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  1. The MYB98 subcircuit of the synergid gene regulatory network includes genes directly and indirectly regulated by MYB98.

    PubMed

    Punwani, Jayson A; Rabiger, David S; Lloyd, Alan; Drews, Gary N

    2008-08-01

    The female gametophyte contains two synergid cells that play a role in many steps of the angiosperm reproductive process, including pollen tube guidance. At their micropylar poles, the synergid cells have a thickened and elaborated cell wall: the filiform apparatus that is thought to play a role in the secretion of the pollen tube attractant(s). MYB98 regulates an important subcircuit of the synergid gene regulatory network (GRN) that functions to activate the expression of genes required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation. The MYB98 subcircuit comprises at least 83 downstream genes, including 48 genes within four gene families (CRP810, CRP3700, CRP3730 and CRP3740) that encode Cys-rich proteins. We show that the 11 CRP3700 genes, which include DD11 and DD18, are regulated by a common cis-element, GTAACNT, and that a multimer of this sequence confers MYB98-dependent synergid expression. The GTAACNT element contains the MYB98-binding site identified in vitro, suggesting that the 11 CRP3700 genes are direct targets of MYB98. We also show that five of the CRP810 genes, which include DD2, lack a functional GTAACNT element, suggesting that they are not directly regulated by MYB98. In addition, we show that the five CRP810 genes are regulated by the cis-element AACGT, and that a multimer of this sequence confers synergid expression. Together, these results suggest that the MYB98 branch of the synergid GRN is multi-tiered and, therefore, contains at least one additional downstream transcription factor.

  2. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  3. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  4. MYB98 positively regulates a battery of synergid-expressed genes encoding filiform apparatus localized proteins.

    PubMed

    Punwani, Jayson A; Rabiger, David S; Drews, Gary N

    2007-08-01

    The synergid cells within the female gametophyte are essential for reproduction in angiosperms. MYB98 encodes an R2R3-MYB protein required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation by the synergid cells. To test the predicted function of MYB98 as a transcriptional regulator, we determined its subcellular localization and examined its DNA binding properties. We show that MYB98 binds to a specific DNA sequence (TAAC) and that a MYB98-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to the nucleus, consistent with a role in transcriptional regulation. To identify genes regulated by MYB98, we tested previously identified synergid-expressed genes for reduced expression in myb98 female gametophytes and identified 16 such genes. We dissected the promoter of one of the downstream genes, DD11, and show that it contains a MYB98 binding site required for synergid expression, suggesting that DD11 is regulated directly by MYB98. To gain insight into the functions of the downstream genes, we chose five genes and determined the subcellular localization of the encoded proteins. We show that these five proteins are secreted into the filiform apparatus, suggesting that they play a role in either the formation or the function of this unique structure. Together, these data suggest that MYB98 functions as a transcriptional regulator in the synergid cells and activates the expression of genes required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by Drosophila Myb and E2F2-RBF via the Myb-MuvB/dREAM complex.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong; Andrejka, Laura; Ashton, Jonathan; Karess, Roger; Lipsick, Joseph S

    2008-03-01

    The Drosophila Myb oncoprotein, the E2F2 transcriptional repressor, and the RBF and Mip130/LIN-9 tumor suppressor proteins reside in a conserved Myb-MuvB (MMB)/dREAM complex. We now show that Myb is required in vivo for the expression of Polo kinase and components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Surprisingly, the highly conserved DNA-binding domain was not essential for assembly of Myb into MMB/dREAM, for transcriptional regulation in vivo, or for rescue of Myb-null mutants to adult viability. E2F2, RBF, and Mip130/LIN-9 acted in opposition to Myb by repressing the expression of Polo and SAC genes in vivo. Remarkably, the absence of both Myb and Mip130, or of both Myb and E2F2, caused variegated expression in which high or low levels of Polo were stably inherited through successive cell divisions in imaginal wing discs. Restoration of Myb resulted in a uniformly high level of Polo expression similar to that seen in wild-type tissue, whereas restoration of Mip130 or E2F2 extinguished Polo expression. Our results demonstrate epigenetic regulation of gene expression by Myb, Mip130/LIN-9, and E2F2-RBF in vivo, and also provide an explanation for the ability of Mip130-null mutants to rescue the lethality of Myb-null mutants in vivo.

  6. Phenylpropanoids Accumulation in Eggplant Fruit: Characterization of Biosynthetic Genes and Regulation by a MYB Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Docimo, Teresa; Francese, Gianluca; Ruggiero, Alessandra; Batelli, Giorgia; De Palma, Monica; Bassolino, Laura; Toppino, Laura; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Mennella, Giuseppe; Tucci, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Phenylpropanoids are major secondary metabolites in eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruits. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) accounts for 70-90% of total phenolics in flesh tissues, while anthocyanins are mainly present in the fruit skin. As a contribution to the understanding of the peculiar accumulation of these health-promoting metabolites in eggplant, we report on metabolite abundance, regulation of CGA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, and characterization of candidate CGA biosynthetic genes in S. melongena. Higher contents of CGA, Delphinidin 3-rutinoside, and rutin were found in eggplant fruits compared to other tissues, associated to an elevated transcript abundance of structural genes such as PAL, HQT, DFR, and ANS, suggesting that active in situ biosynthesis contributes to anthocyanin and CGA accumulation in fruit tissues. Putative orthologs of the two CGA biosynthetic genes PAL and HQT, as well as a variant of a MYB1 transcription factor showing identity with group six MYBs, were isolated from an Occidental S. melongena traditional variety and demonstrated to differ from published sequences from Asiatic varieties. In silico analysis of the isolated SmPAL1, SmHQT1, SmANS, and SmMyb1 promoters revealed the presence of several Myb regulatory elements for the biosynthetic genes and unique elements for the TF, suggesting its involvement in other physiological roles beside phenylpropanoid biosynthesis regulation. Transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves of SmMyb1 and of a C-terminal SmMyb1 truncated form (SmMyb1Δ9) resulted in anthocyanin accumulation only of SmMyb1 agro-infiltrated leaves. A yeast two-hybrid assay confirmed the interaction of both SmMyb1 and SmMyb1Δ9 with an anthocyanin-related potato bHLH1 TF. Interestingly, a doubled amount of CGA was detected in both SmMyb1 and SmMyb1Δ9 agro-infiltrated leaves, thus suggesting that the N-terminal region of SmMyb1 is sufficient to activate its synthesis. These data suggest that a deletion of the C

  7. Phenylpropanoids Accumulation in Eggplant Fruit: Characterization of Biosynthetic Genes and Regulation by a MYB Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Docimo, Teresa; Francese, Gianluca; Ruggiero, Alessandra; Batelli, Giorgia; De Palma, Monica; Bassolino, Laura; Toppino, Laura; Rotino, Giuseppe L.; Mennella, Giuseppe; Tucci, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpropanoids are major secondary metabolites in eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruits. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) accounts for 70–90% of total phenolics in flesh tissues, while anthocyanins are mainly present in the fruit skin. As a contribution to the understanding of the peculiar accumulation of these health-promoting metabolites in eggplant, we report on metabolite abundance, regulation of CGA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, and characterization of candidate CGA biosynthetic genes in S. melongena. Higher contents of CGA, Delphinidin 3-rutinoside, and rutin were found in eggplant fruits compared to other tissues, associated to an elevated transcript abundance of structural genes such as PAL, HQT, DFR, and ANS, suggesting that active in situ biosynthesis contributes to anthocyanin and CGA accumulation in fruit tissues. Putative orthologs of the two CGA biosynthetic genes PAL and HQT, as well as a variant of a MYB1 transcription factor showing identity with group six MYBs, were isolated from an Occidental S. melongena traditional variety and demonstrated to differ from published sequences from Asiatic varieties. In silico analysis of the isolated SmPAL1, SmHQT1, SmANS, and SmMyb1 promoters revealed the presence of several Myb regulatory elements for the biosynthetic genes and unique elements for the TF, suggesting its involvement in other physiological roles beside phenylpropanoid biosynthesis regulation. Transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves of SmMyb1 and of a C-terminal SmMyb1 truncated form (SmMyb1Δ9) resulted in anthocyanin accumulation only of SmMyb1 agro-infiltrated leaves. A yeast two-hybrid assay confirmed the interaction of both SmMyb1 and SmMyb1Δ9 with an anthocyanin-related potato bHLH1 TF. Interestingly, a doubled amount of CGA was detected in both SmMyb1 and SmMyb1Δ9 agro-infiltrated leaves, thus suggesting that the N-terminal region of SmMyb1 is sufficient to activate its synthesis. These data suggest that a deletion of the C

  8. Light-induced expression of a MYB gene regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in red apples.

    PubMed

    Takos, Adam M; Jaffé, Felix W; Jacob, Steele R; Bogs, Jochen; Robinson, Simon P; Walker, Amanda R

    2006-11-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites found in higher plants that contribute to the colors of flowers and fruits. In apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), several steps of the anthocyanin pathway are coordinately regulated, suggesting control by common transcription factors. A gene encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor was isolated from apple (cv Cripps' Pink) and designated MdMYB1. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene encodes an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators in other plants. The expression of MdMYB1 in both Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants and cultured grape cells induced the ectopic synthesis of anthocyanin. In the grape (Vitis vinifera) cells MdMYB1 stimulated transcription from the promoters of two apple genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes. In ripening apple fruit the transcription of MdMYB1 was correlated with anthocyanin synthesis in red skin sectors of fruit. When dark-grown fruit were exposed to sunlight, MdMYB1 transcript levels increased over several days, correlating with anthocyanin synthesis in the skin. MdMYB1 gene transcripts were more abundant in red skin apple cultivars compared to non-red skin cultivars. Several polymorphisms were identified in the promoter of MdMYB1. A derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker designed to one of these polymorphisms segregated with the inheritance of skin color in progeny from a cross of an unnamed red skin selection (a sibling of Cripps' Pink) and the non-red skin cultivar Golden Delicious. We conclude that MdMYB1 coordinately regulates genes in the anthocyanin pathway and the expression level of this regulator is the genetic basis for apple skin color.

  9. Light-Induced Expression of a MYB Gene Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Red Apples1

    PubMed Central

    Takos, Adam M.; Jaffé, Felix W.; Jacob, Steele R.; Bogs, Jochen; Robinson, Simon P.; Walker, Amanda R.

    2006-01-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites found in higher plants that contribute to the colors of flowers and fruits. In apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), several steps of the anthocyanin pathway are coordinately regulated, suggesting control by common transcription factors. A gene encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor was isolated from apple (cv Cripps' Pink) and designated MdMYB1. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene encodes an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators in other plants. The expression of MdMYB1 in both Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants and cultured grape cells induced the ectopic synthesis of anthocyanin. In the grape (Vitis vinifera) cells MdMYB1 stimulated transcription from the promoters of two apple genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes. In ripening apple fruit the transcription of MdMYB1 was correlated with anthocyanin synthesis in red skin sectors of fruit. When dark-grown fruit were exposed to sunlight, MdMYB1 transcript levels increased over several days, correlating with anthocyanin synthesis in the skin. MdMYB1 gene transcripts were more abundant in red skin apple cultivars compared to non-red skin cultivars. Several polymorphisms were identified in the promoter of MdMYB1. A derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker designed to one of these polymorphisms segregated with the inheritance of skin color in progeny from a cross of an unnamed red skin selection (a sibling of Cripps' Pink) and the non-red skin cultivar Golden Delicious. We conclude that MdMYB1 coordinately regulates genes in the anthocyanin pathway and the expression level of this regulator is the genetic basis for apple skin color. PMID:17012405

  10. MYB98 Positively Regulates a Battery of Synergid-Expressed Genes Encoding Filiform Apparatus–Localized Proteins[W

    PubMed Central

    Punwani, Jayson A.; Rabiger, David S.; Drews, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    The synergid cells within the female gametophyte are essential for reproduction in angiosperms. MYB98 encodes an R2R3-MYB protein required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation by the synergid cells. To test the predicted function of MYB98 as a transcriptional regulator, we determined its subcellular localization and examined its DNA binding properties. We show that MYB98 binds to a specific DNA sequence (TAAC) and that a MYB98–green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to the nucleus, consistent with a role in transcriptional regulation. To identify genes regulated by MYB98, we tested previously identified synergid-expressed genes for reduced expression in myb98 female gametophytes and identified 16 such genes. We dissected the promoter of one of the downstream genes, DD11, and show that it contains a MYB98 binding site required for synergid expression, suggesting that DD11 is regulated directly by MYB98. To gain insight into the functions of the downstream genes, we chose five genes and determined the subcellular localization of the encoded proteins. We show that these five proteins are secreted into the filiform apparatus, suggesting that they play a role in either the formation or the function of this unique structure. Together, these data suggest that MYB98 functions as a transcriptional regulator in the synergid cells and activates the expression of genes required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation. PMID:17693534

  11. Overexpression of MusaMYB31, a R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene indicate its role as a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in banana.

    PubMed

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-01-01

    Lignin and polyphenols are important cellular components biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is regulated by some important transcription factors including R2R3 MYB transcription factors. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a banana R2R3-MYB transcription factor (MusaMYB31) by overexpression in transgenic banana plants and evaluated its potential role in regulating biosynthesis of lignin and polyphenols. Sequence analysis of MusaMYB31 indicated its clustering with members of subgroup 4 (Sg4) of R2R3MYB family which are well known for their role as repressors of lignin biosynthesis. Expression analysis indicated higher expression of MusaMYB31 in corm and root tissue, known for presence of highly lignified tissue than other organs of banana. Overexpression of MusaMYB31 in banana cultivar Rasthali was carried out and four transgenic lines were confirmed by GUS histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blot. Histological and biochemical analysis suggested reduction of cell wall lignin in vascular elements of banana. Transgenic lines showed alteration in transcript levels of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes including lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Reduction of total polyphenols content in transgenic lines was in line with the observation related to repression of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. This study suggested the potential role of MusaMYB31 as repressor of lignin and polyphenols biosynthesis in banana.

  12. Overexpression of MusaMYB31, a R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene indicate its role as a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in banana

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lignin and polyphenols are important cellular components biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is regulated by some important transcription factors including R2R3 MYB transcription factors. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a banana R2R3-MYB transcription factor (MusaMYB31) by overexpression in transgenic banana plants and evaluated its potential role in regulating biosynthesis of lignin and polyphenols. Sequence analysis of MusaMYB31 indicated its clustering with members of subgroup 4 (Sg4) of R2R3MYB family which are well known for their role as repressors of lignin biosynthesis. Expression analysis indicated higher expression of MusaMYB31 in corm and root tissue, known for presence of highly lignified tissue than other organs of banana. Overexpression of MusaMYB31 in banana cultivar Rasthali was carried out and four transgenic lines were confirmed by GUS histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blot. Histological and biochemical analysis suggested reduction of cell wall lignin in vascular elements of banana. Transgenic lines showed alteration in transcript levels of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes including lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Reduction of total polyphenols content in transgenic lines was in line with the observation related to repression of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. This study suggested the potential role of MusaMYB31 as repressor of lignin and polyphenols biosynthesis in banana. PMID:28234982

  13. A Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor BpMYB106 of Birch (Betula platyphylla) Confers Increased Photosynthesis and Growth Rate through Up-regulating Photosynthetic Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Li, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    We isolated a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BpMYB106, which regulates photosynthesis in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.). BpMYB106 mainly expresses in the leaf and shoot tip of birch, and its protein is localized in the nucleus. We further fused isolated a 1588 bp promoter of BpMYB106 and analyzed it by PLACE, which showed some cis-acting elements related to photosynthesis. BpMYB106 promoter β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion studies gene, the result, showed the GUS reporter gene in transgenic birch with BpMYB106 promoter showed strong activities in shoot tip, cotyledon margins, and mature leaf trichomes. The overexpression of BpMYB106 in birch resulted in significantly increased trichome density, net photosynthetic rate, and growth rate as compared with the wild-type birch. RNA-Seq profiling revealed the upregulation of several photosynthesis-related genes in the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in the leaves of transgenic plants. Yeast one-hybrid analysis, coupled with transient assay in tobacco, revealed that BpMYB106 binds a MYB binding site MYB2 in differentially expressed gene promoters. Thus, BpMYB106 may directly activate the expression of a range of photosynthesis related genes through interacting with the MYB2 element in their promoters. Our study demonstrating the overexpression of BpMYB106-a R2R3-MYB transcription factor-upregulates the genes of the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways to improve photosynthesis.

  14. A developmentally regulated Myb domain protein regulates expression of a subset of stage-specific genes in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M.; Hackney, Jason A.; Singh, Upinder

    2012-01-01

    Summary Conversion between a cyst and trophozoite stage is essential to disease transmission and pathogenesis in the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica. A transcriptomic analysis of E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites has recently been accomplished, but the molecular basis of the regulation of encystation is not known. We have now identified a developmentally regulated Myb protein (belonging to the SHAQKY family of Myb proteins), which controls expression of a subset of amebic stage-specific genes. Overexpression of the nuclear localized Myb protein resulted in a transcriptome that overlapped significantly with the expression profile of amebic cysts. Analysis of promoters from genes regulated by the Myb protein identified a CCCCCC promoter motif to which amebic nuclear protein(s) bind in a sequence-specific manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the E. histolytica Myb protein binds directly to promoters of genes which contain the CCCCCC motif and which are regulated by the Myb protein. This work is the first identification of a transcription factor, which regulates expression of a subset of stage-specific genes in E. histolytica. Identification of transcriptional regulatory networks that control developmental pathways will provide novel insights into the biology of this important human pathogen. PMID:19239479

  15. A developmentally regulated Myb domain protein regulates expression of a subset of stage-specific genes in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M; Hackney, Jason A; Singh, Upinder

    2009-06-01

    Conversion between a cyst and trophozoite stage is essential to disease transmission and pathogenesis in the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica. A transcriptomic analysis of E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites has recently been accomplished, but the molecular basis of the regulation of encystation is not known. We have now identified a developmentally regulated Myb protein (belonging to the SHAQKY family of Myb proteins), which controls expression of a subset of amoebic stage-specific genes. Overexpression of the nuclear localized Myb protein resulted in a transcriptome that overlapped significantly with the expression profile of amoebic cysts. Analysis of promoters from genes regulated by the Myb protein identified a CCCCCC promoter motif to which amoebic nuclear protein(s) bind in a sequence-specific manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the E. histolytica Myb protein binds to promoters of genes which contain the CCCCCC motif and which are regulated by the Myb protein. This work is the first identification of a transcription factor, which regulates expression of a subset of stage-specific genes in E. histolytica. Identification of transcriptional regulatory networks that control developmental pathways will provide novel insights into the biology of this important human pathogen.

  16. Deep sequencing and in silico analyses identify MYB-regulated gene networks and signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Shafquat; Zubair, Haseeb; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Bhardwaj, Arun; Zubair, Asif; Ahmad, Aamir; Singh, Seema; Khushman, Moh’d.; Singh, Ajay P.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the transcription factor MYB can modulate several cancer-associated phenotypes in pancreatic cancer. In order to understand the molecular basis of these MYB-associated changes, we conducted deep-sequencing of transcriptome of MYB-overexpressing and -silenced pancreatic cancer cells, followed by in silico pathway analysis. We identified significant modulation of 774 genes upon MYB-silencing (p < 0.05) that were assigned to 25 gene networks by in silico analysis. Further analyses placed genes in our RNA sequencing-generated dataset to several canonical signalling pathways, such as cell-cycle control, DNA-damage and -repair responses, p53 and HIF1α. Importantly, we observed downregulation of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma signaling pathway in MYB-silenced pancreatic cancer cells exhibiting suppression of EGFR and NF-κB. Decreased expression of EGFR and RELA was validated by both qPCR and immunoblotting and they were both shown to be under direct transcriptional control of MYB. These observations were further confirmed in a converse approach wherein MYB was overexpressed ectopically in a MYB-null pancreatic cancer cell line. Our findings thus suggest that MYB potentially regulates growth and genomic stability of pancreatic cancer cells via targeting complex gene networks and signaling pathways. Further in-depth functional studies are warranted to fully understand MYB signaling in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27354262

  17. The MYB182 Protein Down-Regulates Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Poplar by Repressing Both Structural and Regulatory Flavonoid Genes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Ma, Dawei; Constabel, C. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Trees in the genus Populus (poplar) contain phenolic secondary metabolites including the proanthocyanidins (PAs), which help to adapt these widespread trees to diverse environments. The transcriptional activation of PA biosynthesis in response to herbivory and ultraviolet light stress has been documented in poplar leaves, and a regulator of this process, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB134, has been identified. MYB134-overexpressing transgenic plants show a strong high-PA phenotype. Analysis of these transgenic plants suggested the involvement of additional MYB transcription factors, including repressor-like MYB factors. Here, MYB182, a subgroup 4 MYB factor, was found to act as a negative regulator of the flavonoid pathway. Overexpression of MYB182 in hairy root culture and whole poplar plants led to reduced PA and anthocyanin levels as well as a reduction in the expression of key flavonoid genes. Similarly, a reduced accumulation of transcripts of a MYB PA activator and a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor was observed in MYB182-overexpressing hairy roots. Transient promoter activation assays in poplar cell culture demonstrated that MYB182 can disrupt transcriptional activation by MYB134 and that the basic helix-loop-helix-binding motif of MYB182 was essential for repression. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants demonstrated that down-regulated targets of MYB182 also include shikimate pathway genes. This work shows that MYB182 plays an important role in the fine-tuning of MYB134-mediated flavonoid metabolism. PMID:25624398

  18. Epigenetic regulation of olfactory receptor gene expression by the Myb-MuvB/dREAM complex.

    PubMed

    Sim, Choon Kiat; Perry, Sarah; Tharadra, Sana Khalid; Lipsick, Joseph S; Ray, Anandasankar

    2012-11-15

    In both mammals and insects, an olfactory neuron will usually select a single olfactory receptor and repress remaining members of large receptor families. Here we show that a conserved multiprotein complex, Myb-MuvB (MMB)/dREAM, plays an important role in mediating neuron-specific expression of the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) receptor genes (Gr63a/Gr21a) in Drosophila. Activity of Myb in the complex is required for expression of Gr63a/Gr21a and acts in opposition to the histone methyltransferase Su(var)3-9. Consistent with this, we observed repressive dimethylated H3K9 modifications at the receptor gene loci, suggesting a mechanism for silencing receptor gene expression. Conversely, other complex members, Mip120 (Myb-interacting protein 120) and E2F2, are required for repression of Gr63a in inappropriate neurons. Misexpression in mutants is accompanied by an increase in the H3K4me3 mark of active chromatin at the receptor gene locus. Nuclei of CO(2) receptor-expressing neurons contain reduced levels of the repressive subunit Mip120 compared with surrounding neurons and increased levels of Myb, suggesting that activity of the complex can be regulated in a cell-specific manner. Our evidence suggests a model in which olfactory receptors are regulated epigenetically and the MMB/dREAM complex plays a critical role in specifying, maintaining, and modulating the receptor-to-neuron map.

  19. Poplar MYB115 and MYB134 Transcription Factors Regulate Proanthocyanidin Synthesis and Structure1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dawei; Mellway, Robin; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tran, Lan; Stewart, Don; Reichelt, Michael; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Séguin, Armand

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of proanthocyanidins is regulated by a complex of transcription factors composed of R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix, and WD40 proteins that activate the promoters of biosynthetic genes. In poplar (genus Populus), MYB134 is known to regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by activating key flavonoid genes. Here, we characterize a second MYB regulator of proanthocyanidins, MYB115. Transgenic poplar overexpressing MYB115 showed a high-proanthocyanidin phenotype and reduced salicinoid accumulation, similar to the effects of MYB134 overexpression. Transcriptomic analysis of MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar plants identified a set of common up-regulated genes encoding proanthocyanidin biosynthetic enzymes and several novel uncharacterized MYB transcriptional repressors. Transient expression experiments demonstrated the capacity of both MYB134 and MYB115 to activate flavonoid promoters, but only in the presence of a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the direct interaction of these transcription factors. The unexpected identification of dihydromyricetin in leaf extracts of both MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar led to the discovery of enhanced flavonoid B-ring hydroxylation and an increased proportion of prodelphinidins in proanthocyanidin of the transgenics. The dramatic hydroxylation phenotype of MYB115 overexpressors is likely due to the up-regulation of both flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylases and cytochrome b5. Overall, this work provides new insight into the complexity of the gene regulatory network for proanthocyanidin synthesis in poplar. PMID:28348066

  20. Poplar MYB115 and MYB134 Transcription Factors Regulate Proanthocyanidin Synthesis and Structure.

    PubMed

    James, Amy Midori; Ma, Dawei; Mellway, Robin; Gesell, Andreas; Yoshida, Kazuko; Walker, Vincent; Tran, Lan; Stewart, Don; Reichelt, Michael; Suvanto, Jussi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Séguin, Armand; Constabel, C Peter

    2017-05-01

    The accumulation of proanthocyanidins is regulated by a complex of transcription factors composed of R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix, and WD40 proteins that activate the promoters of biosynthetic genes. In poplar (genus Populus), MYB134 is known to regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by activating key flavonoid genes. Here, we characterize a second MYB regulator of proanthocyanidins, MYB115. Transgenic poplar overexpressing MYB115 showed a high-proanthocyanidin phenotype and reduced salicinoid accumulation, similar to the effects of MYB134 overexpression. Transcriptomic analysis of MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar plants identified a set of common up-regulated genes encoding proanthocyanidin biosynthetic enzymes and several novel uncharacterized MYB transcriptional repressors. Transient expression experiments demonstrated the capacity of both MYB134 and MYB115 to activate flavonoid promoters, but only in the presence of a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the direct interaction of these transcription factors. The unexpected identification of dihydromyricetin in leaf extracts of both MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar led to the discovery of enhanced flavonoid B-ring hydroxylation and an increased proportion of prodelphinidins in proanthocyanidin of the transgenics. The dramatic hydroxylation phenotype of MYB115 overexpressors is likely due to the up-regulation of both flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylases and cytochrome b5 Overall, this work provides new insight into the complexity of the gene regulatory network for proanthocyanidin synthesis in poplar. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Mutations in MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 Cause Pleiotropic Developmental Defects and Preferential Down-Regulation of Multiple G2/M-Specific Genes in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Takamasa; Maeo, Kenichiro; Kubo, Minoru; Ohtani, Misato; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Demura, Taku; Nakamura, Kenzo; Jürgens, Gerd; Ito, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    R1R2R3-Myb proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved class of Myb family proteins important for cell cycle regulation and differentiation in eukaryotic cells. In plants, this class of Myb proteins are believed to regulate the transcription of G2/M phase-specific genes by binding to common cis-elements, called mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 act as transcriptional activators and positively regulate cytokinesis by activating the transcription of KNOLLE, which encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. Here, we show that the double mutation myb3r1 myb3r4 causes pleiotropic developmental defects, some of which are due to deficiency of KNOLLE whereas other are not, suggesting that multiple target genes are involved. Consistently, microarray analysis of the double mutant revealed altered expression of many genes, among which G2/M-specific genes showed significant overrepresentation of the MSA motif and a strong tendency to be down-regulated by the double mutation. Our results demonstrate, on a genome-wide level, the importance of the MYB3R-MSA pathway for regulating G2/M-specific transcription. In addition, MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 may have diverse roles during plant development by regulating G2/M-specific genes with various functions as well as genes possibly unrelated to the cell cycle. PMID:21862669

  2. Mutations in MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 cause pleiotropic developmental defects and preferential down-regulation of multiple G2/M-specific genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Takamasa; Maeo, Kenichiro; Kubo, Minoru; Ohtani, Misato; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Demura, Taku; Nakamura, Kenzo; Jürgens, Gerd; Ito, Masaki

    2011-10-01

    R1R2R3-Myb proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved class of Myb family proteins important for cell cycle regulation and differentiation in eukaryotic cells. In plants, this class of Myb proteins are believed to regulate the transcription of G2/M phase-specific genes by binding to common cis-elements, called mitosis-specific activator (MSA) elements. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 act as transcriptional activators and positively regulate cytokinesis by activating the transcription of KNOLLE, which encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin. Here, we show that the double mutation myb3r1 myb3r4 causes pleiotropic developmental defects, some of which are due to deficiency of KNOLLE whereas other are not, suggesting that multiple target genes are involved. Consistently, microarray analysis of the double mutant revealed altered expression of many genes, among which G2/M-specific genes showed significant overrepresentation of the MSA motif and a strong tendency to be down-regulated by the double mutation. Our results demonstrate, on a genome-wide level, the importance of the MYB3R-MSA pathway for regulating G2/M-specific transcription. In addition, MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 may have diverse roles during plant development by regulating G2/M-specific genes with various functions as well as genes possibly unrelated to the cell cycle.

  3. Failure to launch: the self-regulating Md-MYB10 R6 gene from apple is active in flowers but not leaves of Petunia.

    PubMed

    Boase, Murray R; Brendolise, Cyril; Wang, Lei; Ngo, Hahn; Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Schwinn, Kathy E; Davies, Kevin M; Albert, Nick W

    2015-10-01

    The Md - MYB10 R6 gene from apple is capable of self-regulating in heterologous host species and enhancing anthocyanin pigmentation, but the activity of MYB10 is dependent on endogenous protein partners. Coloured foliage due to anthocyanin pigments (bronze/red/black) is an attractive trait that is often lacking in many bedding, ornamental and horticultural plants. Apples (Malus × domestica) containing an allelic variant of the anthocyanin regulator, Md-MYB10 R6 , are highly pigmented throughout the plant, due to autoregulation by MYB10 upon its own promoter. We investigated whether Md-MYB10 R6 from apple is capable of functioning within the heterologous host Petunia hybrida to generate plants with novel pigmentation patterns. The Md-MYB10 R6 transgene (MYB10-R6 pro :MYB10:MYB10 term ) activated anthocyanin synthesis when transiently expressed in Antirrhinum rosea (dorsea) petals and petunia leaf discs. Stable transgenic petunias containing Md-MYB10 R6 lacked foliar pigmentation but had coloured flowers, complementing the an2 phenotype of 'Mitchell' petunia. The absence of foliar pigmentation was due to the failure of the Md-MYB10 R6 gene to self-activate in vegetative tissues, suggesting that additional protein partners are required for Md-MYB10 to activate target genes in this heterologous system. In petunia flowers, where endogenous components including MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) proteins were present, expression of the Md-MYB10 R6 promoter was initiated, allowing auto-regulation to occur and activating anthocyanin production. Md-MYB10 is capable of operating within the petunia MBW gene regulation network that controls the expression of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, AN1 (bHLH) and MYBx (R3-MYB repressor) in petals.

  4. A Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor BpMYB106 of Birch (Betula platyphylla) Confers Increased Photosynthesis and Growth Rate through Up-regulating Photosynthetic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenguang; Li, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    We isolated a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BpMYB106, which regulates photosynthesis in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.). BpMYB106 mainly expresses in the leaf and shoot tip of birch, and its protein is localized in the nucleus. We further fused isolated a 1588 bp promoter of BpMYB106 and analyzed it by PLACE, which showed some cis-acting elements related to photosynthesis. BpMYB106 promoter β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion studies gene, the result, showed the GUS reporter gene in transgenic birch with BpMYB106 promoter showed strong activities in shoot tip, cotyledon margins, and mature leaf trichomes. The overexpression of BpMYB106 in birch resulted in significantly increased trichome density, net photosynthetic rate, and growth rate as compared with the wild-type birch. RNA-Seq profiling revealed the upregulation of several photosynthesis-related genes in the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in the leaves of transgenic plants. Yeast one-hybrid analysis, coupled with transient assay in tobacco, revealed that BpMYB106 binds a MYB binding site MYB2 in differentially expressed gene promoters. Thus, BpMYB106 may directly activate the expression of a range of photosynthesis related genes through interacting with the MYB2 element in their promoters. Our study demonstrating the overexpression of BpMYB106—a R2R3-MYB transcription factor—upregulates the genes of the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways to improve photosynthesis. PMID:27047502

  5. The MYB182 protein down-regulates proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin biosynthesis in poplar by repressing both structural and regulatory flavonoid genes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Ma, Dawei; Constabel, C Peter

    2015-03-01

    Trees in the genus Populus (poplar) contain phenolic secondary metabolites including the proanthocyanidins (PAs), which help to adapt these widespread trees to diverse environments. The transcriptional activation of PA biosynthesis in response to herbivory and ultraviolet light stress has been documented in poplar leaves, and a regulator of this process, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB134, has been identified. MYB134-overexpressing transgenic plants show a strong high-PA phenotype. Analysis of these transgenic plants suggested the involvement of additional MYB transcription factors, including repressor-like MYB factors. Here, MYB182, a subgroup 4 MYB factor, was found to act as a negative regulator of the flavonoid pathway. Overexpression of MYB182 in hairy root culture and whole poplar plants led to reduced PA and anthocyanin levels as well as a reduction in the expression of key flavonoid genes. Similarly, a reduced accumulation of transcripts of a MYB PA activator and a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor was observed in MYB182-overexpressing hairy roots. Transient promoter activation assays in poplar cell culture demonstrated that MYB182 can disrupt transcriptional activation by MYB134 and that the basic helix-loop-helix-binding motif of MYB182 was essential for repression. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants demonstrated that down-regulated targets of MYB182 also include shikimate pathway genes. This work shows that MYB182 plays an important role in the fine-tuning of MYB134-mediated flavonoid metabolism. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. A MYB/ZML Complex Regulates Wound-Induced Lignin Genes in Maize.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Bermúdez, Isabel-Cristina; Salazar-Henao, Jorge E; Fornalé, Silvia; López-Vidriero, Irene; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Grotewold, Erich; Gray, John; Solano, Roberto; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pagés, Montserrat; Riera, Marta; Caparros-Ruiz, David

    2015-11-01

    Lignin is an essential polymer in vascular plants that plays key structural roles in vessels and fibers. Lignification is induced by external inputs such as wounding, but the molecular mechanisms that link this stress to lignification remain largely unknown. In this work, we provide evidence that three maize (Zea mays) lignin repressors, MYB11, MYB31, and MYB42, participate in wound-induced lignification by interacting with ZML2, a protein belonging to the TIFY family. We determined that the three R2R3-MYB factors and ZML2 bind in vivo to AC-rich and GAT(A/C) cis-elements, respectively, present in a set of lignin genes. In particular, we show that MYB11 and ZML2 bind simultaneously to the AC-rich and GAT(A/C) cis-elements present in the promoter of the caffeic acid O-methyl transferase (comt) gene. We show that, like the R2R3-MYB factors, ZML2 also acts as a transcriptional repressor. We found that upon wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments, MYB11 and ZML2 proteins are degraded and comt transcription is induced. Based on these results, we propose a molecular regulatory mechanism involving a MYB/ZML complex in which wound-induced lignification can be achieved by the derepression of a set of lignin genes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. A MYB/ZML Complex Regulates Wound-Induced Lignin Genes in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Vélez-Bermúdez, Isabel-Cristina; Salazar-Henao, Jorge E.; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Grotewold, Erich; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Lignin is an essential polymer in vascular plants that plays key structural roles in vessels and fibers. Lignification is induced by external inputs such as wounding, but the molecular mechanisms that link this stress to lignification remain largely unknown. In this work, we provide evidence that three maize (Zea mays) lignin repressors, MYB11, MYB31, and MYB42, participate in wound-induced lignification by interacting with ZML2, a protein belonging to the TIFY family. We determined that the three R2R3-MYB factors and ZML2 bind in vivo to AC-rich and GAT(A/C) cis-elements, respectively, present in a set of lignin genes. In particular, we show that MYB11 and ZML2 bind simultaneously to the AC-rich and GAT(A/C) cis-elements present in the promoter of the caffeic acid O-methyl transferase (comt) gene. We show that, like the R2R3-MYB factors, ZML2 also acts as a transcriptional repressor. We found that upon wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments, MYB11 and ZML2 proteins are degraded and comt transcription is induced. Based on these results, we propose a molecular regulatory mechanism involving a MYB/ZML complex in which wound-induced lignification can be achieved by the derepression of a set of lignin genes. PMID:26566917

  8. Identification of target genes for a MYB-type anthocyanin regulator in Gerbera hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, Roosa A. E.; Ainasoja, Miia; Broholm, Suvi K.; Teeri, Teemu H.; Elomaa, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of the flavonoid pathway has been used to produce novel colours and colour patterns in ornamental plants as well as to modify the nutritional and pharmaceutical properties of food crops. It has been suggested that co-ordinate control of multiple steps of the pathway with the help of regulatory genes would lead to a more predictable control of metabolic flux. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has been studied in a common ornamental plant, Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae). An R2R3-type MYB factor, GMYB10, shares high sequence similarity and is phylogenetically grouped together with previously characterized regulators of anthocyanin pigmentation. Ectopic expression of GMYB10 leads to strongly enhanced accumulation of anthocyanin pigments as well as to an altered pigmentation pattern in transgenic gerbera plants. Anthocyanin analysis indicates that GMYB10 specifically induces cyanidin biosynthesis in undifferentiated callus and in vegetative tissues. Furthermore, in floral tissues enhanced pelargonidin production is detected. Microarray analysis using the gerbera 9K cDNA array revealed a highly predicted set of putative target genes for GMYB10 including new gene family members of both early and late biosynthetic genes of the flavonoid pathway. However, completely new candidate targets, such as a serine carboxypeptidase-like gene as well, as two new MYB domain factors, GMYB11 and GMYB12, whose exact function in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis is not clear yet, were also identified. PMID:18725377

  9. Anthocyanin leaf markings are regulated by a family of R2R3-MYB genes in the genus Trifolium.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nick W; Griffiths, Andrew G; Cousins, Greig R; Verry, Isabelle M; Williams, Warren M

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments accumulate to form spatially restricted patterns in plants, particularly in flowers, but also occur in vegetative tissues. Spatially restricted anthocyanin leaf markings are poorly characterised in plants, but are common in forage legumes. We hypothesised that the molecular basis for anthocyanin leaf markings in Trifolium spp. is due to the activity of a family of R2R3-MYB genes. R2R3-MYB genes were identified that are associated with the two classic pigmentation loci in T. repens. The R locus patterns 'red leaf', 'red midrib' and 'red fleck' are conditioned by a single MYB gene, RED LEAF. The 'diffuse red leaf' trait is regulated by the RED LEAF DIFFUSE MYB gene. The V locus was identified through mapping two V-linked traits, 'V-broken yellow' (Vby) and 'red leaflet' (Vrl). Two highly similar R2R3-MYB genes, RED V-a and RED V-b, mapped to the V locus and co-segregated with the RED V pigmentation pattern. Functional characterisation of RED LEAF and RED V was performed, confirming their function as anthocyanin regulators and identifying a C-terminal region necessary for transactivation. The mechanisms responsible for generating anthocyanin leaf markings in T. repens provide a valuable system to compare with mechanisms that regulate complex floral pigmentation.

  10. The promoter regions of the Myb-regulated Adora2B and Mcm4 genes co-localize with origins of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Gundelach, Holger; Braas, Daniel; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Background The retroviral oncogene v-myb encodes a transcription factor (v-Myb) which is responsible for the transformation of myelomonocytic cells by avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). v-Myb is thought to exert its biological effects by deregulating the expression of specific target genes. We have recently demonstrated that the chicken Gas41 gene, whose promoter co-localizes with an origin of DNA replication, is a bona fide Myb target gene. Because of this finding we have asked whether other Myb-regulated genes are also associated with DNA replication origins. Results We show that the promoter region of the chicken adenosine receptor 2B gene (Adora2B), a known Myb-target gene, acts as a DNA replication origin. Furthermore, we have examined known replication origins for the presence of Myb binding sites. We found that the intergenic region between the genes for the minichromosome maintenance 4 protein (Mcm4) and the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (Prkdc), whose human counterpart has been identified as a replication origin, contains a number of Myb binding sites. Our data show that this region also acts as an origin of replication in chicken cells. Interestingly, we found that the chicken Mcm4 gene is also Myb-regulated. Conclusion Our work identifies the chicken Mcm4 gene as a novel Myb target gene and presents evidence for the co-localization of two novel origins of DNA replication with Myb-regulated genes. Our work raises the possibility that a fraction of Myb target gene promoters is associated with DNA replication origins. PMID:17822556

  11. Soybean GmMYB76, GmMYB92, and GmMYB177 genes confer stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Zou, Hong-Feng; Wang, Hui-Wen; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2008-10-01

    MYB-type transcription factors contain the conserved MYB DNA-binding domain of approximately 50 amino acids and are involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant growth, development, metabolism and stress responses. From soybean plants, we identified 156 GmMYB genes using our previously obtained 206 MYB unigenes, and 48 were found to have full-length open-reading frames. Expressions of all these identified genes were examined, and we found that expressions of 43 genes were changed upon treatment with ABA, salt, drought and/or cold stress. Three GmMYB genes, GmMYB76, GmMYB92 and GmMYB177, were chosen for further analysis. Using the yeast assay system, GmMYB76 and GmMYB92 were found to have transactivation activity and can form homodimers. GmMYB177 did not appear to have transactivation activity but can form heterodimers with GmMYB76. Yeast one-hybrid assay revealed that all the three GmMYBs could bind to cis-elements TAT AAC GGT TTT TT and CCG GAA AAA AGG AT, but with different affinity, and GmMYB92 could also bind to TCT CAC CTA CC. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmMYB76 or GmMYB177 showed better performance than the GmMYB92-transgenic plants in salt and freezing tolerance. However, these transgenic plants exhibited reduced sensitivity to ABA treatment at germination stage in comparison with the wild-type plants. The three GmMYB genes differentially affected a subset of stress-responsive genes in addition to their regulation of a common subset of stress-responsive genes. These results indicate that the three GmMYB genes may play differential roles in stress tolerance, possibly through regulation of stress-responsive genes.

  12. Transcriptional regulation of PIN genes by FOUR LIPS and MYB88 during Arabidopsis root gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Zhe; Yang, Ke-Zhen; Zou, Jun-Jie; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Xie, Zi Dian; Morita, Miyo Terao; Tasaka, Masao; Friml, Jiří; Grotewold, Erich; Beeckman, Tom; Vanneste, Steffen; Sack, Fred; Le, Jie

    2015-11-18

    PIN proteins are auxin export carriers that direct intercellular auxin flow and in turn regulate many aspects of plant growth and development including responses to environmental changes. The Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB transcription factor FOUR LIPS (FLP) and its paralogue MYB88 regulate terminal divisions during stomatal development, as well as female reproductive development and stress responses. Here we show that FLP and MYB88 act redundantly but differentially in regulating the transcription of PIN3 and PIN7 in gravity-sensing cells of primary and lateral roots. On the one hand, FLP is involved in responses to gravity stimulation in primary roots, whereas on the other, FLP and MYB88 function complementarily in establishing the gravitropic set-point angles of lateral roots. Our results support a model in which FLP and MYB88 expression specifically determines the temporal-spatial patterns of PIN3 and PIN7 transcription that are closely associated with their preferential functions during root responses to gravity.

  13. Four genes encoding MYB28, a major transcriptional regulator of the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, are differentially expressed in the allopolyploid Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Naveen C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucosinolates are Capparales-specific secondary metabolites that have immense potential in human health and agriculture. Unlike Arabidopsis thaliana, our knowledge about glucosinolate regulators in the Brassica crops is sparse. In the current study, four MYB28 homologues were identified (BjuMYB28-1,-2,-3,-4) from the polyploid Brassica juncea, and the effects of allopolyploidization on the divergence of gene sequence, structure, function, and expression were assessed. The deduced protein sequences of the four BjuMYB28 genes showed 76.1–83.1% identity with the Arabidopsis MYB28. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four BjuMYB28 proteins have evolved via the hybridization and duplication processes forming the B. juncea genome (AABB) from B. rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), while retaining high levels of sequence conservation. Mutant complementation and over-expression studies in A. thaliana showed that all four BjuMYB28 genes encode functional MYB28 proteins and resulted in similar aliphatic glucosinolate composition and content. Detailed expression analysis using qRT-PCR assays and promoter-GUS lines revealed that the BjuMYB28 genes have both tissue- and cell-specific expression partitioning in B. juncea. The two B-genome origin BjuMYB28 genes had more abundant transcripts during the early stages of plant development than the A-genome origin genes. However, with the onset of the reproductive phase, expression levels of all four BjuMYB28 increased significantly, which may be necessary for producing and maintaining high amounts of aliphatic glucosinolates during the later stages of plant development. Taken together, our results suggest that the four MYB28 genes are differentially expressed and regulated in B. juncea to play discrete though overlapping roles in controlling aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:24043856

  14. OsMYB511 encodes a MYB domain transcription activator early regulated by abiotic stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, P; Chen, H; Mu, R; Yuan, X; Zhang, H S; Huang, J

    2015-08-14

    The MYB-domain proteins exist universally across diverse organisms and regulate numerous processes during the plant life cycle. In the present research, a full-length MYB gene OsMYB511 was identified from rice seedlings through microarray data. Induction of OsMYB511 by cold stress was dramatic in japonica cultivar Jiucaiqing as compared to indica IR26. In addition to cold, OsMYB511 was also markedly induced by osmotic stress, high temperature, and exogenous ABA, suggesting that OsMYB511 is a multiple-stress responsive gene in rice. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that OsMYB511 was highly expressed in rice panicles at earlier development stage. Interestingly, OsMYB511 expression is fully subjected to circadian rhythm regulation. The subcellular localization and yeast hybrid assay suggested that OsMYB511 is nucleus-localized transcription activator. Deletion analysis suggested that trans-activation activity of OsMYB511 relied on its C-terminus. Co-expression analysis revealed additional 2 MYB genes co-expressed with OsMYB511, implying that these MYB genes might coordinately regulate stress responses in rice.

  15. The R3-MYB gene GhCPC negatively regulates cotton fiber elongation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingliang; Zhu, Yichao; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers are single-cell trichomes that arise from the outer epidermal layer of seed coat. Here, we isolated a R3-MYB gene GhCPC, identified by cDNA microarray analysis. The only conserved R3 motif and different expression between TM-1 and fuzzless-lintless mutants suggested that it might be a negative regulator in fiber development. Transgenic evidence showed that GhCPC overexpression not only delayed fiber initiation but also led to significant decreases in fiber length. Interestingly, Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed an interaction complex, in which GhCPC and GhTTG1/4 separately interacted with GhMYC1. In transgenic plants, Q-PCR analysis showed that GhHOX3 (GL2) and GhRDL1 were significantly down regulated in -1-5 DPA ovules and fibers. In addition, Yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that GhMYC1 could bind to the E-box cis-elements and the promoter of GhHOX3. These results suggested that GhHOX3 (GL2) might be downstream gene of the regulatory complex. Also, overexpression of GhCPC in tobacco led to differential loss of pigmentation. Taken together, the results suggested that GhCPC might negatively regulate cotton fiber initiation and early elongation by a potential CPC-MYC1-TTG1/4 complex. Although the fibers were shorter in transgenic cotton lines than in the wild type, no significant difference was detected in stem or leaf trichomes, even in cotton mutants (five naked seed or fuzzless), suggesting that fiber and trichome development might be regulated by two sets of genes sharing a similar model.

  16. Characterization of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 transcription factor genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, X B; Liu, Z; Xu, L; Wang, Y; Zhu, X W; Zhang, W; Chen, W; Zhu, Y L; Su, X J; Everlyne, M; Liu, L W

    2016-09-23

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae plants. Previous studies have mainly focused on GSL contents, types, and biosynthesis-related genes, but the molecular characterization patterns of GSL biosynthesis-related transcription factors remain largely unexplored in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To isolate transcription factor genes regulating the GSL biosynthesis, genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were isolated in radish. Two R2R3-MYB domains were identified in the deduced amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization and yeast-one hybrid assays indicated that both the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were located in the nucleus and possessed transactivation activity. Reverse transcription quantitative analysis showed that the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were expressed in seeds, leaves, stems, and roots at the seedling, taproot thickening, and mature stages. Both genes were highly expressed during the seedling and taproot thickening stages. The expression level of RsMYB28 was found to be up-regulated following wounding, glucose, and abscisic acid treatments, whereas RsMYB29 was up-regulated following wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments. These results provide insights into the biological function and characterization of the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes, and facilitate further dissection of the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the GSL biosynthesis in radish.

  17. The Wound-, Pathogen-, and Ultraviolet B-Responsive MYB134 Gene Encodes an R2R3 MYB Transcription Factor That Regulates Proanthocyanidin Synthesis in Poplar1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mellway, Robin D.; Tran, Lan T.; Prouse, Michael B.; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Constabel, C. Peter

    2009-01-01

    In poplar (Populus spp.), the major defense phenolics produced in leaves are the flavonoid-derived proanthocyanidins (PAs) and the salicin-based phenolic glycosides. Transcriptional activation of PA biosynthetic genes leading to PA accumulation in leaves occurs following herbivore damage and mechanical wounding as well as infection by the fungal biotroph Melampsora medusae. In this study, we have identified a poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene, MYB134, that exhibits close sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PA regulator TRANSPARENT TESTA2 and that is coinduced with PA biosynthetic genes following mechanical wounding, M. medusae infection, and exposure to elevated ultraviolet B light. Overexpression of MYB134 in poplar resulted in transcriptional activation of the full PA biosynthetic pathway and a significant plant-wide increase in PA levels, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that recombinant MYB134 protein is able to bind to promoter regions of PA pathway genes. MYB134-overexpressing plants exhibited a concomitant reduction in phenolic glycoside concentrations and other minor alterations to levels of small phenylpropanoid metabolites. Our data provide insight into the regulatory mechanisms controlling stress-induced PA metabolism in poplar, and the identification of a regulator of stress-responsive PA biosynthesis constitutes a valuable tool for manipulating PA metabolism in poplar and investigating the biological functions of PAs in resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:19395405

  18. [Cloning and sequence analysis of MYB transcriptional regulator SmP gene of Saussurea medusa Maxim].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, De-Xiu; Qiao, Chuan-Ling; Qu, Wen-Quan; Chen, Ya-Qiong; Fu, Chun-Xiang

    2003-05-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a MYB-related regulatory gene was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from mRNAs of the red line callus of S. medusa by TD-PCR. The cDNA, designated SmP, is 969 nucleotides long and has an open reading frame of 771 bp with a deduced amino acid sequence of 256 residues. The putative protein of SmP has two typical conversed R2R3-Myb DNA-binding domains in N-terminal and displays a rather high degree of similarity to OsMYB from rice and LBMI from tobacco, showing 73% and 70% identity within the DNA-binding domains. However, the C-terminal domain of the SmP protein does not show obvious similarity to any other known protein sequence. It is rich in hydrophilic amino acids, especially in serine residues (18.38%), partly organized in homopolymeric stretches, a feature often found in activation domain of transcription factors.

  19. Subspecialization of R2R3-MYB Repressors for Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Regulation in Forage Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin pigments and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) is regulated by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes in all angiosperms studied to date. Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 were isolated from Trifolium repens and encode R2R3-MYBs that antagonize the activity of MBW activation complexes. These two genes are conserved in other legume species, and form two sub-clades within the larger anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin clade of MYB repressors. However, unlike petunia and Arabidopsis, these R2R3-MYB repressors do not prevent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins. Instead, they are expressed when anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins are being synthesized, and provide feedback regulation to MBW complexes. This feedback occurs because Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 are themselves regulated by MBW complexes. Tr-MYB133 is regulated by MBW complexes containing anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB proteins (Tr-RED LEAF), while Tr-MYB134 is regulated by complexes containing the proanthocyanidin R2R3-MYBs (Tr-MYB14). Other features of the MBW gene regulation networks are also conserved within legumes, including the ability for the anthocyanin MBW complexes to activate the expression of the AN1/TT8 clade bHLH factor. The regulation of Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 by distinct, pathway-specific MBW complexes has resulted in subspecialization for controlling anthocyanin or proanthocyanidin synthesis. PMID:26779194

  20. The wheat R2R3-MYB transcription factor TaRIM1 participates in resistance response against the pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis infection through regulating defense genes

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tianlei; Rong, Wei; Xu, Huijun; Du, Lipu; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis is a major pathogen of sharp eyespot that is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Little is known about roles of MYB genes in wheat defense response to R. cerealis. In this study, TaRIM1, a R. cerealis-induced wheat MYB gene, was identified by transcriptome analysis, then cloned from resistant wheat CI12633, and its function and preliminary mechanism were studied. Sequence analysis showed that TaRIM1 encodes a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with transcription-activation activity. The molecular-biological assays revealed that the TaRIM1 protein localizes to nuclear and can bind to five MYB-binding site cis-elements. Functional dissection results showed that following R. cerealis inoculation, TaRIM1 silencing impaired the resistance of wheat CI12633, whereas TaRIM1 overexpression significantly increased resistance of transgenic wheat compared with susceptible recipient. TaRIM1 positively regulated the expression of five defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, nsLTP1, and chitinase1) possibly through binding to MYB-binding sites in their promoters. These results suggest that the R2R3-MYB transcription factor TaRIM1 positively regulates resistance response to R. cerealis infection through modulating the expression of a range of defense genes, and that TaRIM1 is a candidate gene to improve sharp eyespot resistance in wheat. PMID:27364458

  1. MYB3Rs, plant homologs of Myb oncoproteins, control cell cycle-regulated transcription and form DREAM-like complexes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Plant MYB3R transcription factors, homologous to Myb oncoproteins, regulate the genes expressed at G2 and M phases in the cell cycle. Recent studies showed that MYB3Rs constitute multiprotein complexes that may correspond to animal complexes known as DREAM or dREAM. Discovery of the putative homologous complex in plants uncovered their significant varieties in structure, function, dynamics, and heterogeneity, providing insight into conserved and diversified aspects of cell cycle-regulated gene transcription.

  2. Distinct regulation of c-myb gene expression by HoxA9, Meis1 and Pbx proteins in normal hematopoietic progenitors and transformed myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Dassé, E; Volpe, G; Walton, D S; Wilson, N; Del Pozzo, W; O'Neill, L P; Slany, R K; Frampton, J; Dumon, S

    2012-06-01

    The proto-oncogenic protein c-Myb is an essential regulator of hematopoiesis and is frequently deregulated in hematological diseases such as lymphoma and leukemia. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the aberrant expression of c-Myb in myeloid leukemia, we analyzed and compared c-myb gene transcriptional regulation using two cell lines modeling normal hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and transformed myelomonocytic blasts. We report that the transcription factors HoxA9, Meis1, Pbx1 and Pbx2 bind in vivo to the c-myb locus and maintain its expression through different mechanisms in HPCs and leukemic cells. Our analysis also points to a critical role for Pbx2 in deregulating c-myb expression in murine myeloid cells cotransformed by the cooperative activity of HoxA9 and Meis1. This effect is associated with an intronic positioning of epigenetic marks and RNA polymerase II binding in the orthologous region of a previously described alternative promoter for c-myb. Taken together, our results could provide a first hint to explain the abnormal expression of c-myb in leukemic cells.

  3. MYB56 encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor regulates seed size in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Liang, Wanqi; Shi, Jianxin; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Dabing

    2013-11-01

    Plant seed size is tightly regulated by the development of seed coat, embryo, and endosperm; however, currently, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we revealed a regulatory role of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor MYB56 in controlling seed size specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Loss-of-function or knock-down of MYB56 yielded smaller seeds as compared with the wild type. Conversely, overexpression of MYB56 produced larger seeds. Further observation using semi-thin sections showed that myb56 developed smaller contracted endothelial cells and reduced cell number in the outer integument layer of the seed coat during the seed development; by contrast, MYB56 overexpressing lines had expanded endothelial cells and increased cell number in the outer integument layer of the seed coat, suggesting the essential role of MYB56 in regulating seed development. In addition, reciprocal cross-analysis showed that MYB56 affected the seed development maternally. MYB56 was shown to be dominantly expressed in developing seeds, consistently with its function in seed development. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that MYB56 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell wall metabolism such as cell division and expansion. Altogether, our results demonstrated that MYB56 represents an unknown pathway for positively controlling the seed size. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. The soybean R2R3 MYB transcription factor GmMYB100 negatively regulates plant flavonoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhui; Wang, Biao; Zhong, Yunpeng; Yao, Luming; Cheng, Linjing; Wu, Tianlong

    2015-09-01

    Soybean flavonoids, a group of important signaling molecules in plant-environment interaction, ubiquitously exist in soybean and are tightly regulated by many genes. Here we reported that GmMYB100, a gene encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, is involved in soybean flavonoid biosynthesis. GmMYB100 is mainly expressed in flowers, leaves and immature embryo, and its level is decreased after pod ripening. Subcellular localization assay indicates that GmMYB100 is a nuclear protein. GmMYB100 has transactivation ability revealed by a yeast functional assay; whereas bioinformatic analysis suggests that GmMYB100 has a negative function in flavonoid biosynthesis. GmMYB100-overexpression represses the transcript levels of flavonoid-related genes in transgenic soybean hairy roots and Arabidopsis, and inhibits isoflavonoid (soybean) and flavonol (Arabidopsis) production in transgenic plants. Furthermore, the transcript levels of six flavonoid-related genes and flavonoid (isoflavonoid and flavone aglycones) accumulation are elevated in the GmMYB100-RNAi transgenic hairy roots. We also demonstrate that GmMYB100 protein depresses the promoter activities of soybean chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase. These findings indicate that GmMYB100 is a negative regulator in soybean flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.

  5. Multiple R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors Involved in the Regulation of Anthocyanin Accumulation in Peach Flower

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Peng, Qian; Zhao, Jianbo; Owiti, Albert; Ren, Fei; Liao, Liao; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Jiang, Quan; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is responsible for flower coloration in peach. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of eight flavonoid-related R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated PpMYB10.2, PpMYB9, PpMYBPA1, Peace, PpMYB17, PpMYB18, PpMYB19, and PpMYB20, respectively, in peach flower transcriptome. PpMYB10.2 and PpMYB9 are able to activate transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, whilst PpMYBPA1 and Peace have a strong activation on the promoters of proanthocyanin (PA) biosynthetic genes. PpMYB17-20 show a strong repressive effect on transcription of flavonoid pathway genes such as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. These results indicate that anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower is coordinately regulated by a set of R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, PpMYB9 and PpMYB10.2 are closely related but separated into two groups, designated MYB9 and MYB10, respectively. PpMYB9 shows a strong activation on the PpUGT78A2 promoter, but with no effect on the promoter of PpUGT78B (commonly called PpUFGT in previous studies). In contrast, PpMYB10.2 is able to activate the PpUFGT promoter, but not for the PpUGT78A2 promoter. Unlike the MYB10 gene that is universally present in plants, the MYB9 gene is lost in most dicot species. Therefore, the PpMYB9 gene represents a novel group of anthocyanin-related MYB activators, which may have diverged in function from the MYB10 genes. Our study will aid in understanding the complex mechanism regulating floral pigmentation in peach and functional divergence of the R2R3-MYB gene family in plants. PMID:27818667

  6. An apple MYB transcription factor, MdMYB3, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and flower development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Red coloration of fruit is an important trait in apple, and it is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, a class of plant flavonoid metabolites. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is genetically determined by structural and regulatory genes. Plant tissue pigmentation patterns are mainly controlled by expression profiles of regulatory genes. Among these regulatory genes are MYB transcription factors (TFs), wherein the class of two-repeats (R2R3) is deemed the largest, and these are associated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Although three MdMYB genes, almost identical in nucleotide sequences, have been identified in apple, it is likely that there are other R2R3 MYB TFs that are present in the apple genome that are also involved in the regulation of coloration of red color pigmentation of the skin of apple fruits. Results In this study, a novel R2R3 MYB gene has been isolated and characterized in apple. This MYB gene is closely related to the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB3, and has been designated as MdMYB3. This TF belongs to the subgroup 4 R2R3 family of plant MYB transcription factors. This apple MdMYB3 gene is mapped onto linkage group 15 of the integrated apple genetic map. Transcripts of MdMYB3 are detected in all analyzed tissues including leaves, flowers, and fruits. However, transcripts of MdMYB3 are higher in excocarp of red-skinned apple cultivars than that in yellowish-green skinned apple cultivars. When this gene is ectopically expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petite Havana SR1, flowers of transgenic tobacco lines carrying MdMYB3 have exhibited increased pigmentation and accumulate higher levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than wild-type flowers. Overexpression of MdMYB3 has resulted in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes, including CHS, CHI, UFGT, and FLS. Moreover, peduncles of flowers and styles of pistils of transgenic plants overexpressing MdMYB3 are longer than those of wild-type plants, thus

  7. A MYB transcription factor, DcMYB6, is involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple carrot taproots

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Feng, Kai; Que, Feng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Carrots are widely grown and enjoyed around the world. Purple carrots accumulate rich anthocyanins in the taproots, while orange, yellow, and red carrots accumulate rich carotenoids in the taproots. Our previous studies indicated that variation in the activity of regulatory genes may be responsible for variations in anthocyanin production among various carrot cultivars. In this study, an R2R3-type MYB gene, designated as DcMYB6, was isolated from a purple carrot cultivar. In a phylogenetic analysis, DcMYB6 was grouped into an anthocyanin biosynthesis-related MYB clade. Sequence analyses revealed that DcMYB6 contained the conserved bHLH-interaction motif and two atypical motifs of anthocyanin regulators. The expression pattern of DcMYB6 was correlated with anthocyanin production. DcMYB6 transcripts were detected at high levels in three purple carrot cultivars but at much lower levels in six non-purple carrot cultivars. Overexpression of DcMYB6 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and upregulated transcript levels of all seven tested anthocyanin-related structural genes. Together, these results show that DcMYB6 is involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple carrots. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in purple carrot cultivars. PMID:28345675

  8. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus. PMID:27635336

  9. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Gugger, Paul F; Wang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  10. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis.

  11. EjMYB8 Transcriptionally Regulates Flesh Lignification in Loquat Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hang; Li, Shao-jia; Li, Xian; Yin, Xue-ren; Grierson, Donald; Chen, Kun-song

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying lignin metabolism have been widely studied in model plants and woody trees, but seldom in fruits such as loquat, which undergo lignification. Here, twelve EjMYB genes, designed as EjMYB3-14, were isolated based on RNA-seq. Gene expression indicated that EjMYB8 and EjMYB9 were significantly induced in fruit with higher lignin content resulting from storage at low temperature (0°C), while two treatments (low temperature conditioning, LTC; heat treatment, HT) both alleviated fruit lignification and inhibited EjMYB8 and EjMYB9 expression. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that EjMYB8, but not EjMYB9, could trans-activate promoters of lignin-related genes EjPAL1, Ej4CL1 and Ej4CL5. Yeast one-hybrid assay indicated that EjMYB8 physically bind to Ej4CL1 promoter. Furthermore, the putative functions of EjMYB8 were verified using transient over-expression in both N. tabacum and loquat leaves, which increased lignin content. Moreover, combination of EjMYB8 and previously isolated EjMYB1 generated strong trans-activation effects on the Ej4CL1 promoter, indicating that EjMYB8 is a novel regulator of loquat fruit lignification. PMID:27111303

  12. EjMYB8 Transcriptionally Regulates Flesh Lignification in Loquat Fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qiu; Zhang, Jing; Ge, Hang; Li, Shao-Jia; Li, Xian; Yin, Xue-Ren; Grierson, Donald; Chen, Kun-Song

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying lignin metabolism have been widely studied in model plants and woody trees, but seldom in fruits such as loquat, which undergo lignification. Here, twelve EjMYB genes, designed as EjMYB3-14, were isolated based on RNA-seq. Gene expression indicated that EjMYB8 and EjMYB9 were significantly induced in fruit with higher lignin content resulting from storage at low temperature (0°C), while two treatments (low temperature conditioning, LTC; heat treatment, HT) both alleviated fruit lignification and inhibited EjMYB8 and EjMYB9 expression. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that EjMYB8, but not EjMYB9, could trans-activate promoters of lignin-related genes EjPAL1, Ej4CL1 and Ej4CL5. Yeast one-hybrid assay indicated that EjMYB8 physically bind to Ej4CL1 promoter. Furthermore, the putative functions of EjMYB8 were verified using transient over-expression in both N. tabacum and loquat leaves, which increased lignin content. Moreover, combination of EjMYB8 and previously isolated EjMYB1 generated strong trans-activation effects on the Ej4CL1 promoter, indicating that EjMYB8 is a novel regulator of loquat fruit lignification.

  13. MYB transcription factors regulate glucosinolate biosynthesis in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Lee, Jeongyeo; Kim, HyeRan; Park, Sang Un

    2013-07-22

    In this study, we investigated the expression of seven MYB transcription factors (a total of 17 genes that included Dof1.1, IQD1-1, MYB28, MYB29, MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 and their isoforms) involved in aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate (GSL) biosynthesis and analyzed the aliphatic and indolic GSL content in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapassp. Pekinensis). MYB28 and MYB29 expression in the stem was dramatically different when compared with the levels in the other organs. MYB34, MYB122, MYB51, Dof1.1, and IQD1-1 showed very low transcript levels among different organs. HPLC analysis showed that the glucosinolates (GSLs) consisted of five aliphatic GSLs (progoitrin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, and glucobrassicanapin) and four indolic GSLs (4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxygluco-brassicin, and neoglucobrassicin). Aliphatic GSLs exhibited 63.3% of the total GSLs content, followed by aromatic GSL (19.0%), indolic GSLs (10%), and unknown GSLs (7.7%) in different organs of Chinese cabbage. The total GSL content of different parts (ranked in descending order) was as follows: seed > flower > young leaves > stem > root > old leaves. The relationship between GSLs accumulation and expression of GSLs biosynthesis MYB TFs genes in different organs may be helpful to understand the mechanism of MYB TFs regulating GSL biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage.

  14. Duplication and maintenance of the Myb genes of vertebrate animals.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Colin J; Guthrie, Erin E; Lipsick, Joseph S

    2013-02-15

    Gene duplication is an important means of generating new genes. The major mechanisms by which duplicated genes are preserved in the face of purifying selection are thought to be neofunctionalization, subfunctionalization, and increased gene dosage. However, very few duplicated gene families in vertebrate species have been analyzed by functional tests in vivo. We have therefore examined the three vertebrate Myb genes (c-Myb, A-Myb, and B-Myb) by cytogenetic map analysis, by sequence analysis, and by ectopic expression in Drosophila. We provide evidence that the vertebrate Myb genes arose by two rounds of regional genomic duplication. We found that ubiquitous expression of c-Myb and A-Myb, but not of B-Myb or Drosophila Myb, was lethal in Drosophila. Expression of any of these genes during early larval eye development was well tolerated. However, expression of c-Myb and A-Myb, but not of B-Myb or Drosophila Myb, during late larval eye development caused drastic alterations in adult eye morphology. Mosaic analysis implied that this eye phenotype was cell-autonomous. Interestingly, some of the eye phenotypes caused by the retroviral v-Myb oncogene and the normal c-Myb proto-oncogene from which v-Myb arose were quite distinct. Finally, we found that post-translational modifications of c-Myb by the GSK-3 protein kinase and by the Ubc9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme that normally occur in vertebrate cells can modify the eye phenotype caused by c-Myb in Drosophila. These results support a model in which the three Myb genes of vertebrates arose by two sequential duplications. The first duplication was followed by a subfunctionalization of gene expression, then neofunctionalization of protein function to yield a c/A-Myb progenitor. The duplication of this progenitor was followed by subfunctionalization of gene expression to give rise to tissue-specific c-Myb and A-Myb genes.

  15. The R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors MYB14 and MYB15 Regulate Stilbene Biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera[W

    PubMed Central

    Höll, Janine; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Czemmel, Stefan; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Walker, Amanda R.; Rausch, Thomas; Lucchin, Margherita; Boss, Paul K.; Dry, Ian B.; Bogs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Plant stilbenes are phytoalexins that accumulate in a small number of plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and have been implicated in many beneficial effects on human health. In particular, resveratrol, the basic unit of all other complex stilbenes, has received widespread attention because of its cardio-protective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Although stilbene synthases (STSs), the key enzymes responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, have been isolated and characterized from several plant species, the transcriptional regulation underlying stilbene biosynthesis is unknown. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of two R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors (TFs) from grapevine, which regulate the stilbene biosynthetic pathway. These TFs, designated MYB14 and MYB15, strongly coexpress with STS genes, both in leaf tissues under biotic and abiotic stress and in the skin and seed of healthy developing berries during maturation. In transient gene reporter assays, MYB14 and MYB15 were demonstrated to specifically activate the promoters of STS genes, and the ectopic expression of MYB15 in grapevine hairy roots resulted in increased STS expression and in the accumulation of glycosylated stilbenes in planta. These results demonstrate the involvement of MYB14 and MYB15 in the transcriptional regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:24151295

  16. The MYB107 Transcription Factor Positively Regulates Suberin Biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Gou, Mingyue; Hou, Guichuan; Yang, Huijun; ...

    2016-12-13

    Suberin, a lipophilic polymer deposited in the outer integument of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat, represents an essential sealing component controlling water and solute movement and protecting seed from pathogenic infection. Although many genes responsible for suberin synthesis are identified, the regulatory components controlling its biosynthesis have not been definitively determined. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis MYB107 transcription factor acts as a positive regulator controlling suberin biosynthetic gene expression in the seed coat. MYB107 coexpresses with suberin biosynthetic genes in a temporal manner during seed development. Disrupting MYB107 particularly suppresses the expression of genes involved in suberin butmore » not cutin biosynthesis, lowers seed coat suberin accumulation, alters suberin lamellar structure, and consequently renders higher seed coat permeability and susceptibility to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, MYB107 directly binds to the promoters of suberin biosynthetic genes, verifying its primary role in regulating their expression. Identifying MYB107 as a positive regulator for seed coat suberin synthesis offers a basis for discovering the potential transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature.« less

  17. The MYB107 Transcription Factor Positively Regulates Suberin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Mingyue; Hou, Guichuan; Yang, Huijun; Zhang, Xuebin; Cai, Yuanheng; Kai, Guoyin; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2016-12-13

    Suberin, a lipophilic polymer deposited in the outer integument of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat, represents an essential sealing component controlling water and solute movement and protecting seed from pathogenic infection. Although many genes responsible for suberin synthesis are identified, the regulatory components controlling its biosynthesis have not been definitively determined. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis MYB107 transcription factor acts as a positive regulator controlling suberin biosynthetic gene expression in the seed coat. MYB107 coexpresses with suberin biosynthetic genes in a temporal manner during seed development. Disrupting MYB107 particularly suppresses the expression of genes involved in suberin but not cutin biosynthesis, lowers seed coat suberin accumulation, alters suberin lamellar structure, and consequently renders higher seed coat permeability and susceptibility to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, MYB107 directly binds to the promoters of suberin biosynthetic genes, verifying its primary role in regulating their expression. Identifying MYB107 as a positive regulator for seed coat suberin synthesis offers a basis for discovering the potential transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature.

  18. The Woody-Preferential Gene EgMYB88 Regulates the Biosynthesis of Phenylpropanoid-Derived Compounds in Wood.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marçal; Plasencia, Anna; Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Camargo, Eduardo L O; Dupas, Annabelle; Ladouce, Nathalie; Pesquet, Edouard; Mounet, Fabien; Larbat, Romain; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family revealed that five subgroups were preferentially found in woody species and were totally absent from Brassicaceae and monocots (Soler et al., 2015). Here, we analyzed one of these subgroups (WPS-I) for which no gene had been yet characterized. Most Eucalyptus members of WPS-I are preferentially expressed in the vascular cambium, the secondary meristem responsible for tree radial growth. We focused on EgMYB88, which is the most specifically and highly expressed in vascular tissues, and showed that it behaves as a transcriptional activator in yeast. Then, we functionally characterized EgMYB88 in both transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar plants overexpressing either the native or the dominant repression form (fused to the Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression motif, EAR). The transgenic Arabidopsis lines had no phenotype whereas the poplar lines overexpressing EgMYB88 exhibited a substantial increase in the levels of the flavonoid catechin and of some salicinoid phenolic glycosides (salicortin, salireposide, and tremulacin), in agreement with the increase of the transcript levels of landmark biosynthetic genes. A change in the lignin structure (increase in the syringyl vs. guaiacyl, S/G ratio) was also observed. Poplar lines overexpressing the EgMYB88 dominant repression form did not show a strict opposite phenotype. The level of catechin was reduced, but the levels of the salicinoid phenolic glycosides and the S/G ratio remained unchanged. In addition, they showed a reduction in soluble oligolignols containing sinapyl p-hydroxybenzoate accompanied by a mild reduction of the insoluble lignin content. Altogether, these results suggest that EgMYB88, and more largely members of the WPS-I group, could control in cambium and in the first layers of differentiating xylem the biosynthesis of some phenylpropanoid-derived secondary metabolites including lignin.

  19. The Woody-Preferential Gene EgMYB88 Regulates the Biosynthesis of Phenylpropanoid-Derived Compounds in Wood

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Marçal; Plasencia, Anna; Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Camargo, Eduardo L. O.; Dupas, Annabelle; Ladouce, Nathalie; Pesquet, Edouard; Mounet, Fabien; Larbat, Romain; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family revealed that five subgroups were preferentially found in woody species and were totally absent from Brassicaceae and monocots (Soler et al., 2015). Here, we analyzed one of these subgroups (WPS-I) for which no gene had been yet characterized. Most Eucalyptus members of WPS-I are preferentially expressed in the vascular cambium, the secondary meristem responsible for tree radial growth. We focused on EgMYB88, which is the most specifically and highly expressed in vascular tissues, and showed that it behaves as a transcriptional activator in yeast. Then, we functionally characterized EgMYB88 in both transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar plants overexpressing either the native or the dominant repression form (fused to the Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression motif, EAR). The transgenic Arabidopsis lines had no phenotype whereas the poplar lines overexpressing EgMYB88 exhibited a substantial increase in the levels of the flavonoid catechin and of some salicinoid phenolic glycosides (salicortin, salireposide, and tremulacin), in agreement with the increase of the transcript levels of landmark biosynthetic genes. A change in the lignin structure (increase in the syringyl vs. guaiacyl, S/G ratio) was also observed. Poplar lines overexpressing the EgMYB88 dominant repression form did not show a strict opposite phenotype. The level of catechin was reduced, but the levels of the salicinoid phenolic glycosides and the S/G ratio remained unchanged. In addition, they showed a reduction in soluble oligolignols containing sinapyl p-hydroxybenzoate accompanied by a mild reduction of the insoluble lignin content. Altogether, these results suggest that EgMYB88, and more largely members of the WPS-I group, could control in cambium and in the first layers of differentiating xylem the biosynthesis of some phenylpropanoid-derived secondary metabolites including lignin. PMID

  20. An R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, regulates isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shulin; Zhou, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Huairen; Wang, Chun-e; Yang, Wenming; Tian, Zhixi; Cheng, Hao; Yu, Deyue

    2017-01-01

    Isoflavones comprise a group of secondary metabolites produced almost exclusively by plants in the legume family, including soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. They play vital roles in plant defense and have many beneficial effects on human health. Isoflavone content is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes, and the genetic mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis remain largely unknown. Via a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with isoflavone concentrations in soybean. One of these 28 SNPs was located in the 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR) of an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, and this gene was thus selected as a candidate gene for further analyses. A subcellular localization study confirmed that GmMYB29 was located in the nucleus. Transient reporter gene assays demonstrated that GmMYB29 activated the IFS2 (isoflavone synthase 2) and CHS8 (chalcone synthase 8) gene promoters. Overexpression and RNAi-mediated silencing of GmMYB29 in soybean hairy roots resulted in increased and decreased isoflavone content, respectively. Moreover, a candidate-gene association analysis revealed that 11 natural GmMYB29 polymorphisms were significantly associated with isoflavone contents, and regulation of GmMYB29 expression could partially contribute to the observed phenotypic variation. Taken together, these results provide important genetic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean. PMID:28489859

  1. McMYB12 Transcription Factors Co-regulate Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Malus Crabapple.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ji; Zhang, Jie; Han, Zhen-Yun; Song, Ting-Ting; Li, Jin-Yan; Wang, Ya-Ru; Yao, Yun-Cong

    2017-03-03

    The flavonoid compounds, proanthocyanidins (PAs), protect plants from biotic stresses, contribute to the taste of many fruits, and are beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. In this study, we functionally characterized two Malus crabapple R2R3-MYB transcription factors, McMYB12a and McMYB12b, which co-regulate PAs and anthocyanin biosynthesis. McMYB12a was shown to be mainly responsible for upregulating the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by binding to their promoters, but to be only partially responsible for regulating PAs biosynthetic genes. In contrast, McMYB12b showed preferential binding to the promoters of PAs biosynthetic genes. Overexpression of McMYB12a and McMYB12b in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) altered the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and promoted the accumulation of PAs and anthocyanins in tobacco petals. Conversely, transient silencing their expression in crabapple plants, using a conserved gene region, resulted in reduced PAs and anthocyanin production a green leaf phenotype. Meanwhile, transient overexpression of the two genes and silenced McMYB12s in apple (Malus domestica) fruit had a similar effect as overexpression in tobacco and silenced in crabapple. This study reveals a new mechanism for the coordinated regulation of PAs and anthocyanin accumulation in crabapple leaves, which depends on an auto-regulatory balance involving McMYB12a and McMYB12b expression.

  2. McMYB12 Transcription Factors Co-regulate Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Malus Crabapple

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ji; Zhang, Jie; Han, Zhen-yun; Song, Ting-ting; Li, Jin-yan; Wang, Ya-ru; Yao, Yun-cong

    2017-01-01

    The flavonoid compounds, proanthocyanidins (PAs), protect plants from biotic stresses, contribute to the taste of many fruits, and are beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. In this study, we functionally characterized two Malus crabapple R2R3-MYB transcription factors, McMYB12a and McMYB12b, which co-regulate PAs and anthocyanin biosynthesis. McMYB12a was shown to be mainly responsible for upregulating the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by binding to their promoters, but to be only partially responsible for regulating PAs biosynthetic genes. In contrast, McMYB12b showed preferential binding to the promoters of PAs biosynthetic genes. Overexpression of McMYB12a and McMYB12b in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) altered the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and promoted the accumulation of PAs and anthocyanins in tobacco petals. Conversely, transient silencing their expression in crabapple plants, using a conserved gene region, resulted in reduced PAs and anthocyanin production a green leaf phenotype. Meanwhile, transient overexpression of the two genes and silenced McMYB12s in apple (Malus domestica) fruit had a similar effect as overexpression in tobacco and silenced in crabapple. This study reveals a new mechanism for the coordinated regulation of PAs and anthocyanin accumulation in crabapple leaves, which depends on an auto-regulatory balance involving McMYB12a and McMYB12b expression. PMID:28255171

  3. MYB80, a regulator of tapetal and pollen development, is functionally conserved in crops.

    PubMed

    Phan, Huy A; Li, Song F; Parish, Roger W

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis AtMYB80 transcription factor (formerly AtMYB103) regulate genes essential for tapetal and pollen development. One of these genes, coding for an aspartic protease (UNDEAD), may control the timing of tapetal programmed cell death (PCD). In crop plants such as rice and wheat, abiotic stresses lead to abnormal tapetal development resulting in delayed PCD. Manipulation of AtMYB80 function has been used to develop a reversible male sterility system applicable to hybrid crop production. MYB80 homologs were cloned from wheat, rice, canola and cotton. The promoters of the homologs drove temporal and spatial expression patterns of the GUS reporter gene in the tapetum and microspores of Arabidopsis anthers identical to the AtMYB80 promoter. A short region is conserved in all five MYB80 promoters. The MYB80 homolog genes, driven by the AtMYB80 or their respective promoters, rescued the atmyb80 mutant, completely restoring male fertility. The canola MYB80 was fused to the EAR (ERF-associated amphiphilic repression) repressor and canola plants transgenic for the construct exhibited premature tapetal degradation and subsequent pollen abortion. The five MYB80 homologs all shared a 44 amino acid sequence immediately adjacent to the R2R3 domain which appears to be necessary for MYB80 function.

  4. Maize R2R3 Myb genes: Sequence analysis reveals amplification in the higher plants.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, P D; Braun, E L; Wolfe, A D; Bowen, B; Grotewold, E

    1999-09-01

    Transcription factors containing the Myb-homologous DNA-binding domain are widely found in eukaryotes. In plants, R2R3 Myb-domain proteins are involved in the control of form and metabolism. The Arabidopsis genome harbors >100 R2R3 Myb genes, but few have been found in monocots, animals, and fungi. Using RT-PCR from different maize organs, we cloned 480 fragments corresponding to a 42-44 residue-long sequence spanning the region between the conserved DNA-recognition helices (Myb(BRH)) of R2R3 Myb domains. We determined that maize expresses >80 different R2R3 Myb genes, and evolutionary distances among maize Myb(BRH) sequences indicate that most of the amplification of the R2R3 Myb gene family occurred after the origin of land plants but prior to the separation of monocots and dicots. In addition, evidence is provided for the very recent duplication of particular classes of R2R3 Myb genes in the grasses. Together, these findings render a novel line of evidence for the amplification of the R2R3 Myb gene family in the early history of land plants and suggest that maize provides a possible model system to examine the hypothesis that the expansion of Myb genes is associated with the regulation of novel plant cellular functions.

  5. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of two key genes in the lignin branch pathway--CAD and CCR--is mediated through MYB- binding sites.

    PubMed

    Rahantamalala, Anjanirina; Rech, Philippe; Martinez, Yves; Chaubet-Gigot, Nicole; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Pacquit, Valérie

    2010-06-28

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the final steps in the biosynthesis of monolignols, the monomeric units of the phenolic lignin polymers which confer rigidity, imperviousness and resistance to biodegradation to cell walls. We have previously shown that the Eucalyptus gunnii CCR and CAD2 promoters direct similar expression patterns in vascular tissues suggesting that monolignol production is controlled, at least in part, by the coordinated transcriptional regulation of these two genes. Although consensus motifs for MYB transcription factors occur in most gene promoters of the whole phenylpropanoid pathway, functional evidence for their contribution to promoter activity has only been demonstrated for a few of them. Here, in the lignin-specific branch, we studied the functional role of MYB elements as well as other cis-elements identified in the regulatory regions of EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters, in the transcriptional activity of these gene promoters. By using promoter deletion analysis and in vivo footprinting, we identified an 80 bp regulatory region in the Eucalyptus gunnii EgCAD2 promoter that contains two MYB elements, each arranged in a distinct module with newly identified cis-elements. A directed mutagenesis approach was used to introduce block mutations in all putative cis-elements of the EgCAD2 promoter and in those of the 50 bp regulatory region previously delineated in the EgCCR promoter. We showed that the conserved MYB elements in EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters are crucial both for the formation of DNA-protein complexes in EMSA experiments and for the transcriptional activation of EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters in vascular tissues in planta. In addition, a new regulatory cis-element that modulates the balance between two DNA-protein complexes in vitro was found to be important for EgCAD2 expression in the cambial zone. Our assignment of functional roles to the identified cis-elements clearly demonstrates the

  6. Early Evolution of Vertebrate Mybs: An Integrative Perspective Combining Synteny, Phylogenetic, and Gene Expression Analyses.

    PubMed

    Campanini, Emeline B; Vandewege, Michael W; Pillai, Nisha E; Tay, Boon-Hui; Jones, Justin L; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Hoffmann, Federico G

    2015-10-15

    The genes in the Myb superfamily encode for three related transcription factors in most vertebrates, A-, B-, and c-Myb, with functionally distinct roles, whereas most invertebrates have a single Myb. B-Myb plays an essential role in cell division and cell cycle progression, c-Myb is involved in hematopoiesis, and A-Myb is involved in spermatogenesis and regulating expression of pachytene PIWI interacting RNAs, a class of small RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation and the maintenance of reproductive tissues. Comparisons between teleost fish and tetrapods suggest that the emergence and functional divergence of the Myb genes were linked to the two rounds of whole-genome duplication early in vertebrate evolution. We combined phylogenetic, synteny, structural, and gene expression analyses of the Myb paralogs from elephant shark and lampreys with data from 12 bony vertebrates to reconstruct the early evolution of vertebrate Mybs. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggest that the elephant shark and Japanese lamprey have copies of the A-, B-, and c-Myb genes, implying their origin could be traced back to the common ancestor of lampreys and gnathostomes. However, structural and gene expression analyses suggest that their functional roles diverged between gnathostomes and cyclostomes. In particular, we did not detect A-Myb expression in testis suggesting that the involvement of A-Myb in the pachytene PIWI interacting RNA pathway is probably a gnathostome-specific innovation. We speculate that the secondary loss of a central domain in lamprey A-Myb underlies the functional differences between the cyclostome and gnathostome A-Myb proteins.

  7. Three R2R3-MYB transcription factors regulate distinct floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

  8. BrMYB4, a suppressor of genes for phenylpropanoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, is down-regulated by UV-B but not by pigment-inducing sunlight in turnip cv. Tsuda.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Wang, Yu; Sun, Mei; Wang, Jing; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Li, Yuhua

    2014-12-01

    The regulation of light-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis in Brassica rapa subsp. rapa cv. Tsuda turnip was investigated using an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutant R30 with light-independent pigmentation. TILLING (targeting induced local lesions in genomes) and subsequent analysis showed that a stop codon was inserted in the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene BrMYB4 and that the encoded protein (BrMYB4mu) had lost its C-terminal region. In R30, anthocyanin accumulated in the below-ground portion of the storage root of 2-month-old plants. In 4-day-old seedlings and 2-month-old plants, expression of BrMYB4 was similar between R30 and the wild type (WT), but the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene (BrC4H) was markedly enhanced in R30 in the dark. In turnip seedlings, BrMYB4 expression was suppressed by UV-B irradiation in the WT, but this negative regulation was absent in R30. Concomitantly, BrC4H was repressed by UV-B irradiation in the WT, but stayed at high levels in R30. A gel-shift assay revealed that BrMYB4 could directly bind to the promoter region of BrC4H, but BrMYB4mu could not. The BrMYB4-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) protein could enter the nucleus in the presence of BrSAD2 (an importin β-like protein) nuclear transporter, but BrMYB4mu-eGFP could not. These results showed that BrMYB4 functions as a negative transcriptional regulator of BrC4H and mediates UV-B-dependent phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, while BrMYB4mu has lost this function. In the storage roots, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes was enhanced in R30 in the dark and in sunlight in both the WT and R30. However, in the WT, anthocyanin-inducing sunlight did not suppress BrMYB4 expression. Therefore, sunlight-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis does not seem to be regulated by BrMYB4. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Gene Family in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hai; Feng, Bo-Run; Yang, Si-Si; Huang, Yu-Bi; Tang, Yi-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    MYB proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors, members of which perform a variety of functions in plant biological processes. To date, no genome-wide characterization of this gene family has been conducted in maize (Zea mays). In the present study, we performed a comprehensive computational analysis, to yield a complete overview of the R2R3-MYB gene family in maize, including the phylogeny, expression patterns, and also its structural and functional characteristics. The MYB gene structure in maize and Arabidopsis were highly conserved, indicating that they were originally compact in size. Subgroup-specific conserved motifs outside the MYB domain may reflect functional conservation. The genome distribution strongly supports the hypothesis that segmental and tandem duplication contribute to the expansion of maize MYB genes. We also performed an updated and comprehensive classification of the R2R3-MYB gene families in maize and other plant species. The result revealed that the functions were conserved between maize MYB genes and their putative orthologs, demonstrating the origin and evolutionary diversification of plant MYB genes. Species-specific groups/subgroups may evolve or be lost during evolution, resulting in functional divergence. Expression profile study indicated that maize R2R3-MYB genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns, suggesting diverse functions. Furthermore, computational prediction potential targets of maize microRNAs (miRNAs) revealed that miR159, miR319, and miR160 may be implicated in regulating maize R2R3-MYB genes, suggesting roles of these miRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation and transcription networks. Our comparative analysis of R2R3-MYB genes in maize confirm and extend the sequence and functional characteristics of this gene family, and will facilitate future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in maize. PMID:22719841

  10. Novel Anther-Specific myb Genes from Tobacco as Putative Regulators of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seungchan; Sweetman, Justin P.; Amirsadeghi, Sasan; Barghchi, Medhi; Huttly, Alison K.; Chung, Won-Il; Twell, David

    2001-01-01

    Two cDNA clones (NtmybAS1 and NtmybAS2) encoding MYB-related proteins with strong sequence similarity to petunia (Petunia hybrida) PhMYB3 were isolated from a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) pollen cDNA library. Northern blot and in situ hybridization revealed that NtmybAS transcripts are specifically expressed in both sporophytic and gametophytic tissues of the anther including tapetum, stomium, vascular tissue, and developing pollen. Random binding site selection assays revealed that NtMYBAS1 bound to DNA sequences closely resembling consensus MYB binding sites MBSI and MBSIIG, with a higher affinity for MBSI. Transient expression analyses of the N-terminal MYB domain demonstrated the presence of functional nuclear localization signals, and full-length NtMYBAS1 was able to activate two different phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoters (PALA and gPAL1) in tobacco leaf protoplasts. Similar analysis of truncated NtmybAS1 cDNAs identified an essential, C-terminal trans-activation domain. Further in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated strict co-expression of NtmybAS and gPAL1 in the tapetum and stomium. Despite abundant expression of NtmybAS transcripts in mature pollen, gPAL1 transcripts were not detectable in pollen. Our data demonstrate that NtMYBAS1 is a functional anther-specific transcription factor, which is likely to be a positive regulator of gPAL1 expression and phenylpropanoid synthesis in sporophytic, but not in gametophytic, tissues of the anther. PMID:11500571

  11. Two MYB transcription factors regulate flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shiwei; Meng, Geng; Song, Linyan; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds play important roles in the modern diet, and pear fruits are an excellent dietary source of these metabolites. However, information on the regulatory network of flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruits is rare. In this work, 18 putative flavonoid-related MYB transcription factors (TFs) were screened by phylogenetic analysis and four of them were correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis patterns in pear fruits. Among these MYB-like genes, the specific functions of two novel MYB TFs, designated as PbMYB10b and PbMYB9, were further verified by both overexpression and RNAi transient assays. PbMYB10b, a PAP-type MYB TF with atypical motifs in its conserved region, regulated the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pathways by inducing the expression of PbDFR, but its function could be complemented by other MYB TFs. PbMYB9, a TT2-type MYB, not only acted as the specific activator of the proanthocyanidin pathway by activating the PbANR promoter, but also induced the synthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols by binding the PbUFGT1 promoter in pear fruits. The MYBCORE-like element has been identified in both the PbUFGT1 promoter and ANR promoters in most species, but it was not found in UFGT promoters isolated from other species. This finding was also supported by a yeast one-hybrid assay and thus enhanced the likelihood of the interaction between PbMYB9 and the PbUFGT1 promoter.

  12. Myb transcription factors and light regulate sporulation in the oomycete Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qijun; Judelson, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle progression in eukaryotic microbes is often influenced by environment. In the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, which causes late blight on potato and tomato, sporangia have been reported to form mostly at night. By growing P. infestans under different light regimes at constant temperature and humidity, we show that light contributes to the natural pattern of sporulation by delaying sporulation until the following dark period. However, illumination does not permanently block sporulation or strongly affect the total number of sporangia that ultimately form. Based on measurements of sporulation-induced genes such as those encoding protein kinase Pks1 and Myb transcription factors Myb2R1 and Myb2R3, it appears that most spore-associated transcripts start to rise four to eight hours before sporangia appear. Their mRNA levels oscillate with the light/dark cycle and increase with the amount of sporangia. An exception to this pattern of expression is Myb2R4, which is induced several hours before the other genes and declines after cultures start to sporulate. Transformants over-expressing Myb2R4 produce twice the number of sporangia and ten-fold higher levels of Myb2R1 mRNA than wild-type, and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Myb2R4 binds the Myb2R1 promoter in vivo. Myb2R4 thus appears to be an early regulator of sporulation. We attempted to silence eight Myb genes by DNA-directed RNAi, but succeeded only with Myb2R3, which resulted in suppressed sporulation. Ectopic expression studies of seven Myb genes revealed that over-expression frequently impaired vegetative growth, and in the case of Myb3R6 interfered with sporangia dormancy. We observed that the degree of silencing induced by a hairpin construct was correlated with its copy number, and ectopic expression was often unstable due to epigenetic silencing and transgene excision.

  13. Functional Characterization of the Poplar R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor PtoMYB216 Involved in the Regulation of Lignin Biosynthesis during Wood Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wanxiang; Yang, Li; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Luo, Keming

    2013-01-01

    Because of the importance of wood in many industrial applications, tremendous studies have been performed on wood formation, especially in lignin biosynthesis. MYB transcription factors (TFs), which consist of a large family of plant TFs, have been reported to directly regulate lignin biosynthetic genes in a number of plants. In this study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of PtoMYB216, a cDNA isolated from Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.). PtoMYB216 encodes a protein belonging to the R2R3-MYB family and displays significant similarity with other MYB factors shown to regulate lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis. Gene expression profiling studies showed that PtoMYB216 mRNA is specifically expressed during secondary wall formation in wood. The 1.8-kb promoter sequence of PtoMYB216 was fused to the GUS coding sequence and introduced into wild-type A. thaliana. GUS expression was shown to be restricted to tissues undergoing secondary cell wall formation. Overexpression of PtoMYB216 specifically activated the expression of the upstream genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway and resulted in ectopic deposition of lignin in cells that are normally unligninified. These results suggest that PtoMYB216 is specific transcriptional activators of lignin biosynthesis and involved in the regulation of wood formation in poplar. PMID:24204619

  14. Molecular characterization of the Jatropha curcas JcR1MYB1 gene encoding a putative R1-MYB transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the R1-MYB transcription factor, designated as JcR1MYB1, was isolated from Jatropha curcas using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. JcR1MYB1 contains a 951 bp open reading frame that encodes 316 amino acids. The deduced JcR1MYB1 protein was predicted to possess the conserved, 56-amino acid-long DNA-binding domain, which consists of a single helix-turn-helix module and usually occurs in R1-MYBs. JcR1MYB1 is a member of the R1-MYB transcription factor subfamily. A subcellular localization study confirmed the nuclear localization of JcR1MYB1. Expression analysis showed that JcR1MYB1 transcripts accumulated in various examined tissues, with high expression levels in the root and low levels in the stem. JcR1MYB1 transcription was up-regulated by polyethylene glycol, NaCl, and cold treatments, as well as by abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene treatment. Analysis of transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing JcR1MYB1 indicates an inportant function for this gene in salt stress. PMID:25249778

  15. c-Myb influences HIV type 1 gene expression and virus production.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M J; Ramsay, R G; Rhodes, D I; Deacon, N J

    2001-11-01

    c-Myb is expressed in proliferating T cells. Fifteen c-Myb-binding sites can be identified in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), suggesting that c-Myb may regulate HIV-1 gene expression and virus replication. Increasing the cellular levels of c-Myb by transient transfection of CEM cells resulted in a 10- to 20-fold activation of HIV-1 LTR-driven gene expression and mutation of one high-affinity Myb-binding site within the LTR reduced this activation by 60 to 70%. Conversely, inhibition of c-Myb expression in MT-2 cells by treatment with c-myb antisense oligonucleotides decreased HIV-1 replication by 85%, as measured by reverse transcriptase activity and cytopathic effects. The effect of c-myb antisense oligonucleotides on HIV-1 gene expression and virus particle production appeared to be independent of cell proliferation, but dependent on the presence of c-Myb activity mediated through the HIV-1 LTR. These data show that c-myb expression affects HIV-1 replication in CD4(+) T cells.

  16. Enhanced disease resistance to Botrytis cinerea in myb46 Arabidopsis plants is associated to an early down-regulation of CesA genes.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Vicente; García-Andrade, Javier; Vera, Pablo

    2011-06-01

    The cell wall is a protective barrier of paramount importance for the survival of plant cells. Monitoring the integrity of cell wall allows plants to quickly activate defence pathways to minimize pathogen entry and reduce the spread of disease. Counterintuitively, however, pharmacological effects as well as genetic lesions that affect cellulose biosynthesis and content confer plants with enhanced resistance against necrotrophic fungi. This kind of pathogens target cellulose for degradation to facilitate penetration and to generate glucose units as a food source. Our results points towards the existence of a transcriptional reprogramming mechanism in genes encoding cellulose synthases (CesAs) that occurs very soon after Botrytis cinerea attack and that results in a temporarily shut down of some CesA genes. Interestingly, the observed coordinated down-regulation of CesA genes is more pronounced, and occurs earlier, in myb46 mutant plants. In the resistant myb46 plants, pathogen infection induces transient down-regulation of CesA genes that concurs with a selective transcriptional reprogramming in a set of genes encoding structural cell wall proteins and extracellular remodelling enzymes. Together with previous indications, our results favour the hypothesis that CesAs are part of a surveillance system of the cell wall integrity that senses the presence of a pathogen and transduces that signal into a rapid transcriptional reprogramming of the affected cell.

  17. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl

    2014-05-23

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  18. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J

    2014-05-23

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  19. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shucai; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes. PMID:24852237

  20. A MYB transcription factor regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Palapol, Yossapol; Ketsa, Saichol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit undergo rapid red colour development, both on the tree and after harvest, resulting in high anthocyanin production in the pericarp. Here, we report the isolation of three full-length mangosteen MYB transcription factors (GmMYB1, GmMYB7 and GmMYB10) and all the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (GmPal to GmUFGT). Phylogenetic analysis at the protein level of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family showed GmMYB10 had a high degree of similarity with production of anthocyanin pigment1 in Arabidopsis and as well as sequences from other plant species related to the elevation of anthocyanin pigmentation. In transient transactivation assays, GmMYB10, co-expressed with AtbHLH2, strongly activated the GmDFR and AtDFR promoters. Transcripts of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT were highly abundant with onset of pigmentation and subsequently during red colouration. Our results suggest that GmMYB10 plays an important role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis both on the tree and after harvest, while GmUFGT may be a key biosynthetic gene in mangosteen pigmentation. The expression patterns of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT correlated with ethylene production that increased linearly until stage 5 (dark purple) and decreased thereafter. 1-Methycyclopropene (1-MCP) clearly delayed red colouration with resulting down-regulation of GmMYB10. These results suggest that the effect of ethylene on anthocyanin biosynthesis may be via the regulation of GmMYB10 expression.

  1. The MYB96 Transcription Factor Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis under Drought Conditions in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Pil Joon; Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung; Park, Mi-Jeong; Go, Young Sam; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress activates several defense responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root water uptake, and synthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulating evidence suggests that deposition of cuticular waxes is also associated with plant responses to cellular dehydration. Yet, how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought is unknown. We have recently reported that an Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, MYB96, promotes drought resistance. Here, we show that transcriptional activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by MYB96 contributes to drought resistance. Microarray assays showed that a group of wax biosynthetic genes is upregulated in the activation-tagged myb96-1D mutant but downregulated in the MYB96-deficient myb96-1 mutant. Cuticular wax accumulation was altered accordingly in the mutants. In addition, activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by drought and ABA requires MYB96. By contrast, biosynthesis of cutin monomers was only marginally affected in the mutants. Notably, the MYB96 protein acts as a transcriptional activator of genes encoding very-long-chain fatty acid–condensing enzymes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis by directly binding to conserved sequence motifs present in the gene promoters. These results demonstrate that ABA-mediated MYB96 activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis serves as a drought resistance mechanism. PMID:21398568

  2. MYB is a novel regulator of pancreatic tumour growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Arora, Sumit; Singh, Seema; Azim, Shafquat; Tyagi, Nikhil; Carter, James E; Wang, Bin; Singh, Ajay P

    2015-12-22

    MYB encodes for a transcription factor regulating the expression of a wide array of genes involved in cellular functions. It is reported to be amplified in a sub-set of pancreatic cancer (PC) cases; however, its pathobiological association has remained unclear thus far. Expression of MYB and other cellular proteins was analysed by immunoblot or qRT-PCR analyses. MYB was stably overexpressed in non-expressing (BxPC3) and silenced in highly expressing (MiaPaCa and Panc1) PC cells. Effect on growth was analysed by automated cell counting at 24-h interval. Cell-cycle progression and apoptotic indices of PC cells with altered MYB expression were measured through flow cytometry upon staining with respective biomarkers. Cell motility/invasion was examined in a Boyden's chamber assay using non-coated or Matrigel-coated membranes. Effect on tumorigenicity and metastatic potential was examined by non-invasive imaging and through end-point measurements of luciferase-tagged MYB-altered PC implanted in the pancreas of nude mice. MYB was aberrantly expressed in all malignant cases of pancreas, whereas remained undetectable in normal pancreas. All the tested established PC cell lines except BxPC3 also exhibited MYB expression. Forced expression of MYB in BxPC3 cells promoted their growth, cell-cycle progression, survival and malignant behaviour, whereas its silencing in MiaPaCa and Panc1 cells produced converse effects. More importantly, ectopic MYB expression was sufficient to confer tumorigenic and metastatic capabilities to non-tumorigenic BxPC3 cells, while its silencing resulted in significant loss of the same in MYB-overexpressing cells as demonstrated in orthotopic mouse model. We also identified several MYB-regulated genes in PC cells that might potentially mediate its effect on tumour growth and metastasis. MYB is aberrantly overexpressed in PC cells and acts as a key determinant of pancreatic tumour growth and metastasis.

  3. Activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by expression of the radish R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene RsMYB1.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sun-Hyung; Song, Ji-Hye; Kim, Da-Hye; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Kim, Young-Mi; Ha, Sun-Hwa

    2016-03-01

    RsMYB1, a MYB TF of red radish origin, was characterized as a positive regulator to transcriptionally activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic machinery by itself in Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Anthocyanins, providing the bright red-orange to blue-violet colors, are flavonoid-derived pigments with strong antioxidant activity that have benefits for human health. We isolated RsMYB1, which encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF), from red radish plants (Raphanus sativus L.) that accumulate high levels of anthocyanins. RsMYB1 shows higher expression in red radish than in common white radish, in both leaves and roots, at different growth stages. Consistent with RsMYB1 function as an anthocyanin-promoting TF, red radishes showed higher expression of all six anthocyanin biosynthetic and two anthocyanin regulatory genes. Transient expression of RsMYB1 in tobacco showed that RsMYB1 is a positive regulator of anthocyanin production with better efficiency than the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TF gene B-Peru. Also, the synergistic effect of RsMYB1 with B-Peru was larger than the effect of the MYB TF gene mPAP1D with B-peru. Arabidopsis plants stably expressing RsMYB1 produced red pigmentation throughout the plant, accompanied by up-regulation of the six structural and two regulatory genes for anthocyanin production. This broad transcriptional activation of anthocyanin biosynthetic machinery in Arabidopsis included up-regulation of TRANSPARENT TESTA8, which encodes a bHLH TF. These results suggest that overexpression of RsMYB1 promotes anthocyanin production by triggering the expression of endogenous bHLH genes as potential binding partners for RsMYB1. In addition, RsMYB1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants had a higher antioxidant capacity than did non-transgenic control plants. Taken together, RsMYB1 is an actively positive regulator for anthocyanins biosynthesis in radish plants and it might be one of the best targets for anthocyanin production by single gene

  4. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Capsaicinoid Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Rodríguez, Magda L.

    2017-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are responsible for the hot taste of chili peppers. They are restricted to the genus Capsicum and are synthesized by the acylation of the aromatic compound vanillylamine (derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway) with a branched-chain fatty acid by the catalysis of the putative enzyme capsaicinoid synthase. R2R3-MYB transcription factors have been reported in different species of plants as regulators of structural genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway; therefore, we hypothesized that MYB genes might be involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of pungent compounds. In this study, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, designated CaMYB31, was isolated and characterized in Capsicum annuum ‘Tampiqueño 74’. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that CaMYB31 could be involved in secondary metabolism, stress and plant hormone responses, and development. CaMYB31 expression analysis from placental tissue of pungent and nonpungent chili pepper fruits showed a positive correlation with the structural genes Ca4H, Comt, Kas, pAmt, and AT3 expression and also with the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsacin during fruit development. However, CaMYB31 also was expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves, roots, and stems). Moreover, CaMYB31 silencing significantly reduced the expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes and the capsaicinoid content. Additionally, CaMYB31 expression was affected by the plant hormones indoleacetic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid or by wounding, temperature, and light, factors known to affect the production of capsaicinoids. These findings indicate that CaMYB31 is indeed involved in the regulation of structural genes of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. PMID:28483879

  5. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Capsaicinoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Arce-Rodríguez, Magda L; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2017-07-01

    Capsaicinoids are responsible for the hot taste of chili peppers. They are restricted to the genus Capsicum and are synthesized by the acylation of the aromatic compound vanillylamine (derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway) with a branched-chain fatty acid by the catalysis of the putative enzyme capsaicinoid synthase. R2R3-MYB transcription factors have been reported in different species of plants as regulators of structural genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway; therefore, we hypothesized that MYB genes might be involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of pungent compounds. In this study, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, designated CaMYB31, was isolated and characterized in Capsicum annuum 'Tampiqueño 74'. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that CaMYB31 could be involved in secondary metabolism, stress and plant hormone responses, and development. CaMYB31 expression analysis from placental tissue of pungent and nonpungent chili pepper fruits showed a positive correlation with the structural genes Ca4H, Comt, Kas, pAmt, and AT3 expression and also with the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsacin during fruit development. However, CaMYB31 also was expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves, roots, and stems). Moreover, CaMYB31 silencing significantly reduced the expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes and the capsaicinoid content. Additionally, CaMYB31 expression was affected by the plant hormones indoleacetic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid or by wounding, temperature, and light, factors known to affect the production of capsaicinoids. These findings indicate that CaMYB31 is indeed involved in the regulation of structural genes of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. A maize QTL for silk maysin levels contains duplicated Myb-homologous genes which jointly regulate flavone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peifen; Wang, Yibin; Zhang, Jianbo; Maddock, Sheila; Snook, Maurice; Peterson, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    The maize p1 locus coincides with a major QTL (quantitative trait locus) determining levels of maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone that deters feeding by corn ear-worm. The p1 gene is tightly linked with a second gene, p2, and both genes encode similar Myb-domain proteins. We show here that maize cell cultures transformed with either the p1 or p2 genes expressed under a constitutive promoter accumulate transcripts for flavonoid biosynthetic genes, and synthesize phenylpropanoids and C-glycosyl flavones related to maysin. Additionally, maize plants that are deleted for the p1 gene have reduced maysin levels and moderate silk-browning reaction, whereas plants with a deletion of both p1 and p2 have non-detectable silk maysin and non-browning silks. We conclude that both p1 and p2 induce maysin biosynthesis in silk, although the two genes differ in their expression and pigmentation effects in other tissues. These results show that a QTL for flavone biosynthesis actually comprises two tightly linked genes with related functions.

  7. Positive selection and functional divergence of R2R3-MYB paralogous genes expressed in inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing-Hong; Pang, Erli; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cao, Huifen; Ruan, Yu; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2015-03-13

    Anthocyanin is the main pigment forming floral diversity. Several transcription factors that regulate the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes belong to the R2R3-MYB family. Here we examined the transcriptomes of inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (skullcaps), identified the expression R2R3-MYBs, and detected the genetic signatures of positive selection for adaptive divergence across the rapidly evolving skullcaps. In the inflorescence buds, seven R2R3-MYBs were identified. MYB11 and MYB16 were detected to be positively selected. The signature of positive selection on MYB genes indicated that species diversification could be affected by transcriptional regulation, rather than at the translational level. When comparing among the background lineages of Arabidopsis, tomato, rice, and Amborella, heterogeneous evolutionary rates were detected among MYB paralogs, especially between MYB13 and MYB19. Significantly different evolutionary rates were also evidenced by type-I functional divergence between MYB13 and MYB19, and the accelerated evolutionary rates in MYB19, implied the acquisition of novel functions. Another paralogous pair, MYB2/7 and MYB11, revealed significant radical amino acid changes, indicating divergence in the regulation of different anthocyanin-biosynthetic enzymes. Our findings not only showed that Scutellaria R2R3-MYBs are functionally divergent and positively selected, but also indicated the adaptive relevance of regulatory genes in floral diversification.

  8. StMYB44 negatively regulates phosphate transport by suppressing expression of PHOSPHATE1 in potato

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Zha, Manrong; Huang, Jing; Li, Li; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phosphorus is an important macronutrient for plant growth, but often deficient in soil. To understand the molecular basis of the complex responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to phosphate (Pi) deficiency stress, the RNA-Seq approach was taken to identify genes responding to Pi starvation in potato roots. A total of 359 differentially expressed genes were identified, among which the Solanum tuberosum transcription factor gene MYB44 (StMYB44) was found to be down-regulated by Pi starvation. StMYB44 was ubiquitously expressed in potato tissues and organs, and StMYB44 protein was exclusively localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of StMYB44 in potato resulted in lower accumulation of Pi in shoots. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that the abundance of S. tuberosum PHOSPHATE1 (StPHO1), a Pi transport-related gene, was reduced in StMYB44 overexpression lines. In contrast, knock-out of StMYB44 by a CRISPR/Cas9 system failed to increase transcription of StPHO1. Moreover, StMYB44 was found to interact in the nucleus with AtWRKY6, a known Arabidopsis transcription factor directly regulating PHO1 expression, and StWRKY6, indicating that StMYB44 could be a member of the regulatory complex controlling transcription of StPHO1. Taken together, our study demonstrates that StMYB44 negatively regulates Pi transport in potato by suppressing StPHO1 expression. PMID:28338870

  9. TaMYB13-1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates the fructan synthetic pathway and contributes to enhanced fructan accumulation in bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    Kooiker, Maarten; Drenth, Janneke; Glassop, Donna; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Xue, Gang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Fructans are the major component of temporary carbon reserve in the stem of temperate cereals, which is used for grain filling. Three families of fructosyltransferases are directly involved in fructan synthesis in the vacuole of Triticum aestivum. The regulatory network of the fructan synthetic pathway is largely unknown. Recently, a sucrose-upregulated wheat MYB transcription factor (TaMYB13-1) was shown to be capable of activating the promoter activities of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) in transient transactivation assays. This work investigated TaMYB13-1 target genes and their influence on fructan synthesis in transgenic wheat. TaMYB13-1 overexpression resulted in upregulation of all three families of fructosyltransferases including fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT). A γ-vacuolar processing enzyme (γ-VPE1), potentially involved in processing the maturation of fructosyltransferases in the vacuole, was also upregulated by TaMYB13-1 overexpression. Multiple TaMYB13 DNA-binding motifs were identified in the Ta1-FFT1 and Taγ-VPE1 promoters and were bound strongly by TaMYB13-1. The expression profiles of these target genes and TaMYB13-1 were highly correlated in recombinant inbred lines and during stem development as well as the transgenic and non-transgenic wheat dataset, further supporting a direct regulation of these genes by TaMYB13-1. TaMYB13-1 overexpression in wheat led to enhanced fructan accumulation in the leaves and stems and also increased spike weight and grain weight per spike in transgenic plants under water-limited conditions. These data suggest that TaMYB13-1 plays an important role in coordinated upregulation of genes necessary for fructan synthesis and can be used as a molecular tool to improve the high fructan trait. PMID:23873993

  10. MYB75 functions in regulation of secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Apurva; Mansfield, Shawn D; Hall, Hardy C; Douglas, Carl J; Ellis, Brian E

    2010-11-01

    Deposition of lignified secondary cell walls in plants involves a major commitment of carbon skeletons in both the form of polysaccharides and phenylpropanoid constituents. This process is spatially and temporally regulated by transcription factors, including a number of MYB family transcription factors. MYB75, also called PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, is a known regulator of the anthocyanin branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but how this regulation might impact other aspects of carbon metabolism is unclear. We established that a loss-of-function mutation in MYB75 (myb75-1) results in increased cell wall thickness in xylary and interfascicular fibers within the inflorescence stem. The total lignin content and S/G ratio of the lignin monomers were also affected. Transcript profiles from the myb75-1 inflorescence stem revealed marked up-regulation in the expression of a suite of genes associated with lignin biosynthesis and cellulose deposition, as well as cell wall modifying proteins and genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon assimilation. These patterns suggest that MYB75 acts as a repressor of the lignin branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Since MYB75 physically interacts with another secondary cell wall regulator, the KNOX transcription factor KNAT7, these regulatory proteins may form functional complexes that contribute to the regulation of secondary cell wall deposition in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and that integrate the metabolic flux through the lignin, flavonoid, and polysaccharide pathways.

  11. The sugar beet gene encoding the sodium/proton exchanger 1 (BvNHX1) is regulated by a MYB transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Adler, Guy; Blumwald, Eduardo; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2010-06-01

    Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX) are key players in the plant response to salinity and have a central role in establishing ion homeostasis. NHXs can be localized in the tonoplast or plasma membranes, where they exchange sodium ions for protons, resulting in sodium ions being removed from the cytosol into the vacuole or extracellular space. The expression of most plant NHX genes is modulated by exposure of the organisms to salt stress or water stress. We explored the regulation of the vacuolar NHX1 gene from the salt-tolerant sugar beet plant (BvNHX1) using Arabidopsis plants transformed with an array of constructs of BvHNX1::GUS, and the expression patterns were characterized using histological and quantitative assays. The 5 UTR of BvNHX1, including its intron, does not modulate the activity of the promoter. Serial deletions show that a 337 bp promoter fragment sufficed for driving activity that indistinguishable from that of the full-length (2,464 bp) promoter. Mutating four putative cis-acting elements within the 337 bp promoter fragment revealed that MYB transcription factor(s) are involved in the activation of the expression of BvNHX1 upon exposure to salt and water stresses. Gel mobility shift assay confirmed that the WT but not the mutated MYB binding site is bound by nuclear protein extracted from salt-stressed Beta vulgaris leaves.

  12. Spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wei; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; ...

    2016-02-02

    Among the R2R3 MYB transcription factors that involve in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis, MYB46 alone is sufficient to induce the entire secondary cell wall biosynthesis program. PtrMYB021, the poplar homolog of MYB46, has been reported to regulate secondary cell wall formation when expressed in Arabidopsis. We report here that spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 is critical for its function in regulating secondary cell wall formation. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that PtrMYB021 was expressed primarily in xylem tissues. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of PtrCesA8, but not the 35S promoter,more » PtrMYB021 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification as well as changes in cell wall carbohydrate composition. Consistent with this, elevated expression of lignin and cellulose biosynthetic genes were observed in the transgenic plants. Finally, when expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts as fusion proteins to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, PtrMYB021 activated the reporter gene Gal4-GUS. In summary, our results suggest that PtrMYB021 is a transcriptional activator, and spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 in Arabidopsis regulates secondary cell wall formation by activating a subset of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.« less

  13. Spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Li, Eryang; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Douglas, Carl J.; Wang, Shucai

    2016-02-02

    Among the R2R3 MYB transcription factors that involve in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis, MYB46 alone is sufficient to induce the entire secondary cell wall biosynthesis program. PtrMYB021, the poplar homolog of MYB46, has been reported to regulate secondary cell wall formation when expressed in Arabidopsis. We report here that spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 is critical for its function in regulating secondary cell wall formation. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that PtrMYB021 was expressed primarily in xylem tissues. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of PtrCesA8, but not the 35S promoter, PtrMYB021 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification as well as changes in cell wall carbohydrate composition. Consistent with this, elevated expression of lignin and cellulose biosynthetic genes were observed in the transgenic plants. Finally, when expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts as fusion proteins to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, PtrMYB021 activated the reporter gene Gal4-GUS. In summary, our results suggest that PtrMYB021 is a transcriptional activator, and spatially and temporally restricted expression of PtrMYB021 in Arabidopsis regulates secondary cell wall formation by activating a subset of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

  14. Regulation of Cell Proliferation in the Stomatal Lineage by the Arabidopsis MYB FOUR LIPS via Direct Targeting of Core Cell Cycle Genes[W

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zidian; Lee, EunKyoung; Lucas, Jessica R.; Morohashi, Kengo; Li, Dongmei; Murray, James A.H.; Sack, Fred D.; Grotewold, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Stomata, which are epidermal pores surrounded by two guard cells, develop from a specialized stem cell lineage and function in shoot gas exchange. The Arabidopsis thaliana FOUR LIPS (FLP) and MYB88 genes encode closely related and atypical two-MYB-repeat proteins, which when mutated result in excess divisions and abnormal groups of stomata in contact. Consistent with a role in transcription, we show here that FLP and MYB88 are nuclear proteins with DNA binding preferences distinct from other known MYBs. To identify possible FLP/MYB88 transcriptional targets, we used chromatin immunoprecitation (ChIP) followed by hybridization to Arabidopsis whole genome tiling arrays. These ChIP-chip data indicate that FLP/MYB88 target the upstream regions especially of cell cycle genes, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and components of the prereplication complex. In particular, we show that FLP represses the expression of the mitosis-inducing factor CDKB1;1, which, along with CDKB1;2, is specifically required both for the last division in the stomatal pathway and for cell overproliferation in flp mutants. We propose that FLP and MYB88 together integrate patterning with the control of cell cycle progression and terminal differentiation through multiple and direct cell cycle targets. FLP recognizes a distinct cis-regulatory element that overlaps with that of the cell cycle activator E2F-DP in the CDKB1;1 promoter, suggesting that these MYBs may also modulate E2F-DP pathways. PMID:20675570

  15. Three R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors Regulate Distinct Floral Pigmentation Patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp. PMID:25739699

  16. Molecular characterization of Quercus suber MYB1, a transcription factor up-regulated in cork tissues.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tânia; Menéndez, Esther; Capote, Tiago; Ribeiro, Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    The molecular processes associated with cork development in Quercus suber L. are poorly understood. A previous molecular approach identified a list of genes potentially important for cork formation and differentiation, providing a new basis for further molecular studies. This report is the first molecular characterization of one of these candidate genes, QsMYB1, coding for an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. The R2R3-MYB gene sub-family has been described as being involved in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways, both involved in cork biosynthesis. The results showed that the expression of QsMYB1 is putatively mediated by an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism that originates two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2), differing only in the 5'-untranslated region, due to retention of the first intron in one of the variants. Moreover, within the retained intron, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) was identified. The upstream regulatory region of QsMYB1 was extended by a genome walking approach, which allowed the identification of the putative gene promoter region. The relative expression pattern of QsMYB1 transcripts determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that both transcripts were up-regulated in cork tissues; the detected expression was several times higher in newly formed cork harvested from trees producing virgin, second or reproduction cork when compared with wood. Moreover, the expression analysis of QsMYB1 in several Q. suber organs showed very low expression in young branches and roots, whereas in leaves, immature acorns or male flowers, no expression was detected. These preliminary results suggest that QsMYB1 may be related to secondary growth and, in particular, with the cork biosynthesis process with a possible alternative splicing mechanism associated with its regulatory function.

  17. EjAP2-1, an AP2/ERF gene, is a novel regulator of fruit lignification induced by chilling injury, via interaction with EjMYB transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jiao-Ke; Li, Xian; Xu, Qian; Chen, Jian-Ye; Yin, Xue-Ren; Ferguson, Ian B; Chen, Kun-Song

    2015-12-01

    Lignin biosynthesis is regulated by many transcription factors, such as those of the MYB and NAC families. However, the roles of AP2/ERF transcription factors in lignin biosynthesis have been rarely investigated. Eighteen EjAP2/ERF genes were isolated from loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica), which undergoes postharvest lignification during low temperature storage. Among these, expression of EjAP2-1, a transcriptional repressor, was negatively correlated with fruit lignification. The dual-luciferase assay indicated that EjAP2-1 could trans-repress activities of promoters of lignin biosynthesis genes from both Arabidopsis and loquat. However, EjAP2-1 did not interact with the target promoters (Ej4CL1). Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays indicated protein-protein interactions between EjAP2-1 and lignin biosynthesis-related EjMYB1 and EjMYB2. Furthermore, repression effects on the Ej4CL1 promoter were observed with the combination of EjAP2-1 and EjMYB1 or EjMYB2, while EjAP2-1 with the EAR motif mutated (mEjAP2-1) lost such repression, although mEjAP2-1 still interacted with EjMYB protein. Based on these results, it is proposed that EjAP2-1 is an indirect transcriptional repressor on lignin biosynthesis, and the repression effects were manifested by EAR motifs and were conducted via protein-protein interaction with EjMYBs.

  18. The MYB46 Transcription Factor Is a Direct Target of SND1 and Regulates Secondary Wall Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana MYB46 transcription factor is a direct target of SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1), which is a key transcriptional activator regulating the developmental program of secondary wall biosynthesis. The MYB46 gene is expressed predominantly in fibers and vessels in stems, and its encoded protein is targeted to the nucleus and can activate transcription. MYB46 gene expression was shown to be regulated by SND1, and transactivation analysis demonstrated that SND1 as well as its close homologs were able to activate the MYB46 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that SND1 binds to the MYB46 promoter. Dominant repression of MYB46 caused a drastic reduction in the secondary wall thickening of fibers and vessels. Overexpression of MYB46 resulted in an activation of the biosynthetic pathways of cellulose, xylan, and lignin and concomitantly led to ectopic deposition of secondary walls in cells that are normally nonsclerenchymatous. In addition, the expression of two secondary wall–associated transcription factors, MYB85 and KNAT7, was highly upregulated by MYB46 overexpression. These results demonstrate that MYB46 is a direct target of SND1 and is another key player in the transcriptional network involved in the regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:17890373

  19. McMYB10 regulates coloration via activating McF3'H and later structural genes in ever-red leaf crabapple.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ji; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Jie; Song, Tingting; Wan, Huihua; Zhang, Meiling; Yao, Yuncong

    2015-09-01

    The ever-red leaf trait, which is important for breeding ornamental and higher anthocyanin plants, rarely appears in Malus families, but little is known about the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis involved in the red leaves. In our study, HPLC analysis showed that the anthocyanin concentration in ever-red leaves, especially cyanidin, was significantly higher than that in evergreen leaves. The transcript level of McMYB10 was significantly correlated with anthocyanin synthesis between the 'Royalty' and evergreen leaf 'Flame' cultivars during leaf development. We also found the ever-red leaf colour cultivar 'Royalty' contained the known R6 : McMYB10 sequence, but was not in the evergreen leaf colour cultivar 'Flame', which have been reported in apple fruit. The distinction in promoter region maybe is the main reason why higher expression level of McMYB10 in red foliage crabapple cultivar. Furthermore, McMYB10 promoted anthocyanin biosynthesis in crabapple leaves and callus at low temperatures and during long-day treatments. Both heterologous expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis pap1 mutant, and homologous expression in crabapple and apple suggested that McMYB10 could promote anthocyanins synthesis and enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in plants. Interestingly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, coupled with yeast one-hybrid analysis, revealed that McMYB10 positively regulates McF3'H via directly binding to AACCTAAC and TATCCAACC motifs in the promoter. To sum up, our results demonstrated that McMYB10 plays an important role in ever-red leaf coloration, by positively regulating McF3'H in crabapple. Therefore, our work provides new perspectives for ornamental fruit tree breeding.

  20. An R2R3 MYB transcription factor associated with regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Rosaceae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The control of plant anthocyanin accumulation is via transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes. A key activator appears to be an R2R3 MYB transcription factor. In apple fruit, skin anthocyanin levels are controlled by a gene called MYBA or MYB1, while the gene determining fruit flesh and foliage anthocyanin has been termed MYB10. In order to further understand tissue-specific anthocyanin regulation we have isolated orthologous MYB genes from all the commercially important rosaceous species. Results We use gene specific primers to show that the three MYB activators of apple anthocyanin (MYB10/MYB1/MYBA) are likely alleles of each other. MYB transcription factors, with high sequence identity to the apple gene were isolated from across the rosaceous family (e.g. apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, raspberries, rose, strawberry). Key identifying amino acid residues were found in both the DNA-binding and C-terminal domains of these MYBs. The expression of these MYB10 genes correlates with fruit and flower anthocyanin levels. Their function was tested in tobacco and strawberry. In tobacco, these MYBs were shown to induce the anthocyanin pathway when co-expressed with bHLHs, while over-expression of strawberry and apple genes in the crop of origin elevates anthocyanins. Conclusions This family-wide study of rosaceous R2R3 MYBs provides insight into the evolution of this plant trait. It has implications for the development of new coloured fruit and flowers, as well as aiding the understanding of temporal-spatial colour change. PMID:20302676

  1. Molecular cloning and expression profile of an abiotic stress and hormone responsive MYB transcription factor gene from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Sadia; Zhu, Jie; Cao, Hongzhe; Huang, Jingjia; Xiu, Hao; Luo, Tiao; Luo, Zhiyong

    2015-04-01

    The v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) family constitutes one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors and plays vital roles in developmental processes and defense responses in plants. A ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) MYB gene was cloned and designated as PgMYB1. The cDNA of PgMYB1 is 762 base pairs long and encodes the R2R3-type protein consisting 238 amino acids. Subcellular localization showed that PgMYB1-mGFP5 fusion protein was specifically localized in the nucleus. To understand the functional roles of PgMYB1, we investigated the expression patterns of PgMYB1 in different tissues and under various conditions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed that PgMYB1 was expressed at higher level in roots, leaves, and lateral roots than in stems and seeds. The expression of PgMYB1 was up-regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid, NaCl, and cold (chilling), and down-regulated by methyl jasmonate. These results suggest that PgMYB1 might be involved in responding to environmental stresses and hormones.

  2. Dual mechanism of Rag gene repression by c-Myb during pre-B cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Timblin, Greg A; Xie, Liangqi; Tjian, Robert; Schlissel, Mark S

    2017-04-03

    Developing B lymphocytes undergo clonal expansion following successful immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. During this proliferative burst, expression of the Rag genes is transiently repressed to prevent the generation of dsDNA breaks in cycling large pre-B cells. The Rag genes are then re-expressed in small resting pre-B cells for immunoglobulin light chain gene rearrangement. We previously identified c-Myb as a repressor of Rag transcription during clonal expansion using Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed B cells. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which c-Myb achieved precise spatiotemporal repression of Rag expression remained obscure. Here we identify two mechanisms by which c-Myb represses Rag transcription. First, c-Myb negatively regulates the expression of the Rag activator Foxo1, an activity dependent on M303 in c-Myb's transactivation domain and likely the recruitment of corepressors to the Foxo1 locus by c-Myb. Second, c-Myb represses Rag transcription directly by occupying the Erag enhancer and antagonizing Foxo1 binding to a consensus forkhead site in this cis regulatory element that we show is crucial for Rag expression in Abelson pre-B cell lines. This work provides important mechanistic insight into how spatiotemporal expression of the Rag genes is tightly controlled during B lymphocyte development to prevent mistimed dsDNA breaks and their deleterious consequences.

  3. Phosphate Starvation Responses and Gibberellic Acid Biosynthesis Are Regulated by the MYB62 Transcription Factor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Devaiah, Ballachanda N.; Madhuvanthi, Ramaiah; Karthikeyan, Athikkattuvalasu S.; Raghothama, Kashchandra G.

    2009-01-01

    The limited availability of phosphate (Pi) in most soils results in the manifestation of Pi starvation responses in plants. To dissect the transcriptional regulation of Pi stress-response mechanisms, we have characterized the biological role of MYB62, an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor that is induced in response to Pi deficiency. The induction of MYB62 is a specific response in the leaves during Pi deprivation. The MYB62 protein localizes to the nucleus. The overexpression of MYB62 resulted in altered root architecture, Pi uptake, and acid phosphatase activity, leading to decreased total Pi content in the shoots. The expression of several Pi starvation-induced (PSI) genes was also suppressed in the MYB62 overexpressing plants. Overexpression of MYB62 resulted in a characteristic gibberellic acid (GA)-deficient phenotype that could be partially reversed by exogenous application of GA. In addition, the expression of SOC1 and SUPERMAN, molecular regulators of flowering, was suppressed in the MYB62 overexpressing plants. Interestingly, the expression of these genes was also reduced during Pi deprivation in wild-type plants, suggesting a role for GA biosynthetic and floral regulatory genes in Pi starvation responses. Thus, this study highlights the role of MYB62 in the regulation of phosphate starvation responses via changes in GA metabolism and signaling. Such cross-talk between Pi homeostasis and GA might have broader implications on flowering, root development and adaptive mechanisms during nutrient stress. PMID:19529828

  4. B-myb is an essential regulator of hematopoietic stem cell and myeloid progenitor cell development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stacey J; Ma'ayan, Avi; Lieu, Yen K; John, Premila; Reddy, M V Ramana; Chen, Edward Y; Duan, Qiaonan; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2014-02-25

    The B-myb (MYBL2) gene is a member of the MYB family of transcription factors and is involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and maintenance of genomic integrity. However, its function during adult development and hematopoiesis is unknown. We show here that conditional inactivation of B-myb in vivo results in depletion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, leading to profound reductions in mature lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid cells. This defect is autonomous to the bone marrow and is first evident in stem cells, which accumulate in the S and G2/M phases. B-myb inactivation also causes defects in the myeloid progenitor compartment, consisting of depletion of common myeloid progenitors but relative sparing of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Microarray studies indicate that B-myb-null LSK(+) cells differentially express genes that direct myeloid lineage development and commitment, suggesting that B-myb is a key player in controlling cell fate. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that B-myb is essential for HSC and progenitor maintenance and survival during hematopoiesis.

  5. The MIXTA-like transcription factor MYB16 is a major regulator of cuticle formation in vegetative organs.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshimi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-11-01

    Cuticle secreted on the surface of the epidermis of aerial organs protects plants from the external environment. We recently found that Arabidopsis MIXTA-like R2R3-MYB family members MYB16 and MYB106 regulate cuticle formation in reproductive organs and trichomes. However, the artificial miRNA (amiRNA)-mediated knockdown plants showed no clear phenotypic abnormality in vegetative tissues. In this study, we used RNA interference (RNAi) targeting MYB16 to produce plants with reduced expression of both MYB16 and MYB106. The rosette leaves of RNAi plants showed more severe permeable cuticle phenotypes than the myb106 mutants expressing the MYB16 amiRNA in the previous study. The RNAi plants also showed reduced expression of cuticle biosynthesis genes LACERATA and ECERIFERUM1. By contrast, expression of a gain-of-function MYB16 construct induced over-accumulation of waxy substances on leaves. These results suggest that MYB16 functions as a major regulator of cuticle formation in vegetative organs, in addition to its effect in reproductive organs and trichomes.

  6. Genome-wide identification and characterisation of R2R3-MYB genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Stracke, Ralf; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schneider, Jessica; Pucker, Boas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-09-25

    The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, metabolite accumulation and defense responses. Although genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been carried out in some species, the R2R3-MYB genes in Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) as the first sequenced member of the order Caryophyllales, have not been analysed heretofore. We present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) which is the first species of the order Caryophyllales with a sequenced genome. A total of 70 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Also, organ specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-seq data. The R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised which led to the identification of a sugar beet-specific clade with an atypical amino acid composition in the R3 domain, putatively encoding betalain regulators. The functional classification was verified by experimental confirmation of the prediction that the R2R3-MYB gene Bv_iogq encodes a flavonol regulator. This study provides the first step towards cloning and functional dissection of the role of MYB transcription factor genes in the nutritionally and evolutionarily interesting species B. vulgaris. In addition, it describes the flavonol regulator BvMYB12, being the first sugar beet R2R3-MYB with an experimentally proven function.

  7. Regulation of root hair cell differentiation by R3 MYB transcription factors in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Wada, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) encodes a small protein with an R3 MYB motif and regulates root hair and trichome cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Six additional CPC-like MYB proteins including TRIPTYCHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC2 (ETC2), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC3/CPC-LIKE MYB3 (ETC3/CPL3), TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), and TRICHOMELESS2/CPC-LIKE MYB4 (TCL2/CPL4) also have the ability to regulate root hair and/or trichome cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe our latest findings on how CPC-like MYB transcription factors regulate root hair cell differentiation. Recently, we identified the tomato SlTRY gene as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis TRY gene. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring SlTRY produced more root hairs, a phenotype similar to that of 35S::CPC transgenic plants. CPC is also known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Anthocyanin accumulation was repressed in the SlTRY transgenic plants, suggesting that SlTRY can also influence anthocyanin biosynthesis. We concluded that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for root hair cell differentiation, and that a CPC-like R3 MYB may be a key common regulator of plant root-hair development.

  8. MYB36 regulates the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the Arabidopsis root

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Louisa M.; Sparks, Erin E.; Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A.; Petricka, Jalean J.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew and produce daughter cells that proliferate and mature. These maturing cells transition from a proliferative state to a terminal state through the process of differentiation. In the Arabidopsis thaliana root the transcription factors SCARECROW and SHORTROOT regulate specification of the bipotent stem cell that gives rise to cortical and endodermal progenitors. Subsequent progenitor proliferation and differentiation generate mature endodermis, marked by the Casparian strip, a cell-wall modification that prevents ion diffusion into and out of the vasculature. We identified a transcription factor, MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 36 (MYB36), that regulates the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the endodermis. We show that SCARECROW directly activates MYB36 expression, and that MYB36 likely acts in a feed-forward loop to regulate essential Casparian strip formation genes. We show that myb36 mutants have delayed and defective barrier formation as well as extra divisions in the meristem. Our results demonstrate that MYB36 is a critical positive regulator of differentiation and negative regulator of cell proliferation. PMID:26371322

  9. MYB30 transcription factor regulates oxidative and heat stress responses through ANNEXIN-mediated cytosolic calcium signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chancan; Zheng, Yuan; Guo, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Cytosolic calcium signaling is critical for regulating downstream responses in plants encountering unfavorable environmental conditions. In a genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in stress-induced cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ) elevations, we identified the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB30 as a regulator of [Ca(2+) ]cyt in response to H2 O2 and heat stresses. Plants lacking MYB30 protein exhibited greater elevation of [Ca(2+) ]cyt in response to oxidative and heat stimuli. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results indicated that the expression of a number of ANNEXIN (ANN) genes, which encode Ca(2+) -regulated membrane-binding proteins modulating cytosolic calcium signatures, were upregulated in myb30 mutants. Further analysis showed that MYB30 bound to the promoters of ANN1 and ANN4 and repressed their expression. myb30 mutants were sensitive to methyl viologen (MV) and heat stresses. The H2 O2 - and heat-induced abnormal [Ca(2+) ]cyt in myb30 was dependent on the function of ANN proteins. Moreover, the MV and heat sensitivity of myb30 was suppressed in mutants lacking ANN function or by application of LaCl3 , a calcium channel blocker. These results indicate that MYB30 regulates oxidative and heat stress responses through calcium signaling, which is at least partially mediated by ANN1 and ANN4. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Expression and functional analysis of a novel MYB gene, MdMYB110a_JP, responsible for red flesh, not skin color in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Hitomi; Otagaki, Shungo; Wada, Masato; Kondo, Satoru; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2013-07-01

    We have succeeded in isolating an MdMYB110a_JP gene responsible for a red-fleshed trait from a fruit of apple cultivar 'JPP35' ('Jonathan' × 'Pink Pearl'). The isolated MdMYB110a_JP gene was located on chromosome (ch.) 17, which was different from the location of known MdMYB1/10 gene of ch.9, and 'JPP35' and 'Pink Pearl' did not contain the known R 6 :MdMYB10 allele responsible for the red-skin and red-fleshed trait. The MdMYB110a_JP was expressed strongly and weakly in the cortex and core of 'JPP35' fruit, respectively, at the time of coloring start in flesh, and also weakly in flower buds. Following the MdMYB110a_JP expression, the expression of the genes, MdCHS and MdLDOX, that encode the enzymes of the flavonoid pathway, was induced in flesh of 'JPP35' in accordance with anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, the MdMYB110a_JP gene was not expressed in any tissues in red-skin and white-fleshed 'Fuji', and in red-skin and red-fleshed 'Maypole'. Instead, MdMYB1-1 allele responsible for red-skin trait was expressed in red-skin of 'Fuji' and 'JPP35', and R 6 :MdMYB10 allele responsible for red-skin and red-flesh trait was expressed in red-core and red-cortex in 'Maypole' as expected. Moreover, 35S:MdMYB110a_JP transgenic apple 'JM2' showed a red-foliage phenotype depending on the MdMYB110a_JP expression level. From the results, it was strongly suggested that the red-fleshed phenotype of 'JPP35' fruit was caused by up-regulation of the genes of anthocyanin pathway induced by the MdMYB110a_JP gene.

  11. Regulation of ecmF gene expression and genetic hierarchy among STATa, CudA, and MybC on several prestalk A-specific gene expressions in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Saga, Yukika; Inamura, Tomoka; Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2016-05-01

    STATa, a Dictyostelium homologue of metazoan signal transducer and activator of transcription, is important for the organizer function in the tip region of the migrating Dictyostelium slug. We previously showed that ecmF gene expression depends on STATa in prestalk A (pstA) cells, where STATa is activated. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the ecmF/lacZ fusion gene in wild-type and STATa null strains identified an imperfect inverted repeat sequence, ACAAATANTATTTGT, as a STATa-responsive element. An upstream sequence element was required for efficient expression in the rear region of pstA zone; an element downstream of the inverted repeat was necessary for sufficient prestalk expression during culmination. Band shift analyses using purified STATa protein detected no sequence-specific binding to those ecmF elements. The only verified upregulated target gene of STATa is cudA gene; CudA directly activates expL7 gene expression in prestalk cells. However, ecmF gene expression was almost unaffected in a cudA null mutant. Several previously reported putative STATa target genes were also expressed in cudA null mutant but were downregulated in STATa null mutant. Moreover, mybC, which encodes another transcription factor, belonged to this category, and ecmF expression was downregulated in a mybC null mutant. These findings demonstrate the existence of a genetic hierarchy for pstA-specific genes, which can be classified into two distinct STATa downstream pathways, CudA dependent and independent. The ecmF expression is indirectly upregulated by STATa in a CudA-independent activation manner but dependent on MybC, whose expression is positively regulated by STATa.

  12. Expression of the sweetpotato R2R3-type IbMYB1a gene induces anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hyosub; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kim, Wook-Jin; Chung, Dong Min; Jeon, Hyo Kon; Ahn, Young Ock; Kim, Sun Ha; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Kim, Cha Young

    2013-06-01

    R2R3-type MYB transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in transcriptional regulation of anthocyanins. The R2R3-type IbMYB1 is known to be a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the storage roots of sweetpotato. We previously showed that transient expression of IbMYB1a led to anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves. In this article, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the IbMYB1a gene under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, and the sweetpotato SPO and SWPA2 promoters. Overexpression of IbMYBa in transgenic Arabidopsis produced strong anthocyanin pigmentation in seedlings and generated a deep purple color in leaves, stems and seeds. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that IbMYB1a expression induced upregulation of several structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, including 4CL, CHI, F3'H, DFR, AGT, AAT and GST. Furthermore, overexpression of IbMYB1a led to enhanced expression of the AtTT8 (bHLH) and PAP1/AtMYB75 genes. high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that IbMYB1a expression led to the production of cyanidin as a major core molecule of anthocyanidins in Arabidopsis, as occurs in the purple leaves of sweetpotato (cv. Sinzami). This result shows that the IbMYB1a TF is sufficient to induce anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings, leaves, stems and seeds of Arabidopsis plants.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of MdMYB1 is associated with paper bagging-induced red pigmentation of apples.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Tuan, Pham Anh; Saito, Takanori; Honda, Chikako; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-09-01

    Paper-bagging treatment can transform non-transcribed MdMYB1 - 2 and MdMYB1 - 3 alleles into transcribed alleles through epigenetic regulations, resulting in the red pigmentation of a normally non-red apple cultivar 'Mutsu.' Anthocyanin biosynthesis in apples is regulated by MdMYB1/A/10, an R2R3-Type MYB gene. 'Mutsu,' a triploid apple cultivar harboring non-transcribed MdMYB1-2 and MdMYB1-3 alleles, retains green skin color under field conditions. However, it can show red/pink pigmentation under natural or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light exposure after paper-bagging and bag removal treatment. In the present study, we found that in 'Mutsu,' paper bagging-induced red pigmentation was due to the activation of non-transcribed MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles, which triggered the expression of downstream anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in a UV-B-dependent manner. By monitoring the epigenetic changes during UV-B-induced pigmentation, no significant differences in DNA methylation and histone modifications in the 5' upstream region of MdMYB1-2/-3 were recorded between the UV-B-treated fruit skin (red) and the fruit skin treated only by white light (green). In contrast, bag treatment lowered the DNA methylation in this region of MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles. Similarly, higher levels of histone H3 acetylation and trimethylation of H3 tail at lysine 4, and lower level of trimethylation of H3 tail at lysine 27 were observed in the 5' upstream region of MdMYB1-2/-3 in the skin of the fruit immediately after bag removal. These results suggest that bagging treatment can induce epigenetic changes, facilitating the binding of trans factor(s) to MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles, resulting in the activation of these MYBs after bag removal.

  14. The MYB107 Transcription Factor Positively Regulates Suberin Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huijun; Cai, Yuanheng; Kai, Guoyin

    2017-01-01

    Suberin, a lipophilic polymer deposited in the outer integument of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat, represents an essential sealing component controlling water and solute movement and protecting seed from pathogenic infection. Although many genes responsible for suberin synthesis are identified, the regulatory components controlling its biosynthesis have not been definitively determined. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis MYB107 transcription factor acts as a positive regulator controlling suberin biosynthetic gene expression in the seed coat. MYB107 coexpresses with suberin biosynthetic genes in a temporal manner during seed development. Disrupting MYB107 particularly suppresses the expression of genes involved in suberin but not cutin biosynthesis, lowers seed coat suberin accumulation, alters suberin lamellar structure, and consequently renders higher seed coat permeability and susceptibility to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, MYB107 directly binds to the promoters of suberin biosynthetic genes, verifying its primary role in regulating their expression. Identifying MYB107 as a positive regulator for seed coat suberin synthesis offers a basis for discovering the potential transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature. PMID:27965303

  15. ZmMYB31 directly represses maize lignin genes and redirects the phenylpropanoid metabolic flux.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Silvia; Shi, Xinhui; Chai, Chenglin; Encina, Antonio; Irar, Sami; Capellades, Montserrat; Fuguet, Elisabet; Torres, Josep-Lluís; Rovira, Pere; Puigdomènech, Pere; Rigau, Joan; Grotewold, Erich; Gray, John; Caparrós-Ruiz, David

    2010-11-01

    Few regulators of phenylpropanoids have been identified in monocots having potential as biofuel crops. Here we demonstrate the role of the maize (Zea mays) R2R3-MYB factor ZmMYB31 in the control of the phenylpropanoid pathway. We determined its in vitro consensus DNA-binding sequence as ACC(T)/(A) ACC, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) established that it interacts with two lignin gene promoters in vivo. To explore the potential of ZmMYB31 as a regulator of phenylpropanoids in other plants, its role in the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway was further investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. ZmMYB31 downregulates several genes involved in the synthesis of monolignols and transgenic plants are dwarf and show a significantly reduced lignin content with unaltered polymer composition. We demonstrate that these changes increase cell wall degradability of the transgenic plants. In addition, ZmMYB31 represses the synthesis of sinapoylmalate, resulting in plants that are more sensitive to UV irradiation, and induces several stress-related proteins. Our results suggest that, as an indirect effect of repression of lignin biosynthesis, transgenic plants redirect carbon flux towards the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Thus, ZmMYB31 can be considered a good candidate for the manipulation of lignin biosynthesis in biotechnological applications. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A Transcriptional Program for Arbuscule Degeneration during AM Symbiosis Is Regulated by MYB1.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Gomez, S Karen; Park, Hee-Jin; MacLean, Allyson M; Müller, Lena M; Bhattarai, Kishor K; Lévesque-Tremblay, Veronique; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Harrison, Maria J

    2017-04-24

    During the endosymbiosis formed between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, the root cortical cells are colonized by branched hyphae called arbuscules, which function in nutrient exchange with the plant [1]. Despite their positive function, arbuscules are ephemeral structures, and their development is followed by a degeneration phase, in which the arbuscule and surrounding periarbuscular membrane and matrix gradually disappear from the root cell [2, 3]. Currently, the root cell's role in this process and the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Here, by using a Medicago truncatula pt4 mutant in which arbuscules degenerate prematurely [4], we identified arbuscule degeneration-associated genes, of which 38% are predicted to encode secreted hydrolases, suggesting a role in disassembly of the arbuscule and interface. Through RNAi and analysis of an insertion mutant, we identified a symbiosis-specific MYB-like transcription factor (MYB1) that suppresses arbuscule degeneration in mtpt4. In myb1, expression of several degeneration-associated genes is reduced. Conversely, in roots constitutively overexpressing MYB1, expression of degeneration-associated genes is increased and subsequent development of symbiosis is impaired. MYB1-regulated gene expression is enhanced by DELLA proteins and is dependent on NSP1 [5], but not NSP2 [6]. Furthermore, MYB1 interacts with DELLA and NSP1. Our data identify a transcriptional program for arbuscule degeneration and reveal that its regulators include MYB1 in association with two transcriptional regulators, NSP1 and DELLA, both of which function in preceding phases of the symbiosis. We propose that the combinatorial use of transcription factors enables the sequential expression of transcriptional programs for arbuscule development and degeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. B-myb is an essential regulator of hematopoietic stem cell and myeloid progenitor cell development

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stacey J.; Ma’ayan, Avi; Lieu, Yen K.; John, Premila; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Chen, Edward Y.; Duan, Qiaonan; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Reddy, E. Premkumar

    2014-01-01

    The B-myb (MYBL2) gene is a member of the MYB family of transcription factors and is involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and maintenance of genomic integrity. However, its function during adult development and hematopoiesis is unknown. We show here that conditional inactivation of B-myb in vivo results in depletion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, leading to profound reductions in mature lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid cells. This defect is autonomous to the bone marrow and is first evident in stem cells, which accumulate in the S and G2/M phases. B-myb inactivation also causes defects in the myeloid progenitor compartment, consisting of depletion of common myeloid progenitors but relative sparing of granulocyte–macrophage progenitors. Microarray studies indicate that B-myb–null LSK+ cells differentially express genes that direct myeloid lineage development and commitment, suggesting that B-myb is a key player in controlling cell fate. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that B-myb is essential for HSC and progenitor maintenance and survival during hematopoiesis. PMID:24516162

  18. MYB-related transcription factors function as regulators of the circadian clock and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nguyen Hoai; Lee, Hojoung

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Arabidopsis, the MYB (myeloblastosis) gene family contains more than 190 members, which play a number of roles in plant growth and development. Based on their protein structure, this gene family was divided into several subclasses, including the MYB-related class. Currently, an MYB-related gene designated as MYB-like Domain (AtMYBD) has been shown to function as a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. This gene was found to belong to the CCA1-like (circadian clock-associated 1) group, which represents several genes that are master regulators of the circadian clocks of plants. Here, we speculate that AtMYBD is able to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana in a circadian clock-related manner. PMID:26905954

  19. Transcriptional repression by MYB3R proteins regulates plant organ growth.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Nakamichi, Norihito; Suzuki, Takamasa; Chen, Poyu; Ohtani, Misato; Ishida, Takashi; Hosoya, Hanako; Müller, Sabine; Leviczky, Tünde; Pettkó-Szandtner, Aladár; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Iwamoto, Akitoshi; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Demura, Taku; Doonan, John H; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Sugimoto, Keiko; Umeda, Masaaki; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-08-04

    In multicellular organisms, temporal and spatial regulation of cell proliferation is central for generating organs with defined sizes and morphologies. For establishing and maintaining the post-mitotic quiescent state during cell differentiation, it is important to repress genes with mitotic functions. We found that three of the Arabidopsis MYB3R transcription factors synergistically maintain G2/M-specific genes repressed in post-mitotic cells and restrict the time window of mitotic gene expression in proliferating cells. The combined mutants of the three repressor-type MYB3R genes displayed long roots, enlarged leaves, embryos, and seeds. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that MYB3R3 binds to the promoters of G2/M-specific genes and to E2F target genes. MYB3R3 associates with the repressor-type E2F, E2FC, and the RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED proteins. In contrast, the activator MYB3R4 was in complex with E2FB in proliferating cells. With mass spectrometry and pairwise interaction assays, we identified some of the other conserved components of the multiprotein complexes, known as DREAM/dREAM in human and flies. In plants, these repressor complexes are important for periodic expression during cell cycle and to establish a post-mitotic quiescent state determining organ size. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Transcriptional repression by MYB3R proteins regulates plant organ growth

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Nakamichi, Norihito; Suzuki, Takamasa; Chen, Poyu; Ohtani, Misato; Ishida, Takashi; Hosoya, Hanako; Müller, Sabine; Leviczky, Tünde; Pettkó-Szandtner, Aladár; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Iwamoto, Akitoshi; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Demura, Taku; Doonan, John H; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Sugimoto, Keiko; Umeda, Masaaki; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, temporal and spatial regulation of cell proliferation is central for generating organs with defined sizes and morphologies. For establishing and maintaining the post-mitotic quiescent state during cell differentiation, it is important to repress genes with mitotic functions. We found that three of the Arabidopsis MYB3R transcription factors synergistically maintain G2/M-specific genes repressed in post-mitotic cells and restrict the time window of mitotic gene expression in proliferating cells. The combined mutants of the three repressor-type MYB3R genes displayed long roots, enlarged leaves, embryos, and seeds. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that MYB3R3 binds to the promoters of G2/M-specific genes and to E2F target genes. MYB3R3 associates with the repressor-type E2F, E2FC, and the RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED proteins. In contrast, the activator MYB3R4 was in complex with E2FB in proliferating cells. With mass spectrometry and pairwise interaction assays, we identified some of the other conserved components of the multiprotein complexes, known as DREAM/dREAM in human and flies. In plants, these repressor complexes are important for periodic expression during cell cycle and to establish a post-mitotic quiescent state determining organ size. PMID:26069325

  1. The MYB80 Transcription Factor Is Required for Pollen Development and the Regulation of Tapetal Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis thaliana[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Huy Anh; Iacuone, Sylvana; Li, Song F.; Parish, Roger W.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana MYB80 (formerly MYB103) is expressed in the tapetum and microspores between anther developmental stages 6 and 10. MYB80 encodes a MYB transcription factor that is essential for tapetal and pollen development. Using microarray analysis of anther mRNA, we identified 404 genes differentially expressed in the myb80 mutant. Employing the glucocorticoid receptor system, the expression of 79 genes was changed when MYB80 function was restored in the myb80 mutant following induction by dexamethasone. Thirty-two genes were analyzed using chromatin immunoprecipitation, and three were identified as direct targets of MYB80. The genes encode a glyoxal oxidase (GLOX1), a pectin methylesterase (VANGUARD1), and an A1 aspartic protease (UNDEAD). All three genes are expressed in the tapetum and microspores. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that MYB80 binds to all three target promoters, with the preferential binding site containing the CCAACC motif. TUNEL assays showed that when UNDEAD expression was silenced using small interfering RNA, premature tapetal and pollen programmed cell death occurred, resembling the myb80 mutant phenotype. UNDEAD possesses a mitochondrial targeting signal and may hydrolyze an apoptosis-inducing protein(s) in mitochondria. The timing of tapetal programmed cell death is critical for pollen development, and the MYB80/UNDEAD system may regulate that timing. PMID:21673079

  2. The MYB80 transcription factor is required for pollen development and the regulation of tapetal programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Phan, Huy Anh; Iacuone, Sylvana; Li, Song F; Parish, Roger W

    2011-06-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana MYB80 (formerly MYB103) is expressed in the tapetum and microspores between anther developmental stages 6 and 10. MYB80 encodes a MYB transcription factor that is essential for tapetal and pollen development. Using microarray analysis of anther mRNA, we identified 404 genes differentially expressed in the myb80 mutant. Employing the glucocorticoid receptor system, the expression of 79 genes was changed when MYB80 function was restored in the myb80 mutant following induction by dexamethasone. Thirty-two genes were analyzed using chromatin immunoprecipitation, and three were identified as direct targets of MYB80. The genes encode a glyoxal oxidase (GLOX1), a pectin methylesterase (VANGUARD1), and an A1 aspartic protease (UNDEAD). All three genes are expressed in the tapetum and microspores. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that MYB80 binds to all three target promoters, with the preferential binding site containing the CCAACC motif. TUNEL assays showed that when UNDEAD expression was silenced using small interfering RNA, premature tapetal and pollen programmed cell death occurred, resembling the myb80 mutant phenotype. UNDEAD possesses a mitochondrial targeting signal and may hydrolyze an apoptosis-inducing protein(s) in mitochondria. The timing of tapetal programmed cell death is critical for pollen development, and the MYB80/UNDEAD system may regulate that timing.

  3. Elevated Levels of MYB30 in the Phloem Accelerate Flowering in Arabidopsis through the Regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Jessika; Gissot, Lionel; Coupland, George; Yu, Diqiu; Turck, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering is mediated by elevated expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which can be observed in the absence and presence of CONSTANS (CO), the main activator of FT. CO-independent activation by high MYB30 expression results in FT levels that remain below those observed in the wild-type plants, which show an additive CO-dependent activation. In contrast, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) is repressed in plants expressing high levels of MYB30 in the phloem. In transient assays, MYB30 and CO additively increase the activity of a reporter construct driven by a 1 kb FT promoter. Acceleration of flowering by MYB30 does not require the presence of salicylic acid and is independent of FLC. Taken together, increased levels of MYB30, which was reported to be induced in response to the perception of pathogens, can accelerate flowering and MYB30 may thus be a candidate to mediate cross-talk between gene networks involved in biotic stress perception and flowering time. PMID:24587042

  4. PtoMYB156 is involved in negative regulation of phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall biosynthesis during wood formation in poplar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Ran, Lingyu; Li, Chaofeng; Fan, Di; Luo, Keming

    2017-01-01

    Some R2R3 MYB transcription factors have been shown to be major regulators of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and impact secondary wall formation in plants. In this study, we describe the functional characterization of PtoMYB156, encoding a R2R3-MYB transcription factor, from Populus tomentosa. Expression pattern analysis showed that PtoMYB156 is widely expressed in all tissues examined, but predominantly in leaves and developing wood cells. PtoMYB156 localized to the nucleus and acted as a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of PtoMYB156 in poplar repressed phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, leading to a reduction in the amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Transgenic plants overexpressing PtoMYB156 also displayed a dramatic decrease in secondary wall thicknesses of xylem fibers and the content of cellulose, lignin and xylose compared with wild-type plants. Transcript accumulation of secondary wall biosynthetic genes was down-regulated by PtoMYB156 overexpression. Transcriptional activation assays revealed that PtoMYB156 was able to repress the promoter activities of poplar CESA17, C4H2 and GT43B. By contrast, knockout of PtoMYB156 by CRISPR/Cas9 in poplar resulted in ectopic deposition of lignin, xylan and cellulose during secondary cell wall formation. Taken together, these results show that PtoMYB156 may repress phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and negatively regulate secondary cell wall formation in poplar. PMID:28117379

  5. DkMyb2 wound-induced transcription factor of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), contributes to proanthocyanidin regulation.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takashi; Ikegami, Ayako; Yonemori, Keizo

    2010-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of a plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) accumulates abundant PAs in each plant organ, and some potential Myb-like transcription factors (Myb-TFs) involved in the production of PAs have been isolated. In this study, we aimed to molecularly characterize one of them, DkMyb2, which was placed in a subclade including a PA regulator of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), TRANSPARENT TESTA2 (TT2), and was co-induced with PA pathway genes after wound stress. Ectopic DkMyb2 overexpression caused significant up-regulation of PA pathway genes in transgenic persimmon calluses and significant accumulation of PA, and increased mean degree of polymerization of PAs in transgenic kiwifruit calluses. Analysis of the DNA-binding ability of DkMyb2 by electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that DkMyb2 directly binds to the AC-rich cis-motifs known as AC elements in the promoters of the two PA pathway genes in persimmon, DkANR, and DkLAR. Furthermore, a transient reporter assay using a dual-luciferase system demonstrated direct transcriptional activation of DkANR and DkLAR by DkMyb2. We also discuss subfunctionalization of two PA regulators in persimmon, DkMyb2 and DkMyb4, as well as PA regulators in other plant species from the viewpoint of their ability to bind to cis-motifs and their functions in transcriptional activation. Our results provide insight into the multiple regulatory mechanisms that control PA metabolism by Myb-TFs in persimmon.

  6. Functional Characterization of NAC and MYB Transcription Factors Involved in Regulation of Biomass Production in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Yuan, Youxi; Spiekerman, John J.; Guley, Joshua T.; Egbosiuba, Janefrances C.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass is a promising biofuel feedstock due to its high biomass production and low agronomic input requirements. Because the bulk of switchgrass biomass used for biofuel production is lignocellulosic secondary walls, studies on secondary wall biosynthesis and its transcriptional regulation are imperative for designing strategies for genetic improvement of biomass production in switchgrass. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a group of switchgrass transcription factors, including several NACs (PvSWNs) and a MYB (PvMYB46A), for their involvement in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. PvSWNs and PvMYB46A were found to be highly expressed in stems and their expression was closely associated with sclerenchyma cells. Overexpression of PvSWNs and PvMYB46A in Arabidopsis was shown to result in activation of the biosynthetic genes for cellulose, xylan and lignin and ectopic deposition of secondary walls in normally parenchymatous cells. Transactivation and complementation studies demonstrated that PvSWNs were able to activate the SNBE-driven GUS reporter gene and effectively rescue the secondary wall defects in the Arabidopsis snd1 nst1 double mutant, indicating that they are functional orthologs of Arabidopsis SWNs. Furthermore, we showed that PvMYB46A could activate the SMRE-driven GUS reporter gene and complement the Arabidopsis myb46 myb83 double mutant, suggesting that it is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis MYB46/MYB83. Together, these results indicate that PvSWNs and PvMYB46A are transcriptional switches involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, which provides molecular tools for genetic manipulation of biomass production in switchgrass. PMID:26248336

  7. Functional Characterization of NAC and MYB Transcription Factors Involved in Regulation of Biomass Production in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Yuan, Youxi; Spiekerman, John J; Guley, Joshua T; Egbosiuba, Janefrances C; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass is a promising biofuel feedstock due to its high biomass production and low agronomic input requirements. Because the bulk of switchgrass biomass used for biofuel production is lignocellulosic secondary walls, studies on secondary wall biosynthesis and its transcriptional regulation are imperative for designing strategies for genetic improvement of biomass production in switchgrass. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a group of switchgrass transcription factors, including several NACs (PvSWNs) and a MYB (PvMYB46A), for their involvement in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. PvSWNs and PvMYB46A were found to be highly expressed in stems and their expression was closely associated with sclerenchyma cells. Overexpression of PvSWNs and PvMYB46A in Arabidopsis was shown to result in activation of the biosynthetic genes for cellulose, xylan and lignin and ectopic deposition of secondary walls in normally parenchymatous cells. Transactivation and complementation studies demonstrated that PvSWNs were able to activate the SNBE-driven GUS reporter gene and effectively rescue the secondary wall defects in the Arabidopsis snd1 nst1 double mutant, indicating that they are functional orthologs of Arabidopsis SWNs. Furthermore, we showed that PvMYB46A could activate the SMRE-driven GUS reporter gene and complement the Arabidopsis myb46 myb83 double mutant, suggesting that it is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis MYB46/MYB83. Together, these results indicate that PvSWNs and PvMYB46A are transcriptional switches involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, which provides molecular tools for genetic manipulation of biomass production in switchgrass.

  8. Combinatorial analysis of lupulin gland transcription factors from R2R3Myb, bHLH and WDR families indicates a complex regulation of chs_H1 genes essential for prenylflavonoid biosynthesis in hop (Humulus Lupulus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lupulin glands of hop produce a specific metabolome including hop bitter acids valuable for the brewing process and prenylflavonoids with promising health-beneficial activities. The detailed analysis of the transcription factor (TF)-mediated regulation of the oligofamily of one of the key enzymes, i.e., chalcone synthase CHS_H1 that efficiently catalyzes the production of naringenin chalcone, a direct precursor of prenylflavonoids in hop, constitutes an important part of the dissection of the biosynthetic pathways leading to the accumulation of these compounds. Results Homologues of flavonoid-regulating TFs HlMyb2 (M2), HlbHLH2 (B2) and HlWDR1 (W1) from hop were cloned using a lupulin gland-specific cDNA library from the hop variety Osvald's 72. Using a "combinatorial" transient GUS expression system it was shown that these unique lupulin-gland-associated TFs significantly activated the promoter (P) of chs_H1 in ternary combinations of B2, W1 and either M2 or the previously characterized HlMyb3 (M3). The promoter activation was strongly dependent on the Myb-P binding box TCCTACC having a core sequence CCWACC positioned on its 5' end region and it seems that the complexity of the promoter plays an important role. M2B2W1-mediated activation significantly exceeded the strength of expression of native chs_H1 gene driven by the 35S promoter of CaMV, while M3B2W1 resulted in 30% of the 35S:chs_H1 expression level, as quantified by real-time PCR. Another newly cloned hop TF, HlMyb7, containing a transcriptional repressor-like motif pdLNLD/ELxiG/S (PDLNLELRIS), was identified as an efficient inhibitor of chs_H1-activating TFs. Comparative analyses of hop and A. thaliana TFs revealed a complex activation of Pchs_H1 and Pchs4 in combinatorial or independent manners. Conclusions This study on the sequences and functions of various lupulin gland-specific transcription factors provides insight into the complex character of the regulation of the chs_H1 gene that

  9. Conifer R2R3-MYB transcription factors: sequence analyses and gene expression in wood-forming tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca)

    PubMed Central

    Bedon, Frank; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Mackay, John

    2007-01-01

    Background Several members of the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors act as regulators of lignin and phenylpropanoid metabolism during wood formation in angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The angiosperm Arabidopsis has over one hundred R2R3-MYBs genes; however, only a few members of this family have been discovered in gymnosperms. Results We isolated and characterised full-length cDNAs encoding R2R3-MYB genes from the gymnosperms white spruce, Picea glauca (13 sequences), and loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (five sequences). Sequence similarities and phylogenetic analyses placed the spruce and pine sequences in diverse subgroups of the large R2R3-MYB family, although several of the sequences clustered closely together. We searched the highly variable C-terminal region of diverse plant MYBs for conserved amino acid sequences and identified 20 motifs in the spruce MYBs, nine of which have not previously been reported and three of which are specific to conifers. The number and length of the introns in spruce MYB genes varied significantly, but their positions were well conserved relative to angiosperm MYB genes. Quantitative RTPCR of MYB genes transcript abundance in root and stem tissues revealed diverse expression patterns; three MYB genes were preferentially expressed in secondary xylem, whereas others were preferentially expressed in phloem or were ubiquitous. The MYB genes expressed in xylem, and three others, were up-regulated in the compression wood of leaning trees within 76 hours of induction. Conclusion Our survey of 18 conifer R2R3-MYB genes clearly showed a gene family structure similar to that of Arabidopsis. Three of the sequences are likely to play a role in lignin metabolism and/or wood formation in gymnosperm trees, including a close homolog of the loblolly pine PtMYB4, shown to regulate lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco. PMID:17397551

  10. The potato developer (D) locus encodes an R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates expression of multiple anthocyanin structural genes in tuber skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chun Suk; Griffiths, Helen M; De Jong, Darlene M; Cheng, Shuping; Bodis, Mary; Kim, Tae Sung; De Jong, Walter S

    2009-12-01

    A dominant allele at the D locus (also known as I in diploid potato) is required for the synthesis of red and purple anthocyanin pigments in tuber skin. It has previously been reported that D maps to a region of chromosome 10 that harbors one or more homologs of Petunia an2, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor that coordinately regulates the expression of multiple anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in the floral limb. To test whether D acts similarly in tuber skin, RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (f3h), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (dfr) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (f3'5'h). All three genes were expressed in the periderm of red- and purple-skinned clones, while dfr and f3'5'h were not expressed, and f3h was only weakly expressed, in white-skinned clones. A potato cDNA clone with similarity to an2 was isolated from an expression library prepared from red tuber skin, and an assay developed to distinguish the two alleles of this gene in a diploid potato clone known to be heterozygous Dd. One allele was observed to cosegregate with pigmented skin in an F(1) population of 136 individuals. This allele was expressed in tuber skin of red- and purple-colored progeny, but not in white tubers, while other parental alleles were not expressed in white or colored tubers. The allele was placed under the control of a doubled 35S promoter and transformed into the light red-colored cultivar Désirée, the white-skinned cultivar Bintje, and two white diploid clones known to lack the functional allele of D. Transformants accumulated pigment in tuber skin, as well as in other tissues, including young foliage, flower petals, and tuber flesh.

  11. Methylation Affects Transposition and Splicing of a Large CACTA Transposon from a MYB Transcription Factor Regulating Anthocyanin Synthase Genes in Soybean Seed Coats

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Gracia; Vodkin, Lila O.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the molecular basis of three soybean lines that vary in seed coat color at the R locus which is thought to encode a MYB transcription factor. RM55-rm is homozygous for a mutable allele (rm) that specifies black and brown striped seeds; RM30-R* is a stable black revertant isoline derived from the mutable line; and RM38-r has brown seed coats due to a recessive r allele shown to translate a truncated MYB protein. Using long range PCR, 454 sequencing of amplicons, and whole genome re-sequencing, we determined that the variegated RM55-rm line had a 13 kb CACTA subfamily transposon insertion (designated TgmR*) at a position 110 bp from the beginning of Intron2 of the R locus, Glyma09g36983. Although the MYB encoded by R was expressed at only very low levels in older seed coats of the black revertant RM30-R* line, it upregulated expression of anthocyanidin synthase genes (ANS2, ANS3) to promote the synthesis of anthocyanins. Surprisingly, the RM30-R* revertant also carried the 13 kb TgmR* insertion in Intron2. Using RNA-Seq, we showed that intron splicing was accurate, albeit at lower levels, despite the presence of the 13 kb TgmR* element. As determined by whole genome methylation sequencing, we demonstrate that the TgmR* sequence was relatively more methylated in RM30-R* than in the mutable RM55-rm progenitor line. The stabilized and more methylated RM30-R* revertant line apparently lacks effective binding of a transposae to its subterminal repeats, thus allowing intron splicing to proceed resulting in sufficient MYB protein to stimulate anthocyanin production and thus black seed coats. In this regard, the TgmR* element in soybean resembles McClintock's Spm-suppressible and change-of-state alleles of maize. This comparison explains the opposite effects of the TgmR* element on intron splicing of the MYB gene in which it resides depending on the methylation state of the element. PMID:25369033

  12. Methylation affects transposition and splicing of a large CACTA transposon from a MYB transcription factor regulating anthocyanin synthase genes in soybean seed coats.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Gracia; Vodkin, Lila O

    2014-01-01

    We determined the molecular basis of three soybean lines that vary in seed coat color at the R locus which is thought to encode a MYB transcription factor. RM55-r(m) is homozygous for a mutable allele (r(m)) that specifies black and brown striped seeds; RM30-R* is a stable black revertant isoline derived from the mutable line; and RM38-r has brown seed coats due to a recessive r allele shown to translate a truncated MYB protein. Using long range PCR, 454 sequencing of amplicons, and whole genome re-sequencing, we determined that the variegated RM55-r(m) line had a 13 kb CACTA subfamily transposon insertion (designated TgmR*) at a position 110 bp from the beginning of Intron2 of the R locus, Glyma09g36983. Although the MYB encoded by R was expressed at only very low levels in older seed coats of the black revertant RM30-R* line, it upregulated expression of anthocyanidin synthase genes (ANS2, ANS3) to promote the synthesis of anthocyanins. Surprisingly, the RM30-R* revertant also carried the 13 kb TgmR* insertion in Intron2. Using RNA-Seq, we showed that intron splicing was accurate, albeit at lower levels, despite the presence of the 13 kb TgmR* element. As determined by whole genome methylation sequencing, we demonstrate that the TgmR* sequence was relatively more methylated in RM30-R* than in the mutable RM55-r(m) progenitor line. The stabilized and more methylated RM30-R* revertant line apparently lacks effective binding of a transposae to its subterminal repeats, thus allowing intron splicing to proceed resulting in sufficient MYB protein to stimulate anthocyanin production and thus black seed coats. In this regard, the TgmR* element in soybean resembles McClintock's Spm-suppressible and change-of-state alleles of maize. This comparison explains the opposite effects of the TgmR* element on intron splicing of the MYB gene in which it resides depending on the methylation state of the element.

  13. The AmMYB308 and AmMYB330 transcription factors from antirrhinum regulate phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnone, L; Merida, A; Parr, A; Mackay, S; Culianez-Macia, FA; Roberts, K; Martin, C

    1998-01-01

    MYB-related transcription factors are known to regulate different branches of flavonoid metabolism in plants and are believed to play wider roles in the regulation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in general. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of two MYB genes from Antirrhinum represses phenolic acid metabolism and lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants. The inhibition of this branch of phenylpropanoid metabolism appears to be specific to AmMYB308 and AmMYB330, suggesting that they recognize their normal target genes in these transgenic plants. Experiments with yeast indicate that AmMYB308 can act as a very weak transcriptional activator so that overexpression may competitively inhibit the activity of stronger activators recognizing the same target motifs. The effects of the transcription factors on inhibition of phenolic acid metabolism resulted in complex modifications of the growth and development of the transgenic plants. The inhibition of monolignol production resulted in plants with at least 17% less lignin in their vascular tissue. This reduction is of importance when designing strategies for the genetic modification of woody crops. PMID:9490739

  14. OsMYB2P-1, an R2R3 MYB Transcription Factor, Is Involved in the Regulation of Phosphate-Starvation Responses and Root Architecture in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, An; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2012-01-01

    An R2R3 MYB transcription factor, OsMYB2P-1, was identified from microarray data by monitoring the expression profile of rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) seedlings exposed to phosphate (Pi)-deficient medium. Expression of OsMYB2P-1 was induced by Pi starvation. OsMYB2P-1 was localized in the nuclei and exhibited transcriptional activation activity. Overexpression of OsMYB2P-1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, while suppression of OsMYB2P-1 by RNA interference in rice rendered the transgenic rice more sensitive to Pi deficiency. Furthermore, primary roots of OsMYB2P-1-overexpressing plants were shorter than those in wild-type plants under Pi-sufficient conditions, while primary roots and adventitious roots of OsMYB2P-1-overexpressing plants were longer than those of wild-type plants under Pi-deficient conditions. These results suggest that OsMYB2P-1 may also be associated with the regulation of root system architecture. Overexpression of OsMYB2P-1 led to greater expression of Pi-responsive genes such as Oryza sativa UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase, OsIPS1, OsPAP10, OsmiR399a, and OsmiR399j. In contrast, overexpression of OsMYB2P-1 suppressed the expression of OsPHO2 under both Pi-sufficient and Pi-deficient conditions. Moreover, expression of OsPT2, which encodes a low-affinity Pi transporter, was up-regulated in OsMYB2P-1-overexpressing plants under Pi-sufficient conditions, whereas expression of the high-affinity Pi transporters OsPT6, OsPT8, and OsPT10 was up-regulated by overexpression of OsMYB2P-1 under Pi-deficient conditions, suggesting that OsMYB2P-1 may act as a Pi-dependent regulator in controlling the expression of Pi transporters. These findings demonstrate that OsMYB2P-1 is a novel R2R3 MYB transcriptional factor associated with Pi starvation signaling in rice. PMID:22395576

  15. A sugarcane R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene is alternatively spliced during drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Ma, Jingjing; Chen, Yun; Su, Yachun; Lin, Qingliang; Gao, Shiwu; Wang, Hengbo; Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping

    2017-01-01

    MYB transcription factors of the R2R3-MYB family have been shown to play important roles in many plant processes. A sugarcane R2R3-MYB gene (ScMYB2) and its two alternative forms of transcript (ScMYB2S1 and ScMYB2S2) were identified in this study. The deduced protein of ScMYB2S1 is a typical plant R2R3-MYB protein, while ScMYB2S2 encodes a truncated protein. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that ScMYB2S1 is suppressed under PEG-simulated drought stress in sugarcane, while ScMYB2S2 is induced at later treatment stage. A senescence symptom was observed when ScMYB2S1 was injected into tobacco leaves mediated by Agrobacterium, but no symptom for ScMYB2S2. Further investigation showed that the expression levels of 4 senescence-associated genes, NtPR-1a, NtNYC1, NtCAT3 and NtABRE, were markedly induced in tobacco leaves after ScMYB2S1-injection, while they were not sensitive to ScMYB2S2-injection. Moreover, MDA and proline were also investigated after injection. Similarly, MDA and proline levels were induced by ABA and ScMYB2S1, while inhibited by ScMYB2S2. We propose that ScMYB2, by alternatively splicing two transcripts (ScMYB2S1 and ScMYB2S2), is involved in an ABA-mediated leaf senescence signaling pathway and play positive role in respond to drought-induced senescence in sugarcane. The results of this study provide information for further research in sugarcane stress processes. PMID:28167824

  16. Peach MYB7 activates transcription of the proanthocyanidin pathway gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase, but not anthocyanidin reductase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Liao, Liao; Gu, Chao; Lu, Ziqi; Allan, Andrew C.; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a group of natural phenolic compounds that have a great effect on both flavor and nutritious value of fruit. It has been shown that PA synthesis is regulated by R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) via activation of PA-specific pathway genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a MYB gene designated PpMYB7 in peach. The peach PpMYB7 represents a new group of R2R3-MYB genes regulating PA synthesis in plants. It is able to activate transcription of PpLAR1 but not PpANR, and has a broader selection of potential bHLH partners compared with PpMYBPA1. Transcription of PpMYB7 can be activated by the peach basic leucine-zipper 5 TF (PpbZIP5) via response to ABA. Our study suggests a transcriptional network regulating PA synthesis in peach, with the results aiding the understanding of the functional divergence between R2R3-MYB TFs in plants. PMID:26579158

  17. AtMYB44 regulates resistance to the green peach aphid and diamondback moth by activating EIN2-affected defences in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lü, B-B; Li, X-J; Sun, W-W; Li, L; Gao, R; Zhu, Q; Tian, S-M; Fu, M-Q; Yu, H-L; Tang, X-M; Zhang, C-L; Dong, H-S

    2013-09-01

    Recently we showed that the transcription activator AtMYB44 regulates expression of EIN2, a gene essential for ethylene signalling and insect resistance, in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). To link the transactivation with insect resistance, we investigated the wild-type and atmyb44 mutant plants, genetically Complemented atmyb44 (Catmyb44) and AtMYB44-Overexpression Transgenic Arabidopsis (MYB44OTA). We found that AtMYB44 played a critical role in Arabidopsis resistance to the phloem-feeding generalist green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) and leaf-chewing specialist caterpillar diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.). AtMYB44 was required not only for the development of constitutive resistance but also for the induction of resistance by both herbivorous insects. Levels of constitutive and herbivore-induced resistance were consistent with corresponding amounts of the AtMYB44 protein constitutively produced in MYB44OTA and induced by herbivory in Catmyb44. In both cases, AtMYB44 promoted EIN2 expression to a greater extent in MYB44OTA than in Catmyb44. However, AtMYB44-promoted EIN2 expression was arrested with reduced resistance levels in the EIN2-deficient Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1 and the MYB44OTA ein2-1 hybrid. In the different plant genotypes, only MYB44OTA constitutively displayed phloem-based defences, which are specific to phloem-feeding insects, and robust expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, which are the secondary plant metabolites known as deterrents to generalist herbivores. Phloem-based defences and glucosinolate-related gene expression were not detected in ein2-1 and MYB44OTA ein2-1. These results establish a genetic connection between the regulatory role of AtMYB44 in EIN2 expression and the development of Arabidopsis resistance to insects.

  18. The R2R3-type MYB gene OsMYB91 has a function in coordinating plant growth and salt stress tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ning; Cheng, Saifeng; Liu, Xiaoyun; Du, Hao; Dai, Mingqiu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu; Yang, Wenjing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Plants have evolved a number of different mechanisms to respond and to adapt to abiotic stress for their survival. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in coordinating abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth are not fully understood. Here, the function of OsMYB91, an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor of rice was explored. OsMYB91 was induced by abiotic stress, especially by salt stress. Analysis of chromatin structure of the gene revealed that salt stress led to rapid removal of DNA methylation from the promoter region and rapid changes of histone modifications in the locus. Plants over-expressing OsMYB91 showed reduced plant growth and accumulation of endogenous ABA under control conditions. Under salt stress, the over-expression plants showed enhanced tolerance with significant increases of proline levels and a highly enhanced capacity to scavenge active oxygen as well as the increased induction of OsP5CS1 and LOC_Os03g44130 compared to wild type, while RNAi plants were less sensitive. In addition, expression of OsMYB91 was also induced by other abiotic stresses and hormone treatment. More interestingly, SLR1, the rice homolog of Arabidopsis DELLA genes that have been shown to integrate endogenous developmental signals with adverse environmental conditions, was highly induced by OsMYB91 over-expression, while the salt-induction of SLR1 expression was impaired in the RNAi plants. These results suggested that OsMYB91 was a stress-responsive gene that might be involved in coordinating rice tolerance to abiotic stress and plant growth by regulating SLR1 expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cotton GhMYB7 is predominantly expressed in developing fibers and regulates secondary cell wall biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junfeng; Chen, Feng; Wu, Siyu; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenliang

    2016-02-01

    The secondary cell wall in mature cotton fibers contains over 90% cellulose with low quantities of xylan and lignin. However, little is known regarding the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers. In this study, we characterized an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GhMYB7, in cotton. GhMYB7 is expressed at a high level in developing fibers and encodes a MYB protein that is targeted to the cell nucleus and has transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of GhMYB7 in Arabidopsis resulted in small, curled, dark green leaves and also led to shorter inflorescence stems. A cross-sectional assay of basal stems revealed that cell wall thickness of vessels and interfascicular fibers was higher in transgenic lines overexpressing GhMYB7 than in the wild type. Constitutive expression of GhMYB7 in Arabidopsis activated the expression of a suite of secondary cell wall biosynthesis-related genes (including some secondary cell wall-associated transcription factors), leading to the ectopic deposition of cellulose and lignin. The ectopic deposition of secondary cell walls may have been initiated before the cessation of cell expansion. Moreover, GhMYB7 was capable of binding to the promoter regions of AtSND1 and AtCesA4, suggesting that GhMYB7 may function upstream of NAC transcription factors. Collectively, these findings suggest that GhMYB7 is a potential transcriptional activator, which may participate in regulating secondary cell wall biosynthesis of cotton fibers.

  20. Regulation of a Myb Transcription Factor by Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2 in Giardia lamblia*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chao-Cheng; Su, Li-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Chang; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia parasitizes the human small intestine to cause diseases. It undergoes differentiation into infectious cysts by responding to intestinal stimulation. How the activated signal transduction pathways relate to encystation stimulation remain largely unknown. During encystation, genes encoding cyst wall proteins (CWPs) are coordinately up-regulated by a Myb2 transcription factor. Because cell differentiation is linked to cell cycle regulation, we tried to understand the role of cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), in encystation. We found that the recombinant Myb2 was phosphorylated by Cdk-associated complexes and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. We have identified a putative cdk gene (cdk2) by searching the Giardia genome database. Cdk2 was found to localize in the cytoplasm with higher expression during encystation. Interestingly, overexpression of Cdk2 resulted in a significant increase of the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. In addition, the Cdk2-associated complexes can phosphorylate Myb2 and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. Mutations of important catalytic residues of Cdk2 resulted in a significant decrease of kinase activity and ability of inducing cyst formation. Addition of a Cdk inhibitor, purvalanol A, significantly decreased the Cdk2 kinase activity and the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that the Cdk2 pathway may be involved in phosphorylation of Myb2, leading to activation of the Myb2 function and up-regulation of cwp genes during encystation. The results provide insights into the use of Cdk inhibitory drugs in disruption of Giardia differentiation into cysts. PMID:22167200

  1. Regulation of a Myb transcription factor by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chao-Cheng; Su, Li-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Chang; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2012-02-03

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia parasitizes the human small intestine to cause diseases. It undergoes differentiation into infectious cysts by responding to intestinal stimulation. How the activated signal transduction pathways relate to encystation stimulation remain largely unknown. During encystation, genes encoding cyst wall proteins (CWPs) are coordinately up-regulated by a Myb2 transcription factor. Because cell differentiation is linked to cell cycle regulation, we tried to understand the role of cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), in encystation. We found that the recombinant Myb2 was phosphorylated by Cdk-associated complexes and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. We have identified a putative cdk gene (cdk2) by searching the Giardia genome database. Cdk2 was found to localize in the cytoplasm with higher expression during encystation. Interestingly, overexpression of Cdk2 resulted in a significant increase of the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. In addition, the Cdk2-associated complexes can phosphorylate Myb2 and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. Mutations of important catalytic residues of Cdk2 resulted in a significant decrease of kinase activity and ability of inducing cyst formation. Addition of a Cdk inhibitor, purvalanol A, significantly decreased the Cdk2 kinase activity and the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that the Cdk2 pathway may be involved in phosphorylation of Myb2, leading to activation of the Myb2 function and up-regulation of cwp genes during encystation. The results provide insights into the use of Cdk inhibitory drugs in disruption of Giardia differentiation into cysts.

  2. Genome Wide Analysis of the Apple MYB Transcription Factor Family Allows the Identification of MdoMYB121 Gene Confering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses. PMID:23950843

  3. Transcriptional regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in nectarine (Prunus persica) by a set of R2R3 MYB transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavonols and proanthocyanidins, play a central role in fruit colour, flavour and health attributes. In peach and nectarine (Prunus persica) these compounds vary during fruit growth and ripening. Flavonoids are produced by a well studied pathway which is transcriptionally regulated by members of the MYB and bHLH transcription factor families. We have isolated nectarine flavonoid regulating genes and examined their expression patterns, which suggests a critical role in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. Results In nectarine, expression of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid pathway correlated with the concentration of proanthocyanidins, which strongly increases at mid-development. In contrast, the only gene which showed a similar pattern to anthocyanin concentration was UDP-glucose-flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), which was high at the beginning and end of fruit growth, remaining low during the other developmental stages. Expression of flavonol synthase (FLS1) correlated with flavonol levels, both temporally and in a tissue specific manner. The pattern of UFGT gene expression may be explained by the involvement of different transcription factors, which up-regulate flavonoid biosynthesis (MYB10, MYB123, and bHLH3), or repress (MYB111 and MYB16) the transcription of the biosynthetic genes. The expression of a potential proanthocyanidin-regulating transcription factor, MYBPA1, corresponded with proanthocyanidin levels. Functional assays of these transcription factors were used to test the specificity for flavonoid regulation. Conclusions MYB10 positively regulates the promoters of UFGT and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) but not leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). In contrast, MYBPA1 trans-activates the promoters of DFR and LAR, but not UFGT. This suggests exclusive roles of anthocyanin regulation by MYB10 and proanthocyanidin regulation by MYBPA1. Further, these transcription factors appeared to be

  4. c-myb stimulates cell growth by regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding protein-3 in K562 leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Sun-Young; Arunachalam, Sankarganesh; Hwang, Pyoung-Han; Yi, Ho-Keun; Nam, Sang-Yun; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2009-07-17

    c-myb plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and is highly expressed in immature hematopoietic cells. The human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell K562, highly expresses IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGF-induced cellular proliferation is mediated by IGF-IR. To characterize the impact of c-myb on the IGF-IGFBP-3 axis in leukemia cells, we overexpressed c-myb using an adenovirus gene transfer system in K562 cells. The overexpression of c-myb induced cell proliferation, compared to control, and c-myb induced cell growth was inhibited by anti-IGF-IR antibodies. c-myb overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-IR, and a decrease in IGFBP-3 expression. By contrast, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb overexpression resulted in significant reduction of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and elevation of IGFBP-3 expression. In addition, exogenous IGFBP-3 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells, and c-myb induced cell growth was blocked by IGFBP-3 overexpression in a dose-dependent manner. The growth-promoting effects of c-myb were mediated through two major intracellular signaling pathways, Akt and Erk. Activation of Akt and Erk by c-myb was completely blocked by IGF-IR and IGFBP-3 antibodies. These findings suggest that c-myb stimulates cell growth, in part, by regulating expression of the components of IGF-IGFBP axis in K562 cells. In addition, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb may provide a useful strategy for treatment of leukemia.

  5. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the MYB gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changpin; Chen, Yanbo; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-11-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and play key roles in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism, and stress responses. A total of 125 MYB genes (JcMYB) have been identified in the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) genome, including 120 2R-type MYB, 4 3R-MYB, and 1 4R-MYB genes. Based on exon-intron arrangement of MYBs from both lower (Physcomitrella patens) and higher (physic nut, Arabidopsis, and rice) plants, we can classify plant MYB genes into ten groups (MI-X), except for MIX genes which are nonexistent in higher plants. We also observed that MVIII genes may be one of the most ancient MYB types which consist of both R2R3- and 3R-MYB genes. Most MYB genes (76.8% in physic nut) belong to the MI group which can be divided into 34 subgroups. The JcMYB genes were nonrandomly distributed on its 11 linkage groups (LGs). The expansion of MYB genes across several subgroups was observed and resulted from genome triplication of ancient dicotyledons and from both ancient and recent tandem duplication events in the physic nut genome. The expression patterns of several MYB duplicates in the physic nut showed differences in four tissues (root, stem, leaf, and seed), and 34 MYB genes responded to at least one abiotic stressor (drought, salinity, phosphate starvation, and nitrogen starvation) in leaves and/or roots based on the data analysis of digital gene expression tags. Overexpression of the JcMYB001 gene in Arabidopsis increased its sensitivity to drought and salinity stresses.

  7. A unifying gene signature for adenoid cystic cancer identifies parallel MYB-dependent and MYB-independent therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruli; Cao, Chunxia; Zhang, Min; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Yan, Yuanqing; Chen, Zirong; Mitani, Yoshitsugu; Zhang, Li; Zajac-Kaye, Maria; Liu, Bin; Wu, Lizi; Renne, Rolf; Baker, Henry V; El-Naggar, Adel; Kaye, Frederic J

    2014-12-30

    MYB activation is proposed to underlie development of adenoid cystic cancer (ACC), an aggressive salivary gland tumor with no effective systemic treatments. To discover druggable targets for ACC, we performed global mRNA/miRNA analyses of 12 ACC with matched normal tissues, and compared these data with 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and 11 salivary adenocarcinomas (ADC). We detected a unique ACC gene signature of 1160 mRNAs and 22 miRNAs. MYB was the top-scoring gene (18-fold induction), however we observed the same signature in ACC without detectable MYB gene rearrangements. We also found 4 ACC tumors (1 among our 12 cases and 3 from public databases) with negligible MYB expression that retained the same ACC mRNA signature including over-expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Integration of this signature with somatic mutational analyses suggests that NOTCH1 and RUNX1 participate with MYB to activate ECM elements including the VCAN/HAPLN1 complex. We observed that forced MYB-NFIB expression in human salivary gland cells alters cell morphology and cell adhesion in vitro and depletion of VCAN blocked tumor cell growth of a short-term ACC tumor culture. In summary, we identified a unique ACC signature with parallel MYB-dependent and independent biomarkers and identified VCAN/HAPLN1 complexes as a potential target.

  8. Increased accumulation of anthocyanins in Fragaria chiloensis fruits by transient suppression of FcMYB1 gene.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Ariel; Pimentel, Paula; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-06-01

    Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs), flavonoid-derived metabolites with different physiological roles, are produced by plants in a coordinated manner during fruit development by the action of transcription factors (TFs). These regulatory proteins have either an activating or repressing effect over structural genes from the biosynthetic pathway under their control. FaMYB1, a TF belonging to the R2R3-MYB family and isolated from commercial strawberry fruit (Fragaria×ananassa), was reported as a transcriptional repressor and its heterologous over-expression in tobacco flowers suppressed flavonoid-derived compound accumulation. FcMYB1, an ortholog of FaMYB1 isolated from the white Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis), showed higher transcript levels in white (F. chiloensis) than in red (F.×ananassa cv. Camarosa) fruits. In order to assess its contribution to the discolored phenotype in F. chiloensis, FcMYB1 was transiently down-regulated in planta using an RNAi-based approach. Quantitative real-time PCR on FcMYB1 down-regulated fruits resulted an up-regulation of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and a strong repression of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) transcript accumulation. In addition, these fruits showed increased concentrations of anthocyanins and undetectable levels of flavan 3-ols. Altogether, these results indicate a role for FcMYB1 in regulation of the branching-point of the anthocyanin/PA biosynthesis determining the discolored phenotype of the white Chilean strawberry fruit.

  9. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation. PMID:27573926

  10. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Liao, Liao; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum 'Ziyeli' (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear.

  11. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum ‘Ziyeli’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. PMID:26247780

  12. Salt-induced transcription factor MYB74 is regulated by the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Zheng, Hao; Lu, Wei; Wu, Changai; Huang, Jinguang; Yan, Kang; Yang, Guodong; Zheng, Chengchao

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide that causes crop failure by interfering with the profile of gene expression and cell metabolism. Transcription factors and RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) play an important role in the regulation of gene activation under abiotic stress in plants. This work characterized AtMYB74, a member of the R2R3-MYB gene family, which is transcriptionally regulated mainly by RdDM as a response in salt stress in Arabidopsis. Bisulphite sequencing indicated that 24-nt siRNAs target a region approximately 500bp upstream of the transcription initiation site of AtMYB74, which is heavily methylated. Levels of DNA methylation in this region were significantly reduced in wild type plants under salt stress, whereas no changes were found in RdDM mutants. Northern blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that the accumulation of 24-nt siRNAs was decreased in WT plants under salt stress. Further promoter deletion analysis revealed that the siRNA target region is essential for maintaining AtMYB74 expression patterns. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing AtMYB74 displayed hypersensitivity to NaCl during seed germination. These results suggest that changes in the levels of the five 24-nt siRNAs regulate the AtMYB74 transcription factor via RdDM in response to salt stress. PMID:26139822

  13. A systems-oriented analysis of the grapevine R2R3-MYB transcription factor family uncovers new insights into the regulation of stilbene accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darren Chern Jan; Schlechter, Rudolf; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Höll, Janine; Hmmam, Ibrahim; Bogs, Jochen; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Castellarin, Simone Diego; Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) belong to a large and functionally diverse protein superfamily in plants. In this study, we explore the evolution and function of this family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a high-value fruit crop. We identified and manually curated 134 genes using RNA-Seq data, and named them systematically according to the Super-Nomenclature Committee. We identified novel genes, splicing variants and grapevine/woody-specific duplicated subgroups, suggesting possible neo- and sub-functionalization events. Regulatory network analysis ascribed biological functions to uncharacterized genes and validated those of known genes (e.g. secondary cell wall biogenesis and flavonoid biosynthesis). A comprehensive analysis of different MYB binding motifs in the promoters of co-expressed genes predicted grape R2R3-MYB binding preferences and supported evidence for putative downstream targets. Enrichment of cis-regulatory motifs for diverse TFs reinforced the notion of transcriptional coordination and interaction between MYBs and other regulators. Analysis of the network of Subgroup 2 showed that the resveratrol-related VviMYB14 and VviMYB15 share common co-expressed STILBENE SYNTHASE genes with the uncharacterized VviMYB13. These regulators have distinct expression patterns within organs and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, suggesting a pivotal role of VviMYB13 in regulating stilbene accumulation in vegetative tissues and under biotic stress conditions. PMID:27407139

  14. EgMYB1, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor from eucalyptus negatively regulates secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis and poplar.

    PubMed

    Legay, Sylvain; Sivadon, Pierre; Blervacq, Anne-Sophie; Pavy, Nathalie; Baghdady, Ahmad; Tremblay, Laurence; Levasseur, Caroline; Ladouce, Nathalie; Lapierre, Catherine; Séguin, Armand; Hawkins, Simon; Mackay, John; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2010-11-01

    • The eucalyptus R2R3 transcription factor, EgMYB1 contains an active repressor motif in the regulatory domain of the predicted protein. It is preferentially expressed in differentiating xylem and is capable of repressing the transcription of two key lignin genes in vivo. • In order to investigate in planta the role of this putative transcriptional repressor of the lignin biosynthetic pathway, we overexpressed the EgMYB1 gene in Arabidopsis and poplar. • Expression of EgMYB1 produced similar phenotypes in both species, with stronger effects in transgenic Arabidopsis plants than in poplar. Vascular development was altered in overexpressors showing fewer lignified fibres (in phloem and interfascicular zones in poplar and Arabidopsis, respectively) and reduced secondary wall thickening. Klason lignin content was moderately but significantly reduced in both species. Decreased transcript accumulation was observed for genes involved in the biosynthesis of lignins, cellulose and xylan, the three main polymers of secondary cell walls. Transcriptomic profiles of transgenic poplars were reminiscent of those reported when lignin biosynthetic genes are disrupted. • Together, these results strongly suggest that EgMYB1 is a repressor of secondary wall formation and provide new opportunities to dissect the transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  15. Regulation of Cell Fate Determination by Single-Repeat R3 MYB Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Chen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    MYB transcription factors regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. Among the large family of MYB transcription factors, single-repeat R3 MYB are characterized by their short sequence (<120 amino acids) consisting largely of the single MYB DNA-binding repeat. In the model plant Arabidopsis, R3 MYBs mediate lateral inhibition during epidermal patterning and are best characterized for their regulatory roles in trichome and root hair development. R3 MYBs act as negative regulators for trichome formation but as positive regulators for root hair development. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of R3 MYBs in the regulation of cell type specification in the model plant Arabidopsis.

  16. Identification and expression analyses of MYB and WRKY transcription factor genes in Papaver somniferum L.

    PubMed

    Kakeshpour, Tayebeh; Nayebi, Shadi; Rashidi Monfared, Sajad; Moieni, Ahmad; Karimzadeh, Ghasem

    2015-10-01

    Papaver somniferum L. is an herbaceous, annual and diploid plant that is important from pharmacological and strategic point of view. The cDNA clones of two putative MYB and WRKY genes were isolated (GeneBank accession numbers KP411870 and KP203854, respectively) from this plant, via the nested-PCR method, and characterized. The MYB transcription factor (TF) comprises 342 amino acids, and exhibits the structural features of the R2R3MYB protein family. The WRKY TF, a 326 amino acid-long polypeptide, falls structurally into the group II of WRKY protein family. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicate the presence of these TFs in all organs of P. somniferum L. and Papaver bracteatum L. Highest expression levels of these two TFs were observed in the leaf tissues of P. somniferum L. while in P. bracteatum L. the espression levels were highest in the root tissues. Promoter analysis of the 10 co-expressed gene clustered involved in noscapine biosynthesis pathway in P. somniferum L. suggested that not only these 10 genes are co-expressed, but also share common regulatory motifs and TFs including MYB and WRKY TFs, and that may explain their common regulation.

  17. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Hyeok; Hyun, Woo Young; Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Jeong, Chan Young; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2015-03-01

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that Arabidopsis AtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles.

  19. Over-expression of a subgroup 4 R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala reduces lignin content in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Omer, Sumita; Kumar, Santosh; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : LlMYB1 , a subgroup 4 R2R3-type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala appears to be a repressor of lignin biosynthesis pathway by regulating the transcription of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. R2R3MYB transcription factors are known to play a wide role in regulating the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. In this study, we report isolation, cloning and characterization of an R2R3MYB transcription factor gene (LlMYB1) from an economically important tree species, Leucaena leucocephala. LlMYB1 consists of 705 bp coding sequence corresponding to 235 amino acids. Sequence alignment revealed that the N-terminal (MYB) domain of the gene shares up to 95 % similarity with subgroup 4 (Sg4) members of R2R3Myb gene family functionally known to be lignin repressors. Highly divergent C-terminal region of the gene carried an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, another characteristic of the Sg4. The gene was phylogenetically grouped closest with AmMYB308, a known repressor of monolignol biosynthetic pathway genes. Spatio-temporal expression studies at different ages of seedlings using quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) showed highest transcript level of the gene in 10 day old stem tissues. Over-expression of the gene in transgenic tobacco showed statistically significant decline in the transcript levels of the general phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduction in lignin content. Our study suggests that LlMYB1 might be playing the role of a repressor of lignin biosynthesis in L. leucocephala.

  20. Tartary buckwheat FtMYB10 encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that acts as a novel negative regulator of salt and drought response in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Yao, Huipeng; Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Jing; Luo, Xiaopeng; Huang, Yunji; Li, Chenglei; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qi

    2016-12-01

    Tartary buckwheat is a strongly abiotic, resistant coarse cereal, but its tolerance mechanisms for stress are largely unknown. MYB transcription factors play key roles in various physiological, biochemical and molecular responses, which can both positively and negatively regulate the stress tolerance of plants. In this study, we report that the expression of FtMYB10, a R2R3-MYB gene from Tartary buckwheat, was induced significantly by ABA and drought treatments. A seed germination test under ABA treatment indicated that transgenic lines were less sensitive to ABA. The overexpression of FtMYB10 in Arabidopsis reduced drought and salt tolerance. Further studies showed that the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased associated with reduced expression of the P5CS1 gene under both normal and stress conditions. Furthermore, the expression of some stress-responsive genes, including DREB1/CBFs, RD29B, RD22, and several genes of the DRE/CRT class, decreased in response to FtMYB10 overexpression in Arabidopsis. These results suggest that FtMYB10 may play a key role in ABA signaling feedback regulation and act as a novel negative regulator of salt and drought stress tolerance in plants.

  1. MYB5 and MYB14 Play Pivotal Roles in Seed Coat Polymer Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenggang; Jun, Ji Hyung; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the major MYB protein regulating proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis is TT2, named for the transparent testa phenotype of tt2 mutant seeds that lack PAs in their coats. In contrast, the MYB5 transcription factor mainly regulates seed mucilage biosynthesis and trichome branching, with only a minor role in PA biosynthesis. We here characterize MYB5 and MYB14 (a TT2 homolog) in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Overexpression of MtMYB5 or MtMYB14 strongly induces PA accumulation in M. truncatula hairy roots, and both myb5 and myb14 mutants of M. truncatula exhibit darker seed coat color than wild-type plants, with myb5 also showing deficiency in mucilage biosynthesis. myb5 mutant seeds have a much stronger seed color phenotype than myb14. The myb5 and myb14 mutants accumulate, respectively, about 30% and 50% of the PA content of wild-type plants, and PA levels are reduced further in myb5 myb14 double mutants. Transcriptome analyses of overexpressing hairy roots and knockout mutants of MtMYB5 and MtMYB14 indicate that MtMYB5 regulates a broader set of genes than MtMYB14. Moreover, we demonstrate that MtMYB5 and MtMYB14 physically interact and synergistically activate the promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase, the key structural genes leading to PA biosynthesis, in the presence of MtTT8 and MtWD40-1. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and mucilage biosynthesis in M. truncatula. PMID:24948832

  2. B-Myb acts as a repressor of human COL1A1 collagen gene expression by interacting with Sp1 and CBF factors in scleroderma fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Cicchillitti, Lucia; Jimenez, Sergio A; Sala, Arturo; Saitta, Biagio

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the role of B-Myb, a cell-cycle-regulated transcription factor, in the expression of the alpha1 (I) pro-collagen gene (COL1A1) in scleroderma fibroblasts. Scleroderma or SSc (systemic sclerosis) is a fibrotic disease characterized by excessive production of extracellular matrix components, especially type I collagen. Northern-blot analysis showed an inverse relationship between COL1A1 mRNA expression and that of B-Myb during exponential cell growth and during quiescence in human SSc fibroblasts. Overexpression of B-Myb in SSc fibroblasts was correlated with decreased COL1A1 mRNA expression. Transient transfections localized the down-regulatory effect of B-Myb to a region containing the proximal 174 bp of the COL1A1 promoter that does not contain B-Myb consensus binding sites. Gel-shift analysis, using nuclear extracts from normal and SSc fibroblasts transfected with B-Myb, showed no differences in DNA-protein complex formation when compared with the nuclear extracts from mock-transfected cells. However, we found that B-Myb decreases Sp1 (specificity protein 1) and CBF (CCAAT-binding factor) binding for their specific sites localized in the 174 bp COL1A1 proximal promoter. These results were also confirmed using B-Myb-immunodepleted nuclear extracts. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays using SSc nuclear extracts demonstrated a physical interaction of B-Myb with Sp1 and CBF transcription factors, and also an interaction between Sp1 and CBF. In addition, by employing full-length or deleted B-Myb cDNA construct, we found that B-Myb down-regulates the COL1A1 proximal promoter through its C-terminal domain. Thus these results suggest that B-Myb may be an important factor in the pathway(s) regulating collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. PMID:14613485

  3. Identification of Norway Spruce MYB-bHLH-WDR Transcription Factor Complex Members Linked to Regulation of the Flavonoid Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nemesio-Gorriz, Miguel; Blair, Peter B.; Dalman, Kerstin; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Arnerup, Jenny; Stenlid, Jan; Mukhtar, Shahid M.; Elfstrand, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) forming MYB-bHLH-WDR complexes are known to regulate the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites in angiosperms through an intricate network. These specialized metabolites participate in a wide range of biological processes including plant growth, development, reproduction as well as in plant immunity. Studying the regulation of their biosynthesis is thus essential. While MYB (TFs) have been previously shown to control specialized metabolism (SM) in gymnosperms, the identity of their partners, in particular bHLH or WDR members, has not yet been revealed. To gain knowledge about MYB-bHLH-WDR transcription factor complexes in gymnosperms and their regulation of SW, we identified two bHLH homologs of AtTT8, six homologs of the MYB transcription factor AtTT2 and one WDR ortholog of AtTTG1 in Norway spruce. We investigated the expression levels of these genes in diverse tissues and upon treatments with various stimuli including methyl-salicylate, methyl-jasmonate, wounding or fungal inoculation. In addition, we also identified protein-protein interactions among different homologs of MYB, bHLH and WDR. Finally, we generated transgenic spruce cell lines overexpressing four of the Norway spruce AtTT2 homologs and observed differential regulation of genes in the flavonoid pathway and flavonoid contents. PMID:28337212

  4. Identification of Norway Spruce MYB-bHLH-WDR Transcription Factor Complex Members Linked to Regulation of the Flavonoid Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nemesio-Gorriz, Miguel; Blair, Peter B; Dalman, Kerstin; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Arnerup, Jenny; Stenlid, Jan; Mukhtar, Shahid M; Elfstrand, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) forming MYB-bHLH-WDR complexes are known to regulate the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites in angiosperms through an intricate network. These specialized metabolites participate in a wide range of biological processes including plant growth, development, reproduction as well as in plant immunity. Studying the regulation of their biosynthesis is thus essential. While MYB (TFs) have been previously shown to control specialized metabolism (SM) in gymnosperms, the identity of their partners, in particular bHLH or WDR members, has not yet been revealed. To gain knowledge about MYB-bHLH-WDR transcription factor complexes in gymnosperms and their regulation of SW, we identified two bHLH homologs of AtTT8, six homologs of the MYB transcription factor AtTT2 and one WDR ortholog of AtTTG1 in Norway spruce. We investigated the expression levels of these genes in diverse tissues and upon treatments with various stimuli including methyl-salicylate, methyl-jasmonate, wounding or fungal inoculation. In addition, we also identified protein-protein interactions among different homologs of MYB, bHLH and WDR. Finally, we generated transgenic spruce cell lines overexpressing four of the Norway spruce AtTT2 homologs and observed differential regulation of genes in the flavonoid pathway and flavonoid contents.

  5. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, affects the expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes encoding key enzymes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Jing-Wen; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Su, Lian-Tai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qing-Yu

    2013-12-10

    Isoflavones play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are potentially important for human nutrition and health. To study the regulation of isoflavonoid synthesis in soybean, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor GmMYB12B2 was isolated and characterized. Yeast expression experiments demonstrated that GmMYB12B2 showed transcriptional activity. GmMYB12B2 was localized in the nucleus when it was transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GmMYB12B2 transcription was increased in roots and mature seeds compared with other organs. The gene expression level in immature embryos was consistent with the accumulation of isoflavones. CHS8 is a key enzyme in plant flavonoid biosynthesis. Transient expression experiments in soybean calli demonstrated that CHS8 was regulated by GmMYB12B2 and produced more fluorescence. The expression levels of some key enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis were examined in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The results showed that the expression levels of PAL1, CHS and FLS in transgenic plants were significantly higher than those in wild type plants. However, the expression level of DFR was lower, and the expression levels of CHI, F3H and F3'H were the same in all lines. GmMYB12B2 expression caused a constitutive increase in the accumulation of flavonoids in transgenic Arabidopsis lines compared with wild type plants.

  6. Expression of the CD4 gene requires a Myb transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Siu, G; Wurster, A L; Lipsick, J S; Hedrick, S M

    1992-01-01

    We have analyzed the control of developmental expression of the CD4 gene, which encodes an important recognition molecule and differentiation antigen on T cells. We have determined that the CD4 promoter alone functions at high levels in the CD4+ CD8- mature T cell but not at the early CD4+ CD8+ stage of T-cell development. In addition, the CD4 promoter functions only in T lymphocytes; thus, the stage and tissue specificity of the CD4 gene is mediated in part by its promoter. We have determined that a Myb transcription factor binds to the CD4 promoter and is critical for full promoter function. Thus, Myb plays an important role in the expression of T-cell-specific developmentally regulated genes. Images PMID:1347906

  7. Identification and characterization of wheat drought-responsive MYB transcription factors involved in the regulation of cuticle biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bi, Huihui; Luang, Sukanya; Li, Yuan; Bazanova, Natalia; Morran, Sarah; Song, Zhihong; Perera, M Ann; Hrmova, Maria; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Lopato, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    A plant cuticle forms a hydrophobic layer covering plant organs, and plays an important role in plant development and protection from environmental stresses. We examined epicuticular structure, composition, and a MYB-based regulatory network in two Australian wheat cultivars, RAC875 and Kukri, with contrasting cuticle appearance (glaucousness) and drought tolerance. Metabolomics and microscopic analyses of epicuticular waxes revealed that the content of β-diketones was the major compositional and structural difference between RAC875 and Kukri. The content of β-diketones remained the same while those of alkanes and primary alcohols were increased by drought in both cultivars, suggesting that the interplay of all components rather than a single one defines the difference in drought tolerance between cultivars. Six wheat genes encoding MYB transcription factors (TFs) were cloned; four of them were regulated in flag leaves of both cultivars by rapid dehydration and/or slowly developing cyclic drought. The involvement of selected MYB TFs in the regulation of cuticle biosynthesis was confirmed by a transient expression assay in wheat cell culture, using the promoters of wheat genes encoding cuticle biosynthesis-related enzymes and the SHINE1 (SHN1) TF. Two functional MYB-responsive elements, specifically recognized by TaMYB74 but not by other MYB TFs, were localized in the TdSHN1 promoter. Protein structural determinants underlying the binding specificity of TaMYB74 for functional DNA cis-elements were defined, using 3D protein molecular modelling. A scheme, linking drought-induced expression of the investigated TFs with downstream genes that participate in the synthesis of cuticle components, is proposed.

  8. Identification and characterization of wheat drought-responsive MYB transcription factors involved in the regulation of cuticle biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Huihui; Luang, Sukanya; Li, Yuan; Bazanova, Natalia; Morran, Sarah; Song, Zhihong; Perera, M. Ann; Hrmova, Maria; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Lopato, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    A plant cuticle forms a hydrophobic layer covering plant organs, and plays an important role in plant development and protection from environmental stresses. We examined epicuticular structure, composition, and a MYB-based regulatory network in two Australian wheat cultivars, RAC875 and Kukri, with contrasting cuticle appearance (glaucousness) and drought tolerance. Metabolomics and microscopic analyses of epicuticular waxes revealed that the content of β-diketones was the major compositional and structural difference between RAC875 and Kukri. The content of β-diketones remained the same while those of alkanes and primary alcohols were increased by drought in both cultivars, suggesting that the interplay of all components rather than a single one defines the difference in drought tolerance between cultivars. Six wheat genes encoding MYB transcription factors (TFs) were cloned; four of them were regulated in flag leaves of both cultivars by rapid dehydration and/or slowly developing cyclic drought. The involvement of selected MYB TFs in the regulation of cuticle biosynthesis was confirmed by a transient expression assay in wheat cell culture, using the promoters of wheat genes encoding cuticle biosynthesis-related enzymes and the SHINE1 (SHN1) TF. Two functional MYB-responsive elements, specifically recognized by TaMYB74 but not by other MYB TFs, were localized in the TdSHN1 promoter. Protein structural determinants underlying the binding specificity of TaMYB74 for functional DNA cis-elements were defined, using 3D protein molecular modelling. A scheme, linking drought-induced expression of the investigated TFs with downstream genes that participate in the synthesis of cuticle components, is proposed. PMID:27489236

  9. Expression of OsMYB55 in maize activates stress-responsive genes and enhances heat and drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Casaretto, José A; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Zeng, Bin; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy M; Chen, Xi; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2016-04-29

    Plant response mechanisms to heat and drought stresses have been considered in strategies for generating stress tolerant genotypes, but with limited success. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome and improved tolerance to heat stress and drought of maize plants over-expressing the OsMYB55 gene. Over-expression of OsMYB55 in maize decreased the negative effects of high temperature and drought resulting in improved plant growth and performance under these conditions. This was evidenced by the higher plant biomass and reduced leaf damage exhibited by the transgenic lines compared to wild type when plants were subjected to individual or combined stresses and during or after recovery from stress. A global transcriptomic analysis using RNA sequencing revealed that several genes induced by heat stress in wild type plants are constitutively up-regulated in OsMYB55 transgenic maize. In addition, a significant number of genes up-regulated in OsMYB55 transgenic maize under control or heat treatments have been associated with responses to abiotic stresses including high temperature, dehydration and oxidative stress. The latter is a common and major consequence of imposed heat and drought conditions, suggesting that this altered gene expression may be associated with the improved stress tolerance in these transgenic lines. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis of the transcriptome also pinpoint the relevance of specific biological processes for stress responses. Our results show that expression of OsMYB55 can improve tolerance to heat stress and drought in maize plants. Enhanced expression of stress-associated genes may be involved in OsMYB55-mediated stress tolerance. Possible implications for the improved tolerance to heat stress and drought of OsMYB55 transgenic maize are discussed.

  10. Mapping of an anthocyanin-regulating MYB transcription factor and its expression in red and green pear, Pyrus communis.

    PubMed

    Pierantoni, Luca; Dondini, Luca; De Franceschi, Paolo; Musacchi, Stefano; Winkel, Brenda S J; Sansavini, Silviero

    2010-12-01

    'Max Red Bartlett' is a red bud mutation of the yellow pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Williams' (known as 'Bartlett' in North America). Anthocyanins are the most important pigments for red colour in fruits. Synthesis of anthocyanins is mediated by a number of well-characterized enzymes that include chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT). Expression of the genes encoding these five enzymes was examined in pear fruit skin in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism for red coloration. In addition, the gene PcMYB10, encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway regulation, was isolated from both 'Williams' and 'Max Red Bartlett'. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene is an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators known in other plant species. Its expression level was significantly higher in 'Max Red Bartlett' (red pear) compared with the original yellow variety 'Williams'. Although the map position of PcMYB10 corresponds to that of MdMYBa and MdMYB10, which control pigmentation of apple fruit skin, PcMYB10 is not directly responsible for red versus yellow colour in the two pear varieties, as the mutation underlying this difference maps to a different region of the pear genome.

  11. MYB Promotes Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer through Direct Transcriptional Up-regulation and Cooperative Action of Sonic Hedgehog and Adrenomedullin.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Singh, Seema; Tyagi, Nikhil; Arora, Sumit; Carter, James E; Khushman, Moh'd; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-07-29

    Extensive desmoplasia is a prominent pathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC) that not only impacts tumor development, but therapeutic outcome as well. Recently, we demonstrated a novel role of MYB, an oncogenic transcription factor, in PC growth and metastasis. Here we studied its effect on pancreatic tumor histopathology and associated molecular and biological mechanisms. Tumor-xenografts derived from orthotopic-inoculation of MYB-overexpressing PC cells exhibited far-greater desmoplasia in histological analyses compared with those derived from MYB-silenced PC cells. These findings were further confirmed by immunostaining of tumor-xenograft sections with collagen-I, fibronectin (major extracellular-matrix proteins), and α-SMA (well-characterized marker of myofibroblasts or activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs)). Likewise, MYB-overexpressing PC cells provided significantly greater growth benefit to PSCs in a co-culture system as compared with the MYB-silenced cells. Interrogation of deep-sequencing data from MYB-overexpressing versus -silenced PC cells identified Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) and Adrenomedullin (ADM) as two differentially-expressed genes among others, which encode for secretory ligands involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. In-silico analyses predicted putative MYB-binding sites in SHH and ADM promoters, which was later confirmed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. A cooperative role of SHH and ADM in growth promotion of PSCs was confirmed in co-culture by using their specific-inhibitors and exogenous recombinant-proteins. Importantly, while SHH acted exclusively in a paracrine fashion on PSCs and influenced the growth of PC cells only indirectly, ADM could directly impact the growth of both PC cells and PSCs. In summary, we identified MYB as novel regulator of pancreatic tumor desmoplasia, which is suggestive of its diverse roles in PC pathobiology.

  12. MYB10 plays a major role in the regulation of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism during ripening of Fragaria x ananassa fruits.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Cumplido-Laso, Guadalupe; Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Hoffmann, Thomas; Ring, Ludwig; Rodríguez-Franco, Antonio; Caballero, José Luis; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2014-02-01

    This work characterized the role of the R2R3-MYB10 transcription factor (TF) in strawberry fruit ripening. The expression of this TF takes place mainly in the fruit receptacle and is repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid (ABA), in parallel to the ripening process. Anthocyanin was not produced when FaMYB10 expression was transiently silenced in fruit receptacles. An increase in FaMYB10 expression was observed in water-stressed fruits, which was accompanied by an increase in both ABA and anthocyanin content. High-throughput transcriptomic analyses performed in fruits with downregulated FaMYB10 expression indicated that this TF regulates the expression of most of the Early-regulated Biosynthesis Genes (EBGs) and the Late-regulated Biosynthesis Genes (LBGs) genes involved in anthocyanin production in ripened fruit receptacles. Besides, the expression of FaMYB10 was not regulated by FaMYB1 and vice versa. Taken together, all these data clearly indicate that the Fragaria × ananassa MYB10 TF plays a general regulatory role in the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway during the ripening of strawberry.

  13. The Transcription Factor VvMYB5b Contributes to the Regulation of Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Developing Grape Berries12[W

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent; Bogs, Jochen; Walker, Amanda R.; Ferrier, Thilia; Decendit, Alain; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Robinson, Simon P.; Barrieu, François

    2008-01-01

    Among the dramatic changes occurring during grape berry (Vitis vinifera) development, those affecting the flavonoid pathway have provoked a number of investigations in the last 10 years. In addition to producing several compounds involved in the protection of the berry and the dissemination of the seeds, final products of this pathway also play a critical role in berry and wine quality. In this article, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of VvMYB5b, a cDNA isolated from a grape berry (V. vinifera ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’) library. VvMYB5b encodes a protein belonging to the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors and displays significant similarity with VvMYB5a, another MYB factor recently shown to regulate flavonoid synthesis in grapevine. The ability of VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b to activate the grapevine promoters of several structural genes of the flavonoid pathway was confirmed by transient expression of the corresponding cDNAs in grape cells. Overexpression of VvMYB5b in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leads to an up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid pathway and results in the accumulation of anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-derived compounds. The ability of VvMYB5b to regulate particularly the anthocyanin and the proanthocyanidin pathways is discussed in relation to other recently characterized MYB transcription factors in grapevine. Taken together, data presented in this article give insight into the transcriptional mechanisms associated with the regulation of the flavonoid pathway throughout grape berry development. PMID:18539781

  14. Situational awareness: regulation of the myb transcription factor in differentiation, the cell cycle and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    George, Olivia L; Ness, Scott A

    2014-10-02

    This review summarizes the mechanisms that control the activity of the c-Myb transcription factor in normal cells and tumors, and discusses how c-Myb plays a role in the regulation of the cell cycle. Oncogenic versions of c-Myb contribute to the development of leukemias and solid tumors such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, breast cancer and colon cancer. The activity and specificity of the c-Myb protein seems to be controlled through changes in protein-protein interactions, so understanding how it is regulated could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  15. Factor Analysis of MYB Gene Expression and Flavonoid Affecting Petal Color in Three Crabapple Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yingying; Bu, YuFen; Zhang, Xi; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis has received much attention concerning the structural genes and expression of the associated transcription factors (TFs). In the present study, we examined the gene expression patterns for petals of three colors using a statistical method. Factor analysis was successfully used to examine the expression patterns most present during regulation. The first expression patterns in the white and red petals were clearly demonstrated and have revealed different mechanisms of producing the proper components, whereas that in the pink petals was more complex, requiring factor analysis to supplement the other results. Combining the results of the correlation analysis between TFs and structural genes, the effects of each TF on the main expression pattern in each cultivar were determined. Moreover, McMYB10 was implicated in the regulation of the gene expression pattern in red petals, and McMYB5 was implicated in the maintenance of the balance of the pigment components and proanthocyanin (PA) production in cooperation with McMYB4 to generate pigmentation in the pink petals. PMID:28223999

  16. Factor Analysis of MYB Gene Expression and Flavonoid Affecting Petal Color in Three Crabapple Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yingying; Bu, YuFen; Zhang, Xi; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis has received much attention concerning the structural genes and expression of the associated transcription factors (TFs). In the present study, we examined the gene expression patterns for petals of three colors using a statistical method. Factor analysis was successfully used to examine the expression patterns most present during regulation. The first expression patterns in the white and red petals were clearly demonstrated and have revealed different mechanisms of producing the proper components, whereas that in the pink petals was more complex, requiring factor analysis to supplement the other results. Combining the results of the correlation analysis between TFs and structural genes, the effects of each TF on the main expression pattern in each cultivar were determined. Moreover, McMYB10 was implicated in the regulation of the gene expression pattern in red petals, and McMYB5 was implicated in the maintenance of the balance of the pigment components and proanthocyanin (PA) production in cooperation with McMYB4 to generate pigmentation in the pink petals.

  17. Peace, a MYB-like transcription factor, regulates petal pigmentation in flowering peach 'Genpei' bearing variegated and fully pigmented flowers.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Chiyomi; Katayama, Hironori; Makino, Izumi; Inagaki, Azusa; Arakawa, Osamu; Martin, Cathie

    2014-03-01

    Flowering peach Prunus persica cv. Genpei bears pink and variegated flowers on a single tree. The structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed strongly in pink petals but only very weakly or not at all in variegated petals. A cDNA clone encoding a MYB-like gene, isolated from pink petals was strongly expressed only in pink petals. Introduction of this gene, via biolistics gave magenta spots in the white areas of variegated petals, therefore this gene was named as Peace (peach anthocyanin colour enhancement). Differences in Peace expression determine the pattern of flower colouration in flowering peach. The R2R3 DNA-binding domain of Peace is similar to those of other plant MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Key amino acids for tertiary structure and the motif for interaction with bHLH proteins were conserved in Peace. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Peace is closely related to AtMYB123 (TT2), which regulates proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and to anthocyanin regulators in monocots rather than to regulators in dicots. This is the first report that a TT2-like R2R3 MYB has been shown to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  18. Identification, cloning and characterization of R2R3-MYB gene family in canola (Brassica napus L.) identify a novel member modulating ROS accumulation and hypersensitive-like cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bisi; Niu, Fangfang; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Jingxiao; Ma, Jieyu; Cheng, Hao; Han, Feng; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2016-04-01

    The R2R3-MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some plant species, little is known about R2R3-MYB genes in canola (Brassica napus L.). In this study, we have identified 76 R2R3-MYB genes in the canola genome through mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The cDNA sequences of 44 MYB genes were successfully cloned. The transcriptional activities of BnaMYB proteins encoded by these genes were assayed in yeast. The subcellular localizations of representative R2R3-MYB proteins were investigated through GFP fusion. Besides, the transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions and ABA treatment identified a group of R2R3-MYB genes that responded to one or more treatments. Furthermore, we identified a previously functionally unknown MYB gene-BnaMYB78, which modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, through regulating the transcription of a few ROS- and defence-related genes. Taken together, this study has provided a solid foundation for understanding the roles and regulatory mechanism of canola R2R3-MYB genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  19. Identification, cloning and characterization of R2R3-MYB gene family in canola (Brassica napus L.) identify a novel member modulating ROS accumulation and hypersensitive-like cell death

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bisi; Niu, Fangfang; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Jingxiao; Ma, Jieyu; Cheng, Hao; Han, Feng; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The R2R3-MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some plant species, little is known about R2R3-MYB genes in canola (Brassica napus L.). In this study, we have identified 76 R2R3-MYB genes in the canola genome through mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The cDNA sequences of 44 MYB genes were successfully cloned. The transcriptional activities of BnaMYB proteins encoded by these genes were assayed in yeast. The subcellular localizations of representative R2R3-MYB proteins were investigated through GFP fusion. Besides, the transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions and ABA treatment identified a group of R2R3-MYB genes that responded to one or more treatments. Furthermore, we identified a previously functionally unknown MYB gene-BnaMYB78, which modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, through regulating the transcription of a few ROS- and defence-related genes. Taken together, this study has provided a solid foundation for understanding the roles and regulatory mechanism of canola R2R3-MYB genes. PMID:26800702

  20. The cotton MYB108 forms a positive feedback regulation loop with CML11 and participates in the defense response against Verticillium dahliae infection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huan-Qing; Han, Li-Bo; Yang, Chun-Lin; Wu, Xiao-Min; Zhong, Nai-Qin; Wu, Jia-He; Wang, Fu-Xin; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that plant MYB transcription factors participate in defense against pathogen attack, but their regulatory targets and related signaling processes remain largely unknown. Here, we identified a defense-related MYB gene (GhMYB108) from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and characterized its functional mechanism. Expression of GhMYB108 in cotton plants was induced by Verticillium dahliae infection and responded to the application of defense signaling molecules, including salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Knockdown of GhMYB108 expression led to increased susceptibility of cotton plants to V. dahliae, while ecotopic overexpression of GhMYB108 in Arabidopsis thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to the pathogen. Further analysis demonstrated that GhMYB108 interacted with the calmodulin-like protein GhCML11, and the two proteins form a positive feedback loop to enhance the transcription of GhCML11 in a calcium-dependent manner. Verticillium dahliae infection stimulated Ca2+ influx into the cytosol in cotton root cells, but this response was disrupted in both GhCML11-silenced plants and GhMYB108-silenced plants in which expression of several calcium signaling-related genes was down-regulated. Taken together, these results indicate that GhMYB108 acts as a positive regulator in defense against V. dahliae infection by interacting with GhCML11. Furthermore, the data also revealed the important roles and synergetic regulation of MYB transcription factor, Ca2+, and calmodulin in plant immune responses. PMID:26873979

  1. Identification of 30 MYB transcription factor genes and analysis of their expression during abiotic stress in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Yang, Qingli; Pan, Lijuan; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Mingna; Hu, Dongqing; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    The MYB superfamily constitutes one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors and plays central roles in developmental processes and defense responses in plants. In the work described in this article, 30 unique peanut MYB genes that contained full-length cDNA sequences were isolated. The 30 genes were grouped into three categories: one R1R2R3-MYB, nine R2R3-MYBs and 20 MYB-related members. The sequence composition of the R2 and R3 repeats was conserved among the nine peanut R2R3-MYB proteins. Phylogenetic comparison of the members of this superfamily between peanut and Arabidopsis revealed that the putative functions of some peanut MYB proteins were clustered into the Arabidopsis functional groups. Expression analysis during abiotic stress identified a group of MYB genes that responded to at least one stress treatment. This is the first comprehensive study of the MYB gene family in peanut. © 2013.

  2. Isolation and identification of a putative scent-related gene RhMYB1 from rose.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Wang, Jihua; Tang, Kaixue

    2011-10-01

    Rose fragrances play an important role in attracting pollinators and commercial value. However, some genes involved in rose floral scent metabolism are less well understood. Here, wild-type scented rose (WR) and its spontaneous non-scented mutant rose (MR) were analyzed. SPME-GC/MS analysis showed that relative content of 1-ethenyl-4-methoxy-benzene represented was significantly different between WR and MR. We have isolated an EST encoding a MYB family of transcription factor from SSH libraries of the two roses in the previous studies, and designated RhMYB1. In the study, the full-length cDNA of RhMYB1 was identified and characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The RhMYB1 full-length cDNA was 1,125 bp containing an 882 bp open reading frame, which encodes a precursor protein of 294 amino acids. Sequence alignments revealed that RhMYB1 shared high similarity with other plants R-type MYB, and RhMYB1 contained a DNA binding domain. Northern blot analysis revealed that RhMYB1 was expressed specifically in flower petal, moreover, the expression level of RhMYB1 in WR increased along with scent emission, and decreased when the scent emission decreased. It is suggested that RhMYB1 might be a putative identification of gene involved in the biosynthesis of rose scent.

  3. Regulation of c-myb expression in human neuroblastoma cells during retinoic acid-induced differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, C J; Cohen, P S; Israel, M A

    1988-01-01

    We detected expression of the c-myb proto-oncogene, which was initially thought to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner in cells of hematopoietic lineage, in human tissues of neuronal origin. Since the level of c-myb expression declined during fetal development, we studied the regulation of its expression in human neuroblastoma cell lines induced to differentiate by retinoic acid. The expression of c-myb declined during the maturation of neuroblastoma cells, and this change was mediated by a decrease in c-myb transcription. Images PMID:3380093

  4. Parallel Regulation of von Hippel-Lindau Disease by pVHL-Mediated Degradation of B-Myb and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Keiji; Byrne, Stuart D.; Hirano, Mie; Joo-Okumura, Akiko; Nishikimi, Akihiko; Shuin, Taro; Fukui, Yoshinori; Nakatsukasa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    pVHL, the protein product of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene, is a ubiquitin ligase that targets hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) for proteasomal degradation. Although HIF-α activation is necessary for VHL disease pathogenesis, constitutive activation of HIF-α alone did not induce renal clear cell carcinomas and pheochromocytomas in mice, suggesting the involvement of an HIF-α-independent pathway in VHL pathogenesis. Here, we show that the transcription factor B-Myb is a pVHL substrate that is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- and/or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-dependent tyrosine 15 phosphorylation of B-Myb prevents its degradation. Mice injected with B-Myb knockdown 786-O cells developed dramatically larger tumors than those bearing control cell tumors. Microarray screening of B-Myb-regulated genes showed that the expression of HIF-α-dependent genes was not affected by B-Myb knockdown, indicating that B-Myb prevents HIF-α-dependent tumorigenesis through an HIF-α-independent pathway. These data indicate that the regulation of B-Myb by pVHL plays a critical role in VHL disease. PMID:27090638

  5. Function search in a large transcription factor gene family in Arabidopsis: assessing the potential of reverse genetics to identify insertional mutations in R2R3 MYB genes.

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, R C; Jin, H; Cominelli, E; Denekamp, M; Fuertes, A; Greco, R; Kranz, H D; Penfield, S; Petroni, K; Urzainqui, A; Martin, C; Paz-Ares, J; Smeekens, S; Tonelli, C; Weisshaar, B; Baumann, E; Klimyuk, V; Marillonnet, S; Patel, K; Speulman, E; Tissier, A F; Bouchez, D; Jones, J J; Pereira, A; Wisman, E

    1999-01-01

    More than 92 genes encoding MYB transcription factors of the R2R3 class have been described in Arabidopsis. The functions of a few members of this large gene family have been described, indicating important roles for R2R3 MYB transcription factors in the regulation of secondary metabolism, cell shape, and disease resistance, and in responses to growth regulators and stresses. For the majority of the genes in this family, however, little functional information is available. As the first step to characterizing these genes functionally, the sequences of >90 family members, and the map positions and expression profiles of >60 members, have been determined previously. An important second step in the functional analysis of the MYB family, through a process of reverse genetics that entails the isolation of insertion mutants, is described here. For this purpose, a variety of gene disruption resources has been used, including T-DNA-insertion populations and three distinct populations that harbor transposon insertions. We report the isolation of 47 insertions into 36 distinct MYB genes by screening a total of 73 genes. These defined insertion lines will provide the foundation for subsequent detailed functional analyses for the assignment of specific functions to individual members of the R2R3 MYB gene family. PMID:10521515

  6. Genome-wide sequential, evolutionary, organizational and expression analyses of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis associated MYB domain transcription factors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sunil Kanti; Roy, Sujit

    2017-06-02

    The MYB gene family represents one of the largest groups of transcription factors in plants. Recent evidences have also demonstrated key role of MYB transcription factors in regulating the expression of major genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds which confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plant species. However, no comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the phenylpropanoid pathway-associated MYB transcription factors has been reported thus far. In this study, 11 Arabidopsis MYB proteins, such as MYB3, MYB4, MYB7, MYB11, MYB12, MYB32, MYB75, MYB90, MYB111, MYB113, and MYB114 were initially identified considering their reported regulatory function in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. Subsequent genome-wide analysis have identified the corresponding homologues from Glycine max, Vigna radiata, Oryza sativa, and Zea mays, while homologous of Arabidopsis MYB75, MYB90, MYB113, and MYB114 were not detected in rice and maize genomes. The identified MYB proteins were classified into three groups (I-III) based on phylogeny. Sequence and domain analysis revealed presence of two conserved DNA binding MYB domains in the selected MYB proteins. Promoter analysis indicated presence of cis-regulatory elements related to light signaling, development, and stress response. Expression analysis of selected Arabidopsis MYB genes revealed their function in plant development and abiotic stress response, consistent with gene ontology annotations. Together, these results provide a useful framework for further experimental studies for the functional characterization of the target MYB genes in the context of regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and plant stress response.

  7. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are seed-specific activators for isoflavonoid biosynthesis in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoyan; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Jinyue; Jiang, Wenbo; Di, Shaokang; Pang, Yongzhen

    2017-09-13

    GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are key positive regulators that are involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis in seeds of Glycine max, and they activate the expression of several structural genes in the isoflavonoid pathway. MYB transcription factors (TFs) are major regulators involved in flavonoid/isoflavonoid biosynthesis in many plant species. However, functions of most MYB TFs remain unknown in flavonoid/isoflavonoid pathway in Glycine max. In this study, we identified 321 MYB TFs by genome-wide searching, and further isolated and functionally characterized two MYB TFs, GmMYB58 and GmMYB205. The deduced GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 proteins contain highly conserved R2R3 repeat domain at the N-terminal region that is the signature motif of R2R3-type MYB TFs. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 were highly expressed in early seed development stages than in the other tested organs. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 GFP fusion proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus when they were transiently expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplast. Both GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 can activate the promoter activities of GmCHS, GmIFS2, and GmHID in the transient trans-activation assays, and the activation of GmHID by both GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 was further confirmed by yeast one-hybrid assay. In addition, over-expression of GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 resulted in significant increases in expression levels of several pathway genes in soybean hairy roots, in particular, IFS2 by more than fivefolds in GmMYB205-over-expressing lines. Moreover, isoflavonoid contents were remarkably enhanced in the GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 over-expressing hairy roots than in the control. Our results suggest that GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are seed-specific TFs, and they can enhance isoflavonoid biosynthesis mainly through the regulation of GmIFS2 and GmHID in G. max.

  8. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) MYB10 and bHLH Genes

    PubMed Central

    Starkevič, Pavel; Paukštytė, Jurgita; Kazanavičiūtė, Vaiva; Denkovskienė, Erna; Stanys, Vidmantas; Bendokas, Vidmantas; Šikšnianas, Tadeušas; Ražanskienė, Aušra; Ražanskas, Raimundas

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analyzed their expression in fruits with different anthocyanin levels at several developmental stages, and determined their capabilities to modulate anthocyanin synthesis in leaves of two Nicotiana species. Our results indicate that transcription level of variant PaMYB10.1-1 correlates with fruit coloration, but anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana was induced by another variant, PaMYB10.1-3, which is moderately expressed in fruits. The analysis of two fruit-expressed bHLH genes revealed that PabHLH3 enhances MYB-induced anthocyanin synthesis, whereas PabHLH33 has strong inhibitory properties. PMID:25978735

  9. Expression and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Modulating Potential of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) MYB10 and bHLH Genes.

    PubMed

    Starkevič, Pavel; Paukštytė, Jurgita; Kazanavičiūtė, Vaiva; Denkovskienė, Erna; Stanys, Vidmantas; Bendokas, Vidmantas; Šikšnianas, Tadeušas; Ražanskienė, Aušra; Ražanskas, Raimundas

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are essential contributors to fruit coloration, an important quality feature and a breed determining trait of a sweet cherry fruit. It is well established that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is regulated by an interplay of specific transcription factors belonging to MYB and bHLH families accompanied by a WD40 protein. In this study, we isolated and analyzed PaWD40, PabHLH3, PabHLH33, and several closely related MYB10 gene variants from different cultivars of sweet cherry, analyzed their expression in fruits with different anthocyanin levels at several developmental stages, and determined their capabilities to modulate anthocyanin synthesis in leaves of two Nicotiana species. Our results indicate that transcription level of variant PaMYB10.1-1 correlates with fruit coloration, but anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana was induced by another variant, PaMYB10.1-3, which is moderately expressed in fruits. The analysis of two fruit-expressed bHLH genes revealed that PabHLH3 enhances MYB-induced anthocyanin synthesis, whereas PabHLH33 has strong inhibitory properties.

  10. GaMYB85, an R2R3 MYB gene, in transgenic Arabidopsis plays an important role in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Butt, Hamama Islam; Yang, Zhaoen; Gong, Qian; Chen, Eryong; Wang, Xioaqian; Zhao, Ge; Ge, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Fuguang

    2017-08-22

    MYB transcription factors (TFs) are one of the largest families of TFs in higher plants and are involved in diverse biological, functional, and structural processes. Previously, very few functional validation studies on R2R3 MYB have been conducted in cotton in response to abiotic stresses. In the current study, GaMYB85, a cotton R2R3 MYB TF, was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) and was functionally characterized by overexpression in transgenic plants. The in-silico analysis of GaMYB85 shows the presence of a SANT domain with a conserved R2R3 MYB imperfect repeat. The GaMYB85 protein has a 257-amino acid sequence, a molecular weight of 24.91 kD, and an isoelectric point of 5.58. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GaMYB85 exhibited a higher seed germination rate in response to mannitol and salt stress, and higher drought avoidance efficiency than wild-type plants upon water deprivation. These plants had notably higher levels of free proline and chlorophyll with subsequent lower water loss rates and higher relative water content. Germination of GaMYB85 transgenics was more sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and extremely liable to ABA-induced inhibition of primary root elongation. Moreover, when subjected to treatment with different concentrations of ABA, transgenic plants with ectopically expressed GaMYB85 showed reduced stomatal density, with greater stomatal size and lower stomatal opening rates than those in wild-type plants. Ectopic expression of GaMYB85 led to enhanced transcript levels of stress-related marker genes such as RD22, ADH1, RD29A, P5CS, and ABI5. Our results indicate previously unknown roles of GaMYB85, showing that it confers good drought, salt, and freezing tolerance, most probably via an ABA-induced pathway. These findings can potentially be exploited to develop improved abiotic stress tolerance in cotton plants.

  11. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB112 Promotes Anthocyanin Formation during Salinity and under High Light Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lotkowska, Magda E.; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Xue, Gang-Ping; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    MYB transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators of flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. Here, we report MYB112 as a formerly unknown regulator of anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Expression profiling after chemically induced overexpression of MYB112 identified 28 up- and 28 down-regulated genes 5 h after inducer treatment, including MYB7 and MYB32, which are both induced. In addition, upon extended induction, MYB112 also positively affects the expression of PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, a key TF of anthocyanin biosynthesis, but acts negatively toward MYB12 and MYB111, which both control flavonol biosynthesis. MYB112 binds to an 8-bp DNA fragment containing the core sequence (A/T/G)(A/C)CC(A/T)(A/G/T)(A/C)(T/C). By electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we show that MYB112 binds in vitro and in vivo to MYB7 and MYB32 promoters, revealing them as direct downstream target genes. We further show that MYB112 expression is up-regulated by salinity and high light stress, environmental parameters that both require the MYB112 TF for anthocyanin accumulation under these stresses. In contrast to several other MYB TFs affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis, MYB112 expression is not controlled by nitrogen limitation or an excess of carbon. Thus, MYB112 constitutes a regulator that promotes anthocyanin accumulation under abiotic stress conditions. PMID:26378103

  12. Coordinate regulation of myelomonocytic phenotype by v-myb and v-myc.

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, G; Klempnauer, K H; Snyder, M; Moscovici, G; Moscovici, C; Bishop, J M

    1986-01-01

    Both avian myeloblastosis virus (by the action of v-myb) and avian myelocytomatosis virus MC29 (by the action of v-myc) transform cells of the myelomonocytic lineage. Whereas avian myeloblastosis virus elicits a relatively immature phenotype, cells transformed by MC29 resemble mature macrophages. When cells previously transformed by v-myb were superinfected with MC29, their phenotype was rapidly altered to that of a more mature cell. These superinfected cells expressed both v-myb (at a level similar to that found before superinfection) and v-myc. It therefore appears that the expression of v-myc can elicit certain properties of a more differentiated phenotype. In addition, unlike cells transformed by v-myb alone, the cells expressing both v-myb and v-myc could not be induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to differentiate to fully mature macrophages. Cells with a morphology similar to that of the superinfected cells were elicited by simultaneously infecting yolk sac macrophages with avian myeloblastosis virus and MC29. Such cells expressed both v-myb and v-myc. These results indicate that expression of v-myb and v-myc in infected cells coordinately regulates myelomonocytic phenotype and that the two viral oncogenes vary in their ability to interfere with tumor promoter-induced differentiation. Our findings also sustain previous suggestions that the oncogenes v-myb and v-myc may not transform target cells by simply blocking differentiation. Images PMID:3023905

  13. MYB97, MYB101 and MYB120 Function as Male Factors That Control Pollen Tube-Synergid Interaction in Arabidopsis thaliana Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Niu, Qian-Kun; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Li, Meng; Chen, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Ye, De

    2013-01-01

    Pollen tube reception involves a pollen tube-synergid interaction that controls the discharge of sperm cells into the embryo sac during plant fertilization. Despite its importance in the sexual reproduction of plants, little is known about the role of gene regulation in this process. We report here that the pollen-expressed transcription factors MYB97, MYB101 and MYB120 probably control genes whose encoded proteins play important roles in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen tube reception. They share a high amino acid sequence identity and are expressed mainly in mature pollen grains and pollen tubes. None of the single or double mutants of these three genes exhibited any visible defective phenotype. Although the myb97 myb101 myb120 triple mutant was not defective in pollen development, pollen germination, pollen tube growth or tube guidance, the pollen tubes of the triple mutants exhibited uncontrolled growth and failed to discharge their sperm cells after entering the embryo sac. In addition, the myb97 myb101 myb120 triple mutation significantly affected the expression of a group of pollen-expressed genes in mature pollen grains. All these results indicate that MYB97, MYB101 and MYB120 participate in pollen tube reception, possibly by controlling the expression of downstream genes. PMID:24278028

  14. c-Myb Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Adventitial Sca1+ Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Progenitors by Transactivation of Myocardin.

    PubMed

    Shikatani, Eric A; Chandy, Mark; Besla, Rickvinder; Li, Cedric C; Momen, Abdul; El-Mounayri, Omar; Robbins, Clinton S; Husain, Mansoor

    2016-07-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are believed to dedifferentiate and proliferate in response to vessel injury. Recently, adventitial progenitor cells were implicated as a source of VSMCs involved in vessel remodeling. c-Myb is a transcription factor known to regulate VSMC proliferation in vivo and differentiation of VSMCs from mouse embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors in vitro. However, the role of c-Myb in regulating specific adult vascular progenitor cell populations was not known. Our objective was to examine the role of c-Myb in the proliferation and differentiation of Sca1(+) adventitial VSMC progenitor cells. Using mice with wild-type or hypomorphic c-myb (c-myb(h/h)), BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) uptake and flow cytometry revealed defective proliferation of Sca1(+) adventitial VSMC progenitor cells at 8, 14, and 28 days post carotid artery denudation injury in c-myb(h/h) arteries. c-myb(h/h) cKit(+)CD34(-)Flk1(-)Sca1(+)CD45(-)Lin(-) cells failed to proliferate, suggesting that c-myb regulates the activation of specific Sca1(+) progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Although expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 did not vary between wild-type and c-myb(h/h) carotid arteries, in vitro differentiation of c-myb(h/h) Sca1(+) cells manifested defective transforming growth factor-β1-induced VSMC differentiation. This is mediated by reduced transcriptional activation of myocardin because chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed c-Myb binding to the myocardin promoter only during differentiation of Sca1(+) cells, myocardin promoter mutagenesis identified 2 specific c-Myb-responsive binding sites, and adenovirus-mediated expression of myocardin rescued the phenotype of c-myb(h/h) progenitors. These data support a role for c-Myb in the regulation of VSMC progenitor cells and provide novel insight into how c-myb regulates VSMC differentiation through myocardin. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The dREAM/Myb-MuvB complex and Grim are key regulators of the programmed death of neural precursor cells at the Drosophila posterior wing margin.

    PubMed

    Rovani, Margritte K; Brachmann, Carrie Baker; Ramsay, Gary; Katzen, Alisa L

    2012-12-01

    Successful development of a multicellular organism depends on the finely tuned orchestration of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis from embryogenesis through adulthood. The MYB-gene family encodes sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors that have been implicated in the regulation of both normal and neoplastic growth. The Drosophila Myb protein, DMyb (and vertebrate B-Myb protein), has been shown to be part of the dREAM/MMB complex, a large multi-subunit complex, which in addition to four Myb-interacting proteins including Mip130, contains repressive E2F and pRB proteins. This complex has been implicated in the regulation of DNA replication within the context of chorion gene amplification and transcriptional regulation of a wide array of genes. Detailed phenotypic analysis of mutations in the Drosophila myb gene, Dm myb, has revealed a previously undiscovered function for the dREAM/MMB complex in regulating programmed cell death (PCD). In cooperation with the pro-apoptotic protein Grim and dREAM/MMB, DMyb promotes the PCD of specified sensory organ precursor daughter cells in at least two different settings in the peripheral nervous system: the pIIIb precursor of the neuron and sheath cells in the posterior wing margin and the glial cell in the thoracic microchaete lineage. Unlike previously analyzed settings, in which the main role of DMyb has been to antagonize the activities of other dREAM/MMB complex members, it appears to be the critical effector in promoting PCD. The finding that Dm myb and grim are both involved in regulating PCD in two distinct settings suggests that these two genes may often work together to mediate PCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MYB10 and MYB72 Are Required for Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christine M.; Hindt, Maria N.; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for photosynthesis and is often a limiting nutrient for plant productivity. Plants respond to conditions of iron deficiency by increasing transcript abundance of key genes involved in iron homeostasis, but only a few regulators of these genes have been identified. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we searched for transcription factors that are induced within 24 hours after transferring plants to iron-deficient growth conditions. Out of nearly 100 transcription factors shown to be up-regulated, we identified MYB10 and MYB72 as the most highly induced transcription factors. Here, we show that MYB10 and MYB72 are functionally redundant and are required for plant survival in alkaline soil where iron availability is greatly restricted. myb10myb72 double mutants fail to induce transcript accumulation of the nicotianamine synthase gene NAS4. Both myb10myb72 mutants and nas4-1 mutants have reduced iron concentrations, chlorophyll levels, and shoot mass under iron-limiting conditions, indicating that these genes are essential for proper plant growth. The double myb10myb72 mutant also showed nickel and zinc sensitivity, similar to the nas4 mutant. Ectopic expression of NAS4 rescues myb10myb72 plants, suggesting that loss of NAS4 is the primary defect in these plants and emphasizes the importance of nicotianamine, an iron chelator, in iron homeostasis. Overall, our results provide evidence that MYB10 and MYB72 act early in the iron-deficiency regulatory cascade to drive gene expression of NAS4 and are essential for plant survival under iron deficiency. PMID:24278034

  17. Expression of the MYB transcription factor gene BplMYB46 affects abiotic stress tolerance and secondary cell wall deposition in Betula platyphylla.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Wang, Liuqiang; Hu, Ping; Wang, Yanmin; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunrui; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuanping

    2017-01-01

    Plant MYB transcription factors control diverse biological processes, such as differentiation, development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, we characterized BplMYB46, an MYB gene from Betula platyphylla (birch) that is involved in both abiotic stress tolerance and secondary wall biosynthesis. BplMYB46 can act as a transcriptional activator in yeast and tobacco. We generated transgenic birch plants with overexpressing or silencing of BplMYB46 and subjected them to gain- or loss-of-function analysis. The results suggest that BplMYB46 improves salt and osmotic tolerance by affecting the expression of genes including SOD, POD and P5CS to increase both reactive oxygen species scavenging and proline levels. In addition, BplMYB46 appears to be involved in controlling stomatal aperture to reduce water loss. Overexpression of BplMYB46 increases lignin deposition, secondary cell wall thickness and the expression of genes in secondary cell wall formation. Further analysis indicated that BplMYB46 binds to MYBCORE and AC-box motifs and may directly activate the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress responses and secondary cell wall biosynthesis whose promoters contain these motifs. The transgenic BplMYB46-overexpressing birch plants, which have improved salt and osmotic stress tolerance, higher lignin and cellulose content and lower hemicellulose content than the control, have potential applications in the forestry industry. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. NaMYB8 regulates distinct, optimally distributed herbivore defense traits.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Xu, Shuqing; Ling, Zhihao; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T; Schuman, Meredith C

    2017-08-26

    When herbivores attack, plants specifically reconfigure their metabolism. Herbivory on the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata strongly induces the R2/R3 MYB transcriptional activator MYB8, which was reported to specifically regulate the accumulation of phenolamides (PAs). We discovered that transcriptional regulation of trypsin protease inhibitors (TPIs) and a threonine deaminase (TD) also depend on MYB8 expression. Induced distributions of PAs, TD and TPIs all meet predictions of optimal defense theory: their leaf concentrations increase with the fitness value and the probability of attack of the tissue. Therefore, we suggest that these defensive compounds have evolved to be co-regulated by MYB8. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Apparent redundancy in myb gene function provides gearing for the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in antirrhinum flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, E; Martínez-Garcia, J F; Martin, C

    1996-01-01

    Two Myb-related transcription factors, Myb305 and Myb340, are expressed specifically in flowers of Antirrhinum. The proteins are structurally very similar throughout their DNA binding domains, implying that they bind to common target motifs. This binding has been demonstrated experimentally. Myb305 has been shown to activate the gene encoding the first enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. We show that Myb340 can also activate transcription from the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene promoter and that both transcription factors can activate two other genes involved in flavonoid metabolism, thereby linking early and later steps in plant secondary metabolism. Myb340 is a stronger activator than Myb305, but relatively more Myb305 than Myb340 protein is able to bind to target promoters when both proteins are synthesized in yeast or Escherichia coli, probably as a result of inhibition of Myb340 binding by phosphorylation. This means that Myb305 can compete with Myb340 to reduce its effective transcriptional activation when both transcription factors are expressed in the same cell. This competitive interaction has been demonstrated in plant cells. Expression patterns determined by in situ hybridization showed that the two transcription factors are expressed within the same cells of the flower and imply that the detailed specializations in function of these two apparently redundant transcription factors may be used to provide gears that adjust the rate of induction of secondary metabolism to floral development. PMID:8837506

  20. Expression of SANT/HTH Myb mRNA, a plant morphogenesis-regulating transcription factor, changes due to viroid infection.

    PubMed

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Piernikarczyk, Rajen J J; Týcová, Anna; Duraisamy, Ganesh S; Kocábek, Tomáš; Steger, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) belongs to plant-pathogenic, circular, non-coding RNAs. Its propagation is accompanied by (mis)regulation of host genes and induction of pathogenesis symptoms including changes of leaf morphogenesis depending on the strength of viroid variant. We found strong genotype-dependent suppression of tomato morphogenesis-regulating transcription factor SANT/HTH-Myb (SlMyb) due to viroid pathogenesis. Its relative mRNA level was found to be significantly decreased in PSTVd-sensitive tomato (cvs Rutgers and Heinz 1706) due to degradation processes, but increased in PSTVd-tolerant (cv. Harzfeuer). In heterologous system of Nicotiana benthamiana, we observed a SlMyb-associated necrotic effect in agroinfiltrated leaf sectors during ectopic overexpression. Leaf sector necroses were accompanied by activation of nucleolytic enzymes but were suppressed by a strongly pathogenic PSTVd variant. Contrary to that, PSTVd's effect was inhibited by the silencing suppressor p19. It was found that in both, Solanum lycopersicum leaves and N. benthamiana leaf sectors, SlMyb mRNA degradation was significantly stronger in viroid-infected tissues. Necroses induction as well as gene silencing experiments using the SANT/HTH-Myb homologues revealed involvement of this Myb in physiological changes like distortions in flower morphogenesis and growth suppression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of R2R3-MYB Genes and Expression Analyses During Abiotic Stress in Gossypium raimondii

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiuling; Jones, Don C.; Li, Wei; Xie, Fuliang; Ma, Jun; Sun, Runrun; Wang, Qinglian; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    The R2R3-MYB is one of the largest families of transcription factors, which have been implicated in multiple biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of R2R3-MYB genes in different plants. However, there is no report on genome-wide characterization of this gene family in cotton. In the present study, a total of 205 putative R2R3-MYB genes were identified in cotton D genome (Gossypium raimondii), that are much larger than that found in other cash crops with fully sequenced genomes. These GrMYBs were classified into 13 groups with the R2R3-MYB genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The amino acid motifs and phylogenetic tree were predicted and analyzed. The sequences of GrMYBs were distributed across 13 chromosomes at various densities. The results showed that the expansion of the G. Raimondii R2R3-MYB family was mainly attributable to whole genome duplication and segmental duplication. Moreover, the expression pattern of 52 selected GrMYBs and 46 GaMYBs were tested in roots and leaves under different abiotic stress conditions. The results revealed that the MYB genes in cotton were differentially expressed under salt and drought stress treatment. Our results will be useful for determining the precise role of the MYB genes during stress responses with crop improvement. PMID:27009386

  2. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles1

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C.; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (EMISSION OF BENZENOID II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles. PMID:25931522

  3. [Cloning and functional analysis of Phyllostachys edulis MYB transcription factor PeMYB2].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong-Chang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Ying-Wu; Yang, Li; Zhang, Feng-Xue; Wang, Chao-Li

    2013-10-01

    MYB-type transcription factor is one of the largest families in plants, which plays important roles in accepting stress signals from environment and regulating the expression of stress-tolerant genes. In this paper, using homologous cloning and RACE technology, a MYB-type transcription factor, designated PeMYB2, was cloned from Phyllostachys edulis. The results of bioinformatics showed that PeMYB2 is a typical R2R3-MYB. It contained two tandem repeats in its N-terminus, and a membrane protein DUF3651 in its C-terminus. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeMYB2 shared the highest homology with 85.98% to OsMYB18 protein from Oryza sativa spp. Japonica. In addition, a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PeMYB2 could activate the expression of downstream genes. After PeMYB2 was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, seven PeMYB2 transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis showed that over-expression of PeMYB2 caused delayed flower or dwarfism in transgenic Arabidopsis. Under the abiotic stress conditions, such as salt and cold stresses, the over-expression of PeMYB2 in Arabidopsis had higher survival rate than the wild-type Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in the transgenic and wild-type plants under the salt stress condition showed that PeMYB2 regulated the expression of NXH1, SOS1, RD29A, and COR15A. As the result, PeMYB2 might play an important role in various responses to abiotic stresses in P. edulis.

  4. MdMYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin and Malate Accumulation by Directly Facilitating Their Transport into Vacuoles in Apples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Da-Gang; Sun, Cui-Hui; Ma, Qi-Jun; You, Chun-Xiang; Cheng, Lailiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Tonoplast transporters, including proton pumps and secondary transporters, are essential for plant cell function and for quality formation of fleshy fruits and ornamentals. Vacuolar transport of anthocyanins, malate, and other metabolites is directly or indirectly dependent on the H(+)-pumping activities of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA) and/or vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase, but how these proton pumps are regulated in modulating vacuolar transport is largely unknown. Here, we report a transcription factor, MdMYB1, in apples that binds to the promoters of two genes encoding the B subunits of VHA, MdVHA-B1 and MdVHA-B2, to transcriptionally activate its expression, thereby enhancing VHA activity. A series of transgenic analyses in apples demonstrates that MdMYB1/10 controls cell pH and anthocyanin accumulation partially by regulating MdVHA-B1 and MdVHA-B2. Furthermore, several other direct target genes of MdMYB10 are identified, including MdVHA-E2, MdVHP1, MdMATE-LIKE1, and MdtDT, which are involved in H(+)-pumping or in the transport of anthocyanins and malates into vacuoles. Finally, we show that the mechanism by which MYB controls malate and anthocyanin accumulation in apples also operates in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These findings provide novel insights into how MYB transcription factors directly modulate the vacuolar transport system in addition to anthocyanin biosynthesis, consequently controlling organ coloration and cell pH in plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. MdMYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin and Malate Accumulation by Directly Facilitating Their Transport into Vacuoles in Apples1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Da-Gang; Sun, Cui-Hui; Ma, Qi-Jun; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Tonoplast transporters, including proton pumps and secondary transporters, are essential for plant cell function and for quality formation of fleshy fruits and ornamentals. Vacuolar transport of anthocyanins, malate, and other metabolites is directly or indirectly dependent on the H+-pumping activities of vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA) and/or vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase, but how these proton pumps are regulated in modulating vacuolar transport is largely unknown. Here, we report a transcription factor, MdMYB1, in apples that binds to the promoters of two genes encoding the B subunits of VHA, MdVHA-B1 and MdVHA-B2, to transcriptionally activate its expression, thereby enhancing VHA activity. A series of transgenic analyses in apples demonstrates that MdMYB1/10 controls cell pH and anthocyanin accumulation partially by regulating MdVHA-B1 and MdVHA-B2. Furthermore, several other direct target genes of MdMYB10 are identified, including MdVHA-E2, MdVHP1, MdMATE-LIKE1, and MdtDT, which are involved in H+-pumping or in the transport of anthocyanins and malates into vacuoles. Finally, we show that the mechanism by which MYB controls malate and anthocyanin accumulation in apples also operates in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These findings provide novel insights into how MYB transcription factors directly modulate the vacuolar transport system in addition to anthocyanin biosynthesis, consequently controlling organ coloration and cell pH in plants. PMID:26637549

  6. The VviMYB80 Gene is Abnormally Expressed in Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong' and its Expression in Tobacco Driven by the 35S Promoter Causes Male Sterility.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huan; Yu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Yaguang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Meng; Ji, Chenfei; Liu, Qian; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-03-01

    Anther development is a very precise and complicated process. In Arabidopsis, the AtMYB80 transcription factor regulates genes involved in pollen development and controls the timing of tapetal programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNA for VviMYB80 expressed in flower buds of male-sterile Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong', a late-maturing cultivar derived from self-progeny of cv. 'Wink'. VviMYB80 belongs to the MYB80 subfamily and clusters with AtMYB35/TDF1 in a distinct clade. We found that in flower buds, expression of the VviMYB80 gene in cv. 'Zhong Shan Hong' sharply increased at the tetrad stage, resulting in a higher and earlier transcript level than that found in cv. 'Wink'. Expression of the VviMYB80 gene, driven by the 35S promoter, caused pleiotropic effects on the stamens, including smaller and shriveled anthers, delayed dehiscence, fewer seeds, shorter anther filaments, distorted pollen shape and a lack of cytoplasm, with the tapetum exhibiting hypertrophy in transformed tobacco. These results suggest that VviMYB80 may play an important role in stamen development and that expression of VviMYB80 driven by the 35S promoter in tobacco induces male sterility. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Poplar PdC3H17 and PdC3H18 are direct targets of PdMYB3 and PdMYB21, and positively regulate secondary wall formation in Arabidopsis and poplar.

    PubMed

    Chai, Guohua; Qi, Guang; Cao, Yingping; Wang, Zengguang; Yu, Li; Tang, Xianfeng; Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Dian; Kong, Yingzhen; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-07-01

    Wood biomass is mainly made of secondary cell walls, whose formation is controlled by a multilevel network. The tandem CCCH zinc finger (TZF) proteins involved in plant secondary wall formation are poorly understood. Two TZF genes, PdC3H17 and PdC3H18, were isolated from Populus deltoides and functionally characterized in Escherichia coli, tobacco, Arabidopsis and poplar. PdC3H17 and PdC3H18 are predominantly expressed in cells of developing wood, and the proteins they encode are targeted to cytoplasmic foci. Transcriptional activation assays showed that PdMYB2/3/20/21 individually activated the PdC3H17 and PdC3H18 promoters, but PdMYB3/21 were most significant. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that PdMYB3/21 bound directly to the PdC3H17/18 promoters. Overexpression of PdC3H17/18 in poplar increased secondary xylem width and secondary wall thickening in stems, whereas dominant repressors of them had the opposite effects on these traits. Similar alteration in secondary wall thickening was observed in their transgenic Arabidopsis plants. qRT-PCR results showed that PdC3H17/18 regulated the expression of cellulose, xylan and lignin biosynthetic genes, and several wood-associated MYB genes. These results demonstrate that PdC3H17 and PdC3H18 are the targets of PdMYB3 and PdMYB21 and are an additional two components in the regulatory network of secondary xylem formation in poplar.

  8. MdCOP1 ubiquitin E3 ligases interact with MdMYB1 to regulate light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and red fruit coloration in apple.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-10-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species.

  9. A Small Family of MYB-Regulatory Genes Controls Floral Pigmentation Intensity and Patterning in the Genus Antirrhinum[W

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Kathy; Venail, Julien; Shang, Yongjin; Mackay, Steve; Alm, Vibeke; Butelli, Eugenio; Oyama, Ryan; Bailey, Paul; Davies, Kevin; Martin, Cathie

    2006-01-01

    The Rosea1, Rosea2, and Venosa genes encode MYB-related transcription factors active in the flowers of Antirrhinum majus. Analysis of mutant phenotypes shows that these genes control the intensity and pattern of magenta anthocyanin pigmentation in flowers. Despite the structural similarity of these regulatory proteins, they influence the expression of target genes encoding the enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthesis with different specificities. Consequently, they are not equivalent biochemically in their activities. Different species of the genus Antirrhinum, native to Spain and Portugal, show striking differences in their patterns and intensities of floral pigmentation. Differences in anthocyanin pigmentation between at least six species are attributable to variations in the activity of the Rosea and Venosa loci. Set in the context of our understanding of the regulation of anthocyanin production in other genera, the activity of MYB-related genes is probably a primary cause of natural variation in anthocyanin pigmentation in plants. PMID:16531495

  10. Large scale in silico identification of MYB family genes from wheat expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongsheng; Tian, Shan; Dong, Hansong

    2012-10-01

    The MYB proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. Much research has been performed to determine their structures, functions, and evolution, especially in the model plants, Arabidopsis, and rice. However, this transcription factor family has been much less studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum), for which no genome sequence is yet available. Despite this, expressed sequence tags are an important resource that permits opportunities for large scale gene identification. In this study, a total of 218 sequences from wheat were identified and confirmed to be putative MYB proteins, including 1RMYB, R2R3-type MYB, 3RMYB, and 4RMYB types. A total of 36 R2R3-type MYB genes with complete open reading frames were obtained. The putative orthologs were assigned in rice and Arabidopsis based on the phylogenetic tree. Tissue-specific expression pattern analyses confirmed the predicted orthologs, and this meant that gene information could be inferred from the Arabidopsis genes. Moreover, the motifs flanking the MYB domain were analyzed using the MEME web server. The distribution of motifs among wheat MYB proteins was investigated and this facilitated subfamily classification.

  11. Dual DNA binding specificity of a petal epidermis-specific MYB transcription factor (MYB.Ph3) from Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed Central

    Solano, R; Nieto, C; Avila, J; Cañas, L; Diaz, I; Paz-Ares, J

    1995-01-01

    The MYB.Ph3 protein recognized two DNA sequences that resemble the two known types of MYB DNA binding site: consensus I (MBSI), aaaAaaC(G/C)-GTTA, and consensus II (MBSII), aaaAGTTAGTTA. Optimal MBSI was recognized by animal c-MYB and not by Am305 from Antirrhinum, whereas MBSII showed the reverse behaviour. Different constraints on MYB.Ph3 binding to the two classes of sequences were demonstrated. DNA binding studies with mutated MBSI and MBSII and hydroxyl radical footprinting analysis, pointed to the N-terminal MYB repeat (R2) as the most involved in determining the dual DNA binding specificity of MYB.Ph3 and supported the idea that binding to MBSI and MBSII does not involve alternative orientations of the two repeats of MYB.Ph3. Minimal promoters containing either MBSI and MBSII were activated to the same extent by MYB.Ph3 in yeast, indicating that both types of binding site can be functionally equivalent. MYB.Ph3 binding sites are present in the promoter of flavonoid biosynthetic genes, such as the Petunia chsJ gene, which was transcriptionally activated by MYB.Ph3 in tobacco protoplasts. MYB.Ph3 was immunolocalized in the epidermal cell layer of petals, where flavonoid biosynthetic genes are actively expressed. This strongly suggests a role for MYB.Ph3 in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. Images PMID:7737128

  12. Genome-wide classification and expression analysis of MYB transcription factor families in rice and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The MYB gene family comprises one of the richest groups of transcription factors in plants. Plant MYB proteins are characterized by a highly conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. MYB proteins are classified into four major groups namely, 1R-MYB, 2R-MYB, 3R-MYB and 4R-MYB based on the number and position of MYB repeats. MYB transcription factors are involved in plant development, secondary metabolism, hormone signal transduction, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. A comparative analysis of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis will help reveal the evolution and function of MYB genes in plants. Results A genome-wide analysis identified at least 155 and 197 MYB genes in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Gene structure analysis revealed that MYB family genes possess relatively more number of introns in the middle as compared with C- and N-terminal regions of the predicted genes. Intronless MYB-genes are highly conserved both in rice and Arabidopsis. MYB genes encoding R2R3 repeat MYB proteins retained conserved gene structure with three exons and two introns, whereas genes encoding R1R2R3 repeat containing proteins consist of six exons and five introns. The splicing pattern is similar among R1R2R3 MYB genes in Arabidopsis. In contrast, variation in splicing pattern was observed among R1R2R3 MYB members of rice. Consensus motif analysis of 1kb upstream region (5′ to translation initiation codon) of MYB gene ORFs led to the identification of conserved and over-represented cis-motifs in both rice and Arabidopsis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that several members of MYBs are up-regulated by various abiotic stresses both in rice and Arabidopsis. Conclusion A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of chromosomal distribution, tandem repeats and phylogenetic relationship of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggested their evolution via duplication. Genome-wide comparative analysis of MYB genes and their expression analysis

  13. A MYB transcription factor regulates very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis for activation of the hypersensitive cell death response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Raffaele, Sylvain; Vailleau, Fabienne; Léger, Amandine; Joubès, Jérôme; Miersch, Otto; Huard, Carine; Blée, Elisabeth; Mongrand, Sébastien; Domergue, Frédéric; Roby, Dominique

    2008-03-01

    Plant immune responses to pathogen attack include the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death occurring at invasion sites. We previously reported on Arabidopsis thaliana MYB30, a transcription factor that acts as a positive regulator of a cell death pathway conditioning the HR. Here, we show by microarray analyses of Arabidopsis plants misexpressing MYB30 that the genes encoding the four enzymes forming the acyl-coA elongase complex are putative MYB30 targets. The acyl-coA elongase complex synthesizes very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), and the accumulation of extracellular VLCFA-derived metabolites (leaf epidermal wax components) was affected in MYB30 knockout mutant and overexpressing lines. In the same lines, a lipid extraction procedure allowing high recovery of sphingolipids revealed changes in VLCFA contents that were amplified in response to inoculation. Finally, the exacerbated HR phenotype of MYB30-overexpressing lines was altered by the loss of function of the acyl-ACP thioesterase FATB, which causes severe defects in the supply of fatty acids for VLCFA biosynthesis. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which MYB30 modulates HR via VLCFAs by themselves, or VLCFA derivatives, as cell death messengers in plants.

  14. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering.

  15. Transgene silencing and transgene-derived siRNA production in tobacco plants homozygous for an introduced AtMYB90 construct

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines were engineered to ectopically over-express AtMYB90 (PAP2), an R2-R3 Myb gene associated with regulation of anthocyanin production in Arabidopsis thaliana. Independently transformed transgenic lines Myb27 and Myb237 accumulated large quantities of anthoc...

  16. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit color.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Orzaez, Diego; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tripodi, Pasquale; Grandillo, Silvana; Martin, Cathie; Heldens, Jos; Ykema, Marieke; Granell, Antonio; Bovy, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines had a homozygous S. chmielewskii introgression on the short arm of chromosome 1, consistent with the position of the y (yellow) mutation known to result in colorless epidermis, and hence pink-colored fruit, when combined with a red flesh. Metabolic analysis showed that pink fruit lack the ripening-dependent accumulation of the yellow-colored flavonoid naringenin chalcone in the fruit peel, while carotenoid levels are not affected. The expression of all genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes involved in the production of the flavonol rutin from naringenin chalcone was down-regulated in pink fruit, suggesting that the candidate gene underlying the pink phenotype encodes a regulatory protein such as a transcription factor rather than a biosynthetic enzyme. Of 26 MYB and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors putatively involved in regulating transcription of genes in the phenylpropanoid and/or flavonoid pathway, only the expression level of the MYB12 gene correlated well with the decrease in the expression of structural flavonoid genes in peel samples of pink- and red-fruited genotypes during ripening. Genetic mapping and segregation analysis showed that MYB12 is located on chromosome 1 and segregates perfectly with the characteristic pink fruit color. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlMYB12 resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of naringenin chalcone, a phenotype consistent with the pink-colored tomato fruit of IL1b. In conclusion, biochemical and molecular data, gene mapping, segregation analysis, and virus-induced gene silencing experiments demonstrate that the MYB12 transcription factor plays an important role in regulating the flavonoid pathway in tomato fruit

  17. The Medicago truncatula R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene MtMYBS1 enhances salinity tolerance when constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Song, Yuguang; Zhao, Zhong; Qiu, Nian Wei; Liu, Xijiang; Guo, Weihua

    2017-08-19

    MYB-type proteins are known to participate in many stress responses, although their role in legumes is still less clear. Here, the isolation and characterization of MtMYBS1, an R2R3 MYB gene isolated from the model legume Medicago truncatula, is described. MtMYBS1 transcription was inducible by NaCl, polyethylene glycol or abscisic acid (ABA). When tested in yeast, its product was shown to have transactivational activity. The constitutive expression of MtMYBS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings mitigated the restriction on root growth imposed by either salinity or osmotic stress and raised their sensitivity to ABA. It also resulted in the plants being able to overcome several growth constraints and promoted activity in both the ABA-dependent and -independent stress-responsive pathways. In particular, it enhanced the transcription of P5CS, a gene which encodes a component of proline synthesis. MtMYBS1 may prove to be a useful gene for manipulating the salinity tolerance of legumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Functional Divergence of MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Xue, Cheng; Li, Jiaming; Qiao, Xin; Li, Leiting; Yu, Li'ang; Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The MYB superfamily is large and functionally diverse in plants. To date, MYB family genes have not yet been identified in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and their functions remain unclear. In this study, we identified 231 genes as candidate MYB genes and divided them into four subfamilies. The R2R3-MYB (PbrMYB) family shared an R2R3 domain with 104 amino acid residues, including five conserved tryptophan residues. The Pbr MYB family was divided into 37 functional subgroups including 33 subgroups which contained both MYB genes of Rosaceae plants and AtMYB genes, and four subgroups which included only Rosaceae MYB genes or AtMYB genes. PbrMYB genes with similar functions clustered into the same subgroup, indicating functional conservation. We also found that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplications played critical roles in the expansion of the MYB family. The 87 Pbr MYB duplicated gene pairs dated back to the two WGD events. Purifying selection was the primary force driving Pbr MYB gene evolution. The 15 gene pairs presented 1-7 codon sites under positive selection. A total of 147 expressed genes were identified from RNA-sequencing data of fruit, and six Pbr MYB members in subgroup C1 were identified as important candidate genes in the regulation of lignin synthesis by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Further correlation analysis revealed that six PbrMYBs were significantly correlated with five structural gene families (F5H, HCT, CCR, POD and C3'H) in the lignin pathway. The phylogenetic, evolution and expression analyses of the MYB gene family in Chinese white pear establish a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of Pbr MYB genes.

  19. New perspective of the bHLH-MYB complex in jasmonate-regulated plant fertility in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Huang, Huang; Qi, Tiancong; Liu, Bei; Song, Susheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Jasmonates (JAs) are a class of plant hormones, essential in plant development and defense. JA induces the interaction of the JA receptor Coronatine Insensitive 1 with jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, and promotes subsequent JAZs degradation, leading to the release of downstream factors and activation of diverse plant development and defense processes. We recently revealed that the IIIe bHLH transcription factors MYC2, MYC3, MYC4 and MYC5 interact with the MYB transcription factors MYB21 and MYB24 to form the bHLH-MYB complex, and JAZs repress the bHLH-MYB complex to regulate JA-mediated stamen development. Here, we further discuss the different properties of the components of the bHLH-MYB complex in expression pattern and stamen regulation. PMID:26829586

  20. EjODO1, a MYB Transcription Factor, Regulating Lignin Biosynthesis in Developing Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Ge, Hang; Zang, Chen; Li, Xian; Grierson, Donald; Chen, Kun-song; Yin, Xue-ren

    2016-01-01

    Lignin is important for plant secondary cell wall formation and participates in resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Loquat undergoes lignification not only in vegetative tissues but also in flesh of postharvest fruit, which adversely affects consumer acceptance. Thus, researches on lignin biosynthesis and regulation are important to understand loquat fruit lignification. In loquat, a gene encoding an enzyme in the lignin biosynthesis pathway, Ej4CL1, was reported to be regulated by transcription factors, including EjMYB1, EjMYB2, EjMYB8, and EjAP2-1, knowledge of this process is still limited. With the aim of identifying novel transcriptional factors controlling lignin biosynthesis in loquat, the promoter of Ej4CL1 was utilized to screen a cDNA library by yeast one hybrid assay. A novel R2R3 MYB, named EjODO1, was identified. Real-time PCR analyses indicated that EjODO1 is highly expressed in lignified stems and roots. During fruit development, expression of EjODO1 decreased along with the reduction of lignin content and became undetectable in mature ripe fruit. Thus, EjODO1 is likely to be involved in lignification of vegetative organs and early fruit development but not in mature fruit or postharvest lignification. Dual-luciferase assay indicated that EjODO1 could trans-activate promoters of lignin biosynthesis genes, such as EjPAL1, Ej4CL1, and Ej4CL5 and transient overexpression of EjODO1 triggered lignin biosynthesis. These results indicate a role for EjODO1 in regulating lignin biosynthesis in loquat which is different from the previously characterized transcription factors. PMID:27695460

  1. Peace, a MYB-like transcription factor, regulates petal pigmentation in flowering peach ‘Genpei’ bearing variegated and fully pigmented flowers

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Chiyomi; Inagaki, Azusa

    2014-01-01

    Flowering peach Prunus persica cv. Genpei bears pink and variegated flowers on a single tree. The structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed strongly in pink petals but only very weakly or not at all in variegated petals. A cDNA clone encoding a MYB-like gene, isolated from pink petals was strongly expressed only in pink petals. Introduction of this gene, via biolistics gave magenta spots in the white areas of variegated petals, therefore this gene was named as Peace (peach anthocyanin colour enhancement). Differences in Peace expression determine the pattern of flower colouration in flowering peach. The R2R3 DNA-binding domain of Peace is similar to those of other plant MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Key amino acids for tertiary structure and the motif for interaction with bHLH proteins were conserved in Peace. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Peace is closely related to AtMYB123 (TT2), which regulates proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and to anthocyanin regulators in monocots rather than to regulators in dicots. This is the first report that a TT2-like R2R3 MYB has been shown to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:24453228

  2. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and transcription factor PcMYB10 in pears (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ban, Zhao-Jun; Li, Xi-Hong; Wu, Mao-Yu; Wang, Ai-Li; Jiang, Yu-Qian; Jiang, Yun-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis in various plants is affected by environmental conditions and controlled by the transcription level of the corresponding genes. In pears (Pyrus communis cv. 'Wujiuxiang'), anthocyanin biosynthesis is significantly induced during low temperature storage compared with that at room temperature. We further examined the transcriptional levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in 'Wujiuxiang' pears during developmental ripening and temperature-induced storage. The expression of genes that encode flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, anthocyanidin synthase, UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, and R2R3 MYB transcription factor (PcMYB10) was strongly positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in 'Wujiuxiang' pears in response to both developmental and cold-temperature induction. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the expression patterns of the set of target genes, of which PcMYB10 and most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were related to the same cluster. The present work may help explore the molecular mechanism that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and its response to abiotic stress at the transcriptional level in plants.

  3. Evidence for a role for AtMYB2 in the induction of the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) by low oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeren, F U; Dolferus, R; Wu, Y; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1998-01-01

    The transcription factor AtMYB2 binds to two sequence motifs in the promoter of the Arabidopsis ADH1 gene. The binding to the GT-motif (5'-TGGTTT-3') is essential for induction of ADH1 by low oxygen, while binding to the second motif, MBS-2, is not essential for induction. We show that AtMYB2 is induced by hypoxia with kinetics compatible with a role in the regulation of ADH1. Like ADH1, AtMYB2 has root-limited expression. When driven by a constitutive promoter, AtMYB2 is able to transactivate ADH1 expression in transient assays in both Arabidopsis and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts, and in particle bombardment of Pisum sativum leaves. Mutation of the GT-motif abolished binding of AtMYB2 and caused loss of activity of the ADH1 promoter in both transient assays and transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These results are consistent with AtMYB2 being a key regulatory factor in the induction of the ADH1 promoter by low oxygen. PMID:9611167

  4. Gene Expression and Yeast Two-Hybrid Studies of 1R-MYB Transcription Factor Mediating Drought Stress Response in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Garg, Vanika; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress has been one of the serious constraints affecting chickpea productivity to a great extent. Genomics-assisted breeding has a potential to accelerate breeding precisely and efficiently. In order to do so, understanding the molecular mechanisms for drought tolerance and identification of candidate genes are crucial. Transcription factors (TFs) have important roles in the regulation of plant stress related genes. In this context, quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to study the differential gene expression of selected TFs, identified from large-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis, in contrasting drought responsive genotypes. Root tissues of ICC 4958 (tolerant), ICC 1882 (sensitive), JG 11 (elite), and JG 11+ (introgression line) were used for the study. Subsequently, a candidate single repeat MYB (1R-MYB) transcript that was remarkably induced in the drought tolerant genotypes under drought stress was cloned (coding sequence region for the 1R-MYB protein) and subjected to yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis. The screening of a root cDNA library with Y2H using the 1R-MYB bait protein, identified three CDS encoding peptides namely, galactinol-sucrose galactosyltransferase 2, CBL (Calcineurin B-like)-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 25, and ABA responsive 17-like, which were confirmed by co-transformation in yeast. These findings provide preliminary insights into the ability of this 1R-MYB transcription factor to co-regulate drought tolerance mechanism in chickpea. PMID:26734027

  5. ZmMYB14 is an important transcription factor involved in the regulation of the activity of the ZmBT1 promoter in starch biosynthesis in maize.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qianlin; Wang, Yayun; Du, Jia; Li, Hui; Wei, Bin; Wang, Yongbin; Li, Yangping; Yu, Guowu; Liu, Hanmei; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Yinghong; Hu, Yufeng; Huang, Yubi

    2017-09-01

    The biosynthesis of starch is a complex process that depends on the regulatory mechanisms of different functional enzymes, and transcriptional regulation plays an important role in this process. Brittle 1, encoded by BT1, is a transporter of adenosine diphosphate-glucose, which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of starch in the endosperm of cereals. Here, we report that the promoter (pZmBT1) of the maize BT1 homolog, ZmBT1, contains an MBSI site (TAACTG), which is important for its activity. Moreover, high expression level of the gene for ZmMYB14 transcription factor was observed in the maize endosperm; its expression pattern was similar to those of the starch synthesis-related genes in maize seeds. ZmMYB14 is a typical 2R-MYB transcription factor localized in the nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. ZmMYB14 could bind to the region of pZmBT1 from -280 to -151 bp and promote its activity through the TAACTG site. It was also observed to promote the activity of pZmSh2, pZmBt2, pZmGBSSI, pZmSSI, and pZmSBE1 in the maize endosperm in transient gene overexpression assays. Furthermore, ZmMYB14 was also shown to bind directly to the promoters of six starch-synthesizing genes, ZmGBSSI, ZmSSI, ZmSSIIa, ZmSBE1, ZmISA1, and ZmISA2 in yeast. These findings indicate that ZmMYB14 functions as a key regulator of ZmBT1 and is closely related to the biosynthesis of starch. Our results provide crucial information related to the regulation of starch biosynthesis in maize and would be helpful in devising strategies for modulating starch production in maize endosperm. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. c-Myb Binding Sites in Haematopoietic Chromatin Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsen, Mads; Klepper, Kjetil; Gundersen, Sveinung; Cuervo, Ignacio; Drabløs, Finn; Hovig, Eivind; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Gabrielsen, Odd Stokke; Eskeland, Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    Strict control of tissue-specific gene expression plays a pivotal role during lineage commitment. The transcription factor c-Myb has an essential role in adult haematopoiesis and functions as an oncogene when rearranged in human cancers. Here we have exploited digital genomic footprinting analysis to obtain a global picture of c-Myb occupancy in the genome of six different haematopoietic cell-types. We have biologically validated several c-Myb footprints using c-Myb knockdown data, reporter assays and DamID analysis. We show that our predicted conserved c-Myb footprints are highly dependent on the haematopoietic cell type, but that there is a group of gene targets common to all cell-types analysed. Furthermore, we find that c-Myb footprints co-localise with active histone mark H3K4me3 and are significantly enriched at exons. We analysed co-localisation of c-Myb footprints with 104 chromatin regulatory factors in K562 cells, and identified nine proteins that are enriched together with c-Myb footprints on genes positively regulated by c-Myb and one protein enriched on negatively regulated genes. Our data suggest that c-Myb is a transcription factor with multifaceted target regulation depending on cell type. PMID:26208222

  7. The apple WD40 protein MdTTG1 interacts with bHLH but not MYB proteins to regulate anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-05-01

    The abundance of anthocyanins and proanthocyanins in apples is tightly regulated by three classes of regulatory factors, MYB, bHLH and WD40 proteins, only some of which have been previously identified. In this study, we identified an apple WD40 protein (MdTTG1) that promotes the accumulation of anthocyanins. The biosynthetic genes required downstream in the flavonoid pathway were up-regulated when MdTTG1 was over-expressed in Arabidopsis. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional regulator, an MdTTG1-GFP fusion protein was observed only in the nucleus. We assayed the expression patterns of this gene in different organs and found that they were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the apple. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that MdTTG1 interacted with bHLH transcription factors (TFs) but not MYB protein, whereas bHLH was known to interact with MYB in apples. However, based on a ChIP assay, MdTTG1 does not appear to bind to the promoter of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes MdDFR and MdUFGT. Taken together, these results suggest that the apple WD40 protein MdTTG1 interacts with bHLH but not MYB proteins to regulate anthocyanin accumulation.

  8. The tomato early fruit specific gene Lefsm1 defines a novel class of plant-specific SANT/MYB domain proteins.

    PubMed

    Barg, Rivka; Sobolev, Irina; Eilon, Tali; Gur, Amit; Chmelnitsky, Inna; Shabtai, Sara; Grotewold, Erich; Salts, Yehiam

    2005-05-01

    We describe here a novel plant-specific gene, Lefsm1 (fruit SANT/MYB-like 1) harboring a single SANT/MYB domain. The expression of Lefsm1 is specific to the very early stages of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit development. Ectopic expression of Lefsm1 results in severe developmental alterations manifested in retarded growth, and reduced apical dominance during tomato and Arabidopsis seedling development. A promoter sequence residing 1.0 kb upstream to the translation initiation codon confers the organ-specific expression of the gene. Lefsm1 belongs to a novel small gene family consisting of five to six members in tomato, Arabidopsis and rice. The SANT/MYB domain of LeFSM1 and its orthologs in Arabidopsis and rice differs from that of all other plant or animal MYB proteins and from the SANT domains found in part of the chromatin remodeling proteins. Together, our results indicate that Lefsm1 is a founding member of a small family of proteins containing a novel MYB/SANT domain which is likely to participate in the regulation of a plant-specific developmental program.

  9. MYB76 Inhibits Seed Fatty Acid Accumulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaowei; Jin, Changyu; Li, Dong; Gao, Chenhao; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Hai, Jiangbo; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    The MYB family of transcription factors is important in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. However, their role in regulating fatty acid accumulation in seeds is still largely unclear. Here, we found that MYB76, localized in the nucleus, was predominantly expressed in developing seeds during maturation. The myb76 mutation caused a significant increase in the amounts of total fatty acids and several major fatty acid compositions in mature seeds, suggesting that MYB76 functioned as an important repressor during seed oil biosynthesis. RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed remarkable alteration of numerous genes involved in photosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, modification, and degradation, and oil body formation in myb76 seeds at 12 days after pollination. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB76 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of MYB transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:28270825

  10. Differential regulation of a MYB transcription factor is correlated with transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of trichome density in Mimulus guttatus

    PubMed Central

    Scoville, Alison G.; Barnett, Laryssa L.; Bodbyl-Roels, Sarah; Kelly, John K.; Hileman, Lena C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Epigenetic inheritance, transgenerational transmission of traits not proximally determined by DNA sequence, has been linked to transmission of chromatin modifications and gene regulation, which are known to be sensitive to environmental factors. Mimulus guttatus increases trichome (plant hair) density in response to simulated herbivore damage. Increased density is expressed in progeny even if progeny do not experience damage. To better understand epigenetic inheritance of trichome production, we tested the hypothesis that candidate gene expression states are inherited in response to parental damage.Using M. guttatus recombinant inbred lines, offspring of leaf-damaged and control plants were raised without damage. Relative expression of candidate trichome development genes was measured in offspring. Line and parental damage effects on trichome density were measured. Associations between gene expression, trichome density, and response to parental damage were determined.We identified M. guttatus MYB MIXTA-like 8 as a possible negative regulator of trichome development. We found that parental leaf damage induces down-regulation of MYB MIXTA-like 8 in progeny, which is associated with epigenetically inherited increased trichome density.Our results link epigenetic transmission of an ecologically important trait with differential gene expression states – providing insight into a mechanism underlying environmentally induced ‘soft inheritance’. PMID:21352232

  11. Differential regulation of a MYB transcription factor is correlated with transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of trichome density in Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Scoville, Alison G; Barnett, Laryssa L; Bodbyl-Roels, Sarah; Kelly, John K; Hileman, Lena C

    2011-07-01

    • Epigenetic inheritance, transgenerational transmission of traits not proximally determined by DNA sequence, has been linked to transmission of chromatin modifications and gene regulation, which are known to be sensitive to environmental factors. Mimulus guttatus increases trichome (plant hair) density in response to simulated herbivore damage. Increased density is expressed in progeny even if progeny do not experience damage. To better understand epigenetic inheritance of trichome production, we tested the hypothesis that candidate gene expression states are inherited in response to parental damage. • Using M. guttatus recombinant inbred lines, offspring of leaf-damaged and control plants were raised without damage. Relative expression of candidate trichome development genes was measured in offspring. Line and parental damage effects on trichome density were measured. Associations between gene expression, trichome density, and response to parental damage were determined. • We identified M. guttatus MYB MIXTA-like 8 as a possible negative regulator of trichome development. We found that parental leaf damage induces down-regulation of MYB MIXTA-like 8 in progeny, which is associated with epigenetically inherited increased trichome density. • Our results link epigenetic transmission of an ecologically important trait with differential gene expression states - providing insight into a mechanism underlying environmentally induced 'soft inheritance'. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Characterization of a Citrus R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor that Regulates the Flavonol and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaoyang; Long, Jianmei; Zhu, Kaijie; Liu, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Li; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an up-regulation of a series of genes involved in primary metabolism and the phenylpropanoid pathway, and induced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds but not the flavonols. The RNAi suppression of CsMYBF1 in citrus callus caused a down-regulation of many phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduced the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Transactivation assays indicated that CsMYBF1 activated several promoters of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in tomato and citrus. Interestingly, CsMYBF1 could activate the CHS gene promoter in citrus, but not in tomato. Further examinations revealed that the MYBPLANT cis-elements were essential for CsMYBF1 in activating phenylpropanoid pathway genes. In summary, our data indicated that CsMYBF1 possessed the function in controlling the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis, and the regulatory differences in the target metabolite accumulation between two species may be due to the differential activation of CHS promoters by CsMYBF1. Therefore, CsMYBF1 constitutes an important gene source for the engineering of specific phenylpropanoid components. PMID:27162196

  13. Characterization of a Grapevine R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor That Regulates the Phenylpropanoid Pathway1[W

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent; Barrieu, François; Marchive, Chloé; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Decendit, Alain; Richard, Tristan; Carde, Jean-Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Hamdi, Saïd

    2006-01-01

    The ripening of grape (Vitis vinifera) berry is characterized by dramatic changes in gene expression, enzymatic activities, and metabolism that lead to the production of compounds essential for berry quality. The phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway is one of the components involved in these changes. In this study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of VvMYB5a, a cDNA isolated from a grape L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon berry library. VvMYB5a encodes a protein belonging to a small subfamily of R2R3-MYB transcription factors. Expression studies in grapevine indicate that the VvMYB5a gene is mainly expressed during the early steps of berry development in skin, flesh, and seeds. Overexpression of VvMYB5a in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) affects the expression of structural genes controlling the synthesis of phenylpropanoid and impacts on the metabolism of anthocyanins, flavonols, tannins, and lignins. Overexpressing VvMYB5a induces a strong accumulation of several phenolic compounds, including keracyanin (cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside) and quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside, which are the main anthocyanin and flavonol compounds in tobacco. In addition, VvMYB5a overexpression increases the biosynthesis of condensed tannins and alters lignin metabolism. These findings suggest that VvMYB5a may be involved in the control of different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway in grapevine. PMID:16384897

  14. The Transcriptional Repressor MYB2 Regulates Both Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Proanthocyandin and Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ji Hyung; Liu, Chenggang; Xiao, Xirong; Dixon, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    Accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) is limited to specific cell types and developmental stages, but little is known about how antagonistically acting transcriptional regulators work together to determine temporal and spatial patterning of pigmentation at the cellular level, especially for PAs. Here, we characterize MYB2, a transcriptional repressor regulating both anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MYB2 was strongly upregulated by MYB5, a major regulator of PA biosynthesis in M. truncatula and a component of MYB-basic helix loop helix-WD40 (MBW) activator complexes. Overexpression of MYB2 abolished anthocyanin and PA accumulation in M. truncatula hairy roots and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, respectively. Anthocyanin deposition was expanded in myb2 mutant seedlings and flowers accompanied by increased anthocyanin content. PA mainly accumulated in the epidermal layer derived from the outer integument in the M. truncatula seed coat, starting from the hilum area. The area of PA accumulation and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE expression was expanded into the seed body at the early stage of seed development in the myb2 mutant. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological evidence suggests that MYB2 functions as part of a multidimensional regulatory network to define the temporal and spatial pattern of anthocyanin and PA accumulation linked to developmental processes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. The FOUR LIPS and MYB88 transcription factor genes are widely expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana during development.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qin; Lee, EunKyoung; Keerthisinghe, Sandra; Lai, Lien; Li, Meng; Lucas, Jessica R; Wen, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaolin; Sack, Fred D

    2015-09-01

    The FOUR LIPS (FLP) and MYB88 transcription factors, which are closely related in structure and function, control the development of stomata, as well as entry into megasporogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, other locations where these transcription factors are expressed are poorly described. Documenting additional locations where these genes are expressed might define new functions for these genes. Expression patterns were examined throughout vegetative and reproductive development. The expression from two transcriptional-reporter fusions were visualized with either β-glucuronidase (GUS) or green fluorescence protein (GFP). Both flp and myb88 genes were expressed in many, previously unreported locations, consistent with the possibility of additional functions for FLP and MYB88. Moreover, expression domains especially of FLP display sharp cutoffs or boundaries. In addition to stomatal and reproductive development, FLP and MYB88, which are R2R3 MYB transcription factor genes, are expressed in many locations in cells, tissues, and organs. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  17. Genome-wide identification, functional prediction, and evolutionary analysis of the R2R3-MYB superfamily in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Hajiebrahimi, Ali; Owji, Hajar; Hemmati, Shiva

    2017-10-01

    R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been shown to play important roles in plants, including in development and in various stress conditions. Phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of 249 R2R3-MYB TFs in Brassica napus, called BnaR2R3-MYB TFs, clustered into 38 clades. BnaR2R3-MYB TFs were distributed on 19 chromosomes of B. napus. Sixteen gene clusters were identified. BnaR2R3-MYB TFs were characterized by motif prediction, gene structure analysis, and gene ontology. Evolutionary analysis revealed that BnaR2R3-MYB TFs are mainly formed as a result of whole-genome duplication. Orthologs and paralogs of BnaR2R3-MYB TFs were identified in B. napus, B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana using synteny-based methods. Purifying selection was pervasive within R2R3-MYB TFs. Kn/Ks values lower than 0.3 indicated that BnaR2R3-MYB TFs are being functionally converged. The role of gene conversion in the formation of BnaR2R3-MYB TFs was significant. Cis-regulatory elements in the upstream regions of BnaR2R3-MYB genes, miRNA targeting BnaR2R3MYB TFs, and post translational modifications were identified. Digital expression data revealed that BnaR2R3-MYB genes were highly expressed in the roots and under high salinity treatment after 24 h. BnaMYB21, BnaMYB141, and BnaMYB148 have been suggested for improving salt-tolerant B. napus. BnaR2R3-MYB genes were mostly up regulated on the 14th day post inoculation with Leptosphaeria biglobosa and L. maculan. BnaMYB150 is a candidate for increased tolerance to Leptospheria in B. napus.

  18. Regulation of tapetum specific A9 promoter by transcription factors AtMYB80, AtMYB1 and AtMYB4 in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neetu; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2017-08-28

    Tapetum specific promoters have been successfully used for developing transgenic-based pollination control systems. Although several tapetum specific promoters have been identified, in-depth studies on regulation of such promoters are scarce. The present study analyzes the regulation of the A9 promoter, one of the first tapetum specific promoter identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcription factors (TFs) AtMYB80, AtMYB1 (positive regulators) identified by in silico analysis were found to upregulate A9 promoter activity following over expression of the TFs both in transient and stable (transgenic) expression assays both in A. thaliana and tobacco. Further, mutations of binding sites of these TFs in the A9 promoter led to loss of its activity. The role of a negative regulator AtMYB4 was also studied by analyzing the activity of A9 promoter following transient expression of RNAi against the TF and by mutating binding sites for AtMYB4 in the A9 promoter. While no changes were observed in case of A. thaliana, the A9 promoter was activated in the roots of transgenic tobacco plants, highlighting the role of these cis- elements in keeping the A9 promoter repressed in the roots of tobacco. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Soybean GmMYB73 promotes lipid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Feng; Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Lam, Sin-Man; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lin, Qing; Man, Wei-Qun; Du, Wei-Guang; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2014-03-24

    Soybean is one of the most important oil crops. The regulatory genes involved in oil accumulation are largely unclear. We initiated studies to identify genes that regulate this process. One MYB-type gene GmMYB73 was found to display differential expression in soybean seeds of different developing stages by microarray analysis and was further investigated for its functions in lipid accumulation. GmMYB73 is a small protein with single MYB repeat and has similarity to CPC-like MYB proteins from Arabidopsis. GmMYB73 interacted with GL3 and EGL3, and then suppressed GL2, a negative regulator of oil accumulation. GmMYB73 overexpression enhanced lipid contents in both seeds and leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Seed length and thousand-seed weight were also promoted. GmMYB73 introduction into the Arabidopsis try cpc double mutant rescued the total lipids, seed size and thousand-seed weight. GmMYB73 also elevated lipid levels in seeds and leaves of transgenic Lotus, and in transgenic hairy roots of soybean plants. GmMYB73 promoted PLDα1 expression, whose promoter can be bound and inhibited by GL2. PLDα1 mutation reduced triacylglycerol levels mildly in seeds but significantly in leaves of Arabidopsis plants. GmMYB73 may reduce GL2, and then release GL2-inhibited PLDα1 expression for lipid accumulation. Manipulation of GmMYB73 may potentially improve oil production in legume crop plants.

  20. Soybean GmMYB73 promotes lipid accumulation in transgenic plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soybean is one of the most important oil crops. The regulatory genes involved in oil accumulation are largely unclear. We initiated studies to identify genes that regulate this process. Results One MYB-type gene GmMYB73 was found to display differential expression in soybean seeds of different developing stages by microarray analysis and was further investigated for its functions in lipid accumulation. GmMYB73 is a small protein with single MYB repeat and has similarity to CPC-like MYB proteins from Arabidopsis. GmMYB73 interacted with GL3 and EGL3, and then suppressed GL2, a negative regulator of oil accumulation. GmMYB73 overexpression enhanced lipid contents in both seeds and leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Seed length and thousand-seed weight were also promoted. GmMYB73 introduction into the Arabidopsis try cpc double mutant rescued the total lipids, seed size and thousand-seed weight. GmMYB73 also elevated lipid levels in seeds and leaves of transgenic Lotus, and in transgenic hairy roots of soybean plants. GmMYB73 promoted PLDα1 expression, whose promoter can be bound and inhibited by GL2. PLDα1 mutation reduced triacylglycerol levels mildly in seeds but significantly in leaves of Arabidopsis plants. Conclusions GmMYB73 may reduce GL2, and then release GL2-inhibited PLDα1 expression for lipid accumulation. Manipulation of GmMYB73 may potentially improve oil production in legume crop plants. PMID:24655684

  1. Transcriptional Profiling of Mature Arabidopsis Trichomes Reveals That NOECK Encodes the MIXTA-Like Transcriptional Regulator MYB1061[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jakoby, Marc J.; Falkenhan, Doris; Mader, Michael T.; Brininstool, Ginger; Wischnitzki, Elisabeth; Platz, Nicole; Hudson, Andrew; Hülskamp, Martin; Larkin, John; Schnittger, Arp

    2008-01-01

    Leaf hairs (trichomes) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been extensively used as a model to address general questions in cell and developmental biology. Here, we lay the foundation for a systems-level understanding of the biology of this model cell type by performing genome-wide gene expression analyses. We have identified 3,231 genes that are up-regulated in mature trichomes relative to leaves without trichomes, and we compared wild-type trichomes with two mutants, glabra3 and triptychon, that affect trichome morphology and physiology in contrasting ways. We found that cell wall-related transcripts were particularly overrepresented in trichomes, consistent with their highly elaborated structure. In addition, trichome expression maps revealed high activities of anthocyanin, flavonoid, and glucosinolate pathways, indicative of the roles of trichomes in the biosynthesis of secondary compounds and defense. Interspecies comparisons revealed that Arabidopsis trichomes share many expressed genes with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, making them an attractive model to study industrially important fibers. In addition to identifying physiological processes involved in the development of a specific cell type, we also demonstrated the utility of transcript profiling for identifying and analyzing regulatory gene function. One of the genes that are differentially expressed in fibers is the MYB transcription factor GhMYB25. A combination of transcript profiling and map-based cloning revealed that the NOECK gene of Arabidopsis encodes AtMYB106, a MIXTA-like transcription factor and homolog of cotton GhMYB25. However, in contrast to Antirrhinum, in which MIXTA promotes epidermal cell outgrowth, AtMYB106 appears to function as a repressor of cell outgrowth in Arabidopsis. PMID:18805951

  2. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.): Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Li, Dahui; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although, some MYBs were reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations, and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes). The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the 20 genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear.

  3. The Grapevine R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor VvMYBF1 Regulates Flavonol Synthesis in Developing Grape Berries1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Czemmel, Stefan; Stracke, Ralf; Weisshaar, Bernd; Cordon, Nicole; Harris, Nilangani N.; Walker, Amanda R.; Robinson, Simon P.; Bogs, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    Flavonols are important ultraviolet light protectants in many plants and contribute substantially to the quality and health-promoting effects of fruits and derived plant products. To study the regulation of flavonol synthesis in fruit, we isolated and characterized the grapevine (Vitis vinifera ‘Shiraz’) R2R3-MYB transcription factor VvMYBF1. Transient reporter assays established VvMYBF1 to be a specific activator of flavonol synthase1 (VvFLS1) and several other promoters of grapevine and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes involved in flavonol synthesis. Expression of VvMYBF1 in the Arabidopsis mutant myb12 resulted in complementation of its flavonol-deficient phenotype and confirmed the function of VvMYBF1 as a transcriptional regulator of flavonol synthesis. Transcript analysis of VvMYBF1 throughout grape berry development revealed its expression during flowering and in skins of ripening berries, which correlates with the accumulation of flavonols and expression of VvFLS1. In addition to its developmental regulation, VvMYBF1 expression was light inducible, implicating VvMYBF1 in the control of VvFLS1 transcription. Sequence analysis of VvMYBF1 and VvFLS1 indicated conserved putative light regulatory units in promoters of both genes from different cultivars. By analysis of the VvMYBF1 amino acid sequence, we identified the previously described SG7 domain and an additional sequence motif conserved in several plant MYB factors. The described motifs have been used to identify MYB transcription factors from other plant species putatively involved in the regulation of flavonol biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of a light-inducible MYB transcription factor controlling flavonol synthesis in fruit. PMID:19741049

  4. Myb permits multilineage airway epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie-hong; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L.; Patel, Anand C.; Huang, Tao; Yozamp, Nicholas S.; Xu, Jian; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Byers, Derek E.; Pierce, Richard A.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium of the pulmonary airway is specially differentiated to provide defense against environmental insults, but also subject to dysregulated differentiation that results in lung disease. The current paradigm for airway epithelial differentiation is a one-step program whereby a p63+ basal epithelial progenitor cell generates a ciliated or secretory cell lineage, but the cue for this transition and whether there are intermediate steps is poorly defined. Here we identify transcription factor Myb as a key regulator that permits early multilineage differentiation of airway epithelial cells. Myb+ cells were identified as p63− and therefore distinct from basal progenitor cells, but were still negative for markers of differentiation. Myb RNAi treatment of primary-culture airway epithelial cells and Myb gene deletion in mice resulted in a p63− population with failed maturation of Foxj1+ ciliated cells, as well as Scbg1a1+ and Muc5ac+ secretory cells. Consistent with these findings, analysis of whole genome expression of Myb-deficient cells identified Myb-dependent programs for ciliated and secretory cell differentiation. Myb+ cells were rare in human airways but were increased in regions of ciliated cells and mucous cell hyperplasia in samples from subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Together, the results show that a p63− Myb+ population of airway epithelial cells represents a distinct intermediate stage of differentiation that is required under normal conditions and may be heightened in airway disease. PMID:25103188

  5. MdSOS2L1 forms a complex with MdMYB1 to control vacuolar pH by transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in apples

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cui-Hui; Zhang, Quan-Yan; Sun, Mei-Hong; Hu, Da-Gang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vacuolar pH is important and involves in many different physiological processes in plants. A recent paper published in Plant Physiology reveals that MdMYB1 regulates vacuolar pH by directly transcriptionally regulating proton pump genes and malate transporters genes, such as V-ATPase subunit gene MdVHA-B1. Here, we found that MdSOS2L1 in vitro did not directly interact with MdMYB1, however, in vivo formed a complex with MdMYB1 in the nucleus to regulate MdVHA-B1-mediated vacuolar acidification. This finding shed light on the role of MdSOS2L1 in transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in addition to its post-modified function in apples. PMID:26910596

  6. MdSOS2L1 forms a complex with MdMYB1 to control vacuolar pH by transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in apples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cui-Hui; Zhang, Quan-Yan; Sun, Mei-Hong; Hu, Da-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar pH is important and involves in many different physiological processes in plants. A recent paper published in Plant Physiology reveals that MdMYB1 regulates vacuolar pH by directly transcriptionally regulating proton pump genes and malate transporters genes, such as V-ATPase subunit gene MdVHA-B1. Here, we found that MdSOS2L1 in vitro did not directly interact with MdMYB1, however, in vivo formed a complex with MdMYB1 in the nucleus to regulate MdVHA-B1-mediated vacuolar acidification. This finding shed light on the role of MdSOS2L1 in transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in addition to its post-modified function in apples.

  7. A novel reverse-genetic approach (SIMF) identifies Mutator insertions in new Myb genes.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, P D; Grotewold, E

    2000-11-01

    We have developed a new strategy designated SIMF (Systematic Insertional Mutagenesis of Families), to identify DNA insertions in many members of a gene family simultaneously. This method requires only a short amino acid sequence conserved in all members of the family to make a degenerate oligonucleotide, and a sequence from the end of the DNA insertion. The SIMF strategy was successfully applied to the large maize R2R3 Myb family of regulatory genes, and Mutator insertions in several novel Myb genes were identified. Application of this technique to identify insertions in other large gene families could significantly decrease the effort involved in screening at the same time for insertions in all members of groups of genes that share a limited sequence identity.

  8. Fruit-Surface Flavonoid Accumulation in Tomato Is Controlled by a SlMYB12-Regulated Transcriptional Network

    PubMed Central

    Mintz-Oron, Shira; Venger, Ilya; Levy, Dorit; Yativ, Merav; Domínguez, Eva; Wang, Zhonghua; De Vos, Ric C. H.; Jetter, Reinhard; Schreiber, Lukas; Heredia, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2009-01-01

    The cuticle covering plants' aerial surfaces is a unique structure that plays a key role in organ development and protection against diverse stress conditions. A detailed analysis of the tomato colorless-peel y mutant was carried out in the framework of studying the outer surface of reproductive organs. The y mutant peel lacks the yellow flavonoid pigment naringenin chalcone, which has been suggested to influence the characteristics and function of the cuticular layer. Large-scale metabolic and transcript profiling revealed broad effects on both primary and secondary metabolism, related mostly to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, particularly flavonoids. These were not restricted to the fruit or to a specific stage of its development and indicated that the y mutant phenotype is due to a mutation in a regulatory gene. Indeed, expression analyses specified three R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors that were significantly down-regulated in the y mutant fruit peel. One of these, SlMYB12, was mapped to the genomic region on tomato chromosome 1 previously shown to harbor the y mutation. Identification of an additional mutant allele that co-segregates with the colorless-peel trait, specific down-regulation of SlMYB12 and rescue of the y phenotype by overexpression of SlMYB12 on the mutant background, confirmed that a lesion in this regulator underlies the y phenotype. Hence, this work provides novel insight to the study of fleshy fruit cuticular structure and paves the way for the elucidation of the regulatory network that controls flavonoid accumulation in tomato fruit cuticle. PMID:20019811

  9. PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 Interact with bHLH to Enhance Anthocyanin Accumulation in Pears

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shouqian; Sun, Shasha; Chen, Xiaoliu; Wu, Shujing; Wang, Deyun; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Color is an important agronomic trait of pears, and the anthocyanin content of fruit is immensely significant for pear coloring. In this study, an anthocyanin-activating R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, PyMYB10.1, was isolated from fruits of red sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Aoguan). Alignments of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that PyMYB10.1 was involved in anthocyanin regulation. Similar to PyMYB10, PyMYB10.1 was predominantly expressed in red tissues, including the skin, leaf and flower, but it was minimally expressed in non-red fruit flesh. The expression of this gene could be induced by light. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 activated the AtDFR promoter. The activation of AtDFR increased to a greater extent when combined with a bHLH co-factor, such as PybHLH, MrbHLH1, MrbHLH2, or AtbHLH2. However, the response of this activation depended on the protein complex formed. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 activated the AtDFR promoter to a greater extent than other combinations of proteins. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 also induced the highest anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco transient-expression assays. Moreover, PybHLH interacted with PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1. These results suggest that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 are positive anthocyanin biosynthesis regulators in pears that act via the formation of a ternary complex with PybHLH. The functional characterization of PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 will aid further understanding of the anthocyanin regulation in pears. PMID:26536358

  10. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Thirteen R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors from Epimedium sagittatum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjun; Sun, Wei; Lv, Haiyan; Xiao, Gong; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim, a popular traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has been widely used for treating sexual dysfunction and osteoporosis in China. The main bioactive components in herba epimedii are prenylated flavonol glycosides, which are end products of a branch of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. The MYB transcription factors (TF) act as activators or repressors to regulate the flavonoid pathway. In this study, 13 full-length cDNA clones of R2R3-MYB TFs from E. sagittatum (designated as EsMYB1 to EsMYB13) were isolated and characterized. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis placed nine R2R3-MYB members of E. sagittatum into five subgroups of the Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB family, while four members were not clustered into a defined subgroup. The number and length of introns from Epimedium R2R3-MYB genes varied significantly, but intron positions and phases were well conserved. Expression patterns of Epimedium R2R3-MYB genes in various tissues showed diverse. Finally, it is suggested that five Epimedium R2R3-MYB genes may be involved in regulating the flavonoid pathway and could be used as valuable candidate genes for metabolic engineering studies in future. Sequence information of 13 R2R3-MYB genes discovered here will also provide an entry point into the overview of whole R2R3-MYB family in Epimedium. PMID:23271373

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of thirteen R2R3-MYB transcription factors from Epimedium sagittatum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenjun; Sun, Wei; Lv, Haiyan; Xiao, Gong; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying

    2012-12-27

    Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim, a popular traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has been widely used for treating sexual dysfunction and osteoporosis in China. The main bioactive components in herba epimedii are prenylated flavonol glycosides, which are end products of a branch of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. The MYB transcription factors (TF) act as activators or repressors to regulate the flavonoid pathway. In this study, 13 full-length cDNA clones of R2R3-MYB TFs from E. sagittatum (designated as EsMYB1 to EsMYB13) were isolated and characterized. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis placed nine R2R3-MYB members of epimedii into five subgroups of the Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB family, while four members were not clustered into a defined subgroup. The number and length of introns from epimedii R2R3-MYB genes varied significantly, but intron positions and phases were well conserved. Expression patterns of epimedii R2R3-MYB genes in various tissues showed diverse. Finally, it is suggested that five epimedii R2R3-MYB genes may be involved in regulating the flavonoid pathway and could be used as valuable candidate genes for metabolic engineering studies in future. Sequence information of 13 R2R3-MYB genes discovered here will also provide an entry point into the overview of whole R2R3-MYB family in epimedii.

  12. MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhu, Yana; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Gao, Chenhao; Ma, Haoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2017-01-01

    In many higher plants, seed oil accumulation is precisely controlled by intricate multilevel regulatory networks, among which transcriptional regulation mainly influences oil biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the master positive transcription factors, WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), are important for seed oil accumulation. We found that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, MYB89, was expressed predominantly in developing seeds during maturation. Oil and major fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds was significantly promoted by myb89-1 mutation and MYB89 knockdown; thus, MYB89 was an important repressor during seed oil accumulation. RNA sequencing revealed remarkable up-regulation of numerous genes involved in seed oil accumulation in myb89 seeds at 12 d after pollination. Posttranslational activation of a MYB89-glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MYB89 inhibited seed oil accumulation by directly repressing WRI1 and five key genes and by indirectly suppressing L1L and 11 key genes involved in oil biosynthesis during seed maturation. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB89 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:27932421

  13. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Yun, Kil-Young; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B; Yun, Song-Joong; De Los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-12-01

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development.

  14. The Arabidopsis MYB96 Transcription Factor Is a Positive Regulator of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 in the Control of Seed Germination1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyounghee; Lee, Hong Gil; Kim, Hyun Uk; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental transition that initiates the plant life cycle. The timing of germination is determined by the coordinated action of two phytohormones, gibberellin and abscisic acid (ABA). In particular, ABA plays a key role in integrating environmental information and inhibiting the germination process. The utilization of embryonic lipid reserves contributes to seed germination by acting as an energy source, and ABA suppresses lipid degradation to modulate the germination process. Here, we report that the ABA-responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor MYB96, which is highly expressed in embryo, regulates seed germination by controlling the expression of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In the presence of ABA, germination was accelerated in MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds, whereas the process was significantly delayed in MYB96-overexpressing activation-tagging myb96-ox seeds. Consistently, myb96-1 seeds degraded a larger extent of lipid reserves even in the presence of ABA, while reduced lipid mobilization was observed in myb96-ox seeds. MYB96 directly regulates ABI4, which acts as a repressor of lipid breakdown, to define its spatial and temporal expression. Genetic analysis further demonstrated that ABI4 is epistatic to MYB96 in the control of seed germination. Taken together, the MYB96-ABI4 module regulates lipid mobilization specifically in the embryo to ensure proper seed germination under suboptimal conditions. PMID:25869652

  15. The Arabidopsis MYB96 Transcription Factor Is a Positive Regulator of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 in the Control of Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyounghee; Lee, Hong Gil; Yoon, Seongmun; Kim, Hyun Uk; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-06-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental transition that initiates the plant life cycle. The timing of germination is determined by the coordinated action of two phytohormones, gibberellin and abscisic acid (ABA). In particular, ABA plays a key role in integrating environmental information and inhibiting the germination process. The utilization of embryonic lipid reserves contributes to seed germination by acting as an energy source, and ABA suppresses lipid degradation to modulate the germination process. Here, we report that the ABA-responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor MYB96, which is highly expressed in embryo, regulates seed germination by controlling the expression of abscisic acid-insensitive4 (ABI4) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In the presence of ABA, germination was accelerated in MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds, whereas the process was significantly delayed in MYB96-overexpressing activation-tagging myb96-ox seeds. Consistently, myb96-1 seeds degraded a larger extent of lipid reserves even in the presence of ABA, while reduced lipid mobilization was observed in myb96-ox seeds. MYB96 directly regulates ABI4, which acts as a repressor of lipid breakdown, to define its spatial and temporal expression. Genetic analysis further demonstrated that ABI4 is epistatic to MYB96 in the control of seed germination. Taken together, the MYB96-ABI4 module regulates lipid mobilization specifically in the embryo to ensure proper seed germination under suboptimal conditions.

  16. Identification of a Drosophila Myb-E2F2/RBF transcriptional repressor complex.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Peter W; Beall, Eileen L; Fleischer, Tracey C; Georlette, Daphne; Link, Andrew J; Botchan, Michael R

    2004-12-01

    The Drosophila Myb complex has roles in both activating and repressing developmentally regulated DNA replication. To further understand biochemically the functions of the Myb complex, we fractionated Drosophila embryo extracts relying upon affinity chromatography. We found that E2F2, DP, RBF1, RBF2, and the Drosophila homolog of LIN-52, a class B synthetic multivulva (synMuv) protein, copurify with the Myb complex components to form the Myb-MuvB complex. In addition, we found that the transcriptional repressor protein, lethal (3) malignant brain tumor protein, L(3)MBT, and the histone deacetylase, Rpd3, associated with the Myb-MuvB complex. Members of the Myb-MuvB complex were localized to promoters and were shown to corepress transcription of developmentally regulated genes. These and other data now link together the Myb and E2F2 complexes in higher-order assembly to specific chromosomal sites for the regulation of transcription.

  17. Identification of a Drosophila Myb-E2F2/RBF transcriptional repressor complex

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Peter W.; Beall, Eileen L.; Fleischer, Tracey C.; Georlette, Daphne; Link, Andrew J.; Botchan, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The Drosophila Myb complex has roles in both activating and repressing developmentally regulated DNA replication. To further understand biochemically the functions of the Myb complex, we fractionated Drosophila embryo extracts relying upon affinity chromatography. We found that E2F2, DP, RBF1, RBF2, and the Drosophila homolog of LIN-52, a class B synthetic multivulva (synMuv) protein, copurify with the Myb complex components to form the Myb-MuvB complex. In addition, we found that the transcriptional repressor protein, lethal (3) malignant brain tumor protein, L(3)MBT, and the histone deacetylase, Rpd3, associated with the Myb-MuvB complex. Members of the Myb-MuvB complex were localized to promoters and were shown to corepress transcription of developmentally regulated genes. These and other data now link together the Myb and E2F2 complexes in higher-order assembly to specific chromosomal sites for the regulation of transcription. PMID:15545624

  18. Effects of seasonal temperature changes on DkMyb4 expression involved in proanthocyanidin regulation in two genotypes of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takashi; Tsujimoto, Tomoyuki; Ikegami, Ayako; Yonemori, Keizo

    2011-05-01

    Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidin (PA). Fruits of the mutant non-astringent (NA) type lose their ability to accumulate PA at an early stage of fruit development, whereas fruits of the normal astringent (A) type sustain PA accumulation until ripening. This allelotype is determined by the genotype of a single ASTRINGENCY (AST) locus. It is possible that the reduction in PA accumulation in NA-type fruits is due to phenological down-regulation of DkMyb4 (a PA regulator) and the resultant down-regulation of structural genes in the PA pathway. In this study, attempts were made to identify the regulatory mechanisms of phenological PA accumulation in A- and NA-type fruits, focusing particularly on the effects of ambient temperature. Continuous cool temperature conditions caused sustained expression of DkMyb4 in NA-type fruits, as well as in A-type fruits, resulting in increased expression of PA pathway genes and PA accumulation. However, the expression of some A/NA phenotypic marker genes was not significantly affected by the cool temperature conditions. In addition, PA composition in NA-type fruits exposed to cool temperatures differed from that in A-type fruits. These results indicate that a cool ambient temperature may have induced DkMyb4 expression and resultant PA accumulation, but did not directly affect the expression of the AST gene.

  19. Soybean cyclophilin GmCYP1 interacts with an isoflavonoid regulator GmMYB176

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Hemanta Raj; Vadivel, Arun Kumaran Anguraj; Li, Xuyan; Gijzen, Mark; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophilins (CYPs) belong to the immunophilin superfamily with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. They catalyze the interconversion of the cis- and trans-rotamers of the peptidyl-prolyl amide bond of peptides. A yeast-two-hybrid screening using the isoflavonoid regulator GmMYB176 as bait identified GmCYP1 as one of the interacting proteins in soybean embryos. GmCYP1 localizes both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and interacts in planta with GmMYB176, in the nucleus, and with SGF14l (a soybean 14-3-3 protein) in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. GmCYP1 contains a single cyclophilin-like domain and displays a high sequence identity with other plant CYPs that are known to have stress-specific function. Tissue-specific expression of GmCYP1 revealed higher expression in developing seeds compared to other vegetative tissues, suggesting their seed-specific role. Furthermore, GmCYP1 transcript level was reduced in response to stress. Since isoflavonoids are involved in plant stress resistance against biotic and abiotic factors, the interaction of GmCYP1 with the isoflavonoid regulators GmMYB176 and 14-3-3 protein suggests its role in defense in soybean. PMID:28074922

  20. MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) reveals their stress and hormone responsive patterns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Tang, Jun; Hu, Rong; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Song, Xiao-Ming; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-23

    The MYB superfamily is one of the most abundant transcription factor (TF) families in plants. MYB proteins include highly conserved N-terminal MYB repeats (1R, R2R3, 3R, and atypical) and various C-terminal sequences that confer extensive functions. However, the functions of most MYB genes are unknown, and have been little studied in Chinese cabbage. Here, we analyzed 256 (55.2% of total MYBs) R2R3-MYB genes from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) and anchored them onto the 10 chromosomes and three subgenomes. The R2R3-, 3R- and atypical MYB proteins in Chinese cabbage formed 45 subgroups based on domain similarity and phylogenetic topology. Organization and syntenic analysis revealed the genomic distribution and collinear relationships of the R2R3-BrMYBs. Synonymous nucleotide substitution (Ka/Ks) analysis showed that the Chinese cabbage MYB DNA-binding domain is under strong purifying selection. Moreover, RNA-seq data revealed tissue-specific and distinct R2R3-BrMYB expression profiles, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis in leaves showed stress responsive expression and crosstalk with ABA-auxin signaling cascades. In this study, we identified the largest MYB gene family in plants to date. Our results indicate that members of this superfamily may be involved in plant development, stress responses and leaf senescence, highlighting their functional diversity.

  2. A single-repeat R3-MYB transcription factor MYBC1 negatively regulates freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Hong; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Ji, Zuojun; Liu, Xiaofei; Liu, Xin; Li, Jing

    2010-04-16

    We had previously identified the MYBC1 gene, which encodes a single-repeat R3-MYB protein, as a putative osmotic responding gene; however, no R3-MYB transcription factor has been reported to regulate osmotic stress tolerance. Thus, we sought to elucidate the function of MYBC1 in response to osmotic stresses. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that MYBC1 expression responded to cold, dehydration, salinity and exogenous ABA at the transcript level. mybc1 mutants exhibited an increased tolerance to freezing stress, whereas 35S::MYBC1 transgenic plants exhibited decreased cold tolerance. Transcript levels of some cold-responsive genes, including CBF/DREB genes, KIN1, ADC1, ADC2 and ZAT12, though, were not altered in the mybc1 mutants or the 35S::MYBC1 transgenic plants in response to cold stress, as compared to the wild type. Microarray analysis results that are publically available were investigated and found transcript level of MYBC1 was not altered by overexpression of CBF1, CBF2, and CBF3, suggesting that MYBC1 is not down regulated by these CBF family members. Together, these results suggested that MYBC1is capable of negatively regulating the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis in the CBF-independent pathway. In transgenic Arabidopsis carrying an MYBC1 promoter driven {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) construct, GUS activity was observed in all tissues and was relatively stronger in the vascular tissues. Fused MYBC1 and GFP protein revealed that MYBC1 was localized exclusively in the nuclear compartment.

  3. A putative MYB35 ortholog is a candidate for the sex-determining genes in Asparagus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Kohei; Ide, Mayui; Hayashi, Masato; Fujino, Kaien; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus) is a dioecious perennial crop. For agricultural production of A. officinalis, male plants have advantages over female plants. The dioecism of A. officinalis is determined by the single dominant masculinizing M locus, which is involved in tapetal cell development in stamens, but thus far no specific M locus genes have been identified. We re-analyzed previously published RNA-Seq data for the A. officinalis transcriptome, cloned some genes, and discovered that a putative ortholog of MYB35, which is indispensable for tapetal cell development in Arabidopsis thaliana, is absent in the genome of female plants in A. officinalis. In a reverse transcription-PCR analysis, this gene (AoMYB35) exhibited strong expression in stamens in male flowers at an early developmental stage. In an in situ hybridization analysis, AoMYB35 mRNA was detected in tapetal cells in young male flowers. GFP-fused AoMYB35 was detected in the nucleus when expressed in onion epidermal cells. These results suggest that AoMYB35 is a male-specific gene encoding a putative transcription factor that acts in tapetal cells at an early stage of flower development in A. officinalis. Together, the results support the idea that AoMYB35 is a candidate for one of the M locus genes in A. officinalis. PMID:28176806

  4. A putative MYB35 ortholog is a candidate for the sex-determining genes in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Kohei; Ide, Mayui; Hayashi, Masato; Fujino, Kaien; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-08

    Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus) is a dioecious perennial crop. For agricultural production of A. officinalis, male plants have advantages over female plants. The dioecism of A. officinalis is determined by the single dominant masculinizing M locus, which is involved in tapetal cell development in stamens, but thus far no specific M locus genes have been identified. We re-analyzed previously published RNA-Seq data for the A. officinalis transcriptome, cloned some genes, and discovered that a putative ortholog of MYB35, which is indispensable for tapetal cell development in Arabidopsis thaliana, is absent in the genome of female plants in A. officinalis. In a reverse transcription-PCR analysis, this gene (AoMYB35) exhibited strong expression in stamens in male flowers at an early developmental stage. In an in situ hybridization analysis, AoMYB35 mRNA was detected in tapetal cells in young male flowers. GFP-fused AoMYB35 was detected in the nucleus when expressed in onion epidermal cells. These results suggest that AoMYB35 is a male-specific gene encoding a putative transcription factor that acts in tapetal cells at an early stage of flower development in A. officinalis. Together, the results support the idea that AoMYB35 is a candidate for one of the M locus genes in A. officinalis.

  5. miR-150 Regulates Memory CD8 T Cell Differentiation via c-Myb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zeyu; Stelekati, Erietta; Kurachi, Makoto; Yu, Sixiang; Cai, Zhangying; Manne, Sasikanth; Khan, Omar; Yang, Xiaolu; Wherry, E John

    2017-09-12

    MicroRNAs play an important role in T cell responses. However, how microRNAs regulate CD8 T cell memory remains poorly defined. Here, we found that miR-150 negatively regulates CD8 T cell memory in vivo. Genetic deletion of miR-150 disrupted the balance between memory precursor and terminal effector CD8 T cells following acute viral infection. Moreover, miR-150-deficient memory CD8 T cells were more protective upon rechallenge. A key circuit whereby miR-150 repressed memory CD8 T cell development through the transcription factor c-Myb was identified. Without miR-150, c-Myb was upregulated and anti-apoptotic targets of c-Myb, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, were also increased, suggesting a miR-150-c-Myb survival circuit during memory CD8 T cell development. Indeed, overexpression of non-repressible c-Myb rescued the memory CD8 T cell defects caused by overexpression of miR-150. Overall, these results identify a key role for miR-150 in memory CD8 T cells through a c-Myb-controlled enhanced survival circuit. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. β-Glucosidase BGLU42 is a MYB72-dependent key regulator of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance and modulates iron deficiency responses in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Zamioudis, Christos; Hanson, Johannes; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2014-10-01

    Selected soil-borne rhizobacteria can trigger an induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 is required for the onset of ISR, but is also associated with plant survival under conditions of iron deficiency. Here, we investigated the role of MYB72 in both processes. To identify MYB72 target genes, we analyzed the root transcriptomes of wild-type Col-0, mutant myb72 and complemented 35S:FLAG-MYB72/myb72 plants in response to ISR-inducing Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417. Five WCS417-inducible genes were misregulated in myb72 and complemented in 35S:FLAG-MYB72/myb72. Amongst these, we uncovered β-glucosidase BGLU42 as a novel component of the ISR signaling pathway. Overexpression of BGLU42 resulted in constitutive disease resistance, whereas the bglu42 mutant was defective in ISR. Furthermore, we found 195 genes to be constitutively upregulated in MYB72-overexpressing roots in the absence of WCS417. Many of these encode enzymes involved in the production of iron-mobilizing phenolic metabolites under conditions of iron deficiency. We provide evidence that BGLU42 is required for their release into the rhizosphere. Together, this work highlights a thus far unidentified link between the ability of beneficial rhizobacteria to stimulate systemic immunity and mechanisms induced by iron deficiency in host plants.

  7. A Unique Mutation in a MYB Gene Cosegregates with the Nectarine Phenotype in Peach

    PubMed Central

    Dondini, Luca; Pacheco, Igor; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Gazza, Laura; Scalabrin, Simone; Strozzi, Francesco; Tartarini, Stefano; Bassi, Daniele; Verde, Ignazio; Rossini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Nectarines play a key role in peach industry; the fuzzless skin has implications for consumer acceptance. The peach/nectarine (G/g) trait was described as monogenic and previously mapped on chromosome 5. Here, the position of the G locus was delimited within a 1.1 cM interval (635 kb) based on linkage analysis of an F2 progeny from the cross ‘Contender’ (C, peach) x ‘Ambra’ (A, nectarine). Careful inspection of the genes annotated in the corresponding genomic sequence (Peach v1.0), coupled with variant discovery, led to the identification of MYB gene PpeMYB25 as a candidate for trichome formation on fruit skin. Analysis of genomic re-sequencing data from five peach/nectarine accessions pointed to the insertion of a LTR retroelement in exon 3 of the PpeMYB25 gene as the cause of the recessive glabrous phenotype. A functional marker (indelG) developed on the LTR insertion cosegregated with the trait in the CxA F2 progeny and was validated on a broad panel of genotypes, including all known putative donors of the nectarine trait. This marker was shown to efficiently discriminate between peach and nectarine plants, indicating that a unique mutational event gave rise to the nectarine trait and providing a useful diagnostic tool for early seedling selection in peach breeding programs. PMID:24595269

  8. Alternatively spliced products of the maize P gene encode proteins with homology to the DNA-binding domain of myb-like transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Grotewold, E; Athma, P; Peterson, T

    1991-01-01

    The Zea mays P gene has been postulated to regulate the biosynthetic pathway of a flavonoid-derived pigment in certain floral tissues [Styles, E. D. & Ceska, O. (1977) Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 19, 289-302]. We have characterized two P transcripts that are alternatively spliced at their 3' ends. One message of 1802 nucleotides encodes a 43.7-kDa protein with an N-terminal region showing approximately 40% homology to the DNA-binding domain of several members of the myb family of protooncogene proteins. A second message of 945 nucleotides encodes a 17.3-kDa protein that contains most of the myb-homologous domain but differs from the first protein at the C terminus. The deduced P-encoded proteins show an even higher homology (70%) in the myb-homologous domain to the maize regulatory gene C1. Additionally, the P and C1 genes are structurally similar in the sizes and positions of the first and second exons and first intron. We show that P is required for accumulation in the pericarp of transcripts of two genes (A1 and C2) encoding enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis--genes also regulated by C1 in the aleurone. Images PMID:2052542

  9. A R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates the Flavonol Biosynthetic Pathway in a Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plant, Epimedium sagittatum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjun; Khaldun, A. B. M.; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lv, Haiyan; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components (BCs) in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally characterized so far in Epimedium plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized the R2R3-MYB transcription factor EsMYBF1 involved in regulation of the flavonol biosynthetic pathway from E. sagittatum. Sequence analysis indicated that EsMYBF1 belongs to the subgroup 7 of R2R3-MYB family which contains the flavonol-specific MYB regulators identified to date. Transient reporter assay showed that EsMYBF1 strongly activated the promoters of EsF3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase) and EsFLS (flavonol synthase), but not the promoters of EsDFRs (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase) and EsANS (anthocyanidin synthase) in transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Both yeast two-hybrid assay and transient reporter assay validated EsMYBF1 to be independent of EsTT8, or AtTT8 bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway as cofactors. Ectopic expression of EsMYBF1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in the increased flavonol content and the decreased anthocyanin content in flowers. Correspondingly, the structural genes involved in flavonol synthesis were upregulated in the EsMYBF1 overexpression lines, including NtCHS (chalcone synthase), NtCHI (chalcone isomerase), NtF3H and NtFLS, whereas the late biosynthetic genes of the anthocyanin pathway (NtDFR and NtANS) were remarkably downregulated, compared to the controls. These results suggest that EsMYBF1 is a flavonol-specific R2R3-MYB regulator, and involved in regulation of the biosynthesis of the flavonol-derived BCs in E. sagittatum. Thus

  10. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor represses the transformation of α- and β-branch carotenoids by negatively regulating expression of CrBCH2 and CrNCED5 in flavedo of Citrus reticulate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Luo, Tao; Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Yang; Yang, Hongbin; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Li; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Xu, Rangwei; Xu, Jianguo; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenwu; Larkin, Robert M; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-10-01

    Although the functions of carotenogenic genes are well documented, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate their expression, especially those genes involved in α - and β-branch carotenoid metabolism. In this study, an R2R3-MYB transcriptional factor (CrMYB68) that directly regulates the transformation of α- and β-branch carotenoids was identified using Green Ougan (MT), a stay-green mutant of Citrus reticulata cv Suavissima. A comprehensive analysis of developing and harvested fruits indicated that reduced expression of β-carotene hydroxylases 2 (CrBCH2) and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 5 (CrNCED5) was responsible for the delay in the transformation of α- and β-carotene and the biosynthesis of ABA. Additionally, the expression of these genes was negatively correlated with the expression of CrMYB68 in MT. Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and dual luciferase assays indicated that CrMYB68 can directly and negatively regulate CrBCH2 and CrNCED5. Moreover, transient overexpression experiments using leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana indicated that CrMYB68 can also negatively regulate NbBCH2 and NbNCED5. To overcome the difficulty of transgenic validation, we quantified the concentrations of carotenoids and ABA, and gene expression in a revertant of MT. The results of these experiments provide more evidence that CrMYB68 is an important regulator of carotenoid metabolism. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. The F-box protein COI1 functions upstream of MYB305 to regulate primary carbohydrate metabolism in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. TN90).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Liu, Guanshan; Niu, Haixia; Timko, Michael P; Zhang, Hongbo

    2014-05-01

    Jasmonate (JA) plays an important role in regulating plant male fertility and secondary metabolism, but its role in regulating primary metabolism remains unclear. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) is a critical component of the JA receptor, and mediates JA-signalling by targeting JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins for proteasomal degradation in response to JA perception. Here, we found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NtCOI1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. TN90) recapitulated many previously observed phenotypes in coi1 mutants, including male sterility, JA insensitivity, and loss of floral anthocyanin production. It also affected starch metabolism in the pollen, anther wall, and floral nectary, leading to pollen abortion and loss of floral nectar. Transcript levels of genes encoding starch metabolism enzymes were significantly altered in the pollen, anther wall, and floral nectary of NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. Changes in leaf primary metabolism were also observed in the NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. The expression of NtMYB305, an orthologue of MYB305 previously identified as a flavonoid metabolic regulator in Antirrhinum majus flowers and as a floral-nectar regulator mediating starch synthesis in ornamental tobacco, was extremely downregulated in NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. These findings suggest that NtCOI1 functions upstream of NtMYB305 and plays a fundamental role in coordinating plant primary carbohydrate metabolism and correlative physiological processes.

  12. The F-box protein COI1 functions upstream of MYB305 to regulate primary carbohydrate metabolism in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. TN90)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) plays an important role in regulating plant male fertility and secondary metabolism, but its role in regulating primary metabolism remains unclear. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) is a critical component of the JA receptor, and mediates JA-signalling by targeting JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins for proteasomal degradation in response to JA perception. Here, we found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NtCOI1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. TN90) recapitulated many previously observed phenotypes in coi1 mutants, including male sterility, JA insensitivity, and loss of floral anthocyanin production. It also affected starch metabolism in the pollen, anther wall, and floral nectary, leading to pollen abortion and loss of floral nectar. Transcript levels of genes encoding starch metabolism enzymes were significantly altered in the pollen, anther wall, and floral nectary of NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. Changes in leaf primary metabolism were also observed in the NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. The expression of NtMYB305, an orthologue of MYB305 previously identified as a flavonoid metabolic regulator in Antirrhinum majus flowers and as a floral-nectar regulator mediating starch synthesis in ornamental tobacco, was extremely downregulated in NtCOI1-silenced tobacco. These findings suggest that NtCOI1 functions upstream of NtMYB305 and plays a fundamental role in coordinating plant primary carbohydrate metabolism and correlative physiological processes. PMID:24604735

  13. Dominant repression by Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 causes oxidative damage and hypersensitivity to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Persak, Helene; Pitzschke, Andrea

    2014-02-13

    In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR) motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance--the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  14. Anthocyanin Accumulation in Muscadine Berry Skins Is Influenced by the Expression of the MYB Transcription Factors, MybA1, and MYBCS1.

    PubMed

    Oglesby, Lillian; Ananga, Anthony; Obuya, James; Ochieng, Joel; Cebert, Ernst; Tsolova, Violeta

    2016-10-12

    The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time. They are designated as VrMybA1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ513437), and VrMYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) (GenBank Accession No. KJ513438). The findings in this study indicate that, the deduced VrMybA1 and VrMYBCS1 protein structures share extensive sequence similarity with previously characterized plant MYBs, while phylogenetic analysis confirms that they are members of the plant MYB super-family. The expressions of MybA1, and MYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) gene sequences were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR using in vitro cell cultures, and berry skin samples at different developmental stages. Results showed that MybA1, and MYBCS1 genes were up-regulated in the veràison and physiologically mature red berry skins during fruit development, as well as in in vitro red cell cultures. This study also found that in ripening berries, the transcription of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 in the berry skin was positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation. Therefore, the upregulation of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 results in the accumulation and regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry development of muscadine grapes. This work greatly enhances the understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in muscadine grapes and will facilitate future genetic modification of the antioxidants in V. rotundifolia.

  15. Anthocyanin Accumulation in Muscadine Berry Skins Is Influenced by the Expression of the MYB Transcription Factors, MybA1, and MYBCS1

    PubMed Central

    Oglesby, Lillian; Ananga, Anthony; Obuya, James; Ochieng, Joel; Cebert, Ernst; Tsolova, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time. They are designated as VrMybA1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ513437), and VrMYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) (GenBank Accession No. KJ513438). The findings in this study indicate that, the deduced VrMybA1 and VrMYBCS1 protein structures share extensive sequence similarity with previously characterized plant MYBs, while phylogenetic analysis confirms that they are members of the plant MYB super-family. The expressions of MybA1, and MYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) gene sequences were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR using in vitro cell cultures, and berry skin samples at different developmental stages. Results showed that MybA1, and MYBCS1 genes were up-regulated in the veràison and physiologically mature red berry skins during fruit development, as well as in in vitro red cell cultures. This study also found that in ripening berries, the transcription of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 in the berry skin was positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation. Therefore, the upregulation of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 results in the accumulation and regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry development of muscadine grapes. This work greatly enhances the understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in muscadine grapes and will facilitate future genetic modification of the antioxidants in V. rotundifolia. PMID:27754335

  16. Overexpression of soybean R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, and tolerance to UV radiation and salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, X W; Wang, Y; Yan, F; Li, J W; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Zhai, Y; Wang, Q Y

    2016-05-25

    MYB, v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog, proteins play central roles in plant stress response. Previously, we identified a novel R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, which affected the expression levels of some key enzyme genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis. In the present study, we analyzed the expression levels of GmMYB12B2 under salt, low temperature, drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and ultraviolet (UV) radiation treatments in soybean using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of GmMYB12B2 was drastically induced by UV irradiation and salt treatment, but no response was detected under low temperature, drought, and ABA stresses. A detailed characterization of the GmMYB12B2 overexpression lines revealed that GmMYB12B2 might be involved in response of plants to UV radiation and salt stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing GmMYB12B2 showed an increased tolerance to salt and UV radiation treatment compared with wild-type plants. The expression levels of certain salt stress-responsive genes, such as DREB2A and RD17, were found to be elevated in the transgenic plants. These results indicate that GmMYB12B2 acts as a regulator in the plant stress response.

  17. Overexpression of SbMyb60 in Sorghum bicolor impacts both primary and secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Palmer, Nathan A; Sarath, Gautam; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Baird, Lisa; Twigg, Paul; Seravalli, Javier; Clemente, Thomas E; Sattler, Scott E

    2017-09-25

    Few transcription factors have been identified in C4 grasses that either positively or negatively regulate monolignol biosynthesis. Previously, the overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has been shown to induce monolignol biosynthesis, which leads to elevated lignin deposition and altered cell wall composition. To determine how SbMyb60 overexpression impacts other metabolic pathways, RNA-Seq and metabolite profiling were performed on stalks and leaves. 35S::SbMyb60 was associated with the transcriptional activation of genes involved in aromatic amino acid, S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and folate biosynthetic pathways. The high coexpression values between SbMyb60 and genes assigned to these pathways indicate that SbMyb60 may directly induce their expression. In addition, 35S::SbMyb60 altered the expression of genes involved in nitrogen (N) assimilation and carbon (C) metabolism, which may redirect C and N towards monolignol biosynthesis. Genes linked to UDP-sugar biosynthesis and cellulose synthesis were also induced, which is consistent with the observed increase in cellulose deposition in the internodes of 35S::SbMyb60 plants. However, SbMyb60 showed low coexpression values with these genes and is not likely to be a direct regulator of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis. These findings indicate that SbMyb60 can activate pathways beyond monolignol biosynthesis, including those that synthesize the substrates and cofactors required for lignin biosynthesis. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Novel R2R3-MYB transcription factors from Prunus americana regulate differential patterns of anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco and citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The level of anthocyanins in plants vary widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies have reported that the expression of various MYBs regulate anthocyanin pigmentation during growth and development. Here we examine the activity of three novel R2R3-MYB ...

  19. Novel R2R3-MYB transcription factors from Prunus Americana regulates differential patterns of anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco and citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The levels of anthocyanins in plants vary widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies have reported that the expression of various MYBs regulate anthocyanin pigmentation during growth and development. Here we examine the activity of three novel R2R3-MYB ...

  20. MYB Elongation Is Regulated by the Nucleic Acid Binding of NFκB p50 to the Intronic Stem-Loop Region

    PubMed Central

    Malaterre, Jordane; Huiling, Xu; Sonza, Secondo; Cures, Alina; Purcell, Damian F. J.; Ramsland, Paul A.; Gerondakis, Steven; Gonda, Thomas J.; Ramsay, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    MYB transcriptional elongation is regulated by an attenuator sequence within intron 1 that has been proposed to encode a RNA stem loop (SLR) followed by a polyU tract. We report that NFκBp50 can bind the SLR polyU RNA and promote MYB transcriptional elongation together with NFκBp65. We identified a conserved lysine-rich motif within the Rel homology domain (RHD) of NFκBp50, mutation of which abrogated the interaction of NFκBp50 with the SLR polyU and impaired NFκBp50 mediated MYB elongation. We observed that the TAR RNA-binding region of Tat is homologous to the NFκBp50 RHD lysine-rich motif, a finding consistent with HIV Tat acting as an effector of MYB transcriptional elongation in an SLR dependent manner. Furthermore, we identify the DNA binding activity of NFκBp50 as a key component required for the SLR polyU mediated regulation of MYB. Collectively these results suggest that the MYB SLR polyU provides a platform for proteins to regulate MYB and reveals novel nucleic acid binding properties of NFκBp50 required for MYB regulation. PMID:25853889

  1. MYB elongation is regulated by the nucleic acid binding of NFκB p50 to the intronic stem-loop region.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lloyd A; Hugo, Honor J; Malaterre, Jordane; Huiling, Xu; Sonza, Secondo; Cures, Alina; Purcell, Damian F J; Ramsland, Paul A; Gerondakis, Steven; Gonda, Thomas J; Ramsay, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    MYB transcriptional elongation is regulated by an attenuator sequence within intron 1 that has been proposed to encode a RNA stem loop (SLR) followed by a polyU tract. We report that NFκBp50 can bind the SLR polyU RNA and promote MYB transcriptional elongation together with NFκBp65. We identified a conserved lysine-rich motif within the Rel homology domain (RHD) of NFκBp50, mutation of which abrogated the interaction of NFκBp50 with the SLR polyU and impaired NFκBp50 mediated MYB elongation. We observed that the TAR RNA-binding region of Tat is homologous to the NFκBp50 RHD lysine-rich motif, a finding consistent with HIV Tat acting as an effector of MYB transcriptional elongation in an SLR dependent manner. Furthermore, we identify the DNA binding activity of NFκBp50 as a key component required for the SLR polyU mediated regulation of MYB. Collectively these results suggest that the MYB SLR polyU provides a platform for proteins to regulate MYB and reveals novel nucleic acid binding properties of NFκBp50 required for MYB regulation.

  2. Phosphorylation of the transcriptional repressor MYB15 by mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is required for freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Ho Soo; Bahk, Sunghwa; An, Jonguk; Yoo, Yeji; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The expression of CBF (C-repeat-binding factor) genes is required for freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. CBFs are positively regulated by INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1) and negatively regulated by MYB15. These transcription factors directly interact with specific elements in the CBF promoters. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) cascades function upstream to regulate CBFs. However, the mechanism by which MPKs control CBF expression during cold stress signaling remains unknown. This study showed that the activity of MYB15, a transcriptional repressor of cold signaling, is regulated by MPK6-mediated phosphorylation. MYB15 specifically interacts with MPK6, and MPK6 phosphorylates MYB15 on Ser168. MPK6-induced phosphorylation reduced the affinity of MYB15 binding to the CBF3 promoter and mutation of its phosphorylation site (MYB15S168A) enhanced the transcriptional repression of CBF3 by MYB15. Furthermore, transgenic plants overexpressing MYB15S168A showed significantly reduced CBF transcript levels in response to cold stress, compared with plants overexpressing MYB15. The MYB15S168A-overexpressing plants were also more sensitive to freezing than MYB15-overexpressing plants. These results suggest that MPK6-mediated regulation of MYB15 plays an important role in cold stress signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:28510716

  3. Integrated genome-wide chromatin occupancy and expression analyses identify key myeloid pro-differentiation transcription factors repressed by Myb.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Glazov, Evgeny A; Pattabiraman, Diwakar R; Al-Owaidi, Faisal; Zhang, Ping; Brown, Matthew A; Leo, Paul J; Gonda, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    To gain insight into the mechanisms by which the Myb transcription factor controls normal hematopoiesis and particularly, how it contributes to leukemogenesis, we mapped the genome-wide occupancy of Myb by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in ERMYB myeloid progenitor cells. By integrating the genome occupancy data with whole genome expression profiling data, we identified a Myb-regulated transcriptional program. Gene signatures for leukemia stem cells, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and myeloid development were overrepresented in 2368 Myb regulated genes. Of these, Myb bound directly near or within 793 genes. Myb directly activates some genes known critical in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells, such as Gfi1 and Cited2. Importantly, we also show that, despite being usually considered as a transactivator, Myb also functions to repress approximately half of its direct targets, including several key regulators of myeloid differentiation, such as Sfpi1 (also known as Pu.1), Runx1, Junb and Cebpb. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that interaction with p300, an established coactivator for Myb, is unexpectedly required for Myb-mediated transcriptional repression. We propose that the repression of the above mentioned key pro-differentiation factors may contribute essentially to Myb's ability to suppress differentiation and promote self-renewal, thus maintaining progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state and promoting leukemic transformation.

  4. R2R3-NaMYB8 Regulates the Accumulation of Phenylpropanoid-Polyamine Conjugates, Which Are Essential for Local and Systemic Defense against Insect Herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Heinzel, Nicolas; Schöttner, Mathias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gális, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Although phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates (PPCs) occur ubiquitously in plants, their biological roles remain largely unexplored. The two major PPCs of Nicotiana attenuata plants, caffeoylputrescine (CP) and dicaffeoylspermidine, increase dramatically in local and systemic tissues after herbivore attack and simulations thereof. We identified NaMYB8, a homolog of NtMYBJS1, which in BY-2 cells regulates PPC biosynthesis, and silenced its expression by RNA interference in N. attenuata (ir-MYB8), to understand the ecological role(s) of PPCs. The regulatory role of NaMYB8 in PPC biosynthesis was validated by a microarray analysis, which revealed that transcripts of several key biosynthetic genes in shikimate and polyamine metabolism accumulated in a NaMYB8-dependent manner. Wild-type N. attenuata plants typically contain high levels of PPCs in their reproductive tissues; however, NaMYB8-silenced plants that completely lacked CP and dicaffeoylspermidine showed no changes in reproductive parameters of the plants. In contrast, a defensive role for PPCs was clear; both specialist (Manduca sexta) and generalist (Spodoptera littoralis) caterpillars feeding on systemically preinduced young stem leaves performed significantly better on ir-MYB8 plants lacking PPCs compared with wild-type plants expressing high levels of PPCs. Moreover, the growth of M. sexta caterpillars was significantly reduced when neonates were fed ir-MYB8 leaves sprayed with synthetic CP, corroborating the role of PPCs as direct plant defense. The spatiotemporal accumulation and function of PPCs in N. attenuata are consistent with the predictions of the optimal defense theory: plants preferentially protect their most fitness-enhancing and vulnerable parts, young tissues and reproductive organs, to maximize their fitness. PMID:20089770

  5. The Transcriptional Repressor MYB2 Regulates Both Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Proanthocyandin and Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Medicago truncatula[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) is limited to specific cell types and developmental stages, but little is known about how antagonistically acting transcriptional regulators work together to determine temporal and spatial patterning of pigmentation at the cellular level, especially for PAs. Here, we characterize MYB2, a transcriptional repressor regulating both anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MYB2 was strongly upregulated by MYB5, a major regulator of PA biosynthesis in M. truncatula and a component of MYB-basic helix loop helix-WD40 (MBW) activator complexes. Overexpression of MYB2 abolished anthocyanin and PA accumulation in M. truncatula hairy roots and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, respectively. Anthocyanin deposition was expanded in myb2 mutant seedlings and flowers accompanied by increased anthocyanin content. PA mainly accumulated in the epidermal layer derived from the outer integument in the M. truncatula seed coat, starting from the hilum area. The area of PA accumulation and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE expression was expanded into the seed body at the early stage of seed development in the myb2 mutant. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological evidence suggests that MYB2 functions as part of a multidimensional regulatory network to define the temporal and spatial pattern of anthocyanin and PA accumulation linked to developmental processes. PMID:26410301

  6. Intronic Sequence Regulates Sugar-Dependent Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana Production of Anthocyanin Pigment-1/MYB75

    PubMed Central

    Broeckling, Bettina E.; Watson, Ruth A.; Steinwand, Blaire; Bush, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose-specific regulation of gene expression is recognized as an important signaling response, distinct from glucose, which serves to modulate plant growth, metabolism, and physiology. The Arabidopsis MYB transcription factor Production of Anthocyanin Pigment-1 (PAP1) plays a key role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and expression of PAP1 is known to be regulated by sucrose. Sucrose treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings led to a 20-fold induction of PAP1 transcript, which represented a 6-fold increase over levels in glucose-treated seedlings. The PAP1 promoter was not sufficient for conferring a sucrose response to a reporter gene and did not correctly report expression of PAP1 in plants. Although we identified 3 putative sucrose response elements in the PAP1 gene, none were found to be necessary for this response. Using deletion analysis, we identified a 90 bp sequence within intron 1 of PAP1 that is necessary for the sucrose response. This sequence was sufficient for conferring a sucrose response to a minimal promoter: luciferase reporter when present in multiple copies upstream of the promoter. This work lays the foundation for dissecting the sucrose signaling pathway of PAP1 and contributes to understanding the interplay between sucrose signaling, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and stress responses. PMID:27248141

  7. Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB transcription factor AtMYB60 functions as a transcriptional repressor of anthocyanin biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Sug; Kim, Jung-Bong; Cho, Kang-Jin; Cheon, Choong-Ill; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2008-01-01

    The MYB transcription factors play important roles in the regulation of many secondary metabolites at the transcriptional level. We evaluated the possible roles of the Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB transcription factors in flavonoid biosynthesis because they are induced by UV-B irradiation but their associated phenotypes are largely unexplored. We isolated their genes by RACE-PCR, and performed transgenic approach and metabolite analyses in lettuce (Lactuca sativa). We found that one member of this protein family, AtMYB60, inhibits anthocyanin biosynthesis in the lettuce plant. Wild-type lettuce normally accumulates anthocyanin, predominantly cyanidin and traces of delphinidin, and develops a red pigmentation. However, the production and accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in AtMYB60-overexpressing lettuce was inhibited. Using RT-PCR analysis, we also identified the complete absence or reduction of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) transcripts in AtMYB60- overexpressing lettuce (AtMYB60-117 and AtMYB60-112 lines). The correlation between the overexpression of AtMYB60 and the inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation suggests that the transcription factorAtMYB60 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in the lettuce leaf. Clarification of the roles of the AtMYB60 transcription factor will facilitate further studies and provide genetic tools to better understand the regulation in plants of the genes controlled by the MYB-type transcription factors. Furthermore, the characterization of AtMYB60 has implications for the development of new varieties of lettuce and other commercially important plants with metabolic engineering approaches. PMID:18317777

  8. Characterization of the regulatory network of BoMYB2 in controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple cauliflower.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Li-Wei; Li, Li

    2012-10-01

    Purple cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) Graffiti represents a unique mutant in conferring ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis, which is caused by the tissue-specific activation of BoMYB2, an ortholog of Arabidopsis PAP2 or MYB113. To gain a better understanding of the regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis, we investigated the interaction among cauliflower MYB-bHLH-WD40 network proteins and examined the interplay of BoMYB2 with various bHLH transcription factors in planta. Yeast two-hybrid studies revealed that cauliflower BoMYBs along with the other regulators formed the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complexes and BobHLH1 acted as a bridge between BoMYB and BoWD40-1 proteins. Different BoMYBs exhibited different binding activity to BobHLH1. Examination of the BoMYB2 transgenic lines in Arabidopsis bHLH mutant backgrounds demonstrated that TT8, EGL3, and GL3 were all involved in the BoMYB2-mediated anthocyanin biosynthesis. Expression of BoMYB2 in Arabidopsis caused up-regulation of AtTT8 and AtEGL3 as well as a subset of anthocyanin structural genes encoding flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase. Taken together, our results show that MYB-bHLH-WD40 network transcription factors regulated the bHLH gene expression, which may represent a critical feature in the control of anthocyanin biosynthesis. BoMYB2 together with various BobHLHs specifically regulated the late anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Our findings provide additional information for the complicated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and the transcriptional regulation of transcription factors in vegetable crops.

  9. Post-veraison sunlight exposure induces MYB-mediated transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin and flavonol synthesis in berry skins of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Matus, José Tomás; Loyola, Rodrigo; Vega, Andrea; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alcalde, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols are the three major classes of flavonoid compounds found in grape berry tissues. Several viticultural practices increase flavonoid content in the fruit, but the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for these changes have not been completely deciphered. The impact of post-veraison sunlight exposure on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in grape berry skin and its relation to the expression of different transcriptional regulators known to be involved in flavonoid synthesis was studied. Treatments consisting of removing or moving aside the basal leaves which shade berry clusters were applied. Shading did not affect sugar accumulation or gene expression of HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 1, although in the leaf removal treatment, these events were retarded during the first weeks of ripening. Flavonols were the most drastically reduced flavonoids following shading and leaf removal treatments, related to the reduced expression of FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 4 and its putative transcriptional regulator MYB12. Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, UFGT, MYBA1, and MYB5a genes were also affected. Other regulatory genes were less affected or not affected at all by these treatments. Non-transcriptional control mechanisms for flavonoid synthesis are also suggested, especially during the initial stages of ripening. Although berries from the leaf removal treatment received more light than shaded fruits, malvidin-3-glucoside and total flavonol content was reduced compared with the treatment without leaf removal. This work reveals that flavonol-related gene expression responds rapidly to field changes in light levels, as shown by the treatment in which shaded fruits were exposed to light in the late stages of ripening. Taken together, this study establishes MYB-specific responsiveness for the effect of sun exposure and sugar transport on flavonoid synthesis. PMID:19129169

  10. Post-veraison sunlight exposure induces MYB-mediated transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin and flavonol synthesis in berry skins of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Matus, José Tomás; Loyola, Rodrigo; Vega, Andrea; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alcalde, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols are the three major classes of flavonoid compounds found in grape berry tissues. Several viticultural practices increase flavonoid content in the fruit, but the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for these changes have not been completely deciphered. The impact of post-veraison sunlight exposure on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in grape berry skin and its relation to the expression of different transcriptional regulators known to be involved in flavonoid synthesis was studied. Treatments consisting of removing or moving aside the basal leaves which shade berry clusters were applied. Shading did not affect sugar accumulation or gene expression of HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 1, although in the leaf removal treatment, these events were retarded during the first weeks of ripening. Flavonols were the most drastically reduced flavonoids following shading and leaf removal treatments, related to the reduced expression of FLAVONOL SYNTHASE 4 and its putative transcriptional regulator MYB12. Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, UFGT, MYBA1, and MYB5a genes were also affected. Other regulatory genes were less affected or not affected at all by these treatments. Non-transcriptional control mechanisms for flavonoid synthesis are also suggested, especially during the initial stages of ripening. Although berries from the leaf removal treatment received more light than shaded fruits, malvidin-3-glucoside and total flavonol content was reduced compared with the treatment without leaf removal. This work reveals that flavonol-related gene expression responds rapidly to field changes in light levels, as shown by the treatment in which shaded fruits were exposed to light in the late stages of ripening. Taken together, this study establishes MYB-specific responsiveness for the effect of sun exposure and sugar transport on flavonoid synthesis.

  11. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB77 Modulates Auxin Signal Transduction[W

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ryoung; Burch, Adrien Y.; Huppert, Kari A.; Tiwari, Shiv B.; Murphy, Angus S.; Guilfoyle, Tom J.; Schachtman, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Auxin is a key plant hormone that regulates plant development, apical dominance, and growth-related tropisms, such as phototropism and gravitropism. In this study, we report a new Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor, MYB77, that is involved in auxin response. In MYB77 knockout plants, we found that auxin-responsive gene expression was greatly attenuated. Lateral root density in the MYB77 knockout was lower than the wild type at low concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and also under low nutrient conditions. MYB77 interacts with auxin response factors (ARFs) in vitro through the C terminus (domains III and IV) of ARFs and the activation domain of MYB77. A synergistic genetic interaction was demonstrated between MYB77 and ARF7 that resulted in a strong reduction in lateral root numbers. Experiments with protoplasts confirmed that the coexpression of MYB77 and an ARF C terminus enhance reporter gene expression. R2R3 MYB transcription factors have not been previously implicated in regulating the expression of auxin-inducible genes. Also it was previously unknown that ARFs interact with proteins other than those in the Aux/IAA family via conserved domains. The interaction between MYB77 and ARFs defines a new type of combinatorial transcriptional control in plants. This newly defined transcription factor interaction is part of the plant cells' repertoire for modulating response to auxin, thereby controlling lateral root growth and development under changing environmental conditions. PMID:17675404

  12. Overexpression of the zinc finger protein MZF1 inhibits hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells: correlation with negative regulation of CD34 and c-myb promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Perrotti, D; Melotti, P; Skorski, T; Casella, I; Peschle, C; Calabretta, B

    1995-01-01

    Zinc finger genes encode proteins that act as transcription factors. The myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) gene encodes a zinc finger protein with two DNA-binding domains that recognize two distinct consensus sequences, is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells, and may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of hematopoiesis-specific genes. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of human peripheral blood CD34+ cells cultured under lineage-restricted conditions demonstrated MZF1 expression during both myeloid and erythroid differentiation. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the CD34 and c-myb genes, which are a marker of and a transcriptional factor required for hematopoietic proliferation and differentiation, respectively, revealed closely spaced MZF1 consensus binding sites found by electrophoretic mobility shift assays to interact with recombinant MZF1 protein. Transient or constitutive MZF1 expression in different cell types resulted in specific inhibition of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity driven by the CD34 or c-myb 5'-flanking region. To determine whether transcriptional modulation by MZF1 activity plays a role in hematopoietic differentiation, constructs containing the MZF1 cDNA under the control of different promoters were transfected into murine embryonic stem cells which, under defined in vitro culture conditions, generate colonies of multiple hematopoietic lineages. Constitutive MZF1 expression interfered with the ability of embryonic stem cells to undergo hematopoietic commitment and erythromyeloid colony formation and prevented the induced expression of CD34 and c-myb mRNAs during differentiation of these cells. These data indicate that MZF1 plays a critical role in hematopoiesis by modulating the expression of genes involved in this process. PMID:7565760

  13. The oil palm VIRESCENS gene controls fruit colour and encodes a R2R3-MYB.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Marjuni, Marhalil; Chan, Pek-Lan; Ithnin, Maizura; Manaf, Mohd Arif Abdul; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Rosli, Rozana; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lakey, Nathan; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Hogan, Michael; He, Dong; MacDonald, Jill D; Smith, Steven W; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2014-06-30

    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the virescens (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis production of anthocyanin pigment1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material.

  14. Identification of genes in the phenylalanine metabolic pathway by ectopic expression of a MYB transcription factor in tomato fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Altering expression of transcription factors can be an effective means to coordinately modulate entire metabolic pathways in plants. It can also provide useful information concerning the identities of genes that constitute metabolic networks. Here, we used ectopic expression of a MYB transcription f...

  15. The Arabidopsis MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-03-01

    Seed dormancy facilitates to endure environmental disadvantages by confining embryonic growth until the seeds encounter favorable environmental conditions for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) play a pivotal role in the determination of the seed dormancy state. ABA establishes seed dormancy, while GA triggers seed germination. Here, we demonstrate that MYB96 contributes to the fine-tuning of seed dormancy regulation through the coordination of ABA and GA metabolism. The MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds germinated earlier than wild-type seeds, whereas delayed germination was observed in the activation-tagging myb96-1D seeds. The differences in germination rate disappeared after stratification or after-ripening. The MYB96 transcription factor positively regulates ABA biosynthesis genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE 2 (NCED2), NCED5, NCED6, and NCED9, and also affects GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox1. Notably, MYB96 directly binds to the promoters of NCED2 and NCED6, primarily modulating ABA biosynthesis, which subsequently influences GA metabolism. In agreement with this, hyperdormancy of myb96-1D seeds was recovered by an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, while hypodormancy of myb96-1 seeds was suppressed by a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). Taken together, the metabolic balance of ABA and GA underlies MYB96 control of primary seed dormancy.

  16. Overexpression of PtrMYB119, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor from Populus trichocarpa, promotes anthocyanin production in hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Seong; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Min-Ha; Eom, Seok Hyun; Lim, You Jin; Kim, Won-Chan; Park, Eung-Jun; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-09-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of colorful and bioactive natural pigments with important physiological and ecological functions in plants. We found an MYB transcription factor (PtrMYB119) from Populus trichocarpa that positively regulates anthocyanin production when expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that PtrMYB119 is highly homologous to Arabidopsis PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1), a well-known transcriptional activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Independently produced transgenic poplars overexpressing PtrMYB119 or PtrMYB120 (a paralogous gene to PtrMYB119) (i.e., 35S::PtrMYB119 and 35S::PtrMYB120, respectively) showed elevated accumulation of anthocyanins in the whole plants, including leaf, stem and even root tissues. Using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, we confirmed that the majority of the accumulated anthocyanin in our transgenic poplar is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. Gene expression analyses revealed that most of the genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were highly upregulated in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars compared with the nontransformed control poplar. Among these genes, expression of PtrCHS1 (Chalcone Synthase1) and PtrANS2 (Anthocyanin Synthase2), which catalyze the initial and last steps of anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively, was upregulated by up to 350-fold. Subsequent transient activation assays confirmed that PtrMYB119 activated the transcription of both PtrCHS1 and PtrANS2 Interestingly, expression of MYB182, a repressor of both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis, was largely suppressed in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars, while expression of MYB134, an activator of PA biosynthesis, was not changed significantly. More interestingly, high-level accumulation of anthocyanins in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars did not have an adverse effect on plant growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PtrMYB119 and PtrMYB120

  17. An MYB transcription factor from Malus xiaojinensis has a potential role in iron nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Xu, Xuefeng; Li, Tianzhong; Cao, Dongmei; Han, Zhenhai

    2008-10-01

    Regulation of iron uptake and use is critical for plant survival and growth. We isolated an MYB gene from Malus xiaojinensis named MxMYB1, which is induced under Fe-deficient conditions. Expression of MxMYB1 was upregulated by Fe starvation in the roots but not in leaves, suggesting that MxMYB1 might play a role in iron nutrition in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MxMYB1 exhibited lower iron content as compared with wild type plants under both Fe-normal (40 microM) and Fe-deficient conditions (Fe omitted and Ferrozine 300 microM). However, the contents of Cu, Zn and Mn were not changed in these transgenic plants. Gene chip and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the expression of two Fe-related genes encoding an iron transporter AtIRT1 and an iron storage protein ferritin AtFER1 might be negatively regulated by MxMYB1 as the expression levels of these genes were lower in MxMYB1 expressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants as compared with wild type plants under both Fe-normal and Fe-deficient conditions. These results suggest that MxMYB1 may function as a negative regulator of iron uptake and storage in plants.

  18. The beet Y locus encodes an anthocyanin MYB-like protein that activates the betalain red pigment pathway.

    PubMed

    Hatlestad, Gregory J; Akhavan, Neda A; Sunnadeniya, Rasika M; Elam, Lee; Cargile, Scott; Hembd, Austin; Gonzalez, Antonio; McGrath, J Mitchell; Lloyd, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all flowering plants produce red/violet anthocyanin pigments. Caryophyllales is the only order containing families that replace anthocyanins with unrelated red and yellow betalain pigments. Close biological correlation of pigmentation patterns suggested that betalains might be regulated by a conserved anthocyanin-regulating transcription factor complex consisting of a MYB, a bHLH and a WD repeat-containing protein (the MBW complex). Here we show that a previously uncharacterized anthocyanin MYB-like protein, Beta vulgaris MYB1 (BvMYB1), regulates the betalain pathway in beets. Silencing BvMYB1 downregulates betalain biosynthetic genes and pigmentation, and overexpressing BvMYB1 upregulates them. However, unlike anthocyanin MYBs, BvMYB1 will not interact with bHLH members of heterologous anthocyanin MBW complexes because of identified nonconserved residues. BvMYB1 resides at the historic beet pigment-patterning locus, Y, required for red-fleshed beets. We show that Y and y express different levels of BvMYB1 transcripts. The co-option of a transcription factor regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis would be an important evolutionary event allowing betalains to largely functionally replace anthocyanins.

  19. Sumoylation of transcription factor MYB30 by the small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase SIZ1 mediates abscisic acid response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuan; Schumaker, Karen S; Guo, Yan

    2012-07-31

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in plant development and during the response of the plant to abiotic stress. In this study, we report that the R2R3-type transcription factor MYB30 is involved in the regulation of ABA signaling. Arabidopsis mutants lacking MYB30 are hypersensitive to ABA during germination and seedling growth. A K283R substitution in MYB30 blocks its SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1-mediated sumoylation in Arabidopsis protoplasts, indicating that MYB30 is sumoylated by SIZ1 and that K283 is the principal site for small ubiquitin-like modifier conjugation. Expression of MYB30(K283R) in myb30 partially rescues the mutant ABA-hypersensitive phenotype, but expression of wild-type MYB30 complements the mutant phenotype. Overexpression of MYB30 in wild-type results in an ABA-insensitive phenotype, whereas overexpression of MYB30 in the siz1 mutant does not alter siz1 hypersensitivity to ABA. The siz1-2 myb30-2 double-mutant exhibits greater ABA sensitivity than either single mutant, but a mutation in the SIZ1-sumoylated ABI5 transcription factor suppresses the ABA hypersensitivity of myb30-2 to wild-type levels. Our results suggest that coordination of ABI5 and MYB30 sumoylation by SIZ1 may balance gene expression, which is required for regulation of ABA signaling during seed germination.

  20. LcMYB1 Is a Key Determinant of Differential Anthocyanin Accumulation among Genotypes, Tissues, Developmental Phases and ABA and Light Stimuli in Litchi chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes. PMID:24466010

  1. PtoMYB92 is a Transcriptional Activator of the Lignin Biosynthetic Pathway During Secondary Cell Wall Formation in Populus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaofeng; Wang, Xianqiang; Ran, Lingyu; Tian, Qiaoyan; Fan, Di; Luo, Keming

    2015-12-01

    Wood is the most abundant biomass in perennial woody plants and is mainly made up of secondary cell wall. R2R3-MYB transcription factors are important regulators of secondary wall biosynthesis in plants. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of a poplar MYB transcription factor PtoMYB92, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB42 and MYB85, which is involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. PtoMYB92 is specifically expressed in xylem tissue in poplar. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation analysis suggest that PtoMYB92 is a nuclear-localized transcriptional activator. Overexpression of PtoMYB92 in poplar resulted in an increase in secondary cell wall thickness in stems and ectopic deposition of lignin in leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that PtoMYB92 specifically activated the expression of lignin biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, transient expression assays using a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene revealed that PtoMYB92 is an activator in the lignin biosynthetic pathway during secondary cell wall formation. Taken together, our results suggest that PtoMYB92 is involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation in poplar by controlling the biosynthesis of monolignols.

  2. Functional Characterization of Tea (Camellia sinensis) MYB4a Transcription Factor Using an Integrative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingzhuo; Li, Yanzhi; Guo, Lili; Gong, Niandi; Pang, Yongzheng; Jiang, Wenbo; Liu, Yajun; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yunsheng; Xie, De-Yu; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis, Cs) abundantly produces a diverse array of phenylpropanoid compounds benefiting human health. To date, the regulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in tea remains to be investigated. Here, we report a cDNA isolated from leaf tissues, which encodes a R2R3-MYB transcription factor. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that it is a member of the MYB4-subgroup and named as CsMYB4a. Transcriptional and metabolic analyses show that the expression profile of CsMYB4a is negatively correlated to the accumulation of six flavan-3-ols and other phenolic acids. GFP fusion analysis shows CsMYB4a’s localization in the nucleus. Promoters of five tea phenylpropanoid pathway genes are isolated and characterized to contain four types of AC-elements, which are targets of MYB4 members. Interaction of CsMYB4a and five promoters shows that CsMYB4a decreases all five promoters’ activity. To further characterize its function, CsMYB4a is overexpressed in tobacco plants. The resulting transgenic plants show dwarf, shrinking and yellowish leaf, and early senescence phenotypes. A further genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals that the expression levels of 20 tobacco genes involved in the shikimate and the phenylpropanoid pathways are significantly downregulated in transgenic tobacco plants. UPLC-MS and HPLC based metabolic profiling reveals significant reduction of total lignin content, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and phenylalanine in CsMYB4a transgenic tobacco plants. Promoter sequence analysis of the 20 tobacco genes characterizes four types of AC-elements. Further CsMYB4a-AC element and CsMYB4a-promoter interaction analyses indicate that the negative regulation of CsMYB4a on the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways in tobacco is via reducing promoter activity. Taken together, all data indicate that CsMYB4a negatively regulates the phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways. Highlight: A tea (Camellia sinensis) MYB4a is

  3. MYB transcription factor gene involved in sex determination in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohji; Shigenobu, Shuji; Fujii, Sota; Ueda, Kazuki; Murata, Takanori; Sakamoto, Ai; Wada, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Kanno, Akira; Ozaki, Yukio; Takayama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Dioecy is a plant mating system in which individuals of a species are either male or female. Although many flowering plants evolved independently from hermaphroditism to dioecy, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition remains largely unknown. Sex determination in the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis is controlled by X and Y chromosomes; the male and female karyotypes are XY and XX, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of A. officinalis buds showed that a MYB-like gene, Male Specific Expression 1 (MSE1), is specifically expressed in males. MSE1 exhibits tight linkage with the Y chromosome, specific expression in early anther development and loss of function on the X chromosome. Knockout of the MSE1 orthologue in Arabidopsis induces male sterility. Thus, MSE1 acts in sex determination in A. officinalis. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Identification, isolation and expression analysis of eight stress-related R2R3-MYB genes in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum).

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zhao, Hai-Xia; Yao, Hui-Peng; Li, Cheng-Lei; Chen, Hui; Wang, An-Hu; Park, Sang-Un; Wu, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Eight R2R3 - MYB genes in tartary buckwheat were identified, and their expression patterns were comprehensively analyzed, which reveals role in plant response to abiotic stresses. The proteins of the R2R3-MYB superfamily play key roles in the growth and development processes as well as defense responses in plants. However, their characteristics and functions have not been fully investigated in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), a strongly abiotic resistant coarse cereal. In this article, eight tartary buckwheat R2R3-MYB genes were isolated with full-length cDNA and DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the members of the R2R3-MYB superfamily between Arabidopsis and tartary buckwheat revealed that the assumed functions of the eight tartary buckwheat R2R3-MYB proteins are divided into five Arabidopsis functional subgroups that are involved in abiotic stress. Expression analysis during abiotic stress and exogenous phytohormone treatments identified that the eight R2R3-MYB genes responded to one or more treatments. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the R2R3-MYB gene family in tartary buckwheat under abiotic stress.

  5. A conserved acidic patch in the Myb domain is required for activation of an endogenous target gene and for chromatin binding

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Emily Ray; Ko, Dennis; Chen, Carolyn; Lipsick, Joseph S

    2008-01-01

    The c-Myb protein is a transcriptional regulator initially identified by homology to the v-Myb oncoprotein, and has since been implicated in human cancer. The most highly conserved portion of the c-Myb protein is the DNA-binding domain which consists of three imperfect repeats. Many other proteins contain one or more Myb-related domains, including a number of proteins that do not bind directly to DNA. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of diverse classes of Myb-related domains and discovered a highly conserved patch of acidic residues common to all Myb-related domains. These acidic residues are positioned in the first of three alpha-helices within each of the three repeats that comprise the c-Myb DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, these conserved acidic residues are present on a surface of the protein which is distinct from that which binds to DNA. Alanine mutagenesis revealed that the acidic patch of the third c-Myb repeat is essential for transcriptional activity, but neither for nuclear localization nor DNA-binding. Instead, these acidic residues are required for efficient chromatin binding and interaction with the histone H4 N-terminal tail. PMID:18840288

  6. Cloning and characterization of ChiMYB in Chrysanthemum indicum with an emphasis on salinity stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    He, M; Wang, H; Z Liu, Y; Gao, W J; Gao, Y H; Wang, F; Zhou, Y W

    2016-09-23

    v-myb avianmyeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) transcription factors are key regulators of stress responsive gene expression in plants. In this study, the MYB gene, ChiMYB (GenBank accession No. KT948997), was isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum, and was functionally characterized with an emphasis on salinity stress tolerance. The full ChiMYB cDNA sequence (948 bp) encoded a typical R2R3 MYB transcription factor that contained 315 amino acid residues and two MYB domains. The temporal expression pattern of ChiMYB was noted in C. indicum, and the highest level was detected in the roots, followed by leaves and stems. ChiMYB expression was induced by NaCl treatments, and transient expression of the fusion of ChiMYB and green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicated that the protein was targeted to the nuclei of onion epidermal cells. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ChiMYB displayed improved tolerance to drought and salt stress. When under salt stress conditions, transgenic Arabidopsis plants had higher survival rates than non-transgenic wild-type plants. Chlorophyll content, intercellular CO2 concentration, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance were higher in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants than in non-transgenic control plants. Further investigation revealed that ChiMYB was able to regulate the expression of RD29A, RAB18, COR15, ABI1, and ABA genes, which are involved in salt stress signaling pathways. Our findings demonstrated that ChiMYB is essential for plant responses to salt stress, and it may have great potential for the improvement of salt tolerance in crops.

  7. Heterologous expression of gentian MYB1R transcription factors suppresses anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco flowers.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Saito, Misa; Fujita, Kohei; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Single-repeat MYB transcription factors, GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 , were isolated from gentian. Overexpression of these genes reduced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco flowers, demonstrating their applicability to modification of flower color. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been used to successfully modify flower color intensity in several plant species. In most floricultural plants, this technique requires prior isolation of target flavonoid biosynthetic genes from the same or closely related species. To overcome this limitation, we developed a simple and efficient method for reducing floral anthocyanin accumulation based on genetic engineering using novel transcription factor genes isolated from Japanese gentians. We identified two single-repeat MYB genes--GtMYB1R and GtMYB1R9--predominantly expressed in gentian petals. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes were produced, and their flowers were analyzed for flavonoid components and expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9 exhibited significant reductions in floral anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in white-flowered phenotypes. Expression levels of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes were preferentially suppressed in these transgenic tobacco flowers. A yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that both GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 proteins interacted with the GtbHLH1 protein, previously identified as an anthocyanin biosynthesis regulator in gentian flowers. In addition, a transient expression assay indicated that activation of the gentian GtDFR promoter by the GtMYB3-GtbHLH1 complex was partly canceled by addition of GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9. These results suggest that GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 act as antagonistic transcription factors of anthocyanin biosynthesis in gentian flowers. These genes should consequently be useful for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation via genetic engineering in

  8. Regulation of herpes simplex virus γ134.5 expression and oncolysis of diffuse liver metastases by Myb34.5

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hideo; Kasuya, Hideki; Mullen, John T.; Yoon, Sam S.; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Chandrasekhar, Soundararajalu; Donahue, James M.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Chung, Richard Y.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

    2002-01-01

    Myb34.5 is a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutant deleted in the gene for ribonucleotide reductase (ICP6). It also carries a version of γ134.5 (a viral gene product that promotes the dephosphorylation of eIF-2α) that is under control of the E2F-responsive cellular B-myb promoter, rather than of its endogenous promoter. Myb34.5 replication in tumor cells results in their destruction (oncolysis). γ134.5 expression by HSV-1 subverts an important cell defense mechanism against viral replication by preventing shutoff of protein synthesis after viral infection. Infection of colon carcinoma cells with Myb34.5 results in greater eIF-2α dephosphorylation and viral replication compared with infection with HSV-1 mutants completely defective in γ134.5 expression. In contrast, infection of normal hepatocytes with Myb34.5 results in low levels of eIF-2α dephosphorylation and viral replication that are similar to those observed with HSV-1 mutants completely defective in γ134.5 and ICP6. When administered intravascularly into mice with diffuse liver metastases, Myb34.5 has greater antineoplastic activity than HSV-1 mutants with completely defective γ134.5 expression and more restricted biodistribution compared with HSV-1 mutants with wild-type γ134.5 expression. Myb34.5 displays reduced virulence and toxicity compared to HSV-1 mutants with wild-type γ134.5 expression. Portal venous administration of Myb34.5 significantly reduces liver tumor burden in and prolongs the life of mice with diffuse liver metastases. Preexisting Ab’s to HSV-1 do not reduce the antitumor efficacy of Myb34.5 in vivo. PMID:11927614

  9. AtMYB93 is an endodermis-specific transcriptional regulator of lateral root development in arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Coates, Juliet C

    2014-01-01

    Plant root systems are critical for survival, acting as the primary interface for nutrient and water acquisition, as well as anchoring the plant to the ground. As plants grow, their root systems become more elaborate, which is largely mediated by the formation of root branches, or lateral roots. Lateral roots initiate deep within the root in the pericycle cell layer, and their development is controlled by a wide range of internal signaling factors and environmental cues, as well as mechanical feedback from the surrounding cells. The endodermal cell layer, which overlies the pericycle, has emerged as an important tissue regulating LR initiation and formation. We recently identified the AtMYB93 transcription factor as a negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, AtMYB93 expression is highly restricted to the few endodermal cells overlying developing lateral root primordia, suggesting that this transcriptional regulator might play a key role in mediating the effect of the endodermis on lateral root development. Here we discuss our recent findings in the wider context of root system development - with a particular focus on the role of the endodermis - and propose several potential models to explain AtMYB93 function during lateral root organogenesis.

  10. Use of the VvMybA1 gene for non-destructive quantification of promoter activity via color histogram analysis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a convenient plant-based reporter system to analyze promoters and facilitate selection of genetically engineered plants. The VvMybA1 gene of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) regulates the last metabolic step of anthocyanin biosynthesis and its ectopic expression leads to anthocyanin production in otherwise non-pigmented cells. To develop an anthocyanin-based quantitative reporter system, the VvMybA1 gene was isolated from V. vinifera 'Merlot' and placed under control of three promoters to test its ability to distinguish different activity levels. Promoters included a double enhanced CaMV35S (d35S) promoter, a double enhanced CsVMV (dCsVMV) promoter or a bi-directional dual promoter (BDDP), resulting in transformation vectors DAT, CAT and DEAT, respectively. These vectors were introduced into grapevine and tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for transient and stable expression analysis. A linear relationship between the mean red brightness (MRB) and optical density (OD) values with a 0.99 regression coefficient was identified in a dilution series of anthocyanin, thus allowing the use of histogram data for non-destructive and real-time assessment of transcriptional activity. Results of histogram-based analysis of color images from transformed grapevine somatic embryos (SE) and various tissues of transgenic tobacco showed a consistent six to sevenfold promoter activity increase of DEAT over DAT. This expression increase was verified by spectroscopic measurement of anthocyanin concentrations in sepal tissue of transgenic tobacco plants. These results were congruent with previously findings of promoter activity derived from GUS fluorometric assay, thus demonstrating for the first time that the VvMybA1 gene could offer a simple, versatile and reliable plant-based alternative for quantitative promoter analysis in plants.

  11. The OsMYB30 Transcription Factor Suppresses Cold Tolerance by Interacting with a JAZ Protein and Suppressing β-Amylase Expression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yan; Yang, Mei; Hu, Dan; Yang, Zeyu; Ma, Siqi

    2017-01-01

    Cold stress is one of the major limiting factors for rice (Oryza sativa) productivity. Several MYB transcriptional factors have been reported as important regulators in the cold stress response, but the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized a cold-responsive R2R3-type MYB gene, OsMYB30, for its regulatory function in cold tolerance in rice. Functional analysis revealed that overexpression of OsMYB30 in rice resulted in increased cold sensitivity, while the osmyb30 knockout mutant showed increased cold tolerance. Microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that a few β-amylase (BMY) genes were down-regulated by OsMYB30. The BMY activity and maltose content, which were decreased and increased in the OsMYB30 overexpression and osmyb30 knockout mutant, respectively, were correlated with the expression patterns of the BMY genes. OsMYB30 was shown to bind to the promoters of the BMY genes. These results suggested that OsMYB30 exhibited a regulatory effect on the breakdown of starch through the regulation of the BMY genes. In addition, application of maltose had a protective effect for cell membranes under cold stress conditions. Furthermore, we identified an OsMYB30-interacting protein, OsJAZ9, that had a significant effect in suppressing the transcriptional activation of OsMYB30 and in the repression of BMY genes mediated by OsMYB30. These results together suggested that OsMYB30 might be a novel regulator of cold tolerance through the negative regulation of the BMY genes by interacting with OsJAZ9 to fine-tune the starch breakdown and the content of maltose, which might contribute to the cold tolerance as a compatible solute. PMID:28062835

  12. Opposing Control by Transcription Factors MYB61 and MYB3 Increases Freezing Tolerance by Relieving C-Repeat Binding Factor Suppression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunqin; Miao, Zhenyan; Xie, Can; Meng, Xiangzhao; Deng, Jie; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Frugier, Florian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cold acclimation is an important process by which plants respond to low temperature and enhance their winter hardiness. C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR1 (CBF1), CBF2, and CBF3 genes were shown previously to participate in cold acclimation in Medicago truncatula. In addition, MtCBF4 is transcriptionally induced by salt, drought, and cold stresses. We show here that MtCBF4, shown previously to enhance drought and salt tolerance, also positively regulates cold acclimation and freezing tolerance. To identify molecular factors acting upstream and downstream of the MtCBF4 transcription factor (TF) in cold responses, we first identified genes that are differentially regulated upon MtCBF4 overexpression using RNAseq Digital Gene Expression Profiling. Among these, we showed that MtCBF4 directly activates the transcription of the COLD ACCLIMATION SPECIFIC15 (MtCAS15) gene. To gain insights into how MtCBF4 is transcriptionally regulated in response to cold, an R2R3-MYB TF, MtMYB3, was identified based on a yeast one-hybrid screen as binding directly to MYB cis-elements in the MtCBF4 promoter, leading to the inhibition of MtCBF4 expression. In addition, another MYB TF, MtMYB61, identified as an interactor of MtMYB3, can relieve the inhibitory effect of MtMYB3 on MtCBF4 transcription. This study, therefore, supports a model describing how MtCBF4 is regulated by antagonistic MtMYB3/MtMYB61 TFs, leading to the up-regulation of downstream targets such as MtCAS15 acting in cold acclimation in M. truncatula. PMID:27578551

  13. Members of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor family in Petunia are developmentally and environmentally regulated to control complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterning.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nick W; Lewis, David H; Zhang, Huaibi; Schwinn, Kathy E; Jameson, Paula E; Davies, Kevin M

    2011-03-01

    We present an investigation of anthocyanin regulation over the entire petunia plant, determining the mechanisms governing complex floral pigmentation patterning and environmentally induced vegetative anthocyanin synthesis. DEEP PURPLE (DPL) and PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) encode members of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family that regulate anthocyanin synthesis in petunia, and control anthocyanin production in vegetative tissues and contribute to floral pigmentation. In addition to these two MYB factors, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) and WD-repeat protein AN11, are also essential for vegetative pigmentation. The induction of anthocyanins in vegetative tissues by high light was tightly correlated to the induction of transcripts for PHZ and AN1. Interestingly, transcripts for PhMYB27, a putative R2R3-MYB active repressor, were highly expressed during non-inductive shade conditions and repressed during high light. The competitive inhibitor PhMYBx (R3-MYB) was expressed under high light, which may provide feedback repression. In floral tissues DPL regulates vein-associated anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower tube, while PHZ determines light-induced anthocyanin accumulation on exposed petal surfaces (bud-blush). A model is presented suggesting how complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterns are derived in petunia in terms of MYB, bHLH and WDR co-regulators. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the MYB transcription factor superfamily in soybean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors described in plants. Nevertheless, their functions appear to be highly diverse and remain rather unclear. To date, no genome-wide characterization of this gene family has been conducted in a legume species. Here we report the first genome-wide analysis of the whole MYB superfamily in a legume species, soybean (Glycine max), including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs, and expression patterns, as well as a comparative genomic analysis with Arabidopsis. Results A total of 244 R2R3-MYB genes were identified and further classified into 48 subfamilies based on a phylogenetic comparative analysis with their putative orthologs, showed both gene loss and duplication events. The phylogenetic analysis showed that most characterized MYB genes with similar functions are clustered in the same subfamily, together with the identification of orthologs by synteny analysis, functional conservation among subgroups of MYB genes was strongly indicated. The phylogenetic relationships of each subgroup of MYB genes were well supported by the highly conserved intron/exon structures and motifs outside the MYB domain. Synonymous nucleotide substitution (dN/dS) analysis showed that the soybean MYB DNA-binding domain is under strong negative selection. The chromosome distribution pattern strongly indicated that genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication contribute to the expansion of soybean MYB genes. In addition, we found that ~ 4% of soybean R2R3-MYB genes had undergone alternative splicing events, producing a variety of transcripts from a single gene, which illustrated the extremely high complexity of transcriptome regulation. Comparative expression profile analysis of R2R3-MYB genes in soybean and Arabidopsis revealed that MYB genes play conserved and various roles in plants, which is indicative of a divergence in function. Conclusions In this

  15. Overexpression of OsMYB48-1, a Novel MYB-Related Transcription Factor, Enhances Drought and Salinity Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengli; Duan, Junzhi; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Xiao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hongliang; Ali, Jauhar; Li, Zichao

    2014-01-01

    MYB-type transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in plant growth, development and respond to environmental stresses. Role of MYB-related TFs of rice in drought stress tolerance is not well documented. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel MYB-related TF, OsMYB48-1, of rice. Expression of OsMYB48-1 was strongly induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), abscisic acid (ABA), H2O2, and dehydration, while being slightly induced by high salinity and cold treatment. The OsMYB48-1 protein was localized in the nucleus with transactivation activity at the C terminus. Overexpression of OsMYB48-1 in rice significantly improved tolerance to simulated drought and salinity stresses caused by mannitol, PEG, and NaCl, respectively, and drought stress was caused by drying the soil. In contrast to wild type plants, the overexpression lines exhibited reduced rate of water loss, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content and higher proline content under stress conditions. Moreover, overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA at both germination and post-germination stages and accumulated more endogenous ABA under drought stress conditions. Further studies demonstrated that overexpression of OsMYB48-1 could regulate the expression of some ABA biosynthesis genes (OsNCED4, OsNCED5), early signaling genes (OsPP2C68, OSRK1) and late responsive genes (RAB21, OsLEA3, RAB16C and RAB16D) under drought stress conditions. Collectively, these results suggested that OsMYB48-1 functions as a novel MYB-related TF which plays a positive role in drought and salinity tolerance by regulating stress-induced ABA synthesis. PMID:24667379

  16. Purple-leaved Ficus lyrata plants produced by overexpressing a grapevine VvMybA1 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jietang; Li, Zhijian T; Chen, Juan; Henny, Richard J; Gray, Dennis J; Chen, Jianjun

    2013-11-01

    This study established an efficient method of regenerating plants of Ficus lyrata and producing purple-leaved F. lyrata plants through genetic transformation using a VvMybA1 gene of grapevine. Ficus lyrata, a species with unique violin- or guitar-shaped leaves, was regenerated from leaf-derived calli cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.5 μM N-phenyl-N'-1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (TDZ) and 0.5 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Leaf discs were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring a binary vector DEAT that contains the VvMybA1 gene and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) gene and subsequently cultured on the established regeneration medium supplemented with 100 mg l(-1) kanamycin. Results showed that 87.5 % of the leaf discs produced kanamycin-resistant callus, and 68.8 % of them produced adventitious shoots. Transgenic plants with three leaf colors including green, green-purple, and purple were produced. Regular and quantitative real-time PCR analyses confirmed the integration of transgenes into the host genome. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the VvMybA1 gene was responsible for the purple-colored phenotype. Purple-leaved plants with strong color stability grew vigorously in a greenhouse. This study illustrated the feasibility of using a genetically engineered VvMybA1 gene for drastic modification of leaf color of an important woody ornamental plant.

  17. Alleles of the maize P gene with distinct tissue specificities encode Myb-homologous proteins with C-terminal replacements.

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, S; Athma, P; Peterson, T

    1996-01-01

    The maize P gene is a transcriptional regulator of genes encoding enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis in the pathway leading to the production of a red phlobaphene pigment. Multiple alleles of the P gene confer distinct patterns of pigmentation to specific floral organs, such as the kernel pericarp and cob tissues. To determine the basis of allele-specific pigmentation, we have characterized the gene products and transcript accumulation patterns of the P-wr allele, which specifies colorless pericarps and red cob tissues. RNA transcripts of P-wr are present in colorless pericarps as well as in the colored cob tissues; however, the expression of P-wr in pericarp does not induce the accumulation of transcripts from the C2 and A1 genes, which encode enzymes for flavonoid pigment biosynthesis. The coding sequences of P-wr were compared with the P-rr allele, which specifies red pericarp and red cob. The P-wr and P-rr cDNA sequences are very similar in their 5' regions. There are only two nucleotide changes that result in amino acid differences; both are outside of the Myb-homologous DNA binding domain. In contrast, the 3' coding region of P-rr is replaced by a unique 210-bp sequence in P-wr. The predicted P-wr protein has a C-terminal sequence resembling a cysteine-containing metal binding domain that is not present in the P-rr protein. These results indicate that the differential pericarp pigmentation specified by the P-rr and P-wr alleles does not result from an absence of P-wr transcripts in pericarps. Rather, the allele-specific patterns of P-rr and P-wr pigmentation may be associated with structural differences in the proteins encoded by each allele. PMID:8768374

  18. Regulation of the Flt3 Gene in Haematopoietic Stem and Early Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Giacomo; Walton, David Scott; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros; Del Pozzo, Walter; O’Neill, Laura Patricia; Frampton, Jonathan; Dumon, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    The MYB transcription factor plays critical roles in normal and malignant haematopoiesis. We previously showed that MYB was a direct activator of FLT3 expression within the context of acute myeloid leukaemia. During normal haematopoiesis, increasing levels of FLT3 expression determine a strict hierarchy within the haematopoietic stem and early progenitor compartment, which associates with lymphoid and myeloid commitment potential. We use the conditional deletion of the Myb gene to investigate the influence of MYB in Flt3 transcriptional regulation within the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) hierarchy. In accordance with previous report, in vivo deletion of Myb resulted in rapid biased differentiation of HSC with concomitant loss of proliferation capacity. We find that loss of MYB activity also coincided with decreased FLT3 expression. At the chromatin level, the Flt3 promoter is primed in immature HSC, but occupancy of further intronic elements determines expression. Binding to these locations, MYB and C/EBPα need functional cooperation to activate transcription of the locus. This cooperation is cell context dependent and indicates that MYB and C/EBPα activities are inter-dependent in controlling Flt3 expression to influence lineage commitment of multipotential progenitors. PMID:26382271

  19. Plasma Triglyceride Levels May Be Modulated by Gene Expression of IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Vallée Marcotte, Bastien; Guénard, Frédéric; Cormier, Hubert; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Rudkowska, Iwona; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) by our group identified loci associated with the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to ω-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation in IQCJ, NXPH1, PHF17 and MYB. Our aim is to investigate potential mechanisms underlying the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes and TG levels following ω-3 FA supplementation. 208 subjects received 3 g/day of ω-3 FA (1.9–2.2 g of EPA and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) for six weeks. Plasma TG were measured before and after the intervention. 67 SNPs were selected to increase the density of markers near GWAS hits. Genome-wide expression and methylation analyses were conducted on respectively 30 and 35 participants’ blood sample together with in silico analyses. Two SNPs of IQCJ showed different affinities to splice sites depending on alleles. Expression levels were influenced by genotype for one SNP in NXPH1 and one in MYB. Associations between 12 tagged SNPs of IQCJ, 26 of NXPH1, seven of PHF17 and four of MYB and gene-specific CpG site methylation levels were found. The response of plasma TG to ω-3 FA supplementation may be modulated by the effect of DNA methylation on expression levels of genes revealed by GWAS. PMID:28134766

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Citrus R2R3MYB Genes and Their Spatiotemporal Expression under Stresses and Hormone Treatments

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

    2014-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development. PMID:25473954

  1. Genome-wide analysis of citrus R2R3MYB genes and their spatiotemporal expression under stresses and hormone treatments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Li, Yongjie; He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

    2014-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development.

  2. Oncogenic truncation of the first repeat of c-Myb decreases DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Dini, P W; Lipsick, J S

    1993-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of c-Myb in both avian and murine systems often involves N-terminal truncation. In particular, the first of three DNA-binding repeats in c-Myb has been largely deleted during the genesis of the v-myb oncogenes of avian myeloblastosis virus and E26 avian leukemia virus. This finding suggests that the first DNA-binding repeat may have an important role in cell growth control. We demonstrate that truncation of the first DNA-binding repeat of c-Myb is sufficient for myeloid transformation in culture, but deletion of the N-terminal phosphorylation site and adjacent acidic region is not. Truncation of the first repeat decreases the ability of a Myb-VP16 fusion protein to trans activate the promoter of a Myb-inducible gene (mim-1) involved in differentiation. Moreover, truncation of the first repeat decreases the ability of the Myb protein to bind DNA both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that N-terminal mutants of c-Myb may transform by regulating only a subset of those genes normally regulated by c-Myb. Images PMID:8246954

  3. PacMYBA, a sweet cherry R2R3-MYB transcription factor, is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinjie; Guo, Xinwei; Guo, Xiao; Zhao, Di; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jingsheng; Li, Tianhong

    2017-03-01

    Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factors play crucial roles in stress responses. We previously isolated a R2R3-MYB homolog from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng, designated PacMYBA (GenBank accession No. KF974774). To explore the role of PacMYBA in the plant stress response, we heterologously expressed PacMYBA in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. In a previous study, we demonstrated that PacMYBA is mainly localized to the nucleus and could be induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Analysis of the promoter sequence of PacMYBA revealed that it contains several stress-related cis-elements. QPCR results showed that PacMYBA is induced by salt, salicylic (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) in sweet cherry leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants heterologously expressing PacMYBA exhibited enhanced salt-tolerance and increased resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection. Overexpression of PacMYBA decreased the osmotic potential (OP), increased the free proline content, and increased the peroxidase content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Furthermore, overexpression of PacMYBA also affected the expression levels of salt stress- and pathogen defense-related genes in the transgenic plants. These results indicate that PacMYBA is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes.

    PubMed

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-07-22

    The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  5. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    PubMed Central

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  6. Functional diversification of the potato R2R3 MYB anthocyanin activators AN1, MYBA1, and MYB113 and their interaction with basic helix-loop-helix cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V.; Wang, Li; Yang, Hongyu; Yu, Bin; Dare, Andrew; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Junlian; Wang, Di; Allan, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), R2R3 MYBs are involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. We examined sequences of these MYBs in cultivated potatoes, which are more complex than diploid potato due to ploidy and heterozygosity. We found amino acid variants in the C-terminus of the MYB StAN1, termed R0, R1, and R3, due to the presence of a repeated 10-amino acid motif. These variant MYBs showed some expression in both white and pigmented tubers. We found several new alleles or gene family members of R2R3 MYBs, StMYBA1 and StMYB113, which were also expressed in white potato tubers. From functional analysis in tobacco, we showed that the presence of a C-terminal 10-amino acid motif is optimal for activating anthocyanin accumulation. Engineering a motif back into a MYB lacking this sequence enhanced its activating ability. Versions of StMYBA1 and StMYB113 can also activate anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves, with the exception of StMYB113-3, which has a partial R2R3 domain. We isolated five family members of potato StbHLH1, and one StJAF13, to test their ability to interact with MYB variants. The results showed that two alleles of StbHLH1 from white skin and red skin are non-functional, while three other StbHLH1s have different co-regulating abilities, and need to be activated by StJAF13. Combined with expression analysis in potato tuber, results suggest that StbHLH1 and StJAF13 are key co-regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while the transcripts of MYB variants StAN1, StMYBA1, and StMYB113 are well expressed, even in the absence of pigmentation. PMID:26884602

  7. Functional diversification of the potato R2R3 MYB anthocyanin activators AN1, MYBA1, and MYB113 and their interaction with basic helix-loop-helix cofactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V; Wang, Li; Yang, Hongyu; Yu, Bin; Dare, Andrew; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Junlian; Wang, Di; Allan, Andrew C

    2016-04-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), R2R3 MYBs are involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. We examined sequences of these MYBs in cultivated potatoes, which are more complex than diploid potato due to ploidy and heterozygosity. We found amino acid variants in the C-terminus of the MYB StAN1, termed R0, R1, and R3, due to the presence of a repeated 10-amino acid motif. These variant MYBs showed some expression in both white and pigmented tubers. We found several new alleles or gene family members of R2R3 MYBs,StMYBA1 and StMYB113, which were also expressed in white potato tubers. From functional analysis in tobacco, we showed that the presence of a C-terminal 10-amino acid motif is optimal for activating anthocyanin accumulation. Engineering a motif back into a MYB lacking this sequence enhanced its activating ability. Versions of StMYBA1 and StMYB113 can also activate anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves, with the exception of StMYB113-3, which has a partial R2R3 domain. We isolated five family members of potato StbHLH1, and one StJAF13, to test their ability to interact with MYB variants. The results showed that two alleles of StbHLH1 from white skin and red skin are non-functional, while three other StbHLH1s have different co-regulating abilities, and need to be activated by StJAF13. Combined with expression analysis in potato tuber, results suggest that StbHLH1 and StJAF13a re key co-regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while the transcripts of MYB variants StAN1,StMYBA1, and StMYB113 are well expressed, even in the absence of pigmentation.

  8. MYB72 Is Required in Early Signaling Steps of Rhizobacteria-Induced Systemic Resistance in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Ent, Sjoerd; Verhagen, Bas W.M.; Van Doorn, Ronald; Bakker, Daniel; Verlaan, Maarten G.; Pel, Michiel J.C.; Joosten, Ruth G.; Proveniers, Marcel C.G.; Van Loon, L.C.; Ton, Jurriaan; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots by nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria triggers a jasmonate/ethylene-dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) that is effective against a broad range of pathogens. Microarray analysis revealed that the R2R3-MYB-like transcription factor gene MYB72 is specifically activated in the roots upon colonization by WCS417r. Here, we show that T-DNA knockout mutants myb72-1 and myb72-2 are incapable of mounting ISR against the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, Hyaloperonospora parasitica, Alternaria brassicicola, and Botrytis cinerea, indicating that MYB72 is essential to establish broad-spectrum ISR. Overexpression of MYB72 did not result in enhanced resistance against any of the pathogens tested, demonstrating that MYB72 is not sufficient for the expression of ISR. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that MYB72 physically interacts in vitro with the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3)-LIKE3 transcription factor EIL3, linking MYB72 function to the ethylene response pathway. However, WCS417r activated MYB72 in ISR-deficient, ethylene-insensitive ein2-1 plants. Moreover, exogenous application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate induced wild-type levels of resistance in myb72-1, suggesting that MYB72 acts upstream of ethylene in the ISR pathway. Collectively, this study identified the transcriptional regulator MYB72 as a novel ISR signaling component that is required in the roots during early signaling steps of rhizobacteria-mediated ISR. PMID:18218967

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α stabilizes the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease suppressor, Myb-related protein 2.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Fumihiko; Joo-Okumura, Akiko; Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Kamura, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligase von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) negatively regulates protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α). Loss of pVHL causes HIF-α accumulation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. In contrast, v-Myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2 (MYBL2; B-Myb), a transcription factor, prevents VHL pathogenesis by regulating gene expression of HIF-independent pathways. Both HIF-α and B-Myb are targets of pVHL-mediated polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we show that knockdown of HIF-2α induces downregulation of B-Myb in 786-O cells, which are deficient in pVHL, and this downregulation is prevented by proteasome inhibition. In the presence of pVHL and under hypoxia-like conditions, B-Myb and HIF-2α are both upregulated, and the upregulation of B-Myb requires expression of HIF-2α. We also show that HIF-2α and B-Myb interact in the nucleus, and this interaction is mediated by the central region of HIF-2α and the C-terminal region of B-Myb. These data indicate that oncogenic HIF-2α stabilizes B-Myb to suppress VHL pathogenesis.

  10. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Li, Yali; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Guoping

    2012-02-01

    The purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor) is a mutation in kales, giving the mutant phenotype of brilliant purple color in the interior. Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple kale, we analyzed the expression of structural genes and some transcription factors associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple cultivar "Red Dove" and the white cultivar "White Dove". The result showed that nearly all the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed higher expression levels in the purple cultivar than in the white cultivar, especially for DFR and ANS, they were barely detected in the white cultivar. Interestingly, the fact that a R2R3 MYB transcription factor named BoPAP1 was extremely up-regulated in the purple kale and induced by low temperature attracted our attention. Further sequence analysis showed that BoPAP1 shared high similarity with AtPAP1 and BoMYB1. In addition, the anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale is strongly induced by the low temperature stress. The total anthocyanin contents in the purple kale under low temperature were about 50-fold higher than the plants grown in the greenhouse. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes C4H, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT were all enhanced under the low temperature. These evidences strongly suggest that BoPAP1 may play an important role in activating the anthocyanin structural genes for the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the purple kale.

  11. Transgene Silencing and Transgene-Derived siRNA Production in Tobacco Plants Homozygous for an Introduced AtMYB90 Construct

    PubMed Central

    Velten, Jeff; Cakir, Cahid; Youn, Eunseog; Chen, Junping; Cazzonelli, Christopher I.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines were engineered to ectopically over-express AtMYB90 (PAP2), an R2–R3 Myb gene associated with regulation of anthocyanin production in Arabidopsis thaliana. Independently transformed transgenic lines, Myb27 and Myb237, accumulated large quantities of anthocyanin, generating a dark purple phenotype in nearly all tissues. After self-fertilization, some progeny of the Myb27 line displayed an unexpected pigmentation pattern, with most leaves displaying large sectors of dramatically reduced anthocyanin production. The green-sectored 27Hmo plants were all found to be homozygous for the transgene and, despite a doubled transgene dosage, to have reduced levels of AtMYB90 mRNA. The observed reduction in anthocyanin pigmentation and AtMYB90 mRNA was phenotypically identical to the patterns seen in leaves systemically silenced for the AtMYB90 transgene, and was associated with the presence of AtMYB90-derived siRNA homologous to both strands of a portion of the AtMYB90 transcribed region. Activation of transgene silencing in the Myb27 line was triggered when the 35S::AtMYB90 transgene dosage was doubled, in both Myb27 homozygotes, and in plants containing one copy of each of the independently segregating Myb27 and Myb237 transgene loci. Mapping of sequenced siRNA molecules to the Myb27 TDNA (including flanking tobacco sequences) indicated that the 3′ half of the AtMYB90 transcript is the primary target for siRNA associated silencing in both homozygous Myb27 plants and in systemically silenced tissues. The transgene within the Myb27 line was found to consist of a single, fully intact, copy of the AtMYB90 construct. Silencing appears to initiate in response to elevated levels of transgene mRNA (or an aberrant product thereof) present within a subset of leaf cells, followed by spread of the resulting small RNA to adjacent leaf tissues and subsequent amplification of siRNA production. PMID:22363419

  12. Photoperiod-dependent regulation of cell growth by PpCCA1a and PpCCA1b genes encoding single-myb clock proteins in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Satbhai, Santosh B; Aoki, Setsuyuki

    2009-10-01

    The PpCCA1a and PpCCA1b genes of the moss Physcomitrella patens are functional homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock genes CCA1/LHY. We made use of disruptant lines for PpCCA1a and/or PpCCA1b to elucidate the physiological significance of these genes in the growth of moss protonemal tissue under alternating day/night cycles. Protonemal cells of the double disruptant line, carrying neither of the two genes, grew faster than those of the wild-type plant (WT) in long days (LD), whereas no difference in the growth rate was detected between them in short days (SD). The double disruptant line also showed day length-dependent phenotypic changes in the PpCCA1b promoter activity: the diurnal profile of bioluminescence from the P(CCA1b)::LUC+ reporter strain was more significantly affected in LD than in SD. These observations are the first demonstration of a physiological function of the circadian clock in non-angiosperm land plants, and are consistent with recent findings that the clock controls hypocotyl elongation of A. thaliana in a photoperiod-dependent manner.

  13. Identification and possible role of a MYB transcription factor from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Gómez, Maria Dolores; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2012-03-15

    The MYB family is the most abundant group of transcription factors described for plants. Plant MYB genes have been shown to be involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant development. No MYB genes are described for saffron, the dried stigma of Crocus sativus, utilized as a colorant for foodstuffs. In this study, we used RACE-PCR to isolate a full length cDNA of 894bp with a 591bp open reading frame, encoding a putative CsMYB1 from C. sativus. Comparison between gDNA and cDNA revealed no introns. Homology studies indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence is similar to members of the R2R3 MYB subfamily. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in stigma tissue and low levels in tepals, whereas no signal was detected in either anthers or leaves. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that CsMYB1 expression is developmentally regulated during stigma development. Furthermore, expression analysis in stigmas from different Crocus species showed a correlation with stigma morphology. No transcripts were found in stigma tissues of Crocus species characterized by branched stigma morphology. Taken together, these results suggest that CsMYB1 may be involved in the regulation of stigma morphology in Crocus.

  14. Identification of cyclin A/Cdk2 phosphorylation sites in B-Myb.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, O; Horstmann, S; Toprak, K; Klempnauer, K H; Ferrari, S

    1999-03-01

    B-myb is a highly conserved member of the myb proto-oncogene family that encodes a ubiquitously expressed 110-kDa sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Transactivation of Myb-inducible promoters by B-Myb is repressed by a regulatory domain located at the C-terminus of the protein. Cyclin A/Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation apparently releases the negative constraint and triggers B-Myb transactivation potential. Two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide analysis indicated that the majority of the sites phosphorylated in vivo are targeted in vitro by cyclin A/Cdk2. Six sites in B-Myb fulfil the requirements for recognition by Cdk2. Using point mutation of the phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable amino acids, we show that five of these sites are targets for Cdk2 in vivo. Mutation of one of these residues (T524) to alanine diminished the ability of B-Myb to promote transcription of a reporter gene, suggesting that phosphorylation of B-Myb at this site is important for the regulation of its activity by cyclin A/Cdk2.

  15. Myb proteins: angels and demons in normal and transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Ness, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    A key regulator of proliferation, differentiation and cell fate, the c-Myb transcription factor regulates the expression of hundreds of genes and is in turn regulated by numerous pathways and protein interactions. However, the most unique feature of c-Myb is that it can be converted into an oncogenic transforming protein through a few mutations that completely change its activity and specificity. The c-Myb protein is a myriad of interactions and activities rolled up in a protein that controls proliferation and differentiation in many different cell types. Here we discuss the background and recent progress that have led to a better understanding of this complex protein, and outline the questions that have yet to be answered.

  16. Functional interactions between a glutamine synthetase promoter and MYB proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Maldonado, Josefa; Avila, Concepción; Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael; Cánovas, Francisco M; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2004-08-01

    In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), ammonium assimilation is catalysed by glutamine synthetase (GS) [EC 6.3.1.2], which is encoded by two genes, PsGS1a and PsGS1b. PsGS1b is expressed in the vascular tissue throughout the plant body, where it is believed to play a role in recycling ammonium released by various facets of metabolism. The mechanisms that may underpin the transcriptional regulation of PsGS1b were explored. The PsGS1b promoter contains a region that is enriched in previously characterized cis-acting elements, known as AC elements. Pine nuclear proteins bound these AC element-rich regions in a tissue-specific manner. As previous experiments had shown that R2R3-MYB transcription factors could interact with AC elements, the capacity of the AC elements in the PsGS1b promoter to interact with MYB proteins was examined. Two MYB proteins from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), PtMYB1 and PtMYB4, bound to the PsGS1b promoter were able to activate transcription from this promoter in yeast, arabidopsis and pine cells. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that the two MYB proteins were most abundant in cells previously shown to accumulate PsGS1b transcripts. Immunoprecipitation analysis and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays implicated these same two proteins in the formation of complexes between pine nuclear extracts and the PsGS1b promoter. Given that these MYB proteins were previously shown to have the capacity to activate gene expression related to lignin biosynthesis, we hypothesize that they may function to co-regulate lignification, a process that places significant demands on nitrogen recycling, and GS, the major enzyme involved in the nitrogen recycling pathway.

  17. Control of Arabidopsis lateral root primordium boundaries by MYB36.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marcos, María; Desvoyes, Bénédicte; Manzano, Concepción; Liberman, Louisa M; Benfey, Philip N; Del Pozo, Juan C; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2017-01-01

    Root branching in plants relies on the de novo formation of lateral roots. These are initiated from founder cells, triggering new formative divisions that generate lateral root primordia (LRP). The LRP size and shape depends on the balance between positive and negative signals that control cell proliferation. The mechanisms controlling proliferation potential of LRP cells remains poorly understood. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana MYB36, which have been previously shown to regulate genes required for Casparian strip formation and the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the primary root, plays a new role in controlling LRP development at later stages. We found that MYB36 is a novel component of LR development at later stages. MYB36 was expressed in the cells surrounding LRP where it controls a set of peroxidase genes, which maintain reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance. This was required to define the transition between proliferating and arrested cells inside the LRP, coinciding with the change from flat to dome-shaped primordia. Reducing the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in myb36-5 significantly rescues the mutant phenotype. Our results uncover a role for MYB36 outside the endodermis during LRP development through a mechanism analogous to regulating the proliferation/differentiation transition in the root meristem.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of R2R3MYB Family in Cucumis sativus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Cunjia; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    Background The R2R3MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Principal Findings This study has identified 55 R2R3MYB genes in the latest cucumber genome and the CsR2R3MYB family contained the smallest number of identified genes compared to other species that have been studied due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. These results were also supported by genome distribution and gene duplication analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they could be classified into 11 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intron - exon organizations that showed similarities with Arabidopsis, Vitis and Glycine R2R3MYB proteins were also analyzed and suggested strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the evolution of the plant species. In addition, we found that 8 out of 55 (∼14.54%) cucumber R2R3MYB genes underwent alternative splicing events, producing a variety of transcripts from a single gene, which illustrated the extremely high complexity of transcriptome regulation. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 50 cucumber R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues and the other 5 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, which suggested that cucumber R2R3MYB genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or more treatments. Conclusions This study has produced a comparative genomics analysis of the cucumber R2R3MYB gene family and has provided the first steps towards the selection of CsR2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection that can be used in further studies to uncover their roles in cucumber growth and

  19. Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3MYB family in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Cunjia; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This study has identified 55 R2R3MYB genes in the latest cucumber genome and the CsR2R3MYB family contained the smallest number of identified genes compared to other species that have been studied due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. These results were also supported by genome distribution and gene duplication analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they could be classified into 11 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intron-exon organizations that showed similarities with Arabidopsis, Vitis and Glycine R2R3MYB proteins were also analyzed and suggested strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the evolution of the plant species. In addition, we found that 8 out of 55 (∼14.54%) cucumber R2R3MYB genes underwent alternative splicing events, producing a variety of transcripts from a single gene, which illustrated the extremely high complexity of transcriptome regulation. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 50 cucumber R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues and the other 5 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, which suggested that cucumber R2R3MYB genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or more treatments. This study has produced a comparative genomics analysis of the cucumber R2R3MYB gene family and has provided the first steps towards the selection of CsR2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection that can be used in further studies to uncover their roles in cucumber growth and development.

  20. CACTA-superfamily transposable element is inserted in MYB transcription factor gene of soybean line producing variegated seeds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fan; Di, Shaokang; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    The R gene of soybean, presumably encoding a MYB transcription factor, controls seed coat color. The gene consists of multiple alleles, R (black), r-m (black spots and (or) concentric streaks on brown seed), and r (brown seed). This study was conducted to determine the structure of the MYB transcription factor gene in a near-isogenic line (NIL) having r-m allele. PCR amplification of a fragment of the candidate gene Glyma.09G235100 generated a fragment of about 1 kb in the soybean cultivar Clark, whereas a fragment of about 14 kb in addition to fragments of 1 and 1.4 kb were produced in L72-2040, a Clark 63 NIL with the r-m allele. Clark 63 is a NIL of Clark with the rxp and Rps1 alleles. A DNA fragment of 13 060 bp was inserted in the intron of Glyma.09G235100 in L72-2040. The fragment had the CACTA motif at both ends, imperfect terminal inverted repeats (TIR), inverse repetition of short sequence motifs close to the 5' and 3' ends, and a duplication of three nucleotides at the site of integration, indicating that it belongs to a CACTA-superfamily transposable element. We designated the element as Tgm11. Overall nucleotide sequence, motifs of TIR, and subterminal repeats were similar to those of Tgm1 and Tgs1, suggesting that these elements comprise a family.

  1. Diversification of R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors in the Tomato Family Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Gates, Daniel J; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Olson, Bradley J S C; Smith, Stacey D

    2016-08-01

    MYB transcription factors play an important role in regulating key plant developmental processes involving defense, cell shape, pigmentation, and root formation. Within this gene family, sequences containing an R2R3 MYB domain are the most abundant type and exhibit a wide diversity of functions. In this study, we identify 559 R2R3 MYB genes using whole genome data from four species of Solanaceae and reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. We compare the Solanaceae R2R3 MYBs to the well-characterized Arabidopsis thaliana sequences to estimate functional diversity and to identify gains and losses of MYB clades in the Solanaceae. We identify numerous R2R3 MYBs that do not appear closely related to Arabidopsis MYBs, and thus may represent clades of genes that have been lost along the Arabidopsis lineage or gained after the divergence of Rosid and Asterid lineages. Despite differences in the distribution of R2R3 MYBs across functional subgroups and species, the overall size of the R2R3 subfamily has changed relatively little over the roughly 50 million-year history of Solanaceae. We added our information regarding R2R3 MYBs in Solanaceae to other data and performed a meta-analysis to trace the evolution of subfamily size across land plants. The results reveal many shifts in the number of R2R3 genes, including a 54 % increase along the angiosperm stem lineage. The variation in R2R3 subfamily size across land plants is weakly positively correlated with genome size and strongly positively correlated with total number of genes. The retention of such a large number of R2R3 copies over long evolutionary time periods suggests that they have acquired new functions and been maintained by selection. Discovering the nature of this functional diversity will require integrating forward and reverse genetic approaches on an -omics scale.

  2. MYB46 modulates disease susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Vicente; Agorio, Astrid; Coego, Alberto; García-Andrade, Javier; Hernández, M José; Balaguer, Begoña; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Zarra, Ignacio; Vera, Pablo

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcription factor MYB46, previously described to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis in the vascular tissue of the stem, is pivotal for mediating disease susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. We identified MYB46 by its ability to bind to a new cis-element located in the 5' promoter region of the pathogen-induced Ep5C gene, which encodes a type III cell wall-bound peroxidase. We present genetic and molecular evidence indicating that MYB46 modulates the magnitude of Ep5C gene induction following pathogenic insults. Moreover, we demonstrate that different myb46 knockdown mutant plants exhibit increased disease resistance to B. cinerea, a phenotype that is accompanied by selective transcriptional reprogramming of a set of genes encoding cell wall proteins and enzymes, of which extracellular type III peroxidases are conspicuous. In essence, our results substantiate that defense-related signaling pathways and cell wall integrity are interconnected and that MYB46 likely functions as a disease susceptibility modulator to B. cinerea through the integration of cell wall remodeling and downstream activation of secondary lines of defense.

  3. A c-Myb mutant causes deregulated differentiation due to impaired histone binding and abrogated pioneer factor function

    PubMed Central

    Fuglerud, Bettina M.; Lemma, Roza B.; Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Sundaram, Arvind Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The transcription factor c-Myb is involved in early differentiation and proliferation of haematopoietic cells, where it operates as a regulator of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. Deregulated c-Myb plays critical roles in leukaemias and other human cancers. Due to its role as a master regulator, we hypothesized it might function as a pioneer transcription factor. Our approach to test this was to analyse a mutant of c-Myb, D152V, previously reported to cause haematopoietic defects in mice by an unknown mechanism. Our transcriptome data from K562 cells indicates that this mutation specifically affects c-Myb's ability to regulate genes involved in differentiation, causing failure in c-Myb's ability to block differentiation. Furthermore, we see a major effect of this mutation in assays where chromatin opening is involved. We show that each repeat in the minimal DNA-binding domain of c-Myb binds to histones and that D152V disrupts histone binding of the third repeat. ATAC-seq data indicates this mutation impairs the ability of c-Myb to cause chromatin opening at specific sites. Taken together, our findings support that c-Myb acts as a pioneer factor and show that D152V impairs this function. The D152V mutant is the first mutant of a transcription factor specifically destroying pioneer factor function. PMID:28472346

  4. Pax7 is regulated by cMyb during early neural crest development through a novel enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Vadasz, Stephanie; Marquez, Jonathan; Tulloch, Maria; Shylo, Natalia A.; García-Castro, Martín I.

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a migratory population of cells unique to vertebrates that generates many diverse derivatives. NC cells arise during gastrulation at the neural plate border (NPB), which is later elevated as the neural folds (NFs) form and fuse in the dorsal region of the closed neural tube, from where NC cells emigrate. In chick embryos, Pax7 is an early marker, and necessary component of NC development. Unlike other early NPB markers, which are co-expressed in lateral ectoderm, medial neural plate or posterior-lateral mesoderm, Pax7 early expression seems more restricted to the NPB. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling early Pax7 expression remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a novel enhancer of Pax7 in avian embryos that replicates the expression of Pax7 associated with early NC development. Expression from this enhancer is found in early NPB, NFs and early emigrating NC, but unlike Pax7, which is also expressed in mesodermal derivatives, this enhancer is not active in somites. Further analysis demonstrates that cMyb is able to interact with this enhancer and modulates reporter and endogenous early Pax7 expression; thus, cMyb is identified as a novel regulator of Pax7 in early NC development. PMID:23942518

  5. Evolution of the VvMybA gene family, the major determinant of berry colour in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, A; Lacombe, T; Le Cunff, L; Boursiquot, J-M; This, P

    2010-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the grape transcription factor family VvMybA are responsible for variation in anthocyanin content in the berries of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa). Previous study has shown that white grapes arose through the mutation of two adjacent genes: a retroelement insertion in VvMybA1 and a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation in VvMybA2. The purpose of this study was to understand how these mutations emerged and affected genetic diversity at neighbouring sites and how they structured the genetic diversity of cultivated grapevines. We sequenced a total of 3225 bp of these genes in a core collection of genetic resources, and carried out empirical selection tests, phylogenetic- and coalescence-based demographic analyses. The insertion in the VvMybA1 promoter was shown to have occurred recently, after the mutation of VvMybA2, both mutations followed by a selective sweep. The mutational pattern for these colour genes is consistent with progressively relaxed selection from constrained ancestral coloured haplotypes to light coloured and finally white haplotypes. Dynamics of population size in the VvMybA genes showed an initial exponential growth, followed by population size stabilization. Most ancestral haplotypes are found in cultivars from western region, whereas recent haplotypes are essentially present in table cultivars from eastern regions where intense breeding practices may have replaced the original diversity. Finally, the emergence of the white allele was followed by a recent strong exponential growth, showing a very fast diffusion of the initial white allele.

  6. Critical roles for c-Myb in lymphoid priming and early B-cell development

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Kylie T.; de Graaf, Carolyn A.; Murphy, James M.; Carpinelli, Marina R.; Pang, Swee Heng Milon; Frampton, Jon; Kile, Benjamin T.; Hilton, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    c-Myb is a transcription factor with functions in many hematopoietic lineages. c-Myb–deficient mice display reduced numbers of B cells; however, it is unknown what role c-Myb plays in B lymphopoiesis because no critical target genes have been identified in the B-cell lineage. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of c-Myb in B-cell progenitors completely abolishes B-cell development. c-Myb is required for lymphoid progenitors to respond to the cytokines interleukin-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin; in the absence of sufficient c-Myb activity, mice display a B lymphopenia that closely resembles that observed in interleukin-7 receptor α–deficient animals. Analysis of the multipotent progenitor compartment indicates that c-Myb is also required for up-regulation of multiple lymphoid-associated genes, including Il7r, and for the subsequent development of the common lymphoid progenitor population. These data show that c-Myb plays a critical role in the regulatory pathways governing lymphoid specification and early B-cell differentiation. PMID:20130238

  7. HIPK1 interacts with c-Myb and modulates its activity through phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Matre, Vilborg; Nordgard, Oddmund; Alm-Kristiansen, Anne Hege; Ledsaak, Marit; Gabrielsen, Odd Stokke

    2009-10-09

    The transcription factor v-Myb is a potent inducer of myeloid leukaemias, and its cellular homologue c-Myb plays a crucial role in the regulation of haematopoiesis. In a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening we identified the nuclear kinase HIPK1 as an interaction partner for human c-Myb. The interaction involves a C-terminal region of HIPK1, while a bipartite interaction surface was identified in c-Myb, including regions in its N-terminal DNA-binding domain as well as in its C-terminal region. HIPK1 and c-Myb co-localize in distinct nuclear foci upon co-transfection. c-Myb appears to be phosphorylated by HIPK1 in its negative regulatory domain as supported by both in vivo and in vitro data. A functional assay revealed that HIPK1 repressed the ability of c-Myb to activate a chromatin embedded target gene, mim-1, in haematopoetic cells. Our findings point to a novel link between an important kinase and a key regulator of haematopoiesis.

  8. A-MYB (MYBL1) transcription factor is a master regulator of male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Bolcun-Filas, Ewelina; Bannister, Laura A; Barash, Alex; Schimenti, Kerry J; Hartford, Suzanne A; Eppig, John J; Handel, Mary Ann; Shen, Lishuang; Schimenti, John C

    2011-08-01

    The transcriptional regulation of mammalian meiosis is poorly characterized, owing to few genetic and ex vivo models. From a genetic screen, we identify the transcription factor MYBL1 as a male-specific master regulator of several crucial meiotic processes. Spermatocytes bearing a novel separation-of-function allele (Mybl1(repro9)) had subtle defects in autosome synapsis in pachynema, a high incidence of unsynapsed sex chromosomes, incomplete double-strand break repair on synapsed pachytene chromosomes and a lack of crossing over. MYBL1 protein appears in pachynema, and its mutation caused specific alterations in expression of diverse genes, including some translated postmeiotically. These data, coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip) experiments and bioinformatic analysis of promoters, identified direct targets of MYBL1 regulation. The results reveal that MYBL1 is a master regulator of meiotic genes that are involved in multiple processes in spermatocytes, particularly those required for cell cycle progression through pachynema.

  9. Functional analysis of three BrMYB28 transcription factors controlling the biosynthesis of glucosinolates in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Suk; Jin, Mina; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Beom-Seok; Shon, Seong-Han; Kim, Jung Sun

    2016-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites that have anticarcinogenic activity and play defense roles in plants of the Brassicaceae family. MYB28 is known as a transcription factor that regulates aliphatic GSL biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Brassicaceae plants have three orthologous copies of AtMYB28 derived from recent genome triplication. These BrMYB28 genes have a high level of sequence homology, with 81-87% similarities in the coding DNA sequence compared to Arabidopsis. Overexpression of three paralogous BrMYB28 genes in transgenic Chinese cabbage increased the total GSL content in all T1 generation plants and in two inbred lines of homozygous T2 plants. The highest total GSL contents were detected in homozygous T2 lines overexpressing BrMYB28.1, which showed an approximate fivefold increase compared to that of nontransgenic plants. The homozygous T2 lines with overexpressed BrMYB28.1 also showed an increased content of aliphatic, indolic, and aromatic GSLs compared to that of nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, all of the three BrMYB28 genes were identified as negative regulators of BrAOP2 and positive regulators of BrGSL-OH in the homozygous T2 lines. These data indicate the regulatory mechanism of GSL biosynthesis in B. rapa is unlike that in A. thaliana. Our results will provide useful information for elucidating the regulatory mechanism of GSL biosynthesis in polyploid plants.

  10. Possible Involvement of MYB44-Mediated Stomatal Regulation in Systemic Resistance Induced by Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hieno, Ayaka; Naznin, Hushna Ara; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Matsui, Minami; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y

    2016-06-25

    The plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF), Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 (GP17-2), induces systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The molecular mechanisms underlying induced systemic resistance (ISR) by GP17-2 were investigated in the present study. Microscopic observations revealed that stomatal reopening by Pst was restricted by elicitation with the culture filtrate (CF) from GP17-2. A gene expression analysis of MYB44, which enhances abscisic acid signaling and consequently closes stomata, revealed that the gene was activated by CF. CF-elicited myb44 mutant plants failed to restrict stomatal reopening and showed lower resistance to Pst than wild-type plants. These results indicate that stomatal resistance by GP17-2 is mediated by the gene activation of MYB44. We herein revealed that the MYB44-mediated prevention of penetration through the stomata is one of the components responsible for GP17-2-elicited ISR.

  11. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling; Chen, Hancai; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Guoju

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28, the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology (BoaMYB28) was identified in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes in RNAi

  12. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey).

    PubMed

    Yin, Ling; Chen, Hancai; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Guoju

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28, the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology (BoaMYB28) was identified in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes in RNAi

  13. DkMyb4 Is a Myb Transcription Factor Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Persimmon Fruit1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Takashi; Ikegami, Ayako; Tsujimoto, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Shozo; Sato, Akihiko; Kono, Atsushi; Yonemori, Keizo

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of the plant and also to the taste of the fruit, mainly through astringency. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is unique in being able to accumulate abundant PAs in the fruit flesh. Fruits of the nonastringent (NA)-type mutants lose their ability to produce PA at an early stage of fruit development, while those of the normal astringent (A) type remain rich in PA until fully ripened. The expression of many PA pathway genes was coincidentally terminated in the NA type at an early stage of fruit development. The five genes encoding the Myb transcription factor were isolated from an A-type cultivar (Kuramitsu). One of them, DkMyb4, showed an expression pattern synchronous to that of the PA pathway genes in A- and NA-type fruit flesh. The ectopic expression of DkMyb4 in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) induced PA biosynthesis but not anthocyanin biosynthesis. The suppression of DkMyb4 in persimmon calluses caused a substantial down-regulation of the PA pathway genes and PA biosynthesis. Furthermore, analysis of the DNA-binding ability of DkMyb4 showed that it directly binds to the MYBCORE cis-motif in the promoters of the some PA pathway genes. All our results indicate that DkMyb4 acts as a regulator of PA biosynthesis in persimmon and, therefore, suggest that the reduction in the DkMyb4 expression causes the NA-type-specific down-regulation of PA biosynthesis and resultant NA trait. PMID:19783643

  14. Interplay with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex and phosphorylation by GSK3β implicate human B-Myb in DNA-damage signaling

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Sarah Marie; Usadel, Clemens; Werwein, Eugen; Burdova, Kamila; Janscak, Pavel; Ferrari, Stefano; Hess, Daniel; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    B-Myb, a highly conserved member of the Myb transcription factor family, is expressed ubiquitously in proliferating cells and controls the cell cycle dependent transcription of G2/M-phase genes. Deregulation of B-Myb has been implicated in oncogenesis and loss of genomic stability. We have identified B-Myb as a novel interaction partner of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, a key player in the repair of DNA double strand breaks. We show that B-Myb directly interacts with the Nbs1 subunit of the MRN complex and is recruited transiently to DNA-damage sites. In response to DNA-damage B-Myb is phosphorylated by protein kinase GSK3β and released from the MRN complex. A B-Myb mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by GSK3β disturbs the regulation of pro-mitotic B-Myb target genes and leads to inappropriate mitotic entry in response to DNA-damage. Overall, our work suggests a novel function of B-Myb in the cellular DNA-damage signalling. PMID:28128338

  15. Red colouration in apple fruit is due to the activity of the MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10.

    PubMed

    Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Putterill, Jo; Stevenson, David E; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Allan, Andrew C

    2007-02-01

    Anthocyanin concentration is an important determinant of the colour of many fruits. In apple (Malus x domestica), centuries of breeding have produced numerous varieties in which levels of anthocyanin pigment vary widely and change in response to environmental and developmental stimuli. The apple fruit cortex is usually colourless, although germplasm does exist where the cortex is highly pigmented due to the accumulation of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. From studies in a diverse array of plant species, it is apparent that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the level of transcription. Here we report the transcript levels of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in a red-fleshed apple compared with a white-fleshed cultivar. We also describe an apple MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10, that is similar in sequence to known anthocyanin regulators in other species. We further show that this transcription factor can induce anthocyanin accumulation in both heterologous and homologous systems, generating pigmented patches in transient assays in tobacco leaves and highly pigmented apple plants following stable transformation with constitutively expressed MdMYB10. Efficient induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in transient assays by MdMYB10 was dependent on the co-expression of two distinct bHLH proteins from apple, MdbHLH3 and MdbHLH33. The strong correlation between the expression of MdMYB10 and apple anthocyanin levels during fruit development suggests that this transcription factor is responsible for controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple fruit; in the red-fleshed cultivar and in the skin of other varieties, there is an induction of MdMYB10 expression concurrent with colour formation during development. Characterization of MdMYB10 has implications for the development of new varieties through classical breeding or a biotechnological approach.

  16. Characterization of a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an ...

  17. Analysis of interactions between heterologously produced bHLH and MYB proteins that regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis: quantitative interaction kinetics by Microscale Thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nemie-Feyissa, Dugassa; Heidari, Behzad; Blaise, Mickael; Lillo, Cathrine

    2015-03-01

    The two Arabidopsis basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) are positive regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and form protein complexes (MBW complexes) with various R2R3 MYB transcription factors and a WD40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABROUS1 (TTG1). In earlier studies, GL3, in contrast to EGL3, was shown to be essential for accumulation of anthocyanins in response to nitrogen depletion. This could not be fully explained by the strong induction of GL3 in response to nitrogen depletion because the EGL3 transcripts were constitutively at a relatively high level and transcripts levels of the two genes were similar under nitrogen depletion. Here the GL3 and EGL3 proteins were characterized with respect to their affinities for PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT2 (PAP2), a R2R3-MYB which is induced by nitrogen depletion and is part of MBW complexes promoting anthocyanin synthesis. GL3 and EGL3 were also tested for their binding to MYBL2, a negative regulator of anthocyanin synthesis and MBW complexes. Using heterologously expressed proteins and Microscale Thermophoresis, GL3 showed binding constants (Kd) of 3.5±1.7 and 22.7±3.7 μM, whereas EGL3 showed binding constants of 7.5±2.3 and 8.9±1.4 μM for PAP2 and MYBL2, respectively. This implies that MYBL2 will not inhibit a MBW complex containing GL3 as easily as for a complex containing EGL3. In transgenic plants where EGL3 reaches high concentrations compared with MYBL2 the equilibrium is shifted and MYBL2 is not likely to be an efficient competitor, hence anthocyanin formation could be restored by either EGL3 or GL3 genes when overexpressed by help of the 35S promoter. The present work underpins that GL3 is essential for anthocyanin accumulation under nitrogen depletion not only due to transcriptional activation, but also because of binding properties to proteins promoting or inhibiting the activity of the MBW complex.

  18. The Heterologous Expression of the Chrysanthemum R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor CmMYB1 Alters Lignin Composition and Represses Flavonoid Synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Gu, Chunsun; Zhou, Guoqin; Chen, Yu; Song, Aiping; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factor genes are widely distributed in higher plants and play important roles in the regulation of many secondary metabolites at the transcriptional level. In this study, a chrysanthemum subgroup 4 R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, designated CmMYB1, was isolated through screening chrysanthemum EST (expressed sequence tag) libraries and using rapid application of cDNA ends (RACE) methods and functionally characterized. CmMYB1 is expressed in the root, stem, leaf and flowers, but most strongly in the stem and most weakly in the root. Its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced the lignin content and altered the lignin composition. The heterologous expression also repressed the flavonoids content in A. thaliana. Together, these results suggested that CmMYB1 is a negative regulator of genes involved in the lignin pathway and flavonoid pathway, it may be a promising gene for controlling lignin and flavonoids profiles in plants. PMID:23840353

  19. QsMYB1 expression is modulated in response to heat and drought stresses and during plant recovery in Quercus suber.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tânia; Pinto, Glória; Correia, Barbara; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-12-01

    Cork oak is an economically important forest species showing a great tolerance to high temperatures and shortage of water. However, the mechanisms underlying this plasticity are still poorly understood. Among the stress regulators, transcription factors (TFs) are especially important since they can control a wide range of stress-inducible genes, which make them powerful targets for genetic engineering of stress tolerance. Here we evaluated the influence of increasing temperatures (up to 55 °C) or drought (18% field capacity, FC) on the expression profile of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor of cork oak, the QsMYB1. QsMYB1 was previously identified as being preferentially expressed in cork tissues and as having an associated alternative splicing mechanism, which results in two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2). Expression analysis by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that increasing temperatures led to a gradual down-regulation of QsMYB1 transcripts with more effect on QsMYB1.1 abundance. On the other hand, under drought condition, expression of QsMYB1 variants, mainly the QsMYB1.2, was transiently up-regulated shortly after the stress imposition. Recovery from each stress has also resulted in a differential response by both QsMYB1 transcripts. Several physiological and biochemical parameters (plant water status, chlorophyll fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and proline content) were determined in order to monitor the plant performance under stress and recovery. In conclusion, this report provides the first evidence that QsMYB1 TF may have a putative function in the regulatory network of cork oak response to heat and drought stresses and during plant recovery.

  20. The B-MYB transcriptional network guides cell cycle progression and fate decisions to sustain self-renewal and the identity of pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ming; Riordon, Daniel R; Yan, Bin; Tarasova, Yelena S; Bruweleit, Sarah; Tarasov, Kirill V; Li, Ronald A; Wersto, Robert P; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent and have unlimited self-renewal capacity. Although pluripotency and differentiation have been examined extensively, the mechanisms responsible for self-renewal are poorly understood and are believed to involve an unusual cell cycle, epigenetic regulators and pluripotency-promoting transcription factors. Here we show that B-MYB, a cell cycle regulated phosphoprotein and transcription factor critical to the formation of inner cell mass, is central to the transcriptional and co-regulatory networks that sustain normal cell cycle progression and self-renewal properties of ESCs. Phenotypically, B-MYB is robustly expressed in ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and it is present predominantly in a hypo-phosphorylated state. Knockdown of B-MYB results in functional cell cycle abnormalities that involve S, G2 and M phases, and reduced expression of critical cell cycle regulators like ccnb1 and plk1. By conducting gene expression profiling on control and B-MYB deficient cells, ChIP-chip experiments, and integrative computational analyses, we unraveled a highly complex B-MYB-mediated transcriptional network that guides ESC self-renewal. The network encompasses critical regulators of all cell cycle phases and epigenetic regulators, pluripotency transcription factors, and differentiation determinants. B-MYB along with E2F1 and c-MYC preferentially co-regulate cell cycle target genes. B-MYB also co-targets genes regulated by OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG that are significantly associated with stem cell differentiation, embryonic development, and epigenetic control. Moreover, loss of B-MYB leads to a breakdown of the transcriptional hierarchy present in ESCs. These results coupled with functional studies demonstrate that B-MYB not only controls and accelerates cell cycle progression in ESCs it contributes to fate decisions and maintenance of pluripotent stem cell identity.

  1. MIXTA-like transcription factors and WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 coordinately regulate cuticle development in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshimi; Shikata, Masahito; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Ohtsubo, Norihiro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-05-01

    The waxy plant cuticle protects cells from dehydration, repels pathogen attack, and prevents organ fusion during development. The transcription factor WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 (WIN1/SHN1) regulates the biosynthesis of waxy substances in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that the MIXTA-like MYB transcription factors MYB106 and MYB16, which regulate epidermal cell morphology, also regulate cuticle development coordinately with WIN1/SHN1 in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri. Expression of a MYB106 chimeric repressor fusion (35S:MYB106-SRDX) and knockout/down of MYB106 and MYB16 induced cuticle deficiencies characterized by organ adhesion and reduction of epicuticular wax crystals and cutin nanoridges. A similar organ fusion phenotype was produced by expression of a WIN1/SHN1 chimeric repressor. Conversely, the dominant active form of MYB106 (35S:MYB106-VP16) induced ectopic production of cutin nanoridges and increased expression of WIN1/SHN1 and wax biosynthetic genes. Microarray experiments revealed that MYB106 and WIN1/SHN1 regulate similar sets of genes, predominantly those involved in wax and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, WIN1/SHN1 expression was induced by MYB106-VP16 and repressed by MYB106-SRDX. These results indicate that the regulatory cascade of MIXTA-like proteins and WIN1/SHN1 coordinately regulate cutin biosynthesis and wax accumulation. This study reveals an additional key aspect of MIXTA-like protein function and suggests a unique relationship between cuticle development and epidermal cell differentiation.

  2. Functional Characterization of Cotton GaMYB62L, a Novel R2R3 TF in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Hamama Islam; Yang, Zhaoen; Chen, Eryong; Zhao, Ge; Gong, Qian; Yang, Zuoren; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress can trigger the production of ABA in plants, in response to adverse conditions, which induces the transcript of stress-related marker genes. The R2R3 MYB TFs are implicated in regulation of various plants developmental, metabolic and multiple environmental stress responses. Here, a R2R3-MYB cloned gene, GaMYB62L, was transformed in Arabidopsis and was functionally characterized. The GaMYB62L protein contains two SANT domains with a conserved R2R3 imperfect repeats. The GaMYB62L cDNA is 1,017 bp with a CDS of 879, encodes a 292-residue polypeptide with MW of 38.78 kD and a pI value of 8.91. Overexpressed GaMYB62L transgenic Arabidopsis have increased proline and chlorophyll content, superior seed germination rate under salt and osmotic stress, less water loss rate with reduced stomatal apertures, high drought avoidance as compared to WT on water deprivation and also significant plant survival rates at low temperature. In addition, overexpressed GaMYB62L lines were more sensitive to ABA mediated germination and root elongation assay. Moreover, ABA induced GaMYB62L overexpression, enhanced the expression of ABA stress related marker genes like RD22, COR15A, ADH1, and RD29A. Together, overexpression of GaMYB62L suggested having developed better drought, salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and thus presented it as a prospective candidate gene to achieve better abiotic stress tolerance in cotton crop. PMID:28125637

  3. Molecular characterization of an MYB transcription factor from a succulent halophyte involved in stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Agarwal, Parinita; Gupta, Kapil; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses like drought, salinity and extreme temperature significantly affect crop productivity. Plants respond at molecular, cellular and physiological levels for management of stress tolerance. Functional and regulatory genes play a major role in controlling these abiotic stresses through an intricate network of transcriptional machinery. Transcription factors are potential tools for manipulating stress tolerance since they control a large number of downstream genes. In the present study, we have isolated SbMYB44 from a succulent halophyte, Salicornia brachiata Roxb. SbMYB44 with an open-reading frame of 810 bp encodes a protein of 269 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 30.31 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.29. The in silico analysis revealed that the SbMYB44 protein contains the conserved R2R3 imperfect repeats, two SANT domains and post-translational modification sites. The SbMYB44 transcript showed up-regulation in response to salinity, desiccation, high temperature, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The SbMYB44 recombinant protein showed binding to dehydration-responsive cis-elements (RD22 and MBS-1), suggesting its possible role in stress signalling. Overexpression of SbMYB44 enhanced the growth of yeast cells under both ionic and osmotic stresses. PMID:25986050

  4. bHLH05 Is an Interaction Partner of MYB51 and a Novel Regulator of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gigolashvili, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    By means of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid screening, we identified basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor05 (bHLH05) as an interacting partner of MYB51, the key regulator of indolic glucosinolates (GSLs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Furthermore, we show that bHLH04, bHLH05, and bHLH06/MYC2 also interact with other R2R3-MYBs regulating GSL biosynthesis. Analysis of bhlh loss-of-function mutants revealed that the single bhlh mutants retained GSL levels that were similar to those in wild-type plants, whereas the triple bhlh04/05/06 mutant was depleted in the production of GSL. Unlike bhlh04/06 and bhlh05/06 mutants, the double bhlh04/05 mutant was strongly affected in the production of GSL, pointing to a special role of bHLH04 and bHLH05 in the control of GSL levels in the absence of jasmonic acid. The combination of two specific gain-of-function alleles of MYB and bHLH proteins had an additive effect on GSL levels, as demonstrated by the analysis of the double MYB34-1D bHLH05D94N mutant, which produces 20-fold more indolic GSLs than bHLH05D94N and ecotype Columbia-0 of Arabidopsis. The amino acid substitution D94N in bHLH05D94N negatively affects the interaction with JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN protein, thereby resulting in constitutive activation of bHLH05 and mimicking jasmonic acid treatment. Our study revealed the bHLH04, bHLH05, and bHLH06/MYC2 factors as novel regulators of GSL biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:25049362

  5. The Myb-p300-CREB axis modulates intestine homeostasis, radiosensitivity and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sampurno, S; Bijenhof, A; Cheasley, D; Xu, H; Robine, S; Hilton, D; Alexander, W S; Pereira, L; Mantamadiotis, T; Malaterre, J; Ramsay, R G

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is constantly renewing, depending upon the intestinal stem cells (ISC) regulated by a spectrum of transcription factors (TFs), including Myb. We noted previously in mice with a p300 mutation (plt6) within the Myb-interaction-domain phenocopied Myb hypomorphic mutant mice with regard to thrombopoiesis, and here, changes in GI homeostasis. p300 is a transcriptional coactivator for many TFs, most prominently cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and also Myb. Studies have highlighted the importance of CREB in proliferation and radiosensitivity, but not in the GI. This prompted us to directly investigate the p300–Myb–CREB axis in the GI. Here, the role of CREB has been defined by generating GI-specific inducible creb knockout (KO) mice. KO mice show efficient and specific deletion of CREB, with no evident compensation by CREM and ATF1. Despite complete KO, only modest effects on proliferation, radiosensitivity and differentiation in the GI under homeostatic or stress conditions were evident, even though CREB target gene pcna (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was downregulated. creb and p300 mutant lines show increased goblet cells, whereas a reduction in enteroendocrine cells was apparent only in the p300 line, further resembling the Myb hypomorphs. When propagated in vitro, crebKO ISC were defective in organoid formation, suggesting that the GI stroma compensates for CREB loss in vivo, unlike in MybKO studies. Thus, it appears that p300 regulates GI differentiation primarily through Myb, rather than CREB. Finally, active pCREB is elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and adenomas, and is required for the expression of drug transporter, MRP2, associated with resistance to Oxaliplatin as well as several chromatin cohesion protein that are relevant to CRC therapy. These data raise the prospect that CREB may have a role in GI malignancy as it does in other cancer types, but unlike Myb, is not critical for GI

  6. B-MYB is essential for normal cell cycle progression and chromosomal stability of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Kirill V; Tarasova, Yelena S; Tam, Wai Leong; Riordon, Daniel R; Elliott, Steven T; Kania, Gabriela; Li, Jinliang; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Crider, David G; Testa, Gianluca; Li, Ronald A; Lim, Bing; Stewart, Colin L; Liu, Yie; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Wersto, Robert P; Wobus, Anna M; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2008-06-25

    The transcription factor B-Myb is present in all proliferating cells, and in mice engineered to remove this gene, embryos die in utero just after implantation due to inner cell mass defects. This lethal phenotype has generally been attributed to a proliferation defect in the cell cycle phase of G1. In the present study, we show that the major cell cycle defect in murine embryonic stem (mES) cells occurs in G2/M. Specifically, knockdown of B-Myb by short-hairpin RNAs results in delayed transit through G2/M, severe mitotic spindle and centrosome defects, and in polyploidy. Moreover, many euploid mES cells that are transiently deficient in B-Myb become aneuploid and can no longer be considered viable. Knockdown of B-Myb in mES cells also decreases Oct4 RNA and protein abundance, while over-expression of B-MYB modestly up-regulates pou5f1 gene expression. The coordinated changes in B-Myb and Oct4 expression are due, at least partly, to the ability of B-Myb to directly modulate pou5f1 gene promoter activity in vitro. Ultimately, the loss of B-Myb and associated loss of Oct4 lead to an increase in early markers of differentiation prior to the activation of caspase-mediated programmed cell death. Appropriate B-Myb expression is critical to the maintenance of chromosomally stable and pluripotent ES cells, but its absence promotes chromosomal instability that results in either aneuploidy or differentiation-associated cell death.

  7. Evolutionary Dynamics of the DNA-Binding Domains in Putative R2R3-MYB Genes Identified from Rice Subspecies indica and japonica Genomes1[w

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Li; Clegg, Michael T.; Jiang, Tao

    2004-01-01

    The molecular evolution of the R2R3-MYB gene family is of great interest because it is one of the most important transcription factor gene families in the plant kingdom. Comparative analyses of a gene family may reveal important adaptive changes at the protein level and thereby provide insights that relate structure to function. We have performed a range of comparative and bioinformatics analyses on R2R3-MYB genes identified from the rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica and indica) and Arabidopsis genome sequences. The study provides an initial framework to investigate how different evolutionary lineages in a gene family evolve new functions. Our results reveal a remarkable excess of non-synonymous substitutions, an indication of adaptive selection on protein structure that occurred during the evolution of both helix1 and helix2 of rice R2R3-MYB DNA-binding domains. These flexible α-helix regions associated with high frequencies of excess non-synonymous substitutions may play critical roles in the characteristic packing of R2R3-MYB DNA-binding domains and thereby modify the protein-DNA interaction process resulting in the recognition of novel DNA-binding sites. Furthermore, a co-evolutionary pattern is found between the second α-helix of the R2 domain and the second α-helix of the R3 domain by examining all the possible α-helix pairings in both the R2 and R3 domains. This points to the functional importance of pairing interactions between related secondary structures. PMID:14966247

  8. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release.

    PubMed

    Poovaiah, Charleson R; Bewg, William P; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plant height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. This study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.

  9. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; ...

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  10. The maize transcription factor myb-related protein-1 is a key regulator of the differentiation of transfer cells.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elisa; Royo, Joaquín; Muñiz, Luis M; Sellam, Olivier; Paul, Wyatt; Gerentes, Denise; Barrero, Cristina; López, Maribel; Perez, Pascual; Hueros, Gregorio

    2009-07-01

    Transfer cells are highly modified plant cells specialized in the transport of solutes. They differentiate at many plant exchange surfaces, including phloem loading and unloading zones such as those present in the sink organs and seeds. In maize (Zea mays) seeds, transfer cells are located at the base of the endosperm. It is currently unknown how apical-basal polarity is established or why the peripheral cells at the base of the endosperm differentiate into transfer instead of aleurone cells. Here, we show that in epidermal cells committed to develop into aleurone cells, the ectopic expression of the transfer cell-specific transcriptional activator Myb-Related Protein-1 (MRP-1) is sufficient to temporarily transform them into transfer cells. These transformed cells acquire distinct transfer cell features, such as cell wall ingrowths and an elongated shape. In addition, they express a number of MRP-1 target genes presumably involved in defense. We also show that the expression of MRP-1 is needed to maintain the transfer cell phenotype. Later in development, an observed reduction in the ectopic expression of MRP-1 was followed by the reversion of the transformed cells, which then acquire aleurone cell features.

  11. Immunomodulation by MYB is associated with tumor relapse in patients with early stage colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Rosemary; Malaterre, Jordane; Cross, Ryan S.; Carpinteri, Sandra; Desai, Jayesh; Tran, Ben; Darcy, Phillip; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver; Zeps, Nikolajs; Waring, Paul; Fox, Stephen; Pereira, Lloyd; Ramsay, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The presence of tumor immune infiltrating cells (TILs), particularly CD8+ T-cells, is a robust predictor of outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We revisited TIL abundance specifically in patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC without evidence of lymph node or metastatic spread. Examination of the density of CD8+ T-cells in primary tumors in the context of other pro-oncogenic markers was performed to investigate potential regulators of TILs. Two independent cohorts of patients with MSS T2-4N0M0 CRC, enriched for cases with atypical relapse, were investigated. We quantified CD8+ and CD45RO+ -TILs, inflammatory markers, NFkBp65, pStat3, Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and GRP78 as well as transcription factors (TF), β-catenin and MYB. High CD8+ TILs correlated with a better relapse-free survival in both cohorts (p = 0.002) with MYB and its target gene, GRP78 being higher in the relapse group (p = 0.001); no difference in pSTAT3 and p65 was observed. A mouse CRC (CT26) model was employed to evaluate the effect of MYB on GRP78 expression as well as T-cell infiltration. MYB over-expressing in CT26 cells increased GRP78 expression and the analysis of tumor-draining lymph nodes adjacent to tumors showed reduced T-cell activation. Furthermore, MYB over-expression reduced the efficacy of anti-PD-1 to modulate CT26 tumor growth. This high MYB and GRP78 show a reciprocal relationship with CD8+ TILs which may be useful refining the prediction of patient outcome. These data reveal a new immunomodulatory function for MYB suggesting a basis for further development of anti-GRP78 and/or anti-MYB therapies. PMID:27622014

  12. Rhizobacterial volatiles and photosynthesis-related signals coordinate MYB72 expression in Arabidopsis roots during onset of induced systemic resistance and iron-deficiency responses.

    PubMed

    Zamioudis, Christos; Korteland, Jolanda; Van Pelt, Johan A; van Hamersveld, Muriël; Dombrowski, Nina; Bai, Yang; Hanson, Johannes; Van Verk, Marcel C; Ling, Hong-Qing; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2015-10-01

    In Arabidopsis roots, the transcription factor MYB72 plays a dual role in the onset of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant survival under conditions of limited iron availability. Previously, it was shown that MYB72 coordinates the expression of a gene module that promotes synthesis and excretion of iron-mobilizing phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere, a process that is involved in both iron acquisition and ISR signaling. Here, we show that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ISR-inducing Pseudomonas bacteria are important elicitors of MYB72. In response to VOC treatment, MYB72 is co-expressed with the iron uptake-related genes FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE 2 (FRO2) and IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) in a manner that is dependent on FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT), indicating that MYB72 is an intrinsic part of the plant's iron-acquisition response that is typically activated upon iron starvation. However, VOC-induced MYB72 expression is activated independently of iron availability in the root vicinity. Moreover, rhizobacterial VOC-mediated induction of MYB72 requires photosynthesis-related signals, while iron deficiency in the rhizosphere activates MYB72 in the absence of shoot-derived signals. Together, these results show that the ISR- and iron acquisition-related transcription factor MYB72 in Arabidopsis roots is activated by rhizobacterial volatiles and photosynthesis-related signals, and enhances the iron-acquisition capacity of roots independently of the iron availability in the rhizosphere. This work highlights the role of MYB72 in plant processes by which root microbiota simultaneously stimulate systemic immunity and activate the iron-uptake machinery in their host plants.

  13. CDK9 inhibitors selectively target estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells through combined inhibition of MYB and MCL-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Partha; Yang, Ren-Ming; Sutton, James; Ramsay, Robert G.; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that MYB is required for proliferation of, and confers protection against apoptosis on, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ve) breast cancer cells, which are almost invariably also MYB+ve. We have also shown that MYB expression in ER+ve breast cancer cells is regulated at the level of transcriptional elongation and as such, is suppressed by CDK9i. Here we examined the effects of CDK9i on breast cancer cells and the involvement of MYB in these effects. ER+ve breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7 were much more sensitive (> 10 times) to killing by CDK9i than ER−ve/MYB−ve cells. Moreover, surviving cells showed a block at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Importantly, ectopic MYB expression conferred resistance to apoptosis induction, cell killing and G2/M accumulation. Expression of relevant MYB target genes including BCL2 and CCNB1 was suppressed by CDK9 inhibition, and this too was reversed by ectopic MYB expression. Nevertheless, inhibition of BCL2 alone either by MYB knockdown or by ABT-199 treatment was insufficient for significant induction of apoptosis. Further studies implied that suppression of MCL-1, a well-documented target of CDK9 inhibition, was additionally required for apoptosis induction, while maximal levels of apoptosis induced by CDK9i are likely to also involve inhibition of BCL2L1 expression. Taken together these data suggest that MYB regulation of BCL2 underlies the heightened sensitivity of ER+ve compared to ER−ve breast cancer cells to CDK9 inhibition, and that these compounds represent a potential therapeutic for ER+ve breast cancers and possibly other MYB-dependent cancers. PMID:26812885

  14. Gene Regulation by Cytokinin in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Wolfram G.; Ramireddy, Eswar; Heyl, Alexander; Schmülling, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone cytokinin realizes at least part of its signaling output through the regulation of gene expression. A great part of the early transcriptional regulation is mediated by type-B response regulators, which are transcription factors of the MYB family. Other transcription factors, such as the cytokinin response factors of the AP2/ERF family, have also been shown to be involved in this process. Additional transcription factors mediate distinct parts of the cytokinin response through tissue- and cell-specific downstream transcriptional cascades. In Arabidopsis, only a single cytokinin response element, to which type-B response regulators bind, has been clearly proven so far, which has 5′-GAT(T/C)-3′ as a core sequence. This motif has served to construct a synthetic cytokinin-sensitive two-component system response element, which is useful for monitoring the cellular cytokinin status. Insight into the extent of transcriptional regulation has been gained by genome-wide gene expression analyses following cytokinin treatment and from plants having an altered cytokinin content or signaling. This review presents a meta analysis of such microarray data resulting in a core list of cytokinin response genes. Genes encoding type-A response regulators displayed the most stable response to cytokinin, but a number of cytokinin metabolism genes (CKX4, CKX5, CYP735A2, UGT76C2) also belong to them, indicating homeostatic mechanisms operating at the transcriptional level. The cytokinin core response genes are also the target of other hormones as well as biotic and abiotic stresses, documenting crosstalk of the cytokinin system with other hormonal and environmental signaling pathways. The multiple links of cytokinin to diverse functions, ranging from control of meristem activity, hormonal crosstalk, nutrient acquisition, and various stress responses, are also corroborated by a compilation of genes that have been repeatedly found by independent gene expression profiling

  15. MYB46 Modulates Disease Susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis12[W

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Vicente; Agorio, Astrid; Coego, Alberto; García-Andrade, Javier; Hernández, M. José; Balaguer, Begoña; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Zarra, Ignacio; Vera, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcription factor MYB46, previously described to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis in the vascular tissue of the stem, is pivotal for mediating disease susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. We identified MYB46 by its ability to bind to a new cis-element located in the 5′ promoter region of the pathogen-induced Ep5C gene, which encodes a type III cell wall-bound peroxidase. We present genetic and molecular evidence indicating that MYB46 modulates the magnitude of Ep5C gene induction following pathogenic insults. Moreover, we demonstrate that different myb46 knockdown mutant plants exhibit increased disease resistance to B. cinerea, a phenotype that is accompanied by selective transcriptional reprogramming of a set of genes encoding cell wall proteins and enzymes, of which extracellular type III peroxidases are conspicuous. In essence, our results substantiate that defense-related signaling pathways and cell wall integrity are interconnected and that MYB46 likely functions as a disease susceptibility modulator to B. cinerea through the integration of cell wall remodeling and downstream activation of secondary lines of defense. PMID:21282403

  16. c-Myb protein interacts with Rcd-1, a component of the CCR4 transcription mediator complex.

    PubMed

    Haas, Martin; Siegert, Michaela; Schürmann, André; Sodeik, Beate; Wolfes, Heiner

    2004-06-29

    Transcriptional initiation of eukaryotic genes depends on the cooperative interaction of various transcription factors. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we have identified the murine Rcd-1 protein as a cofactor of the c-myb proto-oncogene product. Rcd-1 is evolutionarily conserved among many species, and moreover the yeast homologue CAF40 is part of the carbon catabolite repressor protein transcriptional mediator thought to be involved in the negative regulation of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Rcd-1 is located mainly in the nucleus, and it interacts with c-Myb both in vitro and in vivo. The activation of the myeloid c-myb-specific mim-1 promoter is repressed by Rcd-1. Interestingly, rcd-1 is an erythropoietin regulated gene, which also represses the action of the AP-1 transcription factor on its target genes.

  17. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies showed that CBP KIX mutation affects the stability of CBP:c-Myb complex.

    PubMed

    Odoux, Anne; Jindal, Darren; Tamas, Tamara C; Lim, Benjamin W H; Pollard, Drake; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    The coactivators CBP (CREBBP) and its paralog p300 (EP300), two conserved multi-domain proteins in eukaryotic organisms, regulate gene expression in part by binding DNA-binding transcription factors. It was previously reported that the CBP/p300 KIX domain mutant (Y650A, A654Q, and Y658A) altered both c-Myb-dependent gene activation and repression, and that mice with these three point mutations had reduced numbers of platelets, B cells, T cells, and red blood cells. Here, our transient transfection assays demonstrated that mouse embryonic fibroblast cells containing the same mutations in the KIX domain and without a wild-type allele of either CBP or p300, showed decreased c-Myb-mediated transcription. Dr. Wright's group solved a 3-D structure of the mouse CBP:c-Myb complex using NMR. To take advantage of the experimental structure and function data and improved theoretical calculation methods, we performed MD simulations of CBP KIX, CBP KIX with the mutations, and c-Myb, as well as binding energy analysis for both the wild-type and mutant complexes. The binding between CBP and c-Myb is mainly mediated by a shallow hydrophobic groove in the center where the side-chain of Leu302 of c-Myb plays an essential role and two salt bridges at the two ends. We found that the KIX mutations slightly decreased stability of the CBP:c-Myb complex as demonstrated by higher binding energy calculated using either MM/PBSA or MM/GBSA methods. More specifically, the KIX mutations affected the two salt bridges between CBP and c-Myb (CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306; CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294). Our studies also revealed differing dynamics of the hydrogen bonds between CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306 and between CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294 caused by the CBP KIX mutations. In the wild-type CBP:c-Myb complex, both of the hydrogen bonds stayed relatively stable. In contrast, in the mutant CBP:c-Myb complex, hydrogen bonds between R646 and E306 showed an increasing trend followed by a decreasing trend, and hydrogen

  18. StMYB44 negatively regulates phosphate transport by suppressing expression of PHOSPHATE1 in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus is an important macronutrient for plant growth, but often deficient in soil. To understand the molecular basis of the complex responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to phosphate (Pi) deficiency stress, the RNA-Seq approach was taken to identify genes responding to Pi starvation in pot...

  19. Transcriptional control of flavonoid biosynthesis: fine-tuning of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Shutian

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary polyphenolic metabolites and fulfil many vital biological functions, offering a valuable metabolic and genetic model for studying transcriptional control of gene expression. Arabidopsis thaliana mainly accumulates 3 types of flavonoids, including flavonols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins (PAs). Flavonoid biosynthesis involves a multitude of well-characterized enzymatic and regulatory proteins. Three R2R3-MYB proteins (MYB11, MYB12, and MYB111) control flavonol biosynthesis via activating the early biosynthetic steps, whereas the production of anthocyanins and PAs requires the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex to activate the late biosynthetic genes. Additional regulators of flavonoid biosynthesis have recently come to light, which interact with R2R3-MYBs or bHLHs to organize or disrupt the formation of the MBW complex, leading to enhanced or compromised flavonoid production. This mini-review gives an overview of how these novel players modulate flavonoid metabolism and thus plant developmental processes and further proposes a fine-tuning mechanism to complete the complex regulatory network controlling flavonoid biosynthesis.

  20. Biologic and Therapeutic Significance of MYB Expression in Human Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijiya, Nobuko; Zhang, Jin; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.; Kant, Jeffrey A.; Deriel, Kim; Herlyn, Meenhard; Zon, Gerald; Gewirtz, Alan M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigated the therapeutic potential of employing antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to target the disruption of MYB, a gene which has been postulated to play a pathogenetic role in cutaneous melanoma. We found that MYB was expressed at low levels in several human melanoma cell lines. Also, growth of representative lines in vitro was inhibited in a dose- and sequence-dependent manner by targeting the MYB gene with unmodified or phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Inhibition of cell growth correlated with specific decrease of MYB mRNA. In SCID mice bearing human melanoma tumors, infusion of MYB antisense transiently suppressed MYB gene expression but effected long-term growth suppression of transplanted tumor cells. Toxicity of the oligodeoxynucleotides was minimal in mice, even when targeted to the murine Myb gene. These results suggest that the MYB gene may play an important, though undefined, role in the growth of at least some human melanomas. Inhibition of MYB expression might be of use in the treatment of this disease.

  1. Novel bioresources for studies of Brassica oleracea: identification of a kale MYB transcription factor responsible for glucosinolate production.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryoichi; Hasumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Osamu Ishizaki; Sasaki, Katsunori; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Sawada, Yuji; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Li, Yimeng; Saito, Kazuki; Ogawa, Toshiya; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-10-01

    Plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family exhibit species-specific profiles of glucosinolates (GSLs), a class of defence compounds against pathogens and insects. GSLs also exhibit various human health-promoting properties. Among them, glucoraphanin (aliphatic 4-methylsulphinylbutyl GSL) has attracted the most attention because it hydrolyses to form a potent anticancer compound. Increased interest in developing commercial varieties of Brassicaceae crops with desirable GSL profiles has led to attempts to identify genes that are potentially valuable for controlling GSL biosynthesis. However, little attention has been focused on genes of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). In this study, we established full-length kale cDNA libraries containing 59 904 clones, which were used to generate an expressed sequence tag (EST) data set with 119 204 entries. The EST data set clarified genes related to the GSL biosynthesis pathway in kale. We specifically focused on BoMYB29, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB29/PMG2/HAG3, not only to characterize its function but also to demonstrate its usability as a biological resource. BoMYB29 overexpression in wild-type Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of aliphatic GSL biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of aliphatic GSLs. When expressed in the myb28myb29 mutant, which exhibited no detectable aliphatic GSLs, BoMYB29 restored the expression of biosynthetic genes and aliphatic GSL accumulation. Interestingly, the ratio of methylsulphinyl GSL content, including glucoraphanin, to that of methylthio GSLs was greatly increased, indicating the suitability of BoMYB29 as a regulator for increasing methylsulphinyl GSL content. Our results indicate that these biological resources can facilitate further identification of genes useful for modifications of GSL profiles and accumulation in kale. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Identification and characterization of MYB-bHLH-WD40 regulatory complexes controlling proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits.

    PubMed

    Schaart, Jan G; Dubos, Christian; Romero De La Fuente, Irene; van Houwelingen, Adèle M M L; de Vos, Ric C H; Jonker, Harry H; Xu, Wenjia; Routaboul, Jean-Marc; Lepiniec, Loïc; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits contain high concentrations of flavonoids. In unripe strawberries, the flavonoids are mainly represented by proanthocyanidins (PAs), while in ripe fruits the red-coloured anthocyanins also accumulate. Most of the structural genes leading to PA biosynthesis in strawberry have been characterized, but no information is available on their transcriptional regulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana the expression of the PA biosynthetic genes is specifically induced by a ternary protein complex, composed of AtTT2 (AtMYB123), AtTT8 (AtbHLH042) and AtTTG1 (WD40-repeat protein). A strategy combining yeast-two-hybrid screening and agglomerative hierarchical clustering of transcriptomic and metabolomic data was undertaken to identify strawberry PA regulators. Among the candidate genes isolated, four were similar to AtTT2, AtTT8 and AtTTG1 (FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1, respectively) and two encode putative negative regulators (FaMYB5 and FabHLH3∆). Interestingly, FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1 were found to complement the tt2-1, tt8-3 and ttg1-1 transparent testa mutants, respectively. In addition, they interacted in yeast and activated the Arabidopsis BANYULS (anthocyanidin reductase) gene promoter when coexpressed in Physcomitrella patens protoplasts. Taken together, these results demonstrated that FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1 are the respective functional homologues of AtTT2, AtTT8 and AtTTG1, providing new tools for modifying PA content and strawberry fruit quality. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. The Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Gene AOP2 Mediates Feed-back Regulation of Jasmonic Acid Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Burow, Meike; Atwell, Susanna; Francisco, Marta; Kerwin, Rachel E; Halkier, Barbara A; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Survival in changing and challenging environments requires an organism to efficiently obtain and use its resources. Due to their sessile nature, it is particularly critical for plants to dynamically optimize their metabolism. In plant primary metabolism, metabolic fine-tuning involves feed-back mechanisms whereby the output of a pathway controls its input to generate a precise and robust response to environmental changes. By contrast, few studies have addressed the potential for feed-back regulation of secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis, accumulation of the defense compounds glucosinolates has previously been linked to genetic variation in the glucosinolate biosynthetic gene AOP2. AOP2 expression can increase the transcript levels of two known regulators (MYB28 and MYB29) of the pathway, suggesting that AOP2 plays a role in positive feed-back regulation controlling glucosinolate biosynthesis. We generated mutants affecting AOP2, MYB28/29, or both. Transcriptome analysis of these mutants identified a so far unrecognized link between AOP2 and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling independent of MYB28 and MYB29. Thus, AOP2 is part of a regulatory feed-back loop linking glucosinolate biosynthesis and JA signaling and thereby allows the glucosinolate pathway to influence JA sensitivity. The discovery of this regulatory feed-back loop provides insight into how plants optimize the use of resources for defensive metabolites.

  4. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-Jin; Li, Si-Bei; Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB) family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB). Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  5. Control of anthocyanin and non-flavonoid compounds by anthocyanin-regulating MYB and bHLH transcription factors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves

    PubMed Central

    Outchkourov, Nikolay S.; Carollo, Carlos A.; Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Bosch, Dirk; Hall, Robert D.; Beekwilder, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Coloration of plant organs such as fruit, leaves and flowers through anthocyanin production is governed by a combination of MYB and bHLH type transcription factors (TFs). In this study we introduced Rosea1 (ROS1, a MYB type) and Delila (DEL, a bHLH type), into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by agroinfiltration. ROS1 and DEL form a pair of well-characterized TFs from Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), which specifically induce anthocyanin accumulation when expressed in tomato fruit. In N. benthamiana, robust induction of a single anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) was observed after expression of both ROS1 and DEL. Surprisingly in addition to D3R, a range of additional metabolites were also strongly and specifically up-regulated upon expression of ROS1 and DEL. Except for the D3R, these induced compounds were not derived from the flavonoid pathway. Most notable among these are nornicotine conjugates with butanoyl, hexanoyl, and octanoyl hydrophobic moieties, and phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates such as caffeoyl putrescine. The defensive properties of the induced molecules were addressed in bioassays using the tobacco specialist lepidopteran insect Manduca sexta. Our study showed that the effect of ROS1 and DEL expression in N. benthamiana leaves extends beyond the flavonoid pathway. Apparently the same transcription factor may regulate different secondary metabolite pathways in different plant species. PMID:25339964

  6. Gene regulation networks generate diverse pigmentation patterns in plants.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nick; Davies, Kevin; Schwinn, Kathy

    2014-06-13

    The diversity of pigmentation patterns observed in plants occurs due to the spatial distribution and accumulation of colored compounds, which may also be associated with structural changes to the tissue. Anthocyanins are flavonoids that provide red/purple/blue coloration to plants, often forming complex patterns such as spots, stripes, and vein-associated pigmentation, particularly in flowers. These patterns are determined by the activity of MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes, which activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, resulting in anthocyanin pigment accumulation. Recently, we established that the MBW complex controlling anthocyanin synthesis acts within a gene regulation network that is conserved within at least the Eudicots. This network involves hierarchy, reinforcement, and feedback mechanisms that allow for stringent and responsive regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The gene network and mobile nature of the WDR and R3-MYB proteins provide exciting new opportunities to explore the basis of pigmentation patterning, and to investigate the evolutionary history of the MBW components in land plants.

  7. Gene regulation networks generate diverse pigmentation patterns in plants

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W; Davies, Kevin M; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of pigmentation patterns observed in plants occurs due to the spatial distribution and accumulation of colored compounds, which may also be associated with structural changes to the tissue. Anthocyanins are flavonoids that provide red/purple/blue coloration to plants, often forming complex patterns such as spots, stripes, and vein-associated pigmentation, particularly in flowers. These patterns are determined by the activity of MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes, which activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, resulting in anthocyanin pigment accumulation. Recently, we established that the MBW complex controlling anthocyanin synthesis acts within a gene regulation network that is conserved within at least the Eudicots. This network involves hierarchy, reinforcement, and feedback mechanisms that allow for stringent and responsive regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The gene network and mobile nature of the WDR and R3-MYB proteins provide exciting new opportunities to explore the basis of pigmentation patterning, and to investigate the evolutionary history of the MBW components in land plants. PMID:25763693

  8. Gene regulation networks generate diverse pigmentation patterns in plants.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nick W; Davies, Kevin M; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of pigmentation patterns observed in plants occurs due to the spatial distribution and accumulation of colored compounds, which may also be associated with structural changes to the tissue. Anthocyanins are flavonoids that provide red/purple/blue coloration to plants, often forming complex patterns such as spots, stripes, and vein-associated pigmentation, particularly in flowers. These patterns are determined by the activity of MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes, which activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, resulting in anthocyanin pigment accumulation. Recently, we established that the MBW complex controlling anthocyanin synthesis acts within a gene regulation network that is conserved within at least the Eudicots. This network involves hierarchy, reinforcement, and feedback mechanisms that allow for stringent and responsive regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The gene network and mobile nature of the WDR and R3-MYB proteins provide exciting new opportunities to explore the basis of pigmentation patterning, and to investigate the evolutionary history of the MBW components in land plants.

  9. Overexpression of C-terminally but not N-terminally truncated Myb induces fibrosarcomas: a novel nonhematopoietic target cell for the myb oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Press, R D; Reddy, E P; Ewert, D L

    1994-01-01

    The myb oncogene encodes a DNA-binding transcriptional transactivator which can become a hematopoietic cell-transforming protein following the deletion of amino acid sequences from either its amino or carboxyl terminus. Although a number of hematopoietic tumors express terminally deleted variants of Myb, the involvement of truncated Myb in nonhematopoietic tumors has not been adequately investigated. To assess the full spectrum of Myb's oncogenic capability, a replication-competent retroviral vector (RCAMV) was used to express a full-length protein (C-Myb), an amino-terminally truncated protein (VCC- or delta N-Myb), a carboxyl-terminally truncated protein (T-Myb), or a doubly truncated protein (VCT-Myb) in vivo. These viruses were injected intravenously into 10-day chicken embryos, and the infected chicks were monitored for tumors. Approximately 4 to 8 weeks after hatching, the majority (30 of 39 [77%]) of animals infected with the T-Myb retrovirus (without 214 carboxyl-terminal residues) developed nodular muscle tumors which could be identified by both morphologic and immunohistochemical criteria as fibrosarcomas. Identically appearing tumors could also be found in the kidney of some T-Myb-infected animals. The T-Myb-induced fibrosarcomas expressed the appropriately sized T-Myb protein, contained an unaltered proviral T-myb gene, and showed clonal proviral integration sites. In comparison, no sarcomas were observed in any of the animals infected with the amino-terminally truncated (VCC- and delta N-Myb) or doubly truncated (VCT-Myb) viruses. A loss of carboxyl-terminal but not amino-terminal sequences can thus convert Myb into a potent in vivo transforming protein for nonhematopoietic mesenchymal cells. In comparison, a truncation of either or both ends of the protein can activate Myb into a hematopoietic cell-transforming protein. Images PMID:8139533

  10. Cyclin F suppresses B-Myb activity to promote cell cycle checkpoint control.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard; Hoffmann, Saskia; Ahlskog, Johanna K; O'Hanlon, Karen; Quaas, Marianne; Larsen, Brian D; Rolland, Baptiste; Rösner, Heike I; Walter,