control are presented. A comprehensive neighborhood health station, which would consolidate these services, is suggested. It is concluded that humane programs of reproduction would lead to a reconciliation of biological drives with a responsible concern for the quality of life.

  14. Human genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    This text provides full and balanced coverage of the concepts requisite for a thorough understanding of human genetics. Applications to both the individual and society are integrated throughout the lively and personal narrative, and the essential principles of heredity are clearly presented to prepare students for informed participation in public controversies. High-interest, controversial topics, including recombinant DNA technology, oncogenes, embryo transfer, environmental mutagens and carcinogens, IQ testing, and eugenics encourage understanding of important social issues.

  15. Human Metapneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jennifer E; Williams, John V

    2014-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a paramyxovirus identified in 2001, is a leading cause of respiratory tract infections in both children and adults. Seroprevalence studies demonstrate that the primary infection occurs before the age of 5 years, and humans are reinfected throughout life. The four subgroups of HMPV occur with year-to-year variability, and infection with one subgroup confers some serologic cross-protection. Experimental vaccines elicit a humoral response in both animal and human models and have been used to identify antigenic determinants. The main target of protective antibodies is the fusion (F) protein, although many of the remaining eight proteins are immunogenic. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the F protein are both protective and therapeutic in animal models. Most recently, the identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus demonstrates that common epitopes are present between the two viruses. Broadly neutralizing mAbs have significant clinical implications for prophylaxis and treatment of high-risk hosts as well as vaccine development.

  16. Human evolution.

    PubMed

    Wood, B

    1996-12-01

    The common ancestor of modern humans and the great apes is estimated to have lived between 5 and 8 Myrs ago, but the earliest evidence in the human, or hominid, fossil record is Ardipithecus ramidus, from a 4.5 Myr Ethiopian site. This genus was succeeded by Australopithecus, within which four species are presently recognised. All combine a relatively primitive postcranial skeleton, a dentition with expanded chewing teeth and a small brain. The most primitive species in our own genus, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, are little advanced over the australopithecines and with hindsight their inclusion in Homo may not be appropriate. The first species to share a substantial number of features with later Homo is Homo ergaster, or 'early African Homo erectus', which appears in the fossil record around 2.0 Myr. Outside Africa, fossil hominids appear as Homo erectus-like hominids, in mainland Asia and in Indonesia close to 2 Myr ago; the earliest good evidence of 'archaic Homo' in Europe is dated at between 600-700 Kyr before the present. Anatomically modern human, or Homo sapiens, fossils are seen first in the fossil record in Africa around 150 Kyr ago. Taken together with molecular evidence on the extent of DNA variation, this suggests that the transition from 'archaic' to 'modern' Homo may have taken place in Africa.

  17. Human suffering.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    10 measures of quality of life are used to rank 141 countries in the International Human Suffering Index (HSI). The Index differentiates between extreme, high, moderate, and minimal levels of human suffering. Social welfare is the sum of 10 measures: life expectancy, daily caloric intake, clean drinking water, infant immunization, secondary school enrollment, gross national product per capita, the rate of inflation, communication technology (i.e., telephones), political freedom, and civil rights. Each measure is ranked between 0 and 10. The highest score indicates the greatest country stress, with the worst possible score being 100. About 1 billion people live in desperate poverty. Living conditions are the worst in Mozambique (93), followed by Somalia, Afghanistan, Haiti, and Sudan. Most of these countries also have high population growth. The most comfortable countries are Denmark (1), the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, and Canada, which have low population growth. Total scores of 75 or greater (extreme human suffering) occur in 27 countries (20 in Africa, 16 in Asia, and Haiti) with 8% of the world's population (432 million people). High human suffering scores range between 50 and 74 and include 56 countries (24 in Africa, 16 in Asia, 15 in the Western Hemisphere, and 1 in Oceania) with 3.5 billion people. The number of countries in this grouping increased from 44 countries with 58% of world population in 1987. Moderate suffering scores range from 25-49. Countries with moderate suffering number 34 countries (9 in Europe, 13 in Asia, 8 in the Western Hemisphere, and 2 in Oceania and 2 in Africa) with 11.8% of world population (636 million). Over the preceding 5-year period the number of countries increased from 29 countries with 10% of world population. Minimal human suffering occurs in 24 countries (17 in Europe, Israel and Japan in Asia; Canada, the US, and Barbados in the Western Hemisphere; and Australia and New Zealand in Oceania) with 14.8% of world

  18. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  19. Human Heredity: Genetic Mechanisms in Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Discussed are some of the uncertainties in human genetic mechanisms that are often presented as dogma in Biology textbooks. Presented is a brief historical background and illustrations involving chromosome abnormality in humans and linkage studies in humans. (CW)

  20. Human Astroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pintó, Rosa M.; Guix, Susana

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human astroviruses (HAtVs) are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that were discovered in 1975. Astroviruses infecting other species, particularly mammalian and avian, were identified and classified into the genera Mamastrovirus and Avastrovirus. Through next-generation sequencing, many new astroviruses infecting different species, including humans, have been described, and the Astroviridae family shows a high diversity and zoonotic potential. Three divergent groups of HAstVs are recognized: the classic (MAstV 1), HAstV-MLB (MAstV 6), and HAstV-VA/HMO (MAstV 8 and MAstV 9) groups. Classic HAstVs contain 8 serotypes and account for 2 to 9% of all acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Infections are usually self-limiting but can also spread systemically and cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients. The other groups have also been identified in children with gastroenteritis, but extraintestinal pathologies have been suggested for them as well. Classic HAstVs may be grown in cells, allowing the study of their cell cycle, which is similar to that of caliciviruses. The continuous emergence of new astroviruses with a potential zoonotic transmission highlights the need to gain insights on their biology in order to prevent future health threats. This review focuses on the basic virology, pathogenesis, host response, epidemiology, diagnostic assays, and prevention strategies for HAstVs. PMID:25278582

  1. Human schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Daniel G; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Secor, W Evan; King, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis—or bilharzia—is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flukes of the genus Schistosoma. By conservative estimates, at least 230 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma spp. Adult schistosome worms colonise human blood vessels for years, successfully evading the immune system while excreting hundreds to thousands of eggs daily, which must either leave the body in excreta or become trapped in nearby tissues. Trapped eggs induce a distinct immune-mediated granulomatous response that causes local and systemic pathological effects ranging from anaemia, growth stunting, impaired cognition, and decreased physical fitness, to organ-specific effects such as severe hepatosplenism, periportal fibrosis with portal hypertension, and urogenital inflammation and scarring. At present, preventive public health measures in endemic regions consist of treatment once every 1 or 2 years with the isoquinolinone drug, praziquantel, to suppress morbidity. In some locations, elimination of transmission is now the goal; however, more sensitive diagnostics are needed in both the field and clinics, and integrated environmental and health-care management will be needed to ensure elimination. PMID:24698483

  2. Human schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Colley, Daniel G; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Secor, W Evan; King, Charles H

    2014-06-28

    Human schistosomiasis--or bilharzia--is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flukes of the genus Schistosoma. By conservative estimates, at least 230 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma spp. Adult schistosome worms colonise human blood vessels for years, successfully evading the immune system while excreting hundreds to thousands of eggs daily, which must either leave the body in excreta or become trapped in nearby tissues. Trapped eggs induce a distinct immune-mediated granulomatous response that causes local and systemic pathological effects ranging from anaemia, growth stunting, impaired cognition, and decreased physical fitness, to organ-specific effects such as severe hepatosplenism, periportal fibrosis with portal hypertension, and urogenital inflammation and scarring. At present, preventive public health measures in endemic regions consist of treatment once every 1 or 2 years with the isoquinolinone drug, praziquantel, to suppress morbidity. In some locations, elimination of transmission is now the goal; however, more sensitive diagnostics are needed in both the field and clinics, and integrated environmental and health-care management will be needed to ensure elimination.

  3. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  4. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  5. Building artificial humans to understand humans.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The answer to this question is not so easy. In human-android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android, and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can be defined from two perspectives: one by organic mechanism and the other by appearance. Further, the current rapid progress in artificial organs makes this distinction confusing. The approach discussed in this article is to create artificial humans with humanlike appearances. The developed artificial humans, an android and a geminoid, can be used to improve understanding of humans through psychological and cognitive tests conducted using the artificial humans. We call this new approach to understanding humans android science.

  6. Human Rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  7. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  8. Humane Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Eileen S.; Westerlund, Stuart R.

    This booklet traces the historical development of human education as it has been instilled into the young people of America from colonial times to the present and provides a future prognosis of humaneness in the schools. Humane education promotes humane behavior and is an important part of the humane movement in the United States, although until…

  9. Human Research Risk Management

    NASA Video Gallery

    Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) investigates and mitigates the highest risks to human health and per...

  10. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  11. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  12. What Are the Humanities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Francis

    A working definition of the humanities and characteristics of a liberally educated person are specified. The humanities embrace areas of human knowledge that possess these elements: central concern for human beings rather than for the processes of nature or the structures of society; primary focus on the individual rather than on the group;…

  13. Cooperation in human teaching.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Ann Cale

    2015-01-01

    Kline's evolutionary analysis of teaching provides welcome reframing for cross-species comparisons. However, theory based on competition cannot explain the transmission of human cultural elements that were collectively created. Humans evolved in a cultural niche and teaching-learning coevolved to transmit culture. To study human cultural variation in teaching, we need a more articulated theory of this distinctively human engagement.

  14. Visualizing Humans by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the problems and techniques involved in visualizing humans in a three-dimensional scene. Topics discussed include human shape modeling, including shape creation and deformation; human motion control, including facial animation and interaction with synthetic actors; and human rendering and clothing, including textures and…

  15. Special Section: Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  16. Human Research Program Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of HRP is to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Human Research Program was designed to meet the needs of human space exploration, and understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions.

  17. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  18. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    PubMed

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  19. Economics of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  20. Mice with human livers.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections.

  1. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija

    2005-09-01

    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which ... infections? Can HPV infections be prevented? What HPV vaccines are available? Who should get the HPV vaccines? ...

  3. Telling the Human Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  4. Mining human antibody repertoires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become drugs of choice for the management of an increasing number of human diseases. Human antibody repertoires provide a rich source for human mAbs. Here we review the characteristics of natural and non-natural human antibody repertoires and their mining with non-combinatorial and combinatorial strategies. In particular, we discuss the selection of human mAbs from naïve, immune, transgenic and synthetic human antibody repertoires using methods based on hybridoma technology, clonal expansion of peripheral B cells, single-cell PCR, phage display, yeast display and mammalian cell display. Our reliance on different strategies is shifting as we gain experience and refine methods to the efficient generation of human mAbs with superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:20505349

  5. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  6. Human genomic variation

    PubMed Central

    Disotell, Todd R

    2000-01-01

    The recent completion and assembly of the first draft of the human genome, which combines samples from several ethnically diverse males and females, provides preliminary data on the extent of human genetic variation. PMID:11178257

  7. Indicators: Human Disturbance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human disturbance is a measure of the vulnerability of aquatic resources to a variety of harmful human activities such as tree removal, road building, construction near shorelines/streambanks, and artificial hardening of lakeshores with retaining walls.

  8. Human assisted robotic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  10. Human Melioidosis, Malawi, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Katangwe, Thembi; Purcell, Janet; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Denis, Brigitte; Montgomery, Jacqui; Alaerts, Maaike; Heyderman, Robert Simon; Dance, David A.B.; Kennedy, Neil; Feasey, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A case of human melioidosis caused by a novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei occurred in a child in Malawi, southern Africa. A literature review showed that human cases reported from the continent have been increasing. PMID:23735189

  11. Human bites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  12. Pathfinder: Humans in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the Pathfinder program. Information is given on human exploration of the solar system, technical requirements interfaces, program objectives, space suits, human performance, man-machine systems, space habitats, life support systems, and artificial gravity

  13. Human productivity program definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The optimization of human productivity on the space station within the existing resources and operational constraints is the aim of the Human Productivity Program. The conceptual objectives of the program are as follows: (1) to identify long lead technology; (2) to identify responsibility for work elements; (3) to coordinate the development of crew facilities and activities; and (4) to lay the foundation for a cost effective approach to improving human productivity. Human productivity work elements are also described and examples are presented.

  14. Human Rights Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrano, Elias, Comp.

    This document provides information about 25 programs/brochures which focus on human rights topics. Specific topics include: (1) counselor preparation; (2) multicultural awareness; (3) abuse and neglect; (4) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; (5) self-awareness; (6) human rights awareness and human rights of students; (7) cultural diversity; (8)…

  15. The Virtual Physiological Human

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V.; Diaz, Vanessa; Hunter, Peter; Kohl, Peter; Viceconti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human is synonymous with a programme in computational biomedicine that aims to develop a framework of methods and technologies to investigate the human body as a whole. It is predicated on the transformational character of information technology, brought to bear on that most crucial of human concerns, our own health and well-being.

  16. Robotics of human movements.

    PubMed

    van der Smagt, Patrick; Grebenstein, Markus; Urbanek, Holger; Fligge, Nadine; Strohmayr, Michael; Stillfried, Georg; Parrish, Jonathon; Gustus, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    The construction of robotic systems that can move the way humans do, with respect to agility, stability and precision, is a necessary prerequisite for the successful integration of robotic systems in human environments. We explain human-centered views on robotics, based on the three basic ingredients (1) actuation; (2) sensing; and (3) control, and formulate detailed examples thereof.

  17. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  18. [Eugenics and human cloning].

    PubMed

    Boloz, W

    2001-01-01

    Because of legislative bans there are still no reports of human cloning. However eager public debate is currently running, concerning medical, legal, social and ethical aspects of human cloning. Arguments for and against human cloning are presented. An important argument against cloning is the danger of eugenic tendencies connected with cloning, which could lead to genetic discrimination.

  19. Humanities in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendler, Helen

    1982-01-01

    In order that the humanities survive in America and that they find a place in the American community, learning should begin with arts. It is by the natural reciprocity between the arts and the humanities that the humanities can be made most accessible in the community. (MLW)

  20. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  1. A Human Rights Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  2. Humanism in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, S

    1993-09-01

    Emergency medicine has not yet appropriated "humanism" as a term of its own. Medical humanism needs to be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the practical goals of emergency medicine. In this essay, humanism in emergency medicine is defined by identifying the dehumanizing aspects of sudden illness and exploring of ways for sustaining the humanity of emergency department patients. Excerpts from Dr Oliver Sacks' autobiographical work A Leg to Stand On give voice to the human needs created by sudden illness and its treatment.

  3. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  4. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  5. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  6. Human rights and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2008-05-01

    In the first part of this article we survey the concept of human rights from a philosophical perspective and especially in relation to the "right to healthcare". It is argued that regardless of meta-ethical debates on the nature of rights, the ethos and language of moral deliberation associated with human rights is indispensable to any ethics that places the victim and the sufferer in its centre. In the second part we discuss the rise of the "right to privacy", particularly in the USA, as an attempt to make the element of personal free will dominate over the element of basic human interest within the structure of rights and when different rights seem to conflict. We conclude by discussing the relationship of human rights with moral values beyond the realm of rights, mainly human dignity, free will, human rationality and response to basic human needs.

  7. Human research subjects as human research workers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Holly Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme governing human subjects research is counter-intuitively less protective than the labor and employment laws applicable to many workers. This Article relies on analogical and legal reasoning to demonstrate that this should not be the case; in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. Bearing these important similarities in mind, the question becomes whether there is any good reason to treat subjects and protected workers differently as a matter of law. With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly.

  8. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  9. [The embryo, the human and the humanized].

    PubMed

    Roa, A

    1992-03-01

    Since the moment of fecundation the human embryo is endowed with the properties of unity and uniqueness and its existence is therefore inviolable. Disputing arguments against this thesis are analyzed. Recent views of some biologists negate the human character to the embryo since the essence of a human being would be its cultural nature and ability to communicate. However, the embryo contains all the genetic information that will allow him to develop the ability to communicate. Any attempt to separate the 3 moments of time, past present and future is a definitive violation of ethics. A basic foundation of ethics is that present and future are implicit in the past and vice-versa. Finally, the idea that the unwanted child is not a cultural being should be discarded.

  10. Chimeras and human dignity.

    PubMed

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2008-12-01

    Discussions about whether new biomedical technologies threaten or violate human dignity are now common. Indeed, appeals to human dignity have played a central role in national and international debates about whether to allow particular kinds of biomedical investigations. The focus of this paper is on chimera research. I argue here that both those who claim that particular types of human-nonhuman chimera research threaten human dignity and those who argue that such threat does not exist fail to make their case. I first introduce some of the arguments that have been offered supporting the claim that the creation of certain sorts of chimeras threatens or violates human dignity. I next present opponents' assessments of such arguments. Finally I critically analyze both the critics' and the supporters' claims about whether chimera research threatens human dignity.

  11. Human Performance in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  12. Dry Needling Alters Trigger Points in the Upper Trapezius Muscle and Reduces Pain in Subjects with Chronic Myofascial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Lynn H.; Shah, Jay; Rosenberger, William; Armstrong, Kathryn; Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Heimur, Juliana; Thaker, Nikki; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether dry needling of an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) reduces pain and alters the status of the trigger point to either a non-spontaneously tender nodule or its resolution. Design A prospective, non-randomized, controlled interventional clinical study Setting University campus Participants Fifty-six subjects with neck or shoulder girdle pain > 3 months duration and active MTrPs were recruited from a campus-wide, volunteer sample. Fifty-two completed the study (23 male/33 female) with mean age of 35.8 years. Interventions Three weekly dry needling treatments of a single active MTrP Main Outcome Measures Primary Outcomes: Baseline and post treatment evaluations of pain using the verbal analogue scale, the Brief Pain Inventory and the status of the MTrP as determined by digital palpation. Trigger points were rated: active (spontaneously painful), latent (requiring palpation to reproduce the characteristic pain) and resolved (no palpable nodule). Secondary Outcomes: Profile of Mood States, Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form 36, Cervical Range of Motion. Results Primary outcomes: 41 subjects had a change in trigger point status from active to latent or resolved; and 11 had no change (p < .001). Reduction in all pain scores was significant (p<.001). Secondary outcomes: significant improvement in post-treatment cervical rotational asymmetry in subjects with unilateral/bilateral MTrPs (p=.001, p=21, respectively); in pain pressure threshold in subjects with unilateral/bilateral MTrPs, (p=.006, p=.012), respectively; improvement in the SF-36 mental health and physical functioning subscales (p=.019, p=.03) respectively; decrease in the Oswestry disability scale (p=.003). Conclusions Dry needling reduces pain and changes MTrP status. Change in trigger point status is associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in pain. Reduction in pain is associated with improved mood, function and level of disability. PMID:25661462

  13. [Human physiology: kidney].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  14. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  15. BNST neurocircuitry in humans

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Suzanne N.; Clauss, Jacqueline A.; Winder, Danny G.; Woodward, Neil; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and addiction disorders are two of the most common mental disorders in the United States, and are typically chronic, disabling, and comorbid. Emerging evidence suggests the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediates both anxiety and addiction through connections with other brain regions, including the amygdala and nucleus accumbens. Although BNST structural connections have been identified in rodents and a limited number of structural connections have been verified in non-human primates, BNST connections have yet to be described in humans. Neuroimaging is a powerful tool for identifying structural and functional circuits in vivo. In this study, we examined BNST structural and functional connectivity in a large sample of humans. The BNST has structural and functional connections with multiple subcortical regions, including limbic, thalamic, and basal ganglia structures, confirming structural findings in rodents. We describe two novel connections in the human brain that have not been previously reported in rodents or non-human primates, including structural connections with the temporal pole, and functional connections with the paracingulate gyrus. The findings of this study provide a map of the BNST’s structural and functional connectivity across brain in healthy humans. In large part, the BNST neurocircuitry in humans is similar to findings from rodents and non-human primates; however, several connections are unique to humans. Future explorations of BNST neurocircuitry in anxiety and addiction disorders have the potential to reveal novel mechanisms underlying these disabling psychiatric illnesses. PMID:24444996

  16. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  17. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  18. The psychology of humanness.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.

  19. Competent human research personnel.

    PubMed

    Arford, Patricia H; Knowles, Marilyn B; Sneed, Nancee V

    2008-12-01

    The process of conducting human research is highly regulated, rigorous, detailed oriented, potentially harmful, and, hopefully, beneficial. Health professionals learn how to critique, design, analyze, and apply human research but have minimal education in how to conduct human research. Successful completion of a 24-hour course was mandated for research support personnel to enhance the protection of human subjects, improve the integrity of data collected, and ensure cost-effective results. Routine audits demonstrated that the course substantially improved the documentation of the informed consent process, source documentation, protocol adherence, and regulatory compliance.

  20. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  1. Human Mind Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  2. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  3. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  4. Human Simulated Diving Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

    1979-01-01

    This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

  5. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  6. The great human expansion.

    PubMed

    Henn, Brenna M; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Feldman, Marcus W

    2012-10-30

    Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today's human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth's habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the "serial founder effect." In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution.

  7. Human Powered Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  8. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect public health and safeguard the environment. Risk assessment is an integral part of this mission in that it identifies and characterizes environmentally related human health problems. The Human Health Re...

  9. Annotated Humanities Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Richard R.; Applebee, Arthur

    The humanities programs offered in 1968 by 227 United States secondary schools are listed alphabetically by state, including almost 100 new programs not annotated in the 1967 listing (see TE 000 224). Each annotation presents a brief description of the approach to study used in the particular humanities course (e.g., American Studies, Culture…

  10. English and "Humanities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, David

    1973-01-01

    Defends English instruction against the current trend of integrating such classes into humanities programs, arguing for the uniqueness and unpredictability of all experience and the human capacity to recreate, share, and evaluate experience as is taught in English. (Author/RB)

  11. Investigating the Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Richard L.; Peterson, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    A project entitled "Investigating the Human Experience," which was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, enables the College of DuPage to conduct a series of free films in various off-campus facilities. Documentaries and recent TV specials are shown, followed by a group discussion moderated by an instructor from the…

  12. Being Human in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dorothy J.; Fahey, Brian W.

    The structure of humanness as the unique and essential being of the individual, constantly emerging through experience and the actualization of human potential within the sports environment, is the central theme of this book. Sport is defined broadly to include all forms of physical activity experiences. Each chapter represents an inquiry unique…

  13. Methods in human cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  15. Environment and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; And Others

    As a conference report, the booklet is primarily devoted to abstracts of papers presented at a Conference on Environment and Humanities held in Tallahassee, Florida, April 25-27, 1976. Dr. Huston Smith of Syracuse University, the main speaker, addressed the issue of "Humanities and Environmental Awareness." Other topics discussed…

  16. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  17. Human Dignity Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlie, Arthur L.

    A major educational need, as assessed by a committee of teachers, students, and community members, is to recognize acceptance of human dignity as the ultimate value in decision making. This concept provides a basis for the elementary and secondary social studies program. Although the concept of human dignity was promoted with the signing of the…

  18. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  19. Human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, J S; Keating, A; Hozumi, N

    1997-01-01

    Human gene therapy and its application for the treatment of human genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, cancer, and other diseases, are discussed. Gene therapy is a technique in which a functioning gene is inserted into a human cell to correct a genetic error or to introduce a new function to the cell. Many methods, including retroviral vectors and non-viral vectors, have been developed for both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer into cells. Vectors need to be developed that efficiently transfer genes to target cells, and promoter systems are required that regulate gene expression according to physiologic needs of the host cell. There are several safety and ethical issues related to manipulating the human genome that need to be resolved. Current gene therapy efforts focus on gene insertion into somatic cells only. Gene therapy has potential for the effective treatment of genetic disorders, and gene transfer techniques are being used for basic research, for example, in cancer, to examine the underlying mechanism of disease. There are still many technical obstacles to be overcome before human gene therapy can become a routine procedure. The current human genome project provides the sequences of a vast number of human genes, leading to the identification, characterization, and understanding of genes that are responsible for many human diseases.

  20. [Human science and medicine].

    PubMed

    Caporale, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Objective of Human Science teaching is to develop Knowledge and ability for rational analysis of bio-medical problems. The relationship between doctor and patient must be founded on dialogue, cooperation, understanding, on respect of human rights: life, health, physical integrity, privacy, autonomy, freedom and liability to guide ethical choices in clinical experience and rediscover anthropological significance of Medicine.

  1. Humanism within Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  2. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-10-01

    Infant rotavirus vaccination provides for herd immunity Nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine protects humans against malaria Personalized brain cancer vaccine enters phase 2 trial Novel implantable therapeutic cancer vaccine to be tested in humans Clostridium difficile vaccine candidate successful in phase 1 CDC reports strong uptake of HPV vaccine in boys Whooping cough outbreak in Texas.

  3. The Humanities' Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey Galt

    2009-01-01

    Why should society support the humanities when so many people are suffering from the effects of the economic crisis? What claim do the humanities, or scholarship generally, have on increasingly limited resources? Shouldn't such pursuits be considered luxuries at a time when people should be focusing on essentials? The alleviation of human…

  4. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  5. Portraits of Human Greatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Anselm's Coll., Manchester, NH.

    Examined is the Humanities Program at St. Anselm College, a two-year program of readings and lectures ordered chronologically from ancient to contemporary times--from the age of Classical Greek thought and the Old Testament to the twentieth century. The first year of the Humanities Program is organized in eight units on general modes of…

  6. Vaccination against human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Claudia Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus infection is common and causes different manifestations. This infection is a public health concern because it has been associated with genital tract malignant diseases among men and women. Currently two vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus infection and its associated diseases. PMID:24488402

  7. Evaluating the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  8. Human-System Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-10

    Computing, this multidisciplinary field exploits advances in cognitive research together with those in computer science and related areas to optimize the...deep understanding of human cognition, perception, and/or locomotion; the relevant areas of computer science ; and the nature of the human activity to be

  9. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  10. Beliefs about Human Extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a web-based survey about futures issues. Among many questions, respondents were asked whether they believe humans will become extinct. Forty-five percent of the almost 600 respondents believe that humans will become extinct. Many of those holding this believe felt that humans could become extinct within 500-1000 years. Others estimated extinction 5000 or more years into the future. A logistic regression model was estimated to explore the bases for this belief. It was found that people who describe themselves a secular are more likely to hold this belief than people who describe themselves as being Protestant. Older respondents and those who believe that humans have little control over their future also hold this belief. In addition, people who are more apt to think about the future and are better able to imagine potential futures tend to also believe that humans will become extinct.

  11. Dogs catch human yawns.

    PubMed

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  12. Implications for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, L

    1979-01-01

    To analyze the implications for human health, the toxicologist requires four sets of data: the results of toxicity and other studies in animals; quantitative data on actual or potential human exposure; whatever information is available on effects of exposure in man; and the statistical extrapolations from the dose-response relationships in animals to the (usually) much lower levels of human exposure. Professional expertise in toxicology is essential to assess the nature and severity of the toxic effects observed in animals, including such characteristics as potential for progression, irreversibility and production of incapacity. Given sufficient data, an estimate can be arrived at of the likelihood that such effects will be elicited in human populations of differing susceptibilities. The criteria by which the overall implications for human health can be judged comprise both the direct effects on man, as well as the indirect consequences stemming from environmental impacts. PMID:540600

  13. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  14. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  15. Human fetal thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Polak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The early steps of thyroid development that lead to its function in the human fetus and subsequently the further maturation that allows the human fetus to secrete thyroxine (T4) in a significant amount are reviewed here. We underline the importance of the transfer of T4 from the pregnant woman to her fetus, which contributes at all stages of the pregnancy to fetal thyroid function and development. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the temporal and structural correlation of thyroid hormone synthesis with folliculogenesis supported the concept that structural and functional maturations are closely related. Human thyroid terminal differentiation follows a precisely timed gene expression program. The crucial role of the sodium/iodine symporter for the onset of thyroid function in the human fetus is shown. Fetal T4 is detected by the eleventh week of gestation and progressively increases throughout. The pattern of thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in the course of pregnancy is given from fetal blood sampling data, and the mechanisms governing this maturation in the human fetus are discussed. Finally an example of primary human fetal thyroid dysfunction, such as in Down syndrome, is given. The understanding of the physiology of the human fetal thyroid function is the basis for fetal medicine in the field of thyroidology.

  16. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  17. Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

  18. Human Plasma Protein C

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which exists in bovine plasma as a precursor of a serine protease. In this study, protein C was isolated to homogeneity from human plasma by barium citrate adsorption and elution, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, dextran sulfate agarose chromatography, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human protein C (Mr = 62,000) contains 23% carbohydrate and is composed of a light chain (Mr = 21,000) and a heavy chain (Mr = 41,000) held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain has an amino-terminal sequence of Ala-Asn-Ser-Phe-Leu- and the heavy chain has an aminoterminal sequence of Asp-Pro-Glu-Asp-Gln. The residues that are identical to bovine protein C are underlined. Incubation of human protein C with human α-thrombin at an enzyme to substrate weight ratio of 1:50 resulted in the formation of activated protein C, an enzyme with serine amidase activity. In the activation reaction, the apparent molecular weight of the heavy chain decreased from 41,000 to 40,000 as determined by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. No apparent change in the molecular weight of the light chain was observed in the activation process. The heavy chain of human activated protein C also contains the active-site serine residue as evidenced by its ability to react with radiolabeled diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Human activated protein C markedly prolongs the kaolin-cephalin clotting time of human plasma, but not that of bovine plasma. The amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of human activated protein C were completely obviated by prior incubation of the enzyme with diisopropyl fluorophosphate. These results indicate that human protein C, like its bovine counterpart, exists in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease by limited proteolysis with attendant anticoagulant activity. Images PMID:468991

  19. Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  20. Aluminium in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans.

  1. Human exposure to aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  2. Introduction to human factors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides an introduction to "human factors engineering," an applied science that seeks to optimize usability and safety of systems. Human factors engineering pursues this goal by aligning system design with the perceptual, cognitive, and physical capabilities of users. Human factors issues loom large in the diabetes management domain because patients and health care professionals interact with a complex variety of systems, including medical device hardware and software, which are themselves embedded within larger systems of institutions, people, and processes. Usability considerations must be addressed in these systems and devices to ensure safe and effective diabetes management.

  3. Human Resource Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    I AD-RI54 787 HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 1/2 F MONTEREY CR J C MARTINS DEC 84 1UNCLASSIFIED /G 5/9 NL -~~ .. 2. . L...Monterey, California JUN1im THESISG HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING by Joaquim C. Martins LLJ.. December 1984 Thesis Advisor: R.A. McGonigal Approved for...REPORT & PECRI00 COVERED Master’s Thesis; Human Resource Accounting Dcme 94- ’ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(*) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER

  4. Human pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  5. Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Block, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dally, W.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Joyce, G.; Kimble, H. J.; Lewis, N.; Max, C.; Prince, T.; Schwitters, R.; Weinberger, P.; Woodin, W. H.

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  6. Sulfatases and human disease.

    PubMed

    Diez-Roux, Graciana; Ballabio, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Sulfatases are a highly conserved family of proteins that cleave sulfate esters from a wide range of substrates. The importance of sulfatases in human metabolism is underscored by the presence of at least eight human monogenic diseases caused by the deficiency of individual sulfatases. Sulfatase activity requires a unique posttranslational modification, which is impaired in patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) due to a mutation of the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). Here we review current knowledge and future perspectives on the evolution of the sulfatase gene family, on the role of these enzymes in human metabolism, and on new developments in the therapy of sulfatase deficiencies.

  7. Approaches to Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

  8. Human Computers 1947

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Langley's human computers at work in 1947. The female presence at Langley, who performed mathematical computations for male staff. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 48), by James Schultz.

  9. Human Systems Integration Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lecture provides an overview of Human Systems Integration (HSI), its implementation cost and return on investment, HSI domains, how HSI fits into the NASA organization structure, HSI roles and...

  10. Teaching about Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database concerning the teaching of human geography. Includes documents dealing with Africa, Asia, the United States, Canada, Antarctica, and geographic concepts. Explains how to obtain ERIC documents. (SG)

  11. Will Technology Humanize Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    The author considers the question of whether technology will cause humanization or dehumanization in the schools. He concludes that we can not stop tecchnology; we can only give it direction and purpose. (Author/MS)

  12. The Human Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickell, Crispin

    1995-01-01

    Examines the plight of environmental refugees and the adequacy of political responses to the situation. Discusses the consequences of accelerated environmental change, particularly the impact of global warming on human migration. (LZ)

  13. Human Biomass Consumption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants. Research shows that, from 1995 to 2005, consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent of the planet's annual production. Wha...

  14. Statement on Human Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) recognizes the intense debates within our society ...

  15. Viruses and human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  16. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask your doctor if you should get the HPV Vaccine. What else can I do to lower my ... the body. To Learn More About HPV Human Papillomavirus Vaccine More in For Women Medication Safety for Women ¡ ...

  17. Human X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 21, describes in detail the human X chromosome. X chromatin (or Barr body) formation, inactivation and reactivation of the X chromosome, X;Y translocations, and sex reversal are discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Uniquely human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Saxe, Rebecca

    2006-04-01

    Recent data identify distinct components of social cognition associated with five brain regions. In posterior temporal cortex, the extrastriate body area is associated with perceiving the form of other human bodies. A nearby region in the posterior superior temporal sulcus is involved in interpreting the motions of a human body in terms of goals. A distinct region at the temporo-parietal junction supports the uniquely human ability to reason about the contents of mental states. Medial prefrontal cortex is divided into at least two subregions. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex is implicated in emotional empathy, whereas dorsal medial prefrontal cortex is implicated in the uniquely human representation of triadic relations between two minds and an object, supporting shared attention and collaborative goals.

  19. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure ... toxic products , and those that are natural or organic , can cause health problems if someone is exposed ...

  20. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  1. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  2. Creativity: The Human Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses an exhibition entitled "Creativity--The Human Resource." The exhibition examines the work of 15 Americans, such as designer Buckminster Fuller and artist Judy Chicago, who have contributed in special ways to the arts and sciences. (PHR)

  3. Visible Human Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toxicology Health Services Research & Public Health Health Information Technology NLM for You Grants & Funding Meaningful Use Tools Training & Outreach Network of Medical Libraries Regional Activities Careers @ NLM Mobile Gallery Site Navigation Home The Visible Human Project ® ...

  4. Human Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  5. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  6. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  7. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  8. Pushing Human Frontiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  9. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  10. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  11. Meeting human needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    The degree of autonomy of future long duration manned missions will emphasize interactions between human operators and automated systems aimed at the most effective allocations of tasks between humans and machines. Knowledge of crewmembers' physical status, encompassing both capabilities and limitations, will also be critical during EVA and planetary roving missions; psychological evaluation and support, with a view to both individual health and group cohesion and productivity, may become a critical consideration. Attention is here given to crewmembers' medical and psychological vulnerabilities.

  12. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.

  13. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  14. Mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Annas, G.C.; Elias, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a review of the book Mapping the Human Genome: Using Law and Ethics as Guides, edited by George C. Annas and Sherman Elias. The book is a collection of essays on the subject of using ethics and laws as guides to justify human gene mapping. It addresses specific issues such problems related to eugenics, patents, insurance as well as broad issues such as the societal definitions of normality.

  15. Humans in space.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Averner, M

    2001-02-22

    Many successful space missions over the past 40 years have highlighted the advantages and necessity of humans in the exploration of space. But as space travel becomes ever more feasible in the twenty-first century, the health and safety of future space explorers will be paramount. In particular, understanding the risks posed by exposure to radiation and extended weightlessness will be crucial if humans are to travel far from Earth.

  16. The great human expansion

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Brenna M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today’s human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth’s habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the “serial founder effect.” In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution. PMID:23077256

  17. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  18. The Human Relations School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert S.; Lippitt, Ronald

    As an expansion of ED 026 320, the model for a Human Relations School sketched in this document is an attempt to answer these questions: What would it be like if a school were to see itself as a laboratory for living and learning in which the test that is known about human interaction were utilized? How would it be organized? What would be its…

  19. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes.

  20. Potentiality and human embryos.

    PubMed

    Lizza, John P

    2007-09-01

    Consideration of the potentiality of human embryos to develop characteristics of personhood, such as intellect and will, has figured prominently in arguments against abortion and the use of human embryos for research. In particular, such consideration was the basis for the call of the US President's Council on Bioethics for a moratorium on stem cell research on human embryos. In this paper, I critique the concept of potentiality invoked by the Council and offer an alternative account. In contrast to the Council's view that an embryo's potentiality is determined by definition and is not affected by external conditions that may prevent certain possibilities from ever being realized, I propose an empirically grounded account of potentiality that involves an assessment of the physical and decisional conditions that may restrict an embryo's possibilities. In my view, some human embryos lack the potentiality to become a person that other human embryos have. Assuming for the sake of argument that the potential to become a person gives a being special moral status, it follows that some human embryos lack this status. This argument is then used to support Gene Outka's suggestion that it is morally permissible to experiment on 'spare' frozen embryos that are destined to be destroyed.

  1. Human Factors Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  2. Glycobiology of human milk.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S

    2013-07-01

    Glycans are characteristic components of milk, and each species has unique patterns of specific carbohydrates. Human milk is unusually rich in glycans, with the major components being lactose and oligosaccharides, representing approximately 6.8 and 1% of the milk, respectively. Other sources of glycans in human milk include monosaccharides, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. In human milk, the presence and patterns of these glycans vary depending upon the stage of lactation and the maternal genes and their genetic polymorphisms that control glycosyl transferases. The synthesis of milk glycans utilizes a significant portion of the metabolic energy that the mother expends when producing her milk, but other than lactose, these glycans contribute little to the nutritional needs of the infant. The data herein support several functions. 1) Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogens from binding to the intestinal mucosa. 2) Human milk glycans attenuate inflammation. 3) Glycans also directly stimulate the growth of beneficial (mutualist) bacteria of the microbiota (formerly considered commensal microflora of the intestine); these mutualists and their fermentation products can, in turn, (a) inhibit pathogens, (b) modulate signaling and inflammation, and (c) the fermentation products can be absorbed and utilized as a source of dietary calories. These functions can help direct and support intestinal postnatal growth, development, and ontogeny of colonization. The many functions of the milk glycans may synergistically protect infants from disease. Hence, human milk glycans and their homologs may serve as novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for a diverse range of deleterious conditions.

  3. Human behavior and human performance: Psychomotor demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of several experiments are presented in abstract form. These studies are critical for the interpretation and acceptance of flight based science to be conducted by the Behavior and Performance project. Some representative titles are as follow: External audio for IBM/PC compatible computers; A comparative assessment of psychomotor performance (target prediction by humans and macaques); Response path (a dependent measure for computer maze solving and other tasks); Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in Rhesus monkey (a dissociation between hand preference and skill); Testing primates with joystick based automated apparatus; and Environmental enrichment and performance assessment for ground or flight based research with primates;

  4. Microtubule organization during human parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Hisataka; Ugajin, Tomohisa; Murakami, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Okamura, Kunihiro

    2009-04-01

    In human fertilization, the sperm centrosome plays a crucial role as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC). We studied microtubule organization during human parthenogenesis, which occurs when a human egg undergoes cleavage without a sperm centrosome. Multiple cytoplasmic asters were organized in the human oocyte after parthenogenetic activation, indicating that multiple MTOC are present in the human oocyte cytoplasm and function like a human sperm centrosome during parthenogenesis.

  5. Developing Human Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

    2006-05-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  6. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population.

  7. Meeting human needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    Manned space flight can be viewed as an interaction of three general elements: the human crewmember, spacecraft systems, and the environment. While the human crewmember is a crucial element in the system, certain physiological, psychological, environ- mental and spacecraft systems factors can compromise human performance in space. These factors include atmospheric pressure, physiology, uncertainties associated with space radiation, the potential for exposure to toxic materials in the closed environment, and spacecraft habitability. Health protection in space, for current and future missions, relies on a philosophy of risk reduction, which in the space program is achieved in four ways-through health maintenance, health care, design criteria, an selection and training. Emphasis is place upon prevention, through selection criteria and careful screening. Spacecraft health care systems must be absolutely reliable, and they will be automated and computerized to the maximum extent possible, but still designed with the human crewmember's capabilities in mind. The autonomy and technological sophistication of future missions will require a greater emphasis on high-level interaction between the human operator and automated systems, with effective allocation of tasks between humans and machines. Performance in space will include complex tasks during extravehicular activity (EVA) and on planetary surfaces, and knowledge of crewmembers' capability and limitations during such operations will be critical to mission success. Psychological support will become increasingly important on space missions, as crews spend long periods in remote and potentially hazardous environments. The success of future missions will depend on both individual psychological health and group cohesion and productivity, particularly as crew profiles become more heterogeneous. Thus, further human factors are needed in the area of small-group dynamics and performance.

  8. Spaceflight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NASA created a new approach for human system integration and human performance standards. NASA created two documents a standard and a reference handbook. The standard is titled NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard (SFHSS) and consists of two-volumes: Volume 1- Crew Health This volume covers standards needed to support astronaut health (medical care, nutrition, sleep, exercise, etc.) Volume 2 Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health This volume covers the standards for system design that will maintain astronaut performance (ie., environmental factors, design of facilities, layout of workstations, and lighting requirements). It includes classic human factors requirements. The new standards document is written in terms so that it is applicable to a broad range of present and future NASA systems. The document states that all new programs prepare system-specific requirements that will meet the general standards. For example, the new standard does not specify a design should accommodate specific percentiles of a defined population. Rather, NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 states that all programs shall prepare program-specific requirements that define the user population and their size ranges. The design shall then accommodate the full size range of those users. The companion reference handbook, Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), was developed to capture the design consideration information from NASA-STD-3000, and adds spaceflight lessons learned, gaps in knowledge, example solutions, and suggests research to further mature specific disciplines. The HIDH serves two major purposes: HIDH is the reference document for writing human factors requirements for specific systems. HIDH contains design guidance information that helps insure that designers create systems which safely and effectively accommodate the capabilities and limitations of space flight crews.

  9. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  10. Inhaled human insulin.

    PubMed

    Strack, Thomas R

    2006-04-01

    The benefit of subcutaneous insulin therapy in patients with diabetes is frequently limited due to difficulty in convincing patients of the importance of multiple daily insulin injections to cope effectively with meal-associated glycemic changes. Thus, the aim of achieving tight glycemic control, which is critical for reducing the risk of long-term diabetes-related complications, frequently remains elusive. The successful development of an inhalable insulin as a noninvasive alternative promises to change the management of diabetes. The first product to become available to patients is inhaled human insulin, a dry-powder formulation packaged into discrete blisters containing 1 or 3 mg of dry-powder human insulin and administered via a unique pulmonary inhaler device. It has recently been approved in both the United States and the European Union for the control of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The pharmacokinetic profile of inhaled human insulin closely mimics the natural pattern of insulin secretion, and resembles that of rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs. Similarly to rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs, inhaled human insulin has a more rapid onset of glucose-lowering activity compared to subcutaneous regular insulin, allowing it to be administered shortly before meals. It has a duration of glucose-lowering activity comparable to subcutaneous regular insulin and longer than rapid-acting insulin analogs. Inhaled human insulin effectively controls postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia, and even improves fasting glucose levels compared to subcutaneous insulin. Inhaled human insulin has an overall favorable safety profile. There are small reductions in lung function (1-1.5% of total lung forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] capacity) after onset of treatment that are reversible in most patients if treatment is discontinued. Inhaled human

  11. Why Geo-Humanities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  12. [Human cloning or cannibalism].

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, L M

    2001-01-01

    In this article I develop the idea presented in my previous work that human cloning would be of little practical use since almost any aim that one would like to attain by multiple cloning of a concrete man or a group of people, are unattainable or it might be achieved by easier, cheaper and more efficient traditional methods. For this reason cloning of a man is unlikely to occur on a larger scale and only few people will decide to clone themselves. In this sense no social effects of human cloning will be disastrous for the human population. Yet investigations in human genetics are very important since they may provide medical applications far more important than human cloning. It is argued that the main trend of modern medicine: organ transplantation from an alien donor, will become socially dangerous in near future since the number of donors will be drastically smaller than the number of potential patients waiting for transplantations. This in turn may cause social conflicts and a form of medical cannibalism may arise. These problems and conflicts will be avoided if organ transplantation from an alien donor is replaced by organ cloning, i.e. by transplanting an organ developed from the patient.

  13. Human HOX gene disorders.

    PubMed

    Quinonez, Shane C; Innis, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    The Hox genes are an evolutionarily conserved family of genes, which encode a class of important transcription factors that function in numerous developmental processes. Following their initial discovery, a substantial amount of information has been gained regarding the roles Hox genes play in various physiologic and pathologic processes. These processes range from a central role in anterior-posterior patterning of the developing embryo to roles in oncogenesis that are yet to be fully elucidated. In vertebrates there are a total of 39 Hox genes divided into 4 separate clusters. Of these, mutations in 10 Hox genes have been found to cause human disorders with significant variation in their inheritance patterns, penetrance, expressivity and mechanism of pathogenesis. This review aims to describe the various phenotypes caused by germline mutation in these 10 Hox genes that cause a human phenotype, with specific emphasis paid to the genotypic and phenotypic differences between allelic disorders. As clinical whole exome and genome sequencing is increasingly utilized in the future, we predict that additional Hox gene mutations will likely be identified to cause distinct human phenotypes. As the known human phenotypes closely resemble gene-specific murine models, we also review the homozygous loss-of-function mouse phenotypes for the 29 Hox genes without a known human disease. This review will aid clinicians in identifying and caring for patients affected with a known Hox gene disorder and help recognize the potential for novel mutations in patients with phenotypes informed by mouse knockout studies.

  14. The Human Serum Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  15. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  16. Healthy human gut phageome

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20–50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  17. Human occupancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1994-10-01

    In the area of security and surveillance technologies, the problem of the arrival in Canada of illegal and undesirable ship and truck cargo loads is steadily increasing. As the volumes of cargo arrivals increase so do the Immigration and Customs problems related to the determination of the validity of those cargo contents. Of special concern to Immigration Control Authorities around the world is the emerging and increasing trend of illegal smuggling of human beings hidden inside of shipping containers. Beginning in 1992, Immigration Control Authorities in Canada observed an escalation of alien people smuggling through the use of cargo shipping containers arriving in the Port of Montreal. This paper will present to the audience the recently completed Immigration Canada Human Occupancy Detection project by explaining the design, development and testing of human occupancy detectors. The devices are designed to electronically detect the presence of persons hiding inside of shipping containers, without the requirement of opening the container doors. The human occupancy detection concepts are based upon the presence of carbon dioxide or other human waste characteristics commonly found inside of shipping containers.

  18. The Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1989-01-01

    Early in 1986, Charles DeLisi, then head of the Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to organize a workshop charged with inquiring whether the state of technology and potential payoffs in biological knowledge and medical practice were such as to justify an organized program to map and sequence the human genome. The DOE's interest arose from its mission to assess the effects of radiation and other products of energy generation on human health in general and genetic material in particular. The workshop concluded that the technology was ripe, the benefits would be great, and a national program should be promptly initiated. Later committees, reporting to DOE, to the NIH, to the Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress, and to the National Academy of Science have reviewed these issues more deliberately and come to the same conclusion. As a consequence, there has been established in the United States, a Human Genome Program, with funding largely from the NIH and the DOE, as indicated in Table 1. Moreover, the Program has attracted international interest, and Great Britain, France, Italy, and the Soviet Union, among other countries, have been reported to be starting human genome initiatives. Coordination of these programs, clearly in the interests of each, remains to be worked out, although an international Human Genome Organization (HUGO) is considering such coordination. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, D K; Dominguez, G; Pellett, P E

    1997-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 variant A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) are two closely related yet distinct viruses. These visuses belong to the Roseolovirus genus of the betaherpesvirus subfamily; they are most closely related to human herpesvirus 7 and then to human cytomegalovirus. Over 95% of people older than 2 years of age are seropositive for either or both HHV-6 variants, and current serologic methods are incapable of discriminating infection with one variant from infection with the other. HHV-6A has not been etiologically linked to any human disease, but such an association will probably be found soon. HHV-6B is the etiologic agent of the common childhood illness exanthem subitum (roseola infantum or sixth disease) and related febrile illnesses. These viruses are frequently active and associated with illness in immunocompromised patients and may play a role in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies. HHV-6 is a commensal inhabitant of brains; various neurologic manifestations, including convulsions and encephalitis, can occur during primary HHV-6 infection or in immunocompromised patients. HHV-6 and distribution in the central nervous system are altered in patients with multiple sclerosis; the significance of this is under investigation. PMID:9227865

  20. The Exploration of Mars by Humans: Why Mars? Why Humans?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    As we commemorate the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's historic flight in 1961, the first flight of a human in space, plans are underway for another historic human mission. Plans are being developed for a human mission to Mars. Once we reach Mars, the human species will become the first two-planet species. Both the Bush Administration (in 2004) and the Obama Administration (in 2010) proposed a human mission to Mars as a national goal of the United States.

  1. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  2. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  3. Human immune system variation

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, Petter; Davis, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    The human immune system is highly variable between individuals but relatively stable over time within a given person. Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins in populations of healthy individuals. The range of variation and some specific influences that shape an individual’s immune system is now becoming clearer. Human immune systems vary as a consequence of heritable and non-heritable influences, but symbiotic and pathogenic microbes and other non-heritable influences explain most of this variation. Understanding when and how such influences shape the human immune system is key for defining metrics of immunological health and understanding the risk of immune-mediated and infectious diseases. PMID:27916977

  4. Reflections on humanizing biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Marcum, James A

    2008-01-01

    Although biomedicine is responsible for the "miracles" of modern medicine, paradoxically it has also led to a quality-of-care crisis in which many patients feel disenfranchised from the health-care industry. To address this crisis, several medical commentators make an appeal for humanizing biomedicine, which has led to shifts in the philosophical boundaries of medical knowledge and practice. In this paper, the metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical boundaries of biomedicine and its humanized versions are investigated and compared to one another. Biomedicine is founded on a metaphysical position of mechanistic monism, an epistemology of objective knowing, and an ethic of emotionally detached concern. In humanizing modern medicine, these boundaries are often shifted to a metaphysical position of dualism/holism, an epistemology of subject knowing, and an ethic of empathic care. In a concluding section, the question is discussed whether these shifts in the philosophical boundaries are adequate to resolve the quality-of-care crisis.

  5. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.

  6. Human nutrition: evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Barnicot, N A

    2005-01-01

    In recent decades, much new evidence relating to the ape forerunners of modern humans has come to hand and diet appears to be an important factor. At some stage, there must have been a transition from a largely vegetarian ape diet to a modern human hunting economy providing significant amounts of meat. On an even longer evolutionary time scale the change was more complex. The mechanisms of evolutionary change are now better understood than they were in Darwin's time, thanks largely to great advances in genetics, both experimental and theoretical. It is virtually certain that diet, as a major component of the human environment, must have exerted evolutionary effects, but researchers still have little good evidence.

  7. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  8. Teleoperator Human Factors Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the spectrum of space teleoperation activities likely in the 1985 to 1995 decade focused on the resolution of critical human engineering issues and characterization of the technology effect on performance of remote human operators. The study began with the identification and documentation of a set of representative reference teleoperator tasks. For each task, technology, development, and design options, issues, and alternatives that bear on human operator performance were defined and categorized. A literature survey identified existing studies of man/machine issues. For each teleoperations category, an assessment was made of the state of knowledge on a scale from adequate to void. The tests, experiments, and analyses necessary to provide the missing elements of knowledge were then defined. A limited set of tests were actually performed, including operator selection, baseline task definition, control mode study, lighting study, camera study, and preliminary time delay study.

  9. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  10. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  11. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Human Studies Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Major cardiovascular problems, secondary to cardiovascular deconditioning, may occur on extended space missions. While it is generally assumed that the microgravity state is the primary cause of cardiovascular deconditioning, sleep deprivation and disruption of diurnal rhythms may also play an important role. Factors that could be modified by either or both of these perturbations include: autonomic function and short-term cardiovascular reflexes, vasoreactivity, circadian rhythm of cardiovascular hormones (specifically the renin-angiotensin system) and renal sodium handling and hormonal influences on that process, venous compliance, cardiac mass, and cardiac conduction processes. The purpose of the Human Studies Core is to provide the infrastructure to conduct human experiments which will allow for the assessment of the likely role of such factors in the space travel associated cardiovascular deconditioning process and to develop appropriate countermeasures. The Core takes advantage of a newly-created Intensive Physiologic Monitoring (IPM) Unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, to perform these studies. The Core includes two general experimental protocols. The first protocol involves a head down tilt bed-rest study to simulate microgravity. The second protocol includes the addition of a disruption of circadian rhythms to the simulated microgravity environment. Before and after each of these environmental manipulations, the subjects will undergo acute stressors simulating changes in volume and/or stress, which could occur in space and on return to Earth. The subjects are maintained in a rigidly controlled environment with fixed light/dark cycles, activity pattern, and dietary intake of nutrients, fluids, ions and calories.

  12. The Human Centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Life on Earth has developed at unit gravity, 9.81 m/s2, which was a major factor especially when vertebrates emerged from water onto land in the late Devonian, some 375 million years ago. But how would nature have evolved on a larger planet? We are able to address this question simply in experiments using centrifuges. Based on these studies we have gained valuable insights in the physiological process in plants and animals. They adapt to a new steady state suitable for the high-g environments applied. Information on mammalian adaptations to hyper-g is interesting or may be even vital for human space exploration programs. It has been shown in long duration animal hypergravity studies, ranging from snails, rats to primates, that various structures like muscles, bones, neuro-vestibular, or the cardio-vascular system are affected. However, humans have never been exposed to a hyper-g environment for long durations. Centrifuge studies involving humans are mostly in the order of hours. The current work on human centrifuges are all focused on short arm systems to apply short periods of artificial gravity in support of long duration space missions in ISS or to Mars. In this paper we will address the possible usefulness of a large human centrifuge on Earth. In such a centrifuge a group of humans can be exposed to hypergravity for, in principle, an unlimited period of time like living on a larger planet. The input from a survey under scientists working in the field of gravitational physiology, but also other disciplines, will be discussed.

  13. Human dignity and human tissue: a meaningful ethical relationship?

    PubMed

    Kirchhoffer, David G; Dierickx, Kris

    2011-09-01

    Human dignity has long been used as a foundational principle in policy documents and ethical guidelines intended to govern various forms of biomedical research. Despite the vast amount of literature concerning human dignity and embryonic tissues, the majority of biomedical research uses non-embryonic human tissue. Therefore, this contribution addresses a notable lacuna in the literature: the relationship, if any, between human dignity and human tissue. This paper first elaborates a multidimensional understanding of human dignity that overcomes many of the shortcomings associated with the use of human dignity in other ethical debates. Second, it discusses the relationship between such an understanding of human dignity and 'non-embryonic' human tissue. Finally, it considers the implications of this relationship for biomedical research and practice involving human tissue. The contribution demonstrates that while human tissue cannot be said to have human dignity, human dignity is nevertheless implicated by human tissue, making what is done with human tissue and how it is done worthy of moral consideration.

  14. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  15. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  16. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  17. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The nation's efforts to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system was given renewed emphasis in January of 1988 when the Presidential Directive on National Space Policy was signed into effect. The expansion of human presence into the solar system has particular significance, in that it defines long-range goals for NASA's future missions. To embark and achieve such ambitious ventures is a significant undertaking, particularly compared to past space activities. Missions to Mars, the Moon, and Phobos, as well as an observatory based on the dark side of the Moon are discussed.

  18. We Are Human Beings.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan's arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients.

  19. Defining the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Ursell, Luke K; Metcalf, Jessica L; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Knight, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly developing sequencing methods and analytical techniques are enhancing our ability to understand the human microbiome, and, indeed, how we define the microbiome and its constituents. In this review we highlight recent research that expands our ability to understand the human microbiome on different spatial and temporal scales, including daily timeseries datasets spanning months. Furthermore, we discuss emerging concepts related to defining operational taxonomic units, diversity indices, core versus transient microbiomes and the possibility of enterotypes. Additional advances in sequencing technology and in our understanding of the microbiome will provide exciting prospects for exploiting the microbiota for personalized medicine. PMID:22861806

  20. Human Factors Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  1. On human health.

    PubMed

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  2. Disorders of Human Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Arthur; Mears, J. Gregory; Ramirez, Francesco

    1980-02-01

    Studies of the human hemoglobin system have provided new insights into the regulation of expression of a group of linked human genes, the γ -δ -β globin gene complex in man. In particular, the thalassemia syndromes and related disorders of man are inherited anemias that provide mutations for the study of the regulation of globin gene expression. New methods, including restriction enzyme analysis and cloning of cellular DNA, have made it feasible to define more precisely the structure and organization of the globin genes in cellular DNA. Deletions of specific globin gene fragments have already been found in certain of these disorders and have been applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  3. We Are Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan’s arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  4. Mapping Human Epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Chloe M.; Ren, Bing

    2013-01-01

    As the second dimension to the genome, the epigenome contains key information specific to every type of cells. Thousands of human epigenome maps have been produced in recent years thanks to rapid development of high throughput epigenome mapping technologies. In this review, we discuss the current epigenome mapping toolkit and utilities of epigenome maps. We focus particularly on mapping of DNA methylation, chromatin modification state and chromatin structures, and emphasize the use of epigenome maps to delineate human gene regulatory sequences and developmental programs. We also provide a perspective on the progress of the epigenomics field and challenges ahead. PMID:24074860

  5. Sacred Sounds in the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Robert A.

    To see literature as a sign and a symbol simply reasserts the view of the humanities as the embodiment of the highest aspirations of human nature. Human beings are sign givers and symbol makers as they look for the sacred meaning in their lives. Through a college humanities course, some of the symbols that artists employ in fiction, poetry, drama,…

  6. Human Challenges in Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presents an overview using pictures some of the history of human exploration of the new frontiers of Earth and then examines some of the challenges to human exploration of space. Particular attention is given to the environmental factors and to the social and human factors that effect humans in space environments.

  7. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  8. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  9. ANTHROPOMETRY AND HUMAN ENGINEERING.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    de l’armee de l’air francaise; Sheldon types and success in flight performance; Adapting the aeroplane to the pilot; Instrument dials, instrument...establishment of a longitudinal study of the medical and psychological aspects of the U.S. naval aviator; Somatotyping ; Human factors in aircraft design.

  10. Who Hung the Humanities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper is partly based on a lecture given at the AGTA conference in Perth in January 2013. It argues for a progressive subject based curriculum in which geography plays an essential part. This is based on an analysis of why and how subjects like geography, as part of the humanities, have been undermined and diminished in recent times. In a way…

  11. Occupying the Digital Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This essay questions the digital humanities' dependence on interpretation and critique as strategies for reading and responding to texts. Instead, the essay proposes suggestion as a digital rhetorical practice, one that does not replace hermeneutics, but instead offers alternative ways to respond to texts. The essay uses the Occupy movement as an…

  12. The Humanities, Unraveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Graduate education in the humanities is in crisis. Every aspect, from the most specific details of the curriculum to the broadest questions about its purpose, is in crisis. It is a seamless garment of crisis: If one pulls on any one thread, the entire thing unravels. It is therefore exceptionally difficult to discuss any one aspect of graduate…

  13. Neurobiology and the Humanities

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir

    2014-01-01

    Can the arts and humanities contribute significantly to the study of the brain? Similar brain processes are involved in humanistic and scientific inference, and in this essay, I argue that conclusions reached by one are relevant to the other. PMID:25277451

  14. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  15. Negative Human Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, John M.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine man's most negative experiences as he perceives them. The results indicated that teachers were involved more often than any other person in the most negative experience reported. Improved human relations skills are clearly indicated for those in higher education as well as in public schools. (Author)

  16. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  17. The Humanities and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Five individuals discuss the relationship of the humanities and leadership in different contexts: the liberal arts (John W. Gardner); the sculpting of a statue of James Madison (Walker Hancock); the Kennedy years (Thomas R. West), our civic culture (Bruce Adams); and liberal education (Gregory S. Prince, Jr.). (MSE)

  18. Humanizing the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield, Roy P., Ed.

    A series of essays discussing ideas about humanizing work are presented in the document. Three major sections divide the essays, and each includes a preface with comments suggesting the central focus and questions with which the authors are concerned. The first section deals with the history, philosophy, and issues related to work and contains…

  19. Medicine and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabst, Diana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a Pennsylvania State University seminar program designed to help medical professionals explore aspects of medical treatment through readings in the humanities. Argues that the program is broader in vision and scope that other medical ethics courses. Suggests that the effort can refresh and deepen doctors' work with patients. (SG)

  20. Humanizing the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Norman K., Ed.; Saylor, J. Galen, Ed.

    These papers, presented during ASCD-sponsored conference, confront educators with issues in and alternatives for making secondary schools a more humanizing experience for students. The contributors and their articles are: Norman K. Hamilton, "Alternatives in Secondary Education"; Thornton B. Monez and Norman L. Bussiere, "The High School in Human…

  1. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis. PMID:27434696

  2. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  4. Human chromosome 8.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S

    1988-01-01

    The role of human chromosome 8 in genetic disease together with the current status of the genetic linkage map for this chromosome is reviewed. Both hereditary genetic disease attributed to mutant alleles at gene loci on chromosome 8 and neoplastic disease owing to somatic mutation, particularly chromosomal translocations, are discussed. PMID:3070042

  5. Animal and Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks…

  6. Futures of Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, L. S.

    There are several research areas basic to the long-range future of human communications. Telecommunication and transportation offer the possiblity of two worldwide communications networks whose interrelationships need to be explored in terms of the needs of the individual, the community, and the world at large. Expanding possibilities of…

  7. Humans as Lie Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaulo, Bella; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses several studies of whether and how well humans can detect lies. Examines the accuracy of such persons as well as the process of how they actually detect lies, how they think they detect lies, and whether the actual and perceived processes of lie detection correspond to one another. (JMF)

  8. Humanism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  9. Humanizing science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, James F.

    2004-09-01

    This paper argues that the diverse curriculum reform agendas associated with science education are strongly and critically associated with the educational characteristics of the humanities. The article begins with a survey of interpretations of the distinctive contribution which the humanities make to educational purposes. From this survey four general characteristics of the humanities are identified: an appeal to an autonomous self with the right and capacity to make independent judgements and interpretations; indeterminacy in the subject matter of these judgements and interpretations; a focus on meaning, in the context of human responses, actions, and relationships, and especially on the ethical, aesthetic, and purposive; and finally, the possibility of commonality in standards of judgement and interpretation, under conditions of indeterminacy. Inquiry and science technology and society (STS) orientated curriculum development agendas within science education are explored in the light of this analysis. It is argued that the four characteristics identified are central to the educational purposes of these and other less prominent modes of curriculum development in science, though not unproblematically so. In the light of this discussion the prognosis and challenges for science curriculum development are explored.

  10. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  11. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  12. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  13. The Human Toxome Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Toxome project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011--‐ 2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating, and sharing molecular Pathways of Toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the respo...

  14. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  15. Fighting for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…

  16. Predictors of human rotation.

    PubMed

    Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.

  17. Parasites and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Perry, George H

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of human evolutionary and population history can be advanced by ecological and evolutionary studies of our parasites. Many parasites flourish only in the presence of very specific human behaviors and in specific habitats, are wholly dependent on us, and have evolved with us for thousands or millions of years. Therefore, by asking when and how we first acquired those parasites, under which environmental and cultural conditions we are the most susceptible, and how the parasites have evolved and adapted to us and we in response to them, we can gain considerable insight into our own evolutionary history. As examples, the tapeworm life cycle is dependent on our consumption of meat, the divergence of body and head lice may have been subsequent to the development of clothing, and malaria hyperendemicity may be associated with agriculture. Thus, the evolutionary and population histories of these parasites are likely intertwined with critical aspects of human biology and culture. Here I review the mechanics of these and multiple other parasite proxies for human evolutionary history and discuss how they currently complement our fossil, archeological, molecular, linguistic, historical, and ethnographic records. I also highlight potential future applications of this promising model for the field of evolutionary anthropology.

  18. Antihumanism in the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Joel

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the antihumanistic elements of Jacques Derrida's theory of deconstruction. Argues that the modern French intellectuals, including Foucault, Derrida, and Lacan, have had an antihumanistic effect on the American social sciences and humanities by rejecting the existence of truth, morality, and rationality. (FMW)

  19. Human Social Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural “social signal transduction” pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving. PMID:25166010

  20. Learning to Be Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmurray, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents "Learning to be Human", which John Macmurray delivered on 5 May 1958 as the annual public lecture at Moray House College of Education, now part of Edinburgh University. The key themes of the paper are ones to which Macmurray returned again and again in both his educational and his philosophical writing for over 40 years and…

  1. Human Ecology: Curriculum Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes nine commercially available programs which represent one aspect or a portion of the human ecology theme. Other information supplied for each program includes: program objectives; methods of instruction; specific subjects, grade, and ability levels; materials produced and purchasable; program implementation; teacher preparation; program…

  2. Human Balance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... and vision problems, and difficulty with concentration and memory. What is balance? Balance is the ability to maintain the body’s center of mass over its base of support. 1 A properly functioning balance system allows humans to see clearly while moving, identify orientation with ...

  3. Human perspiration measurement.

    PubMed

    Ohhashi, T; Sakaguchi, M; Tsuda, T

    1998-11-01

    We review various methods developed for human perspiration measurement and their physiological applications, with special reference to the performance and application of a new home-made ratemeter and instrumentation with a microscope. Many kinds of humidity sensor based on humidity-sensitive electrical properties have been investigated and placed on the market. Recently a capacitive thin-film humidity sensor was constructed and confirmed to be one of the best humidity sensors for accurately and quickly detecting changes in the relative humidity of gas-flow perfused through a ventilated chamber for human perspiration measurement. In this paper we also introduce a new home-made ratemeter with a capacitive humidity sensor, the electrical output of which is not disturbed by changes in ambient temperature, and new instrumentation for directly observing drops of sweat secreted from eccrine glands in human skin and simultaneously measuring the change in amount of perspiration at the same area of skin. Finally, we review physiological applications of the methods for measuring human palmar perspiration including emotional sweating.

  4. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  5. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  6. Tackling Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors…

  7. Fighting for the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cary

    2012-01-01

    The question, "Who will bankroll poetry?", succinctly embodies what is now a widespread recognition that the humanities may have more to lose in the current budget wars than either the sciences or a number of technical fields. The only budget war that can unite individuals, rather than divide them, is one arguing that too much is being…

  8. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  9. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  10. Lessons in Human Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Joanne Lozar

    2003-01-01

    Explores the importance of relationship literacy--the ability to create good relationships with others--in the next economy and offers perspectives on how business education instructors can help students develop and improve their human relations skills for business success. (Author/JOW)

  11. The human genome project.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, M V

    1993-01-01

    The Human Genome Project in the United States is now well underway. Its programmatic direction was largely set by a National Research Council report issued in 1988. The broad framework supplied by this report has survived almost unchanged despite an upheaval in the technology of genome analysis. This upheaval has primarily affected physical and genetic mapping, the two dominant activities in the present phase of the project. Advances in mapping techniques have allowed good progress toward the specific goals of the project and are also providing strong corollary benefits throughout biomedical research. Actual DNA sequencing of the genomes of the human and model organisms is still at an early stage. There has been little progress in the intrinsic efficiency of DNA-sequence determination. However, refinements in experimental protocols, instrumentation, and project management have made it practical to acquire sequence data on an enlarged scale. It is also increasingly apparent that DNA-sequence data provide a potent means of relating knowledge gained from the study of model organisms to human biology. There is as yet little indication that the infusion of technology from outside biology into the Human Genome Project has been effectively stimulated. Opportunities in this area remain large, posing substantial technical and policy challenges. PMID:8506271

  12. Human Biology: Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Education is a process of adapting to change, and the rate of change is especially rapid in science today. This curriculum in human biology is an alternative to the New York State courses in general and Regents biology, and it has been designed to focus on change from the standpoint of the urban student. It is designed to provide students with…

  13. Technologies for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2014-01-01

    Access to Space, Chemical Propulsion, Advanced Propulsion, In-Situ Resource Utilization, Entry, Descent, Landing and Ascent, Humans and Robots Working Together, Autonomous Operations, In-Flight Maintenance, Exploration Mobility, Power Generation, Life Support, Space Suits, Microgravity Countermeasures, Autonomous Medicine, Environmental Control.

  14. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  15. Have we overestimated the benefit of human(ized) antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Getts, Meghann T; McCarthy, Derrick P; Chastain, Emily ML; Miller, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    The infusion of animal-derived antibodies has been known for some time to trigger the generation of antibodies directed at the foreign protein as well as adverse events including cytokine release syndrome. These immunological phenomena drove the development of humanized and fully human monoclonal antibodies. The ability to generate human(ized) antibodies has been both a blessing and a curse. While incremental gains in the clinical efficacy and safety for some agents have been realized, a positive effect has not been observed for all human(ized) antibodies. Many human(ized) antibodies trigger the development of anti-drug antibody responses and infusion reactions. The current belief that antibodies need to be human(ized) to have enhanced therapeutic utility may slow the development of novel animal-derived monoclonal antibody therapeutics for use in clinical indications. In the case of murine antibodies, greater than 20% induce tolerable/negligible immunogenicity, suggesting that in these cases humanization may not offer significant gains in therapeutic utility. Furthermore, humanization of some murine antibodies may reduce their clinical effectiveness. The available data suggest that the utility of human(ized) antibodies needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, taking a cost-benefit approach, taking both biochemical characteristics and the targeted therapeutic indication into account. PMID:20935511

  16. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  17. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  18. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  19. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  20. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity.

  1. Zygomycetes in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ribes, Julie A.; Vanover-Sams, Carolyn L.; Baker, Doris J.

    2000-01-01

    The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales. While disease is most commonly linked to Rhizopus spp., other organisms are also associated with human infection, including Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces, and Syncephalastrum spp. Although Mortierella spp. do cause disease in animals, there is no longer sufficient evidence to suggest that they are true human pathogens. The spores from these molds are transmitted by inhalation, via a variety of percutaneous routes, or by ingestion of spores. Human zygomycosis caused by the Mucorales generally occurs in immunocompromised hosts as opportunistic infections. Host risk factors include diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, sustained immunosuppressive therapy, chronic prednisone use, iron chelation therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, severe malnutrition, and primary breakdown in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier such as trauma, surgical wounds, needle sticks, or burns. Zygomycosis occurs only rarely in immunocompetent hosts. The disease manifestations reflect the mode of transmission, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary diseases being the most common manifestations. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and allergic diseases are also seen. The Mucorales are associated with angioinvasive disease, often leading to thrombosis, infarction of involved tissues, and tissue destruction mediated by a number of fungal proteases, lipases, and mycotoxins. If the diagnosis is not made early, dissemination often occurs. Therapy, if it is to be effective, must be started early and requires combinations of antifungal drugs, surgical intervention, and reversal of the underlying risk

  2. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  3. Human evolution. Y-chromosome clues to human ancestry.

    PubMed

    Brookfield, J F

    1995-10-01

    The case for a recent expansion of modern humans from Africa has been strengthened by the finding of monomorphism in part of a Y-linked gene, consistent with the low variability seen in human mitochondrial DNAs.

  4. Monogenic human skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Johannes R; Kernland-Lang, Kristin; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Itin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Human genodermatoses represent a broad and partly confusing spectrum of countless rare diseases with confluent and overlapping phenotypes often impeding a precise diagnosis in an affected individual. High-throughput sequencing techniques have expedited the identification of novel genes and have dramatically simplified the establishment of genetic diagnoses in such heterogeneous disorders. The precise genetic diagnosis of a skin disorder is crucial for the appropriate counselling of patients and their relatives regarding the course of the disease, prognosis and recurrence risks. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology is a prerequisite to understanding the disease and developing specific, targeted or individualized therapeutic approaches. We aimed to create a comprehensive overview of human genodermatoses and their respective genetic aetiology known to date. We hope this may represent a useful tool in guiding dermatologists towards genetic diagnoses, providing patients with individual knowledge on the respective disorder and applying novel research findings to clinical practice.

  5. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  6. Ancient human microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  7. Posthumanism: beyond humanism?

    PubMed

    Valera, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The focal point of posthumanism consists not as such in an a-critical acceptance of the technological promises - like there is for transhumanism - but in a total contamination and hybridization of human beings with other living beings and machines (these are the two main forms of contamination). The change of perspective untaken by posthumanism would be, thus, a paradigmatic shift in anthropology. As with ecologism, posthumanism, in order to obtain total contamination and man's openness to otherness, proposes the elimination and the fluidification of boundaries, thus even denying man's identity, and, with it, the very possibility of openness. However, by denying the identity, one denies the condition of possibility of thought, just as it has been manifested in history until now: hence we understand how, primarily, posthumanism is not configured as an adequate philosophical reflection, but as a narrative that takes origin from certain requirements, which are eminently human, and that discloses its deeply anthropogenic roots.

  8. Sleep and Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-04-05

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need?

  9. MIS - The Human Connection

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Ian E.

    1980-01-01

    The lessons of the 70's with MIS were largely painful, often the same as those of the 60's, and were found in different phases on two continents. On examination this turns out to be true for many non-medical fields, true for systems programming, and thus a very general phenomenon. It is related to the functional complexity rather than to the sheer size of the software required, and above all to the relative neglect of human factors at all levels of software and hardware design. Simple hierarchical theory is a useful tool for analyzing complex systems and restoring the necessary dominance of common sense human factors. An example shows the very large effects of neglecting these factors on costs and benefits of MIS and their sub-systems.

  10. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  11. Epidemiology of human listeriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Schuchat, A; Swaminathan, B; Broome, C V

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, investigation of several large epidemics of listeriosis confirmed that transmission of L. monocytogenes in food causes human disease. Progress in laboratory detection and subtyping of the organism has enhanced our ability to compare human and environmental isolates of L. monocytogenes. Transmission by foodborne organisms is now recognized as causing both epidemic and sporadic listeriosis. Continued study of dietary risk factors associated with listeriosis is needed in order to develop dietary recommendations for the expanding population at increased risk of disease. Current research application of new molecular methods to the study of L. monocytogenes may improve the ability to diagnose pregnancy-associated disease and permit the rapid detection and control of L. monocytogenes in the food supply. PMID:1906370

  12. Secure Distributed Human Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Craig; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Stubblebine, Stuart

    In Peha’s Financial Cryptography 2004 invited talk, he described the Cyphermint PayCash system (see www.cyphermint.com), which allows people without bank accounts or credit cards (a sizeable segment of the U.S. population) to automatically and instantly cash checks, pay bills, or make Internet transactions through publicly-accessible kiosks. Since PayCash offers automated financial transactions and since the system uses (unprotected) kiosks, security is critical. The kiosk must decide whether a person cashing a check is really the person to whom the check was made out, so it takes a digital picture of the person cashing the check and transmits this picture electronically to a central office, where a human worker compares the kiosk’s picture to one that was taken when the person registered with Cyphermint. If both pictures are of the same person, then the human worker authorizes the transaction.

  13. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  14. Human waves in stadiums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, I.; Helbing, D.; Vicsek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Mexican wave first widely broadcasted during the 1986 World Cup held in Mexico, is a human wave moving along the stands of stadiums as one section of spectators stands up, arms lifting, then sits down as the next section does the same. Here we use variants of models originally developed for the description of excitable media to demonstrate that this collective human behaviour can be quantitatively interpreted by methods of statistical physics. Adequate modelling of reactions to triggering attempts provides a deeper insight into the mechanisms by which a crowd can be stimulated to execute a particular pattern of behaviour and represents a possible tool of control during events involving excited groups of people. Interactive simulations, video recordings and further images are available at the webpage dedicated to this work: http://angel.elte.hu/wave.

  15. Ancient human microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  16. Human herpesvirus 8 – A novel human pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Daniel C

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, Chang and Moore reported on the latest of the gammaherpesviruses to infect humans, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) [1]. This novel herpesvirus has and continues to present challenges to define its scope of involvement in human disease. In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus's epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics. PMID:16138925

  17. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  18. Networks of Human Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csermely, Peter

    Now that you are back from the zoo, where you tried in vain to shake the six hands of all the ants for several hours,1 it is time to start our fifth trip into Netland. Let us go and see what those macroscopic ants known as human beings can achieve. I will show you what type of networks we have figured out to support the last variety of social networks from the previous chapter.

  19. [Patenting human genes].

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    2002-05-10

    The problem of patenting of human genes, which was discussed at the Workshop organized by OECD, has become very actual due to granted patents that concern testing of genetic disposition for breast cancer. Companies that had made large investments into this research clearly support patenting of their discoveries. But such patents can reduce general accessibility of genetic testing. Existing laws, and namely the Directive of the European Council unfortunately are not unambiguous and allow rather free explanation.

  20. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  1. Human mapping databases.

    PubMed

    Talbot, C; Cuticchia, A J

    2001-05-01

    This unit concentrates on the data contained within two human genome databasesGDB (Genome Database) and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)and includes discussion of different methods for submitting and accessing data. An understanding of electronic mail, FTP, and the use of a World Wide Web (WWW) navigational tool such as Netscape or Internet Explorer is a prerequisite for utilizing the information in this unit.

  2. Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Fent, Karl; Weston, Anna A; Caminada, Daniel

    2006-02-10

    Low levels of human medicines (pharmaceuticals) have been detected in many countries in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents, surface waters, seawaters, groundwater and some drinking waters. For some pharmaceuticals effects on aquatic organisms have been investigated in acute toxicity assays. The chronic toxicity and potential subtle effects are only marginally known, however. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about human pharmaceuticals in the environment and address several key questions. What kind of pharmaceuticals and what concentrations occur in the aquatic environment? What is the fate in surface water and in STP? What are the modes of action of these compounds in humans and are there similar targets in lower animals? What acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects may be elicited by pharmaceuticals and by mixtures? What are the effect concentrations and how do they relate to environmental levels? Our review shows that only very little is known about long-term effects of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms, in particular with respect to biological targets. For most human medicines analyzed, acute effects to aquatic organisms are unlikely, except for spills. For investigated pharmaceuticals chronic lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) in standard laboratory organisms are about two orders of magnitude higher than maximal concentrations in STP effluents. For diclofenac, the LOEC for fish toxicity was in the range of wastewater concentrations, whereas the LOEC of propranolol and fluoxetine for zooplankton and benthic organisms were near to maximal measured STP effluent concentrations. In surface water, concentrations are lower and so are the environmental risks. However, targeted ecotoxicological studies are lacking almost entirely and such investigations are needed focusing on subtle environmental effects. This will allow better and comprehensive risk assessments of pharmaceuticals in the future.

  3. Neanderthals and Modern Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Clive

    2004-04-01

    The Neanderthals were a people native to Europe during the Pleistocene period, who became extinct between forty and thirty thousand years ago. Challenging the commonly held view that extinction was caused by the arrival of our ancestors, Clive Finlayson provides evidence that their extinction actually occurred because the Neanderthals could not adapt fast enough to changing ecological and environmental conditions, not their relationship with modern humans.

  4. Isolation of Human Basophils.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, John T; Bieneman, Anja P

    2016-02-02

    Isolating human basophils from blood has long been hampered by the fact that these granulocytes represent just 1% or less of the circulating leukocyte population. We describe herein laboratory protocols that have been refined over the past ∼25 years that now enable investigators to prepare basophils for use in a variety of assays to assess the in vitro biology of these immune cells, both in IgE -dependent and -independent responses.

  5. Human viruses and cancer.

    PubMed

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2014-10-23

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt's lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  6. Human liver nucleolar antigens.

    PubMed

    Busch, R K; Busch, H

    1981-10-01

    In an extension of previous studies on the antigens in rat liver nucleoli (R. K. Busch, R. C. Reddy, D. H. Henning, and H. Busch, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160, 185 (1979); R. K. Busch and H. Busch, Tumori 63, 347 (1977); F. M. Davis, R. K. Busch, L. C. Yeoman, and H. Busch, Cancer Res. 38, 1906 (1978), rabbit antibodies were elicited to human liver nucleoli isolated by the sucrose--Mg2+ method (10). Fluorescent nucleoli were found in liver cryostat sections treated with rabbit anti-human liver nucleolar antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibodies. In HeLa cells, fluorescence was distributed throughout the nucleus and in a nuclear network but was not localized to the nucleolus. In placental cryostat sections, an overall nuclear fluorescence was observed with some localization to nucleoli. Immunodiffusion analysis revealed two immunoprecipitin bands which appeared to be liver specific. Other immunoprecipitin bands were common to liver, placenta, and HeLa nuclear extracts. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis revealed two liver-specific antigens, one migrating to the cathode and the other to the anode Other rockets exhibited identity to antigens of other nuclear extracts. These results demonstrate the presence of human liver nucleolar-specific antigens which were not found in the HeLa and placental cells.

  7. Cocoa and human health.

    PubMed

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  8. Unusual infections in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Neafie, R C; Marty, A M

    1993-01-01

    Nine cases of unusual infections in humans are presented. In each case, we present the clinical history, histopathologic changes (if indicated), morphologic features of the causative organism, diagnosis, discussion, differential diagnosis, therapy, and current literature. All of the cases are illustrated with pertinent photographs. The nine cases are as follows: (i) acanthocephaliasis, the first acquired human infection by Moniliformis moniliformis in the United States; (ii) dipylidiasis, an uncommon infection caused by the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum; (iii) granulomatous amebic encephalitis, caused by the recently identified leptomyxid group of amebae; (iv) schistosomiasis, a dual infection of the urinary bladder with the rare presentation of both adult worms and eggs of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in tissue sections; (v) syphilitic gastritis, an uncommon presentation of Treponema pallidum infection, in a patient with an additional incidental infection by Helicobacter pylori; (vi) microsporidiosis, the only infection caused by a Pleistophora sp. in humans; (vii) sporotrichosis, a rare disseminated infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii with numerous yeast cells in the scrotum; (viii) angiostrongyliasis, the first and only infection caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis acquired in either Puerto Rico or the United States; and (ix) botryomycosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by gram-positive cocci with an unusually large number of granules. Images PMID:8457979

  9. Immunology of human schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Colley, D G; Secor, W E

    2014-01-01

    There is a wealth of immunologic studies that have been carried out in experimental and human schistosomiasis that can be classified into three main areas: immunopathogenesis, resistance to reinfection and diagnostics. It is clear that the bulk of, if not all, morbidity due to human schistosomiasis results from immune-response-based inflammation against eggs lodged in the body, either as regulated chronic inflammation or resulting in fibrotic lesions. However, the exact nature of these responses, the antigens to which they are mounted and the mechanisms of the critical regulatory responses are still being sorted out. It is also becoming apparent that protective immunity against schistosomula as they develop into adult worms develops slowly and is hastened by the dying of adult worms, either naturally or when they are killed by praziquantel. However, as with anti-egg responses, the responsible immune mechanisms and inducing antigens are not clearly established, nor are any potential regulatory responses known. Finally, a wide variety of immune markers, both cellular and humoral, can be used to demonstrate exposure to schistosomes, and immunologic measurement of schistosome antigens can be used to detect, and thus diagnose, active infections. All three areas contribute to the public health response to human schistosome infections. PMID:25142505

  10. Mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, Charles R.

    1989-06-01

    The following pages aim to lay a foundation for understanding the excitement surrounding the ''human genome project,'' as well as to convey a flavor of the ongoing efforts and plans at the Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Our own work, of course, is only part of a broad international effort that will dramatically enhance our understanding of human molecular genetics before the end of this century. In this country, the bulk of the effort will be carried out under the auspices of the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, but significant contributions have already been made both by nonprofit private foundations and by private corporation. The respective roles of the DOE and the NIH are being coordinated by an inter-agency committee, the aims of which are to emphasize the strengths of each agency, to facilitate cooperation, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort. The NIH, for example, will continue its crucial work in medical genetics and in mapping the genomes of nonhuman species. The DOE, on the other hand, has unique experience in managing large projects, and its national laboratories are repositories of expertise in physics, engineering, and computer science, as well as the life sciences. The tools and techniques the project will ultimately rely on are thus likely to be developed in multidisciplinary efforts at laboratories like LBL. Accordingly, we at LBL take great pride in this enterprise -- an enterprise that will eventually transform our understanding of ourselves.

  11. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  12. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-08

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination.

  13. The human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Orth, G; Jablonska, S; Breitburd, F; Favre, M; Croissant, O

    1978-01-01

    Recent biochemical and serological studies have shown the existence of at least four distinct types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) causing benign skin lesions. These viruses show hardly no antigenic relationships; their DNAs differ by their sensitivity to restriction endonucleases, and show little, if any, sequence homology, as detected by molecular hybridization using complementary RNAs transcribed in vitro. Data on the pathogenicity of HPVs are still incomplete but indicate that some types of benign skin lesions (plantar warts, common warts, flat warts) may be preferentially associated with some types of HPV. Most interesting is that epidermodysplasia verruciformis has been found associated with two types of virus, and that malignant conversion of some lesions has been observed in all the patients infected with one of them. This suggests that at least a HPV may have a higher oncogenic potential, as do rabbit (Shope) papillomavirus and bovine alimentary tract papillomavirus. Much remains to be known on human papilloma-viruses and further studies may lead to the characterization of additional types of HPVs, especially in genital condylomata acuminata and laryngeal papillomas whose malignant conversion, although rare, may be observed. Progress in this field has been and remains hampered by the lack of cell culture systems allowing replication of these highly host and tissue specific viruses, and by the widely variable virus content of the different human lesions known to be associated with a papillomavirus. Further studies are warranted by the possible role of these widespread and epitheliotropic viruses in the origin of some carcinomas in man.

  14. Psychophysics of human echolocation.

    PubMed

    Schörnich, Sven; Wallmeier, Ludwig; Gessele, Nikodemus; Nagy, Andreas; Schranner, Michael; Kish, Daniel; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The skills of some blind humans orienting in their environment through the auditory analysis of reflections from self-generated sounds have received only little scientific attention to date. Here we present data from a series of formal psychophysical experiments with sighted subjects trained to evaluate features of a virtual echo-acoustic space, allowing for rigid and fine-grain control of the stimulus parameters. The data show how subjects shape both their vocalisations and auditory analysis of the echoes to serve specific echo-acoustic tasks. First, we show that humans can echo-acoustically discriminate target distances with a resolution of less than 1 m for reference distances above 3.4 m. For a reference distance of 1.7 m, corresponding to an echo delay of only 10 ms, distance JNDs were typically around 0.5 m. Second, we explore the interplay between the precedence effect and echolocation. We show that the strong perceptual asymmetry between lead and lag is weakened during echolocation. Finally, we show that through the auditory analysis of self-generated sounds, subjects discriminate room-size changes as small as 10%.In summary, the current data confirm the practical efficacy of human echolocation, and they provide a rigid psychophysical basis for addressing its neural foundations.

  15. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  16. Human Milk Lipids.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Human milk lipids provide the infant with energy and essential vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive components. Adding complex lipids and milk fat globule membranes to vegetable oil-based infant formula has the potential to enhance infant development and reduce infections. Cholesterol provision with breastfeeding modulates infant sterol metabolism and may induce long-term benefits. Some 98-99% of milk lipids are comprised by triacylglycerols, whose properties depend on incorporated fatty acids. Attention has been devoted to the roles of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (ARA) acids. Recent studies on gene-diet interaction (Mendelian randomization) show that breastfeeding providing DHA and ARA improves cognitive development and reduces asthma risk at school age particularly in those children with a genetically determined lower activity of DHA and ARA synthesis. It appears prudent to follow the biological model of human milk in the design of infant formula as far as feasible, unless conclusive evidence for the suitability and safety of other choices is available. The recent European Union legislative stipulation of a high formula DHA content without required ARA deviates from this concept, and such a novel formula composition has not been adequately evaluated. Great future opportunities arise with significant methodological progress for example in lipidomic analyses and their bioinformatic evaluation, which should enhance understanding of the biology of human milk lipids. Such knowledge might lead to improved dietary advice to lactating mothers as well as to further opportunities to enhance infant formula composition.

  17. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  18. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2014-12-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  19. Human evolution and cognition.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian

    2010-09-01

    Human beings are distinguished from all other organisms by their symbolic way of processing information about the world. This unique cognitive style is qualitatively different from all the earlier hominid cognitive styles, and is not simply an improved version of them. The hominid fossil and archaeological records show clearly that biological and technological innovations have typically been highly sporadic, and totally out of phase, since the invention of stone tools some 2.5 million years ago. They also confirm that this pattern applied in the arrival of modern cognition: the anatomically recognizable species Homo sapiens was well established long before any population of it began to show indications of behaving symbolically. This places the origin of symbolic thought in the realms of exaptation, whereby new structures come into existence before being recruited to new uses, and of emergence, whereby entire new levels of complexity are achieved through new combinations of attributes unremarkable in themselves. Both these phenomena involve entirely routine evolutionary processes; special as we human beings may consider ourselves, there was nothing special about the way we came into existence. Modern human cognition is a very recent acquisition; and its emergence ushered in an entirely new pattern of technological (and other behavioral) innovation, in which constant change results from the ceaseless exploration of the potential inherent in our new capacity.

  20. Computing human image annotation.

    PubMed

    Channin, David S; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Rubin, Daniel L

    2009-01-01

    An image annotation is the explanatory or descriptive information about the pixel data of an image that is generated by a human (or machine) observer. An image markup is the graphical symbols placed over the image to depict an annotation. In the majority of current, clinical and research imaging practice, markup is captured in proprietary formats and annotations are referenced only in free text radiology reports. This makes these annotations difficult to query, retrieve and compute upon, hampering their integration into other data mining and analysis efforts. This paper describes the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid's (caBIG) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project, focusing on how to use AIM to query for annotations. The AIM project delivers an information model for image annotation and markup. The model uses controlled terminologies for important concepts. All of the classes and attributes of the model have been harmonized with the other models and common data elements in use at the National Cancer Institute. The project also delivers XML schemata necessary to instantiate AIMs in XML as well as a software application for translating AIM XML into DICOM S/R and HL7 CDA. Large collections of AIM annotations can be built and then queried as Grid or Web services. Using the tools of the AIM project, image annotations and their markup can be captured and stored in human and machine readable formats. This enables the inclusion of human image observation and inference as part of larger data mining and analysis activities.

  1. On cloning human beings.

    PubMed

    de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that arguments for and against cloning fail to make their case because of one or both of the following reasons: 1) they take for granted customary beliefs and assumptions that are far from being unquestionable; 2) they tend to ignore the context in which human cloning is developed. I will analyze some of the assumptions underlying the main arguments that have been offered for and against cloning. Once these assumptions are critically analyzed, arguments both rejecting and supporting human cloning seem to lose weight. I will first briefly present the main arguments that have been proposed against cloning and I will argue that they fail to establish their case. In the next section I will evaluate some of the positive arguments that have been offered supporting such technology. This analysis will show that the case for cloning also fails. Finally, I will maintain that because critics and especially supporters of this technology neglect the context in which human cloning is developed and might be implemented, their arguments are far from compelling.

  2. Gas hydrate and humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The potential effects of naturally occurring gas hydrate on humans are not understood with certainty, but enough information has been acquired over the past 30 years to make preliminary assessments possible. Three major issues are gas hydrate as (1) a potential energy resource, (2) a factor in global climate change, and (3) a submarine geohazard. The methane content is estimated to be between 1015 to 1017 m3 at STP and the worldwide distribution in outer continental margins of oceans and in polar regions are significant features of gas hydrate. However, its immediate development as an energy resource is not likely because there are various geological constraints and difficult technological problems that must be solved before economic recovery of methane from hydrate can be achieved. The role of gas hydrate in global climate change is uncertain. For hydrate methane to be an effective greenhouse gas, it must reach the atmosphere. Yet there are many obstacles to the transfer of methane from hydrate to the atmosphere. Rates of gas hydrate dissociation and the integrated rates of release and destruction of the methane in the geo/hydro/atmosphere are not adequately understood. Gas hydrate as a submarine geohazard, however, is of immediate and increasing importance to humans as our industrial society moves to exploit seabed resources at ever-greater depths in the waters of our coastal oceans. Human activities and installations in regions of gas-hydrate occurrence must take into account the presence of gas hydrate and deal with the consequences of its presence.

  3. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  4. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  5. Human Viruses and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

  6. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  7. Human Provenancing: It's Elemental…

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp

    2009-04-01

    Forensic science already uses a variety of methods often in combination to determine a deceased person's identity if neither personal effects nor next of kin (or close friends) can positively identify the victim. While disciplines such as forensic anthropology are able to work from a blank canvass as it were and can provide information on age, gender and ethnical grouping, techniques such as DNA profiling do rely on finding a match either in a database or a comparative sample presumed to be an ante-mortem sample of the victim or from a putative relation. Chances for either to succeed would be greatly enhanced if information gained from a forensic anthropological examination and, circumstances permitting a facial reconstruction could be linked to another technique that can work from a blank canvass or at least does not require comparison to a subject specific database. With the help of isotope ratio mass spectrometry even the very atoms from which a body is made can be used to say something about a person that will help to focus human identification using traditional techniques such as DNA, fingerprints and odontology. Stable isotope fingerprinting works on the basis that almost all chemical elements and in particular the so-called light elements such as carbon (C) that comprise most of the human body occur naturally in different forms, namely isotopes. 2H isotope abundance values recorded by the human body through food and drink ultimately reflect averaged isotopic composition of precipitation or ground water. Stable isotope analysis of 2H isotopic composition in different human tissue such as hair, nails, bone and teeth enables us to construct a time resolved isotopic profile or ‘fingerprint' that may not necessarily permit direct identification of a murder victim or mass disaster victim but in conjunction with forensic anthropological information will provide sufficient intelligence to construct a profile for intelligence lead identification stating where a

  8. Human Research Program (HRP) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Human Research Program (HRP) is a major part of the Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). ...

  9. Fire Control and Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Claire

    1978-01-01

    Briefly outlines some aspects of the discovery of fire control by primitive people, such as the preadaptation for speech, the evolution of the human brain, and natural selection for human nakedness or loss of hair. (CS)

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

  11. Oceans and Human Health Center

    MedlinePlus

    ocean and human health science can help prevent disease outbreaks and improve public health through a deeper understanding of the causes ... our Center and the field of oceans and human health science. More Research Learn about the research ...

  12. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  13. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  14. Humane Education: A Forgotten Mandate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Peter J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the importance of humane education (i.e., the teaching of the principles of justice, goodwill, and respect for all living creatures) and offers suggestions for integrating humane education in the elementary school curriculum. (JG)

  15. Human Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the Moon tilde-n or, more generally, human exploration of the solar system tilde-n began with the landing of Apollo 11 Lunar Module on the lunar surface. Human exploration continued with growing capability until the departure of the Apollo 17 lunar module from the lunar surface in 1972. Human exploration is currently experiencing what can be called euphemistically a hiatus.

  16. Rejecting medical humanism: medical humanities and the metaphysics of medicine.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2008-03-01

    The call for a narrative medicine has been touted as the cure-all for an increasingly mechanical medicine. It has been claimed that the humanities might create more empathic, reflective, professional and trustworthy doctors. In other words, we can once again humanise medicine through the addition of humanities. In this essay, I explore how the humanities, particularly narrative medicine, appeals to the metaphysical commitments of the medical institution in order to find its justification, and in so doing, perpetuates a dualism of humanity that would have humanism as the counterpoint to the biopsychosociologisms of our day.

  17. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank.

  18. Leadership in a Humane Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the way leadership influences an organization to become humane through its features and behaviors; as well as the organizational circumstances in which humane leadership can be nurtured. The first empirical case study, in the fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) and hospitality management, to…

  19. The Humanities at Triton College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacot, Robert E.; Prendergast, Nancy E.

    Designed to assist college personnel in assessing program needs, this report provides an overview of the humanities programs at Triton College. Part I focuses on curricular humanities programs, including discussions of the role and objectives of the School of Arts and Sciences; humanities courses offered in the school; special humanities…

  20. Research Needs for Human Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Research Inst. for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Arlington, VA.

    Human factors engineering can be defined as the application of scientific principles, methods, and data drawn from a variety of disciplines to the development of engineering systems in which people play a significant role. Since human factors issues arise in every domain in which humans interact with the products of a technological society, six…

  1. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  2. A Hierarchy of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  3. Community College Humanities Review, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheper, George L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of the Community College Humanities Review contains articles generated by National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institutes, held over several years. The institutes provided opportunities for academics from a variety of humanities disciplines and types of institutions to interact over an extended period of common study of…

  4. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  5. Literacy as a Human Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, James C., Ed.

    First presented as papers in a symposium on literacy conducted at the University of Alabama, essays in this volume explore three areas of human literacy--law, linguistics, and the English language; testing; and literacy's relation with culture and human consciousness. Following an introduction examining literacy as a human problem, the following…

  6. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  7. Office for Human Research Protections

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A Print Share Office for Human Research Protections The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) provides leadership in the protection of ... welfare, and wellbeing of human subjects involved in research conducted or supported by the U.S. Department of ...

  8. Focus on Teaching the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Harriet W., Ed.

    1968-01-01

    Six articles on the problems in planning and executing a high school humanities program are collected here. Wallace Kennedy gives a partial listing of Minnesota teachers and schools that offer humanities in grades 11 and 12. Fred E. H. Schroeder takes up the problems of defining "humanities," selecting good teachers, preparing an interdisciplinary…

  9. Humanism and science: a reaction.

    PubMed

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    Authors in this section have noted that humanism is intrinsic to psychotherapy, although disagreements remain. One of the disagreements is about the role of science in humanism. In this reaction, I contend that humanism, as discussed in these articles, is a legitimate theory to be subjected to scientific scrutiny.

  10. Human Rights and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  11. The human role in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, S. B.; Vontiesenhausen, G.; Johnson, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements for the future human role in space are considered. Human tasks were divided into normal scheduled activities, unscheduled activities, and contingency activities. A strawman mission model was developed. Projections were made of crew size, mission duration, pressurized spacecraft volume, and power requirements. Trends of human roles were likewise projected.

  12. Morbilliviruses and human disease.

    PubMed

    Rima, Bertus K; Duprex, W Paul

    2006-01-01

    Morbilliviruses are a group of viruses that belong to the family Paramyxoviridae. The most instantly recognizable member is measles virus (MV) and individuals acutely infected with the virus exhibit a wide range of clinical symptoms ranging from a characteristic mild self-limiting infection to death. Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) cause a similar but distinctive pathology in dogs and cattle, respectively, and these, alongside experimental MV infection of primates, have been useful models for MV pathogenesis. Traditionally, viruses were identified because a distinctive disease was observed in man or animals; an infectious agent was subsequently isolated, cultured, and this could be used to recapitulate the disease in an experimentally infected host. Thus, satisfying Koch's postulates has been the norm. More recently, particularly due to the advent of exceedingly sensitive molecular biological assays, many researchers have looked for infectious agents in disease conditions for which a viral aetiology has not been previously established. For these cases, the modified Koch's postulates of Bradford Hill have been developed as criteria to link a virus to a specific disease. Only in a few cases have these conditions been fulfilled. Therefore, many viruses have over the years been definitely and tentatively linked to human diseases and in this respect the morbilliviruses are no different. In this review, human diseases associated with morbillivirus infection have been grouped into three broad categories: (1) those which are definitely caused by the infection; (2) those which may be exacerbated or facilitated by an infection; and (3) those which currently have limited, weak, unsubstantiated or no credible scientific evidence to support any link to a morbillivirus. Thus, an attempt has been made to clarify the published data and separate human diseases actually linked to morbilliviruses from those that are merely anecdotally associated.

  13. Human microsporidial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, R; Bryan, R T; Schwartz, D A; Owen, R L

    1994-01-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular spore-forming protozoal parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. Their host range is extensive, including most invertebrates and all classes of vertebrates. More than 100 microsporidial genera and almost 1,000 species have now been identified. Five genera (Enterocytozoon spp., Encephalitozoon spp., Septata spp., Pleistophora sp., and Nosema spp.) and unclassified microsporidia (referred to by the collective term Microsporidium) have been associated with human disease, which appears to manifest primarily in immunocompromised persons. The clinical manifestations of microsporidiosis are diverse and include intestinal, pulmonary, ocular, muscular, and renal disease. Among persons not infected with human immunodeficiency virus, ten cases of microsporidiosis have been documented. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, on the other hand, over 400 cases of microsporidiosis have been identified, the majority attributed to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, an important cause of chronic diarrhea and wasting. Diagnosis of microsporidiosis currently depends on morphological demonstration of the organisms themselves. Initial detection of microsporidia by light microscopic examination of tissue sections and of more readily obtainable specimens such as stool, duodenal aspirates, urine, sputum, nasal discharge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and conjunctival smears is now becoming routine practice. Definitive species identification is made by using the specific fluorescein-tagged antibody (immunofluorescence) technique or electron microscopy. Treatment options are limited, but symptomatic improvement of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection may be achieved with the anthelmintic-antiprotozoal drug albendazole. Preliminary observations suggest that Septata intestinalis and Encephalitozoon infections may be cured with albendazole. Progress is being made with respect to in vitro propagation of microsporidia, which is crucial for developing

  14. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N.

    2012-07-01

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to

  15. Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  16. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  17. Human performance during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Manzey, D; Lorenz, B

    1999-04-01

    The paper focuses on three different questions: (1) What attributes cause space to be an extreme environment for humans? (2) What do we know about mental performance during spaceflight? (3) What kinds of psychological countermeasures are currently applied and/or conceivable for prolonged spaceflight which might help maintain mental efficiency and stabilize the emotional state of astronauts? Topics discussed include stressors that originate in the space environment, stressors related to the space habitat and its life-support system, stressors related to the mission specific workload of astronauts, stressors that arise from the psychosocial situation in a space habitat, manual performance during spaceflight, and psychological countermeasures for prolonged spaceflight.

  18. THE HUMAN CHROMOSOME

    PubMed Central

    Abuelo, J. G.; Moore, Dorothy E.

    1969-01-01

    Human lymphocytes were grown in short-term tissue culture and were arrested in metaphase with Colcemid. Their chromosomes were prepared by the Langmuir trough-critical point drying technique and were examined under the electron microscope. In addition, some chromosomes were digested with trypsin, Pronase, or DNase. The chromosomes consist entirely of tightly packed, 240 ± 50-A chromatin fibers. Trypsin and Pronase treatments induce relaxation of fiber packing and reveal certain underlying fiber arrangements. Furthermore, trypsin treatment demonstrates that the chromatin fiber has a 25–50 A trypsin-resistant core surrounded by a trypsin-sensitive sheath. DNase digestion suggests that this core contains DNA. PMID:5775795

  19. Investigating human evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, BERNARD

    2000-01-01

    We rely on fossils for the interpretation of more than 95% of our evolutionary history. Fieldwork resulting in the recovery of fresh fossil evidence is an important component of reconstructing human evolutionary history, but advances can also be made by extracting additional evidence for the existing fossil record, and by improving the methods used to interpret the fossil evidence. This review shows how information from imaging and dental microstructure has contributed to improving our understanding of the hominin fossil record. It also surveys recent advances in the use of the fossil record for phylogenetic inference. PMID:10999269

  20. Human detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengxian; Wei, Yaxun

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a method to segment moving human bodies. A self-adaptive background model is used to update the background image(so-called reference image). By calculating the Euclidean distance of corresponding points in the current and background image, we can check out the foreground objects. And the shadow can be detected and removed according to the characteristics of the shadow regions shown in HSV space. Finally, target tracking is implemented by calculating the relativity of color histogram between the moving areas in two succeeding images.