Sweetline Anne, N; Ronald, B S M; Kumar, T M A Senthil; Kannan, P; Thangavelu, A
Bovine tuberculosis continued to be a re-emerging problem in some countries especially in endemic areas due to the fact that human and animal health surveillance system is not adopted to diagnose the infection. This crisis can be attributed due to sharing of the same habitat especially in rural areas. In the present study, a total of 148 samples were collected from cattle for isolation over a period of 3 years from cattle with and without lesions, of which 67 isolates were obtained by culture. Fifty one isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by IS6110 PCR of which 43 (84.3%) were identified as M. tuberculosis and 08 (15.6%) were identified as M. bovis by using 12.7kb fragment multiplex PCR. Among this, 31 isolates which were positive for IS6110 PCR were subjected to spoligotyping and revealed 28 isolates belonging to MANU1 strain of M. tuberculosis. This study clearly indicates that high prevalence of M. tuberculosis than M. bovis in bovine was identified by means of culture and by molecular methods M. tuberculosis can affect cattle producing lesion in contradiction to the earlier thoughts. This study speculates that M. tuberculosis MANU1 strain infection in cattle could be due to spill over from human or other non specific hosts in tuberculosis endemic areas. Though bovine tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis in cattle is not considered a serious threat worldwide, in countries where human TB is endemic, M. tuberculosis infection of cattle needs to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms to the species level is important for diagnostic, therapeutic and epidemiologic perspectives. Indeed, isolates are routinely identified as belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex without further discrimination in agreement with the high genomic similarity of the M. tuberculosis complex members and the resulting complex available identification tools. Findings We herein develop a pyrosequencing assay analyzing polymorphisms within glpK, pykA and gyrB genes to identify members of the M. tuberculosis complex at the species level. The assay was evaluated with 22 M. tuberculosis, 21 M. bovis, 3 M. caprae, 3 M. microti, 2 M. bovis BCG, 2 M. pinnipedii, 1 M. canettii and 1 M. africanum type I isolates. The resulted pyrograms were consistent with conventional DNA sequencing data and successfully identified all isolates. Additionally, 127 clinical M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed and were unambiguously identified as M. tuberculosis. Conclusion We proposed a pyrosequencing-based scheme for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis complex isolates at the species level. The assay is robust, specific, rapid and can be easily introduced in the routine activity. PMID:22011383
Roberts, M C; McMillan, C; Coyle, M B
Whole chromosomal DNA probes were used to identify clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Mycobacterium gordonae. The probe for M. tuberculosis was prepared from Mycobacterium bovis BCG, which has been shown to be closely related to M. tuberculosis. A probe for the M. avium complex was prepared from three strains representing each of the three DNA homology groups in the M. avium complex. The probes were used in dot blot assays to identify clinical isolates of mycobacteria. The dot blot test correctly identified 57 of the 61 (93%) cultures grown on solid media, and 100% of antibiotic-treated broth-grown cells were correctly identified. Identification by dot blot required a maximum of 48 h. When the probes were tested against 63 positive BACTEC (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) cultures of clinical specimens, 59% were correctly identified. However, of the 14 BACTEC cultures that had been treated with antibiotics before being lysed, 13 (93%) were correctly identified. PMID:3112180
Mattow, J; Jungblut, P R; Schaible, U E; Mollenkopf, H J; Lamer, S; Zimny-Arndt, U; Hagens, K; Müller, E C; Kaufmann, S H
A proteome approach, combining high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) with mass spectrometry, was used to compare the cellular protein composition of two virulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with two attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), in order to identify unique proteins of these strains. Emphasis was given to the identification of M. tuberculosis specific proteins, because we consider these proteins to represent putative virulence factors and interesting candidates for vaccination and diagnosis of tuberculosis. The genome of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv comprises nearly 4000 predicted open reading frames. In contrast, the separation of proteins from whole mycobacterial cells by 2-DE resulted in silver-stained patterns comprising about 1800 distinct protein spots. Amongst these, 96 spots were exclusively detected either in the virulent (56 spots) or in the attenuated (40 spots) mycobacterial strains. Fifty-three of these spots were analyzed by mass spectrometry, of which 41 were identified, including 32 M. tuberculosis specific spots. Twelve M. tuberculosis specific spots were identified as proteins, encoded by genes previously reported to be deleted in M. bovis BCG. The remaining 20 spots unique for M. tuberculosis were identified as proteins encoded by genes that are not known to be missing in M. bovis BCG.
Lin, May Young; Ottenhoff, Tom H M
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is one of the worlds' most successful and sophisticated pathogens. It is estimated that over 2 billion people today harbour latent M. tuberculosis infection without any clinical symptoms. Since most new cases of active tuberculosis (TB) arise from this (growing) number of latently infected individuals, urgent measures to control TB reactivation are required, including more effective drugs and new TB vaccines. The currently widely used BCG vaccines, as well as most new generation TB-vaccines that are being developed are designed as prophylactic or as BCG-booster vaccines. Unfortunately, many of these vaccines are unlikely to be effective in individuals already latently infected with M. tuberculosis. Here we argue that detailed analysis of M. tuberculosis genes that are switched on predominantly during the latent stage of infection may lead to the identification of new M. tuberculosis targets for drug and vaccine development. First, we will describe essential host-pathogen interactions in TB with particular emphasis on TB latency and persistent infection. Subsequently, we will focus on a novel group of late-stage specific genes, encoded by the M. tuberculosis dormancy (dosR) regulon, and summarize recent studies describing human T-cell recognition of these dormancy antigens in relation to (latent) M. tuberculosis infection. We will discuss the possible relevance of these new classes of antigens for new TB intervention strategies.
Považan, Anika; Vukelić, Anka; Savković, Tijana; Kurucin, Tatjana
A new, simple immunochromatographic assay for rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid cultures has been developed. The principle of the assay is binding of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific antigen to the monoclonal antibody conjugated on the test strip. The aim of this study is evaluation of the performance of immunochromatographic assay in identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in primary positive liquid cultures of BacT/Alert automated system. A total of 159 primary positive liquid cultures were tested using the immunochromatographic assay (BD MGIT TBc ID) and the conventional subculture, followed by identification using biochemical tests. Of 159 positive liquid cultures, using the conventional method, Mycobacterium tuberculos is was identified in 119 (74.8%), nontuberculous mycobacteria were found in 4 (2.5%), 14 (8.8%) cultures were contaminated and 22 (13.8%) cultures were found to be negative. Using the immunochromatographic assay, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was detected in 118 (74.2%) liquid cultures, and 41 (25.8%) tests were negative. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test were 98.3%; 97.5%; 99.15%; 95.12%, respectively. The value of kappa test was 0.950, and McNemar test was 1.00. The immunochromatographic assay is a simple and rapid test which represents a suitable alternative to the conventional subculture method for the primary identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid cultures of BacT/Alert automated system. PMID:22364301
Dutta, Noton K; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Veeramani, Balaji; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Karakousis, Petros C; Bader, Joel S
Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence genes is important for developing novel drugs to shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We developed computational algorithms that predict M. tuberculosis genes required for long-term survival in mouse lungs. As the input, we used high-throughput M. tuberculosis mutant library screen data, mycobacterial global transcriptional profiles in mice and macrophages, and functional interaction networks. We selected 57 unique, genetically defined mutants (18 previously tested and 39 untested) to assess the predictive power of this approach in the murine model of TB infection. We observed a 6-fold enrichment in the predicted set of M. tuberculosis genes required for persistence in mouse lungs relative to randomly selected mutant pools. Our results also allowed us to reclassify several genes as required for M. tuberculosis persistence in vivo. Finally, the new results implicated additional high-priority candidate genes for testing. Experimental validation of computational predictions demonstrates the power of this systems biology approach for elucidating M. tuberculosis persistence genes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has a genetic repertoire that permits it to persist in the face of host immune responses. Identification of such persistence genes could reveal novel drug targets and elucidate mechanisms by which the organism eludes the immune system and resists drugs. Genetic screens have identified a total of 31 persistence genes, but to date only 15% of the ~4,000 M. tuberculosis genes have been tested experimentally. In this paper, as an alternative to brute force experimental screens, we describe computational methods that predict new persistence genes by combining known examples with growing databases of biological networks. Experimental testing demonstrated that these predictions are highly accurate, validating the computational approach and providing new information
Moghaddam, Roghieh; Mosavari, Nader; Mahalati, Ardeshir Hesampoor
Tuberculosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. Rapid diagnosis of the disease and identification of species is extremely important for proper treatment of the disease as some species of the complex are resistant to the first-line of tuberculosis drugs. The aim of present study was molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex isolates from Kermanshah Province, Iran, which were submitted to the Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory at Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (Tehran, Iran). To identify the genus Mycobacterium, all isolates were subjected to 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR-IS6110 was subsequently used to confirm that the isolates belonged to MTB complex. Finally, region of difference (RD) typing was used to identify the species in the complex. The results of 16S rRNA and IS6110 PCR analysis showed the presence of 543-bp and 245-bp bands, respectively. Furthermore, 146bp, 172bp, 235bp, and 369bp at RD1, RD4, RD9, and RD12, respectively, were observed during RD typing. Thus, based on the results, all isolates were identified as MTB. It is worth mentioning that most tuberculosis cases are identified on the basis of acid-fast bacilli detection, and antibiotic therapy is immediately initiated subsequently. Moreover, it should be noted that some of these acid-fast positive cases might not be of genus Mycobacterium, and thus, the antibiotics prescribed might threaten the health of the patients. Additionally, if the identified bacilli are not within MTB complex, the drug therapy would differ. However, Mycobacterium bovis, which is a member of MTB complex and is resistant to pyrazinamide, requires exact strain identification. Based on the findings, individual isolates should be identified by RD typing methods, which could clearly discriminate the species from each other. Copyright © 2016.
Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Mancilla, Raul; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Gimbel, Arturo
With almost one third of the world population infected, tuberculosis is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide and it is a major threat to any healthcare system. With the mathematical-computational method named "Polarity Index Method", already published by this group, we identified, with high accuracy (70%), proteins related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria virulence pathway from the Tuberculist Database. The test considered the totality of proteins cataloged in the main domains: fungi, bacteria, and viruses from three databases: Antimicrobial Peptide Database (APD2), Tuberculist Database, Uniprot Database, and four antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: PstS-1, 38-kDa, 19-kDa, and H37Rv ORF. The method described was calibrated with each database to achieve the same performance, showing a high percentage of coincidence in the identification of proteins associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria virulence pathway located in the Tuberculist Database, and identifying a polar pattern regardless of the group studied. This method has already been used in the identification of diverse groups of proteins and peptides, showing that it is an effective discriminant. Its metric considers only one physico-chemical property, i.e. polarity.
Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H.; Haft, Daniel H.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Ollodart, Anja R.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Shukla, Anil K.; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T.
The annotation of protein function is almost completely performed by in silico approaches. However, computational prediction of protein function is frequently incomplete and error prone. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins. This lack of functional information severely limits our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Current tools for experimental functional annotation are limited and often do not scale to entire protein families. Here, we report a generally applicable chemical biology platform to functionally annotate bacterial proteins by combining activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics. As an example of this approach for high-throughput protein functional validation and discovery, we experimentally annotate the families of ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. Our data experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >250 ATPases and adenosine nucleotide-binding proteins, and reveal 73 hypothetical proteins as novel ATP-binding proteins. We identify adenosine cofactor interactions with many hypothetical proteins containing a diversity of unrelated sequences, providing a new and expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Furthermore, many of these hypothetical proteins are both unique to Mycobacteria and essential for infection, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. Thus, we provide a generally applicable approach for high throughput protein function discovery and validation, and highlight several ways in which application of activity-based proteomics data can improve the quality of functional annotations to facilitate novel biological insights.
Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.
Pearce, Michael J; Arora, Pooja; Festa, Richard A; Butler-Wu, Susan M; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Darwin, K Heran
The putative proteasome-associated proteins Mpa (Mycobaterium proteasomal ATPase) and PafA (proteasome accessory factor A) of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are essential for virulence and resistance to nitric oxide. However, a direct link between the proteasome protease and Mpa or PafA has never been demonstrated. Furthermore, protein degradation by bacterial proteasomes in vitro has not been accomplished, possibly due to the failure to find natural degradation substrates or other necessary proteasome co-factors. In this work, we identify the first bacterial proteasome substrates, malonyl Co-A acyl carrier protein transacylase and ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase, enzymes that are required for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and polyketides that are essential for the pathogenesis of Mtb. Maintenance of the physiological levels of these enzymes required Mpa and PafA in addition to proteasome protease activity. Mpa levels were also regulated in a proteasome-dependent manner. Finally, we found that a conserved tyrosine of Mpa was essential for function. Thus, these results suggest that Mpa, PafA, and the Mtb proteasome degrade bacterial proteins that are important for virulence in mice. PMID:17082771
Sales, Mariana L.; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Orzil, Lívia; Alencar, Andrea Padilha; Silva, Marcio Roberto; Issa, Marina Azevedo; Filho, Paulo Martins Soares; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major cause of tuberculosis in humans. This bacillus gained prominence with the occurrence of HIV, presenting itself as an important opportunistic infection associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The current study aimed to develop a real-time PCR using Eva Green technology for molecular identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. The primers were designed to Rv1510 gene. Ninety nine samples of M. tuberculosis and sixty samples of M. bovis were tested and no sample of the bovine bacillus was detected by the qPCR. Statistical tests showed no difference between the qPCR and biochemical tests used to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The correlation between tests was perfect with Kappa index of 1.0 (p < 0.001, CI = 0.84 – 1.0). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% (CI = 95.94% – 100%) and 100% (CI = 93.98% – 100%). This qPCR was developed with the goal of diagnosing the bacillus M. tuberculosis in samples of bacterial suspension. TB reference laboratories (health and agriculture sectors), public health programs and epidemiological studies probably may benefit from such method. PMID:25763042
Sales, Mariana L; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Orzil, Lívia; Alencar, Andrea Padilha; Silva, Marcio Roberto; Issa, Marina Azevedo; Soares Filho, Paulo Martins; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major cause of tuberculosis in humans. This bacillus gained prominence with the occurrence of HIV, presenting itself as an important opportunistic infection associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The current study aimed to develop a real-time PCR using Eva Green technology for molecular identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. The primers were designed to Rv1510 gene. Ninety nine samples of M. tuberculosis and sixty samples of M. bovis were tested and no sample of the bovine bacillus was detected by the qPCR. Statistical tests showed no difference between the qPCR and biochemical tests used to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The correlation between tests was perfect with Kappa index of 1.0 (p < 0.001, CI = 0.84 - 1.0). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% (CI = 95.94% - 100%) and 100% (CI = 93.98% - 100%). This qPCR was developed with the goal of diagnosing the bacillus M. tuberculosis in samples of bacterial suspension. TB reference laboratories (health and agriculture sectors), public health programs and epidemiological studies probably may benefit from such method.
López-Hernández, Y; Patiño-Rodríguez, O; García-Orta, S T; Pinos-Rodríguez, J M
An adequate and effective tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis system has been identified by the World Health Organization as a priority in the fight against this disease. Over the years, several methods have been developed to identify the bacillus, but bacterial culture remains one of the most affordable methods for most countries. For rapid and accurate identification, however, it is more feasible to implement molecular techniques, taking advantage of the availability of public databases containing protein sequences. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an interesting technique for the identification of TB. Here, we review some of the most widely employed methods for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis and present an update on MS applied for the identification of mycobacterial species.
Marzouk, Manel; Kahla, Imen Ben; Hannachi, Naila; Ferjeni, Asma; Salma, Walid Ben; Ghezal, Samira; Boukadida, Jalel
Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) remains slow. Over the years, several new technologies have been proposed to accelerate and simplify the detection of MTC. In this context, we evaluated an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) (BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB) for rapid identification of MTC, based on detection of a specific MPT64 antigen of MTC. We have tested it on i) mycobacterial cultures: 210 MTC strains and 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria; ii) M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin strain SSI (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark); and iii) 22 microorganisms other than mycobacteria, isolated from cultures. We concluded that this kit has an excellent specificity (100%) and sensitivity (99%) from isolated cultures. The ICA (BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB) allows excellent MTC identification from clinical isolates. It is a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test, and has a definite contribution in the rapid laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Zink, A R; Nerlich, A G
Aims: To investigate the use of different molecular analyses that can identify distinct strains of human pathogenic mycobacteria in formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded archival tissue samples to see whether it is possible to differentiate between the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M tuberculosis, M bovis, M africanum, M microti, or M canettii) and/or substrains in a high number of samples. This would be of interest for identifying individual infection traits and superinfection by different mycobacterial strains. Methods: Forty nine archival tissue samples with clinically and/or histologically suspected tuberculosis infection were subjected to molecular DNA analysis. Results: The molecular analysis revealed the presence of M tuberculosis complex DNA in 20 samples, whereas acid fast bacilli could be detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining in only eight samples. All IS6110 positive samples were further characterised by spoligotyping and seven cases provided M tuberculosis specific signatures, whereas M bovis specific signatures were obtained in four cases. The analysis of mtp40, oxyR, and pncA partial gene sequences confirmed the presence of M tuberculosis in six cases and M bovis in one case. The amplification and sequencing of four further genetic regions (katG, gyrA, TbD1, RD9) characterised six “modern” M tuberculosis strains belonging to genetic groups 2 or 3. Conclusion: This study provides clear evidence that archival paraffin wax embedded material can be used for further studies on the strain identification of M tuberculosis complex strains and can therefore unequivocally be used for the study of the epidemiology and evolution of tuberculosis pathogens. PMID:15509681
Deenadayalan, Anbarasu; Heaslip, Darragh; Rajendiran, Adhilakshmi Aavudaiyappan; Velayudham, Banurekha Vaithilingam; Frederick, Sheela; Yang, Hong-Liang; Dobos, Karen; Belisle, John T.; Raja, Alamelu
Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens inducing cellular immune responses is required to improve the diagnosis of and vaccine development against tuberculosis. To identify the antigens of M. tuberculosis that differentiated between tuberculosis (TB) patients and healthy contacts based on T cell reactivity, the culture filtrate of in vitro grown M. tuberculosis was fractionated by two-dimensional liquid phase electrophoresis and tested for the ability to stimulate T cells in a whole blood assay. This approach separated the culture filtrate into 350 fractions with sufficient protein quantity (at least 200 μg of protein) for mass spectrometry and immunological analyses. High levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion were induced by 105 fractions in healthy contacts compared with TB patients (p < 0.05). Most interesting was the identification of 10 fractions that specifically induced strong IFN-γ production in the healthy contact population but not in TB patients. Other immunological measurements showed 42 fractions that induced significant lymphocyte proliferative responses in the healthy contact group compared with the TB patients. The tumor necrosis factor-α response for most of the fractions did not significantly differ in the tested groups, and the interleukin-4 response was below the detectable range for all fractions and both study groups. Proteomic characterization of the 105 fractions that induced a significant IFN-γ response in the healthy contacts compared with the TB patients led to the identification of 59 proteins of which 24 represented potentially novel T cell antigens. Likewise, the protein identification in the 10 healthy “contact-specific fractions” revealed 16 proteins that are key candidates as vaccine or diagnostic targets. PMID:20031926
Yang, Huan; Tang, Hua; Chen, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Chang-Jian; Zhu, Pan-Pan; Ding, Hui
Tuberculosis is killing millions of lives every year and on the blacklist of the most appalling public health problems. Recent findings suggest that secretory protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may serve the purpose of developing specific vaccines and drugs due to their antigenicity. Responding to global infectious disease, we focused on the identification of secretory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel method called MycoSec was designed by incorporating g-gap dipeptide compositions into pseudo amino acid composition. Analysis of variance-based technique was applied in the process of feature selection and a total of 374 optimal features were obtained and used for constructing the final predicting model. In the jackknife test, MycoSec yielded a good performance with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93, demonstrating that the proposed system is powerful and robust. For user's convenience, the web server MycoSec was established and an obliging manual on how to use it was provided for getting around any trouble unnecessary. PMID:27597968
Duan, Zhi-Liang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Sina; Chen, Xin-Yu; Liu, Hui-Fang; Chen, Bo-Kun; Li, De-Zhou; Huang, Xi; Wen, Jin-Sheng
PPE68 is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific protein which is absent from the vaccine strains of BCG. A panel of 14 PPE68-derived peptides predicted to bind to HLA-A*0201 was synthesized. The HLA-A*0201 restriction of these peptides was determined in T2 cell line and HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. The specificity of peptides was assessed in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, and immunodominant peptides were further used to evaluate their diagnostic potential in HLA-A*0201-positive pulmonary TB patients. 13 out of 14 peptides were identified as high-affinity binders. Of these peptides, 12 peptides induced significant IFN-γ-secreting T cell response in transgenic mice and 9 peptides were efficiently recognized by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 HLA-A*0201-positive TB patients. Four immunodominant HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes (PPE68126-134, PPE68133-141, PPE68140-148, and PPE68148-156) were recognized by the most of 80 HLA-A*0201-positive TB patients (81, 86, 74, and 84 %, respectively). These epitopes may be used for a potential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection.
Morgan, M A; Doerr, K A; Hempel, H O; Goodman, N L; Roberts, G D
The p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) differential test for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recovered from clinical specimens was evaluated by two laboratories and found to be a rapid and accurate procedure with a specificity exceeding 99%. PMID:3921563
Banaiee, N.; Bobadilla-del-Valle, M.; Bardarov, S.; Riska, P. F.; Small, P. M.; Ponce-de-Leon, A.; Jacobs, W. R.; Hatfull, G. F.; Sifuentes-Osornio, J.
The utility of luciferase reporter mycobacteriophages (LRPs) for detection, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was prospectively evaluated in a clinical microbiology laboratory in Mexico City, Mexico. Five hundred twenty-three consecutive sputum samples submitted to the laboratory during a 5-month period were included in this study. These specimens were cultivated in Middlebrook 7H9 (MADC), MGIT, and Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Of the 71 mycobacterial isolates recovered with any of the three media, 76% were detected with the LRPs, 97% were detected with the MGIT 960 method, and 90% were detected with LJ medium. When contaminated specimens were excluded from the analysis, the LRPs detected 92% (54 of 59) of the cultures. The median time to detection of bacteria was 7 days with both the LRPs and the MGIT 960 method. LRP detection of growth in the presence of p-nitro-α-acetylamino-β-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) was used for selective identification of M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) and compared to identification with BACTEC 460. Using the LRP NAP test, 47 (94%) out of 50 isolates were correctly identified as tuberculosis complex. The accuracy and speed of LRP antibiotic susceptibility testing with rifampin, streptomycin, isoniazid, and ethambutol were compared to those of the BACTEC 460 method, and discrepant results were checked by the conventional proportion method. In total, 50 MTC isolates were tested. The overall agreement between the LRP and BACTEC 460 results was 98.5%. The median LRP-based susceptibility turnaround time was 2 days (range, 2 to 4 days) compared to 10.5 days (range, 7 to 16 days) by the BACTEC 460 method. Phage resistance was not detected in any of the 243 MTC isolates tested. Mycobacteriophage-based approaches to tuberculosis diagnostics can be implemented in clinical laboratories with sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity that compare favorably with those of the MGIT 960 and BACTEC 460
Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri
Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.
Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Dong, Yuxin; Holzman, Robert S.; Belisle, John; Kourbeti, Irene S.; Sherpa, Tsering; Condos, Rany; Rom, William N.; Laal, Suman
The 81-kDa malate synthase (MS; Rv 1837c) and the 27-kDa MPT51 (Rv 3803c) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are immunodominant antigens recognized by serum antibodies from ∼80% of human immunodeficiency virus-negative smear-positive tuberculosis patients from India. We now provide evidence that the use of the MS/MPT51-based serodiagnostic assay can serve as an adjunct to sputum microscopy in the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:17090645
Bertholet, Sylvie; Ireton, Gregory C; Kahn, Maria; Guderian, Jeffrey; Mohamath, Raodoh; Stride, Nicole; Laughlin, Elsa M; Baldwin, Susan L; Vedvick, Thomas S; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G
Development of a subunit vaccine for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on the identification of Ags that induce appropriate T cell responses. Using bioinformatics, we selected a panel of 94 Mtb genes based on criteria that included growth in macrophages, up- or down-regulation under hypoxic conditions, secretion, membrane association, or because they were members of the PE/PPE or EsX families. Recombinant proteins encoded by these genes were evaluated for IFN-gamma recall responses using PBMCs from healthy subjects previously exposed to Mtb. From this screen, dominant human T cell Ags were identified and 49 of these proteins, formulated in CpG, were evaluated as vaccine candidates in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Eighteen of the individual Ags conferred partial protection against challenge with virulent Mtb. A combination of three of these Ags further increased protection against Mtb to levels comparable to those achieved with bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination. Vaccine candidates that led to reduction in lung bacterial burden following challenge-induced pluripotent CD4 and CD8 T cells, including Th1 cell responses characterized by elevated levels of Ag-specific IgG2c, IFN-gamma, and TNF. Priority vaccine Ags elicited pluripotent CD4 and CD8 T responses in purified protein derivative-positive donor PBMCs. This study identified numerous novel human T cell Ags suitable to be included in subunit vaccines against tuberculosis.
Aslan, Gönül; Doruk, Erdal; Emekdaş, Gürol; Serin, M Sami; Direkel, Sahin; Bayram, Gül; Durmaz, Riza
Genitourinary tuberculosis presents a challenge in diagnosis and treatment due to variations in clinical and radiological signs, insufficient patient history and difficulty in the isolation of the bacilli. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the urine samples obtained from patients with suspected urinary tuberculosis admitted to our hospital by using Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen (EZN), culture and polymerase chain reaction-restriction analysis (PCR-RFLP) methods. A total of 1004 urine samples collected from 437 patients who were admitted to our hospital between January 2004-July 2006, were inoculated on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and/or BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, USA) after decontamination and, direct preparations stained with EZN method were evaluated microscopically. M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) were differentiated by nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) test and the susceptibility testing for the MTC strains to primary antituberculosis drugs were performed by BACTEC 460 TB (Becton Dickinson, USA) system. PCR-RFLP method was performed for the identification of Mycobacterium spp. Twenty-two (5%) patients have yielded positive results by at least one of the conventional methods (EZN, LJ and/or BACTEC). Fifteen samples were positive for acido-resistant bacilli (ARB) by EZN method, and 17 samples were positive for mycobacterial growth in the cultures. Ten of 22 patients were found positive by both of the methods, while seven were culture positive but ARB negative and five were culture negative but ARB positive. These five patients received BCG treatment because of the presence of bladder tumor. Twelve (70.5%) of 17 strains isolated from culture were identified as MTC, while five (29.4%) were identified as M. fortuitum. Of 12 MTC isolates, eight (66.7%) were found susceptible to all of the antituberculosis agents, while one was found resistant to isoniazide (INH
Nayak, Kaustuv; Jing, Lichen; Russell, Ronnie M.; Davies, D. Huw; Hermanson, Gary; Molina, Douglas M.; Liang, Xiaowu; Sherman, David R.; Kwok, William W.; Yang, Junbao; Kenneth, John; Ahamed, Syed F.; Chandele, Anmol; Kaja, Murali-Krishna; Koelle, David M.
Elicitation of CD4 IFN-gamma T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a rational vaccine strategy to prevent clinical tuberculosis. Diagnosis of MTB infection is based on T-cell immune memory to MTB antigens. The MTB proteome contains over four thousand open reading frames (ORFs). We conducted a pilot antigen identification study using 164 MTB proteins and MTB-specific T-cells expanded in vitro from 12 persons with latent MTB infection. Enrichment of MTB-reactive T-cells from PBMC used cell sorting or an alternate system compatible with limited resources. MTB proteins were used as single antigens or combinatorial matrices in proliferation and cytokine secretion readouts. Overall, our study found that 44 MTB proteins were antigenic, including 27 not previously characterized as CD4 T-cell antigens. Antigen truncation, peptide, NTM homology, and HLA class II tetramer studies confirmed malate synthase G (encoded by gene Rv1837) as a CD4 T-cell antigen. This simple, scalable system has potential utility for the identification of candidate MTB vaccine and biomarker antigens. PMID:25857935
Drouillon, V; Houriez, F; Buze, M; Lagrange, P; Herrmann, J-L
Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) directly on clinical respiratory specimens is essential for a correct management of patients suspected of tuberculosis. For this purpose PCR-based kits are available to detect MTB in respiratory specimen but most of them need at least 4 hours to be completed. New methods, based on TRC method (TRC: Transcription Reverse transcription Concerted--TRCRapid M. Tuberculosis--Tosoh Bioscience, Tokyo, Japon) and dedicated monitor have been developed. A new kit (TRC Rapid M. tuberculosis and Real-time monitor TRCRapid-160, Tosoh Corporation, Japan) enabling one step amplification and real-time detection of MTB 16S rRNA by a combination of intercalative dye oxazole yellow-linked DNA probe and isothermal RNA amplification directly on respiratory specimens has been tested in our laboratory. 319 respiratory specimens were tested in this preliminary study and results were compared to smear and culture. Fourteen had a positive culture for MTB. Among theses samples, smear was positive in 11 cases (78.6%) and TRC process was positive in 8 cases (57.1%). Overall sensitivity of TRC compared to smear positive samples is 73%. Theses first results demonstrated that a rapid identification of MTB was possible (less than 2 processing hours for 14 specimens and about 1 hour for 1 specimen) in most cases of smear positive samples using ready to use reagents for real time detection of MTB rRNA in clinical samples. New pretreatment and extraction reagents kits to increase the stability of the sputum RNA and the extraction efficiency are now tested in our laboratory.
Ji, Lei; Long, Quanxin; Yang, Dacheng; Xie, Jianping
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains one of the most significant human pathogens since its discovery in 1882. An estimated 1.5 million people died from tubercle bacillus (TB) in 2006, and globally, there were an estimated 9.27 million incident cases of TB in 2007. Glyoxylate bypass pathway occurs in a wide range of pathogens and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isocitrate lyase (ICL) can catalyses the first step of this pathway, and reversibly cleaves isocitrate into succinate and glyoxylate. So, ICL may represent a good drug target for the treatment of tuberculosis. ICL was cloned, expressed, and purified, and a high-throughput screen (HTS) developed to screen active molecule from a mannich base compounds library for inhibition of ICL. This assay had signal to noise (S/N) of 650.6990 and Z' factor of 0.8141, indicating that the assay was suitable for HTS. Screening of a collection of 124 mannich base compounds resulted in the identification of one mannich base compound, which has a significant inhibitory activity. So, a new family of compound was first reported to inhibit the activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ICL. This family of compound might offer new avenue to explore better anti-tuberculosis and fungi drugs. PMID:21494431
Bertholet, Sylvie; Ireton, Gregory C; Kahn, Maria; Guderian, Jeffrey; Mohamath, Raodoh; Stride, Nicole; Laughlin, Elsa M.; Baldwin, Susan L.; Vedvick, Thomas S.; Coler, Rhea N.; Reed, Steven G.
Development of a subunit vaccine for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on the identification of antigens that induce appropriate T cell responses. Using bioinformatics, we selected a panel of 94 Mtb genes based on criteria which included growth in macrophages, up- or down-regulation under hypoxic conditions, secretion, membrane association, or because they were members of the PE/PPE or EsX families. Recombinant proteins encoded by these genes were evaluated for IFN-γ recall responses using PBMC from healthy subjects previously exposed to Mtb. From this screen, dominant human T-cell antigens were identified and 49 of these proteins, formulated in CpG, were evaluated as vaccine candidates in a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB). Eighteen of the individual antigens conferred partial protection against challenge with virulent Mtb. A combination of three of these antigens further increased protection against Mtb to levels comparable to those achieved with BCG vaccination. Vaccine candidates that led to reduction in lung bacterial burden following challenge induced pluripotent CD4 and CD8 T cells, including TH1 cell responses characterized by elevated levels of antigen-specific IgG2c, IFN-γ and TNF. Priority vaccine antigens elicited pluripotent CD4 and CD8 T responses in PPD+ donor PBMC. This study identified numerous novel human T cell antigens suitable to be included in subunit vaccines against TB. PMID:19017986
Warner, Digby F.
Metabolism underpins the physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, although experimental mycobacteriology has provided key insights into the metabolic pathways that are essential for survival and pathogenesis, determining the metabolic status of bacilli during different stages of infection and in different cellular compartments remains challenging. Recent advances—in particular, the development of systems biology tools such as metabolomics—have enabled key insights into the biochemical state of M. tuberculosis in experimental models of infection. In addition, their use to elucidate mechanisms of action of new and existing antituberculosis drugs is critical for the development of improved interventions to counter tuberculosis. This review provides a broad summary of mycobacterial metabolism, highlighting the adaptation of M. tuberculosis as specialist human pathogen, and discusses recent insights into the strategies used by the host and infecting bacillus to influence the outcomes of the host–pathogen interaction through modulation of metabolic functions. PMID:25502746
Salo, W L; Aufderheide, A C; Buikstra, J; Holcomb, T A
The existence of tuberculosis in the pre-Columbian Americas is controversial because the morphology of the lesion is not specific, the organism is culturally nonviable in ancient tissues, and nonpathogenic soil mycobacteria can contaminate buried bodies. We report the recovery of DNA unique to Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a lung lesion of a spontaneously mummified, 1000-year-old adult female body in southern Peru. This provides the most specific evidence possible for the pre-Columbian presence of human tuberculosis in the New World. Images PMID:8134354
Ioerger, Thomas R.; O’Malley, Theresa; Liao, Reiling; Guinn, Kristine M.; Hickey, Mark J.; Mohaideen, Nilofar; Murphy, Kenan C.; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Rubin, Eric J.; Sassetti, Christopher M.; Barry, Clifton E.; Sherman, David R.; Parish, Tanya; Sacchettini, James C.
Identification of new drug targets is vital for the advancement of drug discovery against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, especially given the increase of resistance worldwide to first- and second-line drugs. Because traditional target-based screening has largely proven unsuccessful for antibiotic discovery, we have developed a scalable platform for target identification in M. tuberculosis that is based on whole-cell screening, coupled with whole-genome sequencing of resistant mutants and recombineering to confirm. The method yields targets paired with whole-cell active compounds, which can serve as novel scaffolds for drug development, molecular tools for validation, and/or as ligands for co-crystallization. It may also reveal other information about mechanisms of action, such as activation or efflux. Using this method, we identified resistance-linked genes for eight compounds with anti-tubercular activity. Four of the genes have previously been shown to be essential: AspS, aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, Pks13, a polyketide synthase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis, MmpL3, a membrane transporter, and EccB3, a component of the ESX-3 type VII secretion system. AspS and Pks13 represent novel targets in protein translation and cell-wall biosynthesis. Both MmpL3 and EccB3 are involved in membrane transport. Pks13, AspS, and EccB3 represent novel candidates not targeted by existing TB drugs, and the availability of whole-cell active inhibitors greatly increases their potential for drug discovery. PMID:24086479
Magdalena, Juana; Vachée, Anne; Supply, Philip; Locht, Camille
The successful use of DNA amplification for the detection of tuberculous mycobacteria crucially depends on the choice of the target sequence, which ideally should be present in all tuberculous mycobacteria and absent from all other bacteria. In the present study we developed a PCR procedure based on the intergenic region (IR) separating two genes encoding a recently identified mycobacterial two-component system named SenX3-RegX3. The senX3-regX3 IR is composed of a novel type of repetitive sequence, called mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs). In a survey of 116 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains characterized by different IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 2 Mycobacterium africanum strains, 3 Mycobacterium bovis strains (including 2 BCG strains), and 1 Mycobacterium microti strain, a specific PCR fragment was amplified in all cases. This collection included M. tuberculosis strains that lack IS6110 or mtp40, two target sequences that have previously been used for the detection of M. tuberculosis. No PCR fragment was amplified when DNA from other organisms was used, giving a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in the confidence limit of this study. The numbers of MIRUs were found to vary among strains, resulting in six different groups of strains on the basis of the size of the amplified PCR fragment. However, the vast majority of the strains (approximately 90%) fell within the same group, containing two 77-bp MIRUs followed by one 53-bp MIRU. PMID:9542912
Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Rezaei Yazdi, Hadi; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid
Rapid and accurate identification of mycobacteria isolates from primary culture is important due to timely and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Conventional methods for identification of Mycobacterium species based on biochemical tests needs several weeks and may remain inconclusive. In this study, a novel multiplex real-time PCR was developed for rapid identification of Mycobacterium genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and the most common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria species including M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and the M. gordonae in three reaction tubes but under same PCR condition. Genetic targets for primer designing included the 16S rDNA gene, the dnaJ gene, the gyrB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Multiplex real-time PCR was setup with reference Mycobacterium strains and was subsequently tested with 66 clinical isolates. Results of multiplex real-time PCR were analyzed with melting curves and melting temperature (T (m)) of Mycobacterium genus, MTC, and each of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species were determined. Multiplex real-time PCR results were compared with amplification and sequencing of 16S-23S rDNA ITS for identification of Mycobacterium species. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primers were each 100 % for MTC, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primer for genus Mycobacterium was 96 and 100 %, respectively. According to the obtained results, we conclude that this multiplex real-time PCR with melting curve analysis and these novel primers can be used for rapid and accurate identification of genus Mycobacterium, MTC, and the most common non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species.
Qiu, Juanjuan; Zang, Shizhu; Ma, Yufang; Owusu, Lawrence; Zhou, Lei; Jiang, Tao; Xin, Yi
Serine acetyltransferase (CysE) belongs to the hexapeptide acetyltransferase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of L‑cysteine in microorganisms. Mycobacterium tuberculosis CysE is regarded as a potential target for anti‑tuberculosis (TB) drugs; however, the structure and active sites of M. tuberculosis CysE remain unknown. The present study aimed to predict the secondary structure and to construct a 3D model for M. tuberculosis CysE using bioinformatics analysis. To determine the essential amino acids that are associated with CysE enzymatic activity, amino acid sequences from several microorganisms were compared, and a consensus sequence was identified. Subsequently, site‑directed mutagenesis was used to generate mutant M. tuberculosis CysE proteins. Enzyme assays demonstrated that D67A, H82A and H117A mutants abolished ~75% activity of M. tuberculosis CysE. Prediction of the protein structure and identification of the active amino acids for M. tuberculosis CysE is essential for designing inhibitors, which may aid the discovery of effective anti‑TB drugs.
Srinivasan, Lalitha; Gurses, Serdar A.; Hurley, Benjamin E.; Miller, Jessica L.; Karakousis, Petros C.; Briken, Volker
The interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with host cell death signaling pathways is characterized by an initial anti-apoptotic phase followed by a pro-necrotic phase to allow for host cell exit of the bacteria. The bacterial modulators regulating necrosis induction are poorly understood. Here we describe the identification of a transcriptional repressor, Rv3167c responsible for regulating the escape of Mtb from the phagosome. Increased cytosolic localization of MtbΔRv3167c was accompanied by elevated levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and reduced activation of the protein kinase Akt, and these events were critical for the induction of host cell necrosis and macroautophagy. The increase in necrosis led to an increase in bacterial virulence as reflected in higher bacterial burden and reduced survival of mice infected with MtbΔRv3167c. The regulon of Rv3167c thus contains the bacterial mediators involved in escape from the phagosome and host cell necrosis induction, both of which are crucial steps in the intracellular lifecycle and virulence of Mtb. PMID:27191591
Yam, Wing-Cheong; Siu, Kit-Hang Gilman
Recent advances in molecular biology and better understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance have allowed rapid identification of mycobacteria and rapid detection of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in cultured isolates or in respiratory specimens. In this chapter, several simple nucleic acid amplification-based techniques are introduced as molecular approach for clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis. A one-tube nested IS6110-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used for M. tuberculosis complex identification; the use of a multiplex allele-specific PCR is demonstrated to detect the isoniazid resistance; PCR-sequencing assays are applied for rifampicin and ofloxacin resistance detection and 16S rDNA sequencing is utilized for identification of mycobacterial species from cultures of acid fast bacilli (AFB). Despite the high specificity and sensitivity of the molecular techniques, mycobacterial culture remains the "Gold Standard" for tuberculosis diagnosis. Negative results of molecular tests never preclude the infection or the presence of drug resistance. These technological advancements are, therefore, not intended to replace the conventional tests, but rather have major complementary roles in tuberculosis diagnosis.
Deng, Lingyi Lynn; Humphries, Donald E; Arbeit, Robert D; Carlton, Laura E; Smole, Sandra C; Carroll, J David
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major global pathogen whose threat has increased with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. The cell wall of M. tuberculosis is thick, rigid, and hydrophobic, which serves to protect the organism from the environment and makes it highly impermeable to conventional antimicrobial agents. There is little known about cell wall autolysins (also referred to as peptidoglycan hydrolases) of mycobacteria. We identified an open reading frame (Rv3915) in the M. tuberculosis genome designated cwlM that appeared consistent with a peptidoglycan hydrolase. The 1218-bp gene was amplified by PCR, cloned and expressed in E. coli strain HMS174(DE-3), and its gene product, a 47-kDa recombinant protein, was purified and partially characterized. Purified CwlM was able to lyse whole mycobacteria, release peptidoglycan from the cell wall of Micrococcus luteus and Mycobacterium smegmatis, and cleave N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, releasing free N-acetylmuramic acid. These results indicate that CwlM is a novel autolysin and identify cwlM as the first, to our knowledge, autolysin gene identified and cloned from M. tuberculosis. CwlM offers a new target for a unique class of drugs that could alter the permeability of the mycobacterial cell wall and enhance the effectiveness of treatments for tuberculosis.
Flores-Treviño, Samantha; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; González-Díaz, Esteban; Pérez-Gómez, Héctor R; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Garza-González, Elvira
Determining the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains allows identification of the distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes responsible for tuberculosis in different regions. Several studies have reported the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in Mexico, but little information is available from the state of Jalisco. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Western Mexico. Sixty-eight M. tuberculosis isolates were tested for susceptibility to first-line drugs using manual Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube method and genotyped using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern analyses. Forty-seven (69.1%) isolates were grouped into 10 clusters and 21 isolates displayed single patterns by spoligotyping. Three of the 21 single patterns corresponded to orphan patterns in the SITVITWEB database, and 1 new type that contained 2 isolates was created. The most prevalent lineages were T (38.2%), Haarlem (17.7%), LAM (17.7%), X (7.4%), S (5.9%), EAI (1.5%) and Beijing (1.5%). Six (12.8%) of the clustered isolates were MDR, and type 406 of the Beijing family was among the MDR isolates. Seventeen (26.2%) isolates were grouped into 8 clusters and 48 isolates displayed single patterns by IS6110-RFLP. Combination of IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping reduced the clustering rate to 20.0%. The results show that T, Haarlem, and LAM are predominant lineages among clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis in Guadalajara, Mexico. Clustering rates indicated low transmission of MDR strains. We detected a rare Beijing genotype, SIT406, which was a highly resistant strain. This is the first report of this Beijing genotype in Latin America.
Flores-Treviño, Samantha; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; González-Díaz, Esteban; Pérez-Gómez, Héctor R.; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Garza-González, Elvira
Determining the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains allows identification of the distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes responsible for tuberculosis in different regions. Several studies have reported the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in Mexico, but little information is available from the state of Jalisco. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Western Mexico. Sixty-eight M. tuberculosis isolates were tested for susceptibility to first-line drugs using manual Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube method and genotyped using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern analyses. Forty-seven (69.1%) isolates were grouped into 10 clusters and 21 isolates displayed single patterns by spoligotyping. Three of the 21 single patterns corresponded to orphan patterns in the SITVITWEB database, and 1 new type that contained 2 isolates was created. The most prevalent lineages were T (38.2%), Haarlem (17.7%), LAM (17.7%), X (7.4%), S (5.9%), EAI (1.5%) and Beijing (1.5%). Six (12.8%) of the clustered isolates were MDR, and type 406 of the Beijing family was among the MDR isolates. Seventeen (26.2%) isolates were grouped into 8 clusters and 48 isolates displayed single patterns by IS6110-RFLP. Combination of IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping reduced the clustering rate to 20.0%. The results show that T, Haarlem, and LAM are predominant lineages among clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis in Guadalajara, Mexico. Clustering rates indicated low transmission of MDR strains. We detected a rare Beijing genotype, SIT406, which was a highly resistant strain. This is the first report of this Beijing genotype in Latin America. PMID:25695431
Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Malekshahian, Donya; Farahbod, Amir Masoud; Seif, Shima; Rahideh, Snaz
BACKGROUND: The potential role of environmental Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the epidemiology of TB remains unknown. We investigated the transmission of M tuberculosis from humans to the environment and the possible transmission of M tuberculosis from the environment to humans. METHODS: A total of 1,500 samples were collected from three counties of the Tehran, Iran metropolitan area from February 2012 to January 2014. A total of 700 water samples (47%) and 800 soil samples (53%) were collected. Spoligotyping and the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats typing method were performed on DNA extracted from single colonies. Genotypes of M tuberculosis strains isolated from the environment were compared with the genotypes obtained from 55 patients with confirmed pulmonary TB diagnosed during the study period in the same three counties. RESULTS: M tuberculosis was isolated from 11 of 800 soil samples (1%) and 71 of 700 water samples (10%). T family (56 of 82, 68%) followed by Delhi/CAS (11 of 82, 13.4%) were the most frequent M tuberculosis superfamilies in both water and soil samples. Overall, 27.7% of isolates in clusters were related. No related typing patterns were detected between soil, water, and clinical isolates. The most frequent superfamily of M tuberculosis in clinical isolates was Delhi/CAS (142, 30.3%) followed by NEW-1 (127, 27%). The bacilli in contaminated soil (36%) and damp water (8.4%) remained reculturable in some samples up to 9 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although the dominant M tuberculosis superfamilies in soil and water did not correspond to the dominant M tuberculosis family in patients, the presence of circulating genotypes of M tuberculosis in soil and water highlight the risk of transmission. PMID:25340935
Şamlı, Asuman; İlki, Arzu
Mycobacteria are an important cause of morbidity in humans. Rapid and accurate mycobacterial identification is important for improving patient outcomes. However, identification of Mycobacterium species is not easy, due to the slow and fastidious growth of mycobacteria. Recently, biochemical, sequencing, and probing methods have come to be used for identification. This study compared the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of M.tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria (NTM) to those of nucleic acid hybridization (NAH) and the MPT64 immunochromatographic test. A total of 69 isolates from Marmara University Hospital, Microbiology Laboratory obtained between 2012 and 2013 were included in our study. All strains were grown on Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H9 medium. Among the 69 isolates, 56 (81%) were isolated as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), and 13 (19%) were isolated as NTM by the MPT64 ICT. NAH was able to identify all isolates to the species level. The isolated NTM included M. intracellulare (n:5), M. lentiflavum (n:3), M. xenopi (n:2), M. malmoense (n:1), M. abscessus (n:1), and M. avium (n:1). MALDI-TOF MS identified 88% of the mycobacterial isolates. All M. tuberculosis strains were identified correctly, but the ratio was 38.5% for NTM. Mycobacterial identification using MALDI-TOF MS takes 45 minutes and costs 3 Euro/test, whereas mycobacterial identification using NAH takes 6-7 hours and costs 30 Euro/test. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS has the potential to identify mycobacteria in the clinical laboratory setting by reducing identification turnaround time and laboratory costs for isolate referral.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. microti, and M. africanum. Seven strains of the M. tuberculosis complex were sequenced in a region of about 300 bp which contains multiple 15-bp tandem repeats and which is part of a 1,551-bp open reading frame. Four distinct sequences were obtained, each defining a sequevar. A sequevar includes the strain or strains with a given sequence. The type strain M. tuberculosis TMC 102 (H37Rv) was designated sequevar MED-G. When compared to MED-G, sequevar LONG had an insertion of one 15-bp tandem repeat and sequevar SHORT had a deletion of one tandem repeat. Sequevar MED-C had a G-->C substitution, coding for the conservative change Ser-->Thr. BanI cuts only sequevar MED-C at the site of the substitution. PCR-restriction enzyme analysis was used to determine the sequevars of 92 M. tuberculosis complex strains. All 23 M. bovis BCG strains belonged to sequevar MED-C. The M. africanum type strain was sequevar SHORT. The remaining 68 strains of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis (not BCG), and M. microti were sequevars LONG (3 strains) or MED-G (65 strains). PCR-restriction enzyme analysis was applied to reference strains and clinical isolates with a worldwide distribution. This method provides rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of the important vaccine strain M. bovis BCG. PMID:7790448
Hernández Solis, Alejandro; Herrera González, Norma Estela; Cazarez, Fernando; Mercadillo Pérez, Patricia; Olivera Diaz, Hiram Olivera; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Cortés Ortíz, Ileana; González González, Heleodora; Reding-Bernal, Arturo; Sabido, Raúl Cícero
The present study aimed to establish the frequency and clinical characteristics of cutaneous tuberculosis among Mexican adult patients. Ninety-five patients with clinically compatible lesions to cutaneous tuberculosis participated in the study. All patients were HIV negative and none of them had previous anti-TB treatment. A skin biopsy was taken from every patient suspected of having tuberculosis, and a histopathologic examination was performed as follows: Ziehl-Neelsen staining; culturing of mycobacteria by Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium; Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube detection via BACTEC (MGIT-360); and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the sequence of insertion IS6110 for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Tuberculosis was confirmed in 65 out of 95 cases (68.4%). Identified lesions were scrofuloderma (42 cases, 64.6%); lupus vulgaris (12 cases, 18.4%); warty tuberculosis (six cases, 9.2%); and papulonecrotic tuberculoid (five cases; 7.7%). The Ziehl-Neelsen staining was positive for acid fast bacilli in nine cases (13.8%) and 48 patients were positive for the PCR amplification (73.8%). All skin biopsies resulted positive for tuberculosis. A positive clinical response to the specific treatment was considered a confirmation for tuberculosis. The noninfectious etiology corresponded to 30 cases (31.6%). Tuberculosis in developing countries is still an important cause of skin lesions which must be studied via histopathological examination and culture due to their low bacillary load. A PCR test is necessary to obtain faster confirmation of the disease and to establish an early, specific and effective treatment.
Cui, Ze-Jia; Yang, Qing-Yong; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Ye
Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Due to the extensive use of anti-tuberculosis drugs and the development of mutations, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is recognized as one of the most dangerous threats to global tuberculosis control. Some single mutations have been identified to be significantly linked with drug resistance. However, the prior research did not take gene-gene interactions into account, and the emergence of transmissible drug resistance is connected with multiple genetic mutations. In this study we use the bioinformatics software GBOOST (The Hong Kong University, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China) to calculate the interactions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) pairs and identify gene pairs associated with drug resistance. A large part of the non-synonymous mutations in the drug target genes that were included in the screened gene pairs were confirmed by previous reports, which lent sound solid credits to the effectiveness of our method. Notably, most of the identified gene pairs containing drug targets also comprise Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) family proteins, suggesting that PPE family proteins play important roles in the drug resistance of Mtb. Therefore, this study provides deeper insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, and the present method is useful for exploring the drug resistance mechanisms for other microorganisms.
Shin, S J; Kim, S-Y; Shin, A-R; Kim, H-J; Cho, S-N; Park, J-K
Novel immunogenic antigens are continually required for the improvement of diagnostic techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Some proteins with serodiagnostic value are not expressed under normal culture conditions, but may be induced under specific conditions such as gradual oxygen depletion and low pH, and from inside macrophages. Using a customized amplification library, we previously found that Rv2041c from M. tuberculosis H37Rv was highly expressed in vitro under conditions of low pH and hypoxia. In this study, recombinant (r)Rv2041c was produced in Escherichia coli to examine its role in immune responses. Increased Rv2041c expression in vitro during dormancy and during infection in human macrophages was confirmed by Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Interestingly, positive antibody responses to rRv2041c were detected only in those patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and in mice infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Finally, Rv2041c was used successfully in the serodiagnosis of active M. tuberculosis infection in Korean patients in conjunction with other M. tuberculosis proteins, including Ag85 complex, 38 kDa, rESAT-6, rHSP-X and rCFP-10. Our Rv2041c-ELISA had comparable diagnostic sensitivity and equivalent specificity to the use of an M. tuberculosis H37Rv cellular extract. In addition, seven of 46 serum samples collected from TB patients (15.28%) showed positive antibody responses to Rv2041c, but not to the other proteins. These results suggest that Rv2041c can be used to increase assay sensitivity alongside well-known antigens for the serodiagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection.
Rehman, Ajijur; Akhtar, Salman; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Sayeed, Usman; Ahmad, Syed Sayeed; Arif, Jamal M.; Khan, M. Kalim A.
4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is an important enzyme needed for the biosynthesis of lysine and many more key metabolites in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Inhibition of DHDPS is supposed to a promising therapeutic target due to its specific role in sporulation, cross-linking of the peptidiglycan polymers and biosynthesis of amino acids. In this work, a known inhibitor-based similarity search was carried out against a natural products database (Super Natural II) towards identification of more potent phyto-inhibitors. Molecular interaction studies were accomplished using three different tools to understand and establish the participation of active site residues as the key players in stabilizing the binding mode of ligands and target protein. The best phyto-compound deduced on the basis of binding affinity was further used as a template to make similarity scan across the PubChem Compound database (score > = 80 %) to get more divesred leads. In this search 5098 hits were obtained that further reduced to 262 after drug-likeness filtration. These phytochemicallike compounds were docked at the active site of DHDPS.Then, those hits selected from docking analysis that showing stronger binding and forming maximum H-bonds with the active site residues (Thr54, Thr55, Tyr143, Arg148 and Lys171). Finally, we predicted one phytochemical compound (SN00003544), two PubChem-compounds (CID41032023, CID54025334) akin to phytochemical molecule showing better interactions in comaprison of known inhibitors of target protein.These findings might be further useful to gain the structural insight into the designing of novel leads against DapA family. PMID:28293071
George, K M; Yuan, Y; Sherman, D R; Barry, C E
The major mycolic acid produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains two cis-cyclopropanes in the meromycolate chain. The gene whose product cyclopropanates the proximal double bond was cloned by homology to a putative cyclopropane synthase identified from the Mycobacterium leprae genome sequencing project. This gene, named cma2, was sequenced and found to be 52% identical to cma1 (which cyclopropanates the distal double bond) and 73% identical to the gene from M. leprae. Both cma genes were found to be restricted in distribution to pathogenic species of mycobacteria. Expression of cma2 in Mycobacterium smegmatis resulted in the cyclopropanation of the proximal double bond in the alpha 1 series of mycolic acids. Coexpression of both cyclopropane synthases resulted in cyclopropanation of both centers, producing a molecule structurally similar to the M. tuberculosis alpha-dicyclopropyl mycolates. Differential scanning calorimetry of purified cell walls and mycolic acids demonstrated that cyclopropanation of the proximal position raised the observed transition temperature by 3 degrees C. These results suggest that cyclopropanation contributes to the structural integrity of the cell wall complex.
Srivastava, Vikas; Rouanet, Carine; Srivastava, Ranjana; Ramalingam, B; Locht, Camille; Srivastava, Brahm S
Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives and multiplies inside macrophages of its host by modulating the expression of several genes essential for in vivo survival. An in vivo expression system has been developed, based on green fluorescent protein and kanamycin resistance, to identify M. tuberculosis genes which appear to be up-regulated in infected macrophages. A promoter-trap shuttle vector, pLL192, was constructed, containing a streptomycin resistance gene as selection marker and an artificial bicistronic operon composed of the promoterless green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene, followed by the kanamycin resistance gene. A unique BamHI site upstream of the gfp gene allowed for insertion of promoter libraries. The vector was validated by the use of known regulated or constitutive M. tuberculosis promoters. In addition, an M. tuberculosis genomic DNA library was inserted into pLL192 and then introduced into Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The recombinant BCG cells were then used to infect the J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cell line in the presence of kanamycin. Several recombinant BCG cells were thereby selected that were resistant to kanamycin within infected macrophages, but were sensitive to kanamycin when grown in vitro. The kanamycin resistance phenotype was paralleled by the fluorescence phenotype. After nucleotide sequencing, the corresponding genes were identified as mce1A, PE_PGRS63(RV3097c), Rv2232, Rv1026, Rv1635c, viuB, Rv2231(cobC) and Rv0997. Real-time PCR analysis using RNA isolated at various time points from M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG grown in vitro and within macrophages, confirmed the up-regulation of these genes. The level of up-regulation varied from 2- to 40-fold in macrophages compared to growth in vitro.
Alokam, Reshma; Jeankumar, Variam Ullas; Sridevi, Jonnalagadda Padma; Matikonda, Siddharth Sai; Peddi, Santosh; Alvala, Mallika; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan
In the present study, we identified carvacrol, a major phenolic component of oregano oil as a novel small molecule inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) chorismate mutase (CM) enzyme with IC50 of 1.06 ± 0.4 µM. Virtual screening of the BITS-Pilani in-house database using the crystal structure of the MTB CM bound transition state intermediate (PDB: 2FP2) as framework identified carvacrol as a potential lead. Further various carvacrol derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit MTB CM enzyme, whole cell MTB and cytotoxicity as steps toward the derivation of structure-activity relationships (SAR) and lead optimization.
Simithy, Johayra; Reeve, Nathaniel; Hobrath, Judith V; Reynolds, Robert C; Calderón, Angela I
Increasing drug resistance has challenged the control and treatment of tuberculosis, sparking recent interest in finding new antitubercular agents with different chemical scaffolds and mechanisms of action. Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (MtSK), an enzyme present in the shikimate pathway in bacteria, is essential for the survival of the tubercle bacillus, representing an ideal target for therapeutic intervention given its absence in mammals. In this study, a small library of 404 synthetic antimycobacterial compounds identified and supplied through the NIH Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility (TAACF) high throughput screening program against whole cell M. tuberculosis H37Rv was further screened using a mass spectrometry-based functional assay in order to identify a potential enzymatic target. Fourteen compounds containing an oxadiazole-amide or a 2-aminobenzothiazole core scaffold showed MtSK inhibitory activity at 50 μM, with the lowest giving an IC50 of 1.94 μM. Induced fit docking studies suggested that the scaffolds shared by these compounds fit well in the shikimate binding pocket of MtSK. In summary, we report new early discovery stage lead scaffolds targeting the essential protein MtSK that can be further pursued in a rational drug design program for the discovery of more selective antitubercular drugs.
Lau, Susanna K P; Lam, Ching-Wan; Curreem, Shirly O T; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lau, Candy C Y; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Ngan, Antonio H Y; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Hung, Ivan F N; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y
Although previous studies have reported the use of metabolomics for Mycobacterium species differentiation, little is known about the potential of extracellular metabolites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as specific biomarkers. Using an optimized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) platform, we characterized the extracellular metabolomes of culture supernatant of nine MTB strains and nine non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) strains (four M. avium complex, one M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), one M. chelonae, one M. fortuitum and two M. kansasii). Principal component analysis readily distinguished the metabolomes between MTB and NTM. Using multivariate and univariate analysis, 24 metabolites with significantly higher levels in MTB were identified. While seven metabolites were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), the other 17 metabolites were unidentified by MS/MS against database matching, suggesting that they may be potentially novel compounds. One metabolite was identified as dexpanthenol, the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), which was not known to be produced by bacteria previously. Four metabolites were identified as 1-tuberculosinyladenosine (1-TbAd), a product of the virulence-associated enzyme Rv3378c, and three previously undescribed derivatives of 1-TbAd. Two derivatives differ from 1-TbAd by the ribose group of the nucleoside while the other likely differs by the base. The remaining two metabolites were identified as a tetrapeptide, Val-His-Glu-His, and a monoacylglycerophosphoglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) (16∶0/0∶0), respectively. Further studies on the chemical structure and biosynthetic pathway of these MTB-specific metabolites would help understand their biological functions. Studies on clinical samples from tuberculosis patients are required to explore for their potential role as diagnostic biomarkers.
Lau, Susanna KP; Lam, Ching-Wan; Curreem, Shirly OT; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lau, Candy CY; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Ngan, Antonio HY; To, Kelvin KW; Chan, Jasper FW; Hung, Ivan FN; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY
Although previous studies have reported the use of metabolomics for Mycobacterium species differentiation, little is known about the potential of extracellular metabolites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as specific biomarkers. Using an optimized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–quadruple time of flight–mass spectrometry (UHPLC–ESI–Q–TOF–MS) platform, we characterized the extracellular metabolomes of culture supernatant of nine MTB strains and nine non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) strains (four M. avium complex, one M. bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), one M. chelonae, one M. fortuitum and two M. kansasii). Principal component analysis readily distinguished the metabolomes between MTB and NTM. Using multivariate and univariate analysis, 24 metabolites with significantly higher levels in MTB were identified. While seven metabolites were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), the other 17 metabolites were unidentified by MS/MS against database matching, suggesting that they may be potentially novel compounds. One metabolite was identified as dexpanthenol, the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), which was not known to be produced by bacteria previously. Four metabolites were identified as 1-tuberculosinyladenosine (1-TbAd), a product of the virulence-associated enzyme Rv3378c, and three previously undescribed derivatives of 1-TbAd. Two derivatives differ from 1-TbAd by the ribose group of the nucleoside while the other likely differs by the base. The remaining two metabolites were identified as a tetrapeptide, Val-His-Glu-His, and a monoacylglycerophosphoglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) (16∶0/0∶0), respectively. Further studies on the chemical structure and biosynthetic pathway of these MTB-specific metabolites would help understand their biological functions. Studies on clinical samples from tuberculosis patients are required to explore for their potential role as diagnostic
Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Boyle, David S.; Ingham, Zachary K.; Ostash, Alla; Gautom, Romesh K.; Colombel, Craig; Houze, Yolanda
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health problem for which rapid diagnosis is critical to both treatment and control. This report describes a multiplex PCR method, the Mycobacterial IDentification and Drug Resistance Screen (MID-DRS) assay, which allows identification of members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the simultaneous amplification of targets for sequencing-based drug resistance screening of rifampin-resistant (rifampinr), isoniazidr, and pyrazinamider TB. Additionally, the same multiplex reaction amplifies a specific 16S rRNA gene target for rapid identification of M. avium complex (MAC) and a region of the heat shock protein 65 gene (hsp65) for further DNA sequencing-based confirmation or identification of other mycobacterial species. Comparison of preliminary results generated with MID-DRS versus culture-based methods for a total of 188 bacterial isolates demonstrated MID-DRS sensitivity and specificity as 100% and 96.8% for MTBC identification; 100% and 98.3% for MAC identification; 97.4% and 98.7% for rifampinr TB identification; 60.6% and 100% for isoniazidr TB identification; and 75.0% and 98.1% for pyrazinamider TB identification. The performance of the MID-DRS was also tested on acid-fast-bacterium (AFB)-positive clinical specimens, resulting in sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 78.6% for detection of MTBC and 100% and 97.8% for detection of MAC. In conclusion, use of the MID-DRS reduces the time necessary for initial identification and drug resistance screening of TB specimens to as little as 2 days. Since all targets needed for completing the assay are included in a single PCR amplification step, assay costs, preparation time, and risks due to user errors are also reduced. PMID:22162548
West, Nicholas P.; Chow, Frances M. E.; Randall, Elizabeth J.; Wu, Jing; Chen, Jian; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Britton, Warwick J.
Discovery and characterization of novel secreted enzymes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are important for understanding the pathogenesis of one of the most important human bacterial pathogens. The proteome of M. tuberculosis contains over 400 potentially secreted proteins, the majority of which are uncharacterized. A family of seven cutinase-like proteins (CULPs) was identified by bioinformatic analysis, expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and characterized in terms of their enzymatic activities. These studies revealed a functional diversity of enzyme classes based on differential preferences for substrate chain length. One member, Culp1, exhibited strong esterase activity, 40-fold higher than that of Culp6, which had strong activity as a lipase. Another, Culp4, performed moderately as an esterase and weakly as a lipase. Culp6 lipase activity was optimal above pH 7.0, and fully maintained to pH 8.5. None of the CULP members exhibited cutinase activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of each residue of the putative catalytic triad in Culp6 confirmed that each was essential for activity toward all fatty acid chain lengths of nitrophenyl esters and lipolytic function. Culp1 and Culp2 were present only in culture supernatants of M. tuberculosis, while Culp6, which is putatively essential for mycobacterial growth, was retained in the cell wall, suggesting the proteins play distinct roles in mycobacterial biology.—West, N. P., Chow, F. M. E., Randall, E. J., Wu, J., Chen, J., Ribeiro, J. M. C., Britton, W. J. Cutinase-like proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: characterization of their variable enzymatic functions and active site identification. PMID:19225166
Wang, X X; Chen, X; Li, Y Q; Xiao, T Y; Jiang, Y; Li, M C; Liu, H C; Wan, K L
Objective: To investigate the human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis Rv0585c protein antigen and their immunogenicity and provide evidence for the development of specific tuberculosis immune diagnostic techniques and tuberculosis vaccine. Methods: We synthesized peptides from M. tuberculosis Rv0585c protein antigen predicted by TE-predict and IEDB human T cell epitope prediction tool. The cellular immunoreactivity of the predicted peptides was evaluated through ELISpot assay with the peripheral blood monouclear cells (PBMC) of clinical tuberculosis patients. In animal experiments, BALB/c mice were respectively immunized with high dose (100 μg/mice) and low dose (50 μg/mice) of the peptides of Rv0585c, at the same time, high dose (50 μg/mice) and low dose (20 μg/mice) of Ag85B protein were used in positive control group. The levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 were tested with ELISA kit respectively. Results: By means of bioinformatics technique, 66 human T cell epitopes of Rv0585c were predicted, from which9 peptides concentrated epitopes were synthesized for the animal immune experiments. Peptides P10110, P10112 and P10117 were confirmed to be antigenic. The sensitivity and specificity of P10110, P10112 and P10117 were 14.00%, 12.00%, 6.00% and 100.00%, 100.00%, 97.96% respectively when they were used as diagnostic reagents of tuberculosis. The sensitivity and specificity were 22.00% and 97.96% when the epitopes were combined together. The results of animal immunity test showed that high levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 were induced by high and low dose of P10110, and high levels of IFN-γ、IL-2 and IL-10 were induced by high and low dose of P10112, which were much higher than that in negative controls, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion: Rv0585c, including its human T cell epitopes, has good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity, stimulating the body to produce a stronger cellular immune response and has better potential
Rios-Sarabia, Nora; Hernández-González, Olivia; González-Y-Merchand, Jorge; Gordillo, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Muñoz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Torres, Javier; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis; MT) and it is very difficult to diagnose. The symptoms are similar to other infectious neurological diseases, such as neurocysticercosis, neuroborreliosis, or herpes viral infection. The aim of this study was to identify tuberculosis (TB) in cases of meningitis with clinical and laboratory evidence suggestive of TBM, and to confirm our findings with molecular tests for TB infection. We recruited patients with neurological symptoms who were examined at the neurology services of Hospitals of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Mexico City. A total of 144 consecutive patients with suggestive infectious meningitis were initially included; 94 cases of meningitis with clinical and laboratory evidence suggestive of TBM were included, but only 50 of these cases fulfilled the criteria for probable TBM. As the controls, we included 50 cases of meningitis with clinical and laboratory evidence suggestive of non-TBM. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from all 100 patients (cases and controls) and tested for TB by multiplex and nested PCR analyses. Nested PCR detected 0.1 fg of M. tuberculosis DNA. TB infection was confirmed with molecular tests in 49 patients from the 50 cases suggestive of TBM and in 1 of the 50 non-TBM cases. The analysis exhibited a sensitivity of 98.0%, a specificity of 92.0%, a positive predictive value of 88.0% and a negative predictive value of 98.0%. The use CSF for the analyses proved to be effective for the rapid diagnosis of TBM using a developed system of multiplex and nested PCR analyses in patients presenting neurological symptoms.
Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila T; Stryhn, Anette; Justesen, Sune; Larsen, Mette V; Dziegiel, Morten H; Lewinsohn, David M; Buus, Søren; Lund, Ole; Claesson, Mogens H
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide-based vaccines. In the present work, bioinformatics technology was employed to predict binding motifs of 9mer peptides derived from M. tuberculosis for the 12 HLA-I supertypes. Subsequently, the predicted peptides were synthesized and assayed for binding to HLA-I molecules in a biochemically based system. The antigenicity of a total of 157 peptides with measured affinity for HLA-I molecules of K(D) ≤ 500 nM were evaluated using peripheral blood T cells from strongly purified protein derivative reactive healthy donors. Of the 157 peptides, eight peptides (5%) were found to induce T-cell responses. As judged from blocking with HLA class I and II subtype antibodies in the ELISPOT assay culture, none of the eight antigenic peptides induced HLA class I restricted CD8(+) T-cell responses. Instead all responses were blocked by pan-HLA class II and anti-HLA-DR antibodies. In addition, CD4(+) T-cell depletion before the 10 days of expansion, resulted in total loss of reactivity in the ELISPOT culture for most peptide specificities. FACS analyses with intracellular interferon-γ staining of T cells expanded in the presence of M. tuberculosis peptides confirmed that the responsive cells were indeed CD4(+). In conclusion, T-cell immunity against HLA-I binding 9mer M. tuberculosis-derived peptides might in many cases turn out to be mediated by CD4(+) T cells and restricted by HLA-II molecules. The use of 9mer peptides recognized by both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells might be of importance for the development of future M. tuberculosis peptide-based vaccines.
Wiker, H G; Michell, S L; Hewinson, R G; Spierings, E; Nagai, S; Harboe, M
Based on our N -terminal amino acid sequence of MPT53 and a deduced DNA sequence, we searched for the corresponding gene in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomic sequence at the Sanger centre, localizing mpt53 close to mpt70 and mpt83. The gene was cloned and expressed, followed by purification of MPT53 to homogeneity from recombinant M. smegmatis culture fluid. In MPT53 there is 60 % identity with the active site of thioredoxin of M. tuberculosis (MPT46) with two cysteins in a CXXC motif, but MPT53 could not serve as an alternative substrate for thioredoxin reductase. Testing for IgM and IgG1 anti-MPT53 in cattle sera showed that MPT53 is immunogenic following natural and experimental infection with M. bovis. Cloning of mpt53 represents cloning of the last of the 10 proteins originally defined as "secreted proteins" of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis based on determination of their "Localization index" (LI) (J Gen Microbiol 1991;137 : 875-84). The need for a precise definition of the term "secreted protein" is discussed. So far we have observed full concordance between occurrence of an LI value indicating secretion of a protein and occurrence of a signal sequence in the corresponding gene. Signal sequence independent protein secretion in mycobacteria may occur for a limited number of proteins and remains to be established. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Hong, Jiyoung A.; Bhave, Devayani P.; Carroll, Kate S.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase is an iron-sulfur protein and a validated target to develop new anti-tubercular agents, particularly for the treatment of latent infection. To facilitate the development of potent and specific inhibitors of APS reductase, we have probed the molecular determinants that underlie binding and specificity through a series of substrate and product analogs. Our study highlights the importance of specific substitutent groups for substrate binding and provides functional evidence for ligand-specific conformational states. An active site model has been developed for M. tuberculosis APS reductase that is in accord with the results presented here as well as prior structural data reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa APS reductase and related enzymes. This model illustrates the functional features required for the interaction of APS reductase with a ligand and provides a pharmacological road map for the rational design of small-molecules as potential inhibitors of APS reductase present in human pathogens, including M. tuberculosis. PMID:19678707
Peters, Julian S.; Calder, Bridget; Gonnelli, Giulia; Degroeve, Sven; Rajaonarifara, Elinambinina; Mulder, Nicola; Soares, Nelson C.; Martens, Lennart; Blackburn, Jonathan M.
Evidence currently suggests that as a species Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibits very little genomic sequence diversity. Despite limited genetic variability, members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have been shown to exhibit vast discrepancies in phenotypic presentation in terms of virulence, elicited immune response and transmissibility. Here, we used qualitative and quantitative mass spectrometry tools to investigate the proteomes of seven clinically-relevant mycobacterial strains—four M. tuberculosis strains, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, and M. avium—that show varying degrees of pathogenicity and virulence, in an effort to rationalize the observed phenotypic differences. Following protein preparation, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) and data capture were carried out using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos. Data analysis was carried out using a novel bioinformatics strategy, which yielded high protein coverage and was based on high confidence peptides. Through this approach, we directly identified a total of 3788 unique M. tuberculosis proteins out of a theoretical proteome of 4023 proteins and identified an average of 3290 unique proteins for each of the MTBC organisms (representing 82% of the theoretical proteomes), as well as 4250 unique M. avium proteins (80% of the theoretical proteome). Data analysis showed that all major classes of proteins are represented in every strain, but that there are significant quantitative differences between strains. Targeted selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays were used to quantify the observed differential expression of a subset of 23 proteins identified by comparison to gene expression data as being of particular relevance to virulence. This analysis revealed differences in relative protein abundance between strains for proteins which may promote bacterial fitness in the more virulent W. Beijing strain. These differences may contribute to this strain's capacity for surviving within the host and resisting
Shrivastava, Kamal; Garima, Kushal; Narang, Anshika; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Vishnoi, Ekta; Singh, Roshan Kumar; Chaudhry, Anil; Prasad, Rajendra; Bose, Mridula; Varma-Basil, Mandira
We explored the efficiency of Rv1458c, the gene encoding a putative ABC drug transporter specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), as a diagnostic marker. A 190 bp region of Rv1458c and a 300 bp region of hsp65 were targeted in a novel duplex PCR assay and the results were compared with those for PCR restriction analysis(PRA) using the restriction enzymes NruI and BamHI. Species identification of a subset of the isolates (n=50) was confirmed by sequencing. Clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis (n=426) obtained from clinically suspected patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and mycobacterial (n=13) and non-mycobacterial (n=8) reference strains were included in the study. The duplex PCR assay correctly identified 320/426 isolates as MTBC and 106/426 isolates as non-tuberculous mycobacteria(NTM). The test was 100 % specific and sensitive when compared with NruI/BamHI PCR restriction analysis and highlighted the use of Rv1458c as a diagnostic marker for MTBC. The duplex PCR assay could be developed for use as a screening test to identify MTBC in clinical specimens in peripheral laboratories with limited resources.
Coler, Rhea N; Dillon, Davin C; Skeiky, Yasir A W; Kahn, Maria; Orme, Ian M; Lobet, Yves; Reed, Steven G; Alderson, Mark R
To identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens as candidates for a subunit vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), we have employed a CD4+ T-cell expression screening method. Mtb-specific CD4+ T-cell lines from nine healthy PPD positive donors were stimulated with different antigenic substrates including autologous dendritic cells (DC) infected with Mtb, or cultured with culture filtrate proteins (CFP), and purified protein derivative of Mtb (PPD). These lines were used to screen a genomic Mtb library expressed in Escherichia coli and processed and presented by autologous DC. This screening led to the recovery of numerous T-cell antigens, including both novel and previously described antigens. One of these novel antigens, referred to as Mtb9.8 (Rv0287), was recognized by multiple T-cell lines, stimulated with either Mtb-infected DC or CFP. Using the mouse and guinea pig models of TB, high levels of IFN-gamma were produced, and solid protection from Mtb challenge was observed following immunization with Mtb9.8 formulated in either AS02A or AS01B Adjuvant Systems. These results demonstrate that T-cell screening of the Mtb genome can be used to identify CD4+ T-cell antigens that are candidates for vaccine development.
Coler, Rhea N.; Dillon, Davin C.; Skeiky, Yasir A. W.; Kahn, Maria; Orme, Ian M.; Lobet, Yves; Reed, Steven G.; Alderson, Mark R.
To identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens as candidates for a subunit vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), we have employed a CD4+ T-cell expression screening method. Mtb-specific CD4+ T-cell lines from nine healthy PPD positive donors were stimulated with different antigenic substrates including autologous dendritic cells (DC) infected with Mtb, culture filtrate proteins (CFP), and purified protein derivative of Mtb (PPD). These lines were used to screen a genomic Mtb library expressed in Escherichia coli and processed and presented by autologous DC. This screening led to the recovery of numerous T-cell antigens, including both novel and previously described antigens. One of these novel antigens, referred to as Mtb9.8 (Rv0287), was recognized by multiple T-cell lines, stimulated with either Mtb-infected DC or CFP. Using the mouse and guinea pig models of TB, high levels of IFN-γ were produced, and solid protection from Mtb challenge was observed following immunization with Mtb9.8 formulated in either AS02A or AS01B Adjuvant Systems. These results demonstrate that T-cell screening of the Mtb genome can be used to identify CD4+ T-cell antigens that are candidates for vaccine development. PMID:19000730
Müller, Romy; Roberts, Charlotte A; Brown, Terence A
Tuberculosis is known to have afflicted humans throughout history and re-emerged towards the end of the 20th century, to an extent that it was declared a global emergency in 1993. The aim of this study was to apply a rigorous analytical regime to the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA in 77 bone and tooth samples from 70 individuals from Britain and continental Europe, spanning the 1st-19th centuries AD. We performed the work in dedicated ancient DNA facilities designed to prevent all types of modern contamination, we checked the authenticity of all products obtained by the polymerase chain reaction, and we based our conclusions on up to four replicate experiments for each sample, some carried out in an independent laboratory. We identified 12 samples that, according to our strict criteria, gave definite evidence for the presence of MTBC DNA, and another 22 that we classified as "probable" or "possible." None of the definite samples came from vertebrae displaying lesions associated with TB. Instead, eight were from ribs displaying visceral new bone formation, one was a tooth from a skeleton with rib lesions, one was taken from a skeleton with endocranial lesions, one from an individual with lesions to the sacrum and sacroiliac joint and the last was from an individual with no lesions indicative of TB or possible TB. Our results add to information on the past temporal and geographical distribution of TB and affirm the suitability of ribs for studying ancient TB. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jennings, Benjamin C.; Labby, Kristin J.; Green, Keith D.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie
The upsurge of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is an emerging global problem. Increased expression of the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein is responsible for clinical resistance to aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eis from M. tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) and from M. smegmatis (Eis_Msm) both function as acetyltransferases capable of acetylating multiple amines of many AGs; however, these Eis homologs differ in AG substrate preference and number of acetylated amine groups per AG. The AG binding cavity of Eis_Mtb is divided into two narrow channels, whereas Eis_Msm contains one large cavity. Five bulky residues lining one of the AG binding channels of Eis_Mtb, His119, Ile268, Trp289, Gln291, and Glu401, have significantly smaller counterparts in Eis_Msm, Thr119, Gly266, Ala287, Ala289, and Gly401, respectively. To identify the residue(s) responsible for AG binding in Eis_Mtb and functional differences from Eis_Msm, we have generated single, double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple mutants of these residues in Eis_Mtb into their Eis_Msm counterparts and tested their acetylation activity with three structurally diverse AGs: kanamycin A (KAN), paromomyin (PAR), and apramycin (APR). We show that the penultimate C-terminal residue Glu401 plays a critical role in the overall activity of Eis_Mtb. We also demonstrate that the identities of residues Ile268, Trp289, and Gln291 (in Eis_Mtb nomenclature) dictate the differences between acetylation efficiencies of Eis_Mtb and Eis_Msm for KAN and PAR. Finally, we show that the mutation of Trp289 in Eis_Mtb into Ala plays a role in APR acetylation. PMID:23837529
Wang, Ming; Fleming, Joy; Li, Zihui; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Hongtai; Xue, Yunxin; Chen, Maoshan; Zhang, Zongde; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Lijun
Deep-sequencing of bacterial transcriptomes using RNA-Seq technology has made it possible to identify small non-coding RNAs, RNA molecules which regulate gene expression in response to changing environments, on a genome-wide scale in an ever-increasing range of prokaryotes. However, a simple and reliable automated method for identifying sRNA candidates in these large datasets is lacking. Here, after generating a transcriptome from an exponential phase culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, we developed and validated an automated method for the genome-wide identification of sRNA candidate-containing regions within RNA-Seq datasets based on the analysis of the characteristics of reads coverage maps. We identified 192 novel candidate sRNA-encoding regions in intergenic regions and 664 RNA transcripts transcribed from regions antisense (as) to open reading frames (ORF), which bear the characteristics of asRNAs, and validated 28 of these novel sRNA-encoding regions by northern blotting. Our work has not only provided a simple automated method for genome-wide identification of candidate sRNA-encoding regions in RNA-Seq data, but has also uncovered many novel candidate sRNA-encoding regions in M. tuberculosis, reinforcing the view that the control of gene expression in bacteria is more complex than previously anticipated.
Kethireddy, Shravan; Light, R Bruce; Mirzanejad, Yazdan; Maki, Dennis; Arabi, Yaseen; Lapinsky, Stephen; Simon, David; Kumar, Aseem; Parrillo, Joseph E; Kumar, Anand
Septic shock due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an uncommon but well-recognized clinical syndrome. The objective of this study was to describe the unique clinical characteristics, epidemiologic risk factors, and covariates of survival of patients with MTB septic shock in comparison with other bacterial septic shock. A retrospective nested cohort study was conducted of patients given a diagnosis of MTB septic shock derived from a trinational, 8,670-patient database of patients with septic shock between 1996 and 2007. In the database, 53 patients had been given a diagnosis of MTB shock compared with 5,419 with septic shock associated with isolation of more common bacterial pathogens. Patients with MTB and other bacterial septic shock had in-hospital mortality rates of 79.2% and 49.7%, respectively (P < .0001). Of the cases of MTB shock, all but five patients had recognized respiratory tract involvement. Fifty-five percent of patients (29 of 53) were documented (by direct culture or stain) as having disseminated extrapulmonary involvement. Inappropriate and appropriate initial empirical therapy was delivered in 28 patients (52.8%) and 25 patients (47.2%); survival was 7.1% and 36.0%, respectively (P = .0114). Ten patients (18.9%) did not receive anti-MTB therapy; all died. The median time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy for MTB septic shock was 31.0 h (interquartile range, 18.9-71.9 h). Only 11 patients received anti-MTB therapy within 24 h of documentation of hypotension; six of these (54.5%) survived. Only one of 21 patients (4.8%) who started anti-MTB therapy after 24 h survived (P = .0003 vs < 24 h). Survival differences between these time intervals are not significantly different from those seen with bacterial septic shock due to more common bacterial pathogens. MTB septic shock behaves similarly to bacterial septic shock. As with bacterial septic shock, early appropriate antimicrobial therapy appears to improve mortality.
Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Han-Lim; Kim, Dong-Hyeon
Even in an era of remarkable medical advances, there is an issue of why tuberculosis remains in the list of disastrous diseases, afflicting humans and causing suffering. There has not been a plausible answer to this, and it has been suggested that clinicians and medical scientists could presently not win the war against the tubercle bacilli. With regards to this issue, based on the authors' own clinical and research experiences, in this review, the available literature was revisited in order to address the raised questions and to provide recent information on characteristics of tubercle bacilli and possible ways to more effectively treat tuberculosis. PMID:28243382
Lamb, J R; Young, D B
Current approaches to the analysis of antigens involved in the cellular immune response to mycobacterial infection rely on the initial identification and isolation of molecular components using monoclonal antibodies. In order to overcome the constraints of this approach, we have utilized a procedure involving T-cell recognition of antigens fractionated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and added to proliferation assays after blotting onto nitrocellulose membranes. Analysis of human T-cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG by this procedure revealed distinctive patterns of reactivity to different molecular weight components indicative of the selective recognition of immunodominant and species-specific determinants. Human T-cell clones were subsequently derived, and SDS-PAGE immunoblotting was used to identify the antigen recognized by each clone. Three epitopes defined by individual T-cell clones were identified on separate polypeptides with molecular weights 16,000-18,000 (clone P53), 18,000-20,000 (clone P57) and 52,000-55,000 (clone P35). This study demonstrates the potential application of T-cell cloning in conjunction with SDS-PAGE immunoblotting for the dissection and analysis of the cellular immune response to pathogenic agents during human infection. Images Figure 1 PMID:2434413
Zvi, Anat; Ariel, Naomi; Fulkerson, John; Sadoff, Jerald C; Shafferman, Avigdor
Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects ~8 million annually culminating in ~2 million deaths. Moreover, about one third of the population is latently infected, 10% of which develop disease during lifetime. Current approved prophylactic TB vaccines (BCG and derivatives thereof) are of variable efficiency in adult protection against pulmonary TB (0%–80%), and directed essentially against early phase infection. Methods A genome-scale dataset was constructed by analyzing published data of: (1) global gene expression studies under conditions which simulate intra-macrophage stress, dormancy, persistence and/or reactivation; (2) cellular and humoral immunity, and vaccine potential. This information was compiled along with revised annotation/bioinformatic characterization of selected gene products and in silico mapping of T-cell epitopes. Protocols for scoring, ranking and prioritization of the antigens were developed and applied. Results Cross-matching of literature and in silico-derived data, in conjunction with the prioritization scheme and biological rationale, allowed for selection of 189 putative vaccine candidates from the entire genome. Within the 189 set, the relative distribution of antigens in 3 functional categories differs significantly from their distribution in the whole genome, with reduction in the Conserved hypothetical category (due to improved annotation) and enrichment in Lipid and in Virulence categories. Other prominent representatives in the 189 set are the PE/PPE proteins; iron sequestration, nitroreductases and proteases, all within the Intermediary metabolism and respiration category; ESX secretion systems, resuscitation promoting factors and lipoproteins, all within the Cell wall category. Application of a ranking scheme based on qualitative and quantitative scores, resulted in a list of 45 best-scoring antigens, of which: 74% belong to the dormancy/reactivation/resuscitation classes; 30% belong
Park, Sae Woong; Casalena, Dominick E; Wilson, Daniel J; Dai, Ran; Nag, Partha P; Liu, Feng; Boyce, Jim P; Bittker, Joshua A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Finzel, Barry C; Schnappinger, Dirk; Aldrich, Courtney C
Biotin biosynthesis is essential for survival and persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in vivo. The aminotransferase BioA, which catalyzes the antepenultimate step in the biotin pathway, has been established as a promising target due to its vulnerability to chemical inhibition. We performed high-throughput screening (HTS) employing a fluorescence displacement assay and identified a diverse set of potent inhibitors including many diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) scaffolds. To efficiently select only hits targeting biotin biosynthesis, we then deployed a whole-cell counterscreen in biotin-free and biotin-containing medium against wild-type Mtb and in parallel with isogenic bioA Mtb strains that possess differential levels of BioA expression. This counterscreen proved crucial to filter out compounds whose whole-cell activity was off target as well as identify hits with weak, but measurable whole-cell activity in BioA-depleted strains. Several of the most promising hits were cocrystallized with BioA to provide a framework for future structure-based drug design efforts.
Zhang, Jiming; Yang, Chun; He, Yonglin; Mu, Liuqing; Zhang, Chunyan; Fan, Yu; Xu, Lei
To construct a prokaryotic expression plasmid for zinc-dependent metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1) gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and express the plasmid in E.coli. Zmp1 gene was amplified by PCR using the genome of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG) as a template and inserted into a multiple cloning site of prokaryotic expression vector pET32a(+). The constructed prokaryotic expression vector pET32a±Zmp1 was transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3), and the recombinant proteins were expressed via IPTG induction. Finally, the expression of Zmp1 protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction analysis and sequencing proved that the recombinant plasmid pET-32a±Zmp1 was constructed correctly. The relative molecular mass of the expressed recombinant protein was about 94 000 which was the same with that of presumed fusion protein. Recombinant Zmp1 protein showed a specific binding to monoclonal antibody with His tag. The prokaryotic expression vector for Zmp1 gene was successfully constructed and the Zmp1 fusion protein was effectively expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3).
Rohira, Harsha; Bhat, Ashwini G.; Passi, Anurag; Mukherjee, Keya; Choudhary, Kumari Sonal; Kumar, Vikas; Arora, Anshula; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Subramanian, Ahalyaa; Venkatachalam, Aparna; S, Gayathri; Raj, Sweety; Chitra, Vijaya; Verma, Kaveri; Zaheer, Salman; J, Balaganesh; Gurusamy, Malarvizhi; Razeeth, Mohammed; Raja, Ilamathi; Thandapani, Madhumohan; Mevada, Vishal; Soni, Raviraj; Rana, Shruti; Ramanna, Girish Muthagadhalli; Raghavan, Swetha; Subramanya, Sunil N.; Kholia, Trupti; Patel, Rajesh; Bhavnani, Varsha; Chiranjeevi, Lakavath; Sengupta, Soumi; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Atray, Naresh; Gandhi, Swati; Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Nisthar, Shefin; Anurag, Meenakshi; Sharma, Pratibha; Hasija, Yasha; Dash, Debasis; Sharma, Arun; Scaria, Vinod; Thomas, Zakir; Chandra, Nagasuma; Brahmachari, Samir K.; Bhardwaj, Anshu
A decade since the availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome sequence, no promising drug has seen the light of the day. This not only indicates the challenges in discovering new drugs but also suggests a gap in our current understanding of Mtb biology. We attempt to bridge this gap by carrying out extensive re-annotation and constructing a systems level protein interaction map of Mtb with an objective of finding novel drug target candidates. Towards this, we synergized crowd sourcing and social networking methods through an initiative ‘Connect to Decode’ (C2D) to generate the first and largest manually curated interactome of Mtb termed ‘interactome pathway’ (IPW), encompassing a total of 1434 proteins connected through 2575 functional relationships. Interactions leading to gene regulation, signal transduction, metabolism, structural complex formation have been catalogued. In the process, we have functionally annotated 87% of the Mtb genome in context of gene products. We further combine IPW with STRING based network to report central proteins, which may be assessed as potential drug targets for development of drugs with least possible side effects. The fact that five of the 17 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lends credence to our unique approach. PMID:22808064
Vashisht, Rohit; Mondal, Anupam Kumar; Jain, Akanksha; Shah, Anup; Vishnoi, Priti; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Rohira, Harsha; Bhat, Ashwini G; Passi, Anurag; Mukherjee, Keya; Choudhary, Kumari Sonal; Kumar, Vikas; Arora, Anshula; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Subramanian, Ahalyaa; Venkatachalam, Aparna; Gayathri, S; Raj, Sweety; Chitra, Vijaya; Verma, Kaveri; Zaheer, Salman; Balaganesh, J; Gurusamy, Malarvizhi; Razeeth, Mohammed; Raja, Ilamathi; Thandapani, Madhumohan; Mevada, Vishal; Soni, Raviraj; Rana, Shruti; Ramanna, Girish Muthagadhalli; Raghavan, Swetha; Subramanya, Sunil N; Kholia, Trupti; Patel, Rajesh; Bhavnani, Varsha; Chiranjeevi, Lakavath; Sengupta, Soumi; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Atray, Naresh; Gandhi, Swati; Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Nisthar, Shefin; Anurag, Meenakshi; Sharma, Pratibha; Hasija, Yasha; Dash, Debasis; Sharma, Arun; Scaria, Vinod; Thomas, Zakir; Chandra, Nagasuma; Brahmachari, Samir K; Bhardwaj, Anshu
A decade since the availability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome sequence, no promising drug has seen the light of the day. This not only indicates the challenges in discovering new drugs but also suggests a gap in our current understanding of Mtb biology. We attempt to bridge this gap by carrying out extensive re-annotation and constructing a systems level protein interaction map of Mtb with an objective of finding novel drug target candidates. Towards this, we synergized crowd sourcing and social networking methods through an initiative 'Connect to Decode' (C2D) to generate the first and largest manually curated interactome of Mtb termed 'interactome pathway' (IPW), encompassing a total of 1434 proteins connected through 2575 functional relationships. Interactions leading to gene regulation, signal transduction, metabolism, structural complex formation have been catalogued. In the process, we have functionally annotated 87% of the Mtb genome in context of gene products. We further combine IPW with STRING based network to report central proteins, which may be assessed as potential drug targets for development of drugs with least possible side effects. The fact that five of the 17 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lends credence to our unique approach.
Park, Sae Woong; Casalena, Dominick; Wilson, Daniel; Dai, Ran; Nag, Partha; Liu, Feng; Boyce, Jim P.; Bittker, Joshua; Schreiber, Stuart; Finzel, Barry C.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Aldrich, Courtney C.
SUMMARY Biotin biosynthesis is essential for survival and persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in vivo. The aminotransferase BioA, which catalyzes the antepenultimate step in the biotin pathway, has been established as a promising target due to its vulnerability to chemical inhibition. We performed high-throughput screening (HTS) employing a fluorescence displacement assay and identified a diverse set of potent inhibitors including many diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) scaffolds. To efficiently select only hits targeting biotin biosynthesis, we then deployed a whole-cell counter-screen in either biotin-free and biotin-containing medium against wild-type Mtb and in parallel with isogenic bioA Mtb strains that possess differential levels of BioA expression. This counter-screen proved crucial to filter out compounds whose whole-cell activity was off-target as well as identify hits with weak, but measurable whole-cell activity in BioA-depleted strains. Several of the most promising hits were co-crystallized with BioA to provide a framework for future structure-based drug design efforts. PMID:25556942
Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Chimara, Erica; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira
Abstract Brazil is one of the high burden countries for tuberculosis, and a rapid diagnosis is essential for effective control of the disease. In the present study, an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the mpt64 gene for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates was evaluated under routine diagnosis conditions in a reference laboratory. From May 2011 to July 2012, 1,520 isolates of mycobacteria were prospectively submitted for phenotypic and/or PRA-hsp65 identification and to real-time PCR. The mpt64 real-time PCR showed 99.7% sensitivity and 96% specificity and detected 79.4% of the cases missed by phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification. The in-house real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and was successfully implemented in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in a reference laboratory from a high burden setting. PMID:27598243
Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Chimara, Erica; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira de
Brazil is one of the high burden countries for tuberculosis, and a rapid diagnosis is essential for effective control of the disease. In the present study, an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the mpt64 gene for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates was evaluated under routine diagnosis conditions in a reference laboratory. From May 2011 to July 2012, 1,520 isolates of mycobacteria were prospectively submitted for phenotypic and/or PRA-hsp65 identification and to real-time PCR. The mpt64 real-time PCR showed 99.7% sensitivity and 96% specificity and detected 79.4% of the cases missed by phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification. The in-house real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and was successfully implemented in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in a reference laboratory from a high burden setting.
Cattle were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii to compare antigen-specific immune responses to varied patterns of mycobacterial disease. Disease expression ranged from colonization with associated pathology (M. bovis), colonization without path...
van den Braak, Nicole; Simons, Guus; Gorkink, Roy; Reijans, Martin; Eadie, Kimberly; Kremers, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick; Savelkoul, Paul; Verbrugh, Henri; van Belkum, Alex
We have here applied high-throughput amplified fragment length polymorphism (htAFLP) analysis to strains belonging to the five classical species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Using 20 strains, three enzyme combinations and eight selective amplification primer pairs, 24 AFLP reactions were performed per strain. Overall, this resulted in 480 DNA fingerprints and more than 1200 htAFLP-amplified PCR fragments were visualised per strain. The cumulative dendrogram correctly clustered strains from the various species, albeit within a distance of 6.5% for most of them. The single isolate of Mycobacterium canettii presented separately at 19% distance. All over, 169 fragments (14%) appeared to be polymorphic. Sixty-eight were specific for M. canetti and forty-five for Mycobacterium bovis. For the 10 different M. tuberculosis strains included in the present analysis, 56 polymorphic markers were identified. Upon sequencing 20 of these marker regions and comparisons with the H37Rv genome sequence, 25% appeared to share homology to members of the antigenically variable PE/PPE surface protein encoding gene family confirming previous findings on the genetic heterogeneity within these genes. In addition, homologues for phage genes and insertion element-encoded genes were detected. Forty-five percent of the sequences derived from ORFs with a currently unknown function, which was corroborated by genome sequence comparison for the clinical M. tuberculosis CD 1551 isolate. Sequence variation in M. tuberculosis was assessed in more detail for a subset of these loci by newly designed PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) tests and direct sequencing. Fourteen novel PCR RFLP tests were developed and twelve novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, all suited for epidemiological analysis of M. tuberculosis. The tests allowed for identification of the major Mycobacterium species and M. tuberculosis variants and clones.
Mourão, Marta P B; Denekamp, Ilse; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Kolk, Arend H J; Janssen, Hans-Gerd
Tuberculosis is one of the world's most emerging public health problems, particularly in developing countries. Chromatography based methods have been used to tackle this epidemic by focusing on biomarker detection. Unfortunately, interferences from lipids in the sputum matrix, particularly cholesterol, adversely affect the identification and detection of the marker compounds. The present contribution describes the serial combination of normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) with thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (THM-GC-MS) to overcome the difficulties of biomarker evaluation. The in-series combination consists of an LC analysis where fractions are collected and then transferred to the THM-GC-MS system. This was either done with comprehensive coupling, transferring all the fractions, or with hyphenated interfacing, i.e. off-line multi heart-cutting, transferring only selected fractions. Owing to the high sensitivity and selectivity of LC as a sample pre-treatment method, and to the high specificity of the MS as a detector, this analytical approach, NPLC × THM-GC-MS, is extremely sensitive. The results obtained indicate that this analytical set-up is able to detect down to 1 × 10(3) mycobacteria/mL of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain 124, spiked in blank sputum samples. It is a powerful analytical tool and also has great potential for full automation. If further studies demonstrate its usefulness when applied blind in real sputum specimens, this technique could compete with the current smear microscopy in the early diagnosis of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Minovski, Nikola; Perdih, Andrej; Novic, Marjana; Solmajer, Tom
A classical protein sequence alignment and homology modeling strategy were used for building three Mycobacterium tuberculosis-DNA gyrase protein models using the available topoII-DNA-6FQ crystal structure complexes originating from different organisms. The recently determined M. tuberculosis-DNA gyrase apoprotein structures and topoII-DNA-6FQ complexes were used for defining the 6-fluoroquinolones (6-FQs) binding pockets. The quality of the generated models was initially validated by docking of the cocrystallized ligands into their binding site, and subsequently by quantitative evaluation of their discriminatory performances (identification of active/inactive 6-FQs) for a set of 145 6-FQs with known biological activity values. The M. tuberculosis-DNA gyrase model with the highest estimated discriminatory power was selected and used afterwards in an additional molecular docking experiment on a mixed combinatorial set of 427 drug-like 6-FQ analogs for which the biological activity values were predicted using a prebuilt counter-propagation artificial neural network model. A novel three-level Boolean-based [T/F (true/false)] clustering algorithm was used to assess the generated binding poses: Level 1 (geometry properties assessment), Level 2 (score-based clustering and selection of the (T)-signed highly scored Level 1 poses), and Level 3 (activity-based clustering and selection of the most "active" (T)-signed Level 2 hits). The frequency analysis of occurrence of the fragments attached at R(1) and R(7) position of the (T)-signed 6-FQs selected in Level 3 revealed several novel attractive fragments and confirmed some previous findings. We believe that this methodology could be successfully used in establishing novel possible structure-activity relationship recommendations in the 6-FQs optimization, which could be of great importance in the current antimycobacterial hit-to-lead processes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl
While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of
Muñoz Mendoza, Marta; Juan, Lucía de; Menéndez, Santiago; Ocampo, Antón; Mourelo, Jorge; Sáez, José L; Domínguez, Lucas; Gortázar, Christian; García Marín, Juan F; Balseiro, Ana
Tuberculosis was diagnosed in three flocks of sheep in Galicia, Spain, in 2009 and 2010. Two flocks were infected with Mycobacterium bovis and one flock was infected with Mycobacterium caprae. Infection was confirmed by the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, bacteriology, molecular analysis and histopathology. Sheep have the potential to act as a reservoir for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meng, Jianzhou; Yang, Yanhui; Xiao, Chunling; Guan, Yan; Hao, Xueqin; Deng, Qi; Lu, Zhongyang
Aspartic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the essential aspartic acid biosynthetic pathway that is found in bacteria and plants but is absent from animals. Mutations in the asadh gene encoding ASADH produce an inactive enzyme, which is lethal. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that ASADH represents a new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) target. An asadh promoter-replacement mutant MTB, designated MTB::asadh, in which asadh gene expression is regulated by pristinamycin, was constructed to investigate the physiological functions of ASADH in the host bacteria. Bacterial growth was evaluated by monitoring OD600 and ASADH expression was analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that the growth and survival of MTB::asadh was completely inhibited in the absence of the inducer pristinamycin. Furthermore, the growth of the mutant was rigorously dependent on the presence of the inducer in the medium. The starved mutant exhibited a marked reduction (approximately 80%) in the cell wall materials compared to the wild-type, in addition to obvious morphological differences that were apparent in scanning electron microscopy studies; however, with the addition of pristinamycin, the cell wall contents and morphology similar to those of the wild-type strain were recovered. The starved mutant also exhibited almost no pathogenicity in an in vitro model of infection using mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. The mutant showed a concentration-dependent recovery of pathogenicity with the addition of the inducer. These findings implicate ASADH as a promising target for the development of novel anti-MTB drugs. PMID:26437401
Meng, Jianzhou; Yang, Yanhui; Xiao, Chunling; Guan, Yan; Hao, Xueqin; Deng, Qi; Lu, Zhongyang
Aspartic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the essential aspartic acid biosynthetic pathway that is found in bacteria and plants but is absent from animals. Mutations in the asadh gene encoding ASADH produce an inactive enzyme, which is lethal. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that ASADH represents a new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) target. An asadh promoter-replacement mutant MTB, designated MTB::asadh, in which asadh gene expression is regulated by pristinamycin, was constructed to investigate the physiological functions of ASADH in the host bacteria. Bacterial growth was evaluated by monitoring OD600 and ASADH expression was analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that the growth and survival of MTB::asadh was completely inhibited in the absence of the inducer pristinamycin. Furthermore, the growth of the mutant was rigorously dependent on the presence of the inducer in the medium. The starved mutant exhibited a marked reduction (approximately 80%) in the cell wall materials compared to the wild-type, in addition to obvious morphological differences that were apparent in scanning electron microscopy studies; however, with the addition of pristinamycin, the cell wall contents and morphology similar to those of the wild-type strain were recovered. The starved mutant also exhibited almost no pathogenicity in an in vitro model of infection using mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. The mutant showed a concentration-dependent recovery of pathogenicity with the addition of the inducer. These findings implicate ASADH as a promising target for the development of novel anti-MTB drugs.
Nagai, Yuhki; Iwade, Yoshito; Nakano, Manabu; Akachi, Shigehiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nishinaka, Takamichi
Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are geographically widespread and pose a notorious public health problem, these strains causing outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB); some studies have reported an association with drug resistance. Because the prevalence of Beijing strain has a substantial impact on TB control programs, the availability of a rapid and reliable method for detecting these strains is important for epidemiological monitoring of their circulation. The main methods currently used to identify Beijing genotype strains are IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, spoligotyping and PCR to detect specific deletions such as region of difference (RD)207. More recently, multiplex PCR assay using a Beijing-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been developed for detecting Beijing lineage strains. However, these methods are time-consuming and technically demanding. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that allows specific identification of Beijing genotype strain was developed. This Beijing genotype strain-identifying LAMP assay was performed 214 clinical isolates and the results compared with those of conventional PCR that targeted RD207 and Rv0679c-targreting multiplex PCR for Beijing lineage identification. LAMP assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with RD207-PCR. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 100%, respectively, compared with Rv0679c-multiplex PCR. This LAMP assay could be used routinely in local laboratories to monitor the prevalence of the Beijing genotype strain and thereby used to help control the spread of these potentially highly virulent and drug resistant strains.
... in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the common causative organism in human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease...
... in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the common causative organism in human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease...
... in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the common causative organism in human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease...
Cimino, Mena; Thomas, Christophe; Namouchi, Amine; Dubrac, Sarah; Gicquel, Brigitte; Gopaul, Deshmukh N
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP/PhoR two-component signal transduction system controls the expression of about 2% of the genome and plays a major role in pathogenicity. However, its regulon has not been well characterized. The binding site of PhoP transcription regulator was identified in the upstream regions of msl3, pks2, lipF and fadD21 genes, by using gene fusions, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting experiments. A consensus sequence for PhoP binding was deduced. It consists of two direct repeats, DR1/DR2, associated with a third repeat, DR3, important in some cases for PhoP binding to DR1/DR2 but located at a variable distance from these direct repeats. DR1/DR2 and DR3 consensus sequences were used to screen the whole-genome sequence for other putative binding sites potentially corresponding to genes directly regulated by PhoP. The identified 87 genes, encoding transcription regulators, and proteins involved in secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism are proposed to belong to the PhoP regulon. A consensus sequence derived from the analysis of PhoP binding to four gene promoter regions is proposed. We show for the first time the involvement of a third direct repeat motif in this binding reaction. The consensus sequence was instrumented to study the global regulation mediated by PhoP in M. tuberculosis. This analysis leads to the identification of several genes that are potentially regulated by this key player.
Blouin, Yann; Hauck, Yolande; Soler, Charles; Fabre, Michel; Vong, Rithy; Dehan, Céline; Cazajous, Géraldine; Massoure, Pierre-Laurent; Kraemer, Philippe; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Garnotel, Eric; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles
Molecular and phylogeographic studies have led to the definition within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) of a number of geotypes and ecotypes showing a preferential geographic location or host preference. The MTBC is thought to have emerged in Africa, most likely the Horn of Africa, and to have spread worldwide with human migrations. Under this assumption, there is a possibility that unknown deep branching lineages are present in this region. We genotyped by spoligotyping and multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) 435 MTBC isolates recovered from patients. Four hundred and eleven isolates were collected in the Republic of Djibouti over a 12 year period, with the other 24 isolates originating from neighbouring countries. All major M. tuberculosis lineages were identified, with only two M. africanum and one M. bovis isolates. Upon comparison with typing data of worldwide origin we observed that several isolates showed clustering characteristics compatible with new deep branching. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of seven isolates and comparison with available WGS data from 38 genomes distributed in the different lineages confirms the identification of ancestral nodes for several clades and most importantly of one new lineage, here referred to as lineage 7. Investigation of specific deletions confirms the novelty of this lineage, and analysis of its precise phylogenetic position indicates that the other three superlineages constituting the MTBC emerged independently but within a relatively short timeframe from the Horn of Africa. The availability of such strains compared to the predominant lineages and sharing very ancient ancestry will open new avenues for identifying some of the genetic factors responsible for the success of the modern lineages. Additional deep branching lineages may be readily and efficiently identified by large-scale MLVA screening of isolates from sub-Saharan African countries followed by WGS analysis of
Ambrosi, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Di Serio, Clelia
We propose a new method for smallRNAs (sRNAs) identification. First we build an effective target genome (ETG) by means of a strand-specific procedure. Then we propose a new bioinformatic pipeline based mainly on the combination of two types of information: the first provides an expression map based on RNA-seq data (Reads Map) and the second applies principles of comparative genomics leading to a Conservation Map. By superimposing these two maps, a robust method for the search of sRNAs is obtained. We apply this methodology to investigate sRNAs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. This bioinformatic procedure leads to a total list of 1948 candidate sRNAs. The size of the candidate list is strictly related to the aim of the study and to the technology used during the verification process. We provide performance measures of the algorithm in identifying annotated sRNAs reported in three recent published studies. PMID:22470422
Djelouadji, Zoheira; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
Genome-scale analysis suggests that the last common ancestor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Mycobacterium leprae diverged 36 million years ago, and members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex differentiated 40,000 years ago. Analysis of palaeomicrobiological data from a 17,000-year-old sample from a bison and a 9000-year-old sample from a human being suggested that M tuberculosis preceded Mycobacterium bovis and related species. Whole-genome comparisons show that members of the M tuberculosis complex form a unique bacterial species with distinct ecotypes that are transmissible from any infected mammalian species to several others. Genomic deletions identified several M tuberculosis lineages that could be placed on a phylogeographical map, suggesting adaptation to local host populations. The degrees of transmissibility and virulence vary between M tuberculosis clones, with increased virulence mainly linked to gene loss in regulatory pathways. Such data suggest that most M tuberculosis clones have a restricted spreading capacity between the host population, allowing unpredictable bursts of highly transmissible, virulent, and successful clones, such as the east Asian (Beijing) clone. Advances in genomics have helped the development of molecular techniques for accurate identification of species and clones in the M tuberculosis complex, which is essential for tracing the source of infections.
Chen, Jing; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Shen, Xin; Jiang, Xi; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian
Beijing/W strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause the vast majority of tuberculosis cases in Shanghai, China. Such highly prevalent strains are considered as hypervirulent and are often associated with multi-drug resistance, treatment failure and HIV status. We present a reliable and fast detection method to identify these Beijing/W strains, which can be applied to screening large numbers of samples at low cost. Using this Deletion-Targeted Multiplex PCR (DTM-PCR) method for detecting these strains, we obtained 100% sensitivity and specificity.
DITSE, ZANELE; LAMERS, MEINDERT H.; WARNER, DIGBY F.
Faithful replication and maintenance of the genome are essential to the ability of any organism to survive and propagate. For an obligate pathogen such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has to complete successive cycles of transmission, infection, and disease in order to retain a foothold in the human population, this requires that genome replication and maintenance must be accomplished under the metabolic, immune, and antibiotic stresses encountered during passage through variable host environments. Comparative genomic analyses have established that chromosomal mutations enable M. tuberculosis to adapt to these stresses: the emergence of drug-resistant isolates provides direct evidence of this capacity, so too the well-documented genetic diversity among M. tuberculosis lineages across geographic loci, as well as the microvariation within individual patients that is increasingly observed as whole-genome sequencing methodologies are applied to clinical samples and tuberculosis (TB) disease models. However, the precise mutagenic mechanisms responsible for M. tuberculosis evolution and adaptation are poorly understood. Here, we summarize current knowledge of the machinery responsible for DNA replication in M. tuberculosis, and discuss the potential contribution of the expanded complement of mycobacterial DNA polymerases to mutagenesis. We also consider briefly the possible role of DNA replication—in particular, its regulation and coordination with cell division—in the ability of M. tuberculosis to withstand antibacterial stresses, including host immune effectors and antibiotics, through the generation at the population level of a tolerant state, or through the formation of a subpopulation of persister bacilli—both of which might be relevant to the emergence and fixation of genetic drug resistance. PMID:28361736
Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos
An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs. PMID:23339199
Braunstein, Miriam; Griffin, Thomas J.; Kriakov, Jordan I.; Friedman, Sarah T.; Grindley, Nigel D. F.; Jacobs, William R.
Secreted and cell envelope-associated proteins are important to both Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and the generation of protective immunity to M. tuberculosis. We used an in vitro Tn552′phoA transposition system to identify exported proteins of M. tuberculosis. The system is simple and efficient, and the transposon inserts randomly into target DNA. M. tuberculosis genomic libraries were targeted with Tn552′phoA transposons, and these libraries were screened in M. smegmatis for active PhoA translational fusions. Thirty-two different M. tuberculosis open reading frames were identified; eight contain standard signal peptides, six contain lipoprotein signal peptides, and seventeen contain one or more transmembrane domains. Four of these proteins had not yet been assigned as exported proteins in the M. tuberculosis databases. This collection of exported proteins includes factors that are known to participate in the immune response of M. tuberculosis and proteins with homologies, suggesting a role in pathogenesis. Nine of the proteins appear to be unique to mycobacteria and represent promising candidates for factors that participate in protective immunity and virulence. This technology of creating comprehensive fusion libraries should be applicable to other organisms. PMID:10781540
Mehra, Rukmankesh; Rani, Chitra; Mahajan, Priya; Vishwakarma, Ram Ashrey; Khan, Inshad Ali; Nargotra, Amit
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are causing serious health concerns worldwide. Antituberculosis drug resistance threatens the current therapies and causes further need to develop effective antituberculosis therapy. GlmU represents an interesting target for developing novel Mtb drug candidates. It is a bifunctional acetyltransferase/uridyltransferase enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) from glucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcN-1-P). UDP-GlcNAc is a substrate for the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan that are constituents of the bacterial cell wall. In the current study, structure and ligand based computational models were developed and rationally applied to screen a drug-like compound repository of 20,000 compounds procured from ChemBridge DIVERSet database for the identification of probable inhibitors of Mtb GlmU. The in vitro evaluation of the in silico identified inhibitor candidates resulted in the identification of 15 inhibitory leads of this target. Literature search of these leads through SciFinder and their similarity analysis with the PubChem training data set (AID 1376) revealed the structural novelty of these hits with respect to Mtb GlmU. IC50 of the most potent identified inhibitory lead (5810599) was found to be 9.018 ± 0.04 μM. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of this inhibitory lead (5810599) in complex with protein affirms the stability of the lead within the binding pocket and also emphasizes on the key interactive residues for further designing. Binding site analysis of the acetyltransferase pocket with respect to the identified structural moieties provides a thorough analysis for carrying out the lead optimization studies.
Shi, Xiaoshan; Darwin, K. Heran
Copper (Cu) is a trace element essential for the growth and development of almost all organisms, including bacteria. However, Cu overload in most systems is toxic. Studies show Cu accumulates in macrophage phagosomes infected with bacteria, suggesting Cu provides an innate immune mechanism to combat invading pathogens. To counteract the host-supplied Cu, increasing evidence suggests that bacteria have evolved Cu resistance mechanisms to facilitate their pathogenesis. In particular, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, has evolved multiple pathways to respond to Cu. Here, we summarize what is currently known about Cu homeostasis in Mtb and discuss potential sources of Cu encountered by this and other pathogens in a mammalian host. PMID:25614981
Joshi, Rakesh S; Jamdhade, Mahendra D; Sonawane, Mahesh S; Giri, Ashok P
The emergence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) highlights the urgent need to understand the mechanisms of resistance to the drugs and to develop a new arena of therapeutics to treat the disease. Ethambutol, isonazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin are first line of drugs against TB, whereas aminoglycoside, polypeptides, fluoroquinolone, ethionamide are important second line of bactericidal drugs used to treat MDRTB, and resistance to one or both of these drugs are defining characteristic of extensively drug resistant TB. We retrieved 1,221 resistant genes from Antibiotic Resistance Gene Database (ARDB), which are responsible for resistance against first and second line antibiotics used in treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. From network analysis of these resistance genes, 53 genes were found to be common. Phylogenetic analysis shows that more than 60% of these genes code for acetyltransferase. Acetyltransferases detoxify antibiotics by acetylation, this mechanism plays central role in antibiotic resistance. Seven acetyltransferase (AT-1 to AT-7) were selected from phylogenetic analysis. Structural alignment shows that these acetyltransferases share common ancestral core, which can be used as a template for structure based drug designing. From STRING analysis it is found that acetyltransferase interact with 10 different proteins and it shows that, all these interaction were specific to M. tuberculosis. These results have important implications in designing new therapeutic strategies with acetyltransferase as lead co-target to combat against MDR as well as Extreme drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. Abbreviations AA - amino acid, AT - Acetyltransferase, AAC - Aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase, XDR - Extreme drug-resistant, MDR - Multidrug-resistant, Mtb - Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB - Tuberculosis. PMID:23519100
Mishra, Arun K; Alderwick, Luke J; Rittmann, Doris; Tatituri, Raju V V; Nigou, Jerome; Gilleron, Martine; Eggeling, Lothar; Besra, Gurdyal S
Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis share a similar cell wall architecture, and the availability of their genome sequences has enabled the utilization of C. glutamicum as a model for the identification and study of, otherwise essential, mycobacterial genes involved in lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) biosynthesis. We selected the putative glycosyltransferase-Rv2174 from M. tuberculosis and deleted its orthologue NCgl2093 from C. glutamicum. This resulted in the formation of a novel truncated lipomannan (Cg-t-LM) and a complete ablation of LM/LAM biosynthesis. Purification and characterization of Cg-t-LM revealed an overall decrease in molecular mass, a reduction of α(1→6) and α(1→2) glycosidic linkages illustrating a reduced degree of branching compared with wild-type LM. The deletion mutant's biochemical phenotype was fully complemented by either NCgl2093 or Rv2174. Furthermore, the use of a synthetic neoglycolipid acceptor in an in vitro cell-free assay utilizing the sugar donor β-d-mannopyranosyl-1-monophosphoryl-decaprenol together with the neoglycolipid acceptor α-d-Manp-(1→6)-α-d-Manp-O-C8 as a substrate, confirmed NCgl2093 and Rv2174 as an α(1→6) mannopyranosyltransferase (MptA), involved in the latter stages of the biosynthesis of the α(1→6) mannan core of LM. Altogether, these studies have identified a new mannosyltransferase, MptA, and they shed further light on the biosynthesis of LM/LAM in Corynebacterianeae. PMID:17714444
Mishra, Arun K; Alderwick, Luke J; Rittmann, Doris; Tatituri, Raju V V; Nigou, Jerome; Gilleron, Martine; Eggeling, Lothar; Besra, Gurdyal S
Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis share a similar cell wall architecture, and the availability of their genome sequences has enabled the utilization of C. glutamicum as a model for the identification and study of, otherwise essential, mycobacterial genes involved in lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) biosynthesis. We selected the putative glycosyltransferase-Rv2174 from M. tuberculosis and deleted its orthologue NCgl2093 from C. glutamicum. This resulted in the formation of a novel truncated lipomannan (Cg-t-LM) and a complete ablation of LM/LAM biosynthesis. Purification and characterization of Cg-t-LM revealed an overall decrease in molecular mass, a reduction of alpha(1-->6) and alpha(1-->2) glycosidic linkages illustrating a reduced degree of branching compared with wild-type LM. The deletion mutant's biochemical phenotype was fully complemented by either NCgl2093 or Rv2174. Furthermore, the use of a synthetic neoglycolipid acceptor in an in vitro cell-free assay utilizing the sugar donor beta-D-mannopyranosyl-1-monophosphoryl-decaprenol together with the neoglycolipid acceptor alpha-D-Manp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Manp-O-C8 as a substrate, confirmed NCgl2093 and Rv2174 as an alpha(1-->6) mannopyranosyltransferase (MptA), involved in the latter stages of the biosynthesis of the alpha(1-->6) mannan core of LM. Altogether, these studies have identified a new mannosyltransferase, MptA, and they shed further light on the biosynthesis of LM/LAM in Corynebacterianeae.
Miyata, Marcelo; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Mendes, Natália Helena; Cunha, Eunice Atsuko; de Melo, Fernando Augusto Fiúza; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura
We report a comparative study of two DNA extraction techniques, thermolysis and chemical lysis (CTAB), for molecular identification and genotyping of M. tuberculosis. Forty DNA samples were subjected to PCR and the results demonstrated that with thermolysis it is possible to obtain useful data that enables fast identification and genotyping. PMID:24031692
Ueyama, Masako; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Murase, Yoshiro; Kuse, Naoyuki; Morimoto, Kozo; Okumura, Masao; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ogata, Hideo; Yoshimori, Kozo; Kudoh, Shoji; Azuma, Arata; Gemma, Akihiko; Mitarai, Satoshi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major causative agent of tuberculosis in humans. It is well known that Mycobacterium bovis and other species in the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) can cause respiratory diseases as zoonosis. We analyzed the MTC isolates collected from tuberculosis patients from Japan in 2002 using a multiplex PCR system that detected cfp32, RD9 and RD12. A total of 970 MTC isolates that were representative of the tuberculosis cases throughout Japan, were examined using this method. As a result, 966 (99.6%) M. tuberculosis, two Mycobacterium africanum and two Mycobacterium canettii were identified using a multiplex PCR system, while no M. bovis was detected. Two isolates that lacked RD9 were initially considered to be M. canettii, but further analysis of the hsp65 sequence revealed them to be M. tuberculosis. Also two M. africanum were identified as M. tuberculosis using the -215 narG nucleotide polymorphism. Though PCR-linked methods have been used for a rapid differentiation of MTC and NTM, from our cases we suggest careful interpretation of RD based identification.
Alonso, Henar; Gavín, Patricia; Hernández-Febles, Melissa; Campos-Herrero, María Isolina; Copado, Rodolfo; Cañas, Fernando; Kremer, Kristin; Caminero, José Antonio; Martín, Carlos; Samper, Sofía
The development of a rapid test to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing isolates and specifically strain GC1237, coming from a sub-Saharan country, is needed due to its alarming wide spread on Gran Canaria Island (Spain). A rapid test that detects IS6110 present between dnaA and dnaN in the Beijing strains and in a specific site for GC1237 (Rv2180c) has been developed. This test would be a useful tool in the surveillance of subsequent cases. PMID:22116140
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are responsible for tuberculosis in humans or animals, respectively. Both species are closely related and belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). M. tuberculosis is the most ancient species from which M. bovis and the other members o...
Zychowicz, Michael E
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has affected humans for much of our existence. The incidence of global tuberculosis infection continues to rise, especially in concert with HIV coinfection. Many disease processes, such as diabetes, increase the likelihood of tuberculosis infection. Tuberculosis bacteria can infect any bone, joint, tendon, or bursa; however, the most common musculoskeletal site for infection includes the spine and weight-bearing joints of the hip and knee. Many patients who present with osteoarticular tuberculosis infection will have a gradual onset of pain at the site of infection. Many patients who develop a musculoskeletal tuberculosis infection will have no evidence of a pulmonary tuberculosis infection on x-ray film and many will have very mild symptoms with the initial infection. Healthcare providers must remember that many patients who develop tuberculosis infection do not progress to active tuberculosis disease; however, the latent infection may become active with immune compromise.
Nieto, Luisa Maria; Rozo, Juan C.; Forero, Liliana; van Soolingen, Dick
Using spoligotyping, we identified 13 genotypes and 17 orphan types among 160 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The Beijing genotype represented 15.6% of the isolates and was correlated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, female sex of the patients, and residence in Buenaventura and may represent a new public health threat. PMID:21762581
Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Cole, Stewart T.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Rubin, Eric; Nathan, Carl
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances reported at a recent international meeting highlight insights and controversies in the genetics of M. tuberculosis and the infected host, the nature of protective immune responses, adaptation of the bacillus to host-imposed stresses, animal models, and new techniques. PMID:15939785
Master, Sharon S; Rampini, Silvana K; Davis, Alexander S; Keller, Christine; Ehlers, Stefan; Springer, Burkhard; Timmins, Graham S; Sander, Peter; Deretic, Vojo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) parasitizes host macrophages and subverts host innate and adaptive immunity. Several cytokines elicited by Mtb are mediators of mycobacterial clearance or are involved in tuberculosis pathology. Surprisingly, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a major proinflammatory cytokine, has not been implicated in host-Mtb interactions. IL-1beta is activated by processing upon assembly of the inflammasome, a specialized inflammatory caspase-activating protein complex. Here, we show that Mtb prevents inflammasome activation and IL-1beta processing. An Mtb gene, zmp1, which encodes a putative Zn(2+) metalloprotease, is required for this process. Infection of macrophages with zmp1-deleted Mtb triggered activation of the inflammasome, resulting in increased IL-1beta secretion, enhanced maturation of Mtb containing phagosomes, improved mycobacterial clearance by macrophages, and lower bacterial burden in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice. Thus, we uncovered a previously masked role for IL-1beta in the control of Mtb and a mycobacterial system that prevents inflammasome and, therefore, IL-1beta activation.
Gengenbacher, Martin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health threat, killing near to 2 million individuals around this globe, annually. The sole vaccine developed almost a century ago, provides limited protection only during childhood. After decades without the introduction of new antibiotics, several candidates are currently undergoing clinical investigation. Curing TB requires prolonged combination chemotherapy with several drugs. Moreover, monitoring the success of therapy is questionable due to the lack of reliable biomarkers. To substantially improve the situation, a detailed understanding of the crosstalk between human host and the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is vital. Principally, Mtb’s enormous success is based on three capacities: First, reprogramming of macrophages after primary infection/phagocytosis in order to prevent its own destruction; second, initiating the formation of well-organized granulomas, comprising different immune cells to create a confined environment for the host–pathogen standoff; third, the capability to shut down its own central metabolism, terminate replication and thereby transit into a stage of dormancy rendering itself extremely resistant to host defense and drug treatment. Here we review the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, draw conclusions in a working model of mycobacterial dormancy and highlight gaps in our understanding to be addressed in future research. PMID:22320122
Mandal, Saurav; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Chirom, Keilash; Bhattacharya, Alok; Brojen Singh, R. K.
The mutifractal and long range correlation (C(r)) properties of strings, such as nucleotide sequence can be a useful parameter for identification of underlying patterns and variations. In this study C(r) and multifractal singularity function f(α) have been used to study variations in the genomes of a pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genomic sequences of M. tuberculosis isolates displayed significant variations in C(r) and f(α) reflecting inherent differences in sequences among isolates. M. tuberculosis isolates can be categorised into different subgroups based on sensitivity to drugs, these are DS (drug sensitive isolates), MDR (multi-drug resistant isolates) and XDR (extremely drug resistant isolates). C(r) follows significantly different scaling rules in different subgroups of isolates, but all the isolates follow one parameter scaling law. The richness in complexity of each subgroup can be quantified by the measures of multifractal parameters displaying a pattern in which XDR isolates have highest value and lowest for drug sensitive isolates. Therefore C(r) and multifractal functions can be useful parameters for analysis of genomic sequences.
Mandal, Saurav; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Chirom, Keilash; Bhattacharya, Alok; Brojen Singh, R. K.
The mutifractal and long range correlation (C(r)) properties of strings, such as nucleotide sequence can be a useful parameter for identification of underlying patterns and variations. In this study C(r) and multifractal singularity function f(α) have been used to study variations in the genomes of a pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genomic sequences of M. tuberculosis isolates displayed significant variations in C(r) and f(α) reflecting inherent differences in sequences among isolates. M. tuberculosis isolates can be categorised into different subgroups based on sensitivity to drugs, these are DS (drug sensitive isolates), MDR (multi-drug resistant isolates) and XDR (extremely drug resistant isolates). C(r) follows significantly different scaling rules in different subgroups of isolates, but all the isolates follow one parameter scaling law. The richness in complexity of each subgroup can be quantified by the measures of multifractal parameters displaying a pattern in which XDR isolates have highest value and lowest for drug sensitive isolates. Therefore C(r) and multifractal functions can be useful parameters for analysis of genomic sequences. PMID:28440326
Siméone, Roxane; Constant, Patricia; Guilhot, Christophe; Daffé, Mamadou; Chalut, Christian
Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) and phenolglycolipids (PGL) are functionally important surface-exposed lipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Their biosynthesis involves the products of several genes clustered in a 70-kb region of the M. tuberculosis chromosome. Among these products is PpsD, one of the modular type I polyketide synthases responsible for the synthesis of the lipid core common to DIM and PGL. Bioinformatic analyses have suggested that this protein lacks a functional enoyl reductase activity domain required for the synthesis of these lipids. We have identified a gene, Rv2953, that putatively encodes an enoyl reductase. Mutation in Rv2953 prevents conventional DIM formation and leads to the accumulation of a novel DIM-like product. This product is unsaturated between C-4 and C-5 of phthiocerol. Consistently, complementation of the mutant with a functional pks15/1 gene from Mycobacterium bovis BCG resulted in the accumulation of an unsaturated PGL-like substance. When an intact Rv2953 gene was reintroduced into the mutant strain, the phenotype reverted to the wild type. These findings indicate that Rv2953 encodes a trans-acting enoyl reductase that acts with PpsD in phthiocerol and phenolphthiocerol biosynthesis.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an old enemy of the human race, with evidence of infection observed as early as 5000 years ago. Although more host-restricted than Mycobacterium bovis, which can infect all warm-blooded vertebrates, M. tuberculosis can infect, and cause morbidity and mortality in, several veterinary species as well. As M. tuberculosis is one of the earliest described bacterial pathogens, the literature describing this organism is vast and overwhelming. This review strives to distill what is currently known about this bacterium and the disease it causes for the veterinary pathologist.
Thomas, Suzanne T.; VanderVen, Brian C.; Sherman, David R.; Russell, David G.; Sampson, Nicole S.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, imports and metabolizes host cholesterol during infection. This ability is important in the chronic phase of infection. Here we investigate the role of the intracellular growth operon (igr), which has previously been identified as having a cholesterol-sensitive phenotype in vitro and which is important for intracellular growth of the mycobacteria. We have employed isotopically labeled low density lipoproteins containing either [1,7,15,22,26-14C]cholesterol or [1,7,15,22,26-13C]cholesterol and high resolution LC/MS as tools to profile the cholesterol-derived metabolome of an igr operon-disrupted mutant (Δigr) of M. tuberculosis. A partially metabolized cholesterol species accumulated in the Δigr knock-out strain that was absent in the complemented and parental wild-type strains. Structural elucidation by multidimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed the accumulated metabolite to be methyl 1β-(2′-propanoate)-3aα-H-4α-(3′-propanoic acid)-7aβ-methylhexahydro-5-indanone. Heterologously expressed and purified FadE28-FadE29, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase encoded by the igr operon, catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 2′-propanoyl-CoA ester side chains in substrates with structures analogous to the characterized metabolite. Based on the structure of the isolated metabolite, enzyme activity, and bioinformatic annotations, we assign the primary function of the igr operon to be degradation of the 2′-propanoate side chain. Therefore, the igr operon is necessary to completely metabolize the side chain of cholesterol metabolites. PMID:22045806
Hui, Yee Man Tracy; Pillinger, Toby; Luqmani, Asad; Cooper, Nichola
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, potentially fatal condition that can be primary or secondary. Secondary HLH can occur in association with infections, most commonly viral infections, but has also been reported in association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). Prompt identification of the underlying cause of HLH is important as it guides treatment decisions. Early initiation of appropriate treatment (eg, anti-TB treatment) reduces morbidity and mortality. We present a case of HLH associated with TB infection. Initial TB investigations were negative and standard combination chemoimmunotherapy for HLH resulted in a limited clinical response. On apparent relapse of HLH, further investigation revealed TB with changes on CT chest, granuloma on bone marrow and eventual positive TB culture on bronchoalveolar lavage. Subsequent treatment with quadruple anti-TB treatment resulted in rapid clinical response and disease remission. We advocate continued monitoring for TB infection in patients with HLH, and prophylaxis or full treatment for those at high risk. PMID:25870214
Al-Balas, Qosay; Anthony, Nahoum G.; Al-Jaidi, Bilal; Alnimr, Amani; Abbott, Grainne; Brown, Alistair K.; Taylor, Rebecca C.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Gillespie, Stephen H.; Johnston, Blair F.; Mackay, Simon P.; Coxon, Geoffrey D.
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which kills two million people every year and infects approximately over one-third of the world's population. The difficulty in managing tuberculosis is the prolonged treatment duration, the emergence of drug resistance and co-infection with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis control requires new drugs that act at novel drug targets to help combat resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reduce treatment duration. Methodology/Principal Findings Our approach was to modify the naturally occurring and synthetically challenging antibiotic thiolactomycin (TLM) to the more tractable 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylate scaffold to generate compounds that mimic TLM's novel mode of action. We report here the identification of a series of compounds possessing excellent activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and, dissociatively, against the β-ketoacyl synthase enzyme mtFabH which is targeted by TLM. Specifically, methyl 2-amino-5-benzylthiazole-4-carboxylate was found to inhibit M. tuberculosis H37Rv with an MIC of 0.06 µg/ml (240 nM), but showed no activity against mtFabH, whereas methyl 2-(2-bromoacetamido)-5-(3-chlorophenyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate inhibited mtFabH with an IC50 of 0.95±0.05 µg/ml (2.43±0.13 µM) but was not active against the whole cell organism. Conclusions/Significance These findings clearly identify the 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylate scaffold as a promising new template towards the discovery of a new class of anti-tubercular agents. PMID:19440303
Gandy, J.H.; Pruden, E.L.; Cox, F.R.
Simple and rapid Bactec methodologies for the determination of neat (unaltered) and heat stable urease activity of mycobacteria are presented. Clinical isolates (63) and stock cultures (32)--consisting of: M. tuberculosis (19), M. bovis (5), M. kansasii (15), M. marinum (4), M. simiae (3), M. scrofulaceum (16), M. gordonae (6), M. szulgai (6), M. flavescens (1), M. gastri (1), M. intracellulare (6), M. fortuitum-chelonei complex (12), and M. smegmatis (1)--were tested for neat urease activity by Bactec radiometry. Mycobacterial isolates (50-100 mg wet weight) were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with microCi14C-urea. Urease-positive mycobacteria gave Bactec growth index (GI) values greater than 100 units, whereas urease-negative species gave values less than 10 GI units. Eighty-three isolates possessing neat urease activity were heated at 80 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by incubation at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with 1 microCi14C-urea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex demonstrated heat-stable urease activity (GI more than 130 units) and could be distinguished from mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), which gave GI values equal to or less than 40 units.
Schwander, Stephan; Dheda, Keertan
The study of human pulmonary immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) provides a unique window into the biological interactions between the human host and M.tb within the broncho-alveolar microenvironment, the site of natural infection. Studies of bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) and lung tissue evaluate innate, adaptive, and regulatory immune mechanisms that collectively contribute to immunological protection or its failure. In aerogenically M.tb–exposed healthy persons lung immune responses reflect early host pathogen interactions that may contribute to sterilization, the development of latent M.tb infection, or progression to active disease. Studies in these persons may allow the identification of biomarkers of protective immunity before the initiation of inflammatory and disease-associated immunopathological changes. In healthy close contacts of patients with tuberculosis (TB) and during active pulmonary TB, immune responses are compartmentalized to the lungs and characterized by an exuberant helper T-cell type 1 response, which as suggested by recent evidence is counteracted by local suppressive immune mechanisms. Here we discuss how exploring human lung immunity may provide insights into disease progression and mechanisms of failure of immunological protection at the site of the initial host–pathogen interaction. These findings may also aid in the identification of new biomarkers of protective immunity that are urgently needed for the development of new and the improvement of current TB vaccines, adjuvant immunotherapies, and diagnostic technologies. To facilitate further work in this area, methodological and procedural approaches for bronchoalveolar lavage studies and their limitations are also discussed. PMID:21075901
Chambers, Mark A.; Williams, Ann; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Whelan, Adam; Hall, Graham; Marsh, Philip D.; Bloom, Barry R.; Jacobs, William R.; Hewinson, R. Glyn
Tuberculosis remains one of the most significant diseases of humans and animals. The only currently available vaccine against this disease is a live, attenuated vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which was originally derived from Mycobacterium bovis and despite its variable efficacy is the most widely administered vaccine in the world. With the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus-AIDS pandemic concern has been raised over the safety of BCG. Moreover, since BCG sensitizes vaccinated individuals to the tuberculin test, vaccination with BCG prevents diagnosis of infection in vaccinated individuals. Recently, auxotrophic strains of BCG have been generated by insertional mutagenesis which have been shown to be safer than the parent BCG strain following administration to mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. These strains have also been shown to give comparable protection against intravenous and intratracheal challenge of BALB/c mice with M. tuberculosis relative to conventional BCG. Here we report that one of these mutants, a leucine auxotroph of BCG, conferred significant protection of the lungs and spleens of guinea pigs infected with M. bovis and protection of the spleens of guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis in the absence of a cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction to tuberculin. Therefore, protective immunity to tuberculosis may, at least in part, be achieved without sensitization to the tuberculin skin test. These results indicate that it may be possible to develop a new generation of vaccines based on BCG that are protective, are safe for use in the immunocompromised, and do not preclude the use of the tuberculin skin test in both humans and animals. PMID:11083835
McCarter, Yvette S.; Ratkiewicz, Irene N.; Robinson, Ann
Serpentine cord formation in BACTEC 12B medium was evaluated as a rapid method for the presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis complex. Kinyoun acid-fast stained smears were prepared from 666 positive BACTEC 12B bottles and examined for the presence or absence of serpentine cording. Cord formation had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 89.2, 99.2, 98.5, and 94.2%, respectively. The evaluation of the presence of cord formation in BACTEC 12B medium is reliable and permits the rapid presumptive reporting of M. tuberculosis. PMID:9705435
McCarter, Y S; Ratkiewicz, I N; Robinson, A
Serpentine cord formation in BACTEC 12B medium was evaluated as a rapid method for the presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis complex. Kinyoun acid-fast stained smears were prepared from 666 positive BACTEC 12B bottles and examined for the presence or absence of serpentine cording. Cord formation had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 89.2, 99.2, 98.5, and 94.2%, respectively. The evaluation of the presence of cord formation in BACTEC 12B medium is reliable and permits the rapid presumptive reporting of M. tuberculosis.
Jung, Yu Jung; Kim, Ji-Youn; Song, Dong Joon; Koh, Won-Jung; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong
We evaluated the analytical performance of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC)/nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) PCR assays for differential identification of MTBC and NTM using culture-positive liquid media. Eighty-five type strains and 100 consecutive mycobacterial liquid media cultures (MGIT 960 system) were analyzed by a conventional PCR assay (MTB-ID(®) V3) and three real-time PCR assays (AdvanSure™ TB/NTM real-time PCR, AdvanSure; GENEDIA(®) MTB/NTM Detection Kit, Genedia; Real-Q MTB & NTM kit, Real-Q). The accuracy rates for reference strains were 89.4%, 100%, 98.8%, and 98.8% for the MTB-ID V3, AdvanSure, Genedia, and Real-Q assays, respectively. Cross-reactivity in the MTB-ID V3 assay was mainly attributable to non-mycobacterium Corynebacterineae species. The diagnostic performance was determined using clinical isolates grown in liquid media, and the overall sensitivities for all PCR assays were higher than 95%. In conclusion, the three real-time PCR assays showed better performance in discriminating mycobacterium species and non-mycobacterium Corynebacterineae species than the conventional PCR assay.
Maganti, Lakshmi; Grandhi, Pradeep; Ghoshal, Nanda
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate pathogen of mammals and is responsible for more than two million deaths annually. The ability to acquire iron from the extracellular environment is a key determinant of pathogenicity in mycobacteria. M. tuberculosis acquires iron exclusively through the siderophores. Several lines of evidence suggest that siderophores have a critical role in bacterial growth and virulence. Hence, in the present study, we have used a combined ligand and structure-based drug design approach for identification of novel inhibitors against salicylate synthase MbtI, a unique and essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of siderophores in M. tuberculosis. We have generated the ligand based and structure based pharmacophores and validated exhaustively. From the validation results it was found that GH (Goodness of Hit) scores for the selected ligand based and structure based pharmacophore models were 0.89 and 0.97, respectively, which indicate that the quality of the pharmacophore models are acceptable as GH value is >0.7. The validated pharmacophores were used for screening the ZINC database. A total of 73 hits, obtained through various insilico screening techniques, were further enriched to 17 hits using docking studies. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to compare the binding mode and stability of complexes of MbtI bound with substrate, known inhibitors, and three top ranked hits. The results obtained in this study gave assurance about the identified hits as prospective inhibitors of MbtI.
Saxena, Shalini; Devi, Parthiban Brindha; Soni, Vijay; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB) survives in the human host for decades evading the immune system in a latent or persistent state. The Rv2780 (ald) gene that codes for L-alanine dehydrogenase (L-AlaDH) enzyme catalyzes reversible oxidative deamination of L-alanine to pyruvate and is overexpressed under hypoxic and nutrient starvation conditions in MTB. At present, as there is no suitable drug available to treat dormant tuberculosis; it is essential to identify drug candidates that could potentially treat dormant TB. Availability of crystal structure of MTB L-AlaDH bound with co-factor NAD+ facilitated us to employ structure-based virtual screening approach to obtain new hits from a commercial library of Asinex database using energy-optimized pharmacophore modeling. The resulting pharmacophore consisted of three hydrogen bond donor sites (D) and two hydrogen bond acceptor sites (A). The database compounds with a fitness score more than 1.0 were further subjected to Glide high-throughput virtual screening and docking. Thus, we report the identification of best five hits based on structure-based design and their in vitro enzymatic inhibition studies revealed IC₅₀ values in the range of 35-80 μM.
Nair, Smita K.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Sales, Ana Paula; Boczkowski, David; Chan, Cliburn; Plonk, Kelly; Cai, Yongting; Dannull, Jens; Kepler, Thomas B.; Pruitt, Scott K.; Weinhold, Kent J.
Emergence of drug-resistant strains of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and the ineffectiveness of BCG in curtailing Mtb infection makes vaccine development for tuberculosis an important objective. Identifying immunogenic CD8+ T cell peptide epitopes is necessary for peptide-based vaccine strategies. We present a three-tiered strategy for identifying and validating immunogenic peptides: first, identify peptides that form stable complexes with class I MHC molecules; second, determine whether cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) raised against the whole protein antigen recognize and lyse target cells pulsed with peptides that passed step 1; third, determine whether peptides that passed step 2, when administered in vivo as a vaccine in HLA-A2 transgenic mice, elicit CTLs that lyse target cells expressing the whole protein antigen. Our innovative approach uses dendritic cells transfected with Mtb antigen-encoding mRNA to drive antigen expression. Using this strategy, we have identified five novel peptide epitopes from the Mtb proteins Apa, Mtb8.4 and Mtb19. PMID:24755960
Background P-type ATPases hydrolyze ATP and release energy that is used in the transport of ions against electrochemical gradients across plasma membranes, making these proteins essential for cell viability. Currently, the distribution and function of these ion transporters in mycobacteria are poorly understood. Results In this study, probabilistic profiles were constructed based on hidden Markov models to identify and classify P-type ATPases in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) according to the type of ion transported across the plasma membrane. Topology, hydrophobicity profiles and conserved motifs were analyzed to correlate amino acid sequences of P-type ATPases and ion transport specificity. Twelve candidate P-type ATPases annotated in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome were identified in all members of the MTBC, and probabilistic profiles classified them into one of the following three groups: heavy metal cation transporters, alkaline and alkaline earth metal cation transporters, and the beta subunit of a prokaryotic potassium pump. Interestingly, counterparts of the non-catalytic beta subunits of Hydrogen/Potassium and Sodium/Potassium P-type ATPases were not found. Conclusions The high content of heavy metal transporters found in the MTBC suggests that they could play an important role in the ability of M. tuberculosis to survive inside macrophages, where tubercle bacilli face high levels of toxic metals. Finally, the results obtained in this work provide a starting point for experimental studies that may elucidate the ion specificity of the MTBC P-type ATPases and their role in mycobacterial infections. PMID:23031689
Johnson, Benjamin K; Abramovitch, Robert B
Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonizes, survives, and grows inside macrophages. In vitro macrophage infection models, using both primary macrophages and cell lines, enable the characterization of the pathogen response to macrophage immune pressure and intracellular environmental cues. We describe methods to propagate and infect primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and J774 and THP-1 macrophage-like cell lines. We also present methods on the characterization of M. tuberculosis intracellular survival and the preparation of infected macrophages for imaging.
Ouellet, Hugues; Johnston, Jonathan B.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an intracellular pathogen that infects 10 million worldwide and kills 2 million people every year. The uptake and utilization of nutrients by Mtb within the host cell is still poorly understood, although lipids play an important role in Mtb persistence. The recent identification of a large regulon of cholesterol catabolic genes suggests that Mtb can use host sterol for infection and persistence. In this review, we report on recent progress in elucidation of the Mtb cholesterol catabolic reactions and their potential utility as targets for tuberculosis therapeutic agents. PMID:21924910
Russell, David G; VanderVen, Brian C; Lee, Wonsik; Abramovitch, Robert B; Kim, Mi-jeong; Homolka, Susanne; Niemann, Stefan; Rohde, Kyle H
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most pernicious of human pathogens. Current vaccines are ineffective, and drugs, although efficacious, require prolonged treatment with constant medical oversight. Overcoming these problems requires a greater appreciation of M. tuberculosis in the context of its host. Upon infection of either macrophages in culture or animal models, the bacterium realigns its metabolism in response to the new environments it encounters. Understanding these environments, and the stresses that they place on M. tuberculosis, should provide insights invaluable for the development of new chemo- and immunotherapeutic strategies.
Alexander, Kathleen A; Laver, Pete N; Michel, Anita L; Williams, Mark; van Helden, Paul D; Warren, Robin M; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C
Seven outbreaks involving increasing numbers of banded mongoose troops and high death rates have been documented. We identified a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi sp. nov., as the causative agent among banded mongooses that live near humans in Chobe District, Botswana. Host spectrum and transmission dynamics remain unknown.
Haas, Charles; Le Jeunne, Claire
In transplant recipients, immunosuppressive treatment affects cell-mediated immunity and increases the risk of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis may be transmitted by the donor organ or occur de novo, but such cases are rare. The vast majority of cases of active tuberculosis in transplant recipients result from reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The incidence varies from one region of the globe to another, from 0.5-1.0% in North America, to 0.36-5.5% in Europe and 7.0-11.8% in India. The incidence of tuberculosis among transplant recipients is much higher than in the general population. Diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic liver disease and AIDS all increase the risk of post-transplant tuberculosis. Extrapulmonary and disseminated forms are frequent in this setting. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in transplant recipients is often difficult, and treatment is frequently delayed. Tuberculosis can be life-threatening in such cases. Treatment is difficult because rifampicin is a cytochrome P450 inducer (leading to reduced levels of cyclosporine), and because the hepatotoxicity of isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide is frequently increased in transplant recipients. Treatment of latent tuberculosis before transplantation markedly reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis after transplantation.
Yujiao, Zhang; Xiaojing, Li; Kaixia, Mi
Tuberculosis, caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the world's deadliest bacterial infectious disease. It is still a global-health threat, particularly because of the drug-resistant forms. Fluoroquinolones, with target of gyrase, are among the drugs used to treat tuberculosis. However, their widespread use has led to bacterial resistance. The molecular mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis have been reported, such as DNA gyrase mutations, drug efflux pumps system, bacterial cell wall thickness and pentapeptide proteins (MfpA) mediated regulation of gyrase. Mutations in gyrase conferring quinolone resistance play important roles and have been extensively studied. Recent studies have shown that the regulation of DNA gyrase affects mycobacterial drug resistance, but the mechanisms, especially by post-translational modification and regulatory proteins, are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the fluoroquinolone drug development, and the molecular genetics of fluoroquinolone resistance in mycobacteria. Comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis will open a new view on understanding drug resistance in mycobacteria and lead to novel strategies to develop new accurate diagnosis methods.
Samanovic, Marie I.; Darwin, K. H.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) resides mainly inside macrophages, which produce nitric oxide (NO) to combat microbial infections. Earlier studies revealed that proteasome-associated genes are required for M. tuberculosis to resist NO via a previously uncharacterized mechanism. Twelve years later, we elucidated the link between proteasome function and NO resistance in M. tuberculosis in Molecular Cell, 57 (2015), pp. 984-994. In a proteasome degradation-defective mutant, Rv1205, a homologue of the plant enzyme LONELY GUY (LOG) that is involved in the synthesis of phytohormones called cytokinins, accumulates and as a consequence results in the overproduction of cytokinins. Cytokinins break down into aldehydes that kill mycobacteria in the presence of NO. Importantly, this new discovery reveals for the first time that a mammalian bacterial pathogen produces cytokinins and leaves us with the question: why is M. tuberculosis, an exclusively human pathogen, producing cytokinins? PMID:28357289
Scherr, Nicole; Jayachandran, Rajesh; Mueller, Philipp; Pieters, Jean
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has become an important health and economic burden, with more than four thousand people succumbing to the disease every day. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the molecular basis of this pathogen's success in causing disease in humans, in order to develop new drugs superior to conventional drugs available at present. One reason why M. tuberculosis is such a dangerous microbe lies within its ability to survive within infected hosts, thereby efficiently circumventing host immune responses. Over the past few years, a number of mechanisms have been unravelled that are utilized by M. tuberculosis to survive within hosts and to avoid immune defence mechanisms. Several of these mechanisms have been described in this communication that may be useful for the development of novel compounds to treat tuberculosis.
Geojith, G; Dhanasekaran, S; Chandran, Salesh P; Kenneth, John
Current methods of TB diagnosis are time consuming and less suited for developing countries. The LAMP (loop mediated isothermal amplification) is a rapid method more suitable for diagnosis in resource limited settings and has been proposed as a viable test requiring further evaluation for use as a laboratory method as well. We evaluated two LAMP assays, using culture lysates of clinical sputum samples (from Southern India) and compared it to a proprietary multiplex PCR reverse-hybridization line probe assay ('GenoType MTBC' from HAIN Lifescience GmbH, Germany). The LAMP procedure was modified to suit the local conditions. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific LAMP assay ('MTB LAMP') showed sensitivity and specificity, of 44.7% and 94.4% respectively in a 60 min format, 85.7% and 93.9% respectively in a 90 min format and 91.7%, and 90.9% respectively in a 120 min format. The Mycobacteria universal LAMP assay ('Muniv LAMP') showed a sensitivity of 99.1%. The LAMP was shown to be a rapid and accessible assay for the laboratory identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. Initial denaturation of template was shown to be essential for amplification in unpurified/dilute samples and longer incubation was shown to increase the sensitivity. The need for modification of protocols to yield better efficacy in this scenario needs to be addressed in subsequent studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Venkatraman, Janani; Bhat, Jyothi; Solapure, Suresh M; Sandesh, Jatheendranath; Sarkar, Debasmita; Aishwarya, Sundaram; Mukherjee, Kakoli; Datta, Santanu; Malolanarasimhan, Krishnan; Bandodkar, Balachandra; Das, Kaveri S
The authors describe the discovery of anti-mycobacterial compounds through identifying mechanistically diverse inhibitors of the essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) enzyme, pantothenate kinase (CoaA). Target-driven drug discovery technologies often work with purified enzymes, and inhibitors thus discovered may not optimally inhibit the form of the target enzyme predominant in the bacterial cell or may not be available at the desired concentration. Therefore, in addition to addressing entry or efflux issues, inhibitors with diverse mechanisms of inhibition (MoI) could be prioritized before hit-to-lead optimization. The authors describe a high-throughput assay based on protein thermal melting to screen large numbers of compounds for hits with diverse MoI. Following high-throughput screening for Mtb CoaA enzyme inhibitors, a concentration-dependent increase in protein thermal stability was used to identify true binders, and the degree of enhancement or reduction in thermal stability in the presence of substrate was used to classify inhibitors as competitive or non/uncompetitive. The thermal shift-based MoI assay could be adapted to screen hundreds of compounds in a single experiment as compared to traditional biochemical approaches for MoI determination. This MoI was confirmed through mechanistic studies that estimated K(ie) and K(ies) for representative compounds and through nuclear magnetic resonance-based ligand displacement assays.
Eniyan, Kandasamy; Kumar, Anuradha; Rayasam, Geetha Vani; Perdih, Andrej; Bajpai, Urmi
The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) consists of peptidoglycan, arabinogalactan and mycolic acids. The cytoplasmic steps in the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway, catalyzed by the Mur (A-F) enzymes, involve the synthesis of UDP-n-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide, a key precursor molecule required for the formation of the peptidoglycan monomeric building blocks. Mur enzymes are indispensable for cell integrity and their lack of counterparts in eukaryotes suggests them to be promising Mtb drug targets. However, the caveat is that most of the current assays utilize a single Mur enzyme, thereby identifying inhibitors against only one of the enzymes. Here, we report development of a one-pot assay that reconstructs the entire Mtb Mur pathway in vitro and has the advantage of eliminating the requirement for nucleotide intermediates in the pathway as substrates. The MurA-MurF enzymes were purified and a one-pot assay was developed through optimization of successive coupled enzyme assays using UDP-n-acetylglucosamine as the initial sugar substrate. The assay is biochemically characterized and optimized for high-throughput screening of molecules that could disrupt multiple targets within the pathway. Furthermore, we have validated the assay by performing it to identify D-Cycloserine and furan-based benzene-derived compounds with known Mur ligase inhibition as inhibitors of Mtb MurE and MurF. PMID:27734910
Randall, Philippa J.; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619
Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston; Jacobs, Muazzam
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system.
Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L.; Haeili, Mehri; Niederweis, Michael
Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increases tolerance for copper at elevated concentrations, indicating that porins mediate copper uptake across the outer membrane. Heterologous expression of the mycobacterial porin gene mspA reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in the presence of 2.5 μM copper by 40% and completely suppressed growth at 15 μM copper, while wild-type M. tuberculosis reached its normal cell density at that copper concentration. Moreover, the polyamine spermine, a known inhibitor of porin activity in Gram-negative bacteria, enhanced tolerance of M. tuberculosis for copper, suggesting that copper ions utilize endogenous outer membrane channel proteins of M. tuberculosis to gain access to interior cellular compartments. In summary, these findings highlight the outer membrane as the first barrier against copper ions and the role of porins in mediating copper uptake in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. PMID:24013632
Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L; Haeili, Mehri; Niederweis, Michael; Wolschendorf, Frank
Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increases tolerance for copper at elevated concentrations, indicating that porins mediate copper uptake across the outer membrane. Heterologous expression of the mycobacterial porin gene mspA reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in the presence of 2.5 μM copper by 40% and completely suppressed growth at 15 μM copper, while wild-type M. tuberculosis reached its normal cell density at that copper concentration. Moreover, the polyamine spermine, a known inhibitor of porin activity in Gram-negative bacteria, enhanced tolerance of M. tuberculosis for copper, suggesting that copper ions utilize endogenous outer membrane channel proteins of M. tuberculosis to gain access to interior cellular compartments. In summary, these findings highlight the outer membrane as the first barrier against copper ions and the role of porins in mediating copper uptake in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis.
The tuberculosis situation in Portugal justifies the use of a strategy for the genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly as Portugal is part of the global backdrop of human mobility, something which has a knock-on effect on the pandemic. Several international studies have placed spoligotyping and MIRU- VNTR typing as first line techniques for the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as these techniques rely on simple technologies (PCR) and produce patterns which are easily translated into a direct interpretation numerical code. Spoligotyping has been accordingly proposed for all the isolates, while MIRU-VNTR typing should be applied to isolates with a common spoliotype. Other techniques, including IS6110-RFLP, should be reserved for use ill accordance with selected criteria. Previous studies in Portugal using spoligotyping have underlined the advantages of a strategy based on sampling consecutive patient isolates with no prior selection criteria. This allows characterisation of the M. tuberculosis population structure through monitoring the distribution of the genotypes geographically over time and within the various risk groups. On the other hand, the association of spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTF (typing and, possibly, other techniques, needs evaluating as part of bigger pictures, including identifying recent transmission situations, distinguishing between reinfection and relapse episodes and mapping the size and dynamics of disease transmission. The solution to the tuberculosis problem in Portugal implies structuring genotyping's role in tuberculosis prevention and control and its evaluation through concrete examples and results.
Forrellad, Marina A.; Klepp, Laura I.; Gioffré, Andrea; Sabio y García, Julia; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Cataldi, Angel A.; Bigi, Fabiana
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of closely related species that cause tuberculosis in both humans and animals. This illness, still today, remains to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The mycobacteria enter the host by air, and, once in the lungs, are phagocytated by macrophages. This may lead to the rapid elimination of the bacillus or to the triggering of an active tuberculosis infection. A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction. The aim of this review is to describe the bacterial genes/proteins that are essential for the virulence of MTBC species, and that have been demonstrated in an in vivo model of infection. Knowledge of MTBC virulence factors is essential for the development of new vaccines and drugs to help manage the disease toward an increasingly more tuberculosis-free world. PMID:23076359
Belin, Pascal; Le Du, Marie Hélène; Fielding, Alistair; Lequin, Olivier; Jacquet, Mickaël; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Lecoq, Alain; Thai, Robert; Courçon, Marie; Masson, Cédric; Dugave, Christophe; Genet, Roger; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Gondry, Muriel
The gene encoding the cytochrome P450 CYP121 is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the CYP121 catalytic activity remains unknown. Here, we show that the cyclodipeptide cyclo(l-Tyr-l-Tyr) (cYY) binds to CYP121, and is efficiently converted into a single major product in a CYP121 activity assay containing spinach ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. NMR spectroscopy analysis of the reaction product shows that CYP121 catalyzes the formation of an intramolecular C-C bond between 2 tyrosyl carbon atoms of cYY resulting in a novel chemical entity. The X-ray structure of cYY-bound CYP121, solved at high resolution (1.4 Å), reveals one cYY molecule with full occupancy in the large active site cavity. One cYY tyrosyl approaches the heme and establishes a specific H-bonding network with Ser-237, Gln-385, Arg-386, and 3 water molecules, including the sixth iron ligand. These observations are consistent with low temperature EPR spectra of cYY-bound CYP121 showing a change in the heme environment with the persistence of the sixth heme iron ligand. As the carbon atoms involved in the final C-C coupling are located 5.4 Å apart according to the CYP121-cYY complex crystal structure, we propose that C-C coupling is concomitant with substrate tyrosyl movements. This study provides insight into the catalytic activity, mechanism, and biological function of CYP121. Also, it provides clues for rational design of putative CYP121 substrate-based antimycobacterial agents. PMID:19416919
Belin, Pascal; Le Du, Marie Hélène; Fielding, Alistair; Lequin, Olivier; Jacquet, Mickaël; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Lecoq, Alain; Thai, Robert; Courçon, Marie; Masson, Cédric; Dugave, Christophe; Genet, Roger; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Gondry, Muriel
The gene encoding the cytochrome P450 CYP121 is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the CYP121 catalytic activity remains unknown. Here, we show that the cyclodipeptide cyclo(l-Tyr-l-Tyr) (cYY) binds to CYP121, and is efficiently converted into a single major product in a CYP121 activity assay containing spinach ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. NMR spectroscopy analysis of the reaction product shows that CYP121 catalyzes the formation of an intramolecular C-C bond between 2 tyrosyl carbon atoms of cYY resulting in a novel chemical entity. The X-ray structure of cYY-bound CYP121, solved at high resolution (1.4 A), reveals one cYY molecule with full occupancy in the large active site cavity. One cYY tyrosyl approaches the heme and establishes a specific H-bonding network with Ser-237, Gln-385, Arg-386, and 3 water molecules, including the sixth iron ligand. These observations are consistent with low temperature EPR spectra of cYY-bound CYP121 showing a change in the heme environment with the persistence of the sixth heme iron ligand. As the carbon atoms involved in the final C-C coupling are located 5.4 A apart according to the CYP121-cYY complex crystal structure, we propose that C-C coupling is concomitant with substrate tyrosyl movements. This study provides insight into the catalytic activity, mechanism, and biological function of CYP121. Also, it provides clues for rational design of putative CYP121 substrate-based antimycobacterial agents.
Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping
Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.
Filliol, Ingrid; Driscoll, Jeffrey R.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kremer, Kristin; Valétudie, Georges; Anh, Dang Duc; Barlow, Rachael; Banerjee, Dilip; Bifani, Pablo J.; Brudey, Karin; Cataldi, Angel; Cooksey, Robert C.; Cousins, Debby V.; Dale, Jeremy W.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Drobniewski, Francis; Engelmann, Guido; Ferdinand, Séverine; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Gordon, Max; Gutierrez, M. Cristina; Haas, Walter H.; Heersma, Herre; Källenius, Gunilla; Kassa-Kelembho, Eric; Koivula, Tuija; Ly, Ho Minh; Makristathis, Athanasios; Mammina, Caterina; Martin, Gerald; Moström, Peter; Mokrousov, Igor; Narbonne, Valérie; Narvskaya, Olga; Nastasi, Antonino; Niobe-Eyangoh, Sara Ngo; Pape, Jean W; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Ridell, Malin; Rossetti, M. Lucia; Stauffer, Fritz; Suffys, Philip N.; Takiff, Howard; Texier-Maugein, Jeanne; Vincent, Véronique; de Waard, Jacobus H.
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11,708 patterns from as many clinical isolates originating from more than 90 countries. The 11,708 spoligotypes were clustered into 813 shared types. A total of 1,300 orphan patterns (clinical isolates showing a unique spoligotype) were also detected. PMID:12453368
Kumar, Anuradha; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Pérez, Esther; Gonzalez, Ruben R.; Torres, Pedro; Calvo, David; Gómez, Ruben M.; Ortega, Fátima; Jiménez, Elena; Gabarro, Raquel C.; Rullás, Joaquín; Ballell, Lluis
Antifolates are widely used to treat several diseases but are not currently used in the first-line treatment of tuberculosis, despite evidence that some of these molecules can target Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli in vitro. To identify new antifolate candidates for animal-model efficacy studies of tuberculosis, we paired knowledge and tools developed in academia with the infrastructure and chemistry resources of a large pharmaceutical company. Together we curated a focused library of 2508 potential antifolates, which were then tested for activity against live Mtb. We identified 210 primary hits, confirmed the on-target activity of potent compounds, and now report the identification and characterization of 5 hit compounds, representative of 5 different chemical scaffolds. These antifolates have potent activity against Mtb and represent good starting points for improvement that could lead to in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:26771003
PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354
Lamrabet, Otmane; Drancourt, Michel
Genetic engineering has been used for decades to mutate and delete genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome with the translational goal of producing attenuated mutants with conserved susceptibility to antituberculous antibiotics. The development of plasmids and mycobacteriophages that can transfer DNA into the M. tuberculosis chromosome has effectively overcome M. tuberculosis slow growth rate and the capsule and mycolic acid wall, which limit DNA uptake. The use of genetic engineering techniques has shed light on many aspects of pathogenesis mechanisms, including cellular growth, mycolic acid biosynthesis, metabolism, drug resistance and virulence. Moreover, such research gave clues to the development of new vaccines or new drugs for routine clinical practice. The use of genetic engineering tools is mainly based on the underlying concept that altering or reducing the M. tuberculosis genome could decrease its virulence. A contrario, recent post-genomic analyses indicated that reduced bacterial genomes are often associated with increased bacterial virulence and that M. tuberculosis acquired genes by lateral genetic exchange during its evolution. Therefore, ancestors utilizing genetic engineering to add genes to the M. tuberculosis genome may lead to new vaccines and the availability of M. tuberculosis isolates with increased susceptibility to antituberculous antibiotics.
Akhtar, Farah; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Akhtar, Pervez; Hussain, Sayed Misdaq; Aslam, Muhammad Sohaib; Kausar, Razia; Qamar, Mehwish; Cagiola, Monica
Bovine tuberculosis is one of the important diseases of dairy and wild animals. The disease is prevalent all over the world, though developed countries have tremendously reduced the prevalence through eradication campaigns. The prevalence of disease in Pakistan on the basis of tuberculin testing or culture isolation of the organism has been reported previously. It is, however, important to use the latest diagnostic tools, i.e. PCR to confirm the type of Mycobacterium infecting the animals in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the utility of direct PCR on milk samples and nasal swabs to confirm the type of Mycobacterium infecting the animals. This study was carried out on 215 cattle and buffaloes of more than 2 years of age present at two livestock farms. The tuberculin results showed 22.5% prevalence at one farm and 25.9% at the other with an overall prevalence of 24.7%. The 92.5% of milk samples and/or nasal swabs showed positive PCR for Mycobacterium genus, 86.8% for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and 77.4% for Mycobacterium bovis. The M. bovis by PCR was detected in 13.2% of milk samples, 24.5% of nasal swabs and 39.6% of both milk samples + nasal swabs. The results suggested that there are 60% higher chance for a nasal swab to yield a positive PCR for M. bovis than the milk sample. It can be concluded from the present study that tuberculin testing is a useful method in studying the prevalence of disease as the PCR for Mycobacterium genus was positive in 92.5%, M. tuberculosis complex in 86.8% and Mycobacterium bovis in 77.4% cases.
Borelli, Violetta; Banfi, Elena; Perrotta, Maria Giovanna; Zabucchi, Giuliano
We investigated the antimycobacterial role of myeloperoxidase (MPO), one of the most abundant granule proteins in human neutrophils. Our data indicate that purified MPO, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, exerts a consistent killing activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and against a clinical isolate. The activity is time and dose dependent and requires the presence of chloride ions in the assay medium. PMID:10417186
Korb, Vanessa C.; Chuturgoon, Anil A.; Moodley, Devapregasan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most successful pathogens in human history and remains a global health challenge. MTB has evolved a plethora of strategies to evade the immune response sufficiently to survive within the macrophage in a bacterial-immunological equilibrium, yet causes sufficient immunopathology to facilitate its transmission. This review highlights MTB as the driver of disease pathogenesis and presents evidence of the mechanisms by which MTB manipulates the protective immune response into a pathological productive infection. PMID:26927066
Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ramos-Alvarez, Jessica; Molina-Torres, Carmen A; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Rendón, Adrian; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge
In the present work, we studied the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients according to their gender, age, and geographic location in Mexico. We did not observe any statistically significant differences in regard to age or gender. We found that spoligo international type 53 (SIT53) is more frequent in the northern states and that SIT119 predominates in central Mexico. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Ramos-Alvarez, Jessica; Molina-Torres, Carmen A.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Rendón, Adrian; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge
In the present work, we studied the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients according to their gender, age, and geographic location in Mexico. We did not observe any statistically significant differences in regard to age or gender. We found that spoligo international type 53 (SIT53) is more frequent in the northern states and that SIT119 predominates in central Mexico. PMID:24850349
Khosravi, Azar D.; Alami, Ameneh; Meghdadi, Hossein; Hosseini, Atta A.
Definitive and rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging since conventional techniques have limitations due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. To increase the sensitivity of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in EPTB specimens, we performed a nested PCR assay targeting several genes of MTB on EPTB specimens. A total of 100 clinical specimens from suspected cases of EPTB were processed. Standard staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was performed as the preliminary screening test. Extracted DNAs from specimens were subjected to Nested PCR technique for the detection of five different MTB target genes of IS6110, IS1081, hsp65kd, mbp64, and mtp40. On performing AFB staining, only 13% of specimens were positive, of which ascites fluid (33.3%), followed by pleural effusion (30.8%) showed the greatest AFB positivity rate. We demonstrated slight improvement in yields in lymph node which comprised the majority of specimens in this study, by employing PCR targeted to IS6110- and hsp65-genes in comparison to AFB staining. However, the yields in ascites fluid and pleural effusion were not substantially improved by PCR, but those from bone and wound were, as in nested PCR employing either gene, the same positivity rate were obtained for ascites fluid (33.3%), while for pleural effusion specimens only IS1081 based PCR showed identical positivity rate with AFB stain (30.8%). The results for bone and wound specimens, however, demonstrated an improved yield mainly by employing IS1081 gene. Here, we report higher detection rate of EPTB in clinical specimens using five different targeted MTB genes. This nested PCR approach facilitates the comparison and the selection of the most frequently detected genes. Of course this study demonstrated the priority of IS1081 followed by mtp40 and IS6110, among the five tested genes and indicates the effectiveness of any of the three genes in the design of an efficient nested-PCR test that facilitates
Khosravi, Azar D; Alami, Ameneh; Meghdadi, Hossein; Hosseini, Atta A
Definitive and rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging since conventional techniques have limitations due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. To increase the sensitivity of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in EPTB specimens, we performed a nested PCR assay targeting several genes of MTB on EPTB specimens. A total of 100 clinical specimens from suspected cases of EPTB were processed. Standard staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was performed as the preliminary screening test. Extracted DNAs from specimens were subjected to Nested PCR technique for the detection of five different MTB target genes of IS6110, IS1081, hsp65kd, mbp64, and mtp40. On performing AFB staining, only 13% of specimens were positive, of which ascites fluid (33.3%), followed by pleural effusion (30.8%) showed the greatest AFB positivity rate. We demonstrated slight improvement in yields in lymph node which comprised the majority of specimens in this study, by employing PCR targeted to IS6110- and hsp65-genes in comparison to AFB staining. However, the yields in ascites fluid and pleural effusion were not substantially improved by PCR, but those from bone and wound were, as in nested PCR employing either gene, the same positivity rate were obtained for ascites fluid (33.3%), while for pleural effusion specimens only IS1081 based PCR showed identical positivity rate with AFB stain (30.8%). The results for bone and wound specimens, however, demonstrated an improved yield mainly by employing IS1081 gene. Here, we report higher detection rate of EPTB in clinical specimens using five different targeted MTB genes. This nested PCR approach facilitates the comparison and the selection of the most frequently detected genes. Of course this study demonstrated the priority of IS1081 followed by mtp40 and IS6110, among the five tested genes and indicates the effectiveness of any of the three genes in the design of an efficient nested-PCR test that facilitates
Chen, Haixia; He, Li; Huang, Hairong; Shi, Chengmin; Ni, Xumin; Dai, Guangming; Ma, Liang; Li, Weimin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes. Based on a robust lineage assignment, we tested the association between lineages and clinical characteristics by logistic regression. There are three major lineages of M. tuberculosis prevalent in Xinjiang, viz. the East Asian Lineage 2 (42.1%; 56/133), the Euro-American Lineage 4 (33.1%; 44/133), and the Indian and East African Lineage 3 (24.8%; 33/133); two lineages prevalent in Gansu province, which are the Lineage 2 (87%; 47/54) and the Lineage 4 (13%; 7/54). The topological structures of the MLSA-based phylogeny support the LSP-based identification of M. tuberculosis lineages. The statistical results suggest an association between the Lineage 2 and the hemoptysis/bloody sputum symptom, fever in Uygur patients. The pathogenicity of the Lineage 2 remains to be further investigated.
Mehra, Rukmankesh; Rajput, Vikrant Singh; Gupta, Monika; Chib, Reena; Kumar, Amit; Wazir, Priya; Khan, Inshad Ali; Nargotra, Amit
Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (Mtb-SK) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids through the shikimate pathway. Since it is proven to be essential for the survival of the microbe and is absent from mammals, it is a promising target for anti-TB drug discovery. In this study, a combined approach of in silico similarity search and pharmacophore building using already reported inhibitors was used to screen a procured library of 20,000 compounds of the commercially available ChemBridge database. From the in silico screening, 15 hits were identified, and these hits were evaluated in vitro for Mtb-SK enzyme inhibition. Two compounds presented significant enzyme inhibition with IC50 values of 10.69 ± 0.9 and 46.22 ± 1.2 μM. The best hit was then evaluated for the in vitro mode of inhibition where it came out to be an uncompetitive and noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to shikimate (SKM) and ATP, respectively, suggesting its binding at an allosteric site. Potential binding sites of Mtb-SK were identified which confirmed the presence of an allosteric binding pocket apart from the ATP and SKM binding sites. The docking simulations were performed at this pocket in order to find the mode of binding of the best hit in the presence of substrates and the products of the enzymatic reaction. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations elucidated the probability of inhibitor binding at the allosteric site in the presence of ADP and shikimate-3-phosphate (S-3-P), that is, after the formation of products of the reaction. The inhibitor binding may prevent the release of the product from Mtb-SK, thereby inhibiting its activity. The binding stability and the key residue interactions of the inhibitor to this product complex were also revealed by the MD simulations. Residues ARG43, ILE45, and PHE57 were identified as crucial that were involved in interactions with the best hit. This is the first report of an allosteric binding site of Mtb-SK, which
Torrey, Heather L.; Keren, Iris; Via, Laura E.; Lee, Jong Seok; Lewis, Kim
Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms drug-tolerant persister cells that are the probable cause of its recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. While genetically identical to the rest of the population, persisters are dormant, which protects them from killing by bactericidal antibiotics. The mechanism of persister formation in M. tuberculosis is not well understood. In this study, we selected for high persister (hip) mutants and characterized them by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis. In parallel, we identified and characterized clinical isolates that naturally produce high levels of persisters. We compared the hip mutants obtained in vitro with clinical isolates to identify candidate persister genes. Genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, toxin-antitoxin systems, and transcriptional regulators were among those identified. We also found that clinical hip isolates exhibited greater ex vivo survival than the low persister isolates. Our data suggest that M. tuberculosis persister formation involves multiple pathways, and hip mutants may contribute to the recalcitrance of the infection. PMID:27176494
Gill, Wendy P; Harik, Nada S; Whiddon, Molly R; Liao, Reiling P; Mittler, John E; Sherman, David R
Few tools exist to assess replication of chronic pathogens during infection. This has been a considerable barrier to understanding latent tuberculosis, and efforts to develop new therapies generally assume that the bacteria are very slowly replicating or nonreplicating during latency1–3. To monitor Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication within hosts, we exploit an unstable plasmid that is lost at a steady, quantifiable rate from dividing cells in the absence of antibiotic selection. By applying a mathematical model, we calculate bacterial growth and death rates during infection of mice. We show that during chronic infection the cumulative bacterial burden—enumerating total live, dead and removed organisms encountered by the mouse lung—is substantially higher than estimates from colony forming units. Our data show that M. tuberculosis replicates throughout the course of chronic infection of mice and is restrained by the host immune system. This approach may also shed light on the replication dynamics of other chronic pathogens. PMID:19182798
Cell-surface saccharides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear to be crucial factors in tuberculosis pathogenicity and could be useful antigens in tuberculosis immunodiagnosis. In the present study, we report the successful antigenic and immunogenic mimicry of mannose-containing cell-wall compounds of M. tuberculosis by dodecamer peptides identified by phage-display technology. Using a rabbit antiserum raised against M. tuberculosis cell-surface saccharides as a target for biopanning, peptides with three different consensus sequences were identified. Phage-displayed and chemically synthesized peptides bound to the anticarbohydrate antiserum. Rabbit antibodies elicited against the peptide QEPLMGTVPIRAGGGS recognize the mannosylated M. tuberculosis cell-wall antigens arabinomannan and lipoarabinomannan, and the glycosylated recombinant protein alanine/proline-rich antigen. Furthermore, antibodies were also able to react with mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not with phosphatidylinositol dimannosides or arabinogalactan from mycobacteria. These results suggest that the immunogenic peptide mimics oligomannosidic epitopes. Interestingly, this report provides evidence that, in contrast with previously known carbohydrate mimotopes, no aromatic residues are necessary in a peptide sequence for mimicking unusual glycoconjugates synthesized by mycobacteria. The possible usefulness of the identified peptide mimotopes as surrogate reagents for immunodiagnosis and for the study of functional roles of the native non-peptide epitopes is discussed. PMID:15560754
... Tuberculosis; Meeting The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for... Airborne Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Time and Date: 1 p.m.-5 p.m., March 29, 1994. Place: Alice Hamilton... peer review of a NIOSH project entitled ``Method Development For Airborne Mycobacterium...
Segura, C; Salvadó, M
Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.
Pai, Madhukar; Behr, Marcel
The identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is useful for both fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and for clinical and public health interventions (i.e., to prevent progression to disease). Basic research suggests there is a pathogenetic continuum from exposure to infection to disease, and individuals may advance or reverse positions within the spectrum, depending on changes in the host immunity. Unfortunately, there is no diagnostic test that resolves the various stages within the spectrum of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Two main immune-based approaches are currently used for identification of LTBI: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). TST can use either the conventional purified protein derivative or more specific antigens. Extensive research suggests that both TST and IGRA represent indirect markers of M. tuberculosis exposure and indicates a cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis. The imperfect concordance between these two tests suggests that neither test is perfect, presumably due to both technical and biological reasons. Neither test can accurately differentiate between LTBI and active TB. Both IGRA and TST have low sensitivity in a variety of immunocompromised populations. Cohort studies have shown that both TST and IGRA have low predictive value for progression from infection to active TB. For fundamental applications, basic research is necessary to identify those at highest risk of disease with a positive TST and/or IGRA. For clinical applications, the identification of such biomarkers can help prioritize efforts to interrupt progression to disease through preventive therapy.
Direct Application of the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB Line-Probe Assay for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains and Detection of Rifampin Resistance in 360 Smear-Positive Respiratory Specimens from an Area of High Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Rodrigues, Liliana; Almeida, Josefina; Bettencourt, Rosário; Couto, Isabel; Carrilho, Lurdes; Diogo, José; Fonseca, Ana; Lito, Luís; Lopes, João; Pacheco, Teresa; Pessanha, Mariana; Quirim, Judite; Sancho, Luísa; Salfinger, Max; Amaral, Leonard
The INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains and the detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance has been evaluated with 360 smear-positive respiratory specimens from an area of high incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The sensitivity when compared to conventional identification/culture methods was 82.2%, and the specificity was 66.7%; the sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.9%, respectively, for the detection of RIF resistance. This assay has the potential to provide rapid information that is essential for the effective management of MDR-TB. PMID:16145166
Djelouadji, Zoheira; Arnold, Catherine; Gharbia, Saheer; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
Background Genotyping methods developed to survey the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently rely on the interpretation of restriction and amplification profiles. Multispacer sequence typing (MST) genotyping is based on the sequencing of several intergenic regions selected after complete genome sequence analysis. It has been applied to various pathogens, but not to M. tuberculosis. Methods and Findings In M. tuberculosis, the MST approach yielded eight variable intergenic spacers which included four previously described variable number tandem repeat loci, one single nucleotide polymorphism locus and three newly evaluated spacers. Spacer sequence stability was evaluated by serial subculture. The eight spacers were sequenced in a collection of 101 M. tuberculosis strains from five phylogeographical lineages, and yielded 29 genetic events including 13 tandem repeat number variations (44.82%), 11 single nucleotide mutations (37.93%) and 5 deletions (17.24%). These 29 genetic events yielded 32 spacer alleles or spacer-types (ST) with an index of discrimination of 0.95. The distribution of M. tuberculosis isolates into ST profiles correlated with their assignment into phylogeographical lineages. Blind comparison of a further 93 M. tuberculosis strains by MST and restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 fingerprinting and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units typing, yielded an index of discrimination of 0.961 and 0.992, respectively. MST yielded 41 different profiles delineating 16 related groups and proved to be more discriminatory than IS6110-based typing for isolates containing <8 IS6110 copies (P<0.0003). MST was successfully applied to 7/10 clinical specimens exhibiting a Cts ≤ 42 cycles in internal transcribed spacer-real time PCR. Conclusions These results support MST as an alternative, sequencing-based method for genotyping low IS6110 copy-number M. tuberculosis strains. The M. tuberculosis MST database is freely available
Johne’s disease, a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), is endemic in dairy cattle and other ruminants worldwide and remains a challenge to diagnose using traditional serological methods. Given the close phylogenetic relations...
Hühns, Maja; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Obliers, Annette; Röpenack, Paula
University anatomical-pathological collections represent huge sources of human tissues and preparations from a variety of different diseases. With the help of modern genetic and histological methods, preserved fixed tissues from pathological collections can be used to re-evaluate former diagnoses. We analysed 25 specimens from our pathological collection with ages ranging from 78 to 112 years. The tissues originated from the oral cavity, lip, tongue, lung, bone, kidney, spleen, thymus, larynx, lymph node, penis and uterine cervix with an original diagnosis of epithelial cancers or tuberculosis. Amplifiable DNA was extracted and in epithelial cancers, potential HPV infection was investigated. Specimens with an original diagnosis of tuberculosis were examined for mycobacterial infection. The tissues were also examined using modern histological methods. Our data showed that in 24/25 specimens the histological structure was preserved and in 10/11 specimens the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma could be confirmed. Additionally, HPV type 16 was detected in 8 specimens. The histological pattern of tuberculosis was found in 11/14 specimens and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was ascertained in four specimens. Our study showed that pathogens such as HPV or Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be detected in historical pathological preparations, and that these collections are suitable for further epidemiological research. PMID:28114406
Bernardelli, Amelia; Morcillo, Nora; Loureiro, Julio; Quse, Viviana; Davenport, Silvana
Mycobacteria strains belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were isolated from seals found in the South Atlantic. The animals were received in Mundo Marino installations and treated for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by conventional therapy of intensive care and enriched food supply; however, in all cases treatment failed. Necropsies of all animals revealed extensive lesions compatible with tuberculosis involving lungs, liver, spleen and lymphatic nodes. Classical biochemical methods as well as molecular techniques using the IS6110 probes were performed for mycobacterial identification. Furthermore, the LCx M. tuberculosis assay (Abbott Laboratories) identified all strains as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members. The in vitro susceptibility pattern was examined in mycobacterial strains isolated from seven seals and in 3 reference strains--BCG, H37Rv (M. tuberculosis) and AN5 (Mycobacterium bovis)--to 4 medications--isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin and ethambutol. Minimal inhibitory drug concentrations were determined by the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (BD Argentina) method and a microdilution and colorimetric assay using 3-(4-5 dimethyltiazol-2)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide. All the isolates and the reference strains BCG and AN5 were inhibited by MIC values similar to those of H37Rv with good agreement obtained by both techniques. These findings suggest that a therapeutic regimen aimed to seals diagnosed with tuberculosis play an important role in the prevention of tuberculosis transmission from infected animals to humans that are in routine contact with them.
Minassian, Angela M; Satti, Iman; Poulton, Ian D; Meyer, Joel; Hill, Adrian V S; McShane, Helen
There is currently no safe human challenge model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to enable proof-of-concept efficacy evaluation of candidate vaccines against tuberculosis. In vivo antimycobacterial immunity could be assessed using intradermal Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination as a surrogate for M. tuberculosis infection. Healthy BCG-naive and BCG-vaccinated volunteers were challenged with intradermal BCG. BCG load was quantified from skin biopsy specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture colony-forming units. Cellular infiltrate was isolated by suction blisters and examined by flow cytometry. Prechallenge immune readouts were correlated with BCG load after challenge. In BCG-naive volunteers, live BCG was detected at the challenge site for up to 4 weeks and peaked at 2 weeks. Infiltration of mainly CD15(+) neutrophils was observed in blister fluid. In previously BCG-vaccinated individuals, PCR analysis of skin biopsy specimens reflected a degree of mycobacterial immunity. There was no significant correlation between BCG load after challenge and mycobacterial-specific memory T cells measured before challenge by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assay. This novel experimental human challenge model provides a platform for the identification of correlates of antimycobacterial immunity and will greatly facilitate the rational down-selection of candidate tuberculosis vaccines. Further evaluation of this model with BCG and new vaccine candidates is warranted.
Kelkar, Dhanashree S; Kumar, Dhirendra; Kumar, Praveen; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Muthusamy, Babylakshmi; Yadav, Amit Kumar; Shrivastava, Priyanka; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Anand, Sridhar; Sundaram, Hema; Kingsbury, Reena; Harsha, H C; Nair, Bipin; Prasad, T S Keshava; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Katoch, Kiran; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Kumar, Prahlad; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Dash, Debasis; Pandey, Akhilesh
The genome sequencing of H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was completed in 1998 followed by the whole genome sequencing of a clinical isolate, CDC1551 in 2002. Since then, the genomic sequences of a number of other strains have become available making it one of the better studied pathogenic bacterial species at the genomic level. However, annotation of its genome remains challenging because of high GC content and dissimilarity to other model prokaryotes. To this end, we carried out an in-depth proteogenomic analysis of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain using Fourier transform mass spectrometry with high resolution at both MS and tandem MS levels. In all, we identified 3176 proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis representing ~80% of its total predicted gene count. In addition to protein database search, we carried out a genome database search, which led to identification of ~250 novel peptides. Based on these novel genome search-specific peptides, we discovered 41 novel protein coding genes in the H37Rv genome. Using peptide evidence and alternative gene prediction tools, we also corrected 79 gene models. Finally, mass spectrometric data from N terminus-derived peptides confirmed 727 existing annotations for translational start sites while correcting those for 33 proteins. We report creation of a high confidence set of protein coding regions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome obtained by high resolution tandem mass-spectrometry at both precursor and fragment detection steps for the first time. This proteogenomic approach should be generally applicable to other organisms whose genomes have already been sequenced for obtaining a more accurate catalogue of protein-coding genes.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly infectious pathogen that is still responsible for millions of deaths annually. Effectively treating this disease typically requires a course of antibiotics, most of which were developed decades ago. These drugs are, however, not effective against persistent tubercle bacilli and the emergence of drug-resistant stains threatens to make many of them obsolete. The identification of new drug targets, allowing the development of new potential drugs, is therefore imperative. Both proteomics and structural biology have important roles to play in this process, the former as a means of identifying promising drug targets and the latter allowing understanding of protein function and protein–drug interactions at atomic resolution. The determination of M. tuberculosis protein structures has been a goal of the scientific community for the last decade, who have aimed to supply a large amount of structural data that can be used in structure-based approaches for drug discovery and design. Only since the genome sequence of M. tuberculosis has been available has the determination of large numbers of tuberculosis protein structures been possible. Currently, the molecular structures of 8.5% of all the pathogen's protein-encoding ORFs have been determined. In this review, we look at the progress made in determining the M. tuberculosis structural proteome and the impact this has had on the development of potential new drugs, as well as the discovery of the function of crucial mycobaterial proteins. PMID:21674801
JACOBS, WILLIAM R.
Infectious diseases have plagued humankind throughout history and have posed serious public health problems. Yet vaccines have eradicated smallpox and antibiotics have drastically decreased the mortality rate of many infectious agents. These remarkable successes in the control of infections came from knowing the causative agents of the diseases, followed by serendipitous discoveries of attenuated viruses and antibiotics. The discovery of DNA as genetic material and the understanding of how this information translates into specific phenotypes have changed the paradigm for developing new vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic tests. Knowledge of the mechanisms of immunity and mechanisms of action of drugs has led to new vaccines and new antimicrobial agents. The key to the acquisition of the knowledge of these mechanisms has been identifying the elemental causes (i.e., genes and their products) that mediate immunity and drug resistance. The identification of these genes is made possible by being able to transfer the genes or mutated forms of the genes into causative agents or surrogate hosts. Such an approach was limited in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the difficulty of transferring genes or alleles into M. tuberculosis or a suitable surrogate mycobacterial host. The construction of shuttle phasmids—chimeric molecules that replicate in Escherichia coli as plasmids and in mycobacteria as mycobacteriophages—was instrumental in developing gene transfer systems for M. tuberculosis. This review will discuss M. tuberculosis genetic systems and their impact on tuberculosis research. “I had to know my enemy in order to prevail against him.”Nelson Mandela PMID:26105819
Denkinger, Claudia M.; Kik, Sandra V.; Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Zwerling, Alice; Oxlade, Olivia; Metcalfe, John Z.; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Dowdy, David W.; Dheda, Keertan; Banaei, Niaz
SUMMARY Identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can substantially reduce the risk of developing active disease. However, there is no diagnostic gold standard for LTBI. Two tests are available for identification of LTBI: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA). Evidence suggests that both TST and IGRA are acceptable but imperfect tests. They represent indirect markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure and indicate a cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis. Neither test can accurately differentiate between LTBI and active TB, distinguish reactivation from reinfection, or resolve the various stages within the spectrum of M. tuberculosis infection. Both TST and IGRA have reduced sensitivity in immunocompromised patients and have low predictive value for progression to active TB. To maximize the positive predictive value of existing tests, LTBI screening should be reserved for those who are at sufficiently high risk of progressing to disease. Such high-risk individuals may be identifiable by using multivariable risk prediction models that incorporate test results with risk factors and using serial testing to resolve underlying phenotypes. In the longer term, basic research is necessary to identify highly predictive biomarkers. PMID:24396134
Simpson, Gary; Zimmerman, Ralph; Shashkina, Elena; Chen, Liang; Richard, Michael; Bradford, Carol M.; Dragoo, Gwen A.; Saiers, Rhonda L.; Peloquin, Charles A.; Daley, Charles L.; Planet, Paul; Narachenia, Apurva; Mathema, Barun
Although awareness of tuberculosis among captive elephants is increasing, antituberculosis therapy for these animals is not standardized. We describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between captive elephants based on whole genome analysis and report a successful combination treatment. Infection control protocols and careful monitoring of treatment of captive elephants with tuberculosis are warranted. PMID:28221115
Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, A
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective first-line anti-TB drugs. Here, we designed and produced antibodies based on biomarkers that exist only in MDR-TB. Bacilli were cultured for 4weeks at 37°C, and protein extraction was performed by sequential extraction. Bacterial cells were sonicated, centrifuged at 5000rpm for 45min, and the supernatant was collected and subjected to multiple rounds of treatment to prior to protein isolation. Protein concentration was determined using the Bradford method, and extracted proteins (50μg) from each strain (drug-sensitive- and MDR-TB isolates) were visualized on polyacrylamide gels (5-15%) with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 staining. Three extracts were mixed and dialyzed against 0.1M ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0), followed by mass spectrometry. Specific polyclonal antibodies against purified MDR-TB proteins were purified by affinity chromatography and prepared in rabbits using three booster injections. The ELIZA test was performed for evaluation the antibody production. The antibody was treated with normal oral flora to remove any non specificity and cross reactivity. Analyses of different protein patterns (drug-sensitive- and MDR-TB) were performed by western blot. Our revealed that the MDR-TB strains contained specific antigens, and that the protein profiles of drug-sensitive TB strains differed from those of the MDR-TB isolates. Five bands from the MDR-TB fractions were detected as diagnostic antigens and were not observed in drug-sensitive-TB fractions. Western blot results showed that the MDR-TB antigenic fractions showed immunogenic bands at 50.0kDa and 70.0kDa, with the five antigenic MDR-TB-specific bands were identified as Rv3248c, Rv0350, Rv0440, Rv0475, and Rv3588c. Western blot data revealed dynamic properties of antibody responses that led to actionable findings for further research. Moreover
Yates, Tom A; Khan, Palwasha Y; Knight, Gwenan M; Taylor, Jonathon G; McHugh, Timothy D; Lipman, Marc; White, Richard G; Cohen, Ted; Cobelens, Frank G; Wood, Robin; Moore, David A J; Abubakar, Ibrahim
Unacceptable levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission are noted in high burden settings and a renewed focus on reducing person-to-person transmission in these communities is needed. We review recent developments in the understanding of airborne transmission. We outline approaches to measure transmission in populations and trials and describe the Wells-Riley equation, which is used to estimate transmission risk in indoor spaces. Present research priorities include the identification of effective strategies for tuberculosis infection control, improved understanding of where transmission occurs and the transmissibility of drug-resistant strains, and estimates of the effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on transmission dynamics. When research is planned and interventions are designed to interrupt transmission, resource constraints that are common in high burden settings-including shortages of health-care workers-must be considered.
Coddeville, Bernadette; Wu, Sz-Wei; Fabre, Emeline; Brassart, Colette; Rombouts, Yoann; Burguière, Adeline; Kremer, Laurent; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Elass-Rochard, Elisabeth; Guérardel, Yann
The 45/47 kDa Apa, an immuno-dominant antigen secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is O-mannosylated at multiple sites. Glycosylation of Apa plays a key role in colonization and invasion of the host cells by M. tuberculosis through interactions of Apa with the host immune system C-type lectins. Mycobacterium marinum (M.ma) a fish pathogen, phylogenetically close to M. tuberculosis, induces a granulomatous response with features similar to those described for M. tuberculosis in human. Although M.ma possesses an Apa homologue, its glycosylation status is unknown, and whether this represents a crucial element in the pathophysiology induced by M.ma remains to be addressed. To this aim, we have identified two concanavalin A-reactive 45/47 kDa proteins from M.ma, which have been further purified by a two-step anion exchange chromatography process. Advanced liquid chromatography-nanoESI mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of peptides, derived from either tryptic digestion alone or in combination with the Asp-N endoproteinase, established that M.ma Apa possesses up to seven distinct O-mannosylated sites with mainly single mannose substitutions, which can be further extended at the Ser/Thr/Pro rich region near the N-terminus. This opens the way to further studies focussing on the involvement and biological functions of Apa O-mannosylation using the M.ma/zebrafish model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malm, Sven; Linguissi, Laure S. Ghoma; Tekwu, Emmanuel M.; Vouvoungui, Jeannhey C.; Kohl, Thomas A.; Beckert, Patrick; Sidibe, Anissa; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Madzou-Laboum, Igor K.; Kwedi, Sylvie; Penlap Beng, Véronique; Frank, Matthias; Ntoumi, Francine
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of illness and death in Congo. No data are available about the population structure and transmission dynamics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains prevalent in this central Africa country. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected by whole-genome sequencing, we phylogenetically characterized 74 MTBC isolates from Brazzaville, the capital of Congo. The diversity of the study population was high; most strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage, which split into Latin American Mediterranean, Uganda I, Uganda II, Haarlem, X type, and a new dominant sublineage named Congo type (n = 26). Thirty strains were grouped in 5 clusters (each within 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms), from which 23 belonged to the Congo type. High cluster rates and low genomic diversity indicate recent emergence and transmission of the Congo type, a new Euro-American sublineage of MTBC. PMID:28221129
Warner, Digby F; Koch, Anastasia; Mizrahi, Valerie
The increasing availability of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), suggests that circulating genotypes have been molded by three dominant evolutionary forces: long-term persistence within the human population, which requires a core programme of infection, disease, and transmission; selective pressure on specific genomic loci, which provides evidence of lineage-specific adaptation to host populations; and drug exposure, which has driven the rapid emergence of resistant isolates following the global implementation of anti-TB chemotherapy. Here, we provide an overview of these factors in considering the implications of genotypic diversity for disease pathogenesis, vaccine efficacy, and drug treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Botelho, Ana; Perdigão, João; Canto, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Leal, Nuno; Macedo, Rita; Portugal, Isabel; Cunha, Mónica V
Resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin was detected in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, belonging to the Beijing family lineage, isolated from two nodule exudates of a Yorkshire terrier with generalized tuberculosis. This report alerts medical practitioners to the risk of dissemination of pre-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (preMDR-TB) through exposure to M. tuberculosis-shedding pets.
Perdigão, João; Canto, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Leal, Nuno; Macedo, Rita; Portugal, Isabel; Cunha, Mónica V.
Resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin was detected in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, belonging to the Beijing family lineage, isolated from two nodule exudates of a Yorkshire terrier with generalized tuberculosis. This report alerts medical practitioners to the risk of dissemination of pre-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (preMDR-TB) through exposure to M. tuberculosis-shedding pets. PMID:24153119
Srilohasin, Prapaporn; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nishida, Nao; Prammananan, Therdsak; Smittipat, Nat; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Chaiyasirinroje, Boonchai; Yanai, Hideki; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit
This study examined the genetic diversity and dynamicity of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Thailand using nearly neutral molecular markers. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes of 1,414 culture-positive M. tuberculosis isolates from 1,282 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 132 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients collected from 1995 to 2011 were characterized. Among the eight SNP cluster groups (SCG), SCG2 (44.1%), which included the Beijing (BJ) genotype, and SCG1 (39.4%), an East African Indian genotype, were dominant. Comparisons between the genotypes of M. tuberculosis isolates causing PTB and EPTB in HIV-negative cases revealed similar prevalence trends although genetic diversity was higher in the PTB patients. The identification of 10 reported sequence types (STs) and three novel STs was hypothesized to indicate preferential expansion of the SCG2 genotype, especially the modern BJ ST10 (15.6%) and ancestral BJ ST19 (13.1%). An association between SCG2 and SCG1 genotypes and particular patient age groups implies the existence of different genetic advantages among the bacterial populations. The results revealed that increasing numbers of young patients were infected with M. tuberculosis SCGs 2 and 5, which contrasts with the reduction of the SCG1 genotype. Our results indicate the selection and dissemination of potent M. tuberculosis genotypes in this population. The determination of heterogeneity and dynamic population changes of circulating M. tuberculosis strains in countries using the Mycobacterium bovis BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine are beneficial for vaccine development and control strategies. PMID:25297330
Srilohasin, Prapaporn; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nishida, Nao; Prammananan, Therdsak; Smittipat, Nat; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Chaiyasirinroje, Boonchai; Yanai, Hideki; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit
This study examined the genetic diversity and dynamicity of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Thailand using nearly neutral molecular markers. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes of 1,414 culture-positive M. tuberculosis isolates from 1,282 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 132 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients collected from 1995 to 2011 were characterized. Among the eight SNP cluster groups (SCG), SCG2 (44.1%), which included the Beijing (BJ) genotype, and SCG1 (39.4%), an East African Indian genotype, were dominant. Comparisons between the genotypes of M. tuberculosis isolates causing PTB and EPTB in HIV-negative cases revealed similar prevalence trends although genetic diversity was higher in the PTB patients. The identification of 10 reported sequence types (STs) and three novel STs was hypothesized to indicate preferential expansion of the SCG2 genotype, especially the modern BJ ST10 (15.6%) and ancestral BJ ST19 (13.1%). An association between SCG2 and SCG1 genotypes and particular patient age groups implies the existence of different genetic advantages among the bacterial populations. The results revealed that increasing numbers of young patients were infected with M. tuberculosis SCGs 2 and 5, which contrasts with the reduction of the SCG1 genotype. Our results indicate the selection and dissemination of potent M. tuberculosis genotypes in this population. The determination of heterogeneity and dynamic population changes of circulating M. tuberculosis strains in countries using the Mycobacterium bovis BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine are beneficial for vaccine development and control strategies.
Arnvig, Kristine; Young, Douglas
It is estimated that one third of the human population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Efforts to understand the molecular basis of its gene regulation have been focused on identification of protein encoding genes and regulons implicated in pathogenesis. Recently, a number of studies have described the identification of several non-coding RNAs that are likely to contribute significantly to the regulatory networks responsible for adaptation and virulence in M. tuberculosis. We have reviewed emerging information on the presence and abundance of different types of non-coding RNA in M. tuberculosis and consider their potential contribution to the adaptive responses that underlie disease pathogenesis.
Baghban, Adam; Azar, Marwan Mikheal; Bernardo, Raffaele Mario; Malinis, Maricar
Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents unique challenges in the peritransplant period. Here, we describe a case of disseminated tuberculosis following renal transplantation with alemtuzumab induction immunosuppression in a patient with remotely treated pulmonary tuberculosis and ongoing risk factors for re-infection. We also review the available literature regarding the prevalence of tuberculosis infection following solid organ transplant and management of high-risk patients, including the role for isoniazid preventative therapy. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Costa, Pedro; Amaro, Ana; Ferreira, Ana S; Machado, Diana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Couto, Isabel; Botelho, Ana; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are causative agents of tuberculosis (TB) in both humans and animals. MTC species are genetically very similar but may differ in their epidemiology, namely geographic distribution and host preferences, virulence traits and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. However, the conventional laboratory diagnosis does not routinely differentiate between the species of the MTC. In this work we describe a rapid and robust two-step five-target probe-based real-time PCR identification algorithm, based on genomic deletion analysis, to identify the MTC species most commonly associated with TB in livestock and other animals. The first step allows the confirmation of the cultures as MTC members, by targeting their IS6110 element, or as a mycobacterial species, if only a 16S rDNA product is detected in the duplex amplification reaction. If a MTC member is identified, the second amplification step allows the assessment of the presence or absence of the RD1, RD4 and RD9 genomic regions. The correspondent pattern allows us to infer the species of the isolate as M. tuberculosis (if all RDs are present), Mycobacterium caprae (if only RD1 and RD4 are present) and Mycobacterium bovis (if only RD1 is present). The identification algorithm developed presented an almost perfect agreement with the results of the routine bacteriological analysis, with a kappa coefficient of 0.970 (CI(P95%) 0.929-1.000). The assay is able to be adaptable to automation and implementation in the routine diagnostic framework of veterinary diagnostic laboratories, with a particular focus for reference laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bilgin, Kemal; Yanik, Keramettin; Karadağ, Adil; Odabaşi, Hakan; Taş, Hakan; Günaydin, Murat
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still a major health problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Disease control heavily depends on the establishment of early diagnosis. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of culture, GeneXpert MTB/RIF device, and Erlich-Ziehl-Neelsen direct microscopic method. A total of 927 samples (243 respiratory and 684 nonrespiratory), which were sent to Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty Tuberculosis Laboratory on suspicion of M. tuberculosis, were included in the study. When compared to standard culture, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the GeneXpert system for respiratory samples were 100%, 98.7%, 87%, and 100%, respectively; these values for nonrespiratory samples were 71%, 98.6%, 71%, and 98.6%, respectively. New, reliable, rapid, and easy-to-use methods that display high specificity and sensitivity are required for an effective struggle against tuberculosis. According to these results, we suggest that GeneXpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and reliable system, and when used in company with conventional tests, it would make significant contributions to the diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Murakami, Patricia Sayuri; Monego, Fernanda; Ho, John L; Gibson, Andrea; Vilani, Ricardo Guilherme D'Otaviano de Castro; Soresini, Grazielle Cristina Garcia; Brockelt, Sonia Regina; Biesdorf, Sonia Maria; Fuverki, Renata Benicio Neves; Nakatani, Sueli Massumi; Riediger, Irina Nastassja; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; do Santos, Andrea Pires; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which includes Mycobacterium bovis, infrequently causes severe or lethal disease in captive wildlife populations. A dead coati from a wildlife triage center showing pulmonary lesions compatible with tuberculosis had raised suspicion of a potential disease caused by mycobacteria species and was further investigated. Four native coatis (Nasua nasua) with suspected mycobacterial infection were sedated, and bronchoalveolar lavages and tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) were performed. All animals tested positive upon TST. Mycobacterial culturing, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and genetic testing were performed on postmortem samples and the etiologic agent was identified as M. bovis. Molecular genetic identification using a polymerase chain reaction panel was crucial to achieving a definitive diagnosis.
Chang, Jennifer C; Miner, Maurine D; Pandey, Amit K; Gill, Wendy P; Harik, Nada S; Sassetti, Christopher M; Sherman, David R
Recently, cholesterol was identified as a physiologically important nutrient for Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in chronically infected mice. However, it remained unclear precisely when cholesterol is available to the bacterium and what additional bacterial functions are required for its metabolism. Here, we show that the igr locus, which we previously found to be essential for intracellular growth and virulence of M. tuberculosis, is required for cholesterol metabolism. While igr-deficient strains grow identically to the wild type in the presence of short- and long-chain fatty acids, the growth of these bacteria is completely inhibited in the presence of cholesterol. Interestingly, this mutant is still able to respire under cholesterol-dependent growth inhibition, suggesting that the bacteria can metabolize other carbon sources during cholesterol toxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that the growth-inhibitory effect of cholesterol in vitro depends on cholesterol import, as mutation of the mce4 sterol uptake system partially suppresses this effect. In addition, the Delta igr mutant growth defect during the early phase of disease is completely suppressed by mutating mce4, implicating cholesterol intoxication as the primary mechanism of attenuation. We conclude that M. tuberculosis metabolizes cholesterol throughout infection.
Lerner, Thomas R.; Repnik, Urska; Herbst, Susanne; Collinson, Lucy M.; Griffiths, Gareth
Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulation of macrophage cell death is a well-documented phenomenon, but its role during bacterial replication is less characterized. In this study, we investigate the impact of plasma membrane (PM) integrity on bacterial replication in different functional populations of human primary macrophages. We discovered that IFN-γ enhanced bacterial replication in macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages more than in granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages. We show that permissiveness in the different populations of macrophages to bacterial growth is the result of a differential ability to preserve PM integrity. By combining live-cell imaging, correlative light electron microscopy, and single-cell analysis, we found that after infection, a population of macrophages became necrotic, providing a niche for M. tuberculosis replication before escaping into the extracellular milieu. Thus, in addition to bacterial dissemination, necrotic cells provide first a niche for bacterial replication. Our results are relevant to understanding the environment of M. tuberculosis replication in the host. PMID:28242744
Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia; Yang, Guibin; Shashkina, Elena; Manca, Claudia; Mehaffy, Carolina; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Ahuja, Shama; Fallows, Dorothy A.; Izzo, Angelo; Bifani, Pablo; Dobos, Karen; Kaplan, Gilla
Background. Evidence from genotype-phenotype studies suggests that genetic diversity in pathogens have clinically relevant manifestations that can impact outcome of infection and epidemiologic success. We studied 5 closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that collectively caused extensive disease (n = 862), particularly among US-born tuberculosis patients. Methods. Representative isolates were selected using population-based genotyping data from New York City and New Jersey. Growth and cytokine/chemokine response were measured in infected human monocytes. Survival was determined in aerosol-infected guinea pigs. Results. Multiple genotyping methods and phylogenetically informative synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms showed that all strains were related by descent. In axenic culture, all strains grew similarly. However, infection of monocytes revealed 2 growth phenotypes, slower (doubling ∼55 hours) and faster (∼25 hours). The faster growing strains elicited more tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β than the slower growing strains, even after heat killing, and caused accelerated death of infected guinea pigs (∼9 weeks vs 24 weeks) associated with increased lung inflammation/pathology. Epidemiologically, the faster growing strains were associated with human immunodeficiency virus and more limited in spread, possibly related to their inherent ability to induce a strong protective innate immune response in immune competent hosts. Conclusions. Natural variation, with detectable phenotypic changes, among closely related clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis may alter epidemiologic patterns in human populations. PMID:22315279
Nimmo, Camus; Doyle, Ronan; Burgess, Carrie; Williams, Rachel; Gorton, Rebecca; McHugh, Timothy D; Brown, Mike; Morris-Jones, Stephen; Booth, Helen; Breuer, Judith
Resistance to second-line tuberculosis drugs is common, but slow to diagnose with phenotypic drug sensitivity testing. Rapid molecular tests speed up diagnosis, but can only detect limited mutations. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of culture isolates can generate a complete genetic drug resistance profile, but is delayed by the initial culture step. In the case presented here, successful WGS directly from sputum was achieved using targeted enrichment. A 29-year-old Nigerian woman was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Xpert MTB/RIF and Hain line probe assays identified rpoB and inhA mutations consistent with rifampicin and intermediate isoniazid resistance, and a further possible mutation conferring fluoroquinolone resistance. WGS directly from sputum identified a further inhA mutation consistent with high-level isoniazid resistance and confirmed the absence of fluoroquinolone resistance. Isoniazid was stopped, and the patient has completed 18 months of a fluoroquinolone-based regimen without relapse. Compared to rapid molecular tests (which can only examine a limited number of mutations) and WGS of culture isolates (which requires a culture step), WGS directly from sputum can quickly generate a complete genetic drug resistance profile. In this case, WGS altered the clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis and demonstrated potential for guiding individualized drug treatment where second-line drug resistance is common. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Molecular Detection and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Four Clinically Important Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Species in Smear-Negative Clinical Samples by the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct Test ▿
Bicmen, Can; Gunduz, Ayriz T.; Coskun, Meral; Senol, Gunes; Cirak, A. Kadri; Ozsoz, Ayse
Although the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid amplification assays are high with smear-positive samples, the sensitivity with smear-negative and extrapulmonary samples for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in suspicious tuberculosis cases still remains to be investigated. This study evaluates the performance of the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct (GTMD) test for rapid molecular detection and identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and four clinically important nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, and M. malmoense) in smear-negative samples. A total of 1,570 samples (1,103 bronchial aspiration, 127 sputum, and 340 extrapulmonary samples) were analyzed. When we evaluated the performance criteria in combination with a positive culture result and/or the clinical outcome of the patients, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were found to be 62.4, 99.5, 95.9, and 93.9%, respectively, whereas they were 63.2, 99.4, 95.7, and 92.8%, respectively, for pulmonary samples and 52.9, 100, 100, and 97.6%, respectively, for extrapulmonary samples. Among the culture-positive samples which had Mycobacterium species detectable by the GTMD test, three samples were identified to be M. intracellulare and one sample was identified to be M. avium. However, five M. intracellulare samples and an M. kansasii sample could not be identified by the molecular test and were found to be negative. The GTMD test has been a reliable, practical, and easy tool for rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis so that effective precautions may be taken and appropriate treatment may be initiated. However, the low sensitivity level should be considered in the differentiation of suspected tuberculosis and some other clinical condition until the culture result is found to be negative and a true picture of the clinical outcome is obtained. PMID:21653780
Lamichhane, Gyanu; Freundlich, Joel S.; Ekins, Sean; Wickramaratne, Niluka; Nolan, Scott T.; Bishai, William R.
An organism requires a range of biomolecules for its growth. By definition, these are essential molecules which constitute the basic metabolic requirements of an organism. A small organic molecule with chemical similarity to that of an essential metabolite may bind to the enzyme that catalyzes its production and inhibit it, likely resulting in the stasis or death of the organism. Here, we report a high-throughput approach for identifying essential metabolites of an organism using genetic and biochemical approaches and then implement computational approaches to identify metabolite mimics. We generated and genotyped 5,126 Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants and performed a statistical analysis to determine putative essential genes. The essential molecules of M. tuberculosis were classified as products of enzymes that are encoded by genes in this list. Although incomplete, as many enzymes of M. tuberculosis have yet to be identified and characterized, this is the first report of a large number of essential molecules of the organism. We identified essential metabolites of three distinct metabolic pathways in M. tuberculosis and selected molecules with chemical similarity using cheminformatics strategies that illustrate a variety of different pharmacophores. Our approach is aimed at systematic identification of essential molecules and their mimics as a blueprint for development of effective chemical probes of M. tuberculosis metabolism, with the ultimate goal of seeking drugs that can kill this pathogen. As an illustration of this approach, we report that compounds JFD01307SC and l-methionine-S-sulfoximine, which share chemical similarity with an essential molecule of M. tuberculosis, inhibited the growth of this organism at micromolar concentrations. PMID:21285434
Richter, Elvira; Weizenegger, Michael; Fahr, Anne-Marie; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine
A novel DNA strip assay, GenoType MTBC, was evaluated for differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species from 77 positive liquid cultures in clinical practice. Species identification (M. tuberculosis [71 strains], Mycobacterium bovis subsp. bovis [5 strains], and Mycobacterium africanum subtype I [1 strain]) results were identical to conventional results. The sensitivity was slightly higher for this test than for the AccuProbe assay. PMID:15365028
Kertcher, J A; Chen, M F; Charache, P; Hwangbo, C C; Camargo, E E; McIntyre, P A; Wagner, H N
A 48-hour radiometric test for determining the drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been developed. The test is based on the measurement of 14CO2 produced by the oxidation of formate labeled with carbon-14. The test system uses 5 X 10(7) organisms in 1 ml of Middlebrook 7H9 medium plus albumin-dextrose-catalase enrichment and 1 muCi of [14C]formate. The 14CO2 produced is measured in an ionization chamber at 24-, 48-, and 72-hour intervals, with and without the addition of antituberculous drugs. Isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampin, and ethambutol were each tested at 3 concentrations by the radiometric method and the reference (agar dilution) method. Six standard strains and 21 patient isolates were compared by both methods. Production of 14CO2 was quantitatively decreased in the presence of drugs that inhibit the organism. The radiometric method requires 2 days; the agar dilution, 14 to 21 days.
Brosch, R.; Gordon, S. V.; Marmiesse, M.; Brodin, P.; Buchrieser, C.; Eiglmeier, K.; Garnier, T.; Gutierrez, C.; Hewinson, G.; Kremer, K.; Parsons, L. M.; Pym, A. S.; Samper, S.; van Soolingen, D.; Cole, S. T.
The distribution of 20 variable regions resulting from insertion-deletion events in the genomes of the tubercle bacilli has been evaluated in a total of 100 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium microti, and Mycobacterium bovis. This approach showed that the majority of these polymorphisms did not occur independently in the different strains of the M. tuberculosis complex but, rather, resulted from ancient, irreversible genetic events in common progenitor strains. Based on the presence or absence of an M. tuberculosis specific deletion (TbD1), M. tuberculosis strains can be divided into ancestral and “modern” strains, the latter comprising representatives of major epidemics like the Beijing, Haarlem, and African M. tuberculosis clusters. Furthermore, successive loss of DNA, reflected by region of difference 9 and other subsequent deletions, was identified for an evolutionary lineage represented by M. africanum, M. microti, and M. bovis that diverged from the progenitor of the present M. tuberculosis strains before TbD1 occurred. These findings contradict the often-presented hypothesis that M. tuberculosis, the etiological agent of human tuberculosis evolved from M. bovis, the agent of bovine disease. M. canettii and ancestral M. tuberculosis strains lack none of these deleted regions, and, therefore, seem to be direct descendants of tubercle bacilli that existed before the M. africanum→M. bovis lineage separated from the M. tuberculosis lineage. This observation suggests that the common ancestor of the tubercle bacilli resembled M. tuberculosis or M. canettii and could well have been a human pathogen already. PMID:11891304
Shivashankar, Beechagondahalli Papanna; Umashankar, Kunigal Srinivasa; Nandini, Poojappa; Giridhar, Papanna; Byregowda, Somenahalli Munivenkatappa; Shrinivasa, Basavegowdanadoddi Marinaik
Postmortem examination of a wild Asian elephant at Rajiv Gandhi National Park, India, revealed nodular lesions, granulomas with central caseation, and acid-fast bacilli in the lungs. PCR and nucleotide sequencing confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study indicates that wild elephants can harbor M. tuberculosis that can become fatal. PMID:28221114
Zachariah, Arun; Pandiyan, Jeganathan; Madhavilatha, G.K.; Mundayoor, Sathish; Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Sajesh, P.K.; Santhosh, Sam
We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants. PMID:28221104
Zachariah, Arun; Pandiyan, Jeganathan; Madhavilatha, G K; Mundayoor, Sathish; Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Sajesh, P K; Santhosh, Sam; Mikota, Susan K
We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants.
Mgode, Georgies F; Cohen-Bacrie, Stéphan; Bedotto, Marielle; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kuipers, Dian; Machang'u, Robert S; Kazwala, Rudovick; Mfinanga, Sayoki G; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Drancourt, Michel
Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in low-income countries is mainly done by microscopy. Hence, little is known about the diversity of Mycobacterium spp. in TB infections. Different genotypes or lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vary in virulence and induce different inflammatory and immune responses. Trained Cricetomys rats show a potential for rapid diagnosis of TB. They detect over 28 % of smear-negative, culture-positive TB. However, it is unknown whether these rats can equally detect sputa from patients infected with different genotypes of M. tuberculosis. A 4-month prospective study on diversity of Mycobacterium spp. was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 252 sputa from 161 subjects were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen medium and thereafter tested by rats. Mycobacterial isolates were subjected to molecular identification and multispacer sequence typing (MST) to determine species and genotypes. A total of 34 Mycobacterium spp. isolates consisting of 32 M. tuberculosis, 1 M. avium subsp. hominissuis and 1 M. intracellulare were obtained. MST analyses of 26 M. tuberculosis isolates yielded 10 distinct MST genotypes, including 3 new genotypes with two clusters of related patterns not grouped by geographic areas. Genotype MST-67, shared by one-third of M. tuberculosis isolates, was associated with the Mwananyamala clinic. This study shows that diverse M. tuberculosis genotypes (n = 10) occur in Dar es Salaam and trained rats detect 80 % of the genotypes. Sputa with two M. tuberculosis genotypes (20 %), M. avium hominissuis and M. intracellulare were not detected. Therefore, rats detect sputa with different M. tuberculosis genotypes and can be used to detect TB in resource-poor countries.
Thi, Emily P; Hong, Chris Joon Ho; Sanghera, Gaganjit; Reiner, Neil E
Using a genetic screen in yeast we found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-PGRS62 was capable of disrupting yeast vacuolar protein sorting, suggesting effects on endosomal trafficking. To study the impact of PE-PGRS62 on macrophage function, we infected murine macrophages with Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62. Infected cells displayed phagosome maturation arrest. Phagosomes acquired Rab5, but displayed a significant defect in Rab7 and LAMP-1 acquisition. Macrophages infected with M. smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62 also expressed two- to threefold less iNOS protein when compared with cells infected with wild-type bacteria. Consistent with this, cells infected with a Mycobacterium marinum transposon mutant for the PE-PGRS62 orthologue showed greater iNOS protein expression when compared to cells infected with wild-type organisms. Complementation restored the ability of the mutant to inhibit iNOS expression. No differences in iNOS transcript levels were observed, suggesting that PE-PGRS62 effects on iNOS expression occurred post-transcriptionally. Marked differences in colony morphology were also seen in M. smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62 and in the M. marinum transposon mutant, suggesting that PE-PGRS62 may affect cell wall composition. These findings suggest that PE-PGRS62 supports virulence via inhibition of phagosome maturation and iNOS expression, and these phenotypes may be linked to effects on bacterial cell wall composition.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly efficient pathogen, killing millions of infected people annually. The capacity of M. tuberculosis to survive and cause disease is strongly correlated to their ability to escape immune defense mechanisms. In particular, M. tuberculosis has the remarkable capacity to survive within the hostile environment of the macrophage. Understanding M. tuberculosis virulence strategies will not only define novel targets for drug development but will also help to uncover previously unknown signaling pathways related to the host's response to M. tuberculosis infection.
Miner, Maurine D; Chang, Jennifer C; Pandey, Amit K; Sassetti, Christopher M; Sherman, David R
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) acquisition and utilization of nutrients within the host cell is poorly understood, although it has been hypothesized that host lipids probably play an important role in MTB survival. Cholesterol has recently been identified as an important lipid for mycobacterial infection. The mce4 transport system is required for cholesterol import into bacterial cells, and deletion of mce4 locus resulted in severe attenuation in a chronic mouse model of infection. However, it has remained unclear what additional bacterial functions were required for utilization of this sterol. We have found that the igr locus, which was previously found essential for intracellular growth and virulence of MTB, is required for cholesterol metabolism: igr-deficient bacteria cannot grow using cholesterol as a primary carbon source. The growth-inhibitory effect of cholesterol in vitro depends on cholesterol import, as the delta igr mutant growth defect during the early phase of disease is completely suppressed by mutating mce4, implicating cholesterol intoxication as the primary mechanism of attenuation. We conclude that M. tuberculosis metabolizes cholesterol throughout the course of infection, and that degradation of this sterol is crucial for bacterial persistence.
Delogu, Giovanni; Sali, Michela; Fadda, Giovanni
Tuberculosis (TB) still poses a major threat to mankind and during the last thirty years we have seen a recrudescence of the disease even in countries where TB was thought to be conquered. It is common opinion that more effective control tools such as new diagnostics, a new vaccine and new drugs are urgently needed to control the global pandemic, though the so far insufficient understanding of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) mechanism of pathogenesis is a major obstacle for the development of these control tools. In this review, we will summarize the recent advancement in the understanding of Mtb biology and on the pathogenesis of Mtb infection with emphasis on latent infection, with the change in paradigm of the last few years where the dichotomy between latent and active disease has been reconsidered in favor of a dynamic equilibrium between the host and the bacilli, encompassing a continuous spectrum of conditions that has been named TB spectrum. Implications for the diagnosis and control of disease in certain population will also be discussed. PMID:24363885
Angala, Shiva Kumar; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Wheat, William H.; Jackson, Mary
Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the disease in humans, is a source of unique glycoconjugates and the most distinctive feature of the biology of this organism. It is the basis of much of Mtb pathogenesis and one of the major causes of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. At the same time, the unique structures of Mtb cell envelope glycoconjugates, their antigenicity and essentiality for mycobacterial growth provide opportunities for drug, vaccine, diagnostic and biomarker development, as clearly illustrated by recent advances in all of these translational aspects. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure and biogenesis of Mtb glycoconjugates with particular emphasis on one of most intriguing and least understood aspect of the physiology of mycobacteria: the translocation of these complex macromolecules across the different layers of the cell envelope. It further reviews the rather impressive progress made in the last ten years in the discovery and development of novel inhibitors targeting their biogenesis. PMID:24915502
Galagan, James E.; Minch, Kyle; Peterson, Matthew; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Azizi, Elham; Sweet, Linsday; Gomes, Antonio; Rustad, Tige; Dolganov, Gregory; Glotova, Irina; Abeel, Thomas; Mahwinney, Chris; Kennedy, Adam D.; Allard, René; Brabant, William; Krueger, Andrew; Jaini, Suma; Honda, Brent; Yu, Wen-Han; Hickey, Mark J.; Zucker, Jeremy; Garay, Christopher; Weiner, Brian; Sisk, Peter; Stolte, Christian; Winkler, Jessica K.; Van de Peer, Yves; Iazzetti, Paul; Camacho, Diogo; Dreyfuss, Jonathan; Liu, Yang; Dorhoi, Anca; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Drogaris, Paul; Lamontagne, Julie; Zhou, Yiyong; Piquenot, Julie; Park, Sang Tae; Raman, Sahadevan; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Mohney, Robert P.; Chelsky, Daniel; Moody, D. Branch; Sherman, David R.; Schoolnik, Gary K.
We have taken the first steps towards a complete reconstruction of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulatory network based on ChIP-Seq and combined this reconstruction with system-wide profiling of messenger RNAs, proteins, metabolites and lipids during hypoxia and re-aeration. Adaptations to hypoxia are thought to have a prominent role in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. Using ChIP-Seq combined with expression data from the induction of the same factors, we have reconstructed a draft regulatory network based on 50 transcription factors. This network model revealed a direct interconnection between the hypoxic response, lipid catabolism, lipid anabolism and the production of cell wall lipids. As a validation of this model, in response to oxygen availability we observe substantial alterations in lipid content and changes in gene expression and metabolites in corresponding metabolic pathways. The regulatory network reveals transcription factors underlying these changes, allows us to computationally predict expression changes, and indicates that Rv0081 is a regulatory hub. PMID:23823726
Molina-Torres, Carmen A.; Moreno-Torres, Elisa; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Rendon, Adrian; Blackwood, Kym; Kremer, Kristin; Rastogi, Nalin; Welsh, Oliverio; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio
Although tuberculosis is still a public health problem in Mexico, there is little information about the genetic characteristics of the isolates. In the present study, we analyzed by spoligotyping 180 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from the urban area of Monterrey, Mexico, including drug-susceptible and drug-resistant isolates. The spoligotype patterns were compared with those in the international SITVIT2 spoligotyping database. Four isolates presented spoligotype patterns not found in the database (orphan types); the rest were distributed among 44 spoligo international types (SITs). SIT53 (clade T1) and SIT119 (clade X1) were predominant and included 43 (23.8%) and 28 (15.5%) of the isolates, respectively. In order to determine if there was a dominant spoligotype in the group of multidrug-resistant isolates, 37 of them were analyzed by IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assays, and scarce clustering of strains with more than five bands was observed. Fourteen isolates of this multidrug-resistant group presented four bands or less and were distributed in four SITs: SIT53 (n = 8), SIT92 (n = 3), SIT70 (n = 2), and SIT3038 (n = 1). When the molecular detection of mutations in the katG and rpoB genes were analyzed in these isolates with low copy numbers of IS6110, only two isolates shared the same IS6110, spoligotyping, and mutations patterns. When the distribution of the spoligotypes was analyzed by age cohort, SIT119 was predominantly found in patients 0 to 20 years old, especially in males, accounting for up to 40% of the isolates. In contrast, SIT53 was more prevalent in older females. This analysis demonstrates the variability of M. tuberculosis isolates in Monterrey and the partial dominance of SIT53 and SIT119 in that area of Mexico. PMID:19940048
Bedewi, Zufan; Worku, Adane; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Yimer, Getnet; Medhin, Girmay; Mamo, Gezahegne; Pieper, Rembert; Ameni, Gobena
Identification of the types of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) complex causing tuberculosis (TB) could contribute to TB control program of specific geographic region as well as it could add knowledge onto the existing literature on TB worldwide. The objective of the present study was to identify the species and strains of M. tuberculosis complex causing pulmonary tuberculosis in central Ethiopia. A health institution- based cross-sectional study was conducted on 338 smear positive TB cases visiting three hospitals between October 2012 and September 2013. Morning and spot sputum samples were collected before the starting of treatment regimens. Thus, a total of 338 pooled sputum samples collected from these cases. Samples were cultured on Löwenstein Jensen media and the isolates were identified by the region of difference (RD) 9 based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and spoligotyping. Of the total isolates 98.6% of the isolates were identified to be M. tuberculosis while the remaining 1.4% were identified as M. africanum. Further, typing of M. tuberculosis using spoligotyping lead to the identification of 90 different strains of M. tuberculosis. Of these strains, 32 were clustered consisting of more than one isolate while the remaining 58 strains were unique consisting of single isolate. Thus, 79.3% (223/281) of the isolates were found in the clustered while only 20.6% (58/281) of the strains were unique. Forty-five of the spolgotyping patterns were registeredin the SITVIT2 or SpolDB4 database in while the remaining 45 were notfound in the database and hence were orphan strains. The dominant strains were SIT53, SIT149, and SIT54, consisting of 43, 37 and 34 isolates, respectively. Classification of the spoligotype patterns using TB-insight RUN TB-Lineage showed that 86.8, 6.4, 5, 1.4% ofthe isolatesbelonged to the Euro-American lineage, East-African-Indian, Indo-oceanic and M. africanum, respectively. The identification of clustered and new
Stinear, Timothy P.; Seemann, Torsten; Harrison, Paul F.; Jenkin, Grant A.; Davies, John K.; Johnson, Paul D.R.; Abdellah, Zahra; Arrowsmith, Claire; Chillingworth, Tracey; Churcher, Carol; Clarke, Kay; Cronin, Ann; Davis, Paul; Goodhead, Ian; Holroyd, Nancy; Jagels, Kay; Lord, Angela; Moule, Sharon; Mungall, Karen; Norbertczak, Halina; Quail, Michael A.; Rabbinowitsch, Ester; Walker, Danielle; White, Brian; Whitehead, Sally; Small, Pamela L.C.; Brosch, Roland; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Fischbach, Michael A.; Parkhill, Julian; Cole, Stewart T.
Mycobacterium marinum, a ubiquitous pathogen of fish and amphibia, is a near relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis in humans. The genome of the M strain of M. marinum comprises a 6,636,827-bp circular chromosome with 5424 CDS, 10 prophages, and a 23-kb mercury-resistance plasmid. Prominent features are the very large number of genes (57) encoding polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and the most extensive repertoire yet reported of the mycobacteria-restricted PE and PPE proteins, and related-ESX secretion systems. Some of the NRPS genes comprise a novel family and seem to have been acquired horizontally. M. marinum is used widely as a model organism to study M. tuberculosis pathogenesis, and genome comparisons confirmed the close genetic relationship between these two species, as they share 3000 orthologs with an average amino acid identity of 85%. Comparisons with the more distantly related Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis reveal how an ancestral generalist mycobacterium evolved into M. tuberculosis and M. marinum. M. tuberculosis has undergone genome downsizing and extensive lateral gene transfer to become a specialized pathogen of humans and other primates without retaining an environmental niche. M. marinum has maintained a large genome so as to retain the capacity for environmental survival while becoming a broad host range pathogen that produces disease strikingly similar to M. tuberculosis. The work described herein provides a foundation for using M. marinum to better understand the determinants of pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:18403782
Benjamin, W H; Lok, K H; Harris, R; Brook, N; Bond, L; Mulcahy, D; Robinson, N; Pruitt, V; Kirkpatrick, D P; Kimerling, M E; Dunlap, N E
Molecular fingerprinting with the IS6110 insertion sequence is useful for tracking transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a population or confirming specimen contamination in the laboratory or through instrumentation. Secondary typing with other molecular methods yields additional information as to the relatedness of strains with similar IS6110 fingerprints. Isolated, relatively rare, random events within the M. tuberculosis genome alter molecular fingerprinting patterns with any of the methods; therefore, strains which are different by two or more typing methods are usually not considered to be closely related. In this report, we describe two strains of M. tuberculosis, obtained from the same bronchoscope 2 days apart, that demonstrated unique molecular fingerprinting patterns by two different typing methods. They were closely linked through the bronchoscope by a traditional epidemiologic investigation. Genetic analysis of the two strains revealed that a single event, the transposition of an IS6110 insertion sequence in one of the strains, accounted for both the differences in the IS6110 pattern and the apparent deletion of a spacer in the spoligotype. This finding shows that a single event can change the molecular fingerprint of a strain in two different molecular typing systems, and thus, molecular typing cannot be the only means used to track transmission of this organism through a population. Traditional epidemiologic techniques are a necessary complement to molecular fingerprinting so that radical changes within the fingerprint pattern can be identified.
Martins, Maria Conceição; Giampaglia, Carmen Maria Saraiva; Chimara, Erica; Oliveira, Rosângela Siqueira; Vedovello, Danielle; Sakamoto, Sidnei Miyoshi; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine
This study investigated biological characteristics of recovered stressed M. tuberculosis isolates that failed to grow in differential culture media for phenotypic identification and in culture media containing anti-tuberculosis drugs for drug-susceptibility testing, despite of having grown in primary culture. It represents an improvement in the diagnosis of MDR tuberculosis and tuberculosis control. PMID:24294238
Hermans, P W; van Soolingen, D; Dale, J W; Schuitema, A R; McAdam, R A; Catty, D; van Embden, J D
IS986 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis belongs to the IS3-like family of insertion sequences, and it has previously been shown to be present in multiple copies in the chromosome of M. tuberculosis. In this study we investigated the value of a IS986-based DNA probe in the diagnosis and epidemiology of tuberculosis. IS986 was found only in species belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex. Independent isolates of M. tuberculosis complex strains showed a very high degree of polymorphism of restriction fragments which contained IS986 DNA. In contrast, Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains as well as clinical isolates of M. bovis BCG contained one copy of IS986, which was present at the same location in the chromosome. Different M. tuberculosis isolates from a recent M. tuberculosis outbreak showed an identical banding pattern. We concluded that IS986 is an extremely suitable tool for the diagnosis and epidemiology of tuberculosis. Images PMID:1977765
Mgode, Georgies F; Weetjens, Bart J; Nawrath, Thorben; Lazar, Doris; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Mahoney, Amanda; Kuipers, Dian; Machang'u, Robert S; Weiner, January; Schulz, Stefan; Kaufmann, Stefan H E
Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in regions with limited resources depends on microscopy with insufficient sensitivity. Rapid diagnostic tests of low cost but high sensitivity and specificity are needed for better point-of-care management of TB. Trained African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys sp.) can diagnose pulmonary TB in sputum but the relevant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific volatile compounds remain unknown. We investigated the odour volatiles of Mtb detected by rats in reference Mtb, nontuberculous mycobacteria, Nocardia sp., Streptomyces sp., Rhodococcus sp., and other respiratory tract microorganisms spiked into Mtb-negative sputum. Thirteen compounds were specific to Mtb and 13 were shared with other microorganisms. Rats discriminated a blend of Mtb-specific volatiles from individual, and blends of shared, compounds (P = 0.001). The rats' sensitivity for typical TB-positive sputa was 99.15% with 92.23% specificity and 93.14% accuracy. These findings underline the potential of trained Cricetomys rats for rapid TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings, particularly in Africa where Cricetomys rats occur widely and the burden of TB is high. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metri, Rahul; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Anand, Praveen; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S.; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Higueruelo, Alicia P.; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Chandra, Nagasuma R.; Blundell, Tom L.; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy
We have developed an integrated database for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) that collates information on protein sequences, domain assignments, functional annotation and 3D structural information along with protein–protein and protein–small molecule interactions. SInCRe (Structural Interactome Computational Resource) is developed out of CamBan (Cambridge and Bangalore) collaboration. The motivation for development of this database is to provide an integrated platform to allow easily access and interpretation of data and results obtained by all the groups in CamBan in the field of Mtb informatics. In-house algorithms and databases developed independently by various academic groups in CamBan are used to generate Mtb-specific datasets and are integrated in this database to provide a structural dimension to studies on tuberculosis. The SInCRe database readily provides information on identification of functional domains, genome-scale modelling of structures of Mtb proteins and characterization of the small-molecule binding sites within Mtb. The resource also provides structure-based function annotation, information on small-molecule binders including FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drugs, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and natural compounds that bind to pathogen proteins potentially and result in weakening or elimination of host–pathogen protein–protein interactions. Together they provide prerequisites for identification of off-target binding. Database URL: http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/sincre PMID:26130660
Chenge, Jude T.; Duyet, Le Van; Swami, Shalini; McLean, Kirsty J.; Kavanagh, Madeline E.; Coyne, Anthony G.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Cheesman, Myles R.; Girvan, Hazel M.; Levy, Colin W.; Rupp, Bernd; von Kries, Jens P.; Abell, Chris; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv genome encodes 20 cytochromes P450, including P450s crucial to infection and bacterial viability. Many M. tuberculosis P450s remain uncharacterized, suggesting that their further analysis may provide new insights into M. tuberculosis metabolic processes and new targets for drug discovery. CYP126A1 is representative of a P450 family widely distributed in mycobacteria and other bacteria. Here we explore the biochemical and structural properties of CYP126A1, including its interactions with new chemical ligands. A survey of azole antifungal drugs showed that CYP126A1 is inhibited strongly by azoles containing an imidazole ring but not by those tested containing a triazole ring. To further explore the molecular preferences of CYP126A1 and search for probes of enzyme function, we conducted a high throughput screen. Compounds containing three or more ring structures dominated the screening hits, including nitroaromatic compounds that induce substrate-like shifts in the heme spectrum of CYP126A1. Spectroelectrochemical measurements revealed a 155-mV increase in heme iron potential when bound to one of the newly identified nitroaromatic drugs. CYP126A1 dimers were observed in crystal structures of ligand-free CYP126A1 and for CYP126A1 bound to compounds discovered in the screen. However, ketoconazole binds in an orientation that disrupts the BC-loop regions at the P450 dimer interface and results in a CYP126A1 monomeric crystal form. Structural data also reveal that nitroaromatic ligands “moonlight” as substrates by displacing the CYP126A1 distal water but inhibit enzyme activity. The relatively polar active site of CYP126A1 distinguishes it from its most closely related sterol-binding P450s in M. tuberculosis, suggesting that further investigations will reveal its diverse substrate selectivity. PMID:27932461
Villellas, Cristina; Aristimuño, Liselotte; Vitoria, María-Asunción; Prat, Cristina; Blanco, Silvia; García de Viedma, Darío; Domínguez, José; Samper, Sofía
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis pandemic is a major health problem, further complicated by an increasing incidence of drug-resistant isolates and the existence of highly transmissible strains, such as those in the Beijing family. Streptomycin (STR)-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates have been analyzed to look for mutations in the rpsL, rrs, and gidB genes. In addition, the Rv1258c gene, which encodes Tap, an efflux pump that transports STR, has been sequenced. Mutations affecting codons 43 and 88 of the rpsL gene were found in 44.4% of the strains, and 16.7% of the strains carried mutations in the rrs gene, both of which probably contribute to STR resistance. Many strains presented with mutations in the gidB gene, but the implication of those mutations in STR resistance remains unclear. Interestingly, a cytosine nucleotide insertion between positions 580 and 581 (denominated Tap580) in the Rv1258c gene has been found in all Beijing isolates included in this study, suggesting that it might be a novel polymorphism specific to the Beijing family of M. tuberculosis. A simple and fast restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR method for detecting the Tap580 insertion has been developed and used to screen a collection of 220 DNA samples obtained from cultures of M. tuberculosis isolates and 30 respiratory specimens. In all cases, the Beijing and non-Beijing representative samples were identified correctly. Tap580 is a novel polymorphism specific to the highly transmissible Beijing family, which allows for fast detection of these strains even at the very early stages of infection. PMID:23616454
Subtil, Fernanda Teixeira; Villela, Anne Drumond; Abbadi, Bruno Lopes; Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês S; Bizarro, Cristiano Valim; Timmers, Luis Fernando Saraiva Macedo; de Souza, Osmar Norberto; Pissinate, Kenia; Machado, Pablo; López-Gavín, Alexandre; Tudó, Griselda; González-Martín, Julian; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago
The 2-(quinolin-4-yloxy)acetamides (QOAs) have been reported as promising molecules for tuberculosis treatment. Recent studies demonstrated its potent antimycobacterial activity, as well as its biological stability and synergism with rifampicin. The identification of the molecular target is an essential step towards the development of a novel drug candidate. Here we report the target identification of the QOAs. We found that these compounds are active against isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, streptomycin and ethionamide resistant clinical isolates from M. tuberculosis. The initial evidence that DNA gyrase might be the target of QOAs, based on high MIC values against ofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates and structural similarities with fluoroquinolones, was discarded by experiments performed with M. tuberculosis GyrA point mutant and DNA gyrase supercoiling inhibition assay. We selected spontaneous mutants for compound 21 and observed that these strains were also resistant to all QOAs derivatives. The spontaneous mutants had their genomes sequenced and the results revealed a single mutation in qcrB gene (T313A) suggesting that the QOAs target the cytochrome bc1 complex. The protein-compound interaction was further investigated by molecular docking. These findings reinforce the relevance of these compounds as promising candidates for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Lin, Philana Ling; Flynn, JoAnne L
Tuberculosis is primarily a respiratory disease that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis can persist and replicate in macrophages in vivo, usually in organized cellular structures called granulomas. There is substantial evidence for the importance of CD4 T cells in control of tuberculosis, but the evidence for a requirement for CD8 T cells in this infection has not been proven in humans. However, animal model data support a non-redundant role for CD8 T cells in control of M. tuberculosis infection. In humans, infection with this pathogen leads to generation of specific CD8 T cell responses. These responses include classical (MHC Class I restricted) and non-classical CD8 T cells. Here, we discuss the potential roles of CD8 T cells in defense against tuberculosis, and our current understanding of the wide range of CD8 T cell types seen in M. tuberculosis infection.
Jayachandran, Rajesh; BoseDasgupta, Somdeb; Pieters, Jean
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has evolved to withstand one of the most inhospitable cells within the human body, namely the macrophage, a cell that is normally geared toward the destruction of any invading microbe. How M. tuberculosis achieves this is still incompletely understood; however, a number of mechanisms are now known that provide advantages to M. tuberculosis for its survival and proliferation inside the macrophage. While some of these mechanisms are mediated by factors released by M. tuberculosis, others rely on host components that are being hijacked to benefit survival of M. tuberculosis within the macrophage as well to avoid the generation of an effective immune response. Here, we describe several of these mechanisms, also pointing out the potential usage of this knowledge toward the development of novel strategies to treat tuberculosis. Furthermore, we attempt to put the 'macrophage niche' into context with other intracellular pathogens and discuss some of the generalities as well as specializations that M. tuberculosis employs to survive.
Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C.; Piqué, Daniel G.; Jacobs, William R.; Casadevall, Arturo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729
Eirin, María E; Macias, Analia; Magnano, Gabriel; Morsella, Claudia; Mendez, Laura; Blanco, Federico C; Bianco, María V; Severina, Walter; Alito, Alicia; Pando, Maria de Los Angeles; Singh, Mahavir; Spallek, Ralph; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Bigi, Fabiana; Cataldi, Angel A
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common zoonotic disease, caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), responsible for significant economic losses worldwide. Its diagnosis is based on the detection of cell mediated immunity under the exposure to protein purified derivative tuberculin (PPD), a complex and poorly characterized reagent. The cross-reactivity to non-tuberculous mycobacterium species (false-positive results) has been crucial to develop a more proper antigen. In the present study, we selected six M. bovis Open Reading Frames (Mb1992, Mb2031c, Mb2319, Mb2843c, Mb2845c and Mb3212c) by in-silico analysis and evaluated them in experimental and natural infection; none of these antigens had been previously assessed as diagnostic antigens for bTB. The reactivity performance was tested in animals with both positive and negative Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) results as well as in cattle infected with Mycobacterium avium subesp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The six recombinant antigens individually induced an IFN-γ response, with overall responder frequency ranging from 18.3 to 31%. Mb2845c was the most valuable antigen with the potential to discriminate TST-positive cattle from either TST-negative or MAP infected animals. Mb2845c showed similar performance to that observed with ESAT-6 and PPD-B among TST and MTC specific-PCR positive animals, although this result needs to be proven in further studies with a higher sample size. Our data confirm the feacibility to implement bioinformatic screening tools and suggest Mb2845c as a potential diagnostic antigen to be tested in protein cocktails to evaluate their contribution to bTB diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...
Bakala N'goma, J C; Schué, M; Carrière, F; Geerlof, A; Canaan, S
Phospholipase Cs (PLCs) contribute importantly to the virulence and pathogenicity of several bacteria. It has been reported in previous studies that mutations in the four predicted plc genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibit the growth of these bacteria during the late phase of infection in mice. These enzymes have not yet been fully characterised, mainly because they are not easy to produce in large quantities. With a view to elucidating the role of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis phospholipase Cs (PLC-A, PLC-B, PLC-C and PLC-D), a large amount of active, soluble recombinant PLCs, were expressed and purified using Mycobacterium smegmatis as expression system. These enzymes showed different pH activity profiles. PLC-C was found to be the most active of the four recombinant PLCs under acidic conditions. All the enzymes tested induced cytotoxic effects on mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines, via direct or indirect enzymatic hydrolysis of cell membrane phospholipids. These results open new prospects for characterising biochemical and structural features of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PLCs, which might lead to the identification of novel anti-tuberculosis drug targets. All mycobacterial phospholipase Cs can now be studied in order to determine their role in the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria of this kind. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Domingo-Gonzalez, Racquel; Prince, Oliver; Cooper, Andrea; Khader, Shabaana A
Chemokines and cytokines are critical for initiating and coordinating the organized and sequential recruitment and activation of cells into Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lungs. Correct mononuclear cellular recruitment and localization are essential to ensure control of bacterial growth without the development of diffuse and damaging granulocytic inflammation. An important block to our understanding of TB pathogenesis lies in dissecting the critical aspects of the cytokine/chemokine interplay in light of the conditional role these molecules play throughout infection and disease development. Much of the data highlighted in this review appears at first glance to be contradictory, but it is the balance between the cytokines and chemokines that is critical, and the "goldilocks" (not too much and not too little) phenomenon is paramount in any discussion of the role of these molecules in TB. Determination of how the key chemokines/cytokines and their receptors are balanced and how the loss of that balance can promote disease is vital to understanding TB pathogenesis and to identifying novel therapies for effective eradication of this disease.
Wipperman, Matthew F.; Yang, Meng; Thomas, Suzanne T.
The ability of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis to metabolize steroids like cholesterol and the roles that these compounds play in the virulence and pathogenesis of this organism are increasingly evident. Here, we demonstrate through experiments and bioinformatic analysis the existence of an architecturally distinct subfamily of acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (ACAD) enzymes that are α2β2 heterotetramers with two active sites. These enzymes are encoded by two adjacent ACAD (fadE) genes that are regulated by cholesterol. FadE26-FadE27 catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 3β-hydroxy-chol-5-en-24-oyl-CoA, an analog of the 5-carbon side chain cholesterol degradation intermediate. Genes encoding the α2β2 heterotetrameric ACAD structures are present in multiple regions of the M. tuberculosis genome, and subsets of these genes are regulated by four different transcriptional repressors or activators: KstR1 (also known as KstR), KstR2, Mce3R, and SigE. Homologous ACAD gene pairs are found in other Actinobacteria, as well as Proteobacteria. Their structures and genomic locations suggest that the α2β2 heterotetrameric structural motif has evolved to enable catalysis of dehydrogenation of steroid- or polycyclic-CoA substrates and that they function in four subpathways of cholesterol metabolism. PMID:23836861
Wipperman, Matthew F; Yang, Meng; Thomas, Suzanne T; Sampson, Nicole S
The ability of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis to metabolize steroids like cholesterol and the roles that these compounds play in the virulence and pathogenesis of this organism are increasingly evident. Here, we demonstrate through experiments and bioinformatic analysis the existence of an architecturally distinct subfamily of acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (ACAD) enzymes that are α2β2 heterotetramers with two active sites. These enzymes are encoded by two adjacent ACAD (fadE) genes that are regulated by cholesterol. FadE26-FadE27 catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 3β-hydroxy-chol-5-en-24-oyl-CoA, an analog of the 5-carbon side chain cholesterol degradation intermediate. Genes encoding the α2β2 heterotetrameric ACAD structures are present in multiple regions of the M. tuberculosis genome, and subsets of these genes are regulated by four different transcriptional repressors or activators: KstR1 (also known as KstR), KstR2, Mce3R, and SigE. Homologous ACAD gene pairs are found in other Actinobacteria, as well as Proteobacteria. Their structures and genomic locations suggest that the α2β2 heterotetrameric structural motif has evolved to enable catalysis of dehydrogenation of steroid- or polycyclic-CoA substrates and that they function in four subpathways of cholesterol metabolism.
Cousins, Debby V; Bastida, Ricardo; Cataldi, Angel; Quse, Viviana; Redrobe, Sharon; Dow, Sue; Duignan, Padraig; Murray, Alan; Dupont, Christine; Ahmed, Niyaz; Collins, Des M; Butler, W Ray; Dawson, David; Rodríguez, Diego; Loureiro, Julio; Romano, Maria Isabel; Alito, A; Zumarraga, M; Bernardelli, Amelia
A comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from seals (pinnipeds) in Australia, Argentina, Uruguay, Great Britain and New Zealand was undertaken to determine their relationships to each other and their taxonomic position within the complex. Isolates from 30 cases of tuberculosis in six species of pinniped and seven related isolates were compared to representative and standard strains of the M. tuberculosis complex. The seal isolates could be distinguished from other members of the M. tuberculosis complex, including the recently defined 'Mycobacterium canettii' and 'Mycobacterium caprae', on the basis of host preference and phenotypic and genetic tests. Pinnipeds appear to be the natural host for this 'seal bacillus', although the organism is also pathogenic in guinea pigs, rabbits, humans, Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) and, possibly, cattle. Infection caused by the seal bacillus is predominantly associated with granulomatous lesions in the peripheral lymph nodes, lungs, pleura, spleen and peritoneum. Cases of disseminated disease have been found. As with other members of the M. tuberculosis complex, aerosols are the most likely route of transmission. The name Mycobacterium pinnipedii sp. nov. is proposed for this novel member of the M. tuberculosis complex (the type strain is 6482(T)=ATCC BAA-688(T)=NCTC 13288(T)).
Castro-Garza, Jorge; García-Jacobo, Paola; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G; Quinn, Frederick D; Barber, James; Karls, Russell; Haas, Debra; Helms, Shelly; Gupta, Tuhina; Blumberg, Henry; Tapia, Jane; Luna-Cruz, Itza; Rendon, Adrián; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB) a spectrum of disease including acute and asymptomatic latent stages. Identifying and treating latently-infected patients constitutes one of the most important impediments to TB control efforts. Those individuals can remain undiagnosed for decades serving as potential reservoirs for disease reactivation. Tests for the accurate diagnosis of latent infection currently are unavailable. HspX protein (α-crystallin), encoded by Rv2031c gene, is produced in vitro by M. tuberculosis during stationary growth phase and hypoxic or acidic culture conditions. In this study, using standard, and Luminex xMAP® bead capture ELISA, respectively, we report on detection of anti-HspX IgG and IgM antibodies and HspX protein in sera from acute and latent TB patients. For the antibody screen, levels of IgG and IgM antibodies were similar between non-infected and active TB patients; however, individuals classified into the group with latent TB showed higher values of anti-HspX IgM (p = 0.003) compared to active TB patients. Using the bead capture antigen detection assay, HspX protein was detected in sera from 56.5% of putative latent cases (p< 0.050) compared to the background median with an average of 9,900 pg/ml and a range of 1,000 to 36,000 pg/ml. Thus, presence of anti-HspX IgM antibodies and HspX protein in sera may be markers of latent TB.
García-Jacobo, Paola; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G.; Barber, James; Karls, Russell; Haas, Debra; Helms, Shelly; Gupta, Tuhina; Blumberg, Henry; Tapia, Jane; Luna-Cruz, Itza; Rendon, Adrián; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB) a spectrum of disease including acute and asymptomatic latent stages. Identifying and treating latently-infected patients constitutes one of the most important impediments to TB control efforts. Those individuals can remain undiagnosed for decades serving as potential reservoirs for disease reactivation. Tests for the accurate diagnosis of latent infection currently are unavailable. HspX protein (α-crystallin), encoded by Rv2031c gene, is produced in vitro by M. tuberculosis during stationary growth phase and hypoxic or acidic culture conditions. In this study, using standard, and Luminex xMAP® bead capture ELISA, respectively, we report on detection of anti-HspX IgG and IgM antibodies and HspX protein in sera from acute and latent TB patients. For the antibody screen, levels of IgG and IgM antibodies were similar between non-infected and active TB patients; however, individuals classified into the group with latent TB showed higher values of anti-HspX IgM (p = 0.003) compared to active TB patients. Using the bead capture antigen detection assay, HspX protein was detected in sera from 56.5% of putative latent cases (p< 0.050) compared to the background median with an average of 9,900 pg/ml and a range of 1,000 to 36,000 pg/ml. Thus, presence of anti-HspX IgM antibodies and HspX protein in sera may be markers of latent TB. PMID:28813434
Abdel-Rahman, Zaid; Sengupta, Ruchira; Johnson, Laura
Mycobacterium celatum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium shown to cause symptoms similar to pulmonary M. tuberculosis. Certain strains have been shown to cross-react with the probes used to detect M. tuberculosis, making this a diagnostic challenge. We present a 56-year-old gentleman who developed signs and symptoms of lung infection with computed tomography scan of the chest showing right lung apex cavitation. Serial sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli and nucleic acid amplification testing identified M. tuberculosis ribosomal RNA, resulting in treatment initiation. Further testing with high performance liquid chromatography showed a pattern consistent with M. celatum. This case illustrates the potential for M. celatum to mimic M. tuberculosis in both its clinical history and laboratory testing due to the identical oligonucleotide sequence contained in both. An increasing number of case reports suggest that early reliable differentiation could reduce unnecessary treatment and public health intervention associated with misdiagnosed tuberculosis. PMID:27895946
Gross, W M; Hawkins, J E
In the context of a busy reference laboratory, radiometric selective inhibition tests were evaluated for rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis and of the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria. p-Nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone at 5 micrograms and hydroxylamine hydrochloride at 62.5 and 125 micrograms per ml of 7H12 medium were used to separate the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli). Since it is important epidemiologically to distinguish M. tuberculosis from M. bovis, susceptibility to 1 microgram of thiophene-2-carboxylic acid per ml was also determined radiometrically. By using these three agents as selective inhibitors, M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and MOTT bacilli were differentiated with a high degree of specificity by a BACTEC radiometric procedure. Results of tests performed on clinical isolates submitted on solid medium to our reference laboratory were available within 5 days. PMID:3921561
Kaufman, Markus; Pal, Debnath; Eisenberg, David
Proteins up- and down- regulated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis grown under conditions mimicking infection are included in this database. It also includes information on proteins that are regulated by selected transcription factors or other regulatory proteins. The literature data provided here is complimentary to the databases provided by Michael Strong that include recent TB computational functional linkages and the Prolinks Database by Peter Bowers. The experimental condition, the experimental dataset and a literature reference will be displayed, including links to the computationally linked proteins in the Prolinks Database and the entry in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Structural Genomics Database.[Copied from information at http://www.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/Services/MTBreg/
Simner, Patricia J; Hyle, Emily P; Buckwalter, Seanne P; Branda, John A; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Franklin, Jameelah; Toney, Nadege C; de Man, Tom J B; Wallace, Richard J; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Wengenack, Nancy L
We present a case of tenosynovitis caused by a novel, slowly growing, nonchromogenic, nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). Originally misidentified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the NTM cross-reacts with the M. tuberculosis complex nucleic acid hybridization probe, a M. tuberculosis gamma interferon release assay, and is closely related to M. tuberculosis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Rapid Identification and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Standard Operating Procedure for Non-Commercial Assays: Part 1: Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay v2.4.12.
Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Parveen; Sharma, Shreya; Mumbowa, Francis; Martin, Anandi; Durier, Nicolas
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is an increasing public health concern in many parts of the world, especially in low-income countries, where most cases occur. Traditional mycobacteria culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) is either time-consuming or expensive and for that reason uptake of these technologies has remained limited in many resource-constrained settings. However, several non-commercial culture and DST methods that do not require sophisticated infrastructure and techniques have been developed. One such method is the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS). In this method microcolonies that form in the liquid culture medium after specimen inoculation to drug-free and drug-containing micro-wells are detected by visual observation with a simple inverted microscope. The identification and drug susceptibility results can be obtained in 7-15 days. This standard operating procedure document has been developed through the culture and DST subgroup of the STOP TB Partnership, New Diagnostic Working Group. It is intended for laboratories that would want to use or already using this rapid non-commercial method for culture identification and DST of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, notably in resource-constraint settings in Asia and Africa.
He, Xiu-yun; Zhuang, Yu-hui; Zhang, Xiao-gang
To evaluate the potential of recombinant 38000 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (38000 protein) as a tuberculosis-specific tuberculin for screening M. tuberculosis infection. A total of 1342 subjects (706 men and 636 women, age 18-60 years) from several communities in Kazuo County and Xidaziying Town, Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, and Hongdong County, Linfen, Shanxi Province were enrolled from September 2004 to February 2005. The skin tests were performed with double-blinded and the intradermal injections were administered on both forearms with 0.1 ml solution of PPD and 38000 protein at the right side and the left side, respectively. The vertical and transverse diameters of induration or erythema were measured following 24 h for 38000 protein and 48 h for PPD, respectively. The diameters of the the skin test reactions were defined as the means of the vertical and transverse diameters, and positive skin reactions were identified when the diameter was greater than or equal to 5 mm. The comparison of the positive rate was performed via chi(2) test and the consistency of positive skin test reactions between 38000 protein and TB-PPD was analyzed through calculating Kappa coefficients. The positive rate was 55.1% (740/1342) and 28.6% (384/1342) for PPD and 38000 protein, respectively; the difference being significant (chi(2) = 190.6, P < 0.01). The consistency of positive skin test reactions between 38000 protein and PPD was low due to a negative Kappa coefficient. The positive rates induced by PPD and 38000 protein tended to increase with age except for the 33-37 year group. For a given age group, the positive rate of PPD was much higher than that of 38000 protein. The subjects without BCG scar had a lower positive rate for 38000 protein (24.3%, 137/566) than those with BCG scar (31.9%, 247/776) (chi(2) = 4.7, P < 0.05). The subjects with tuberculosis contact history had a higher positive rate for 38000 protein (74.4%, 32/43) than those without tuberculosis contact
Morillon, Marc; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Varnerot, Anne; Briant, Jean-François; Nguyen, Gilbert; Verrot, Denis; Bonnet, Daniel; Vincent, Véronique
We identified an unusual strain of mycobacteria from two patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by its smooth, glossy morphotype and, primarily, its genotypic characteristics. Spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism typing were carried out with the insertion sequence IS6110 patterns. All known cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium canetti have been contracted in the Horn of Africa. PMID:12453369
Miltgen, Jean; Morillon, Marc; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Varnerot, Anne; Briant, Jean-François; Nguyen, Gilbert; Verrot, Denis; Bonnet, Daniel; Vincent, Véronique
We identified an unusual strain of mycobacteria from two patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by its smooth, glossy morphotype and, primarily, its genotypic characteristics. Spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism typing were carried out with the insertion sequence IS6110 patterns. All known cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium canetti have been contracted in the Horn of Africa.
Tórtola, M T; Lanéelle, M A; Martín-Casabona, N
Immunoglobulin G antibodies against two 2,3-diacyl trehalose (DAT) antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DATT) and Mycobacterium fortuitum (DATF) were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of 356 serum samples. The sera were obtained from non-tuberculosis-infected individuals (282 serum samples) and tuberculosis patients (74 serum samples). Non-tuberculosis-infected individuals were healthy people (120 serum samples; positive purified-protein-derivative skin test, 60 patients; negative purified-protein-derivative skin test, 60 patients) patients with nontuberculosis lung disease (59 serum samples), contacts of sputum-smear-positive tuberculosis patients (57 serum samples), and human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with nontuberculosis lung disease (46 serum samples). Of the 74 patients with tuberculosis, 14 were human immunodeficiency virus infected. The sensitivity of the method using DATT was 44.5%, and that with DATF was 48.6%. The specificities with both antigens were 99.1%. There were no significant differences between the mean values for both antigens (P = 0.2815). We therefore concluded that both antigens were interchangeable. As M. fortuitum, a fast-growing mycobacterium, could be a good source of antigen DAT, these results deserve consideration in the serology of tuberculosis. PMID:8877135
Mills, W A; Besser-Wiek, J M; Osterholm, M T; MacDonald, K L
Rapid and accurate laboratory detection and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly multidrug-resistant strains, is critical to both public health control measures and patient management. The authors surveyed microbiology laboratories to evaluate whether their methods met national guidelines. As needed, laboratories received individualized recommendations for improvement. The laboratories were resurveyed a year later to assess changes in methods. Current guidelines recommend fluorochrome acid-fast smears, broth cultures, identification by nucleic acid probe or BACTEC-NAP, and BACTEC primary susceptibility panels, which should include pyrazinamide. Of 27 laboratories performing acid-fast smears, 15 used fluorochrome methods. Six of 16 laboratories performing mycobacterial cultures used broth media. Of six laboratories performing species identification, five used nucleic acid probes or BACTEC-NAP. Of five laboratories evaluating drug sensitivity, two used BACTEC and two included pyrazinamide in their protocols. Overall, 24 (89%) laboratories needed improvements; a year later, 16 (67%) of those had altered their methods or made definite plans to do so. Survey results suggest that health departments can facilitate improvements in laboratory testing for pathogens of public health importance. PMID:8606914
Bhagyaraj, Ella; Nanduri, Ravikanth; Saini, Ankita; Dkhar, Hedwin Kitdorlang; Ahuja, Nancy; Chandra, Vemika; Mahajan, Sahil; Kalra, Rashi; Tiwari, Drishti; Sharma, Charu; Janmeja, Ashok Kumar; Gupta, Pawan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can evade host defense processes, thereby ensuring its survival and pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), in M. tuberculosis infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages. In this study, we demonstrate that PXR augments M. tuberculosis survival inside the host macrophages by promoting the foamy macrophage formation and abrogating phagolysosomal fusion, inflammation, and apoptosis. Additionally, M. tuberculosis cell wall lipids, particularly mycolic acids, crosstalk with human PXR (hPXR) by interacting with its promiscuous ligand binding domain. To confirm our in vitro findings and to avoid the reported species barrier in PXR function, we adopted an in vivo mouse model expressing hPXR, wherein expression of hPXR in mice promotes M. tuberculosis survival. Therefore, pharmacological intervention and designing antagonists to hPXR may prove to be a promising adjunct therapy for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Cummings, D M; Ristroph, D; Camargo, E E; Larson, S M; Wagner, H N
A radiometric test capable of detecting the metabolic rate of M. tuberculosis within 18 hr after inoculation has been developed. The technique is based on the measurement of 14CO2 produced by the bacterial metabolism of 14C-U-glycerol of 14C-U-acetate. The test is an important first step in the development of rapid radiometric techniques for clinical study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Samanovic, Marie I.; Darwin, K. Heran
The proteasome system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required for causing disease. Proteasomes are multi-subunit chambered proteases and, until recently, were only known to participate in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent proteolysis in bacteria. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in understanding how both ATP-dependent and ATP-independent proteasome-regulated pathways contribute to M. tuberculosis virulence. PMID:26526503
Gupta, Shashank; Cohen, Keira A; Winglee, Kathryn; Maiga, Mamoudou; Diarra, Bassirou; Bishai, William R
Drug efflux is an important resistance mechanism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We found that verapamil, an efflux inhibitor, profoundly decreases the MIC of bedaquiline and clofazimine to M. tuberculosis by 8- to 16-fold. This exquisite susceptibility was noted among drug-susceptible and drug-resistant clinical isolates. Thus, efflux inhibition is an important sensitizer of bedaquiline and clofazimine, and efflux may emerge as a resistance mechanism to these drugs.
Byrne, S K; Crawford, C E; Geddes, G L; Black, W A
After preliminary in vitro screening of 10 antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the MICs of the 6 most promising agents against 27 clinical isolates were determined by agar dilution. The two quinolone compounds tested (difloxacin and A-56620) were the most active, each inhibiting 50% of the strains at concentrations of 4 micrograms/ml. M. tuberculosis strains previously shown to be resistant to isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampin, or ethambutol were as susceptible to these quinolone compounds as susceptible strains. PMID:3143305
Ghodbane, Ramzi; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, a critical technique for routine diagnosis of tuberculosis, takes more than two weeks. Here, step-by-step improvements in the protocol including a new medium, microaerophlic atmosphere or ascorbic-acid supplement and autofluorescence detection dramatically shortened this delay. In the best case, primary culture and rifampicin susceptibility testing were achieved in 72 hours when specimens were inoculated directly on the medium supplemented by antibiotic at the beginning of the culture.
Samanovic, Marie I; Darwin, K Heran
The proteasome system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required for causing disease. Proteasomes are multisubunit chambered proteases and, until recently, were only known to participate in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent proteolysis in bacteria. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in understanding how both ATP-dependent and ATP-independent proteasome-regulated pathways contribute to M. tuberculosis virulence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iverson, D A; Hurley, B; Pueringer, R
Tuberculosis incidence in the United States has recently increased from its rate of decline resulting in an excess of cases nationwide. The increase has been attributed largely to the HIV epidemic. Although tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota has increased similar to the national trend, South Dakota has not reported a single HIV-associated case of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota has decreased in younger individuals. As a result, the percentage of tuberculosis cases in the elderly has increased. Though the reported cases of pulmonary tuberculosis have decreased, the reported cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis have not changed. Furthermore, the percentage of extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurring in the elderly has increased. Tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota is, in part, increasing because of the persistence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the elderly.
Jasenosky, Luke D; Scriba, Thomas J; Hanekom, Willem A; Goldfeld, Anne E
The adaptive immune response mediated by T cells is critical for control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection in humans. However, the M. tuberculosis antigens and host T-cell responses that are required for an effective adaptive immune response to M. tuberculosis infection are yet to be defined. Here, we review recent findings on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses to M. tuberculosis infection and examine the roles of distinct M. tuberculosis-specific T-cell subsets in control of de novo and latent M. tuberculosis infection, and in the evolution of T-cell immunity to M. tuberculosis in response to tuberculosis treatment. In addition, we discuss recent studies that elucidate aspects of M. tuberculosis-specific adaptive immunity during human immunodeficiency virus co-infection and summarize recent findings from vaccine trials that provide insight into effective adaptive immune responses to M. tuberculosis infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Comina, G; Mendoza, D; Velazco, A; Coronel, J; Sheen, P; Gilman, R H; Moore, D A J; Zimic, M
In this work, an automated microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) plate reader has been developed. The reader automatically handles MODS plates and after autofocussing digital images are acquired of the characteristic microscopic cording structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are the identification method utilized in the MODS technique to detect tuberculosis and multidrug resistant tuberculosis. In conventional MODS, trained technicians manually move the MODS plate on the stage of an inverted microscope while trying to locate and focus upon the characteristic microscopic cording colonies. In centres with high tuberculosis diagnostic demand, sufficient time may not be available to adequately examine all cultures. An automated reader would reduce labour time and the handling of M. tuberculosis cultures by laboratory personnel. Two hundred MODS culture images (100 from tuberculosis positive and 100 from tuberculosis negative sputum samples confirmed by a standard MODS reading using a commercial microscope) were acquired randomly using the automated MODS plate reader. A specialist analysed these digital images with the help of a personal computer and designated them as M. tuberculosis present or absent. The specialist considered four images insufficiently clear to permit a definitive reading. The readings from the 196 valid images resulted in a 100% agreement with the conventional nonautomated standard reading. The automated MODS plate reader combined with open-source MODS pattern recognition software provides a novel platform for high throughput automated tuberculosis diagnosis.
Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M; Tabarsi, Payam; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Mansouri, Davood; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Barnes, Peter J
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered a major worldwide health problem with 10 million new cases diagnosed each year. Our understanding of TB immunology has become greater and more refined since the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as an etiologic agent and the recognition of new signaling pathways modulating infection. Understanding the mechanisms through which the cells of the immune system recognize MTB can be an important step in designing novel therapeutic approaches, as well as improving the limited success of current vaccination strategies. A great challenge in chronic disease is to understand the complexities, mechanisms, and consequences of host interactions with pathogens. Innate immune responses along with the involvement of distinct inflammatory mediators and cells play an important role in the host defense against the MTB. Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the recognition of MTB including Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) linked to inflammasome activation. Among the TLR family, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 and their down-stream signaling proteins play critical roles in the initiation of the immune response in the pathogenesis of TB. The inflammasome pathway is associated with the coordinated release of cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18 which also play a role in the pathogenesis of TB. Understanding the cross-talk between these signaling pathways will impact on the design of novel therapeutic strategies and in the development of vaccines and immunotherapy regimes. Abnormalities in PRR signaling pathways regulated by TB will affect disease pathogenesis and need to be elucidated. In this review we provide an update on PRR signaling during M. tuberculosis infection and indicate how greater knowledge of these pathways may lead to new therapeutic opportunities.
Huard, Richard C.; de Oliveira Lazzarini, Luiz Claudio; Butler, W. Ray; van Soolingen, Dick; Ho, John L.
The classical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC) subspecies include Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum (subtypes I and II), Mycobacterium bovis (along with the attenuated M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin [BCG]), and Mycobacterium microti; increasingly recognized MtbC groupings include Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae and “Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. canettii.” Previous investigations have documented each MtbC subspecies as a source of animal and/or human tuberculosis. However, study of these organisms is hindered by the lack of a single protocol that quickly and easily differentiates all of the MtbC groupings. Towards this end we have developed a rapid, simple, and reliable PCR-based MtbC typing method that makes use of MtbC chromosomal region-of-difference deletion loci. Here, seven primer pairs (which amplify within the loci 16S rRNA, Rv0577, IS1561′, Rv1510, Rv1970, Rv3877/8, and Rv3120) were run in separate but simultaneous reactions. Each primer pair either specifically amplified a DNA fragment of a unique size or failed, depending upon the source mycobacterial DNA. The pattern of amplification products from all of the reactions, visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis, allowed immediate identification either as MtbC composed of M. tuberculosis (or M. africanum subtype II), M. africanum subtype I, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. caprae, M. microti, or “M. canettii” or as a Mycobacterium other than MtbC (MOTT). This MtbC PCR typing panel provides an advanced approach to determine the subspecies of MtbC isolates and to differentiate them from clinically important MOTT species. It has proven beneficial in the management of Mycobacterium collections and may be applied for practical clinical and epidemiological use. PMID:12682155
Bai, Xiyuan; Stitzel, Jerry A; Bai, An; Zambrano, Cristian A; Phillips, Matthew; Marrack, Philippa; Chan, Edward D
Pure nicotine impairs macrophage killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), but it is not known whether the nicotine component in cigarette smoke (CS) plays a role. Moreover, the mechanisms by which nicotine impairs macrophage immunity against MTB have not been explored. To neutralize the effects of nicotine in CS extract, we used a competitive inhibitor to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mecamylamine-as well as macrophages derived from mice with genetic disruption of specific subunits of nAChR. We also determined whether nicotine impaired macrophage autophagy and whether nicotine-exposed T regulatory cells (Tregs) could subvert macrophage anti-MTB immunity. Mecamylamine reduced the CS extract increase in MTB burden by 43%. CS extract increase in MTB was also significantly attenuated in macrophages from mice with genetic disruption of either the α7, β2, or β4 subunit of nAChR. Nicotine inhibited autophagosome formation in MTB-infected THP-1 cells and primary murine alveolar macrophages, as well as increased the intracellular MTB burden. Nicotine increased migration of THP-1 cells, consistent with the increased number of macrophages found in the lungs of smokers. Nicotine induced Tregs to produce transforming growth factor-β. Naive mouse macrophages co-cultured with nicotine-exposed Tregs had significantly greater numbers of viable MTB recovered with increased IL-10 production and urea production, but no difference in secreted nitric oxide as compared with macrophages cocultured with unexposed Tregs. We conclude that nicotine in CS plays an important role in subverting macrophage control of MTB infection.
Cristea, Paul Dan; Banica, Dorina; Tuduce, Rodica
As previously shown the conversion of nucleotide sequences into digital signals offers the possibility to apply signal processing methods for the analysis of genomic data. Genomic Signal Analysis (GSA) has been used to analyze large scale features of DNA sequences, at the scale of whole chromosomes, including both coding and non-coding regions. The striking regularities of genomic signals reveal restrictions in the way nucleotides and pairs of nucleotides are distributed along nucleotide sequences. Structurally, a chromosome appears to be less of a "plain text", corresponding to certain semantic and grammar rules, but more of a "poem", satisfying additional symmetry restrictions that evoke the "rhythm" and "rhyme". Recurrent patterns in nucleotide sequences are reflected in simple mathematical regularities observed in genomic signals. GSA has also been used to track pathogen variability, especially concerning their resistance to drugs. Previous work has been dedicated to the study of HIV-1, Clade F and Avian Flu. The present paper applies GSA methodology to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) rpoB gene variability, relevant to its resistance to antibiotics. Isolates from 50 Romanian patients have been studied both by rapid LightCycler PCR and by sequencing of a segment of 190-250 nucleotides covering the region of interest. The variability is caused by SNPs occurring at specific sites along the gene strand, as well as by inclusions. Because of the mentioned symmetry restrictions, the GS variations tend to compensate. An important result is that MT can act as a vector for HIV virus, which is able to retrotranscribe its specific genes both into human and MT genomes.
Butler, W. Ray; Guthertz, Linda S.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiologic agent of tuberculosis and can be accurately detected by laboratories using commercial genetic tests. Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) causing other mycobacterioses can be difficult to identify. The identification processes are confounded by an increasing diversity of newly characterized NTM species. The ubiquitous nature of NTM, combined with their potential to be opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised as well as nonimmunodeficient patients, further complicates the problem of their identification. Since clinical case management varies depending on the etiologic agent, laboratories must identify the species in a timely manner. However, only a few identification methods can detect the species diversity within the Mycobacterium genus. Over the last decade, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the mycolic acids has become an accepted method for identification of mycobacteria. In this review, we assess its development and usefulness as an identification technique for Mycobacterium species. PMID:11585782
Furini, Adriana Antônia da Cruz; Pedro, Heloisa da Silveira Paro; Rodrigues, Jean Francisco; Montenegro, Lilian Maria Lapa; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Franco, Célia; Schindler, Haiana Charifker; Batista, Ida Maria Foschiani Dias; Rossit, Andrea Regina Baptista
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) with that of cultures in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. METHODS: We analyzed 20 and 78 pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens, respectively, of 67 hospitalized patients suspected of having tuberculosis. An automated microbial system was used for the identification of Mycobacterium spp. cultures, and M. tuberculosis IS6110 was used as the target sequence in the NPCR. The kappa statistic was used in order to assess the level of agreement among the results. RESULTS: Among the 67 patients, 6 and 5, respectively, were diagnosed with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the NPCR was positive in all of the cases. Among the 98 clinical specimens, smear microscopy, culture, and NPCR were positive in 6.00%, 8.16%, and 13.26%, respectively. Comparing the results of NPCR with those of cultures (the gold standard), we found that NPCR had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 83%, respectively, in pulmonary specimens, compared with 83% and 96%, respectively, in extrapulmonary specimens, with good concordance between the tests (kappa, 0.50 and 0.6867, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although NPCR proved to be a very useful tool for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex, clinical, epidemiological, and other laboratory data should also be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:24473765
Chapman, Timothy M.; Bouloc, Nathalie; Buxton, Roger S.; Chugh, Jasveen; Lougheed, Kathryn E.A.; Osborne, Simon A.; Saxty, Barbara; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Taylor, Debra L.; Whalley, David
A high-throughput screen against PknB, an essential serine–threonine protein kinase present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), allowed the identification of an aminoquinazoline inhibitor which was used as a starting point for SAR investigations. Although a significant improvement in enzyme affinity was achieved, the aminoquinazolines showed little or no cellular activity against M. tuberculosis. However, switching to an aminopyrimidine core scaffold and the introduction of a basic amine side chain afforded compounds with nanomolar enzyme binding affinity and micromolar minimum inhibitory concentrations against M. tuberculosis. Replacement of the pyrazole head group with pyridine then allowed equipotent compounds with improved selectivity against a human kinase panel to be obtained. PMID:22469702
We report two series of novel cephalosporins that are bactericidal to Mycobacterium tuberculosis alone of the pathogens tested, which only kill M. tuberculosis when its replication is halted by conditions resembling those believed to pertain in the host, and whose bactericidal activity is not dependent upon or enhanced by clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. The two classes of cephalosporins bear an ester or alternatively an oxadiazole isostere at C-2 of the cephalosporin ring system, a position that is almost exclusively a carboxylic acid in clinically used agents in the class. Representatives of the series kill M. tuberculosis within macrophages without toxicity to the macrophages or other mammalian cells. PMID:27144688
Gold, Ben; Smith, Robert; Nguyen, Quyen; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Lopez Quezada, Landys; Somersan, Selin; Warrier, Thulasi; Little, David; Pingle, Maneesh; Zhang, David; Ballinger, Elaine; Zimmerman, Matthew; Dartois, Véronique; Hanson, Paul; Mitscher, Lester A; Porubsky, Patrick; Rogers, Steven; Schoenen, Frank J; Nathan, Carl; Aubé, Jeffrey
We report two series of novel cephalosporins that are bactericidal to Mycobacterium tuberculosis alone of the pathogens tested, which only kill M. tuberculosis when its replication is halted by conditions resembling those believed to pertain in the host, and whose bactericidal activity is not dependent upon or enhanced by clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. The two classes of cephalosporins bear an ester or alternatively an oxadiazole isostere at C-2 of the cephalosporin ring system, a position that is almost exclusively a carboxylic acid in clinically used agents in the class. Representatives of the series kill M. tuberculosis within macrophages without toxicity to the macrophages or other mammalian cells.
Early, Julie V.; Casey, Allen; Martinez-Grau, Maria Angeles; Gonzalez Valcarcel, Isabel C.; Vieth, Michal; Ollinger, Juliane; Bailey, Mai Ann; Alling, Torey; Files, Megan; Ovechkina, Yulia
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global pathogen of huge importance which can adapt to several host niche environments in which carbon source availability is likely to vary. We developed and ran a phenotypic screen using butyrate as the sole carbon source to be more reflective of the host lung environment. We screened a library of ∼87,000 small compounds and identified compounds which demonstrated good antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis grown with butyrate but not with glucose as the carbon source. Among the hits, we identified an oxadiazole series (six compounds) which had specific activity against M. tuberculosis but which lacked cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. PMID:27044545
Punjabi, Chitra D; Perloff, Sarah R; Zuckerman, Jerry M
Patients with tuberculosis (TB) pose a risk to other patients and health care workers, and outbreaks in health care settings occur when appropriate infection control measures are not used. In this article, we discuss strategies to prevent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within health care settings. All health care facilities should have an operational TB infection control plan that emphasizes the use of a hierarchy of controls (administrative, environmental, and personal respiratory protection). We also discuss resources available to clinicians who work in the prevention and investigation of nosocomial transmission of M tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
García-Bocanegra, I.; Barranco, I.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I. M.; Pérez, B.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Ruiz-Villamayor, E.; Perea, A.
We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes. PMID:20237097
Mitchison, Denis A
An important report by Bryk et al. in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe describes the properties of a rhodanine prodrug active against nonmultiplying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Considering the tolerance of nonreplicating Mtb to most currently available agents, such a drug could be a major addition to our antituberculosis arsenal and would greatly benefit control of the disease.
García-Bocanegra, I; Barranco, I; Rodríguez-Gómez, I M; Pérez, B; Gómez-Laguna, J; Rodríguez, S; Ruiz-Villamayor, E; Perea, A
We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes.
Lantos, Ákos; Niemann, Stefan; Mezősi, László; Sós, Endre; Erdélyi, Károly; Dávid, Sándor; Parsons, Linda M.; Kubica, Tanja; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine
We report the first case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in a captive Siberian tiger, an endangered feline. The pathogen was isolated from a tracheal aspirate obtained by bronchoscopy. This procedure provided a reliable in vivo diagnostic method in conjunction with conventional and molecular tests for the detection of mycobacteria. PMID:14718093
Tu, Yiling; Zeng, Xiaohong; Li, Hui; Zheng, Rongrong; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge
A novel strip array was developed for a nine-spacer spoligotyping scheme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The new method was evaluated using 211 MTBC isolates and the results were fully concordant with the traditional spoligotyping approach. The strip array proved to be rapid and convenient for spoligotyping of MTBC.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. 866.3370 Section 866.3370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. 866.3370 Section 866.3370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents...
Ramarokoto, H; Andrianasolo, D; Rasolonavalona, T; Ramaroson, F; Razafitsiarovana, I; Vincent, V; Ratsimba, L; Rasolofo Razanamparany, V
We report a chronic case of pulmonary tuberculosis in a Malagasy citizen from Antsohihy (West of Madagascar), who was infected with a multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium bovis strain. This is the first case reported of the isolation of such a strain in Madagascar.
Shepard, C C; Youmans, A Y; Youmans, G P
Mycobacterial ribonucleic acid preparations from H37Ra, an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, provide their usual marked protection against M. tuberculosis challenge; however, they provided no protection against Mycobacterium leprae challenge. Suspensions of intact H37Ra were not effective against M. leprae. Suspensions of BCG gave their usual distinct protection against M. leprae challenge. PMID:404242
Phelan, Jody; Maitra, Arundhati; McNerney, Ruth; Nair, Mridul; Gupta, Antima; Coll, Francesc; Pain, Arnab; Bhakta, Sanjib; Clark, Taane G
Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum) is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related) to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin). We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG) that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two embB homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum, this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae.
Brites, Daniela; Gagneux, Sebastien
The causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an obligate pathogen that evolved to exclusively persist in human populations. For M. tuberculosis to transmit from person to person, it has to cause pulmonary disease. Therefore, M. tuberculosis virulence has likely been a significant determinant of the association between M. tuberculosis and humans. Indeed, the evolutionary success of some M. tuberculosis genotypes seems at least partially attributable to their increased virulence. The latter possibly evolved as a consequence of human demographic expansions. If co-evolution occurred, humans would have counteracted to minimize the deleterious effects of M. tuberculosis virulence. The fact that human resistance to infection has a strong genetic basis is a likely consequence of such a counter-response. The genetic architecture underlying human resistance to M. tuberculosis remains largely elusive. However, interactions between human genetic polymorphisms and M. tuberculosis genotypes have been reported. Such interactions are consistent with local adaptation and allow for a better understanding of protective immunity in TB. Future ‘genome-to-genome’ studies, in which locally associated human and M. tuberculosis genotypes are interrogated in conjunction, will help identify new protective antigens for the development of better TB vaccines. PMID:25703549
Festa, Richard A.; Jones, Marcus B.; Butler-Wu, Susan; Sinsimer, Daniel; Gerads, Russell; Bishai, William R.; Peterson, Scott N.; Darwin, K. Heran
In this work we describe the identification of a copper-inducible regulon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Among the regulated genes was Rv0190/MT0200, a paralogue of the copper metalloregulatory repressor CsoR. The five-locus regulon, which includes a gene that encodes the copper-protective metallothionein MymT, was highly induced in wild type Mtb treated with copper, and highly expressed in an Rv0190/MT0200 mutant. Importantly, the Rv0190/MT0200 mutant was hyper-resistant to copper. The promoters of all five loci share a palindromic motif that was recognized by the gene product of Rv0190/MT0200. For this reason we named Rv0190/MT0200 RicR for regulated in copper repressor. Intriguingly, several of the RicR-regulated genes, including MymT, are unique to pathogenic Mycobacteria. The identification of a copper-responsive regulon specific to virulent mycobacterial species suggests copper homeostasis must be maintained during an infection. Alternatively, copper may provide a cue for the expression of genes unrelated to metal homeostasis, but nonetheless necessary for survival in a host. PMID:21166899
Wolfe, Lisa M; Mahaffey, Spencer B; Kruh, Nicole A; Dobos, Karen M
The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is complex and diverse; composed of proteins intermingled in a matrix of peptidoglycan, mycolic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Proteomic studies of the Mtb cell wall have been limited; nonetheless, the characterization of resident and secreted proteins associated with the cell wall are critical to understanding bacterial survival and immune modulation in the host. In this study, the cell wall proteome was defined in order to better understand its unique biosynthetic and secretion processes. Mtb cell wall was subjected to extraction with organic solvents to remove noncovalently bound lipids and lipoglycans and remaining proteins were solubilized with either SDS, Guanidine-HCl, or TX-114. These extracts were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass-spectrometry and resulted in the identification of 234 total proteins. The lipoproteome of Mtb, enriched in the TX-114 extract, was further resolved by multidimensional chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify an additional 294 proteins. A query of the 528 total protein identifications against Neural Network or Hidden Markov model algorithms predicted secretion signals in 87 proteins. Classification of these 528 proteins also demonstrated that 35% are involved in small molecule metabolism and 25% are involved in macromolecule synthesis and degradation building upon evidence that the Mtb cell wall is actively engaged in mycobacterial survival and remodeling.
Pavlinac, Patricia B.; Naulikha, Jaqueline M.; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Onchiri, Frankline M.; Okumu, Albert O.; Sitati, Ruth R.; Cranmer, Lisa M.; Lokken, Erica M.; Singa, Benson O.; Walson, Judd L.
In children, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) frequently disseminates systemically, presenting with nonspecific signs including fever. We determined prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia among febrile children presenting to hospitals in Nyanza, Kenya (a region with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis prevalence). Between March 2013 and February 2014, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) and no recent antibiotic use. Blood samples were collected for bacterial and mycobacterial culture using standard methods. Among 148 children enrolled, median age was 3.1 years (interquartile range: 1.8–4.1 years); 10.3% of children were living with a household member diagnosed with M. tuberculosis in the last year. Seventeen percent of children were stunted (height-for-age z-score < −2), 18.6% wasted (weight-for-height z-score < −2), 2.7% were HIV-infected, and 14.2% were HIV-exposed uninfected. Seventeen children (11.5%) had one or more signs of tuberculosis (TB). All children had a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. Among 134 viable blood cultures, none (95% confidence interval: 0–2.7%) had Mycobacterium isolated. Despite exposure to household TB contacts, HIV exposure, and malnutrition, M. tuberculosis bacteremia was not detected in this pediatric febrile cohort, a finding consistent with other pediatric studies. PMID:26324730
Pavlinac, Patricia B; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; John-Stewart, Grace C; Onchiri, Frankline M; Okumu, Albert O; Sitati, Ruth R; Cranmer, Lisa M; Lokken, Erica M; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L
In children, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) frequently disseminates systemically, presenting with nonspecific signs including fever. We determined prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia among febrile children presenting to hospitals in Nyanza, Kenya (a region with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis prevalence). Between March 2013 and February 2014, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) and no recent antibiotic use. Blood samples were collected for bacterial and mycobacterial culture using standard methods. Among 148 children enrolled, median age was 3.1 years (interquartile range: 1.8-4.1 years); 10.3% of children were living with a household member diagnosed with M. tuberculosis in the last year. Seventeen percent of children were stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2), 18.6% wasted (weight-for-height z-score < -2), 2.7% were HIV-infected, and 14.2% were HIV-exposed uninfected. Seventeen children (11.5%) had one or more signs of tuberculosis (TB). All children had a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. Among 134 viable blood cultures, none (95% confidence interval: 0-2.7%) had Mycobacterium isolated. Despite exposure to household TB contacts, HIV exposure, and malnutrition, M. tuberculosis bacteremia was not detected in this pediatric febrile cohort, a finding consistent with other pediatric studies.
Prospective Universal Application of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Genotyping To Characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates for Fast Identification of Clustered and Orphan Cases▿
Alonso-Rodriguez, Noelia; Martínez-Lirola, Miguel; Sánchez, M. Luisa; Herranz, Marta; Peñafiel, Teresa; Bonillo, Magdalena del Carmen; Gonzalez-Rivera, Milagros; Martínez, Juan; Cabezas, Teresa; Diez-García, Luis Felipe; Bouza, Emilio; García de Viedma, Darío
The use of molecular tools for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in epidemiological surveys in order to identify clustered and orphan strains requires faster response times than those offered by the reference method, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping. A method based on PCR, the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping technique, is an option for fast fingerprinting of M. tuberculosis, although precise evaluations of correlation between MIRU-VNTR and RFLP findings in population-based studies in different contexts are required before the methods are switched. In this study, we evaluated MIRU-VNTR genotyping (with a set of 15 loci [MIRU-15]) in parallel to RFLP genotyping in a 39-month universal population-based study in a challenging setting with a high proportion of immigrants. For 81.9% (281/343) of the M. tuberculosis isolates, both RFLP and MIRU-VNTR types were obtained. The percentages of clustered cases were 39.9% (112/281) and 43.1% (121/281) for RFLP and MIRU-15 analyses, and the numbers of clusters identified were 42 and 45, respectively. For 85.4% of the cases, the RFLP and MIRU-15 results were concordant, identifying the same cases as clustered and orphan (kappa, 0.7). However, for the remaining 14.6% of the cases, discrepancies were observed: 16 of the cases clustered by RFLP analysis were identified as orphan by MIRU-15 analysis, and 25 cases identified as orphan by RFLP analysis were clustered by MIRU-15 analysis. When discrepant cases showing subtle genotypic differences were tolerated, the discrepancies fell from 14.6% to 8.6%. Epidemiological links were found for 83.8% of the cases clustered by both RFLP and MIRU-15 analyses, whereas for the cases clustered by RFLP or MIRU-VNTR analysis alone, links were identified for only 30.8% or 38.9% of the cases, respectively. The latter group of cases mainly comprised isolates that could also have been clustered
Kanniappan, Priyatharisni; Ahmed, Siti Aminah; Rajasekaram, Ganeswrie; Marimuthu, Citartan; Ch'ng, Ewe Seng; Lee, Li Pin; Raabe, Carsten A; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S; Tang, Thean Hock
Technological advances in RNA biology greatly improved transcriptome profiling during the last two decades. Besides the discovery of many small RNAs (sRNA) that are involved in the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of various cellular circuits, it becomes evident that the corresponding RNA genes might also serve as potential biomarkers to monitor the progression of disease and treatment. sRNA gene candidate npcTB_6715 was previously identified via experimental RNomic (unpublished data), and we report its application as potential biomarker for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in patient samples. For proof of principle, we developed a multiplex PCR assay and report its validation with 500 clinical cultures, positive for Mycobacteria. The analysis revealed 98.9% sensitivity, 96.1% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 98.6% and 96.8%, respectively. These results underscore the diagnostic value of the sRNA gene as diagnostic marker for the specific detection of MTB in clinical samples. Its successful application and the general ease of PCR-based detection compared to standard bacterial culture techniques might be the first step towards 'point-of-care' diagnostics of Mycobacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time for the design of diagnostic applications based on sRNA genes, in Mycobacteria. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
Srivastava, Sandeep Kumar; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar
DNA ligases utilize either ATP or NAD+ as cofactors to catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds in nicked DNA. Those utilizing NAD+ are attractive drug targets because of the unique cofactor requirement for ligase activity. We report here the crystal structure of the adenylation domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD+-dependent ligase with bound AMP. The adenosine nucleoside moiety of AMP adopts a syn-conformation. The structure also captures a new spatial disposition between the two subdomains of the adenylation domain. Based on the crystal structure and an in-house compound library, we have identified a novel class of inhibitors for the enzyme using in silico docking calculations. The glycosyl ureide-based inhibitors were able to distinguish between NAD+- and ATP-dependent ligases as evidenced by in vitro assays using T4 ligase and human DNA ligase I. Moreover, assays involving an Escherichia coli strain harboring a temperature-sensitive ligase mutant and a ligase-deficient Salmonella typhimurium strain suggested that the bactericidal activity of the inhibitors is due to inhibition of the essential ligase enzyme. The results can be used as the basis for rational design of novel antibacterial agents.
Zhou, Lixia; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Dinggeng; Wang, Kemin; Qin, Dilan
Biosensing technologies promise to improve Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) detection and management in clinical diagnosis, food analysis, bioprocess, and environmental monitoring. A variety of portable, rapid, and sensitive biosensors with immediate “on-the-spot” interpretation have been developed for M. tuberculosis detection based on different biological elements recognition systems and basic signal transducer principles. Here, we present a synopsis of current developments of biosensing technologies for M. tuberculosis detection, which are classified on the basis of basic signal transducer principles, including piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, and magnetoelastic biosensors. Special attention is paid to the methods for improving the framework and analytical parameters of the biosensors, including sensitivity and analysis time as well as automation of analysis procedures. Challenges and perspectives of biosensing technologies development for M. tuberculosis detection are also discussed in the final part of this paper. PMID:21437177
Zhou, Lixia; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Dinggeng; Wang, Kemin; Qin, Dilan
Biosensing technologies promise to improve Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) detection and management in clinical diagnosis, food analysis, bioprocess, and environmental monitoring. A variety of portable, rapid, and sensitive biosensors with immediate "on-the-spot" interpretation have been developed for M. tuberculosis detection based on different biological elements recognition systems and basic signal transducer principles. Here, we present a synopsis of current developments of biosensing technologies for M. tuberculosis detection, which are classified on the basis of basic signal transducer principles, including piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, and magnetoelastic biosensors. Special attention is paid to the methods for improving the framework and analytical parameters of the biosensors, including sensitivity and analysis time as well as automation of analysis procedures. Challenges and perspectives of biosensing technologies development for M. tuberculosis detection are also discussed in the final part of this paper.
Cui, Tao; He, Zheng-Guo
Comprehensive mapping and analysis of protein-protein interactions provide not only systematic approaches for dissecting the infection and survival mechanisms of pathogens but also clues for discovering new antibacterial drug targets. Protein interaction data on Mycobacterium tuberculosis have rapidly accumulated over the past several years. This review summarizes the current progress of protein interaction studies on M. tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. These efforts improve our knowledge on the stress response, signaling regulation, protein secretion and drug resistance of the bacteria. M. tuberculosis-host protein interaction studies, although still limited, have recently opened a new door for investigating the pathogenesis of the bacteria. Finally, this review discusses the importance of protein interaction data on identifying and screening new anti-tuberculosis targets and drugs, respectively.
Bovine tuberculosis is a ‘neglected zoonosis’ and its contribution to the proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections in humans is unknown. A retrospective study on archived Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates from a reference laboratory in Uganda was undertaken to iden...
Weile, Jan; Eickmeyer, Holm; Dreier, Jens; Liebke, Michael; Fuchs, Uwe; Wittke, Johann-Wolfgang; Richter, Elvira; Gummert, Jan; Knabbe, Cornelius; Schulz, Uwe
We report the first documented case of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by an orthotopic heart transplantation from the donor to the recipient. Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive blood culture showed systemic prevalence of the Mycobacteria, however, prophylactic therapy was able to prevent a clinical manifestation of tuberculosis in the recipient.
Chauhan, Rinki; Ravi, Janani; Datta, Pratik; Chen, Tianlong; Schnappinger, Dirk; Bassler, Kevin E.; Balázsi, Gábor; Gennaro, Maria Laura
Accessory sigma factors, which reprogram RNA polymerase to transcribe specific gene sets, activate bacterial adaptive responses to noxious environments. Here we reconstruct the complete sigma factor regulatory network of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis by an integrated approach. The approach combines identification of direct regulatory interactions between M. tuberculosis sigma factors in an E. coli model system, validation of selected links in M. tuberculosis, and extensive literature review. The resulting network comprises 41 direct interactions among all 13 sigma factors. Analysis of network topology reveals (i) a three-tiered hierarchy initiating at master regulators, (ii) high connectivity and (iii) distinct communities containing multiple sigma factors. These topological features are likely associated with multi-layer signal processing and specialized stress responses involving multiple sigma factors. Moreover, the identification of overrepresented network motifs, such as autoregulation and coregulation of sigma and anti-sigma factor pairs, provides structural information that is relevant for studies of network dynamics. PMID:27029515
Chauhan, Rinki; Ravi, Janani; Datta, Pratik; Chen, Tianlong; Schnappinger, Dirk; Bassler, Kevin E; Balázsi, Gábor; Gennaro, Maria Laura
Accessory sigma factors, which reprogram RNA polymerase to transcribe specific gene sets, activate bacterial adaptive responses to noxious environments. Here we reconstruct the complete sigma factor regulatory network of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis by an integrated approach. The approach combines identification of direct regulatory interactions between M. tuberculosis sigma factors in an E. coli model system, validation of selected links in M. tuberculosis, and extensive literature review. The resulting network comprises 41 direct interactions among all 13 sigma factors. Analysis of network topology reveals (i) a three-tiered hierarchy initiating at master regulators, (ii) high connectivity and (iii) distinct communities containing multiple sigma factors. These topological features are likely associated with multi-layer signal processing and specialized stress responses involving multiple sigma factors. Moreover, the identification of overrepresented network motifs, such as autoregulation and coregulation of sigma and anti-sigma factor pairs, provides structural information that is relevant for studies of network dynamics.
Minnikin, David E; Kremer, Laurent; Dover, Lynn G; Besra, Gurdyal S
Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be the predominant global infectious agent, annually killing over three million people. Recommended drug regimens have the potential to control tuberculosis, but lack of adherence to such regimens has resulted in the emergence of resistant strains. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an unusual cell envelope, rich in unique long-chain lipids, that provides a very hydrophobic barrier to antibiotic access. Such lipids, however, can be drug targets, as exemplified by the action of the front-line drug isoniazid on mycolic acid biosynthesis. A number of these lipids are potential key virulence factors and their structures are based on very characteristic methyl-branched long-chain acids and alcohols. This review details the history, structure, and genetic aspects of the biosynthesis of these methyl-branched components, good examples of which are the phthiocerols and the mycocerosic and mycolipenic acids.
Bai, Guangchun; Schaak, Damen D.; Smith, Eric A.; McDonough, Kathleen A.
Summary Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRPMt, encoded by Rv3676 (crp), is a CRP-like transcription factor that binds with the serC – Rv0885 intergenic region. In the present study, we evaluated CRPMt’s regulation of serC and Rv0885 in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG, using site-specific mutagenesis, promoter fusions and RT-PCR. The CRPMt binding site was required for full expression of serC and Rv0885, and expression of both genes was reduced in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG crp mutants. These data show that CRPMt binding directly activates both serC and Rv0885 expression. M. tuberculosis serC restored the ability of an Escherichia coli serC mutant to grow in serine-dropout medium, demonstrating that M. tuberculosis serC encodes a phosphoserine aminotransferase. Serine supplementation, or overexpression of serC, accelerated the growth of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG crp mutants in mycomedium, but not within macrophages. These results establish a role for CRPMt in the regulation of amino acid biosynthesis, and show that reduced serine production contributes to the slow-growth phenotype of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG crp mutants in vitro. Restoration of serine biosynthesis by serC expression will facilitate identification of additional CRPMt-regulated factors required by M. tuberculosis during macrophage and host infection. PMID:21902733
Pires, Germano Manuel; Folgosa, Elena; Nquobile, Ndlovu; Gitta, Sheba; Cadir, Nureisha
OBJECTIVE: To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mozambique. METHODS: We analyzed secondary data from the National Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Maputo, Mozambique, and from the Beira Regional Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Beira, Mozambique. The data were based on culture-positive samples submitted to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) between January and December of 2011. We attempted to determine whether the frequency of DST positivity was associated with patient type or provenance. RESULTS: During the study period, 641 strains were isolated in culture and submitted to DST. We found that 374 (58.3%) were resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug and 280 (43.7%) were resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. Of the 280 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases, 184 (65.7%) were in previously treated patients, most of whom were from southern Mozambique. Two (0.71%) of the cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were confirmed to be cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was most common in males, particularly those in the 21-40 year age bracket. CONCLUSIONS: M. tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs is high in Mozambique, especially in previously treated patients. The frequency of M. tuberculosis strains that were resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin in combination was found to be high, particularly in samples from previously treated patients. PMID:24831398
Pires, Germano Manuel; Folgosa, Elena; Nquobile, Ndlovu; Gitta, Sheba; Cadir, Nureisha
To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mozambique. We analyzed secondary data from the National Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Maputo, Mozambique, and from the Beira Regional Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Beira, Mozambique. The data were based on culture-positive samples submitted to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) between January and December of 2011. We attempted to determine whether the frequency of DST positivity was associated with patient type or provenance. During the study period, 641 strains were isolated in culture and submitted to DST. We found that 374 (58.3%) were resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug and 280 (43.7%) were resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. Of the 280 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases, 184 (65.7%) were in previously treated patients, most of whom were from southern Mozambique. Two (0.71%) of the cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were confirmed to be cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was most common in males, particularly those in the 21-40 year age bracket. M. tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs is high in Mozambique, especially in previously treated patients. The frequency of M. tuberculosis strains that were resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin in combination was found to be high, particularly in samples from previously treated patients.
Folgueira, L; Delgado, R; Palenque, E; Aguado, J M; Noriega, A R
A method based on DNA amplification and hybridization has been used for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in blood samples from 38 hospitalized patients (15 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 23 HIV negative) in whom localized or disseminated forms of tuberculosis were suspected. In 32 of these patients, the diagnosis of tuberculosis was eventually confirmed by conventional bacteriological or histological procedures. M. tuberculosis DNA was detected with the PCR technique in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 of 11 (82%) HIV-infected patients and in 7 of 21 (33%) HIV-negative patients (P < 0.01), while M. tuberculosis blood cultures were positive in 1 of 8 (12.5%) and 1 of 18 (5.5%) patients, respectively. PCR was positive in all cases with disseminated disease in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients and also in the HIV-positive patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Seven samples from patients with documented illness other than tuberculosis and 12 specimens from healthy volunteers, including seven volunteers with a recent positive purified protein derivative test, were used as controls and had a negative PCR. These results suggest that detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells may be a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of disseminated and extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis, especially in an HIV-positive population.
Folgueira, L; Delgado, R; Palenque, E; Aguado, J M; Noriega, A R
A method based on DNA amplification and hybridization has been used for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in blood samples from 38 hospitalized patients (15 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 23 HIV negative) in whom localized or disseminated forms of tuberculosis were suspected. In 32 of these patients, the diagnosis of tuberculosis was eventually confirmed by conventional bacteriological or histological procedures. M. tuberculosis DNA was detected with the PCR technique in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 of 11 (82%) HIV-infected patients and in 7 of 21 (33%) HIV-negative patients (P < 0.01), while M. tuberculosis blood cultures were positive in 1 of 8 (12.5%) and 1 of 18 (5.5%) patients, respectively. PCR was positive in all cases with disseminated disease in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients and also in the HIV-positive patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Seven samples from patients with documented illness other than tuberculosis and 12 specimens from healthy volunteers, including seven volunteers with a recent positive purified protein derivative test, were used as controls and had a negative PCR. These results suggest that detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells may be a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of disseminated and extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis, especially in an HIV-positive population. PMID:8904404
Yimer, Solomon A; Holm-Hansen, Carol; de Beer, Jessica; Brosch, Roland; van Soolingen, Dick
Lineage 7 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has recently been identified among strains originating from Ethiopia. Using different DNA typing techniques, this study provides additional information on the genetic heterogeneity of five lineage 7 strains collected in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. It also confirms the phylogenetic positioning of these strains between the ancient lineage 1 and TbD1-deleted, modern lineages 2, 3 and 4 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four newly identified large sequence polymorphisms characteristic of the Amhara Region lineage 7 strains are described. While lineage 7 strains have been previously identified in the Woldiya area, we show that lineage 7 strains circulate in other parts of the Amhara Region and also among foreign-born individuals from Eritrea and Somalia in The Netherlands. For ease of documenting future identification of these strains in other geographical locations and recognizing the place of origin, we propose to assign lineage 7 strains the lineage name ‘Aethiops vetus’. PMID:28348856
Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Yimer, Solomon A; Holm-Hansen, Carol; de Beer, Jessica; Brosch, Roland; van Soolingen, Dick
Lineage 7 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has recently been identified among strains originating from Ethiopia. Using different DNA typing techniques, this study provides additional information on the genetic heterogeneity of five lineage 7 strains collected in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. It also confirms the phylogenetic positioning of these strains between the ancient lineage 1 and TbD1-deleted, modern lineages 2, 3 and 4 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four newly identified large sequence polymorphisms characteristic of the Amhara Region lineage 7 strains are described. While lineage 7 strains have been previously identified in the Woldiya area, we show that lineage 7 strains circulate in other parts of the Amhara Region and also among foreign-born individuals from Eritrea and Somalia in The Netherlands. For ease of documenting future identification of these strains in other geographical locations and recognizing the place of origin, we propose to assign lineage 7 strains the lineage name 'Aethiops vetus'.
Bigi, Fabiana; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Nuñez-García, Javier; Peralta, Andrea; Caimi, Karina C; Golby, Paul; Hinds, Jason; Cataldi, Angel; Gordon, Stephen V; Romano, Maria I
Tuberculosis in seals is caused by Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In this study, we evaluated the extent of genetic variability among Mycobacterium bovis and M. pinnipedii by microarray-based comparative genomics. We identified two deletions that are exclusive to M. pinnipedii: PiD1 that removes the orthologues of the M. tuberculosis genes Rv3530c and Rv3531c, and PiD2 that encompasses genes Rv1977 and Rv1978. Interestingly, a deletion overlapping the previously described RD2 region was identified in some isolates of Mycobacterium microti and further characterised.
Ciccarelli, Luciano; Connell, Sean R; Enderle, Mathias; Mills, Deryck J; Vonck, Janet; Grininger, Martin
Antibiotic therapy in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections targets de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, which is orchestrated by a 1.9 MDa type I fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here, we characterize M. tuberculosis FAS by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and interpret the data by docking the molecular models of yeast and Mycobacterium smegmatis FAS. Our analysis reveals a porous barrel-like structure of considerable conformational variability that is illustrated by the identification of several conformational states with altered topology in the multienzymatic assembly. This demonstrates that the barrel-like structure of M. tuberculosis FAS is not just a static scaffold for the catalytic domains, but may play an active role in coordinating fatty acid synthesis. The conception of M. tuberculosis FAS as a highly dynamic assembly of domains revises the view on bacterial type I fatty acid synthesis and might inspire new strategies for inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis in M. tuberculosis.
Fukushima, Masao; Kakinuma, Kenichi; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Ito, Kunihiko; Kawaguchi, Ryuji
Rapid identification of Mycobacterium species isolates is necessary for the effective management of tuberculosis. Recently, analysis of DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) genes has been identified as a suitable means for the identification of bacterial species. We describe a microarray assay based on gyrB gene sequences that can be used for the identification of Mycobacteria species. Primers specific for a gyrB gene region common to all mycobacteria were synthesized and used for PCR amplification of DNA purified from clinical samples. A set of oligonucleotide probes for specific gyrB gene regions was developed for the identification of 14 Mycobacterium species. Each probe was spotted onto a silylated glass slide with an arrayer and used for hybridization with fluorescently labeled RNA derived from amplified sample DNA to yield a pattern of positive spots. This microarray produced unique hybridization patterns for each species of mycobacteria and could differentiate closely related bacterial species. Moreover, the results corresponded well with those obtained by the conventional culture method for the detection of mycobacteria. We conclude that a gyrB-based microarray can rapidly detect and identify closely related mycobacterial species and may be useful in the diagnosis and effective management of tuberculosis. PMID:12791887
Zacharia, Vineetha M; Manzanillo, Paolo S; Nair, Vidhya R; Marciano, Denise K; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Cox, Jeffery S; Shiloh, Michael U
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. Macrophages produce a variety of antimicrobial molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and acid (H+), that serve to kill engulfed bacteria. In addition to these molecules, human and mouse macrophages also produce carbon monoxide (CO) gas by the heme oxygenase (HO1) enzyme. We observed that, in contrast to other bacteria, mycobacteria are resistant to CO, suggesting that this might be an evolutionary adaptation of mycobacteria for survival within macrophages. We screened a panel of ~2,500 M. tuberculosis mutants to determine which genes are required for survival of M. tuberculosis in the presence of CO. Within this panel, we identified one such gene, cor, that specifically confers CO resistance. Importantly, we found that the ability of M. tuberculosis cells carrying a mutated copy of this gene to cause tuberculosis in a mouse disease model is significantly attenuated. This indicates that
Cannas, Angela; Mazzarelli, Antonio; Di Caro, Antonino; Delogu, Giovanni; Girardi, Enrico
Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An improvement of the strategies for disease control is necessary in both low- and high-incidence TB countries. Clinicians, epidemiologists, laboratory specialists, and public health players should work together in order to achieve a significant reduction in TB transmission and spread of drug-resistant strains. Effective TB surveillance relies on early diagnosis of new cases, appropriate therapy, and accurate detection of outbreaks in the community, in order to implement proper TB control strategies. To achieve this goal, information from classical and molecular epidemiology, together with patient clinical data need to be combined. In this review, we summarize the methodologies currently used in molecular epidemiology, namely molecular typing. We will discuss their efficiency to phylogenetically characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, and their ability to provide information that can be useful for disease control. We will also introduce next generation sequencing as the methodology that potentially could provide in a short time both, detection of new outbreaks and identification of resistance patterns. This could envision a potential of next generation sequencing as an important tool for accurate patient management and disease control.
Vijay, Srinivasan; Nagaraja, Mukkayyan; Sebastian, Jees; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi
Recently, several reports showed that about 80 % of mid-log phase Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG cells divide symmetrically with 5-10 % deviation in the septum position from the median. However, the mode of cell division of the pathogenic mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, using electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy of septum- and nucleoid-stained live and fixed cells, and live cell time-lapse imaging, we show the occurrence of asymmetric cell division with unusually deviated septum/constriction in 20 % of the 15 % septating M. tuberculosis cells in the mid-log phase population. The remaining 80 % of the 15 % septating cells divided symmetrically but with 2-5 % deviation in the septum/constriction position, as reported for M. smegmatis, M. marinum, and M. bovis BCG cells. Both the long and the short portions of the asymmetrically dividing M. tuberculosis cells with unusually deviated septum contained nucleoids, thereby generating viable short and long cells from each asymmetric division. M. tuberculosis short cells were acid fast positive and, like the long cells, further readily underwent growth and division to generate micro-colony, thereby showing that they were neither mini cells, spores nor dormant forms of mycobacteria. The freshly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients' sputum samples, which are known for the prevalence of oxidative stress conditions, also contained short cells at the same proportion as that in the mid-log phase population. The probable physiological significance of the generation of the short cells through unusually deviated asymmetric cell division is discussed.
Cabibbe, Andrea M.; Feuerriegel, Silke; Casali, Nicola; Drobniewski, Francis; Rodionova, Yulia; Bakonyte, Daiva; Stakenas, Petras; Pimkina, Edita; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Degano, Massimo; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Hoffner, Sven; Mansjö, Mikael; Werngren, Jim; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Niemann, Stefan; Cirillo, Daniela M.
ABSTRACT Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a prodrug that is converted to pyrazinoic acid by the enzyme pyrazinamidase, encoded by the pncA gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Molecular identification of mutations in pncA offers the potential for rapid detection of pyrazinamide resistance (PZAr). However, the genetic variants are highly variable and scattered over the full length of pncA, complicating the development of a molecular test. We performed a large multicenter study assessing pncA sequence variations in 1,950 clinical isolates, including 1,142 multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains and 483 fully susceptible strains. The results of pncA sequencing were correlated with phenotype, enzymatic activity, and structural and phylogenetic data. We identified 280 genetic variants which were divided into four classes: (i) very high confidence resistance mutations that were found only in PZAr strains (85%), (ii) high-confidence resistance mutations found in more than 70% of PZAr strains, (iii) mutations with an unclear role found in less than 70% of PZAr strains, and (iv) mutations not associated with phenotypic resistance (10%). Any future molecular diagnostic assay should be able to target and identify at least the very high and high-confidence genetic variant markers of PZAr; the diagnostic accuracy of such an assay would be in the range of 89.5 to 98.8%. PMID:25336456
Chu, Teng-Ping J; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P
MPT64, a secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), stimulates the immune reactions within cells and is a protective antigen that is lost by the bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine during propagation. To minimize the toxicity caused by MTB, we used the MPT64 gene encoded by nontoxic H37Ra MTB to carry out genetic expansion via polymerase chain reaction and gene clone MPT64. The plasmid DNA encoded MPT64 was expressed at 20°C for 22 H, and a large quantity of MPT64 was obtained. In the absence of urea, MPT64 multimers with subunits being covalently connected via disulfide bonds were detected by Western blot showing strong protein-protein interactions, as evidenced by the formation of MPT64 tetramers. Finally, with urea of decreasing concentrations, we refolded MPT64 purified in the presence of urea and determined its secondary structures using circular dichroism. MPT64 was found to contain 2.2% α-helix, 50.9% β-sheet, 19.5% turn, and 27.4% random coil. The molecular weight of MPT64 was determined by a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer and found to be 23,497 Da, very close to the theoretical molecular weight of MPT64. The results presented here provide a sound basis for future biochemical and biophysical studies of MPT64 or any other proteins encoded by nontoxic H37Ra MTB. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Marín, Nancy D.; Marín, Diana M.; López, Lucelly; Henao, Hanna M.; Martínez, Teresita; Villa, Liliana; Barrera, Luis F.; Ortiz, Blanca L.; Ramírez, María E.; Montes, Carlos J.; Oquendo, María C.; Arango, Lisandra M.; Riaño, Felipe; Aguirre, Carlos; Bustamante, Alberto; Belisle, John T.; Dobos, Karen; Mejía, Gloria I.; Giraldo, Margarita R.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Robledo, Jaime; Arbeláez, María P.; Rojas, Carlos A.; García, Luis F.
Objectives Household contacts (HHCs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and early disease development. Identification of individuals at risk of tuberculosis disease is a desirable goal for tuberculosis control. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) using specific M. tuberculosis antigens provide an alternative to tuberculin skin testing (TST) for infection detection. Additionally, the levels of IFNγ produced in response to these antigens may have prognostic value. We estimated the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by IGRA and TST in HHCs and their source population (SP), and assessed whether IFNγ levels in HHCs correlate with tuberculosis development. Methods A cohort of 2060 HHCs was followed for 2–3 years after exposure to a tuberculosis case. Besides TST, IFNγ responses to mycobacterial antigens: CFP, CFP-10, HspX and Ag85A were assessed in 7-days whole blood cultures and compared to 766 individuals from the SP in Medellín, Colombia. Isoniazid prophylaxis was not offered to child contacts because Colombian tuberculosis regulations consider it only in children under 5 years, TST positive without BCG vaccination. Results Using TST 65.9% of HHCs and 42.7% subjects from the SP were positive (OR 2.60, p<0.0001). IFNγ response to CFP-10, a biomarker of M. tuberculosis infection, tested positive in 66.3% HHCs and 24.3% from the SP (OR = 6.07, p<0.0001). Tuberculosis incidence rate was 7.0/1000 person years. Children <5 years accounted for 21.6% of incident cases. No significant difference was found between positive and negative IFNγ responders to CFP-10 (HR 1.82 95% CI 0.79–4.20 p = 0.16). However, a significant trend for tuberculosis development amongst high HHC IFNγ producers was observed (trend Log rank p = 0.007). Discussion CFP-10-induced IFNγ production is useful to establish tuberculosis infection prevalence amongst HHC and identify those at highest risk of disease. The high
Silva, Marcio Roberto; Rocha, Adalgiza da Silva; da Costa, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Alencar, Andrea Padilha; de Oliveira, Vania Maria; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Sales, Mariana Lázaro; Issa, Marina de Azevedo; Soares, Paulo Martins; Pereira, Omara Tereza Vianello; dos Santos, Eduardo Calazans; Mendes, Rejane Silva; Ferreira, Ângela Maria de Jesus; Mota, Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho; Suffys, Philip Noel; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland
In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB) patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis). Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Stonebrink (SB)-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks). One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6%) of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials. PMID:23778657
Lee, Jaewook; Kim, Si-Hyun; Choi, Dong-Sic; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Go, Gyeongyun; Park, Seon-Min; Kim, Si Hyun; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Chang, Chulhun L; Gho, Yong Song
The release of extracellular vesicles, also known as outer membrane vesicles, membrane vesicles, exosomes, and microvesicles, is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon from bacteria to eukaryotes. It has been reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases extracellular vesicles harboring immunologically active molecules, and these extracellular vesicles have been suggested to be applicable in vaccine development and biomarker discovery. However, the comprehensive proteomic analysis has not been performed for M. tuberculosis extracellular vesicles. In this study, we identified a total of 287 vesicular proteins by four LC-MS/MS analyses with high confidence. In addition, we identified several vesicular proteins associated with the virulence of M. tuberculosis. This comprehensive proteome profile will help elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of M. tuberculosis. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001160 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001160). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Young, R A; Bloom, B R; Grosskinsky, C M; Ivanyi, J; Thomas, D; Davis, R W
A recombinant DNA strategy has been used systematically to survey the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome for sequences that encode specific antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies. M. tuberculosis genomic DNA fragments with randomly generated endpoints were used to construct a large lambda gt11 recombinant DNA expression library. Sufficient numbers of recombinants were produced to contain inserts whose endpoints occur at nearly every base pair in the pathogen genome. Protein antigens specified by linear segments of pathogen DNA and produced by the recombinant phage of Escherichia coli were screened with monoclonal antibody probes. This approach was coupled with an improved detection method for gene isolation using antibodies to clonally isolate DNA sequences that specify polypeptide components of M. tuberculosis. The methodology described here, which is applicable to other pathogens, offers possibilities for the development of more sensitive and specific immunodiagnostic and seroepidemiological tests for tuberculosis and, ultimately, for the development of more effective vaccines. Images PMID:2581251
Chaidir, Lidya; Sengstake, Sarah; de Beer, Jessica; Oktavian, Antonius; Krismawati, Hana; Muhapril, Erfin; Kusumadewi, Inri; Annisa, Jessi; Anthony, Richard; van Soolingen, Dick; Achmad, Tri Hanggono; Marzuki, Sangkot; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout
Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype distribution is different between West and Central Indonesia, but there are no data on the most Eastern part, Papua. We aimed to identify the predominant genotypes of M. tuberculosis responsible for tuberculosis in coastal Papua, their transmission, and the association with patient characteristics. A total of 199 M. tuberculosis isolates were collected. Spoligotyping was applied to describe the population structure of M. tuberculosis, lineage identification was performed using a combination of lineage-specific markers, and genotypic clusters were identified using a combination of 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among isolates based on their spoligopatterns. Strains from modern lineage 4 made up almost half of strains (46.9%), being more abundant than the ancient lineage 1 (33.7%), and modern lineage 2 (19.4%). Thirty-five percent of strains belonged to genotypic clusters, especially strains in the Beijing genotype. Previous TB treatment and mutations associated with drug resistance were more common in patients infected with strains of the Beijing genotype. Papua shows a different distribution of M. tuberculosis genotypes compared to other parts of Indonesia. Clustering and drug resistance of modern strains recently introduced to Papua may contribute to the high tuberculosis burden in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zacharia, Vineetha M.; Manzanillo, Paolo S.; Nair, Vidhya R.; Marciano, Denise K.; Kinch, Lisa N.; Grishin, Nick V.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Shiloh, Michael U.
ABSTRACT Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. PMID:24255121
Ausina, V; Gamboa, F; Gazapo, E; Manterola, J M; Lonca, J; Matas, L; Manzano, J R; Rodrigo, C; Cardona, P J; Padilla, E
Five hundred twenty processed respiratory specimens from 326 patients received for the diagnosis of tuberculosis or other mycobacterial infections were tested by means of the LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay from Abbott Laboratories, which uses ligase chain reaction technology for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens. The results of the LCx M. tuberculosis Assay were compared with the results of culture and staining techniques. After a combination of culture results and the patient's clinical data, a total of 195 specimens were collected from 110 patients who were positively diagnosed as having pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-three of these 195 specimens which corresponded to 10 patients with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and anti-TB treatment ranging from 1 to 6 months were culture negative. The other 172 specimens were culture positive for M. tuberculosis. With an overall positivity rate of 37.5% (195 of 520 specimens), the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 90.8, 100, 100, and 94.7%, respectively, for the LCx M. tuberculosis Assay; 88.2, 100, 100, and 93.4%, respectively, for culture; and 82.6, 92, 72.9, and 97.6%, respectively, for acid-fast staining. For 161 specimens (82.6%) from patients smear positive for the disease and 34 specimens (17.4%) from patients smear negative for the disease, the sensitivity values for the LCx M. tuberculosis Assay were 98.8 and 53%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the sensitivities and specificities between the LCx M. tuberculosis Assay and culture (P > 0.05). Conclusively, the LCx M. tuberculosis Assay has proved to have an acceptable sensitivity and a high specificity in detecting M. tuberculosis and has the potential of reducing the diagnosis time to an 8-h working day. PMID:9230369
Pepperell, Caitlin S.; Granka, Julie M.; Alexander, David C.; Behr, Marcel A.; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Jamieson, Frances B.; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W.
Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6Quebec genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710–1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate. PMID:21464295
Pepperell, Caitlin S; Granka, Julie M; Alexander, David C; Behr, Marcel A; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L; Jamieson, Frances B; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W
Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6(Quebec) genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710-1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate.
Gygli, Sebastian M; Borrell, Sonia; Trauner, Andrej; Gagneux, Sebastien
Antibiotic-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are threatening progress in containing the global tuberculosis epidemic. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics, limiting the number of compounds available for treatment. This intrinsic resistance is due to a number of mechanisms including a thick, waxy, hydrophobic cell envelope and the presence of drug degrading and modifying enzymes. Resistance to the drugs which are active against M. tuberculosis is, in the absence of horizontally transferred resistance determinants, conferred by chromosomal mutations. These chromosomal mutations may confer drug resistance via modification or overexpression of the drug target, as well as by prevention of prodrug activation. Drug resistance mutations may have pleiotropic effects leading to a reduction in the bacterium's fitness, quantifiable e.g. by a reduction in the in vitro growth rate. Secondary so-called compensatory mutations, not involved in conferring resistance, can ameliorate the fitness cost by interacting epistatically with the resistance mutation. Although the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis is low compared to other pathogenic bacteria, the strain genetic background has been demonstrated to influence multiple aspects in the evolution of drug resistance. The rate of resistance evolution and the fitness costs of drug resistance mutations may vary as a function of the genetic background.
Lin, Philana Ling; Pawar, Santosh; Myers, Amy; Pegu, Amarenda; Fuhrman, Carl; Reinhart, Todd A.; Capuano, Saverio V.; Klein, Edwin; Flynn, JoAnne L.
Little is known regarding the early events of infection of humans with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The cynomolgus macaque is a useful model of tuberculosis, with strong similarities to human tuberculosis. In this study, eight cynomolgus macaques were infected bronchoscopically with low-dose M. tuberculosis; clinical, immunologic, microbiologic, and pathologic events were assessed 3 to 6 weeks postinfection. Gross pathological abnormalities were observed as early as 3 weeks, including Ghon complex formation by 5 weeks postinfection. Caseous granulomas were observed in the lung as early as 4 weeks postinfection. Only caseous granulomas were observed in the lungs at these early time points, reflecting a rigorous initial response. T-cell activation (CD29 and CD69) and chemokine receptor (CXCR3 and CCR5) expression appeared localized to different anatomic sites. Activation markers were increased on cells from airways and only at modest levels on cells in peripheral blood. The priming of mycobacterium-specific T cells, characterized by the production of gamma interferon occurred slowly, with responses seen only after 4 weeks of infection. These responses were observed from T lymphocytes in blood, airways, and hilar lymph node, with responses predominantly localized to the site of infection. From these studies, we conclude that immune responses to M. tuberculosis are relatively slow in the local and peripheral compartments and that necrosis occurs surprisingly quickly during granuloma formation. PMID:16790751
Ferraris, Davide M; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Rizzi, Menico
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway of all aerobic organisms and is responsible for the synthesis of many important precursors and molecules. TCA cycle plays a key role in the metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is involved in the adaptation process of the bacteria to the host immune response. We present here the first crystal structures of M. tuberculosis malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, two consecutive enzymes of the TCA, at 2.6 Å and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively. General analogies and local differences with the previously reported homologous protein structures are described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Das, Maumita; Sumana, Gajjala; Nagarajan, R.; Malhotra, B. D.
Nanostructured zirconium oxide (ZrO2) film (particle size˜35 nm), electrochemically deposited onto gold(Au) surface, has been used to immobilize 21-mer oligonucleotide probe (ssDNA) specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by utilizing affinity between oxygen atom of phosphoric group and zirconium to fabricate DNA biosensor. This DNA-ZrO2/Au bioelectrode, characterized using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy techniques, can be used for early and rapid diagnosis of M. tuberculosis with detection limit of 0.065 ng/μL within 60s.
Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Franzblau, Scott G; Jantan, Ibrahim; Jasamai, Malina
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is amongst the foremost infectious diseases. Treatment of tuberculosis is a complex process due to various factors including a patient's inability to persevere with a combined treatment regimen, the difficulty in eradicating the infection in immune-suppressed patients, and multidrug resistance (MDR). Extensive research circumscribing molecules to counteract this disease has led to the identification of many inhibitory small molecules. Among these are chalcone derivatives along with curcumin analogs. In this review article, we summarize the reported literature regarding anti tubercular activity of chalcone derivatives and synthetic curcumin analogs. Our goal is to provide an analysis of research to date in order to facilitate the synthesis of superior antitubercular chalcone derivatives and curcumin analogs.
Fuchs, Manon; Kämpfer, Susanne; Helmsing, Saskia; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Prilop, Wiebke; Frank, Ronald; Dübel, Stefan; Singh, Mahavir; Hust, Michael
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to bacterial infections worldwide, mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antigen 85 complex comprises a set of major secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, which are potential biomarkers for diagnostic. In this work, the first human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies specific for the tuberculosis biomarker 85 B were selected by phage display from naïve antibody gene libraries (HAL7/8). Produced as scFv-Fc in mammalian cells, these antibodies were further characterized and analysed for specificity and applicability in different tuberculosis antigen detection assays. Sandwich detection of recombinant 85 B was successful in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay and immunoblot. Whereas detection of M. tuberculosis cell extracts and culture filtrates was only possible in direct ELISA and immunoblot assays. It was found that the conformation of 85 B, depending on sample treatment, influenced antigen detection. Recombinant antibodies, selected by phage display, may be applicable for 85 B detection in various assays. These antibodies are candidates for the development of future point of care tuberculosis diagnostic kits. Using 85 B as a biomarker, the antigen conformation influenced by sample treatment is important.
Background Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to bacterial infections worldwide, mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antigen 85 complex comprises a set of major secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, which are potential biomarkers for diagnostic. Results In this work, the first human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies specific for the tuberculosis biomarker 85 B were selected by phage display from naïve antibody gene libraries (HAL7/8). Produced as scFv-Fc in mammalian cells, these antibodies were further characterized and analysed for specificity and applicability in different tuberculosis antigen detection assays. Sandwich detection of recombinant 85 B was successful in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay and immunoblot. Whereas detection of M. tuberculosis cell extracts and culture filtrates was only possible in direct ELISA and immunoblot assays. It was found that the conformation of 85 B, depending on sample treatment, influenced antigen detection. Conclusions Recombinant antibodies, selected by phage display, may be applicable for 85 B detection in various assays. These antibodies are candidates for the development of future point of care tuberculosis diagnostic kits. Using 85 B as a biomarker, the antigen conformation influenced by sample treatment is important. PMID:25033887
Lerner, Thomas R.; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R.G.; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R.; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G.
In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes. PMID:26901813
Lerner, Thomas R; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R G; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M; Wilkinson, Robert J; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G
In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes.
Kaushik, Amit; Makkar, Nayani; Pandey, Pooja; Parrish, Nicole; Singh, Urvashi; Lamichhane, Gyanu
An effective regimen for treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is comprised of multiple drugs that inhibit a range of essential cellular activities in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The effectiveness of a regimen is further enhanced if constituent drugs act with synergy. Here, we report that faropenem (a penem) or biapenem, doripenem, or meropenem (carbapenems), which belong to the β-lactam class of antibiotics, and rifampin, one of the drugs that forms the backbone of TB treatment, act with synergy when combined. One of the reasons (carba)penems are seldom used for treatment of TB is the high dosage levels required, often at the therapeutic limits. The synergistic combination of rifampin and these (carba)penems indicates that (carba)penems can be administered at dosages that are therapeutically relevant. The combination of faropenem and rifampin also limits the frequency of resistant mutants, as we were unable to obtain spontaneous mutants in the presence of these two drugs. The combinations of rifampin and (carba)penems were effective not only against drug-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis but also against drug-resistant clinical isolates that are otherwise resistant to rifampin. A combination of doripenem or biapenem and rifampin also exhibited synergistic activity against Mycobacterium abscessus. Although the MICs of these three drugs alone against M. abscessus are too high to be of clinical relevance, their concentrations in combinations are therapeutically relevant; therefore, they warrant further evaluation for clinical utility to treat Mycobacterium abscessus infection, especially in cystic fibrosis patients.
Aristimuño, Liselotte; Armengol, Raimond; Cebollada, Alberto; España, Mercedes; Guilarte, Alexis; Lafoz, Carmen; Lezcano, María A; Revillo, María J; Martín, Carlos; Ramírez, Carmen; Rastogi, Nalin; Rojas, Janet; de Salas, Albina Vázques; Sola, Christophe; Samper, Sofía
Background Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has become a valuable tool in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) by allowing detection of outbreaks, tracking of epidemics, identification of genotypes and transmission events among patients who would have remained undetected by conventional contact investigation. This is the first genetic biodiversity study of M. tuberculosis in Venezuela. Thus, we investigated the genetic patterns of strains isolated in the first survey of anti-tuberculosis drug-resistance realised as part of the Global Project of Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance (WHO/IUATLD). Results Clinical isolates (670/873) were genotyped by spoligotyping. The results were compared with the international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4). Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains (14/18) were also analysed by IS6110-RFLP assays, and resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was characterised. Spoligotyping grouped 82% (548/670) of the strains into 59 clusters. Twenty new spoligotypes (SITs) specific to Venezuela were identified. Eight new inter-regional clusters were created. The Beijing genotype was not found. The genetic network shows that the Latin American and Mediterranean family constitutes the backbone of the genetic TB population-structure in Venezuela, responsible of >60% of total TB cases studied. MDR was 0.5% in never treated patients and 13.5% in previously treated patients. Mutations in rpoB gene and katG genes were detected in 64% and 43% of the MDR strains, respectively. Two clusters were found to be identical by the four different analysis methods, presumably representing cases of recent transmission of MDR tuberculosis. Conclusion This study gives a first overview of the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in Venezuela during the first survey of anti-tuberculosis drug-resistance. It may aid in the creation of a national database that will be a valuable support for further studies. PMID:17032442
Kato-Maeda, Midori; Metcalfe, John Z.; Flores, Laura
Genotyping is used to track specific isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a community. It has been successfully used in epidemiologic research (termed ‘molecular epidemiology’) to study the transmission dynamics of TB. In this article, we review the genetic markers used in molecular epidemiologic studies including the use of whole-genome sequencing technology. We also review the public health application of molecular epidemiologic tools. PMID:21366420
Parandhaman, Dinesh Kumar; Narayanan, Sujatha
Cell death or senescence is a fundamental event that helps maintain cellular homeostasis, shapes the growth of organism, and provides protective immunity against invading pathogens. Decreased or increased cell death is detrimental both in infectious and non-infectious diseases. Cell death is executed both by regulated enzymic reactions and non-enzymic sudden collapse. In this brief review we have tried to summarize various cell death modalities and their impact on the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24634891
Parandhaman, Dinesh Kumar; Narayanan, Sujatha
Cell death or senescence is a fundamental event that helps maintain cellular homeostasis, shapes the growth of organism, and provides protective immunity against invading pathogens. Decreased or increased cell death is detrimental both in infectious and non-infectious diseases. Cell death is executed both by regulated enzymic reactions and non-enzymic sudden collapse. In this brief review we have tried to summarize various cell death modalities and their impact on the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Orr, Mark T; Ireton, Gregory C; Beebe, Elyse A; Huang, Po-Wei D; Reese, Valerie A; Argilla, David; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G
Unlike most pathogens, many of the immunodominant epitopes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are under purifying selection. This startling finding suggests that M. tuberculosis may gain an evolutionary advantage by focusing the human immune response against selected proteins. Although the implications of this to vaccine development are incompletely understood, it has been suggested that inducing strong Th1 responses against Ags that are only weakly recognized during natural infection may circumvent this evasion strategy and increase vaccine efficacy. To test the hypothesis that subdominant and/or weak M. tuberculosis Ags are viable vaccine candidates and to avoid complications because of differential immunodominance hierarchies in humans and experimental animals, we defined the immunodominance hierarchy of 84 recombinant M. tuberculosis proteins in experimentally infected mice. We then combined a subset of these dominant or subdominant Ags with a Th1 augmenting adjuvant, glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in stable emulsion, to assess their immunogenicity in M. tuberculosis-naive animals and protective efficacy as measured by a reduction in lung M. tuberculosis burden of infected animals after prophylactic vaccination. We observed little correlation between immunodominance during primary M. tuberculosis infection and vaccine efficacy, confirming the hypothesis that subdominant and weakly antigenic M. tuberculosis proteins are viable vaccine candidates. Finally, we developed two fusion proteins based on strongly protective subdominant fusion proteins. When paired with the glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in stable emulsion, these fusion proteins elicited robust Th1 responses and limited pulmonary M. tuberculosis for at least 6 wk postinfection with a single immunization. These findings expand the potential pool of M. tuberculosis proteins that can be considered as vaccine Ag candidates. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Molina, Elena; Elguezabal, Natalia; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium, and many other nontuberculous mycobacteria are worldwide distributed microorganisms of major medical and veterinary importance. Considering the growing epidemiologic significance of wildlife-livestock-human interrelation, developing rapid detection tools of high specificity and sensitivity is vital to assess their presence and accelerate the process of diagnosing mycobacteriosis. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel tetraplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium genus, M. avium subspecies, and M. tuberculosis complex in an internally monitored single assay. The method was evaluated using DNA from mycobacterial (n = 38) and nonmycobacterial (n = 28) strains, tissues spiked with different CFU amounts of three mycobacterial species (n = 57), archival clinical samples (n = 233), and strains isolated from various hosts (n = 147). The minimum detectable DNA amount per reaction was 50 fg for M. bovis BCG and M. kansasii and 5 fg for M. avium subsp. hominissuis. When spiked samples were analyzed, the method consistently detected as few as 100 to 1,000 mycobacterial CFU per gram. The sensitivity and specificity values for the panel of clinical samples were 97.5 and 100% using a verified culture-based method as the reference method. The assays performed on clinical isolates confirmed these results. This PCR was able to identify M. avium and M. tuberculosis complex in the same sample in one reaction. In conclusion, the tetraplex real-time PCR we designed represents a highly specific and sensitive tool for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in routine laboratory diagnosis with potential additional uses. PMID:25588660
Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Elguezabal, Natalia; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium, and many other nontuberculous mycobacteria are worldwide distributed microorganisms of major medical and veterinary importance. Considering the growing epidemiologic significance of wildlife-livestock-human interrelation, developing rapid detection tools of high specificity and sensitivity is vital to assess their presence and accelerate the process of diagnosing mycobacteriosis. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel tetraplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium genus, M. avium subspecies, and M. tuberculosis complex in an internally monitored single assay. The method was evaluated using DNA from mycobacterial (n = 38) and nonmycobacterial (n = 28) strains, tissues spiked with different CFU amounts of three mycobacterial species (n = 57), archival clinical samples (n = 233), and strains isolated from various hosts (n = 147). The minimum detectable DNA amount per reaction was 50 fg for M. bovis BCG and M. kansasii and 5 fg for M. avium subsp. hominissuis. When spiked samples were analyzed, the method consistently detected as few as 100 to 1,000 mycobacterial CFU per gram. The sensitivity and specificity values for the panel of clinical samples were 97.5 and 100% using a verified culture-based method as the reference method. The assays performed on clinical isolates confirmed these results. This PCR was able to identify M. avium and M. tuberculosis complex in the same sample in one reaction. In conclusion, the tetraplex real-time PCR we designed represents a highly specific and sensitive tool for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in routine laboratory diagnosis with potential additional uses.
Role of GenoType(®) Mycobacterium Common Mycobacteria/Additional Species Assay for Rapid Differentiation Between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Different Species of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria.
Singh, Amresh Kumar; Maurya, Anand Kumar; Umrao, Jyoti; Kant, Surya; Kushwaha, Ram Awadh Singh; Nag, Vijaya Laskshmi; Dhole, Tapan N
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may or may not have same clinical presentations, but the treatment regimens are always different. Laboratory differentiation between MTBC and NTM by routine methods are time consuming and cumbersome to perform. We have evaluated the role of GenoType(®) Mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species (CM/AS) assay for differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM in clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB) cases. A total of 1080 clinical specimens were collected from January 2010 to June 2012. Diagnosis was performed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining followed by culture in BacT/ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, France). A total of 219 culture positive clinical isolates (BacT/ALERT(®) MP cultures) were selected for differentiation by p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) sensitivity test as and BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test considering as the gold standard test. Final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType(®) Mycobacterium CM/AS assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany). Out of 219 BacT/ALERT(®) MP culture positive isolates tested by PNB as 153 MTBC (69.9%) and by GenoType(®) Mycobacterium CM/AS assay as 159 (72.6%) MTBC and remaining 60 (27.4%) were considered as NTM species. The GenoType(®) Mycobacterium CM/AS assay was proved 99.3% sensitive and 98.3% specific for rapid differentiation of MTBC and NTM. The most common NTM species were; Mycobacterium fortuitum 20 (33.3%) among rapid growing mycobacteria and Mycobacterium intracellulare 11 (18.3%) among slow growing mycobacteria. The GenoType(®) Mycobacterium assay makes rapid and accurate identification of NTM species as compared with different phenotypic and molecular diagnostic tool and helps in management of infections caused by different mycobacteria.
James, Stephanie; Watson, Michael
Despite the belief of many health professionals, tuberculosis is not a disease of the past but is on the increase (Department of Health (DH), 2004) and the UK has seen a year on year increase in the number of new cases (Health Protection Agency, 2008). The DH have made a number of recommendations to combat this increase and one of those recommendations is to raise awareness among health staff (2004). This review has set out to examine district nurses' knowledge about tuberculosis and the consequences of poor knowledge. Five themes emerged from the literature search with the most prominent being the subject of adherence and how this could be addressed. The review has identified that district nurses should have a greater knowledge of tuberculosis and patient treatment could be improved by the nurse having a better understanding about tuberculosis care.
Amin, Anita G.; Goude, Renan; Shi, Libin; Zhang, Jian; Chatterjee, Delphi; Parish, Tanya
The Emb proteins (EmbA, EmbB, EmbC) are mycobacterial arabinosyltransferases involved in the biogenesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. EmbA and EmbB are predicted to work in unison as a heterodimer. EmbA and EmbB are involved in the formation of the crucial terminal hexaarabinoside motif [Araβ(1→2)Araα(1→5)] [Araβ(1→2)Araα(1→3)]Araα(1→5)Araα1→(Ara6) in the cell wall polysaccharide arabinogalactan. Studies conducted in Mycobacterium smegmatis revealed that mutants with disruptions in embA or embB are viable, although the growth rate was affected. In contrast, we demonstrate here that embA is an essential gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, since a deletion of the chromosomal gene could only be achieved when a second functional copy was provided on an integrated vector. Complementation of an embA mutant of M. smegmatis by M. tuberculosis embA confirmed that it encodes a functional arabinosyltransferase. We identified a promoter for M. tuberculosis embA located immediately upstream of the gene, indicating that it is expressed independently from the upstream gene, embC. Promoter activity from PembA(Mtb) was sevenfold lower when assayed in M. smegmatis compared to M. tuberculosis, indicating that the latter is not a good host for genetic analysis of M. tuberculosis embA expression. PembA(Mtb) activity remained constant throughout growth phases and after stress treatment, although it was reduced during hypoxia-induced non-replicating persistence. Ethambutol exposure had no effect on PembA(Mtb) activity. These data demonstrate that M. tuberculosis embA encodes a functional arabinosyltransferase which is constitutively expressed and plays a critical role in M. tuberculosis. PMID:18174142
Amin, Anita G; Goude, Renan; Shi, Libin; Zhang, Jian; Chatterjee, Delphi; Parish, Tanya
The Emb proteins (EmbA, EmbB, EmbC) are mycobacterial arabinosyltransferases involved in the biogenesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. EmbA and EmbB are predicted to work in unison as a heterodimer. EmbA and EmbB are involved in the formation of the crucial terminal hexaarabinoside motif [Arabeta(1-->2)Araalpha(1-->5)] [Arabeta(1-->2)Araalpha(1-->3)]Araalpha(1-->5)Araalpha1-->(Ara(6)) in the cell wall polysaccharide arabinogalactan. Studies conducted in Mycobacterium smegmatis revealed that mutants with disruptions in embA or embB are viable, although the growth rate was affected. In contrast, we demonstrate here that embA is an essential gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, since a deletion of the chromosomal gene could only be achieved when a second functional copy was provided on an integrated vector. Complementation of an embA mutant of M. smegmatis by M. tuberculosis embA confirmed that it encodes a functional arabinosyltransferase. We identified a promoter for M. tuberculosis embA located immediately upstream of the gene, indicating that it is expressed independently from the upstream gene, embC. Promoter activity from P(embA)((Mtb)) was sevenfold lower when assayed in M. smegmatis compared to M. tuberculosis, indicating that the latter is not a good host for genetic analysis of M. tuberculosis embA expression. P(embA)((Mtb)) activity remained constant throughout growth phases and after stress treatment, although it was reduced during hypoxia-induced non-replicating persistence. Ethambutol exposure had no effect on P(embA)((Mtb)) activity. These data demonstrate that M. tuberculosis embA encodes a functional arabinosyltransferase which is constitutively expressed and plays a critical role in M. tuberculosis.
Miller, L P; Crawford, J T; Shinnick, T M
A portion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) was amplified by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotides and used as a hybridization probe to isolate plasmid clones carrying the entire rpoB gene of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, a virulent, rifampin-susceptible strain. Sequence analysis of a 5,084-bp SacI genomic DNA fragment revealed a 3,534-bp open reading frame encoding an 1,178-amino-acid protein with 57% identity with the Escherichia coli beta subunit. This SacI fragment also carried a portion of the rpoC gene located 43 bp downstream from the 3' end of the rpoB open reading frame; this organization is similar to that of the rpoBC operon of E. coli. The M. tuberculosis rpoB gene was cloned into the shuttle plasmid pMV261 and electroporated into the LR223 strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is highly resistant to rifampin (MIC > 200 micrograms/ml). The resulting transformants were relatively rifampin susceptible (MIC = 50 micrograms/ml). Using PCR mutagenesis techniques, we introduced a specific rpoB point mutation (associated with clinical strains of rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis) into the cloned M. tuberculosis rpoB gene and expressed this altered gene in the LR222 strain of M. smegmatis, which is susceptible to rifampin (MIC = 25 micrograms/ml). The resulting transformants were rifampin resistant (MIC = 200 micrograms/ml). The mutagenesis and expression strategy of the cloned M. tuberculosis rpoB gene that we have employed in this study will allow us to determine the rpoB mutations that are responsible for rifampin resistance in M. tuberculosis. PMID:8031050
van Helden, Paul D.; Wilson, Douglas; Colijn, Caroline; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Warren, Robin M.
Summary: Numerous studies have reported that individuals can simultaneously harbor multiple distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To date, there has been limited discussion of the consequences for the individual or the epidemiological importance of mixed infections. Here, we review studies that documented mixed infections, highlight challenges associated with the detection of mixed infections, and discuss possible implications of mixed infections for the diagnosis and treatment of patients and for the community impact of tuberculosis control strategies. We conclude by highlighting questions that should be resolved in order to improve our understanding of the importance of mixed-strain M. tuberculosis infections. PMID:23034327
Naidoo, Natasha; Ramsugit, Saiyur; Pillay, Manormoney
Novel biomarkers are urgently needed for point of care TB diagnostics. In this study, we investigated the potential of the pilin subunit protein encoded by the mtp gene as a diagnostic biomarker. BLAST analysis of the mtp gene on published genome databases, and amplicon sequencing were performed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) strains and other organisms. The protein secondary structure of the amino acid sequences of non-tuberculous Mycobacteria that partially aligned with the mtp sequence was analysed with PredictProtein software. The mtp gene and corresponding amino acid sequence of MTBC were 100% homologous with H37Rv, in contrast to the partial alignment of the non-tuberculous Mycobacteria. The mtp gene was present in all 91 clinical isolates of MTBC. Except for 2 strains with point mutations, the sequence was 100% conserved among the clinical strains. The mtp gene could not be amplified in all non-tuberculous Mycobacteria and respiratory organisms. The predicted MTP protein structure of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium abscessus differed significantly from that of the M. tuberculosis, which was similar to Mycobacterium marinum. The absence of the mtp gene in non-tuberculous Mycobacteria and other respiratory bacteria suggests that its encoded product, the pilin subunit protein of M. tuberculosis may be a suitable marker for a point of care TB test.
Martín Sánchez, V; Alvarez-Guisasola, F; Caylá, J A; Alvarez, J L
Tuberculosis currently represents a serious problem in prison populations. With the aim of studying the predictive factors for, and the prevalence of, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and pulmonary tuberculosis in a Spanish prison, all those admitted during 1991 and 1992 were included (N = 1314). The tuberculin skin test, HIV serology, chest X-ray and bacteriological examination of sputum were carried out. Statistical analysis was done by univariant tests, stratified analysis and logistic regression. The prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection was 55.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 52.5-58.5). An association was found with sex, imprisonment more than once, HIV infection and age. The co-infection rate (tuberculosis plus HIV) was 9.2%. Logistic regression showed a greater risk with age (4.4% per year), time spent in prison and for males. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.26% and an association was found with M. tuberculosis infection, HIV infection (odds ratio [OR] = 13.7), intravenous drug users (OR = 17.2) and imprisonment more than once (OR = 7.3). Logistic regression showed an association with HIV co-infection (OR = 20.2). The prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection and pulmonary tuberculosis is high when compared with similar studies. The influence of age, time spent in prison and co-infection with HIV is relevant to recommendations for specific tuberculosis prevention programmes in correctional facilities.
Fortuin, Suereta; Tomazella, Gisele G; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Sampson, Samantha L; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Soares, Nelson C; Wiker, Harald G; de Souza, Gustavo A; Warren, Robin M
Reversible protein phosphorylation, regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases, mediates a switch between protein activity and cellular pathways that contribute to a large number of cellular processes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 Serine/Threonine kinases (STPKs) which show close homology to eukaryotic kinases. This study aimed to elucidate the phosphoproteomic landscape of a clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis. We performed a high throughput mass spectrometric analysis of proteins extracted from an early-logarithmic phase culture. Whole cell lysate proteins were processed using the filter-aided sample preparation method, followed by phosphopeptide enrichment of tryptic peptides by strong cation exchange (SCX) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The MaxQuant quantitative proteomics software package was used for protein identification. Our analysis identified 414 serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylated sites, with a distribution of S/T/Y sites; 38% on serine, 59% on threonine and 3% on tyrosine; present on 303 unique peptides mapping to 214 M. tuberculosis proteins. Only 45 of the S/T/Y phosphorylated proteins identified in our study had been previously described in the laboratory strain H37Rv, confirming previous reports. The remaining 169 phosphorylated proteins were newly identified in this clinical M. tuberculosis Beijing strain. We identified 5 novel tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. These findings not only expand upon our current understanding of the protein phosphorylation network in clinical M. tuberculosis but the data set also further extends and complements previous knowledge regarding phosphorylated peptides and phosphorylation sites in M. tuberculosis.
Zink, Albert R; Sola, Christophe; Reischl, Udo; Grabner, Waltraud; Rastogi, Nalin; Wolf, Hans; Nerlich, Andreas G
Bone and soft tissue samples from 85 ancient Egyptian mummies were analyzed for the presence of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (aDNA) and further characterized by spoligotyping. The specimens were obtained from individuals from different tomb complexes in Thebes West, Upper Egypt, which were used for upper social class burials between the Middle Kingdom (since ca. 2050 BC) and the Late Period (until ca. 500 BC). A total of 25 samples provided a specific positive signal for the amplification of a 123-bp fragment of the repetitive element IS6110, indicating the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. Further PCR-based tests for the identification of subspecies failed due to lack of specific amplification products in the historic tissue samples. Of these 25 positive specimens, 12 could be successfully characterized by spoligotyping. The spoligotyping signatures were compared to those in an international database. They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern. The results from a Middle Kingdom tomb (used exclusively between ca. 2050 and 1650 BC) suggest that these samples bear an M. africanum-type specific spoligotyping signature. The samples from later periods provided patterns typical for M. tuberculosis. This study clearly demonstrates that spoligotyping can be applied to historic tissue samples. In addition, our results do not support the theory that M. tuberculosis originated from the M. bovis type but, rather, suggest that human M. tuberculosis may have originated from a precursor complex probably related to M. africanum.
Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai
With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.
Zimenkov, D V; Kulagina, E V; Antonova, O V; Surzhikov, S A; Bespiatykh, Iu A; Shitikov, E A; Il'ina, E N; Mikhaĭlovich, V M; Zasedatelev, A S; Griadunov, D A
Steadily growing resistance of the tuberculosis causative agent towards a broad spectrum of anti-tuberculosis drugs calls for rapid and reliable methods for identifying the genetic determinants responsible for this resistance. In this study, we present a biochip-based method for simultaneous identification of mutations within rpoB gene associated with rifampin resistance, mutations in katG, inhA, ahpC genes responsible for isoniazid resistance, mutations within the regions of gyrA and gyrB genes leading to fluoroquinolones resistance, and mutations in the rrs gene and the eis promoter region associated with the resistance to kanamycin, capreomycin and amikacin. The oligonucleotide microchip, as the core element of this assay, provides simultaneous identification of 99 mutations in the format "one sample--one PCR--one microchip", and it makes it possible to complete analysis of multi-drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis within a single day. The tests on 63 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates with different resistance profiles using the developed approach allows us to reveal the spectrum of drug-resistance associated mutations, and to estimate the significance of the inclusion of extra genetic loci in the determination of M. tuberculosis drug resistance.
Rathor, Nisha; Chandolia, Amita; Saini, Neeraj Kumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Pathak, Rakesh; Garima, Kushal; Singh, Satendra; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Bose, Mridula
The mce4 operon is reported to be involved in cholesterol utilization and intracellular survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The regulatory mechanism of this important operon was unknown so far. Here we report detection of the promoter region and regulatory factors of the mce4 operon. The in silico analyzed putative promoter region was cloned in promoter selection vector and promoter strength was measured by O-Nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranosidase (ONPG) assay. The transcription start site was determined by 5' Rapid amplification of C terminal end (5'RACE). Surface stress, hypoxia and presence of cholesterol, were found to be stimulatory for mce4 operon promoter induction. Pull down assay coupled with 2D gel electrophoresis resolved many proteins; few prominent spots were processed for identification. MALDI TOF-TOF identified proteins of M. tuberculosis which supported the regulatory function of the identified promoter region and cholesterol utilization of mce4 operon. Since mce4 operon is involved in cholesterol utilization and intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis in the later phase of infection, identification of the promoter sequence as reported in the present communication may facilitate development of effective inhibitors to regulate expression of mce4 operon which may prove to be a good drug target to prevent latency in tuberculosis.
Anderson, G; Coup, A J
Lymph nodes from guinea pigs inoculated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were fixed in buffered formalin, then treated for the recommended times in Gooding and Stewart's fluid, EDTA, aqueous nitric acid, von Ebner's fluid, and rapid decalcifier (RDC). The blocks were processed to paraffin wax and sections were stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Only in sections of the blocks treated with RDC were no acid alcohol fast bacilli demonstrable. Hydrochloric acid is a known constituent of RDC and it was found that Myco. tuberculosis is altered by treatment with 2-5M solutions of hydrochloric acid and above and cannot subseuqently be demonstrated by the Ziehl-Neelsen stain. From these results it is recommended that calcified tissue from patients in whom there is a suspicion of tuberculosis should be decalcified with an agent other than RDC. PMID:51859
Willcocks, Sam; Wren, Brendan W
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an etiologic agent of tuberculosis, exacts a heavy toll in terms of human morbidity and mortality. Although an ancient disease, new strains are emerging as human population density increases. The emergent virulent strains appear adept at steering the host immune response from a protective Th1 type response towards a Th2 bias, a feature shared with some pathogenic fungi. Other common characteristics include infection site, metabolic features, the composition and display of cell surface molecules, the range of innate immune receptors engaged during infection, and the ability to form granulomas. Literature from these two distinct fields of research are reviewed to propose that the emergent virulent strains of M. tuberculosis are in the process of convergent evolution with pathogenic fungi, and are increasing the prominence of conserved traits from environmental phylogenetic ancestors that facilitate their evasion of host defenses and dissemination.
Mostowy, Serge; Cousins, Debby; Brinkman, Jacqui; Aranaz, Alicia; Behr, Marcel A
To better understand the evolution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, subspecies were tested for large sequence polymorphisms. Samples with greater numbers of deletions, without exception, were missing all the same regions that were deleted from samples with lesser numbers of deletions. Principal genetic groups based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms were restricted to one of the deletion-based groups, and isolates that shared genotypes based on molecular epidemiological markers were assigned almost exclusively to the same deletion type. The data provide compelling evidence that human tuberculosis did not originate from the present-day bovine form. Genomic deletions present themselves as an attractive modality to study the evolution of the M. tuberculosis complex.
Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Neyrolles, Olivier
Over the past 20 years, there has been an emerging appreciation about the role of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) to control and eradicate pathogens. Likewise, there have been significant advances in dissecting the mechanisms involved in the microbial subversion of MPS cells, mainly affecting their differentiation and effector functions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial pathogen that represents an enigma to the field because of its remarkable ability to thrive in humans. One reason is that M. tuberculosis renders a defective MPS compartment, which is perhaps the most ingenious strategy for survival in the host given the prominence of these cells to modulate microenvironments, their function as sentinels and orchestrators of the immune response, and their pathogenic role as reservoirs for microbial persistence. In this article, the principal strategies used by M. tuberculosis to subvert the MPS compartment are presented along with emerging concepts. PMID:25147188
Coscolla, Mireia; Lewin, Astrid; Metzger, Sonja; Maetz-Rennsing, Kerstin; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Nitsche, Andreas; Dabrowski, Pjotr Wojtek; Radonic, Aleksandar; Niemann, Stefan; Parkhill, Julian; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Feldman, Julia; Comas, Iñaki; Boesch, Christophe; Gagneux, Sebastien
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by gram-positive bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). MTBC include several human-associated lineages and several variants adapted to domestic and, more rarely, wild animal species. We report an M. tuberculosis strain isolated from a wild chimpanzee in Côte d’Ivoire that was shown by comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses to belong to a new lineage of MTBC, closer to the human-associated lineage 6 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 2) than to the other classical animal-associated MTBC strains. These results show that the general view of the genetic diversity of MTBC is limited and support the possibility that other MTBC variants exist, particularly in wild mammals in Africa. Exploring this diversity is crucial to the understanding of the biology and evolutionary history of this widespread infectious disease. PMID:23735084
Viader-Salvadó, José M.; Garza-González, Elvira; Valdez-Leal, Ramón; de los Angeles del Bosque-Moncayo, M.; Tijerina-Menchaca, Rolando; Guerrero-Olazarán, Martha
A rapid drug susceptibility test to measure the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) using clinical isolates and a newly defined mycolic acid index (MAI) was evaluated. A total of 200 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility or resistance to INH and RIF by the MAI susceptibility and indirect-proportion methods. Overall, there was agreement between the two methods for 398 (99.5%) of the 400 total tests. Specifically, the sensitivity of the MAI susceptibility method for INH and RIF was 97.6 and 100%, respectively. The specificity and positive predictive value were 100% for both drugs, and the negative predictive value for INH and RIF was 98.3 and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, the MAI susceptibility method described here can be used for rapid drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates within 5 days after clinical isolates are incubated in the presence or absence of an antituberculosis drug. PMID:11427584
Heifets, L.; Sanchez, T.; Vanderkolk, J.; Pham, V.
Two methods for testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rifapentine have been developed: the agar proportion method and the radiometric BACTEC technique. A critical concentration of 0.5 μg of rifapentine per ml is proposed for both methods since it provides a reliable means of distinguishing between susceptible and resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. It is recommended that two quality control M. tuberculosis strains be used at the introduction of these tests in a clinical laboratory: one that is pansusceptible (H37Rv) and one that is resistant to rifapentine. The resistant strain can be obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, where it is deposited under the number ATCC 700457. PMID:9869560
Doig, C; Seagar, A L; Watt, B; Forbes, K J
There is concern that current procedures for the heat inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may not be adequate. This raises serious safety issues for laboratory staff performing molecular investigations such as IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. This paper confirms that the protocol of van Embden et al, as performed routinely in this laboratory, is safe and effective for the heat inactivation of M tuberculosis. This procedure involves complete immersion of a tube containing a suspension of one loopfull of growth in a water bath at 80°C for 20 minutes. Seventy four isolates were included in this investigation. Despite prolonged incubation for 20 weeks, none of the heat killed M tuberculosis suspensions produced visible colonies or gave a positive growth signal from liquid culture. This method did not affect the integrity of the DNA for subsequent molecular investigations. PMID:12354807
Coscolla, Mireia; Lewin, Astrid; Metzger, Sonja; Maetz-Rennsing, Kerstin; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Nitsche, Andreas; Dabrowski, Pjotr Wojtek; Radonic, Aleksandar; Niemann, Stefan; Parkhill, Julian; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Feldman, Julia; Comas, Iñaki; Boesch, Christophe; Gagneux, Sebastien; Leendertz, Fabian H
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by gram-positive bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). MTBC include several human-associated lineages and several variants adapted to domestic and, more rarely, wild animal species. We report an M. tuberculosis strain isolated from a wild chimpanzee in Côte d'Ivoire that was shown by comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses to belong to a new lineage of MTBC, closer to the human-associated lineage 6 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 2) than to the other classical animal-associated MTBC strains. These results show that the general view of the genetic diversity of MTBC is limited and support the possibility that other MTBC variants exist, particularly in wild mammals in Africa. Exploring this diversity is crucial to the understanding of the biology and evolutionary history of this widespread infectious disease.
Zimic, Mirko; Loli, Sebastian; Gilman, Robert H; Gutierrez, Andrés; Fuentes, Patricia; Cotrina, Milagros; Kirwan, Daniela; Sheen, Patricia
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important drug in the treatment of tuberculosis. Microbiological methods of PZA susceptibility testing are controversial and have low reproducibility. After conversion of PZA into pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase enzyme, the drug is expelled from the bacteria by an efflux pump. To evaluate the rate of POA extrusion from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a parameter to detect PZA resistance. The rate of POA extrusion and PZA susceptibility determined by BACTEC 460 were measured for 34 strains in a previous study. PZA resistance was modeled in a logistic regression with the pyrazinoic efflux rate. POA efflux rate predicted PZA resistance with 70.83%-92.85% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with BACTEC 460. POA efflux rate could be a useful tool for predicting PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. Further exploration of this approach may lead to the development of new tools for diagnosing PZA resistance, which may be of public health importance.
Matyugina, Elena; Novikov, Mikhail; Babkov, Denis; Ozerov, Alexander; Chernousova, Larisa; Andreevskaya, Sofia; Smirnova, Tatiana; Karpenko, Inna; Chizhov, Alexander; Murthu, Pravin; Lutz, Stefan; Kochetkov, Sergei; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L; Khandazhinskaya, Anastasia L
Three series of 5-arylaminouracil derivatives, including 5-(phenylamino)uracils, 1-(4'-hydroxy-2'-cyclopenten-1'-yl)-5-(phenylamino)uracils, and 1,3-di-(4'-hydroxy-2'-cyclopenten-1'-yl)-5-(phenylamino)uracils, were synthesized and screened for potential antimicrobial activity. Most of compounds had a negative effect on the growth of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain, with 100% inhibition observed at concentrations between 5 and 40 μg/mL. Of those, 1-(4'-hydroxy-2'-cyclopenten-1'-yl)-3-(4‴-hydroxy-2‴-cyclopenten-1‴-yl)-5-(4″-butyloxyphenylamino)uracil proved to be the most active among tested compounds against the M. tuberculosis multidrug-resistant strain MS-115 (MIC90 5 μg/mL). In addition, the thymidylate kinase of M. tuberculosis was evaluated as a possible enzymatic target.
Chim, Nicholas; Owens, Cedric P.; Contreras, Heidi; Goulding, Celia W.
In 2012, tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat and is exacerbated both by the emergence of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and its synergy with HIV infection. The waning effectiveness of current treatment regimens necessitates the development of new or repurposed anti-TB therapeutics for improved combination therapies against the disease. Exploiting atomic resolution structural information of proteins in complex with their substrates and/or inhibitors can facilitate structure-based rational drug design. Since our last review in 2009, there has been a wealth of new M. tuberculosis protein structural information. Once again, we have compiled the most promising structures with regards to potential anti-TB drug development and present them in this updated review. PMID:23167715
de Navarro, Pedro Daibert; de Almeida, Isabela Neves; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Ceccato, Maria das Graças; Maciel, Mônica Maria Delgado; Carvalho, Wânia da Silva; de Miranda, Silvana Spindola
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. Results: A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study. The prevalence of LTBI was 25.2%. In the multivariate analysis, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within prisons (adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) and use of inhaled drugs (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.13). Respiratory symptoms were identified in 131 (11.7%) of the participants. Serological testing for HIV was performed in 940 (83.9%) of the participants, and the result was positive in 5 (0.5%). Two cases of active tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Conclusions: Within the prisons under study, the prevalence of LTBI was high. In addition, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients and with the use of inhaled drugs. Our findings demonstrate that it is necessary to improve the conditions in prisons, as well as to introduce strategies, such as chest X-ray screening, in order to detect tuberculosis cases and, consequently, reduce M. tuberculosis infection within the prison system. PMID:27812634
Keeton, Roanne; Allie, Nasiema; Dambuza, Ivy; Abel, Brian; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Sebesho, Boipelo; Randall, Philippa; Burger, Patricia; Fick, Elizabeth; Quesniaux, Valerie F J; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam
Development of host protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is critically dependent on the inflammatory cytokine TNF. TNF signals through 2 receptors, TNFRp55 and TNFRp75; however, the role of TNFRp75-dependent signaling in immune regulation is poorly defined. Here we found that mice lacking TNFRp75 exhibit greater control of M. tuberculosis infection compared with WT mice. TNFRp75-/- mice developed effective bactericidal granulomas and demonstrated increased pulmonary recruitment of activated DCs. Moreover, IL-12p40-dependent migration of DCs to lung draining LNs of infected TNFRp75-/- mice was substantially higher than that observed in WT M. tuberculosis-infected animals and was associated with enhanced frequencies of activated M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-γ-expressing CD4+ T cells. In WT mice, TNFRp75 shedding correlated with markedly reduced bioactive TNF levels and IL-12p40 expression. Neutralization of TNFRp75 in M. tuberculosis-infected WT BM-derived DCs (BMDCs) increased production of bioactive TNF and IL-12p40 to a level equivalent to that produced by TNFRp75-/- BMDCs. Addition of exogenous TNFRp75 to TNFRp75-/- BMDCs infected with M. tuberculosis decreased IL-12p40 synthesis, demonstrating that TNFRp75 shedding regulates DC activation. These data indicate that TNFRp75 shedding downmodulates protective immune function and reduces host resistance and survival; therefore, targeting TNFRp75 may be beneficial for improving disease outcome.
Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Onajole, Oluseye K.; Pieroni, Marco; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Chen, Gang; Tipparaju, Suresh K.; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Bishai, William R.
Responsible for nearly two million deaths each year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains a serious global health challenge. The emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis confounds control efforts, and new drugs with novel molecular targets are desperately needed. Here we describe lead compounds, the indoleamides, with potent activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis by targeting the mycolic acid transporter MmpL3. We identify a single mutation in mmpL3 which confers high resistance to the indoleamide class while remaining susceptible to currently used first- and second-line tuberculosis drugs, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Importantly, an indoleamide derivative exhibits dose-dependent anti-mycobacterial activity when orally administered to M. tuberculosis-infected mice. The bioavailability of the indoleamides, combined with their ability to kill tubercle bacilli, indicates great potential for translational developments of this structure class for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:24352433
Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Venclovas, Česlovas; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.; McKinney, John D.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Warner, Digby F.
Vitamin B12-dependent enzymes function in core biochemical pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen whose metabolism in vivo is poorly understood. Although M. tuberculosis can access vitamin B12 in vitro, it is uncertain whether the organism is able to scavenge B12 during host infection. This question is crucial to predictions of metabolic function, but its resolution is complicated by the absence in the M. tuberculosis genome of a direct homologue of BtuFCD, the only bacterial B12 transport system described to date. We applied genome-wide transposon mutagenesis to identify M. tuberculosis mutants defective in their ability to use exogenous B12. A small proportion of these mapped to Rv1314c, identifying the putative PduO-type ATP : co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase as essential for B12 assimilation. Most notably, however, insertions in Rv1819c dominated the mutant pool, revealing an unexpected function in B12 acquisition for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type protein previously investigated as the mycobacterial BacA homologue. Moreover, targeted deletion of Rv1819c eliminated the ability of M. tuberculosis to transport B12 and related corrinoids in vitro. Our results establish an alternative to the canonical BtuCD-type system for B12 uptake in M. tuberculosis, and elucidate a role in B12 metabolism for an ABC protein implicated in chronic mycobacterial infection. PMID:23407640
Viegas, Sofia Omar; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Massawo, Leguesse; Alberto, Matos; Fernandes, Fabíola Couto; Monteiro, Eliane; Couvin, David; Matavele, José Maiane; Rastogi, Nalin; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Machado, Adelina; Carrilho, Carla; Groenheit, Ramona; Källenius, Gunilla; Koivula, Tuija
The zoonosis bovine tuberculosis (TB) is known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of extrapulmonary TB. In Mozambique, bovine TB is a recognised problem in cattle, but little has been done to evaluate how Mycobacterium bovis has contributed to human TB. We here explore the public health risk for bovine TB in Maputo, by characterizing the isolates from tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) cases, a common manifestation of bovine TB in humans, in the Pathology Service of Maputo Central Hospital, in Mozambique, during one year. Among 110 patients suspected of having TBLN, 49 had a positive culture result. Of those, 48 (98%) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and one for nontuberculous mycobacteria. Of the 45 isolates analysed by spoligotyping and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR), all were M. tuberculosis. No M. bovis was found. Cervical TBLN, corresponding to 39 (86.7%) cases, was the main cause of TBLN and 66.7% of those where from HIV positive patients. We found that TBLN in Maputo was caused by a variety of M. tuberculosis strains. The most prevalent lineage was the EAI (n = 19; 43.2%). Particular common spoligotypes were SIT 48 (EAI1_SOM sublineage), SIT 42 (LAM 9), SIT 1 (Beijing) and SIT53 (T1), similar to findings among pulmonary cases. M. tuberculosis was the main etiological agent of TBLN in Maputo. M. tuberculosis genotypes were similar to the ones causing pulmonary TB, suggesting that in Maputo, cases of TBLN arise from the same source as pulmonary TB, rather than from an external zoonotic source. Further research is needed on other forms of extrapulmonary TB and in rural areas where there is high prevalence of bovine TB in cattle, to evaluate the risk of transmission of M. bovis from cattle to humans.
Sohn, Sungmin; Wang, Sungho; Shi, Hyejin; Park, Sungrock; Lee, Sangki; Park, Kyoung Taek
A mixed infection of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus (Mab) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in the lung is an unusual clinical manifestation and has not yet been reported. A 61-year-old woman had been treated for Mab lung disease and concomitant pneumonia, and was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Despite both anti-PTB and anti-Mab therapy, her entire left lung was destroyed and collapsed. She underwent left pneumonectomy and received medical therapy. We were able to successfully treat her mixed infection by pneumonectomy followed by inhaled amikacin therapy. To the best of our knowledge, thus far, this is the first description of a mixed Mab and MTB lung infection. PMID:28180105
Be, Nicholas A; Bishai, William R; Jain, Sanjay K
Central nervous system disease is the most serious form of tuberculosis, and is associated with high mortality and severe neurological sequelae. Though recent clinical reports suggest an association of distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with central nervous system disease, the microbial virulence factors required have not been described previously. We screened 398 unique M. tuberculosis mutants in guinea pigs to identify genes required for central nervous system tuberculosis. We found M. tuberculosis pknD (Rv0931c) to be required for central nervous system disease. These findings were central nervous system tissue-specific and were not observed in lung tissues. We demonstrated that pknD is required for invasion of brain endothelia (primary components of the blood-brain barrier protecting the central nervous system), but not macrophages, lung epithelia, or other endothelia. M. tuberculosis pknD encodes a "eukaryotic-like" serine-threonine protein kinase, with a predicted intracellular kinase and an extracellular (sensor) domain. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we demonstrated that the M. tuberculosis PknD sensor is sufficient to trigger invasion of brain endothelia, a process which was neutralized by specific antiserum. Our findings demonstrate a novel in vivo role for M. tuberculosis pknD and represent an important mechanism for bacterial invasion and virulence in central nervous system tuberculosis, a devastating and understudied disease primarily affecting young children.
Background Central nervous system disease is the most serious form of tuberculosis, and is associated with high mortality and severe neurological sequelae. Though recent clinical reports suggest an association of distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with central nervous system disease, the microbial virulence factors required have not been described previously. Results We screened 398 unique M. tuberculosis mutants in guinea pigs to identify genes required for central nervous system tuberculosis. We found M. tuberculosis pknD (Rv0931c) to be required for central nervous system disease. These findings were central nervous system tissue-specific and were not observed in lung tissues. We demonstrated that pknD is required for invasion of brain endothelia (primary components of the blood-brain barrier protecting the central nervous system), but not macrophages, lung epithelia, or other endothelia. M. tuberculosis pknD encodes a "eukaryotic-like" serine-threonine protein kinase, with a predicted intracellular kinase and an extracellular (sensor) domain. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we demonstrated that the M. tuberculosis PknD sensor is sufficient to trigger invasion of brain endothelia, a process which was neutralized by specific antiserum. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a novel in vivo role for M. tuberculosis pknD and represent an important mechanism for bacterial invasion and virulence in central nervous system tuberculosis, a devastating and understudied disease primarily affecting young children. PMID:22243650
Spositto, F L E; Campanerut, P A Z; Ghiraldi, L D; Leite, C Q F; Hirata, M H; Hirata, R D C; Siqueira, V L D; Cardoso, R Fressatti
We evaluated a multiplex-PCR to differentiate Mycobacterium bovis from M. tuberculosis Complex (MTC) by one step amplification based on simultaneous detection of pncA 169 C > G change in M. bovis and the IS6110 present in MTC species. Our findings showed the proposed multiplex-PCR is a very useful tool for complementation in differentiating M. bovis from other cultured MTC species.
Messelhäusser, U; Kämpf, P; Hörmansdorfer, S; Wagner, B; Schalch, B; Busch, U; Höller, C; Wallner, P; Barth, G; Rampp, A
A combined molecular and cultural method for the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed and tested with artificially contaminated milk and dairy products. Results indicate that the method can be used for a reliable detection as a basis for first risk assessments.
Duckworth, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Kathryn M.; Aldrich, Courtney C.
Adenylation or adenylate-forming enzymes (AEs) are widely found in nature and are responsible for the activation of carboxylic acids to intermediate acyladenylates, which are mixed anhydrides of AMP. In a second reaction, AEs catalyze the transfer of the acyl group of the acyladenylate onto a nucleophilic amino, alcohol, or thiol group of an acceptor molecule leading to amide, ester, and thioester products, respectively. Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes for more than 60 adenylating enzymes, many of which represent potential drug targets due to their confirmed essentiality or requirement for virulence. Several strategies have been used to develop potent and selective AE inhibitors including high-throughput screening, fragment-based screening, and the rationale design of bisubstrate inhibitors that mimic the acyladenylate. In this review, a comprehensive analysis of the mycobacterial adenylating enzymes will be presented with a focus on the identification of small molecule inhibitors. Specifically, this review will cover the aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases (aaRSs), MenE required for menaquinone synthesis, the FadD family of enzymes including the fatty acyl-AMP ligases (FAAL) and the fatty acyl-CoA ligases (FACLs) involved in lipid metabolism, and the nonribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation enzyme MbtA that is necessary for mycobactin synthesis. Additionally, the enzymes NadE, GuaA, PanC, and MshC involved in the respective synthesis of NAD, guanine, pantothenate, and mycothiol will be discussed as well as BirA that is responsible for biotinylation of the acyl CoA-carboxylases. PMID:22283817
Lienard, Julia; Carlsson, Fredric
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance. To this end several in vivo infection models are available (Guirado and Schlesinger, Front Immunol 4:98, 2013; Leung et al., Eur J Immunol 43:2246-2254, 2013; Patel et al., J Lab Physicians 3:75-79, 2011; van Leeuwen et al., Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 5:a018580, 2015). While these models all have their merits they also exhibit limitations, and none perfectly mimics all aspects of human tuberculosis. Thus, there is a need for multiple models that may complement each other, ultimately allowing us to gain true insight into the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections.Here, we describe a recently developed mouse model of Mycobacterium marinum infection that allows kinetic and quantitative studies of disease progression in live animals . Notably, this model exhibits features of human tuberculosis not replicated in M. tuberculosis infected mice, and may provide an important complement to the field. For example, granulomas in the M. marinum model develop central caseating necrosis (Carlsson et al., PLoS Pathog 6:e1000895, 2010), a hallmark of granulomas in human tuberculosis normally not replicated in murine M. tuberculosis infection. Moreover, while tuberculosis is heterogeneous and presents with a continuum of active and latent disease, M. tuberculosis infected mice essentially lack this dynamic range and do not replicate latency (Guirado and Schlesinger, Front Immunol 4:98, 2013
Perley, Casey C.; Frahm, Marc; Click, Eva M.; Dobos, Karen M.; Ferrari, Guido; Stout, Jason E.; Frothingham, Richard
Background Vaccine-induced human antibodies to surface components of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia are correlated with protection. Monoclonal antibodies to surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also protective in animal models. We have characterized human antibodies that bind to the surface of live M. tuberculosis. Methods Plasma from humans with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (n = 23), active TB disease (n = 40), and uninfected controls (n = 9) were assayed by ELISA for reactivity to the live M. tuberculosis surface and to inactivated M. tuberculosis fractions (whole cell lysate, lipoarabinomannan, cell wall, and secreted proteins). Results When compared to uninfected controls, patients with active TB disease had higher antibody titers to the surface of live M. tuberculosis (Δ = 0.72 log10), whole cell lysate (Δ = 0.82 log10), and secreted proteins (Δ = 0.62 log10), though there was substantial overlap between the two groups. Individuals with active disease had higher relative IgG avidity (Δ = 1.4 to 2.6) to all inactivated fractions. Surprisingly, the relative IgG avidity to the live M. tuberculosis surface was lower in the active disease group than in uninfected controls (Δ = –1.53, p = 0.004). Patients with active disease had higher IgG than IgM titers for all inactivated fractions (ratios, 2.8 to 10.1), but equal IgG and IgM titers to the live M. tuberculosis surface (ratio, 1.1). Higher antibody titers to the M. tuberculosis surface were observed in active disease patients who were BCG-vaccinated (Δ = 0.55 log10, p = 0.008), foreign-born (Δ = 0.61 log10, p = 0.004), or HIV-seronegative (Δ = 0.60 log10, p = 0.04). Higher relative IgG avidity scores to the M. tuberculosis surface were also observed in active disease patients who were BCG-vaccinated (Δ = 1.12, p<0.001) and foreign-born (Δ = 0.87, p = 0.01). Conclusions/Significance Humans
Coppola, Mariateresa; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Wilson, Louis; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.
Responsible for 9 million new cases of active disease and nearly 2 million deaths each year, tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat of overwhelming dimensions. Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the only licensed vaccine available, fails to confer lifelong protection and to prevent reactivation of latent infection. Although 15 new vaccine candidates are now in clinical trials, an effective vaccine against TB remains elusive, and new strategies for vaccination are vital. BCG vaccination fails to induce immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis latency antigens. Synthetic long peptides (SLPs) combined with adjuvants have been studied mostly for therapeutic cancer vaccines, yet not for TB, and proved to induce efficient antitumor immunity. This study investigated an SLP derived from Rv1733c, a major M. tuberculosis latency antigen which is highly expressed by “dormant” M. tuberculosis and well recognized by T cells from latently M. tuberculosis-infected individuals. In order to assess its in vivo immunogenicity and protective capacity, Rv1733c SLP in CpG was administered to HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. Immunization with Rv1733c SLP elicited gamma interferon-positive/tumor necrosis factor-positive (IFN-γ+/TNF+) and IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells and Rv1733c-specific antibodies and led to a significant reduction in the bacterial load in the lungs of M. tuberculosis-challenged mice. This was observed both in a pre- and in a post-M. tuberculosis challenge setting. Moreover, Rv1733c SLP immunization significantly boosted the protective efficacy of BCG, demonstrating the potential of M. tuberculosis latency antigens to improve BCG efficacy. These data suggest a promising role for M. tuberculosis latency antigen Rv1733c-derived SLPs as a novel TB vaccine approach, both in a prophylactic and in a postinfection setting. PMID:26202436
Serkani, J. Esmi; Isfahani, B. Nasr; Safaei, H.Gh.; Kermanshahi, R. Kasra; Asghari, Gh.
The increasing incidence of Multi Drug Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistance TB (XDR-TB) worldwide highlight the urgent need to search for newer anti-tuberculosis compounds. It has been determined that pharmaceutical plant, hops (Humulus lupulus), possesses some antibacterial effect. In this study, the antimycobacterial effect of this plant on rifampin sensitive and resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were examined. Sensitivity and resistance of 37 Iranian isolates of M. tuberculosis to rifampin was determined by proportion method. Ethanolic extract of hops was prepared using maceration method. PCR-SSCP and direct sequencing were used for confirming existence of mutations in 193-bp rpoB amplicons related to the rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Two different concentrations of hops alcoholic extract (4 and 8 mg/ml) were prepared and its effects against 21 resistant and 15 sensitive isolates was determinate using proportion method. Six different mutations in the 193-bp amplified rpoB gene fragments and seven distinguishable PCR-SSCP patterns in 21 Iranian rifampin resistant isolates were recognized. This study showed that the percentage of resistance and the type of mutations were correlated with the PCR-SSCP patterns and the type of mutations in rpoB gene (P<0.05). The results of hops antimycobacterial effect showed that different concentrations of hops ethanolic extract (4 and 8 mg/ml) had a remarkable inhibitory effect on rifampin sensitive and resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Identification of the effective fraction of hops against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a further step to be studied. PMID:23248674
Maglione, Paul J; Chan, John
Extensive work illustrating the importance of cellular immune mechanisms for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has largely relegated B-cell biology to an afterthought within the tuberculosis (TB) field. However, recent studies have illustrated that B lymphocytes, through a variety of interactions with the cellular immune response, play previously underappreciated roles in shaping host defense against non-viral intracellular pathogens, including M. tuberculosis. Work in our laboratory has recently shown that, by considering these lymphocytes more broadly within their variety of interactions with cellular immunity, B cells have a significant impact on the outcome of airborne challenge with M. tuberculosis as well as the resultant inflammatory response. In this review, we advocate for a revised view of TB immunology in which roles of cellular and humoral immunity are not mutually exclusive. In the context of our current understanding of host defense against non-viral intracellular infections, we review recent data supporting a more significant role of B cells during M. tuberculosis infection than previously thought.
Jayaraman, Pushpa; Jacques, Miye K; Zhu, Chen; Steblenko, Katherine M; Stowell, Britni L; Madi, Asaf; Anderson, Ana C; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Behar, Samuel M
While T cell immunity initially limits Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, why T cell immunity fails to sterilize the infection and allows recrudescence is not clear. One hypothesis is that T cell exhaustion impairs immunity and is detrimental to the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. Here we provide functional evidence for the development T cell exhaustion during chronic TB. Second, we evaluate the role of the inhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing-3 (TIM3) during chronic M. tuberculosis infection. We find that TIM3 expressing T cells accumulate during chronic infection, co-express other inhibitory receptors including PD1, produce less IL-2 and TNF but more IL-10, and are functionally exhausted. Finally, we show that TIM3 blockade restores T cell function and improves bacterial control, particularly in chronically infected susceptible mice. These data show that T cell immunity is suboptimal during chronic M. tuberculosis infection due to T cell exhaustion. Moreover, in chronically infected mice, treatment with anti-TIM3 mAb is an effective therapeutic strategy against tuberculosis.
Osman, Djaltou Aboubaker; Phelippeau, Michael; Drancourt, Michel; Musso, Didier
French Polynesia is an overseas territory located in the South Pacific. The incidence of tuberculosis in French Polynesia has been stable since 2000 with an average of 20 cases/y/100,000 inhabitants. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in French Polynesia is unknown because M. tuberculosis isolates have not been routinely genotyped. From 2009 to 2012, 34 isolates collected from 32 French Polynesian patients were identified as M. tuberculosis by probe hybridization. These isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs)-variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR). Spoligotype patterns obtained using commercial kits were compared with the online international database SITVIT. MIRU-VNTR genotyping was performed using an in-house protocol based on capillary electrophoresis sizing for 24-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping. The results of the spoligotyping method revealed that 25 isolates grouped into six previously described spoligotypes [H1, H3, U likely (S), T1, Manu, and Beijing] and nine isolates grouped into six new spoligotypes. Comparison with the international database MIRU-VNTRplus distributed 30 isolates into five lineages (Haarlem, Latin American Mediterranean, S, X, and Beijing) and four as unassigned isolates. Genotyping identified four phylogenetic lineages belonging to the modern Euro-American subgroup, one Beijing genotype responsible for worldwide pandemics, including remote islands in the South Pacific, and one Manu genotype of the ancestral lineage of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Connor, Sean E.; Capodagli, Glenn C.; Deaton, Michelle K.; Pegan, Scott D.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease that accounts for over 1.7 million deaths every year. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, enters the human host by the inhalation of infectious aerosols. Additionally, one third of the world's population is likely to be infected with latent TB. The incidence of TB is on the rise owing in part to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. As a result, there is a growing need to focus on novel M. tuberculosis enzyme targets. M. tuberculosis triosephosphate isomerase (MtTPI) is an essential enzyme for gluconeogenetic pathways, making it a potential target for future therapeutics. In order to determine its structure, the X-ray crystal structure of MtTPI has been determined, as well as that of MtTPI bound with a reaction-intermediate analog. As a result, two forms of the active site were revealed. In conjunction with the kinetic parameters obtained for the MtTPI-facilitated conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (D-GAP), this provides a greater structural and biochemical understanding of this enzyme. Additionally, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the binding constant for a reaction-intermediate analog bound to the active site of MtTPI.
Kelly, Deirdre M.; ten Bokum, Annemieke M. C.; O'Leary, Seonadh M.; O'Sullivan, Mary P.; Keane, Joseph
Human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis may undergo apoptosis. Macrophage apoptosis contributes to the innate immune response against M. tuberculosis by containing and limiting the growth of mycobacteria and also by depriving the bacillus of its niche cell. Apoptosis of infected macrophages is well documented; however, bystander apoptosis of uninfected macrophages has not been described in the setting of M. tuberculosis. We observed that uninfected human macrophages underwent significant bystander apoptosis 48 and 96 h after they came into contact with macrophages infected with avirulent M. tuberculosis. The bystander apoptosis was significantly greater than the background apoptosis observed in uninfected control cells cultured for the same length of time. There was no evidence of the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, transforming growth factor β, Toll-like receptor 2, or MyD88 in contact-mediated bystander apoptosis. This newly described phenomenon may further limit the spread of M. tuberculosis by eliminating the niche cells on which the bacillus relies. PMID:17954721
Verrall, Ayesha J; Netea, Mihai G; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hill, Philip C; van Crevel, Reinout
Early clearance (EC) is the successful eradication of inhaled Mycobacterium tuberculosis before an adaptive immune response develops. Evidence for EC comes from case contact studies that consistently show that a proportion of heavily exposed individuals do not develop M. tuberculosis infection. Further support for the existence of this phenotype comes from genetic loci associated with tuberculin reactivity. In this review we discuss aspects of the innate response that may underpin EC and hypotheses that can be tested through field laboratory link studies in M. tuberculosis case contacts. Specifically, we consider mechanisms whereby alveolar macrophages recognize and kill intracellular M. tuberculosis, and how other cell types, such as neutrophils, natural killer T cells, mucosa-associated invariant T cells and γδ T cells may assist. How EC may be impaired by HIV infection or vitamin D deficiency is also explored. As EC is a form of protective immunity, further study may advance the development of vaccines and immunotherapies to prevent M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:24754048
Goldberg, Michael F; Saini, Neeraj K; Porcelli, Steven A
Through thousands of years of reciprocal coevolution, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become one of humanity's most successful pathogens, acquiring the ability to establish latent or progressive infection and persist even in the presence of a fully functioning immune system. The ability of M. tuberculosis to avoid immune-mediated clearance is likely to reflect a highly evolved and coordinated program of immune evasion strategies that interfere with both innate and adaptive immunity. These include the manipulation of their phagosomal environment within host macrophages, the selective avoidance or engagement of pattern recognition receptors, modulation of host cytokine production, and the manipulation of antigen presentation to prevent or alter the quality of T-cell responses. In this article we review an extensive array of published studies that have begun to unravel the sophisticated program of specific mechanisms that enable M. tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacteria to persist and replicate in the face of considerable immunological pressure from their hosts. Unraveling the mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis evades or modulates host immune function is likely to be of major importance for the development of more effective new vaccines and targeted immunotherapy against tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (TB), one of the oldest known human diseases. is still is one of the major causes of mortality, since two million people die each year from this malady. TB has many manifestations, affecting bone, the central nervous system, and many other organ systems, but it is primarily a pulmonary disease that is initiated by the deposition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contained in aerosol droplets, onto lung alveolar surfaces. From this point, the progression of the disease can have several outcomes, determined largely by the response of the host immune system. The efficacy of this response is affected by intrinsic factors such as the genetics of the immune system as well as extrinsic factors, e.g., insults to the immune system and the nutritional and physiological state of the host. In addition, the pathogen may play a role in disease progression since some M. tuberculosis strains are reportedly more virulent than others, as defined by increased transmissibility as well as being associated with higher morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Despite the widespread use of an attenuated live vaccine and several antibiotics, there is more TB than ever before, requiring new vaccines and drugs and more specific and rapid diagnostics. Researchers are utilizing information obtained from the complete sequence of the M. tuberculosis genome and from new genetic and physiological methods to identify targets in M. tuberculosis that will aid in the development of these sorely needed antitubercular agents. PMID:12857778
Wang, Joyce; Behr, Marcel A.
The genus Mycobacterium is comprised of more than 150 species that reside in a wide variety of habitats. Most mycobacteria are environmental organisms that are either not associated with disease or are opportunistic pathogens that cause non-transmissible disease in immunocompromised individuals. In contrast, a small number of species, such as the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are host-adapted pathogens for which there is no known environmental reservoir. In recent years, gene disruption studies using the host-adapted pathogen have uncovered a number of “virulence factors,” yet genomic data indicate that many of these elements are present in non-pathogenic mycobacteria. This suggests that much of the genetic make-up that enables virulence in the host-adapted pathogen is already present in environmental members of the genus. In addition to these generic factors, we hypothesize that molecules elaborated exclusively by professional pathogens may be particularly implicated in the ability of M. tuberculosis to infect, persist, and cause transmissible pathology in its host species, Homo sapiens. One approach to identify these molecules is to employ comparative analysis of mycobacterial genomes, to define evolutionary events such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT) that contributed M. tuberculosis-specific genetic elements. Independent studies have now revealed the presence of HGT genes in the M. tuberculosis genome and their role in the pathogenesis of disease is the subject of ongoing investigations. Here we review these studies, focusing on the hypothesized role played by HGT loci in the emergence of M. tuberculosis from a related environmental species into a highly specialized human-adapted pathogen. PMID:24765091
Balasubramanian, V; Pavelka, M S; Bardarov, S S; Martin, J; Weisbrod, T R; McAdam, R A; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R
Genetic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been greatly hampered by the inability to introduce specific chromosomal mutations. Whereas the ability to perform allelic exchanges has provided a useful method of gene disruption in other organisms, in the clinically important species of mycobacteria, such as M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, similar approaches have thus far been unsuccessful. In this communication, we report the development of a shuttle mutagenesis strategy that involves the use of long linear recombination substrates to reproducibly obtain recombinants by allelic exchange in M. tuberculosis. Long linear recombination substrates, approximately 40 to 50 kb in length, were generated by constructing libraries in the excisable cosmid vector pYUB328. The cosmid vector could be readily excised from the recombinant cosmids by digestion with PacI, a restriction endonuclease for which there exist few, if any, sites in mycobacterial genomes. A cosmid containing the mycobacterial leuD gene was isolated, and a selectable marker conferring resistance to kanamycin was inserted into the leuD gene in the recombinant cosmid by interplasmid recombination in Escherichia coli. A long linear recombination substrate containing the insertionally mutated leuD gene was generated by PacI digestion. Electroporation of this recombination substrate containing the insertionally mutated leuD allele resulted in the generation of leucine auxotrophic mutants by homologous recombination in 6% of the kanamycin-resistant transformants for both the Erdman and H37Rv strains of M. tuberculosis. The ability to perform allelic exchanges provides an important approach for investigating the biology of this pathogen as well as developing new live-cell M. tuberculosis-based vaccines. PMID:8550428
Titgemeyer, Fritz; Amon, Johannes; Parche, Stephan; Mahfoud, Maysa; Bail, Johannes; Schlicht, Maximilian; Rehm, Nadine; Hillmann, Dietmar; Stephan, Joachim; Walter, Britta; Burkovski, Andreas; Niederweis, Michael
We present a comprehensive analysis of carbohydrate uptake systems of the soil bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis and the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our results show that M. smegmatis has 28 putative carbohydrate transporters. The majority of sugar transport systems (19/28) in M. smegmatis belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. In contrast to previous reports, we identified genes encoding all components of the phosphotransferase system (PTS), including permeases for fructose, glucose, and dihydroxyacetone, in M. smegmatis. It is anticipated that the PTS of M. smegmatis plays an important role in the global control of carbon metabolism similar to those of other bacteria. M. smegmatis further possesses one putative glycerol facilitator of the major intrinsic protein family, four sugar permeases of the major facilitator superfamily, one of which was assigned as a glucose transporter, and one galactose permease of the sodium solute superfamily. Our predictions were validated by gene expression, growth, and sugar transport analyses. Strikingly, we detected only five sugar permeases in the slow-growing species M. tuberculosis, two of which occur in M. smegmatis. Genes for a PTS are missing in M. tuberculosis. Our analysis thus brings the diversity of carbohydrate uptake systems of fast- and a slow-growing mycobacteria to light, which reflects the lifestyles of M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis in their natural habitats, the soil and the human body, respectively.
Nuru, Anwar; Mamo, Gezahegne; Worku, Adane; Admasu, Aschalew; Medhin, Girmay; Pieper, Rembert; Ameni, Gobena
The knowledge of the diversity of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species in a specific geographical region can contribute to the control of tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted to identify the MTBC isolates to the species and spoligotype international type (SIT) level by spoligotyping. A total of 168 MTBC isolates were recovered from TB patients, spoligotyped, and their patterns were compared with those of the strains registered in the SITVIT2 database. Of 168 isolates spoligotyped, 89 patterns were identified. Ninety-eight isolates were clustered into 19 strain groups with clustering percentage of 58.3%. Forty-four strains matched the preexisting SITs in the SITVIT2 database. The dominant strains were SIT289, SIT134, and SIT3411, comprising 16.7% (28/168), 7.14% (12/168), and 4.76% (8/168) of the isolates, respectively. Euro-American (51.2%), East-African-Indian (34.5%), and M. africanum (9.52%) were the major lineages identified. Two strains of M. bovis were isolated from TB lymphadenitis cases. The high percentage of clustered strains of M. tuberculosis could suggest that a small number of lineages of M. tuberculosis are causing the disease in the area while isolation of M. bovis could suggest its zoonotic potential. Additionally, identification of M. africanum requires further confirmation by tools with a better discriminatory power.
Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Sanou, Adama; Anh, Nguyen Thi Van; Godreuil, Sylvain
Some species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes human tuberculosis (TB), are the first cause of death linked to a single pathogen worldwide. In the last decades, evolutionary studies have much improved our knowledge on MTBC history and have highlighted its long co-evolution with humans. Its ability to remain latent in humans, the extraordinary proportion of asymptomatic carriers (one-third of the entire human population), the deadly epidemics and the observed increasing level of resistance to antibiotics are proof of its evolutionary success. Many MTBC molecular signatures show not only that these bacteria are a model of adaptation to humans but also that they have influenced human evolution. Owing to the unbalance between the number of asymptomatic carriers and the number of patients with active TB, some authors suggest that infection by MTBC could have a protective role against active TB disease and also against other pathologies. However, it would be inappropriate to consider these infectious pathogens as commensals or symbionts, given the level of morbidity and mortality caused by TB.
Godbole, Adwait Anand; Ahmed, Wareed; Bhat, Rajeshwari Subray; Bradley, Erin K.; Ekins, Sean
We describe inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis topoisomerase I (MttopoI), an essential mycobacterial enzyme, by two related compounds, imipramine and norclomipramine, of which imipramine is clinically used as an antidepressant. These molecules showed growth inhibition of both Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells. The mechanism of action of these two molecules was investigated by analyzing the individual steps of the topoisomerase I (topoI) reaction cycle. The compounds stimulated cleavage, thereby perturbing the cleavage-religation equilibrium. Consequently, these molecules inhibited the growth of the cells overexpressing topoI at a low MIC. Docking of the molecules on the MttopoI model suggested that they bind near the metal binding site of the enzyme. The DNA relaxation activity of the metal binding mutants harboring mutations in the DxDxE motif was differentially affected by the molecules, suggesting that the metal coordinating residues contribute to the interaction of the enzyme with the drug. Taken together, the results highlight the potential of these small molecules, which poison the M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis topoisomerase I, as leads for the development of improved molecules to combat mycobacterial infections. Moreover, targeting metal coordination in topoisomerases might be a general strategy to develop new lead molecules. PMID:25534741
Inoue, Shinnosuke; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Becker, Annie L; Weigel, Kris M; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Chung, Jae-Hyun
Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a serious concern for proper treatment of patients. As a phenotypic method, dielectrophoresis can be useful but is yet to be attempted to evaluate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex cells. This paper investigates the dielectrophoretic behavior of Mycobacterium bovis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG) cells that are treated with heat or antibiotics rifampin (RIF) or isoniazid (INH). The experimental parameters are designed on the basis of our sensitivity analysis. The medium conductivity (σ(m)) and the frequency (f) for a crossover frequency (f(xo1)) test are decided to detect the change of σ(m)-f(xo1) in conjunction with the drug mechanism. Statistical modeling is conducted to estimate the distributions of viable and nonviable cells from the discrete measurement of f (xo1). Finally, the parameters of the electrophysiology of BCG cells, C(envelope) and σ(cyto), are extracted through a sampling algorithm. This is the first evaluation of the dielectrophoresis (DEP) approach as a means to assess the effects of antimicrobial drugs on M. tuberculosis complex cells.
Godbole, Adwait Anand; Ahmed, Wareed; Bhat, Rajeshwari Subray; Bradley, Erin K; Ekins, Sean; Nagaraja, Valakunja
We describe inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis topoisomerase I (MttopoI), an essential mycobacterial enzyme, by two related compounds, imipramine and norclomipramine, of which imipramine is clinically used as an antidepressant. These molecules showed growth inhibition of both Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells. The mechanism of action of these two molecules was investigated by analyzing the individual steps of the topoisomerase I (topoI) reaction cycle. The compounds stimulated cleavage, thereby perturbing the cleavage-religation equilibrium. Consequently, these molecules inhibited the growth of the cells overexpressing topoI at a low MIC. Docking of the molecules on the MttopoI model suggested that they bind near the metal binding site of the enzyme. The DNA relaxation activity of the metal binding mutants harboring mutations in the DxDxE motif was differentially affected by the molecules, suggesting that the metal coordinating residues contribute to the interaction of the enzyme with the drug. Taken together, the results highlight the potential of these small molecules, which poison the M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis topoisomerase I, as leads for the development of improved molecules to combat mycobacterial infections. Moreover, targeting metal coordination in topoisomerases might be a general strategy to develop new lead molecules.
Eftekhar, Maryam; Pourmasumi, Soheila; Sabeti, Parvin; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan
Background: Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing countries. The positive results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in endometrial GTB in the absence of tubal damage raise the possibility of the detection of sub-clinical or latent disease, with doubtful benefits of treatment. Objective: To evaluate the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in endometrial biopsy samples collected from unexplained infertile women attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility by using PCR techniques. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 144 infertile women with unexplained infertility aged 20-35 years old and normal Histro-saplango graphy findings were enrolled. Endometrial biopsy samples from each participant were tested for mycobacterium tuberculosis detecting by PCR. In 93 patients, peritoneal fluid was also taken for culture and PCR. Results: The PCR results of endometrial specimens were negative in all cases, demonstrating that there was no GTB infection among our patients. Conclusion: Our results showed that GTB could not be considered as a major problem in women with unexplained infertility. Although, studies have indicated that PCR is a useful method in diagnosing early GTB disease in infertile women with no demonstrable evidence of tubal or endometrial involvement. PMID:27141534
Schürch, Anita C; van Soolingen, Dick
Current typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex evolved from simple phenotypic approaches like phage typing and drug susceptibility profiling to DNA-based strain typing methods, such as IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing. Examples of the usefulness of molecular typing are source case finding and epidemiological linkage of tuberculosis (TB) cases, international transmission of MDR/XDR-TB, the discrimination between endogenous reactivation and exogenous re-infection as a cause of relapses after curative treatment of tuberculosis, the evidence of multiple M. tuberculosis infections, and the disclosure of laboratory cross-contaminations. Simultaneously, phylogenetic analyses were developed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genomic deletions usually referred to as regions of difference (RDs) and spoligotyping which served both strain typing and phylogenetic analysis. National and international initiatives that rely on the application of these typing methods have brought significant insight into the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. However, current DNA fingerprinting methods have important limitations. They can often not distinguish between genetically closely related strains and the turn-over of these markers is variable. Moreover, the suitability of most DNA typing methods for phylogenetic reconstruction is limited as they show a high propensity of convergent evolution or misinfer genetic distances. In order to fully explore the possibilities of genotyping in the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and to study the phylogeny of the causative bacteria reliably, the application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis for all M. tuberculosis isolates is the optimal, although currently still a costly solution. In the last years WGS for typing of pathogens has been explored and yielded important additional information on strain diversity in comparison to the
Govender, Viveshree S; Ramsugit, Saiyur; Pillay, Manormoney
Adhesion to host cells is a precursor to host colonization and evasion of the host immune response. Conversely, it triggers the induction of the immune response, a process vital to the host's defence against infection. Adhesins are microbial cell surface molecules or structures that mediate the attachment of the microbe to host cells and thus the host-pathogen interaction. They also play a crucial role in bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation. In this review, we discuss the role of adhesins in the pathogenesis of the aetiological agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also provide insight into the structure and characteristics of some of the characterized and putative M. tuberculosis adhesins. Finally, we examine the potential of adhesins as targets for the development of tuberculosis control strategies.
Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Smith, Noel H; Boniotti, Maria B; Aranaz, Alicia
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) cause a serious disease with similar pathology, tuberculosis; in this review, bovine tuberculosis will be considered as disease caused by any member of the MTBC in bovids. Bovine tuberculosis is responsible for significant economic loss due to costly eradication programs and trade limitations and poses a threat to both endangered and protected species as well as to public health. We here give an overview on all members of the MTBC, focusing on their isolation from different animal hosts. We also review the recent advances made in elucidating the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships of members of the MTBC. Because the nomenclature of the MTBC is controversial, its members have been considered species, subspecies or ecotypes, this review discusses the possible implications for diagnostics and the legal consequences of naming of new species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riyahi Zaniani, Fatemeh; Moghim, Sharareh; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh; Fazeli, Hossein; Salehi, Mahshid; Nasr Esfahani, Bahram
In this study, we aimed to identify the genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Isfahan via the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable number tandem repeat typing method based on 15 loci. Forty-nine M. tuberculosis isolates were collected between 2013 and 2015 from Tuberculosis patients in Mollahadi Sabzevari Tuberculosis Center in Isfahan. All isolates were typed by 15-locus MIRU-VNTR typing. The highest percentage of isolates, 44.89 % (22/49), belonged to the Euro-American lineage, while the frequencies of the East-African-Indian, East-Asian, and Indo-Oceanic lineages were 28.57 % (14/49), 24.4 % (12/49), and 2.04 % (1/49), respectively. Among the 22 isolates of the Euro-American lineage, those belonging to the NEW-1 sub-lineage were most prevalent (24.4 %). Approximately, the same proportion of isolates belonging to the Delhi/CAS, Beijing, and NEW-1 sub-lineages were identified in Iranian and Afghan immigrant patients. The Delhi/CAS and Beijing sub-lineage isolates were prevalent among patients who had been previously treated for TB. Results showed that all of the 49 MIRU-VNTR patterns were unique and the clustering rate of the 15-locus MIRU-VNTR was 0.0 (minimum recent transmission). The results of this study show that the lineages of M. tuberculosis isolates in Isfahan are similar to those reported in the Eastern Mediterranean region (indicative of the epidemiological relationship between the countries in the region). The low clustering rate in our results reveals that transmission of tuberculosis in Isfahan is, in most cases, a reactivation of previous tuberculosis infection and the role of recently transmitted disease is minor.
Mészáros, Bálint; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Simon, István
Lengthy co-evolution of Homo sapiens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main causative agent of tuberculosis, resulted in a dramatically successful pathogen species that presents considerable challenge for modern medicine. The continuous and ever increasing appearance of multi-drug resistant mycobacteria necessitates the identification of novel drug targets and drugs with new mechanisms of action. However, further insights are needed to establish automated protocols for target selection based on the available complete genome sequences. In the present study, we perform complete proteome level comparisons between M. tuberculosis, mycobacteria, other prokaryotes and available eukaryotes based on protein domains, local sequence similarities and protein disorder. We show that the enrichment of certain domains in the genome can indicate an important function specific to M. tuberculosis. We identified two families, termed pkn and PE/PPE that stand out in this respect. The common property of these two protein families is a complex domain organization that combines species-specific regions, commonly occurring domains and disordered segments. Besides highlighting promising novel drug target candidates in M. tuberculosis, the presented analysis can also be viewed as a general protocol to identify proteins involved in species-specific functions in a given organism. We conclude that target selection protocols should be extended to include proteins with complex domain architectures instead of focusing on sequentially unique and essential proteins only.
Baranyai, Zsuzsa; Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Szabó, Nóra; Senoner, Zsuzsanna; Horváti, Kata; Stolaříková, Jiřina; Dávid, Sándor; Bősze, Szilvia
In the Mycobacterium genus over one hundred species are already described and new ones are periodically reported. Species that form colonies in a week are classified as rapid growers, those requiring longer periods (up to three months) are the mostly pathogenic slow growers. More recently, new emerging species have been identified to lengthen the list, all rapid growers. Of these, Mycobacterium abscessus is also an intracellular pathogen and it is the most chemotherapy-resistant rapid-growing mycobacterium. In addition, the cases of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are also increasing. Therefore there is an urgent need to find new active molecules against these threatening strains. Based on previous results, a series of salicylanilides, salicylanilide 5-chloropyrazinoates and carbamates was designed, synthesized and characterised. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity on M. abscessus, susceptible M. tuberculosis H37Rv, multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis MDR A8, M. tuberculosis MDR 9449/2006 and on the extremely-resistant Praha 131 (XDR) strains. All derivatives exhibited a significant activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the low micromolar range. Eight salicylanilide carbamates and two salicylanilide esters exhibited an excellent in vitro activity on M. abscessus with MICs from 0.2 to 2.1 μM, thus being more effective than ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. This finding is potentially promising, particularly, as M. abscessus is a threateningly chemotherapy-resistant species. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was inhibited with MICs from 0.2 μM, and eleven compounds have lower MICs than isoniazid. Salicylanilide esters and carbamates were found that they were effective also on MDR and XDR M. tuberculosis strains with MICs ≥1.0 μM. The in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) was also determined on human MonoMac-6 cells, and selectivity index (SI) of the compounds was established. In general, salicylanilide
Wang, Joyce; McIntosh, Fiona; Radomski, Nicolas; Dewar, Ken; Simeone, Roxane; Enninga, Jost; Brosch, Roland; Rocha, Eduardo P.; Veyrier, Frédéric J.; Behr, Marcel A.
By phylogenetic analysis, Mycobacterium kansasii is closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet, although both organisms cause pulmonary disease, M. tuberculosis is a global health menace, whereas M. kansasii is an opportunistic pathogen. To illuminate the differences between these organisms, we have sequenced the genome of M. kansasii ATCC 12478 and its plasmid (pMK12478) and conducted side-by-side in vitro and in vivo investigations of these two organisms. The M. kansasii genome is 6,432,277 bp, more than 2 Mb longer than that of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and the plasmid contains 144,951 bp. Pairwise comparisons reveal conserved and discordant genes and genomic regions. A notable example of genomic conservation is the virulence locus ESX-1, which is intact and functional in the low-virulence M. kansasii, potentially mediating phagosomal disruption. Differences between these organisms include a decreased predicted metabolic capacity, an increased proportion of toxin–antitoxin genes, and the acquisition of M. tuberculosis-specific genes in the pathogen since their common ancestor. Consistent with their distinct epidemiologic profiles, following infection of C57BL/6 mice, M. kansasii counts increased by less than 10-fold over 6 weeks, whereas M. tuberculosis counts increased by over 10,000-fold in just 3 weeks. Together, these data suggest that M. kansasii can serve as an image of the environmental ancestor of M. tuberculosis before its emergence as a professional pathogen, and can be used as a model organism to study the switch from an environmental opportunistic pathogen to a professional host-restricted pathogen. PMID:25716827
Mol, J P S; Carvalho, T F; Fonseca, A A; Sales, E B; Issa, M A; Rezende, L C; Hodon, M A; Tinoco, H P; Malta, M C C; Pessanha, A T; Pierezan, F; Mota, P M P C; Paixão, T A; Santos, R L
Tuberculosis, associated with Mycobacterium bovis, was diagnosed post mortem in an adult female capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), kept at the Pampulha Ecological Park, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in a large metropolitan area. On post-mortem examination, there were numerous firm white nodules scattered throughout all lobes of both lungs. Tissue samples were collected for histological and microbiological examination. Microscopically, the pulmonary nodules were multifocal to coalescing granulomas and intralesional acid-fast bacilli were evident in Ziehl-Neelsen-stained sections of the lung and spleen. Colonies with morphological features of Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from lung samples and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with genomic DNA from the isolates was positive for M. bovis; sequencing indicated 100% identity with the region of difference 4 (RD4) of M. bovis. In addition, M. bovis DNA was detected in the lung by quantitative PCR. The finding of M. bovis in a capybara indicates a potential public health risk in a zoological collection.
Veigas, Bruno; Machado, Diana; Perdigão, João; Portugal, Isabel; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Baptista, Pedro V.
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of infection in humans, causing high morbility and mortality all over the world. The rate of new cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) continues to increase, and since these infections are very difficult to manage, they constitute a serious health problem. In most cases, drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been related to mutations in several loci within the pathogen's genome. The development of fast, cheap and simple screening methodologies would be of paramount relevance for the early detection of these mutations, essential for the timely and effective diagnosis and management of MDRTB patients. The use of gold nanoparticles derivatized with thiol-modified oligonucleotides (Au-nanoprobes) has led to new approaches in molecular diagnostics. Based on the differential non-cross-linking aggregation of Au-nanoprobes, we were able to develop a colorimetric method for the detection of specific sequences and to apply this approach to pathogen identification and single base mutations/single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) discrimination. Here we report on the development of Au-nanoprobes for the specific identification of SNPs within the beta subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB locus), responsible for resistance to rifampicin in over 95% of rifampicin resistant M. tuberculosis strains.
Cehovin, Ana; Cliff, Jacqueline M; Hill, Philip C; Brookes, Roger H; Dockrell, Hazel M
To test the hypothesis that prolonged culture would enhance the sensitivity of latent tuberculosis detection by a gamma interferon release assay, blood samples from 33 household contacts of Gambian tuberculosis patients were stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. After 24 h of culture, 66% were positive, compared to 93% after 6 days of culture.
Eugenin, Eliseo; Kaplan, Gilla
Detection of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a challenge in the diagnosis of asymptomatic, subclinical tuberculosis. We report the development of an immunofluorescence technique to visualize and enumerate M. tuberculosis in latently infected rabbit lungs where no acid-fast–stained organisms were seen and no cultivable bacilli were obtained by the agar-plating method. PMID:25161200
Peters, Wendy; Ernst, Joel D
Recent advances in understanding cell traffic, especially the roles of adhesion proteins, chemokines, and chemokine receptors, provide the opportunity for understanding mechanisms involved in the immune response to tuberculosis. This review concentrates on the roles of these molecules and the immune response in tuberculosis, based on studies of humans and mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
McGee, Jennifer L; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro
Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) dams and their newborn calves were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in serum. Blood was drawn from dams prior to calving and from calves on their day of birth. All six calves born to tuberculosis-reactive dams were also tuberculosis reactive, suggesting prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies. In contrast, all three calves born to tuberculosis-nonreactive dams lacked detectable tuberculosis antibodies in pre-suckling or day-of-birth blood samples. Of the living tuberculosis-reactive calves observed from 1 to 11 yr of age, none exhibited clinical signs of tuberculosis infection or became tuberculosis culture positive. This is the first report of prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies in elephants and demonstrates that detectible tuberculosis antibodies in newborn elephant calves should not be assumed to correlate with clinical tuberculosis.
Feller, L; Wood, N H; Chikte, U M E; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J
The risk of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in oral healthcare facilities is probably low, but the consequences if it occurs, are grave. The greatest risk of exposure to Mtb transmission is associated with treating dental patients from communities with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease because these patients may have active TB but be unaware of their status. The risk of Mtb transmission in the dental surgery is heightened by dental treatment with ultrasonic and air operated high speed instruments that generate aerosols. This article offers recommendations for the necessary components of an effective Mtb infection control programme.
Darby, Crystal M.; Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Jiang, Xiuju; Shen, Chun; Sun, Mingna; Zhao, Nan; Burns, Kristin; Liu, Gang; Ehrt, Sabine; Warren, J. David; Anderson, Olaf S.; Brickner, Steven J.; Nathan, Carl
Bacterial pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounter acidic microenvironments in the host and must maintain their acid-base homeostasis to survive. A genetic screen identified two Mtb strains that cannot control intrabacterial pH (pHIB) in an acidic environment; infection with either strain led to severe attenuation in mice. To search for additional proteins that Mtb requires to survive at low pH, we introduced a whole-cell screen for compounds that disrupt pHIB, along with counter-screens that identify ionophores and membrane perturbors. Application of these methods to a natural product library identified four compounds of interest, one of which may inhibit novel pathway(s). This approach yields compounds that may lead to the identification of pathways that allow Mtb to survive in acidic environments, a setting in which Mtb is resistant to most of the drugs currently used to treat tuberculosis. PMID:23935911
Shin, N S; Kwon, S W; Han, D H; Bai, G H; Yoon, J; Cheon, D S; Son, Y S; Ahn, K; Chae, C; Lee, Y S
A respiratory disorder was noted in a 5-year-old female orangutan kept in the Yongin Farmland. Radiographically, multiple radiodense foci ranging from 2 to 6 mm diameter were seen throughout the lung lobes. Grossly, the thoracic cavity revealed a firm texture and grayish-pink discoloration of the left apical lung lobe. Histopathologically, multifocal areas of granulomatous pneumonia present the right and left apical lung lobes. Both primers from IS1081 and IS6110 targeting 196 bp and 245 bp respectively were used in polymerase chain reaction, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from liver and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction.
de Prince, Karina Andrade; Sordi, Renata; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Barreto Santos, Adolfo Carlos; Araujo, Angela R.; Leite, Sergio R.A.; Leite, Clarice Q. F.
Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties. PMID:24031821
Cosivi, O.; Grange, J. M.; Daborn, C. J.; Raviglione, M. C.; Fujikura, T.; Cousins, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Huchzermeyer, H. F.; de Kantor, I.; Meslin, F. X.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable; therefore, many epidemiologic and public health aspects of infection remain largely unknown. We review available information on zoonotic TB in developing countries, analyze risk factors that may play a role in the disease, review recent WHO activities, and recommend actions to assess the magnitude of the problem and control the disease in humans and animals. PMID:9452399
Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel
Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, after effective decontamination. We evaluated squalamine and chlorhexidine to decontaminate sputum specimens for the culture of mycobacteria. Eight sputum specimens were artificially infected with 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans as contaminants. In the second step, we tested chlorhexidine-based decontamination on 191 clinical specimens, (Chlorhexidine, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.7 %). In a last step, growth of contaminants and mycobacteria was measured in 75 consecutive sputum specimens using the routine NALC-NaOH decontamination protocol or with 0.7 % chlorhexidine decontamination and an inoculation on Coletsos medium. In the artificially model, contaminants grew in 100 % of the artificially infected sputum specimens decontaminated using 100 mg/mL squalamine, in 62.5 % of specimens decontaminated using N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine-Sodium Hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), and in 0 % of specimens decontaminated using 0.1 %, 0.35 %, or 1 % chlorhexidine (P < 0.05). These specimens yielded <10(2) cfu M. tuberculosis using NALC-NaOH and > 1.4.10(2) cfu M. tuberculosis when any concentration of chlorhexidine was used (P < 0.05). In the second step we found that 0.7 %-chlorhexidine yielded 0 % contamination rate, 3.2 % for 0.5 %-chlorhexidine and 28.3 % for 0.1 %-chlorhexidine. As for the 75 specimens treated in parallel by both methods we found that when using the standard NALC-NaOH decontamination method, 8/75 (10.7 %) specimens yielded M. tuberculosis colonies with a time to detection of 17.5 ± 3 days and an 8 % contamination rate. Additionally, 14 specimens yielded mycobacteria colonies (12 M. tuberculosis, and 2 Mycobacterium bolletii) (18.7 %) (P = 0.25), which has yielded a 100 % sensitivity for the chlorhexidine protocol. Time
Sinha, Sudhir; Kosalai, K; Arora, Shalini; Namane, Abdelkader; Sharma, Pawan; Gaikwad, Anil N; Brodin, Priscille; Cole, Stewart T
Membrane-associated proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis offer a challenge, as well as an opportunity, in the quest for better therapeutic and prophylactic interventions against tuberculosis. The authors have previously reported that extraction with the detergent Triton X-114 (TX-114) is a useful step in proteomic analysis of mycobacterial cell membranes, and detergent-soluble membrane proteins of mycobacteria are potent stimulators of human T cells. In this study 1-D and 2-D gel electrophoresis-based protocols were used for the analysis of proteins in the TX-114 extract of M. tuberculosis membranes. Peptide mass mapping (using MALDI-TOF-MS, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) of 116 samples led to the identification of 105 proteins, 9 of which were new to the M. tuberculosis proteome. Functional orthologues of 73 of these proteins were also present in Mycobacterium leprae, suggesting their relative importance. Bioinformatics predicted that as many as 73% of the proteins had a hydrophobic disposition. 1-D gel electrophoresis revealed more hydrophobic/transmembrane and basic proteins than 2-D gel electrophoresis. Identified proteins fell into the following major categories: protein synthesis, cell wall biogenesis/architecture and conserved hypotheticals/unknowns. To identify immunodominant proteins of the detergent phase (DP), 14 low-molecular-mass fractions prepared by continuous-elution gel electrophoresis were subjected to T cell activation assays using blood samples from BCG-vaccinated healthy donors from a tuberculosis endemic area. Analysis of the responses (cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production) showed that the immunodominance of certain DP fractions was most probably due to ribosomal proteins, which is consistent with both their specificity for mycobacteria and their abundance. Other membrane-associated proteins, including transmembrane proteins/lipoproteins and ESAT-6, did not appear to contribute
Gordon, Sara; Simithy, Johayra; Goodwin, Douglas C; Calderón, Angela I
Owing to the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) forms of the disease, the development of new antitubercular drugs is crucial. Developing inhibitors of shikimate kinase (SK) in the shikimate pathway will provide a selective target for antitubercular agents. Many studies have used in silico technology to identify compounds that are anticipated to interact with and inhibit SK. To a much more limited extent, SK inhibition has been evaluated by in vitro methods with purified enzyme. Currently, there are no data on in vivo activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (MtSK) inhibitors available in the literature. In this review, we present a summary of the progress of SK inhibitor discovery and evaluation with particular attention toward development of new antitubercular agents. PMID:25861218
Nguyen Thi, Le Thuy; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Calero, Romel; Camacho, Frank; Reyes, Fatima; Hossain, Md Murad; Gonzalez, Gustavo Sierra; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Acosta, Armando
The most important targets for vaccine development are the proteins that are highly expressed by the microorganisms during infection in-vivo. A number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins are also reported to be expressed in-vivo at different phases of infection. In the present study, we analyzed multiple published databases of gene expression profiles of Mtb in-vivo at different phases of infection in animals and humans and selected 38 proteins that are highly expressed in the active, latent and reactivation phases. We predicted T- and B-cell epitopes from the selected proteins using HLAPred for T-cell epitope prediction and BCEPred combined with ABCPred for B-cell epitope prediction. For each selected proteins, regions containing both T- and B-cell epitopes were identified which might be considered as important candidates for vaccine design against tuberculosis.
Pérez-Lago, Laura; Herranz, Marta; Navarro, Yurena; Ruiz Serrano, María Jesús; Miralles, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; García-de-Viedma, Darío
Clonal complexity is increasingly accepted in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, including mixed infections by ≥2 strains, which usually occur in settings with a high burden of tuberculosis and/or a high risk of overexposure to infected patients. Mixed infections can hamper diagnostic procedures: obtaining an accurate antibiogram is difficult when the susceptibility patterns of the strains differ. Here, we show how mixed infections can also prove challenging for other diagnostic procedures, even outside settings where mixed infections are traditionally expected. We show how an unnoticed mixed infection in an HIV-positive patient diagnosed in Madrid, Spain, with differences in the representativeness of the coinfecting strains in different sputum samples, markedly complicated the resolution of a laboratory cross-contamination false-positivity alert.
Schnell, Robert; Schneider, Gunter
The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a serious threat to human health and has led to world-wide efforts focusing on the development of novel vaccines and antibiotics against this pathogen. Sulphur metabolism in this organism has been linked to essential processes such as virulence and redox defence. The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is up-regulated in models of persistent M. tuberculosis infections and provides potential targets for novel anti-mycobacterial agents, directed specifically toward the pathogen in its persistent phase. Functional and structural characterization of enzymes from sulfur metabolism establishes a necessary framework for the design of strong binding inhibitors that might be developed into new drugs. This review summarizes recent progress in the elucidation of the structural enzymology of the sulphate reduction and cysteine biosynthesis pathways.
Vallin, Carlos; Ramos, Astrid; Pimienta, Elsa; Rodríguez, Caridad; Hernández, Tairí; Hernández, Ivones; Del Sol, Ricardo; Rosabal, Grisel; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Anné, Jozef
The 45/47 kDa APA protein (Rv1860) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was produced by Streptomyces lividans. The recombinant protein could be recovered from the culture medium of an S. lividans clone containing the apa gene under control of the promoter and signal sequence of the Streptomyces coelicolor agarase gene. The recombinant protein production was further scaled-up using fermentation conditions. The APA protein was subsequently purified from the culture supernatant by means of immunochromatography. About 80 mg of recombinant protein were obtained per liter of culture media. In vivo tests with the APA protein purified from S. lividans TK24/pRGAPA1 revealed that the recombinant protein was antigenic and could induce high titers of specific antibodies in the mouse biological model. Results obtained concerning heterologous production of APA, its immunogenic and antigenic capacity, demonstrated the potential of S. lividans as a valuable host for the production of recombinant proteins from M. tuberculosis.
Awasthi, Divya; Freundlich, Joel S
Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs. A two-pronged approach investigating the metabolism of antibacterials within both the host and bacterium is outlined and will be of value to both the chemical biology and drug discovery fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leers, W D
Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the bronchial washings of two patients who underwent bronchoscopy consecutively with the same bronchoscope. Active pulmonary tuberculosis was later confirmed in the first patient, whereas the second patient had clinical and serologic evidence of infection with respiratory syncytial virus. The bronchoscope had been cleaned with an iodophor disinfectant, which had not destroyed the tubercle bacilli. The agent recommended for chemical disinfection of fibreoptic bronchoscopes is 2% glutaraldehyde solution; the instrument should be immersed in it for 10 to 30 minutes. Five hours' exposure to ethylene oxide is recommended for sterilization of instruments. These procedures must be preceded by adequate mechanical cleaning. Then transmission of pathogenic organisms during endoscopy, which can result in nosocomial disease, misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment, will be avoided. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:6790150
Buda, Piotr; Grenda, Ryszard; Wieteska-Klimczak, Anna; Gietka, Piotr; Skobejko-Włodarska, Lidia; Felberg, Karina; Książyk, Janusz
Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the urinary tract characterized by infiltration of bladder with eosinophils. The cause remains unclear, immunological mechanisms have been implicated in pathogenesis. Potential etiological factors include: tumors, allergy, parasitic infections, trauma. The disease may have a variable course, from a mild self-limiting, through common symptoms like: dysuria, hematuria, abdominal pain, tumor, to severe renal failure, with eosinophilic infiltration of the other organs and systemic complications. Treatment depending on disease severity and etiology is pharmacological and/or surgical. Here we report a case of a previously healthy 16-year old girl with inflammatory tumor in the liver hilum infiltrating extrahepatic biliary tract who developed three months later haematuria with acute dysuric signs and renal failure. Based on histopathological findings diagnosis of eosinophilic cystitis was established. Tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were positive. To our knowledge, EC association with cholangitis and tuberculosis have never been reported before.
Boubaker, Karima; Gargah, Tahar; Abderrahim, Ezzedine; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Kheder, Adel
Introduction and Aims. Post-transplant tuberculosis (TB) is a problem in successful long-term outcome of renal transplantation recipients. Our objective was to describe the pattern and risk factors of TB infection and the prognosis in our transplant recipients. Patients and Methods. This study was a retrospective review of the records of 491 renal transplant recipients in our hospital during the period from January 1986 to December 2009. The demographic data, transplant characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, treatment protocol, and long-term outcome of this cohort of patients were analyzed. Results. 16 patients (3,2%) developed post-transplant TB with a mean age of 32,5 ± 12,7 (range: 13–60) years and a mean post-transplant period of 36,6months (range: 12,3 months–15,9 years). The forms of the diseases were pulmonary in 10/16 (62,6%), disseminated in 3/16 (18,7%), and extrapulmonary in 3/16 (18,7%). Graft dysfunction was observed in 7 cases (43,7%) with tissue-proof acute rejection in 3 cases and loss of the graft in 4 cases. Hepatotoxicity developed in 3 patients (18,7%) during treatment. Recurrences were observed in 4 cases after early stop of treatment. Two patients (12.5%) died. Conclusion. Extra pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were observed in third of our patients. More than 9months of treatment may be necessary to prevent recurrence. PMID:24222903
Smith, Tasha; Wolff, Kerstin A.; Nguyen, Liem
Tuberculosis (TB) has become a curable disease thanks to the discovery of antibiotics. However, it has remained one of the most difficult infections to treat. Most current TB regimens consist of six to nine months of daily doses of four drugs that are highly toxic to patients. The purpose of these lengthy treatments is to completely eradicate Mycobacterium tuberculosis, notorious for its ability to resist most antibacterial agents, thereby preventing the formation of drug resistant mutants. On the contrary, the prolonged therapies have led to poor patient adherence. This, together with a severe limit of drug choices, has resulted in the emergence of strains that are increasingly resistant to the few available antibiotics. Here we review our current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the profound drug resistance of M. tuberculosis. This knowledge is essential for the development of more effective antibiotics that not only are potent against drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains but also help shorten the current treatment courses required for drug susceptible TB. PMID:23179675
Ahn, Jae-Woo; Kim, Kyung-Jin
Tuberculosis is a worldwide epidemic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with an estimated one-third of the human population currently affected. Treatment of this disease with aminoglycoside antibiotics has become less effective owing to antibiotic resistance. Recent determination of the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis Rv3168 protein suggests a structure similar to that of Enterococcus faecalis APH(3')-IIIa, and that this protein may be an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase. To determine whether Rv3168 confers antibiotic resistance against kanamycin, we performed dose-response antibiotic resistance experiments using kanamycin. Expression of the Rv3168 protein in Escherichia coli conferred antibiotic resistance against 100 μM kanamycin, a concentration that effected cell growth arrest in the parental E. coli strain and an E. coli strain expressing the Rv3168(D249A) mutant, in which the catalytic Asp249 residue was mutated to alanine. Furthermore, we detected phosphotransferase activity of Rv3168 against kanamycin as a substrate. Moreover, docking simulation of kanamycin into the Rv3168 structure suggests that kanamycin fits well into the substrate binding pocket of the protein, and that the phosphorylation-hydroxyl-group of kanamycin was located at a position similar to that in E. faecalis APH(3')-IIIa. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the Rv3168 mediates kanamycin resistance in M. tuberculosis, likely through phosphotransferase targeting of kanamycin.
Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Bulloch, Esther M M; Rutledge, Peter J; Baker, Edward N; Lott, J Shaun; Payne, Richard J
Mycobacterium tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI), a member of the chorismate-utilizing enzyme family, catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the siderophore mycobactin T. This complex secondary metabolite is essential for both virulence and survival of M. tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB). It is therefore anticipated that inhibitors of this enzyme may serve as TB therapies with a novel mode of action. Herein we describe the first inhibition study of M. tuberculosis MbtI using a library of functionalized benzoate-based inhibitors designed to mimic the substrate (chorismate) and intermediate (isochorismate) of the MbtI-catalyzed reaction. The most potent inhibitors prepared were those designed to mimic the enzyme intermediate, isochorismate. These compounds, based on a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate scaffold, proved to be low-micromolar inhibitors of MbtI. The most potent inhibitors in this series possessed hydrophobic enol ether side chains at C3 in place of the enol-pyruvyl side chain found in chorismate and isochorismate.
Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Malek, Adel A.; Vilchèze, Catherine; Cole, Laura E.; Ratner, Hannah K.; González, Pablo A.; Jain, Paras; Hatfull, Graham F.; Larsen, Michelle H.
ABSTRACT Genetic engineering has contributed greatly to our understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis biology and has facilitated antimycobacterial and vaccine development. However, methods to generate M. tuberculosis deletion mutants remain labor-intensive and relatively inefficient. Here, methods are described that significantly enhance the efficiency (greater than 100-fold) of recovering deletion mutants by the expression of mycobacteriophage recombineering functions during the course of infection with specialized transducing phages delivering allelic exchange substrates. This system has been successfully applied to the CDC1551 strain of M. tuberculosis, as well as to a ΔrecD mutant generated in the CDC1551 parental strain. The latter studies were undertaken as there were precedents in both the Escherichia coli literature and mycobacterial literature for enhancement of homologous recombination in strains lacking RecD. In combination, these measures yielded a dramatic increase in the recovery of deletion mutants and are expected to facilitate construction of a comprehensive library of mutants with every nonessential gene of M. tuberculosis deleted. The findings also open up the potential for sophisticated genetic screens, such as synthetic lethal analyses, which have so far not been feasible for the slow-growing mycobacteria. PMID:24865558
Background Plants have long been investigated as a source of antibiotics and other bioactives for the treatment of human disease. New Zealand contains a diverse and unique flora, however, few of its endemic plants have been used to treat tuberculosis. One plant, Laurelia novae-zelandiae, was reportedly used by indigenous Maori for the treatment of tubercular lesions. Methods Laurelia novae-zelandiae and 44 other native plants were tested for direct anti-bacterial activity. Plants were extracted with different solvents and extracts screened for inhibition of the surrogate species, Mycobacterium smegmatis. Active plant samples were then tested for bacteriostatic activity towards M. tuberculosis and other clinically-important species. Results Extracts of six native plants were active against M. smegmatis. Many of these were also inhibitory towards M. tuberculosis including Laurelia novae-zelandiae (Pukatea). M. excelsa (Pohutukawa) was the only plant extract tested that was active against Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our data provide support for the traditional use of Pukatea in treating tuberculosis. In addition, our analyses indicate that other native plant species possess antibiotic activity. PMID:20537175
Castro-Garza, Jorge; González-Salazar, Francisco; Quinn, Frederick D; Karls, Russell K; De La Garza-Salinas, Laura Hermila; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco J; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier
Sphingomyelinases (SMases) catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Sphingolipids are recognized as diverse and dynamic regulators of a multitude of cellular processes mediating cell cycle control, differentiation, stress response, cell migration, adhesion, and apoptosis. Bacterial SMases are virulence factors for several species of pathogens. Whole cell extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains H37Rv and CDC1551 were assayed using [N-methyl-(14)C]-sphingomyelin as substrate. Acidic Zn(2+)-dependent SMase activity was identified in both strains. Peak SMase activity was observed at pH 5.5. Interestingly, overall SMase activity levels from CDC1551 extracts are approximately 1/3 of those of H37Rv. The presence of exogenous SMase produced by M. tuberculosis during infection may interfere with the normal host inflammatory response thus allowing the establishment of infection and disease development. This Type C activity is different from previously identified M. tuberculosis SMases. Defining the biochemical characteristics of M. tuberculosis SMases helps to elucidate the roles that these enzymes play during infection and disease. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bidovec-Stojkovič, Urška; Seme, Katja; Žolnir-Dovč, Manca; Supply, Philip
Shorter time-to-result is key for improving molecular-guided epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis (TB) cases. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the use of standardized MIRU-VNTR (mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly on 79 fresh clinical samples from 26 TB patients consecutively enrolled over a 17-month period. Overall, complete 24-locus types were obtained for 18 out of the 26 (69.2%) patients and 14 of the 16 grade 3+ and grade 2+ samples (87.5%). The degree of completion of the genotypes obtained significantly correlated with smear microscopy grade both for 26 first samples (p = 0.0003) and for 53 follow-up samples (p = 0.002). For 20 of the 26 patients for whom complete or even incomplete M. tuberculosis isolate genotypes were obtained, typing applied to the clinical samples allowed the same unambiguous conclusions regarding case clustering or uniqueness as those that could have been drawn based on the corresponding cultured isolates. Standard 24 locus MIRU-VNTR typing of M. tuberculosis can be applied directly to fresh clinical samples, with typeability depending on the bacterial load in the sample.
Phillips, Bonnie L; Mehra, Smriti; Ahsan, Muhammad H; Selman, Moises; Khader, Shabaana A; Kaushal, Deepak
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a highly successful pathogen because of its ability to persist in human lungs for long periods of time. MTB modulates several aspects of the host immune response. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) is a protein with a high affinity for the CD4 receptor and is expressed mainly by regulatory T cells with immunomodulatory functions. To understand the function of LAG3 during MTB infection, a nonhuman primate model of tuberculosis, which recapitulates key aspects of natural human infection in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), was used. We show that the expression of LAG3 is highly induced in the lungs and particularly in the granulomatous lesions of macaques experimentally infected with MTB. Furthermore, we show that LAG3 expression is not induced in the lungs and lung granulomas of animals exhibiting latent tuberculosis infection. However, simian immunodeficiency virus-induced reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection results in an increased expression of LAG3 in the lungs. This response is not observed in nonhuman primates infected with non-MTB bacterial pathogens, nor with simian immunodeficiency virus alone. Our data show that LAG3 was expressed primarily on CD4(+) T cells, presumably by regulatory T cells but also by natural killer cells. The expression of LAG3 coincides with high bacterial burdens and changes in the host type 1 helper T-cell response.
Recent information from several laboratories points to proteins secreted from live Mycobacterium tuberculosis as being involved in protective immunity. We have studied protein release from M. tuberculosis during growth and have defined 3 different groups of proteins: excreted proteins, secreted proteins of the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic proteins released at late culture timepoints. These findings have lead to the definition of a short-term culture filtrate (ST-CF) enriched in excreted/secreted proteins and with a minimal content of autolytic products. ST-CF was tested as antigen in experimental vaccines against tuberculosis. A vaccine based on the adjuvant dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DDA) was constructed and demonstrated to induce a potent cell mediated immune response of the Th-1 type. The vaccine was tested in parallel with a BCG standard vaccine and both vaccines induced a highly significant protection of the same magnitude. Molecules within the Ag85 complex and a 6-kDA secreted protein were mapped as the major antigenic targets for long-lived T cells involved in protective immunity against M. tuberculosis.
Wilson, Michael L
The global control of tuberculosis remains a challenge from the standpoint of diagnosis, detection of drug resistance, and treatment. This is an area of special concern to the health of women and children, particularly in regions of the world with high infant mortality rates and where women have limited access to health care. Because treatment can only be initiated when infection is detected, and is guided by the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, there recently has been a marked increase in the development and testing of novel assays designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, with or without simultaneous detection of resistance to isoniazid and/or rifampin. Both nonmolecular and molecular assays have been developed. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the use of rapid tests to detect M tuberculosis and drug resistance. Review of the most recent World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Report, as well as selected publications in the primary research literature, meta-analyses, and review articles. To a large extent, nonmolecular methods are refinements or modifications of conventional methods, with the primary goal of providing more rapid test results. In contrast, molecular methods use novel technologies to detect the presence of M tuberculosis complex and genes conferring drug resistance. Evaluations of molecular assays have generally shown that these assays are of variable sensitivity for detecting the presence of M tuberculosis complex, and in particular are insensitive when used with smear-negative specimens. As a group, molecular assays have been shown to be of high sensitivity for detecting resistance to rifampin, but of variable sensitivity for detecting resistance to isoniazid.
Garbe, T. R.; Hibler, N. S.; Deretic, V.
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a significant human pathogen capable of replicating in mononuclear phagocytic cells. Exposure to reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates is likely to represent an important aspect of the life cycle of this organism. The response of M. tuberculosis to these agents may be of significance for its survival in the host. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patterns of de novo proteins synthesized in M. tuberculosis H37Rv exposed to compounds that generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates were studied by metabolic labeling and two-dimensional electrophoresis. RESULTS: Menadione, a redox cycling compound which increases intracellular superoxide levels, caused enhanced synthesis of seven polypeptides, six of which appeared to be heat shock proteins. Chemical release of nitric oxide induced eight polypeptides of which only one could be identified as a heat shock protein. Nitric oxide also exhibited a mild inhibitory action on general protein synthesis in the concentration range tested. Hydrogen peroxide did not cause differential gene expression and exerted a generalized inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Cumene hydroperoxide caused mostly inhibition but induction of two heat shock proteins was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: The presented findings indicate major differences between M. tuberculosis and the paradigms of oxidative stress response in enteric bacteria, and are consistent with the multiple lesions found in oxyR of this organism. The effect of hydrogen peroxide, which in Escherichia coli induces eight polypeptides known to be controlled by the central regulator oxyR, appears to be absent in M. tuberculosis. Superoxide and nitric oxide responses, which in E. coli overlap and are controlled by the same regulatory system soxRS, represent discrete and independent phenomena in M. tuberculosis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:8900541
Rowland, Jennifer L.; Niederweis, Michael
SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen with an extremely slow growth rate, an unusual outer membrane of very low permeability and a cunning ability to survive inside the human host despite a potent immune response. A key trait of M. tuberculosis is to acquire essential nutrients while still preserving its natural resistance to toxic compounds. In this regard, copper homeostasis mechanisms are particularly interesting, because copper is an important element for bacterial growth, but copper overload is toxic. In M. tuberculosis at least two enzymes require copper as a cofactor: the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase SodC and the cytochrome c oxidase which is essential for growth in vitro. Mutants of M. tuberculosis lacking the copper metallothionein MymT, the efflux pump CtpV and the membrane protein MctB are more susceptible to copper indicating that these proteins are part of a multipronged system to balance intracellular copper levels. Recent evidence showed that part of copper toxicity is a reversible damage of accessible Fe-S clusters of dehydratases and the displacement of other divalent cations such as zinc and manganese as cofactors in proteins. There is accumulating evidence that macrophages use copper to poison bacteria trapped inside phagosomes. Here, we review the rapidly increasing knowledge about copper homeostasis mechanisms in M. tuberculosis and contrast those with similar mechanisms in E. coli. These findings reveal an intricate interplay between the host which aims to overload the phagosome with copper and M. tuberculosis which utilizes several mechanisms to reduce the toxic effects of excess copper. PMID:22361385
Black, Philippa A.; Warren, Robin M.; Louw, Gail E.; van Helden, Paul D.; Victor, Thomas C.
The inherent drug susceptibility of microorganisms is determined by multiple factors, including growth state, the rate of drug diffusion into and out of the cell, and the intrinsic vulnerability of drug targets with regard to the corresponding antimicrobial agent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality, further exacerbated by its ability to readily evolve drug resistance. It is well accepted that drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is driven by the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in genes encoding drug targets/promoter regions; however, a comprehensive description of the molecular mechanisms that fuel drug resistance in the clinical setting is currently lacking. In this context, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that active extrusion of drugs from the cell is critical for drug tolerance. M. tuberculosis encodes representatives of a diverse range of multidrug transporters, many of which are dependent on the proton motive force (PMF) or the availability of ATP. This suggests that energy metabolism and ATP production through the PMF, which is established by the electron transport chain (ETC), are critical in determining the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis. In this review, we detail advances in the study of the mycobacterial ETC and highlight drugs that target various components of the ETC. We provide an overview of some of the efflux pumps present in M. tuberculosis and their association, if any, with drug transport and concomitant effects on drug resistance. The implications of inhibiting drug extrusion, through the use of efflux pump inhibitors, are also discussed. PMID:24614376
Lewis, James J.; Connors, Jeremy; Chihota, Violet N.; Shashkina, Elena; van der Meulen, Minty; Graviss, Edward A.; Ha, Ngan P.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Grant, Alison D.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Dorman, Susan E.; Churchyard, Gavin J.
Rationale: HIV-associated tuberculosis remains a major health problem among the gold-mining workforce in South Africa. We postulate that high levels of recent transmission, indicated by strain clustering, are fueling the tuberculosis epidemic among gold miners. Objectives: To combine molecular and epidemiologic data to describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity, estimate levels of transmission, and examine risk factors for clustering. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of culture-positive M. tuberculosis isolates in 15 gold mine shafts across three provinces in South Africa. All isolates were subject IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and we performed spoligotyping analysis and combined it with basic demographic and clinical information. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 1,602 M. tuberculosis patient isolates, 1,240 (78%) had genotyping data available for analysis. A highly diverse bacillary population was identified, comprising a total of 730 discrete genotypes. Four genotypic families (Latin American Mediterranean spoligotype family; W-Beijing; AH or X; and T1–T4) accounted for over 50% of all strains. Overall, 45% (560/1,240) of strains were genotypically clustered. The minimum estimate for recent transmission (n − 1 method) was 32% (range, 27–34%). There were no individual-level risk factors for clustering, apart from borderline evidence for being non–South African and having self-reported HIV infection. Conclusions: The high M. tuberculosis genetic diversity and lack of risk factors for clustering are indicative of a universal risk for disease among gold miners and likely mixing with nonmining populations. Our results underscore the urgent need to intensify interventions to interrupt transmission across the entire gold-mining workforce in South Africa. PMID:25419914
Song, Houhui; Niederweis, Michael
Knowledge of the metabolic pathways used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection is important for understanding its nutrient requirements and host adaptation. However, uptake, the first step in the utilization of nutrients, is poorly understood for many essential nutrients, such as inorganic anions. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis utilizes nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, albeit at lower efficiency than asparagine, glutamate, and arginine. The growth of the porin triple mutant M. smegmatis ML16 in media with limiting amounts of nitrate and sulfate as sole nitrogen and sulfur sources, respectively, was delayed compared to that of the wild-type strain. The uptake of sulfate was 40-fold slower than that of the wild-type strain, indicating that the efficient uptake of these anions is dependent on porins. The uptake by M. tuberculosis of sulfate and phosphate was approximately 40- and 10-fold slower than that of M. smegmatis, respectively, which is consistent with the slower growth of M. tuberculosis. However, the uptake of these anions by M. tuberculosis is orders of magnitude faster than diffusion through lipid membranes, indicating that unknown outer membrane proteins are required to facilitate this process.
Khatri, Bhagwati; Fielder, Mark; Jones, Gareth; Newell, William; Abu-Oun, Manal; Wheeler, Paul R
Tuberculosis is a major human and animal disease of major importance worldwide. Genetically, the closely related strains within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which cause disease are well-characterized but there is an urgent need better to understand their phenotypes. To search rapidly for metabolic differences, a working method using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis was developed. Of 380 substrates surveyed, 71 permitted tetrazolium dye reduction, the readout over 7 days in the method. By looking for ≥5-fold differences in dye reduction, 12 substrates differentiated M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97. H37Rv and a Beijing strain of M. tuberculosis could also be distinguished in this way, as could field strains of M. bovis; even pairs of strains within one spoligotype could be distinguished by 2 to 3 substrates. Cluster analysis gave three clear groups: H37Rv, Beijing, and all the M. bovis strains. The substrates used agreed well with prior knowledge, though an unexpected finding that AF2122/97 gave greater dye reduction than H37Rv with hexoses was investigated further, in culture flasks, revealing that hexoses and Tween 80 were synergistic for growth and used simultaneously rather than in a diauxic fashion. Potential new substrates for growth media were revealed, too, most promisingly N-acetyl glucosamine. Osmotic and pH arrays divided the mycobacteria into two groups with different salt tolerance, though in contrast to the substrate arrays the groups did not entirely correlate with taxonomic differences. More interestingly, these arrays suggested differences between the amines used by the M. tuberculosis complex and enteric bacteria in acid tolerance, with some hydrophobic amino acids being highly effective. In contrast, γ-aminobutyrate, used in the enteric bacteria, had no effect in the mycobacteria. This study proved principle that Phenotype MicroArrays can be used with slow-growing pathogenic mycobacteria and already has
Khatri, Bhagwati; Fielder, Mark; Jones, Gareth; Newell, William; Abu-Oun, Manal; Wheeler, Paul R.
Tuberculosis is a major human and animal disease of major importance worldwide. Genetically, the closely related strains within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which cause disease are well-characterized but there is an urgent need better to understand their phenotypes. To search rapidly for metabolic differences, a working method using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis was developed. Of 380 substrates surveyed, 71 permitted tetrazolium dye reduction, the readout over 7 days in the method. By looking for ≥5-fold differences in dye reduction, 12 substrates differentiated M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97. H37Rv and a Beijing strain of M. tuberculosis could also be distinguished in this way, as could field strains of M. bovis; even pairs of strains within one spoligotype could be distinguished by 2 to 3 substrates. Cluster analysis gave three clear groups: H37Rv, Beijing, and all the M. bovis strains. The substrates used agreed well with prior knowledge, though an unexpected finding that AF2122/97 gave greater dye reduction than H37Rv with hexoses was investigated further, in culture flasks, revealing that hexoses and Tween 80 were synergistic for growth and used simultaneously rather than in a diauxic fashion. Potential new substrates for growth media were revealed, too, most promisingly N-acetyl glucosamine. Osmotic and pH arrays divided the mycobacteria into two groups with different salt tolerance, though in contrast to the substrate arrays the groups did not entirely correlate with taxonomic differences. More interestingly, these arrays suggested differences between the amines used by the M. tuberculosis complex and enteric bacteria in acid tolerance, with some hydrophobic amino acids being highly effective. In contrast, γ-aminobutyrate, used in the enteric bacteria, had no effect in the mycobacteria. This study proved principle that Phenotype MicroArrays can be used with slow-growing pathogenic mycobacteria and already has
Castro, Claudia; Ricardo, Alba; Zabaleta, Angie; Llerena, Claudia; Puerto, Gloria
One third of the increase in tuberculosis cases is attributed to the spread of HIV. In 2012, 1,397 HIV-associated tuberculosis cases were reported in Colombia, i.e., 11.8% of the total cases. Molecular epidemiology tools help to understand the transmission of tuberculosis. To characterize clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from HIV-infected individuals, received at the Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia in the Instituto Nacional de Salud. This was a descriptive observational study. We analyzed 63 isolates of M. tuberculosis from HIV-infected individuals. Identification, drug susceptibility and genotyping assays were performed. Of the new cases evaluated, three (5.0%) were resistant to isoniazid combined with streptomycin; two (3.3%) to rifampicin, and one (1.6%) to isoniazid. Previously treated cases were sensitive. No multidrug resistance was evident. Among the predominant genotypes, 20 isolates were (31.7%) LAM9, eight (12.7%), H1, and seven (11.1%), T1. Nineteen isolates corresponded to orphan patterns. One single grouping was observed among tested isolates. We found no statistically significantdifference between the proportions of the antituberculous drug resistance and genotypes. We found resistant isolates to the most powerful drugs, rifampicin and isoniazid, among new cases, showing the transmission of resistant strains. Genetic families of M. tuberculosis LAM9, T1 and H1 correspond to those described in the general population. We detected no active transmission among studied isolates. More comprehensive studies are needed to assess the real situation of HIV associated tuberculosis in the country regarding sensitivity and transmission.
Soto, Carlos Y.; Andreu, Núria; Gibert, Isidre; Luquin, Marina
The attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra is one of the most commonly used controls for M. tuberculosis identification in the clinical laboratory and is a source of false-positive results for M. tuberculosis as a consequence of cross-contamination. Therefore, the ability to discriminate between H37Ra and real clinical isolates has important public health implications. To date, differentiation of H37Ra from M. tuberculosis clinical isolates is possible only by IS6110 genotyping and spoligotyping. In the 1950s, some authors reported that the virulent strain H37Rv and M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were able to fix basic dyes in their anionic forms, while H37Ra was not. We have studied the different techniques described for M. tuberculosis cytochemical staining and have chosen the best of these, introducing certain modifications in order to increase their discriminative power and reproducibility. We describe cytochemical staining of M. tuberculosis cells with neutral red and Nile blue, which differentiates H37Ra from virulent strains. This method could be used as an easy laboratory tool for distinguishing between H37Ra and real M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. PMID:12149369
Soto, Carlos Y; Andreu, Núria; Gibert, Isidre; Luquin, Marina
The attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra is one of the most commonly used controls for M. tuberculosis identification in the clinical laboratory and is a source of false-positive results for M. tuberculosis as a consequence of cross-contamination. Therefore, the ability to discriminate between H37Ra and real clinical isolates has important public health implications. To date, differentiation of H37Ra from M. tuberculosis clinical isolates is possible only by IS6110 genotyping and spoligotyping. In the 1950s, some authors reported that the virulent strain H37Rv and M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were able to fix basic dyes in their anionic forms, while H37Ra was not. We have studied the different techniques described for M. tuberculosis cytochemical staining and have chosen the best of these, introducing certain modifications in order to increase their discriminative power and reproducibility. We describe cytochemical staining of M. tuberculosis cells with neutral red and Nile blue, which differentiates H37Ra from virulent strains. This method could be used as an easy laboratory tool for distinguishing between H37Ra and real M. tuberculosis clinical isolates.
Lee, Min Young; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hee Joo; Park, Tae Sung
Introduction. Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been thought as a useful index of platelet activation. It is supposed that MPV is also associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. Korea still has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to investigate MPV as an inflammatory marker in TB patients. Materials and Methods. MPV were determined in 221 patients with TB and 143 individuals for control group. MPV was estimated by an Advia 2120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA). Results. In the TB patient group, a positive correlation was found between CRP and MPV. Age and MPV had a positive correlation in TB patient group. Conclusions. We conclude that there is a significant relation between MPV and inflammatory conditions. MPV can be an inflammatory marker to determine the disease activity in TB patients. PMID:27419136
Andries, Koen; Villellas, Cristina; Coeck, Nele; Thys, Kim; Gevers, Tom; Vranckx, Luc; Lounis, Nacer; de Jong, Bouke C; Koul, Anil
Bedaquiline (BDQ), an ATP synthase inhibitor, is the first drug to be approved for treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in decades. In vitro resistance to BDQ was previously shown to be due to target-based mutations. Here we report that non-target based resistance to BDQ, and cross-resistance to clofazimine (CFZ), is due to mutations in Rv0678, a transcriptional repressor of the genes encoding the MmpS5-MmpL5 efflux pump. Efflux-based resistance was identified in paired isolates from patients treated with BDQ, as well as in mice, in which it was confirmed to decrease bactericidal efficacy. The efflux inhibitors verapamil and reserpine decreased the minimum inhibitory concentrations of BDQ and CFZ in vitro, but verapamil failed to increase the bactericidal effect of BDQ in mice and was unable to reverse efflux-based resistance in vivo. Cross-resistance between BDQ and CFZ may have important clinical implications.
de Souza Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio; Silvestre, Flávia Galindo; Campos, Wilma Neres; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Medeiros, Luciana; Lilenbaum, Walter; Fonseca, Leila Sousa; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi
Isolates from suggestive bovine tuberculosis lesions were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) targeting for RvD1Rv2031c and IS6110 sequences, specific for M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex respectively. The m-PCR successfully identified as M. bovis 88.24% of the isolates. PMID:24031349
Ando, Masaru; Mukai, Yutaka; Ushijima, Ryo-ichi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Umeki, Kenji; Okada, Fumito; Nureki, Shin-ichi; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Kadota, Jun-ichi
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful in disease monitoring of malignancies after therapy, while an FDG uptake may also be present in benign diseases. We herein demonstrate a case of disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mimicking systemic metastasis of prostate cancer. This case highlights that clinicians should consider Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with prostate cancer who demonstrate multifocal FDG uptakes masquerading as metastasis, even when the chest photographs reveal a normal appearance and a sputum examination demonstrates negative results. An invasive surgical biopsy may be required and a pathological analysis would be critical in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:27853089
Eoh, Hyungjin; Brennan, Patrick J.; Crick, Dean C.
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health problem, compounded by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection and recent emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR)-TB. Novel anti-TB drugs are urgently required. In this context, the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has drawn attention; it is one of several pathways vital for M. tuberculosis viability and the human host lacks homologous enzymes. Thus, the MEP pathway promises bacterium-specific drug targets and the potential for identification of lead compounds unencumbered by target-based toxicity. Indeed, fosmidomycin is now known to inhibit the second step in the MEP pathway. This review describes the cardinal features of the main enzymes of the MEP pathway in M. tuberculosis and how these can be manipulated in high throughput screening campaigns in the search for new anti-infectives against TB. PMID:18793870
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but they can also damage other parts of the body. TB spreads through the air when a person with ...
Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for tuberculosis among individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To explore the influence of DM on CD8(+) T-cell responses during latent M. tuberculosis infection, we estimated the cytokine and cytotoxic marker expression pattern in individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection with DM and those with latent M. tuberculosis infection without DM. Among individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection, those with DM had diminished frequencies of CD8(+) T-helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells following stimulation by M. tuberculosis antigen and enhanced frequencies of CD8(+) T cells expressing cytotoxic markers, compared with those without DM. Thus, our results suggest that coincident DM modulates CD8(+) T-cell function during latent M. tuberculosis infection.
Chen, Ling; Jia, Chiyu
Tuberculosis ranks as the second deadly infectious disease worldwide. The incidence of tuberculosis is high in China. Refractory wound caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection ranks high in misdiagnosis, and it is accompanied by a protracted course, and its pathogenic mechanism is still not so clear. In order to study its pathogenic mechanism, it is necessary to reproduce an appropriate animal model. Up to now the study of the refractory wound caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is just beginning, and there is still no unimpeachable model for study. This review describes two models which may reproduce a wound similar to the wound caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, so that they could be used to study the pathogenesis and characteristics of a tuberculosis wound in an animal.
Kaur, Parvinder; Ghosh, Anirban; Krishnamurthy, Ramya Vadageri; Bhattacharjee, Deepa Gagwani; Achar, Vijayashree; Datta, Santanu; Narayanan, Shridhar; Anbarasu, Anand; Ramaiah, Sudha
Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) aerosols is a major threat to tuberculosis (TB) researchers, even in bio-safety level-3 (BSL-3) facilities. Automation and high-throughput screens (HTS) in BSL3 facilities are essential for minimizing manual aerosol-generating interventions and facilitating TB research. In the present study, we report the development and validation of a high-throughput, 24-well ‘spot-assay’ for selecting bactericidal compounds against Mtb. The bactericidal screen concept was first validated in the fast-growing surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) and subsequently confirmed in Mtb using the following reference anti-tubercular drugs: rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin and ethambutol (RIOE, acting on different targets). The potential use of the spot-assay to select bactericidal compounds from a large library was confirmed by screening on Mtb, with parallel plating by the conventional gold standard method (correlation, r2 = 0.808). An automated spot-assay further enabled an MBC90 determination on resistant and sensitive Mtb clinical isolates. The implementation of the spot-assay in kinetic screens to enumerate residual Mtb after either genetic silencing (anti-sense RNA, AS-RNA) or chemical inhibition corroborated its ability to detect cidality. This relatively simple, economical and quantitative HTS considerably minimized the bio-hazard risk and enabled the selection of novel vulnerable Mtb targets and mycobactericidal compounds. Thus, spot-assays have great potential to impact the TB drug discovery process. PMID:25693161
Valdés Hernández, Iliana; Montoro Cardoso, C Ernesto; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio
development of new antituberculosis vaccines requires the characterization of the cell-mediated immune responses induced by mycobacterial antigens. to determine the immunogenic potential of 'Mycobacterium habana' TMC-5135 when using subcutaneous vaccine in Balb/c mice. in this study, Balb/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with live 'Mycobacterium habana' TMC-5135. The production of IFN gamma in cell suspensions obtained from the lungs, the spleen and the lymph nodes after stimulation with mycobacterial antigens Ag85b or culture filtrate antigens (CFA) was recorded. the production of IFN gamma after stimulation with CFA and Ag85b was higher in mice vaccinated with 'M. habana' than in animals immunized with BCG. these results encourage new research on 'M. habana' as vaccinal candidate against tuberculosis.
Darwin, K. Heran
Several independent studies have recently converged upon the conclusion that the human bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis encounters copper during infections. At least three independently regulated pathways respond to excess copper and are required for the full virulence of M. tuberculosis in animals. In this review, I will discuss the functions of the best-characterized copper-responsive proteins in M. tuberculosis, the potential sources of copper during an infection, and remaining questions about the interface between copper and tuberculosis. PMID:26055711
Flint, Jessica L.; Kowalski, Joseph C.; Karnati, Pavan K.; Derbyshire, Keith M.
Conjugal DNA transfer occurs by an atypical mechanism in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The transfer system is chromosomally encoded and requires recipient recombination functions for both chromosome and plasmid transfer. Cis-acting sequences have been identified that confer mobility on nontransferable plasmids, but these are larger and have different properties to canonical oriT sites found in bacterial plasmids. To identify trans-acting factors required for mediating DNA transfer, a library of transposon insertion mutants was generated in the donor strain, and individual mutants were screened for their effect on transfer. From this screen, a collection of insertion mutants was isolated that increased conjugation frequencies relative to wild type. Remarkably, the mutations map to a 25-kb region of the M. smegmatis chromosome that is syntenous with the RD1 region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is considered to be the primary attenuating deletion in the related vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin. The genes of the RD1 region encode a secretory apparatus responsible for exporting Cfp10- and Esat-6, both potent antigens and virulence factors. In crosses using two M. smegmatis donors, we show that wild-type cells can suppress the elevated transfer phenotype of mutant donors, which is consistent with the secretion of a factor that suppresses conjugation. Most importantly, the RD1 region of M. tuberculosis complements the conjugation phenotype of the RD1 mutants in M. smegmatis. Our results indicate that the M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis RD1 regions are functionally equivalent and provide a unique perspective on the role of this critical secretion apparatus. PMID:15314236
Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi
Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to sylvatic infection. Consequently, Koreans who ingest wild boar may be at risk of a tuberculosis infection. To reduce the risk of foodborne infection and maintain public health, continuous monitoring and control strategies are required.
Dalton, James P.; Uy, Benedict; Phummarin, Narisa; Copp, Brent R.; Denny, William A.; Swift, Simon
Much is known regarding the antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for the lung disease tuberculosis (TB). As planktonically-grown M. tuberculosis are unlikely to be entirely representative of the bacterium during infection, we set out to determine how effective a range of anti-mycobacterial treatments were against M. tuberculosis growing as a biofilm, a bacterial phenotype known to be more resistant to antibiotic treatment. Light levels from bioluminescently-labelled M. tuberculosis H37Rv (strain BSG001) were used as a surrogate for bacterial viability, and were monitored before and after one week of treatment. After treatment, biofilms were disrupted, washed and inoculated into fresh broth and plated onto solid media to rescue any surviving bacteria. We found that in this phenotypic state M. tuberculosis was resistant to the majority of the compounds tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) increased by 20-fold to greater than 1,000-fold, underlying the potential of this phenotype to cause significant problems during treatment. PMID:27904808
Background The Philippines has an extremely high rate of tuberculosis but little is known about M. tuberculosis genotypes and transmission dynamics in this country. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of household contacts who develop active TB due to direct transmission from an index case in that household. Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from household contacts of tuberculosis patients in the Philippines were characterized using restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis, spoligotyping, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units – variable number tandem repeats typing (12-loci) to determine their utility in elucidating transmission in an area of high tuberculosis prevalence. Drug susceptibility patterns for these isolates were also determined. Results Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing results matched in 10 (62.5%) of 16 index patient-household contact pairs while IS6110 fingerprints matched in only six (37.5%) pairs. Only 3/16 (18.8%) index patient-household contact pairs had identical drug susceptibility results. Conclusions Strain typing of M. tuberculosis isolates from household contacts in the Philippines indicates that transmission of strains does not necessarily occur directly from the index patient living in close proximity in the same household but rather that community-based transmission also frequently occurs. Accurate susceptibility testing of all isolates is necessary to insure optimal care of both the index patients and any culture-positive household contacts. PMID:24308751
Kimura, Yosuke; Kurosawa, Takayuki; Hosaka, Kiminori
A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion is very rare. We report a case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis. A 44-year-old man presented to a clinic with a productive cough, sputum, and loss of appetite for several months. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) showed right pleural effusion, centrilobular nodules and infiltrative shadows with cavities in the bilateral lung fields. The direct smear examination showed positive acid-fast bacilli (Gaffky 5). He was referred to our hospital for suspected recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. We started anti-tuberculosis drugs because pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with pleurisy was first suspected from the findings of high ADA level (78.6 IU/l) of the effusion and positive result of interferon-gamma release assay (QuantiFERON TB-2G). But Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex was not identified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the culture of the sputum was negative. At a later date, Mycobacterium kansasii was detected by sputum culture. The patient was diagnosed as pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs including RFP resulted in a good clinical response. This case was a rare case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis.
Stanley, Sarah A.; Kawate, Tomohiko; Iwase, Noriaki; Shimizu, Motohisa; Clatworthy, Anne E.; Kazyanskaya, Edward; Sacchettini, James C.; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Siddiqi, Noman A.; Minami, Shoko; Aquadro, John A.; Schmidt Grant, Sarah; Rubin, Eric J.; Hung, Deborah T.
Infection with the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis imposes an enormous burden on global public health. New antibiotics are urgently needed to combat the global tuberculosis pandemic; however, the development of new small molecules is hindered by a lack of validated drug targets. Here, we describe the identification of a 4,6-diaryl-5,7-dimethyl coumarin series that kills M. tuberculosis by inhibiting fatty acid degradation protein D32 (FadD32), an enzyme that is required for biosynthesis of cell-wall mycolic acids. These substituted coumarin inhibitors directly inhibit the acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity of FadD32. They effectively block bacterial replication both in vitro and in animal models of tuberculosis, validating FadD32 as a target for antibiotic development that works in the same pathway as the established antibiotic isoniazid. Targeting new steps in well-validated biosynthetic pathways in antitubercular therapy is a powerful strategy that removes much of the usual uncertainty surrounding new targets and in vivo clinical efficacy, while circumventing existing resistance to established targets. PMID:23798446
Arora, Garima; Tiwari, Prabhakar; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Gupta, Arpit; Sharma, Deepak; Saha, Sudipto; Singh, Ramandeep
The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis makes identification and validation of newer drug targets a global priority. Phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP), a key essential metabolic enzyme involved in conversion of O-phospho-l-serine to l-serine, was characterized in this study. The M. tuberculosis genome harbors all enzymes involved in l-serine biosynthesis including two PSP homologs: Rv0505c (SerB1) and Rv3042c (SerB2). In the present study, we have biochemically characterized SerB2 enzyme and developed malachite green-based high throughput assay system to identify SerB2 inhibitors. We have identified 10 compounds that were structurally different from known PSP inhibitors, and few of these scaffolds were highly specific in their ability to inhibit SerB2 enzyme, were noncytotoxic against mammalian cell lines, and inhibited M. tuberculosis growth in vitro. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the relative binding for these inhibitors. The two best hits identified in our screen, clorobiocin and rosaniline, were bactericidal in activity and killed intracellular bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. We have also identified amino acid residues critical for these SerB2-small molecule interactions. This is the first study where we validate that M. tuberculosis SerB2 is a druggable and suitable target to pursue for further high throughput assay system screening. PMID:25037224
Carrega, Giuliana; Bartolacci, Valentina; Burastero, Giorgio; Finocchio, Giorgetta Casalino; Ronca, Agostina; Riccio, Giovanni
Tubercular infection of prosthetic joint arthroplasty is sporadically described, but its incidence is rising. Misdiagnosis is common because of disparate clinical presentation. We describe 1 hand, 2 hip and 2 knee prosthetic-joint infections due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients without a previous history of tuberculosis. All of them were initially misdiagnosed as bacterial infections and unsuccessfully treated with antibiotic for a long period of time. Diagnosis was made by means of culture of periprosthetic tissues and histolopathological examination. Tuberculosis was cured in all patients, but two of them have had a permanent functional damage (one arthrodesis of the knee and one loss of hand function). An aggressive diagnostic approach is required to make diagnosis of periprosthetic tubercular infection. The identification of the pathogen is advisable to test drug susceptibility. The low index of suspicion of periprosthetic tubercular infection could delay a correct diagnosis with risk of permanent damage due to a late treatment. During any surgical revision of prosthetic joints with suspect infection culture for tuberculosis should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dhatwalia, S K; Yadav, R; Behera, D; Rudramurthy, S M; Kaur, H; Sethi, S
A tertiary care hospital in North India. To determine the prevalence of different genotypes and examine their association with drug resistance among clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the northern region of India. We analysed 100 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units genotyping and TbD1 analysis. The analysis revealed that 34% of strains belonged to the Delhi/CAS (TbD1-) lineage, 32% had unknown patterns (27 TbD1-, 5 TbD1+), 18% were of Beijing genotype (TbD1-) and 11% were of EAI lineages (TbD1+). Twenty-one strains were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), 9 of which belonged to the Delhi/CAS lineage, 4 were of Beijing lineage, 6 were of unknown pattern and one was of EAI lineage. Our meta-analysis showed the overall proportion of CAS lineage to be 42.96% (95%CI 33-52); the CAS lineage had no association with MDR-TB (OR 0.89, 95%CI 0.66-1.20). The study highlights the high proportion of CAS lineage strains and absence of association with MDR-TB. The distribution and identification of different genotypes of M. tuberculosis could help in better understanding the factors that influence disease transmission and drug resistance.
Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Silva-Hernández, Francisco X; Mendoza-Damián, Fabiola; Ramírez-Hernández, Maria Dolores; Vázquez-Medina, Karen; Widrobo-García, Lorena; Cuellar-Sanchez, Aremy; Muñíz-Salazar, Raquel; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Pérez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectocontagious respiratory disease caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. A 7 base pair (bp) deletion in the locus polyketide synthase (pks)15/1 is described as polymorphic among members of the M. tuberculosis complex, enabling the identification of Euro-American, Indo-Oceanic and Asian lineages. The aim of this study was to characterise this locus in TB isolates from Mexico. One hundred twenty clinical isolates were recovered from the states of Veracruz and Estado de Mexico. We determined the nucleotide sequence of a ± 400 bp fragment of the locus pks15/1, while genotypic characterisation was performed by spoligotyping. One hundred and fifty isolates contained the 7 bp deletion, while five had the wild type locus. Lineages X (22%), LAM (18%) and T (17%) were the most frequent; only three (2%) of the isolates were identified as Beijing and two (1%) EAI-Manila. The wild type pks15/1 locus was observed in all Asian lineage isolates tested. Our results confirm the utility of locus pks15/1 as a molecular marker for identifying Asian lineages of the M. tuberculosis complex. This marker could be of great value in the epidemiological surveillance of TB, especially in countries like Mexico, where the prevalence of such lineages is unknown. PMID:24037193
Arora, Garima; Tiwari, Prabhakar; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Gupta, Arpit; Sharma, Deepak; Saha, Sudipto; Singh, Ramandeep
The emergence of drug-resistant