Sample records for mycoherbicides

  1. Mycoherbicidal Potential of Phaeoacremonium italicum, A New Pathogen of Eichhornia crassipes Infesting Harike Wetland, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Birinderjit; Meshram, Vineet; Kumar, Maneek


    Mycoherbicides are exclusive biotechnology products which offer a non-chemical solution to control noxious weeds on the land as well as aquatic in systems, viz a viz saving environment from hazardous impact of synthetic chemicals. The present paper highlights the mycobiota associated with Eichhornia crassipes infesting Harike wetland area of Punjab and evaluation of their pathogenic potential for futuristic application as a mycoherbicide. Of the 20 isolates tested by leaf detached assay and whole plant bioassays, only one isolate (#8 BJSSL) caused 100% damage to E. crassipes. Further, the culture filtrate of this isolate also exhibited a similar damage to the leaves in an in vitro detached leaf assay. The potential isolate was identified as Phaeoacremonium italicum using classical and modern molecular methods. This is the first report of P. italicum as a pathogen of E. crassipes and of its potential use as a biological control agent for the management of water hyacinth. PMID:27433118

  2. Dendryphion penicillatum and Pleospora papaveracea, Destructive Seedborne Pathogens and Potential Mycoherbicides for Papaver somniferum.


    O'Neill, N R; Jennings, J C; Bailey, B A; Farr, D F


    ABSTRACT Dendryphion penicillatum and Pleospora papaveracea were isolated from blighted Papaver somniferum and Papaver bracteatum plants grown in growth chambers and the field in Beltsville, MD. The etiology of the diseases was determined, and the fungi are being investigated as potential mycoherbicides to control the narcotic opium poppy plant. P. papaveracea is known to be a highly destructive seedborne pathogen of Papaver somniferum, causing seedling blight, leaf blight, crown rot, and capsule rot. Single conidia and ascospores were isolated and cultures established from naturally infested seed and diseased foliage and pods of opium poppy from Iran, Colombia, Venezuela, Sweden, India, and the United States (Maryland and Washington). Mycelia and conidia of P. papaveracea and D. penicillatum produced on necrotic leaf tissues appear morphologically similar, and the fungi were previously considered to be anamorph and teleomorph. However, no anamorph/teleomorph connection could be established, and the fungi appear to be distinct taxa. P. papaveracea produced conidia, mature pseudothecia, and chlamydospores in vitro and on infected stems. D. penicillatum produced conidia, microsclerotia, and macronematous conidiophores. Although both fungi were pathogenic to three poppy cultivars, conidial inoculum from P. papaveracea cultures was more virulent than conidial inoculum from D. penicillatum. Eight-week-old plants became necrotic and died 8 days after inoculation with a conidial suspension of P. papaveracea at 2 x 10(5) spores per ml. Disease severity was significantly enhanced by inoculum formulations that contained corn oil, by higher conidial inoculum concentrations, and by increased wetness periods. Symptoms on plants inoculated with either pathogen included leaf and stem necrosis, stem girdling, stunting, necrotic leaf spots, and foliar and pod blight. Inoculated seedlings exhibited wire stem, damping-off, and root rot. Conidia, and less frequently pseudothecia, of P

  3. Presence of adhesive vesicles in the mycoherbicide Alternaria helianthi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria helianthi conidia have been shown to cause disease on common cocklebur. Conidia were applied to slides made hydrophobic by coating with dimethyldicholorosilane (mimics leaf surface), then rinsed and treated with FITC-Con A to stain the adhesive material. Alternaria helianthi coni...

  4. Infection of tubercles of the parasitic weed Orobanche aegyptiaca by mycoherbicidal Fusarium species.


    Cohen, Barry A; Amsellem, Ziva; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gressel, Jonathan


    Progression of the infection by host-specific strains of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium arthrosporioides of Orobanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape) tubercles attached to tomato roots was tracked using light, confocal and electron microscopy. Mycelia transformed with the gene for green fluorescent protein were viewed using a confocal microscope. Fungal penetration was preceded by a rapid loss of starch, with approx. 10 % remaining at 9 h and no measurable starch at 24 h. Penetration into the Orobanche tubercles began by 12 h after inoculation. Hyphae penetrated the outer six cell layers by 24 h, reaching the centre of the tubercles by 48 h and infecting nearly all cells by 72 h. Most of the infected tubercles were dead by 96 h. Breakdown of cell walls and the disintegration of cytoplasm in and around the infected cells occurred between 48 and 96 h. Lignin-like material increased in tubercle cells of infected tissues over time, but did not appear to be effective in limiting fungal penetration or spread. Callose, suberin, constitutive toxins and phytoalexins were not detected in infected tubercles, suggesting that there are no obvious defence mechanisms to overcome. Both Fusarium spp. pathogenic on Orobanche produced fumonisin-like ceramide synthase inhibitors, while fusaric acid was produced only by F. oxysporum in liquid culture. The organisms do not have sufficient virulence for field use (based on glasshouse testing), suggesting that virulence should be transgenically enhanced or additional isolates sought. PMID:12466097

  5. Phyllostictines A-D, Oxazatricycloalkenones Produced by Phyllosticta cirsii, A Potential Mycoherbicide for Cirsium arvense Biocontrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phyllosticta cirsii, a fungal pathogen isolated from Cirsium arvense and proposed as biocontrol agent of this noxious perennial weed, produces in liquid cultures different phytotoxic metabolites with potential herbicidal activity. Four new oxazatricycloalkenones, named phyllostictines A-D, were isol...

  6. Production of Colletotrichum truncatum for use as a mycoherbicide: effects of culture, drying and storage on recovery and efficacy.


    Silman, R W; Bothast, R J; Schisler, D A


    Colletotrichum truncatum (Schwein.) Andrus and Moore NRRL 13737 (= NRRL 18434) is a fungal plant pathogen which shows promise as a bioherbicide against the troublesome weed Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rydb. ex A. W. Hill. Previous studies showed similar amounts of spores were produced/ml of medium in liquid and solid-state fermentations. In this study, Colletotrichum truncatum spores were produced in liquid (LC), solid/vermiculite (SV), and solid/perlite-cornmeal-agar (SP). After drying at room temperature with flowing air, SV and SP retained the most viability. Each product was then stored at 4 degrees, 15 degrees, and 25 degrees C. All three products stored at 4 degrees C and SP stored at 15 degrees C retained highest viability. Efficacy based upon assays utilizing equal numbers of viable spores showed SV and SP spores incited more severe disease symptoms than LC spores. PMID:14545677

  7. Gulypyrones A and B and Phomentrioloxins B and C Produced by Diaporthe gulyae, a Potential Mycoherbicide for Saffron Thistle (Carthamus lanatus).


    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio


    A virulent strain of Diaporthe gulyae, isolated from stem cankers of sunflower and known to be pathogenic to saffron thistle, has been shown to produce both known and previously undescribed metabolites when grown in either static liquid culture or a bioreactor. Together with phomentrioloxin, a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol recently isolated from a strain of Phomopsis sp., two new phytotoxic trisubstituted α-pyrones, named gulypyrones A and B (1 and 2), and two new 1,O- and 2,O-dehydro derivatives of phomentrioloxin, named phomentrioloxins B and C (3 and 4), were isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of D. gulyae. These four metabolites were characterized as 6-[(2S)2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl]-4-methoxy-5-methylpyran-2-one (1), 6-[(1E)-3-hydroxy-1-methylpropenyl]-4-methoxy-3-methylpyran-2-one (2), 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-2-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-2-enone (3), and 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-3-enone (4) using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylated secondary carbon of the 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl side chain at C-6 of gulypyrone A was determined as S by applying a modified Mosher's method. Other well-known metabolites were also isolated including 3-nitropropionic, succinic, and p-hydroxy- and p-methylbenzoic acids, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and nectriapyrone. When assayed using a 5 mM concentration on punctured leaf disks of weedy and crop plants, apart from 3-nitropropionic acid (the main metabolite responsible for the strong phytotoxicity of the culture filtrate), phomentrioloxin B caused small, but clear, necrotic spots on a number of plant species, whereas gulypyrone A caused leaf necrosis on Helianthus annuus plantlets. All other compounds were weakly active or inactive. PMID:25700035

  8. Use of Plant Hay for Solid Substrate Production and Application of Dactylaria higginsii, a Mycoherbicide for the Control of Purple and Yellow Nutsedges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple and yellow nutsedges (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) are the most troublesome weeds in the cropping systems in Florida and in many parts of the world, where they have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Conventional production systems in Florida ...

  9. Pilot-scale production and stabilization of microsclerotia of the potential mycoherbicide Mycoleptodiscus terrestris using deep-tank fermentation and air-drying.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Mt) is being developed as a bioherbicide for control of various invasive submersed aquatic plants including Hydrilla verticillata and Myriophyllum spicatum. A constraint to the commercial use of Mt as a bioherbicide is the development of an economic method for...

  10. The Production of Fungal Microsclerotia in Liquid Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid culture production method has been developed for small sclerotia (microsclerotia) of various biological control fungi. The mycoherbicides Colletotrichum truncatum and Mycoleptodiscus terrestris and the mycoinsecticide Metarhizium anisopliae have all been shown to produce microsclerotia und...

  11. 77 FR 75622 - Notice of Intent to Grant an Exclusive License of the United States; Patent No. 6,569,807

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ... compositions and methods of preparing and using the same'', which issued on May 27, 2003, all reissues... INFORMATION: Patent 6,569,807 entitled ``Mycoherbicidal compositions and methods of preparing and using...

  12. Biological control of Hemp sesbania (Sebania exaltata) and Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) in soybean with Anthracnose pathogen mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse and field experiments conducted over 3 years, tank mixtures of spores of the fungi Colletotrichum truncatum and C. gloeosporioides, formulated in unrefined corn oil and Silwet L-77 surfactant, were evaluated as a mycoherbicide mixture for simultaneous control of hemp sesbania and sickl...

  13. Induction of Infection in Sesbania exaltata by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene Formulated in an Invert Emulsion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, an experimental invert emulsion (MSG 8.25) was tested as an adjuvant with spores of the mycoherbicidal fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene, a highly virulent pathogen of the leguminous weed Aeschynomene virginica (northern jointvetch), but non-pathoge...

  14. Effect of Row Spacing on Biological Control of Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field experiments conducted over three years, the mycoherbicidal fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides formulated either in an invert emulsion or with 20% (V/V) unrefined corn oil and 0.2% Silwet L-77 surfactant effectively controlled S. obtusifolia in narrow (51 cm) rows of soybean. However, i...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1075 - Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1075 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f... a tolerance is established for residues of the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f....

  16. 40 CFR 180.1075 - Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1075 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f... a tolerance is established for residues of the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f....

  17. 40 CFR 180.1075 - Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1075 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f... a tolerance is established for residues of the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f....

  18. Biological control potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides for coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from a greenhouse-grown seedling of coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis) and evaluated as a mycoherbicide for that weed. Host range tests revealed that coffee senna, wild senna (C. pilosa),and sicklepod (C. obtusifolia) were also affected...

  19. Biological control studies on Convolvulus arvensis L. with fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is a perennial, noxious weed in Europe and in many agricultural areas of the world, including Turkey. Some pathogenic fungi were identified with potential to control bindweed and some of them could be used as mycoherbicide components. In the summers of 2008, 200...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1075 - Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1075 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f... a tolerance is established for residues of the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f....

  1. 40 CFR 180.1075 - Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1075 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f... a tolerance is established for residues of the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f....

  2. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.


    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

  3. Isolation, characterization, and expression of a second {beta}-tubulin-encoding gene from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    SciTech Connect

    Buhr, T.L.; Dickman, M.B.


    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. F. sp. aeschynomene incites anthracnose on Aeschynomene virgininica (northern jointvetch). Northern jointvetch is a leguminous weed in rice and soybean fields. Contaminating northern jointvetch seeds greatly reduce the market value of rice. C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. F. sp. aeschynomene has been commercially marketed as a mycoherbicide to decrease populations of northern jointvetch. Development of a transformation system would be extremely useful for investigating the molecular biology of C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. F. sp. aeschynomen. This paper reports the nucleotide sequence of a second gene for {beta} Tub (TUB2) in C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. F. sp. aeschynomene and identifies a molecular lesion which likely confers BEN (systemic fungicide) resistance.

  4. Fungal Phytotoxins with Potential Herbicidal Activity to Control Chenopodium album.


    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Evidente, Antonio


    This review deals with the isolation and chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by Ascochyta caulina and Phoma chenopodiicola proposed as mycoherbicides for the biological control of Chenopodium album, a worldwide spread weed which causes serious problems to some agrarian crops, including sugar beet and maize. Studies on the structure activity relationships and on the modes of actions of toxins isolated are also described, as well as the optimization of analytical methods focused on selection of the best fungal toxin producers. The attempts to scale up production of these phytotoxins aimed to obtain sufficient amounts for their application in greenhouse and field trials are also reported. PMID:26197562

  5. Phomentrioloxin, a fungal phytotoxin with potential herbicidal activity, and its derivatives: a structure-activity relationship study.


    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Boari, Angela; Troise, Ciro; Motta, Andrea; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio


    Phomentrioloxin is a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol produced in liquid culture by Phomopsis sp. (teleomorph: Diaporthe gulyae), a potential mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the annual weed Carthamus lanatus. In this study, seven derivatives obtained by chemical modifications of the toxin were assayed for phytotoxic, antimicrobial, and zootoxic activities, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. Each compound was tested on nonhost weedy and agrarian plants, fungi, Gram+ and Gram- bacteria, and on brine shrimp larvae. The results provide insights into an investigation of the structural requirements for activity. The hydroxy groups at C-2 and C-4 appeared to be important features for the phytotoxicity, as well as an unchanged cyclohexentriol ring. A role seemed also to be played by the unsaturations of the geranyl side chain. These findings could be useful for understanding the mechanisms of action of new natural products, for identifying the active sites, and possibly in devising new herbicides of natural origin. PMID:24083323

  6. Host-Range Dynamics of Cochliobolus lunatus: From a Biocontrol Agent to a Severe Environmental Threat

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Sharma, Chandradev K.; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra


    We undertook an investigation to advance understanding of the host-range dynamics and biocontrol implications of Cochliobolus lunatus in the past decade. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) farms were routinely surveyed for brown-to-black leaf spot disease caused by C. lunatus. A biphasic gene data set was assembled and databases were mined for reported hosts of C. lunatus in the last decade. The placement of five virulent strains of C. lunatus causing foliar necrosis of potato was studied with microscopic and phylogenetic tools. Analysis of morphology showed intraspecific variations in stromatic tissues among the virulent strains causing foliar necrosis of potato. A maximum likelihood inference based on GPDH locus separated C. lunatus strains into subclusters and revealed the emergence of unclustered strains. The evolving nutritional requirement of C. lunatus in the last decade is exhibited by the invasion of vertebrates, invertebrates, dicots, and monocots. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the host-range dynamics of C. lunatus and provide useful implications on the threat posed to the environment when C. lunatus is used as a mycoherbicide. PMID:24987680

  7. Mycobiota of the weed Conyza canadensis (Asteraceae) in Brazil.


    Duarte, Lidiane Leal; Santos, Fabiana Maria Coutinho; Barreto, Robert Weingart


    Conyza canadensis is a noxious and notably problematic weed in Brazil whose control is greatly challenging due to the appearance, in the last years, of herbicide resistant populations. An investigation regarding the associated pathogenic fungi of this plant was conducted in Brazil aimed at starting a biological control program to help mitigate its economic impact. Ten fungal species were yielded and described: two ascomycetes (Leptosphaerulina conyzicola sp. nov. and Wentiomyces melioloides), five hyphomycete asexual morphs (Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora conyzicola sp. nov., Cercosporella virgaureae, and Fusarium fujikuroi), two coelomycete asexual morphs (Phoma conyzaphthora sp. nov., Septoria erigerontis), one rust fungus (Aecidium conyzicola sp. nov.), and one oomycete (Basidiophora entospora). Four among the fungi that were collected represent new taxa, and the others represented either new host-records of known fungal species or new geographic records or both, except for C. virgaureae that had already been recorded on C. canadensis in Brazil. None of the discovered species have any potential to be used as a mycoherbicide or to be introduced somewhere else, nevertheless, the knowledge about this mycobiota will help guide the selection of potential biocontrol agents to be introduced in Brazil. PMID:27567718

  8. Differential Gene Expression for Curvularia eragrostidis Pathogenic Incidence in Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) Revealed by cDNA-AFLP Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianshu; Wang, Xuemin; Yuan, Bohua; Qiang, Sheng


    Gene expression profiles of Digitaria sanguinalis infected by Curvularia eragrostidis strain QZ-2000 at two concentrations of conidia and two dew durations were analyzed by cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphisms (cDNA-AFLP). Inoculum strength was more determinant of gene expression than dew duration. A total of 256 primer combinations were used for selective amplification and 1214 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were selected for their differential expression. Of these, 518 up-regulated differentially expressed TDFs were identified. Forty-six differential cDNA fragments were chosen to be cloned and 35 of them were successfully cloned and sequenced, of which 25 were homologous to genes of known function according to the GenBank database. Only 6 genes were up-regulated in Curvularia eragrostidis-inoculated D. sanguinalis, with functions involved in signal transduction, energy metabolism, cell growth and development, stress responses, abscisic acid biosynthesis and response. It appears that a few pathways may be important parts of the pathogenic strategy of C. eragrostidis strain QZ-2000 on D. sanguinalis. Our study provides the fundamentals to further study the pathogenic mechanism, screen for optimal C. eragrostidis strains as potential mycoherbicide and apply this product to control D. sanguinalis. PMID:24116044

  9. Bio-control potential of Cladosporium sp. (MCPL-461), against a noxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus L.


    Kumar, Anuj; Verma, V C; Gond, S K; Kumar, V; Kharwar, R N


    The phenological survey of Parthenium hysterophorus L., in and around the campus of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) was done for about two years (2004-06). During Nov 2004, a few Parthenium plants were found diseased, and symptoms were restricted to the flowers, buds, and inflorescences. The disease causes sterility and reduces seed viability, which was observed with seed germination test from infected and healthy plants. The fungal pathogen was isolated and identified as Cladosporium sp. (MCPL-461). The severity of pathogen to the reproductive organs led to serious damages of the Parthenium plants. Thus in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to determine the bio-control potential of Cladosporium sp. (MCPL 461) against Parthenium weed. A combinatorial effort of Cladosporium sp. (MCPL 461) bio-control potential was evaluated with different culture media, incubation periods and spores strength. Spore suspension of 10(5) to 10(12) spores ml(-1) were used to spray on healthy Parthenium plants, and it was found that severe infection symptoms were appeared at 10(10) to 10(12) spores ml(-1) suspension. LD50 was found at 10(7) spores ml(-1). To enhance the myco-herbicide activity 3% sucrose was added to the spore suspension, which further resolute the bio-control efficacy of the isolates. Only 20-30% seeds of infected plants could germinate. However the safety of non-targeted and wild plants was also tested with Lantana camera, Chromolaena odorata and found that suspension up to 10(12) spores ml(-1) were not sufficient for disease outbreak in them. PMID:20121037