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Sample records for mycoides sc characterization

  1. Characterization of Free Exopolysaccharides Secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Tardy, Florence; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Gaurivaud, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS), also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical β(1−>6)-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan) and associated with an

  2. β-D-Glucoside utilization by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC: possible involvement in the control of cytotoxicity towards bovine lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Vilei, Edy M; Correia, Ivone; Ferronha, M Helena; Bischof, Daniela F; Frey, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Background Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC) is among the most serious threats for livestock producers in Africa. Glycerol metabolism-associated H2O2 production seems to play a crucial role in virulence of this mycoplasma. A wide number of attenuated strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC are currently used in Africa as live vaccines. Glycerol metabolism is not affected in these vaccine strains and therefore it does not seem to be the determinant of their attenuation. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the bgl gene coding for the 6-phospho-β-glucosidase (Bgl) has been described recently. The SNP differentiates virulent African strains isolated from outbreaks with severe CBPP, which express the Bgl isoform Val204, from strains to be considered less virulent isolated from CBPP outbreaks with low mortality and vaccine strains, which express the Bgl isoform Ala204. Results Strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC considered virulent and possessing the Bgl isoform Val204, but not strains with the Bgl isoform Ala204, do trigger elevated levels of damage to embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells upon incubation with the disaccharides (i.e., β-D-glucosides) sucrose and lactose. However, strains expressing the Bgl isoform Val204 show a lower hydrolysing activity on the chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPbG) when compared to strains that possess the Bgl isoform Ala204. Defective activity of Bgl in M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC does not lead to H2O2 production. Rather, the viability during addition of β-D-glucosides in medium-free buffers is higher for strains harbouring the Bgl isoform Val204 than for those with the isoform Ala204. Conclusion Our results indicate that the studied SNP in the bgl gene is one possible cause of the difference in bacterial virulence among strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. Bgl does not act as a direct virulence

  3. Detection of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of cows based on a TaqMan real-time PCR discriminating wild type strains from an lppQ− mutant vaccine strain used for DIVA-strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vilei, Edy M.; Frey, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is the most serious cattle disease in Africa, caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC). CBPP control strategies currently rely on vaccination with a vaccine based on live attenuated strains of the organism. Recently, an lppQ− mutant of the existing vaccine strain T1/44 has been developed (Janis et al., 2008). This T1lppQ− mutant strain is devoid of lipoprotein LppQ, a potential virulence attribute of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. It is designated as a potential live DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine strain allowing both serological and etiological differentiation. The present paper reports on the validation of a control strategy for CBPP in cattle, whereby a TaqMan real-time PCR based on the lppQ gene has been developed for the direct detection of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in ex vivo bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of cows and for the discrimination of wild type strains from the lppQ− mutant vaccine strain. PMID:20381545

  4. Effect of HEPES buffer systems upon the pH, growth and survival of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (MmmSC) vaccine cultures.

    PubMed

    Waite, E R; March, J B

    2001-07-24

    The use of a buffer system based on N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid] (HEPES), in conjunction with standard Gourlay's culture medium was investigated for the growth and maintenance of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC vaccine strain T(1)44. When the initial pH of the culture medium was adjusted to 8.0, 0.075 M HEPES-NaOH was found to be sufficient to prevent the pH falling below 7.1 at any stage during the growth cycle, even in the presence of 0.5% glucose. Compared to growth in standard unbuffered Gourlay's medium, the final culture titre was found to be one log(10) higher, at 10(11) colour changing units (CCU) per ml, and considerably extended culture survival was observed at 37 degrees C. The titre remained above 10(10) CCU ml(-1) for 4 days, and above 10(8) CCU ml(-1) in excess of 1 month. After 4 month's storage at 37 degrees C the titre had fallen to 5x10(4) CCU ml(-1). In contrast, no viable bacteria could be detected in standard unbuffered medium 3 days after the onset of stationary phase, at which point the pH had dropped to 5.4. No significant difference in growth rate between the two media was observed. Adoption of a HEPES-NaOH buffer system by African vaccine manufacturers should require minimal changes to current formulations and procedures, and should enhance both the final titre and thermostability of freeze-dried and liquid broth vaccines against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

  5. Characterization of the in vitro core surface proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Ivanka; Liljander, Anne; Fischer, Anne; Smith, David G E; Inglis, Neil F; Scacchia, Massimo; Pini, Attilio; Jores, Joerg; Sacchini, Flavio

    2014-01-10

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is a severe cattle disease, present in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The development of improved diagnostic tests and vaccines for CBPP control remains a research priority. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the Triton X-114 soluble proteome of nine Mmm strains isolated from Europe or Africa. Of a total of 250 proteins detected, 67 were present in all strains investigated. Of these, 44 were predicted to be lipoproteins or cytoplasmic membrane-associated proteins and are thus likely to be members of the core in vitro surface membrane-associated proteome of Mmm. Moreover, the presence of all identified proteins in other ruminant Mycoplasma pathogens were investigated. Two proteins of the core proteome were identified only in other cattle pathogens of the genus Mycoplasma pointing towards a role in host-pathogen interactions. The data generated will facilitate the identification and prioritization of candidate Mycoplasma antigens for improved control measures, as it is likely that surface-exposed membrane proteins will include those that are involved in host-pathogen interactions.

  6. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  7. Recombinant Surface Proteomics as a Tool to Analyze Humoral Immune Responses in Bovines Infected by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides Small Colony Type*

    PubMed Central

    Hamsten, Carl; Neiman, Maja; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Hamsten, Marica; March, John B.; Persson, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A systematic approach to characterize the surface proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (M. mycoides SC), the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in cattle, is presented. Humoral immune responses in 242 CBPP-affected cattle and controls were monitored against one-third of the surface proteins of M. mycoides SC in a high throughput magnetic bead-based assay. Initially, 64 surface proteins were selected from the genome sequence of M. mycoides SC and expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Binding of antibodies to each individual protein could then be analyzed simultaneously in minute sample volumes with the Luminex suspension array technology. The assay was optimized on Namibian CBPP-positive sera and Swedish negative controls to allow detection and 20-fold mean signal separation between CBPP-positive and -negative sera. Signals were proven to be protein-specific by inhibition experiments, and results agreed with Western blot experiments. The potential of the assay to monitor IgG, IgM, and IgA responses over time was shown in a proof-of-concept study with 116 sera from eight animals in a CBPP vaccine study. In conclusion, a toolbox with recombinant proteins and a flexible suspension array assay that allows multiplex analysis of humoral immune responses to M. mycoides SC has been created. PMID:19696080

  8. Isolation of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides from Polyarthritis and Mastitis of Goats in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, H. L.; Rosendal, S.; Goltz, J.; Blackwell, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical signs, pathomorphological changes, and microbiological findings in Canadian goats infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides are discussed. The disease affected mainly young goats and was characterized by septicemia and polyarthritis. Mastitis followed by septicemia was seen in two mature goats. The diagnosis was made by culture and identification of the mycoplasma. Infected goats without clinical signs were identified by cultural and serological (complement fixation) techniques. Healthy carriers are presumably able to transmit the infection and may have brought the disease to Canada. PMID:17422225

  9. Materials Characterization of High-Temperature Epoxy Resins: SC-79 and SC-15/SC-79 Blend

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Army composite applications. SC-15 is a toughened commercial vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ) resin produced by Applied Poleramic Inc...very well in VARTM processes and has good damage resistance in structural and ballistic applications. However, the relatively low glass transition...low-viscosity, two-phase toughened, cycloaliphatic amine–cured commercial VARTM resin system designed to be easy to handle and have a long processing

  10. Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov. Strains Isolated from Alpine Ibex: A 4th Species in the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster Hosted by Non-domesticated Ruminants?

    PubMed Central

    Ambroset, Chloé; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Game, Yvette; Gaurivaud, Patrice; Tardy, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The genus Mycoplasma, a group of free-living, wall-less prokaryotes includes more than 100 species of which dozens are primary pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. Mycoplasma species isolated from wildlife are rarely investigated but could provide a fuller picture of the evolutionary history and diversity of this genus. In 2013 several isolates from wild Caprinae were tentatively assigned to a new species, Mycoplasma (M.) feriruminatoris sp. nov., characterized by an unusually rapid growth in vitro and close genetic proximity to ruminant pathogenic species. We suspected that atypical isolates recently collected from Alpine ibex in France belonged to this new species. The present study was undertaken to verify this hypothesis and to further characterize the French ibex isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify the isolates and position them in trees containing several other mycoplasma species pathogenic to domesticated ruminants. Population diversity was characterized by genomic macrorestriction and by examining the capacity of different strains to produce capsular polysaccharides, a feature now known to vary amongst mycoplasma species pathogenic to ruminants. This is the first report of M. feriruminatoris isolation from Alpine ibex in France. Phylogenetic analyses further suggested that M. feriruminatoris might constitute a 4th species in a genetic cluster that so far contains only important ruminant pathogens, the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. A PCR assay for specific identification is proposed. These French isolates were not clonal, despite being collected in a restricted region of the Alps, which signifies a considerable diversity of the new species. Strains were able to concomitantly produce two types of capsular polysaccharides, β-(1→6)-galactan and β-(1→6)-glucan, with variation in their respective ratio, a feature never before described in mycoplasmas. PMID:28611743

  11. Highly Dynamic Genomic Loci Drive the Synthesis of Two Types of Capsular or Secreted Polysaccharides within the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Gaurivaud, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster are all ruminant pathogens. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS). Previous studies have strongly suggested a role for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides polysaccharides in pathogenicity. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted EPS was recently characterized as a β(1→6)-galactofuranose homopolymer (galactan) identical to the capsular product. Here, we extended the characterization of secreted polysaccharides to all other members of the M. mycoides cluster: M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. leachii, and M. mycoides subsp. capri (including the LC and Capri serovars). Extracted EPS was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, resulting in the identification of a homopolymer of β(1→2)-glucopyranose (glucan) in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii. Monoclonal antibodies specific for this glucan and for the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted galactan were used to detect the two polysaccharides. While M. mycoides subsp. capri strains of serovar LC produced only capsular galactan, no polysaccharide could be detected in strains of serovar Capri. All strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii produced glucan CPS and EPS, whereas glucan production and localization varied among M. capricolum subsp. capricolum strains. Genes associated with polysaccharide synthesis and forming a biosynthetic pathway were predicted in all cluster members. These genes were organized in clusters within two loci representing genetic variability hot spots. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some of these genes, notably galE and glf, were acquired via horizontal gene transfer. These findings call for a reassessment of the specificity of the serological tests based on mycoplasma polysaccharides. PMID:25398856

  12. In vitro pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John D; Goh, Shan; McKellar, Quintin A; McKeever, Declan J

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is responsible for major economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control relies on live attenuated vaccines, which are of limited efficacy, and antimicrobials are now being assessed as an alternative or adjunct to vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro effector kinetics of the macrolide antimicrobial, gamithromycin, against MmmSC in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Furthermore, it was determined if any differences in gamithromycin activity between these two matrices were mirrored by the older macrolides, tylosin and tilmicosin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 were determined in artificial medium and serum. Time-kill curves were constructed at concentrations corresponding to multiples of the MIC for all three macrolides in artificial medium and for gamithromycin in serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models. Post-antibiotic effects (PAE) were established by exposing strain B237 to antimicrobials at 10× MIC for 1h and monitoring mycoplasma growth thereafter. MICs for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin were 64-, 8- and 64-fold lower, respectively, in serum than in artificial medium at an inoculum size of 10(6)cfu/mL B237. A similar pattern emerged for Tan8. All three antimicrobials were mycoplasmastatic with maximum effects of -0.44, -0.32 and -0.49log10(cfu/mL) units for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin, respectively, against B237 in artificial medium. Tylosin and tilmicosin elicited longer PAEs than gamithromycin. In conclusion, gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin all demonstrated in vitro efficacy against MmmSC and represent potential candidates for clinical studies to assess their therapeutic effect against CBPP.

  13. One test microbial diagnostic microarray for identification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and other Mycoplasma species.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, A; Sacchini, F; Krasteva, I; Zilli, K; Scacchia, M; Beaurepaire, C; Nantel, A; Pini, A

    2012-11-01

    The present study describes the use of microarray technology for rapid identification and differentiation of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from other mycoplasmas that may be pathogenic to ruminants, including those of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, genetically and antigenically strictly correlated with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. A microarray containing genetic sequences of 55 different bacterial species from Acholeplasma, Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma and Ureaplasma genera was constructed. Sequences to genes of interest were collected in FASTA format from NCBI. The collected sequences were processed with OligoPicker software. Oligonucleotides were then checked for their selectivity with BLAST searches in GenBank. The microarray was tested with ATCC/NCTC strains of Mycoplasma spp. of veterinary importance in ruminants including Mycoplasma belonging to the mycoides cluster as well as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri field strains. The results showed that but one ATCC/NCTC reference strains hybridized with their species-specific sequences showed a profile/signature different and distinct from each other. The heat-map of the hybridization results for the nine genes interrogated for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides demonstrated that the reference strain Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides PG1 was positive for all of the gene sequences spotted on the microarray. CBPP field, vaccine and reference strains were all typed to be M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, and seven of the nine strains gave positive hybridization results for all of the nine genes. Two Italian strains were negative for some of the genes. Comparison with non-Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides reference strains showed some positive signals or considerable homology to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides genes. As expected, some correlations were observed between the strictly genetically and antigenically correlated Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and

  14. Viable Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides small colony-mediated depression of the bovine cell responsiveness to the mitogen concanavalin A.

    PubMed

    Dedieu, L; Balcer-Rodrigues, V

    2006-10-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides biotype Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is still a major tropical cattle disease. Development of an efficient vaccine requires an understanding of the immunopathology of CBPP as MmmSC presents a strong ability to escape the host immune response. The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of MmmSC can modulate the immune response induced by the mitogen Concanavalin A (ConA) on bovine immune cells [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lymph node (LN) cells]. Comparative analysis of the immunomodulating properties of viable versus heat-killed MmmSC on ConA-stimulated immune cells revealed that while heat-killed MmmSC had no effect, viable MmmSC strongly depressed, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ConA mitogenic activity (blastogenesis and interferon-gamma production). Both B-cell and T-cell activation were affected with the highest impact on the CD4 T cells. The phenotypic analysis showed that the ConA-induced proliferation of CD25(+) cells was strongly reduced when co-exposed to viable MmmSC, confirming that events associated with ConA-induced cell activation were suppressed by the pathogen. This study thus demonstrated that viable MmmSC is able to inhibit the polyclonal mitogenic activity of the ConA on bovine PBMC and LN cells. This finding strongly suggests that the persistence of viable MmmSC may also thus inhibit the bovine immune response directed towards inactivated MmmSC, whether dead or in the form of antigens, also present during infection. This study confirmed that MmmSC has evolved an efficient mechanism to prevent its elimination from the host.

  15. Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobials against Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John D.; McKellar, Quintin A.; McKeever, Declan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination. Results Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum. Conclusions Oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and

  16. Vaccination of Cattle with the N Terminus of LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Results in Type III Immune Complex Disease upon Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Joachim; Smith, Ken; Schnier, Christian; Wesonga, Hezron; Naessens, Jan; McKeever, Declan

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a serious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. Current vaccines against CBPP induce short-lived immunity and can cause severe postvaccine reactions. Previous studies have identified the N terminus of the transmembrane lipoprotein Q (LppQ-N′) of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as the major antigen and a possible virulence factor. We therefore immunized cattle with purified recombinant LppQ-N′ formulated in Freund's adjuvant and challenged them with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides. Vaccinated animals showed a strong seroconversion to LppQ, but they exhibited significantly enhanced postchallenge glomerulonephritis compared to the placebo group (P = 0.021). Glomerulonephritis was characterized by features that suggested the development of antigen-antibody immune complexes. Clinical signs and gross pathological scores did not significantly differ between vaccinated and placebo groups. These findings reveal for the first time the pathogenesis of enhanced disease as a result of antibodies against LppQ during challenge and also argue against inclusion of LppQ-N′ in a future subunit vaccine for CBPP. PMID:25733516

  17. Analysis of the immunoproteome of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type reveals immunogenic homologues to other known virulence traits in related Mycoplasma species.

    PubMed

    Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen; Buettner, Falk F R; Linz, Bodo; Naessens, Jan; Gerlach, Gerald F

    2009-10-15

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) has been eradicated in the developed world, but it is still present in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa. After initially successful control measures in the 1960s it has been spreading due to a lack of money, fragmentation of veterinary services, uncontrolled cattle movement, insufficient vaccine efficacy and sensitivity of current diagnostic tests. In this study we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblot with sera from MmmSC-infected animals and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry to identify novel immunogenic proteins as candidate molecules for improved diagnostics and vaccines. We identified 24 immunogens recognized by pooled sera from experimentally infected cattle. Furthermore, a serum from an animal with acute clinical disease as well as severe pathomorphological lesions recognized 13 additional immunogens indicating variation in the antibody responses to CBPP amongst cattle. Most immunogens showed compelling similarity to protein/gene sequences in the two ruminant pathogens M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type both belonging to the mycoides cluster. Three of these proteins, namely glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase, adenylosuccinate synthase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, had no compelling homologue in the other distantly related bovine pathogen M. agalactiae. In addition, translation elongation factor Tu, heat shock protein 70, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, which have been found to mediate adhesion to host tissue in other mycoplasmas were shown to be expressed and recognized by sera. These proteins have potential for the development of improved diagnostic tests and possibly vaccines.

  18. Evolutionary history of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia using next generation sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides "Small Colony".

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Virginie; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Barbe, Valérie; Thebault, Patricia; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Poumarat, François; Blanchard, Alain; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thiaucourt, François

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides "Small Colony" (MmmSC) is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19(th) century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20(th) century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19(th) century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected.

  19. Evolutionary History of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Using Next Generation Sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides “Small Colony”

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Virginie; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Barbe, Valérie; Thebault, Patricia; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Poumarat, François; Blanchard, Alain; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thiaucourt, François

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides “Small Colony” (MmmSC) is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19th century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20th century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19th century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected. PMID:23071648

  20. An adenoviral vector expressing lipoprotein A, a major antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, elicits robust immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Carozza, Marlène; Rodrigues, Valérie; Unterfinger, Yves; Galea, Sandra; Coulpier, Muriel; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Thiaucourt, François; Totté, Philippe; Richardson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC), is a devastating respiratory disease of cattle. In sub-Saharan Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, live attenuated vaccines are deployed but afford only short-lived protection. In cattle, recovery from experimental MmmSC infection has been associated with the presence of CD4(+) T lymphocytes that secrete interferon gamma in response to MmmSC, and in particular to the lipoprotein A (LppA) antigen. In an effort to develop a better vaccine against CBPP, a viral vector (Ad5-LppA) that expressed LppA was generated from human adenovirus type 5. The LppA-specific immune responses elicited by the Ad5-LppA vector were evaluated in mice, and compared to those elicited by recombinant LppA formulated with a potent adjuvant. Notably, a single administration of Ad5-LppA, but not recombinant protein, sufficed to elicit a robust LppA-specific humoral response. After a booster administration, both vector and recombinant protein elicited strong LppA-specific humoral and cell-mediated responses. Ex vivo stimulation of splenocytes induced extensive proliferation of CD4(+) T cells for mice immunized with vector or protein, and secretion of T helper 1-associated and proinflammatory cytokines for mice immunized with Ad5-LppA. Our study - by demonstrating the potential of a viral-vectored prototypic vaccine to elicit prompt and robust immune responses against a major antigen of MmmSC - represents a first step in developing a recombinant vaccine against CBPP.

  1. Biogenic SeNPs from Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SelTE02: Characterization with reference to their associated organic coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacenza, Elena; Bulgarini, Alessandra; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2017-08-01

    The exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, fungi and bacteria) for the production of nanomaterials relies on their ability to bioconvert toxic metal(loid) ions into their less toxic and bioavailable elemental states forming mainly nanoparticles (NPs) or nanorods (NRs). Further, these methods of nanomaterial production are nowadays recognized as eco-friendly alternatives to the chemical synthesis processes. A common feature among the so-called biogenic nanomaterials is the presence of an organic layer surrounding them. However, we are just learning the existing relation between biogenic nanostructures and their organic material. Our work is focused on the study of bacterial strains for the production of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as end product of selenite (SeO32 -) bioconversion. In this context, our previous reports described the ability of two bacteria, namely Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SelTE02, to generate SeNPs, which were surrounded by organic material. Here, the potential role of this organic material as stabilizing agent of SeNPs was investigated altering both the bacteria cells culturing and the SeNPs extraction procedure, in order to understand the interaction between these two elements in suspension. As a result, SeNPs produced by both bacterial strains showed the tendency to aggregate when subjected to the treatments tested, suggesting an involvement of the surrounding organic material in their stabilization in suspension.

  2. High quality draft genomes of the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides challenge strains Afadé and B237.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Anne; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Hegerman, Jan; Gourlé, Hadrien; Schieck, Elise; Lambert, Mathieu; Nadendla, Suvarna; Wesonga, Hezron; Miller, Rachel A; Vashee, Sanjay; Weber, Johann; Meens, Jochen; Frey, Joachim; Jores, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' represent important livestock pathogens worldwide. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is still endemic in many parts of Africa. We report the genome sequences and annotation of two frequently used challenge strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Afadé and B237. The information provided will enable downstream 'omics' applications such as proteomics, transcriptomics and reverse vaccinology approaches. Despite the absence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae like cyto-adhesion encoding genes, the two strains showed the presence of protrusions. This phenotype is likely encoded by another set of genes.

  3. Clinical, humoral and IFNgamma responses of cattle to infection with Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides small colony and attempts to condition the pathogenesis of the infection.

    PubMed

    Scacchia, M; Sacchini, F; Filipponi, G; Luciani, M; Lelli, R; Tjipura-Zaire, G; Di Provvido, A; Shiningwane, A; Ndiipanda, F; Pini, A; Caporale, V; Hübschle, O J B

    2007-09-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides small colony (MmmSC), is one of the most important diseases of cattle in Africa. The role of innate or acquired cell mediated and humoral immunity in conferring protection against MmmSC infection has not yet been elucidated. On the other hand, the pathological lesions caused by the aetiological agent have been considered indicative of an immunopathological process. In this study ten naïve cattle were exposed to in-contact infection with animals infected by intubation with a strain of MmmSC. Clinical signs, antibody response, IFNgamma release and pathological changes at necropsy were analysed and compared with the events following in-contact infection of an equal number of animals kept under daily treatment with cyclosporine for the entire observation period of 84 days. Cyclosporine is a suppressor of the immune response related to the T-cell system. Under the conditions of the experiment, cyclosporine appeared to condition the pathogenesis of CBPP by delaying the events that follow infection, bringing further support to the possibility that the immune response may have an impact on the disease outcome.

  4. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Italian Strain 57/13, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, M.; Krasteva, I.; Marcacci, M.; Ancora, M.; Ciammaruconi, A.; Gentile, B.; Lista, F.; Pini, A.; Scacchia, M.; Sacchini, F.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is generally considered one of most pathogenic Mycoplasma species, and it is the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Here, we present the annotated genome sequence of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides Italian strain 57/13, isolated in 1992 during CBPP outbreaks in Italy. PMID:25814605

  5. Establishment and characterization of Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia model medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Morita, Akihiro; Nakahira, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Taeko; Uchida, Kaoru; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Takeda, Shunichi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Atsuko; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2012-06-01

    Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia (RBS/SC) are genetic autosomal recessive syndromes caused by establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2 ( ESCO 2) mutation. RBS/SC appear to have a variety of clinical features, even with the same mutation of the ESCO2 gene. Here, we established and genetically characterized a medaka model of RBS/SC by reverse genetics. The RBS/SC model was screened from a mutant medaka library produced by the Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes method. The medaka mutant carrying the homozygous mutation at R80S in the conserved region of ESCO2 exhibited clinical variety (i.e. developmental arrest with craniofacial and chromosomal abnormalities and embryonic lethality) as characterized in RBS/SC. Moreover, widespread apoptosis and downregulation of some gene expression, including notch1a, were detected in the R80S mutant. The R80S mutant is the animal model for RBS/SC and a valuable resource that provides the opportunity to extend knowledge of ESCO2. Downregulation of some gene expression in the R80S mutant is an important clue explaining non-correlation between genotype and phenotype in RBS/SC. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Zr2SC Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    M Opeka; J Zaykoski; I Talmy; S Causey

    2011-12-31

    MAX-phase Zr{sub 2}SC ceramics were synthesized by hot pressing mixtures containing ZrH{sub 2}, carbon or ZrC, and ZrS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}, or FeS{sub 2} as sulfur sources. The Zr{sub 2}SC synthesized with FeS{sub 2} had a typical MAX-phase laminated structure, good thermal shock resistance, thermal stability to 2100 C, and were readily machineable. The flexural strength was about 250 MPa up to 800 C. The thermal expansion coefficient was 8.8 x 10{sup -6}/C in the 25-2000 C-temperature range, thermal conductivity was 38 W/m-K at 100 C and about 30 W/m-K at 1100 C, and specific heat at temperatures from 100 to 1100 C ranged from 0.4 to 0.5 kJ/kg C. Load-deflection curves exhibited plastic deformation from RT to 2066 C. The sample deflection at fracture demonstrated significant dependence on temperature with a minimum at 1510 C. In arc heater testing at 2150 C for 23 s, the material developed an adherent, protective scale.

  7. Selection, affinity maturation, and characterization of a human scFv antibody against CEA protein

    PubMed Central

    Pavoni, Emiliano; Flego, Michela; Dupuis, Maria Luisa; Barca, Stefano; Petronzelli, Fiorella; Anastasi, Anna Maria; D'Alessio, Valeria; Pelliccia, Angela; Vaccaro, Paola; Monteriù, Giorgia; Ascione, Alessandro; De Santis, Rita; Felici, Franco; Cianfriglia, Maurizio; Minenkova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Background CEA is a tumor-associated antigen abundantly expressed on several cancer types, including those naturally refractory to chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of human anti-CEA single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) is a first step toward the construction of new anticancer monoclonal antibodies designed for optimal blood clearance and tumor penetration. Methods The human MA39 scFv, selected for its ability to recognize a CEA epitope expressed on human colon carcinomas, was first isolated from a large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library, panned on human purified CEA protein. Subsequently, by in vitro mutagenesis of a gene encoding for the scFv MA39, a new library was established, and new scFv antibodies with improved affinity towards the CEA cognate epitope were selected and characterized. Results The scFv MA39 antibody was affinity-maturated by in vitro mutagenesis and the new scFv clone, E8, was isolated, typed for CEA family member recognition and its CEACAM1, 3 and 5 shared epitope characterized for expression in a large panel of human normal and tumor tissues and cells. Conclusion The binding affinity of the scFv E8 is in a range for efficient, in vivo, antigen capture in tumor cells expressing a shared epitope of the CEACAM1, 3 and 5 proteins. This new immunoreagent meets all criteria for a potential anticancer compound: it is human, hence poorly or not at all immunogenic, and it binds selectively and with good affinity to the CEA epitope expressed by metastatic melanoma and colon and lung carcinomas. Furthermore, its small molecular size should provide for efficient tissue penetration, yet give rapid plasma clearance. PMID:16504122

  8. Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Aye, Racheal; Soi, Reuben; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2016-01-01

    The current control method for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa is vaccination with a live, attenuated strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). However, this method is not very efficient and often causes serious adverse reactions. Several studies have attempted to induce protection using inactivated mycoplasma, but with widely contradictory results. Therefore, we compared the protective capacity of the live T1/44 vaccine with two inactivated preparations of Mmm strain Afadé, inoculated with an adjuvant. Protection was measured after a challenge with Afadé. The protection levels were 31%, 80.8% and 74.1% for the formalin-inactivated, heat-inactivated and live attenuated preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that low doses of heat-inactivated Mmm can offer protection to a level similar to the current live attenuated (T1/44) vaccine formulation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic Disease in Vaal Rhebok (Pelea capreolus) Caused by Mycoplasmas in the Mycoides Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Melissa M.; Stalis, Ilse H.; Clippinger, Tracy L.; Busch, Martin; Nordhausen, Robert; Maalouf, Gabriel; Schrenzel, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    In the winter of 2002, an outbreak of mycoplasma infection in Vaal rhebok (Pelea capreolus) originating from South Africa occurred 15 weeks after their arrival in San Diego, Calif. Three rhebok developed inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, signs related to pulmonary or arthral dysfunction, and sepsis. All three rhebok died or were euthanized. Primary postmortem findings were erosive tracheitis, pleuropneumonia, regional cellulitis, and necrotizing lymphadenitis. Mycoplasmas were detected in numerous tissues by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. The three deceased rhebok were coinfected with ovine herpesvirus-2, and two animals additionally had a novel gammaherpesvirus. However, no lesions indicative of herpesvirus were seen microscopically in any animal. The rheboks' mycoplasmas were characterized at the level of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and the fructose biphosphate aldolase gene. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to address the possibility of infection with multiple strains. Two of the deceased rhebok were infected with a single strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, and the third animal had a single, unique strain most closely related to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony. A PCR survey of DNA samples from 46 other ruminant species demonstrated the presence of several species of mycoplasmas in the mycoides cluster, including a strain of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum identical to that found in two of the rhebok. These findings demonstrate the pervasiveness of mycoplasmas in the mycoides cluster in small ruminants and the potential for interspecies transmission and disease when different animal taxa come in contact. PMID:15750104

  10. Multiparameter characterization of subnanometre Cr/Sc multilayers based on complementary measurements

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Anton; Bajt, Saša; Hönicke, Philipp; Soltwisch, Victor; Scholze, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Cr/Sc multilayer systems can be used as near-normal incidence mirrors for the water window spectral range. It is shown that a detailed characterization of these multilayer systems with 400 bilayers of Cr and Sc, each with individual layer thicknesses <1 nm, is attainable by the combination of several analytical techniques. EUV and X-ray reflectance measurements, resonant EUV reflectance across the Sc L edge, and X-ray standing wave fluorescence measurements were used. The parameters of the multilayer model were determined via a particle-swarm optimizer and validated using a Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum-likelihood approach. For the determination of the interface roughness, diffuse scattering measurements were conducted. PMID:27980515

  11. Characterizing coal beds in western Kentucky with the Al-La-Sc coherent triad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chyi, L.L.; Medlin, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Cyclic sedimentation and lateral facies changes make coal bed correlations inconclusive and difficult. This uncertainty can be further complicated if a coal basin has been structurally deformed. Coal macerals can be studied to indicate the nature and degree of coalification. Their use in coal bed correlation, however, is limited. Most of the trace elements and their ratios that have been studied show significant within-bed lateral and stratigraphic variations, and thus are not effective in correlating coal beds regionally. Geochemically coherent groups of elements, such as rare earth elements (REE) and platinum group elements (PGE), appear to be highly differentiated in coal-forming environments. Geochemical coherent elemental triads appear to be useful for coal bed identification or fingerprinting. The best triad which was demonstrated to be effective in coal bed characterization in western Kentucky, is that of Al, La and Sc. These three elements are highly correlated with one another and they can be determined accurately and simultaneously with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The elemental triad Al-La-Sc is used to identify and fingerprint three key coal beds in western Kentucky: the Springfield (western Kentucky No. 9), the Davis (western Kentucky No. 6), and the Mining City and Dawson Springs are both considered to be the No. 4 coal bed in western Kentucky). Four distinct groupings can be recognized by use of the Al-La-Sc triad. The Dawson Springs coals have the highest Al/(La + Sc) ratios, followed by the Springfield, the Davis and the Mining City. The Mining City coal bed generally has the highest La/Sc ratio. However, the Dawson Springs is not correlated with the Mining City using the triad analysis, even though they have reportedly similar stratigraphic positions in the western Kentucky coal basin. The Al-La-Sc triad appears to be effective in discriminating between the Springfield and the Davis coal beds throughout the entire Illinois

  12. Design and initial characterization of the SC-200 proteomics standard mixture.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew; Higdon, Roger; Rapson, Sean; Loiue, Brenton; Hogan, Jason; Stacy, Robin; Napuli, Alberto; Guo, Wenjin; van Voorhis, Wesley; Roach, Jared; Lu, Vincent; Landorf, Elizabeth; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Collart, Frank; Myler, Peter; van Belle, Gerald; Kolker, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput (HTP) proteomics studies generate large amounts of data. Interpretation of these data requires effective approaches to distinguish noise from biological signal, particularly as instrument and computational capacity increase and studies become more complex. Resolving this issue requires validated and reproducible methods and models, which in turn requires complex experimental and computational standards. The absence of appropriate standards and data sets for validating experimental and computational workflows hinders the development of HTP proteomics methods. Most protein standards are simple mixtures of proteins or peptides, or undercharacterized reference standards in which the identity and concentration of the constituent proteins is unknown. The Seattle Children's 200 (SC-200) proposed proteomics standard mixture is the next step toward developing realistic, fully characterized HTP proteomics standards. The SC-200 exhibits a unique modular design to extend its functionality, and consists of 200 proteins of known identities and molar concentrations from 6 microbial genomes, distributed into 10 molar concentration tiers spanning a 1,000-fold range. We describe the SC-200's design, potential uses, and initial characterization. We identified 84% of SC-200 proteins with an LTQ-Orbitrap and 65% with an LTQ-Velos (false discovery rate = 1% for both). There were obvious trends in success rate, sequence coverage, and spectral counts with protein concentration; however, protein identification, sequence coverage, and spectral counts vary greatly within concentration levels.

  13. Isolation and characterization of anti c-met single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Qamsari, Elmira Safaie; Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Bagheri, Salman; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Sepideh Safaei; Baradaran, Behzad; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) involved in invasive growth programs during embryogenesis and tumorgenesis. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for c-Met in colorectal cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Hence, a molecular inhibitor of an extracellular domain of c-Met receptor that blocks c-Met-cell surface interactions could be of great thera-peutic importance. In an attempt to develop molecular inhibitors of c-Met, single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries Tomlinson I + J against a specific synthetic oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of c-Met receptor were screened; selected scFv were then characterized using various immune techniques. Three c-Met specific scFv (ES1, ES2, and ES3) were selected following five rounds of panning procedures. The scFv showed specific binding to c-Met receptor, and significantly inhibited proliferation responses of a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116). Moreover, anti- apoptotic effects of selected scFv antibodies on the HCT-116 cell line were also evaluated using Annexin V/PI assays. The results demonstrated rates of apoptotic cell death of 46.0, 25.5, and 37.8% among these cells were induced by use of ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The results demonstrated ability to successfully isolate/char-acterize specific c-Met scFv that could ultimately have a great therapeutic potential in immuno-therapies against (colorectal) cancers.

  14. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  19. Free exopolysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides possesses anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Totté, Philippe; Puech, Carinne; Rodrigues, Valérie; Bertin, Clothilde; Manso-Silvan, Lucia; Thiaucourt, François

    2015-10-21

    In this study we explored the immunomodulatory properties of highly purified free galactan, the soluble exopolysaccharide secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Galactan was shown to bind to TLR2 but not TLR4 using HEK293 reporter cells and to induce the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in bovine macrophages, whereas low IL-12p40 and no TNF-α, both pro-inflammatory cytokines, were induced in these cells. In addition, pre-treatment of macrophages with galactan substantially reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- and IL-12p40 while increasing LPS-induced secretion of immunosuppressive IL-10. Also, galactan did not activate naïve lymphocytes and induced only low production of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in Mmm-experienced lymphocytes. Finally, galactan triggered weak recall proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes from contagious bovine pleuropneumonia-infected animals despite having a positive effect on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on macrophages. All together, these results suggest that galactan possesses anti-inflammatory properties and potentially provides Mmm with a mechanism to evade host innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses.

  20. Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Olum, Moses; Attah-Poku, Samuel; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Wesonga, Hezron; Soi, Reuben; Naessens, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies, but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in this species. Our aim was to induce antibody responses to CPS in cattle, and challenge them when they had specific CPS antibody titres similar or higher than those from cattle vaccinated with the live vaccine. The CPS was linked to the carrier protein ovalbumin via a carbodiimide-mediated condensation with 1-ethyl-3(3-imethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Ten animals were immunized twice and challenged three weeks after the booster inoculation, and compared to a group of challenged non-immunized cattle. When administered subcutaneously to adult cattle, the vaccine elicited CPS-specific antibody responses with the same or a higher titre than animals vaccinated with the live vaccine. Pathology in the group of immunized animals was significantly reduced (57%) after challenge with Mmm strain Afadé compared to the non-immunized group, a figure in the range of the protection provided by the live vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. P19 contributes to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides adhesion to EBL cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Nick, Nwankpa; Zou, Xiaohui; Bai, Fan; Wu, Jindi; Xin, Jiuqing

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The virulent Mmm Ben-1 strain was isolated from the lung of a CBPP-infected cow in China in the 1950s. To attenuate the virulence of the Ben-1 strain and preserve its protective ability, the isolate was re-isolated after inoculation into the testicles of rabbits and into the rabbit thorax. As a result, after the subsequent isolates were continuously passaged 468 times in rabbits, its pathogenicity to cattle decreased. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to attenuation of the Mmm Ben-1 remain unknown. We compared the entire genomes of the Ben-1 strain and the 468 th generation strain passaged in rabbits (Ben-468) and discovered that a putative protein gene named p19 was absent from the Ben-468 strain. The p19 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli to obtain recombinant P19 (rP19). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the P19 protein is detected in the cell-membrane fraction, the cell-soluble cytosolic fraction and whole-cell lysate of the Mmm Ben-1 strain. The rP19 can interact with international standard serum against CBPP. Immunostaining visualised via confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that P19 is able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells, and this finding was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. We also found that anti-rP19 serum could inhibit the adhesion of the Mmm Ben-1 total proteins to EBL cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression and characterization of thermostable chitinase from Bacillus atrophaeus SC081 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Kyung; Choi, In Soon; Choi, Young Ju

    2011-03-01

    The chitinase-producing strain SC081 was isolated from Korean traditional soy sauce and identified as Bacillus atrophaeus based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence and a phenotypic analysis. A gene encoding chitinase from B. atrophaeus SC081 was cloned in Escherichia coli and was named SCChi-1 (GQ360078). The SCChi-1 nucleotide sequences were composed of 1788 base pairs and 596 amino acids, which were 92.6, 89.6, 89.3, and 78.9% identical to those of Bacillus subtilis (ABG57262), Bacillus pumilus (ABI15082), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (ABO15008), and Bacillus licheniformis (ACF40833), respectively. A recombinant SCChi-1 containing a hexahistidine tag at the amino- terminus was constructed, overexpressed, and purified in E. coli to characterize SCChi-1. H(6)SCChi-1 revealed a hydrolytic band on zymograms containing 0.1% glycol chitin and showed the highest lytic activity on colloidal chitin and acidic chitosan. The optimal temperature and pH for chitinolytic activity were 50°C and pH 8.0, respectively.

  3. THE SMALL ACID SOLUBLE PROTEINS (SASP α and SASP β) OF BACILLUS WEIHENSTEPHANENSIS AND B. MYCOIDES GROUP 2 ARE THE MOST DISTINCT AMONG THE B. CEREUS GROUP

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Courtney; Fox, Karen; Fox, Alvin

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. The small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP) β has been previously demonstrated to be among the biomarkers differentiating B. anthracis and B. cereus; SASP β of B. cereus most commonly exhibits one or two amino acid substitutions when compared to B. anthracis. SASP α is conserved in sequence among these two species. Neither SASP α nor β for B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis have been previously characterized as taxonomic discriminators. In the current work molecular weight (MW) variation of these SASPs were determined by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) for representative strains of the 5 species within the B. cereus group. The measured MWs also correlate with calculated MWs of translated amino acid sequences generated from whole genome sequencing projects. SASP α and β demonstrated consistent MW among B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides strains (group 1). However B. mycoides (group 2) and B. weihenstephanensis SASP α and β were quite distinct making them unique among the B. cereus group. Limited sequence changes were observed in SASP α (at most 3 substitutions and 2 deletions) indicating it is a more conserved protein than SASP β (up to 6 substitutions and a deletion). Another even more conserved SASP, SASP α-β type, was described here for the first time. PMID:19616612

  4. Mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Nuno T; Assunção, Patrícia; Poveda, José B; Tavío, María M

    2015-06-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri is a causative agent of contagious agalactia in goats. In this study, M. mycoides subsp. capri mutants were selected for resistance to fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) by serial passes in broth with increasing concentrations of antibiotic. Mutations conferring cross-resistance to the three fluoroquinolones were found in the quinolone resistance determining regions of the four genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Different mutations in the DNA gyrase GyrA subunit suggest a different mechanism of inhibition between norfloxacin and the other tested fluoroquinolones. The presence of an adenosine triphosphate-dependent efflux system was suggested through the use of the inhibitor orthovanadate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of the quaternary scandium uranium selenide CsScUSe3(Se2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Matthew D.; Lee, Minseong; Choi, Eun Sang; Ibers, James A.

    2015-03-01

    The compound CsScUSe3(Se2) has been synthesized by the reaction of U, Sc, and Se in a CsCl flux at 1173 K. Its structure is composed of infinite ∞ 2[ScUSe5 - ] sheets that are separated by Cs+ ions. The structure contains one Se22- unit per U. Accordingly, the formula is charge balanced with U4+ and Sc3+ as Cs1+Sc3+U4+(Se2-)3(Se22-). From magnetic susceptibility measurements the magnetic behavior of CsScUSe3(Se2) can be divided into three different regions: paramagnetic, T>TN; antiferromagnetic ordering, T

  6. Growth and characterization of Sc-doped EuO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Altendorf, S. G.; Reisner, A.; Chang, C. F.; Hollmann, N.; Rata, A. D.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2014-02-03

    The preparation of 3d-transition metal-doped EuO thin films by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated using the example of Sc doping. The Sc-doped EuO samples display a good crystalline structure, despite the relatively small ionic radius of the dopant. The Sc doping leads to an enhancement of the Curie temperature to up to 125 K, remarkably similar to previous observations on lanthanide-doped EuO.

  7. Molecular characterization and evolution of self-incompatibility genes in Arabidopsis thaliana: the case of the Sc haplotype.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Kathleen G; Berger, Martin T; Ahmed, Rimsha; Hritzo, Molly K; McCulloch, Amanda A; Price, Michael J; Serniak, Nicholas J; Walsh, Leonard T; Nasrallah, June B; Nasrallah, Mikhail E

    2013-03-01

    The switch from an outcrossing mode of mating enforced by self-incompatibility to self-fertility in the Arabidopsis thaliana lineage was associated with mutations that inactivated one or both of the two genes that comprise the self-incompatibility (SI) specificity-determining S-locus haplotype, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR) genes, as well as unlinked modifier loci required for SI. All analyzed A. thaliana S-locus haplotypes belong to the SA, SB, or SC haplotypic groups. Of these three, the SC haplotype is the least well characterized. Its SRKC gene can encode a complete open-reading frame, although no functional data are available, while its SCRC sequences have not been isolated. As a result, it is not known what mutations were associated with inactivation of this haplotype. Here, we report on our analysis of the Lz-0 accession and the characterization of its highly rearranged SC haplotype. We describe the isolation of its SCRC gene as well as the subsequent isolation of SCRC sequences from other SC-containing accessions and from the A. lyrata S36 haplotype, which is the functional equivalent of the A. thaliana SC haplotype. By performing transformation experiments using chimeric SRK and SCR genes constructed with SC- and S36-derived sequences, we show that the SRKC and SCRC genes of Lz-0 and at least a few other SC-containing accessions are nonfunctional, despite SCRC encoding a functional full-length protein. We identify the probable mutations that caused the inactivation of these genes and discuss our results in the context of mechanisms of S-locus inactivation in A. thaliana.

  8. Production and characterization of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deoxynivalenol (DON)is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi that infest cereal grains worldwide. A hybridoma cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (Mab) recognizing DON was used as the starting point in the development of a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody. The scFv wa...

  9. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlach, Martin; Cizek, Jakub; Melikhova, Oksana; Stulikova, Ivana; Smola, Bohumil; Kekule, Tomas; Kudrnova, Hana; Gemma, Ryota; Neubert, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible.

  10. Targeting cytokines: production and characterization of anti-TNF-α scFvs by phage display technology.

    PubMed

    Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Nouri, Mohammad; Zolbanin, Jafar Majidi; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Baradaran, Behzad; Barar, Jaleh; Coukos, George; Omidi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    The antibody display technology (ADT) such as phage display (PD) has substantially improved the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and Ab fragments through bypassing several limitations associated with the traditional approach of hybridoma technology. In the current study, we capitalized on the PD technology to produce high affinity single chain variable fragment (scFv) against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), which is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine and plays important role in various inflammatory diseases and malignancies. To pursue production of scFv antibody fragments against human TNF- α, we performed five rounds of biopanning using stepwise decreased amount of TNF-α (1 to 0.1 μ g), a semi-synthetic phage antibody library (Tomlinson I + J) and TG1 cells. Antibody clones were isolated and selected through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening. The selected scFv antibody fragments were further characterized by means of ELISA, PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and Western blot analyses as well as fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Based upon binding affinity to TNF-α , 15 clones were selected out of 50 positive clones enriched from PD in vitro selection. The selected scFvs displayed high specificity and binding affinity with Kd values at nm range to human TNF-α . The immunofluorescence analysis revealed significant binding of the selected scFv antibody fragments to the Raji B lymphoblasts. The effectiveness of the selected scFv fragments was further validated by flow cytometry analysis in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated mouse fibroblast L929 cells. Based upon these findings, we propose the selected fully human anti-TNF-α scFv antibody fragments as potential immunotherapy agents that may be translated into preclinical/clinical applications.

  11. [Construction, expression and functional characterization of single chain variable fragments (scFv) against human CD33 antigen].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yang; Qu, Hao; Ge, Xin-Shun; Zuo, Yu-Feng; Liao, Xiao-Long

    2007-12-01

    To construct and express the single chain variable fragments (scFv) gene against human CD33 antigen, and characterize its bioactivity. The genes encoding the light and heavy chain variable regions were cloned by RT-PCR from a murine hybridoma cell line, which could produce monoclonal antibody(mAb) against human CD33 antigen. Then the light and heavy chain variable regions were fused together by a short peptide linker containing 15 amino acid (Gly(4)Ser)(3) using splice-overlap extensive PCR. The recombinant anti-CD33 scFv was subcloned into the expression vector pET28a(+) and expressed in E.coli Rosetta after induction by IPTG. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant anti-CD33 scFv gene was expressed in the form of inclusion body in E.coli Rosetta, and the purified fusion protein was obtained after a series of purification steps including cell lysis, inclusion body solubilization, Ni(2+) metal affinity chromatography and protein refolding. Flow cytometry(FCM) analysis showed that the scFv could react with human CD33 antigen. Recombinant anti-CD33 scFv gene has been successfully constructed and expressed in E.coli Rosetta, which could provide foundation for the future target therapy to the myeloid leukemia.

  12. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  13. [Infection with Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides LC (large colony type) in bezoar goat kids (Capra aegagrus cretica) in the Bern (Switzerland) Zoo].

    PubMed

    Perrin, J; Müller, M; Zangger, N; Nicolet, J

    1994-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides LC (large colony type) (MML) was isolated from three 2 to 6 weeks old wild goat kids (Capra aegagrus cretica) dead of septicemia in a Swiss zoo. Necropsy revealed peritonitis, pneumonia and enteritis. MML was isolated out of the ear canal of most of the healthy animals in the flock. The high density of the animals, the presence of concomitant diseases and the carriage among healthy animals seem to have been important predisposing factors for the MML-infection.

  14. Functional characterization of an scFv-Fc antibody that immunotherapeutically targets the common cancer cell surface proteoglycan CSPG4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhui; Katayama, Akihiro; Wang, Yangyang; Yu, Ling; Favoino, Elvira; Sakakura, Koichi; Favole, Alessandra; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Silver, Susan; Watkins, Simon C; Kageshita, Toshiro; Ferrone, Soldano

    2011-12-15

    Cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is an attractive target for antibody-based cancer immunotherapy because of its role in tumor cell biology, its high expression on malignant cells including cancer-initiating cells, and its restricted distribution in normal tissues. The clinical use of CSPG4 has been hampered by the lack of a CSPG4-specific chimeric, humanized, or fully human monoclonal antibody. To overcome this limitation, we generated a CSPG4-specific fully human single-chain antibody termed scFv-FcC21 and characterized its specificity and antitumor activity. Viable CSPG4(+) melanoma cells were used in a screen of a human scFv phage display library that included CDR3 engineered to optimize antibody binding sites. The scFv antibody isolated was then recombinantly engineered with a human immunoglobulin G1 Fc region to construct the fully human antibody scFv-FcC21, which recognized tumors of neuroectodermal origin, various types of carcinomas, mesotheliomas, and sarcomas as well as myeloid leukemias. scFv-FcC21 inhibited in vitro growth and migration of tumor cells and in vivo growth of human tumor xenografts. These effects were mediated by inhibition of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and focal adhesion kinase signaling pathways that are critical for tumor cell growth and migration, respectively. Our findings define the CSPG4-specific fully human scFv-FcC21 antibody as a candidate therapeutic agent to target the many types of tumors that express CSPG4.

  15. Low Temperature Synthesis and Characterization of AlScMo3O12

    PubMed Central

    Truitt, Rebecca; Hermes, Ilka; Main, Alyssa; Sendecki, Anne; Lind, Cora

    2015-01-01

    Recent interest in low and negative thermal expansion materials has led to significant research on compounds that exhibit this property, much of which has targeted the A2M3O12 family (A = trivalent cation, M = Mo, W). The expansion and phase transition behavior in this family can be tuned through the choice of the metals incorporated into the structure. An undesired phase transition to a monoclinic structure with large positive expansion can be suppressed in some solid solutions by substituting the A-site by a mixture of two cations. One such material, AlScMo3O12, was successfully synthesized using non-hydrolytic sol-gel chemistry. Depending on the reaction conditions, phase separation into Al2Mo3O12 and Sc2Mo3O12 or single-phase AlScMo3O12 could be obtained. Optimized conditions for the reproducible synthesis of stoichiometric, homogeneous AlScMo3O12 were established. High resolution synchrotron diffraction experiments were carried out to confirm whether samples were homogeneous and to estimate the Al:Sc ratio through Rietveld refinement and Vegard’s law. Single-phase samples were found to adopt the orthorhombic Sc2W3O12 structure at 100 to 460 K. In contrast to all previously-reported A2M3O12 compositions, AlScMo3O12 exhibited positive thermal expansion along all unit cell axes instead of contraction along one or two axes, with expansion coefficients (200–460 K) of αa = 1.7 × 10−6 K−1, αb = 6.2 × 10−6 K−1, αc = 2.9 × 10−6 K−1 and αV = 10.8 × 10−6 K−1, respectively. PMID:28787966

  16. Structural and functional characterization of a novel scFv anti-HSP60 of Strongyloides sp.

    PubMed Central

    Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; de Almeida Araújo Santos, Fabiana; Fujimura, Patrícia Tiemi; Caneiro, Ana Paula; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Phage display is a powerful technology that selects specific proteins or peptides to a target. We have used Phage Display to select scFv (single-chain variable fragment) clones from a combinatorial library against total proteins of Strongyloides venezuelensis. After scFv characterization, further analysis demonstrated that this recombinant fragment of antibody was able to bind to an S. venezuelensis antigenic fraction of ~65 kDa, present in the body periphery and digestive system of infective larvae (L3), as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Mass spectrometry results followed by bioinformatics analysis showed that this antigenic fraction was a heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of Strongyloides sp. The selected scFv was applied in serodiagnosis by immune complexes detection in serum samples from individuals with strongyloidiasis using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showing sensitivity of 97.5% (86.84–99.94), specificity of 98.81 (93.54–99.97), positive likelihood ratio of 81.60 and an area under the curve of 0.9993 (0.9973–1.000). Our study provided a novel monoclonal scFv antibody fragment which specifically bound to HSP60 of Strongyloides sp. and was applied in the development of an innovative serodiagnosis method for the human strongyloidiasis. PMID:25994608

  17. Growth and characterization of iron scandium sulfide (FeSc2S4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, J. R.; Plumb, K. W.; Pasco, C. M.; Trump, B. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Koohpayeh, S. M.

    2016-11-01

    Here we report successful growth of mm scale single crystals of stoichiometric FeSc2S4. Single crystal X-ray diffraction yields a cubic structure, spacegroup Fd 3 ̅ m , with a=10.5097(2) Å at T=110(2) K consistent with previous literature on polycrystalline samples. Models fit to the data reveal no detectable antisite mixing or deviations from the ideal stoichiometry. Heat capacity and dc magnetization measurements on the single crystals match those of high quality powder specimens. The novel traveling solvent crystal growth method presented in this work opens the door to studies requiring sizable single crystals of the candidate spin-orbital liquid FeSc2S4.

  18. Characterization of perfluorinated cation-exchange membranes MF-4SC surface modified with halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A.; Afonin, D.; Kononenko, N.; Shkirskaya, S.

    2015-10-01

    The electrical conductivity and diffusion permeability through perfluorinated cation-exchange membranes MF-4SC (Russian analog of the Nafion-type membrane), whose surface is modified by nanotubes of halloysite using short exposures of low temperature microwave plasma, are theoretically investigated using the Nernst-Planck approach. The method of quantitative evaluation of physicochemical parameters (individual and averaged diffusion coefficients and averaged distribution coefficients of ion pairs in the membrane) of the systems `electrolyte solution - bi-layer ion-exchange membrane - water/electrolyte solution', which was proposed by us earlier, is further developed. The aforementioned parameters of modified MF-4SC/halloysite membranes were found using the least squares method. For this purpose we used electrical conductivity as well as diffusion permeability data experimentally obtained for NaCl and HCl solutions of different concentration. A new model of bi-layer membrane system can be used for refining the calculated results by taking into account the difference between co- and counter-ion diffusivities inside the membrane layers. We showed that grafting the layer of halloysite nanotubes onto the membrane surface noticeably affects the exchange capacity as well as the structural and transport characteristics of the original perfluorinated membrane. In particular, such a membrane may show weak asymmetry of diffusion permeability when its position inside a measuring cell is changed. Hybrid MF-4SC/halloysite membranes can thus be productively used in fuel cells and catalysis.

  19. Production and characterization of recombinant scFv against digoxin by phage display technology.

    PubMed

    Alirezapour, Behruz; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Rasaee, Mohhamad Javad; Omidfar, Kobra

    2013-06-01

    The cardiac glycoside digoxin is widely used for the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Digoxin is a highly toxic drug and consequently is routinely measured in sera of treated patients. In such cases, antibodies are required against digoxin for detection as well as detoxification purposes. To obtain recombinant single chain antibody against digoxin, RNA was extracted from spleen of BALB/c mice immunized with digoxin-BSA and converted to cDNA. The gene fragment corresponding to the variable regions of the repertoire of antibody genes were amplified by PCR. ScFv construct was generated by randomly joining individual heavy- and light-chain variable domains through gene splicing by overlapping extension PCR. Recombinant phage library expressing scFv polypeptides were produced. Phages with higher affinity toward digoxin were selected in the biopanning process. Sensitivity of produced recombinant MAb (AR85) was determined to be about 100 pg/well, while intact MAb (BBA) produced by hybridoma technology (data not shown) was reported to be around 100 pg/well too. The saturation value for recombinant scFv MAb was found to be 1000 ng/well while that for hybridoma MAb was reported to be 10 ng/well. The affinity constant of recombinant MAb (AR85) towards digoxin was also found to be around ka=3.8×10(7) M(-1) while that for hybridoma MAb (BBA) was reported to be ka=2.6×10(8) M(-1).

  20. Bacillus weihenstephanensis characteristics are present in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus mycoides strains.

    PubMed

    Soufiane, Brahim; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2013-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group comprises seven bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus cytotoxicus, and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. Bacillus weihenstephanensis is distinguished based on its capability to grow at 7 °C but not at 43 °C, and the presence of specific signature sequences in the 16S rRNA and cspA genes and in several housekeeping genes: glpF, gmK, purH, and tpi. Bacillus weihenstephanensis-specific signature sequences were found in some B. cereus and B. mycoides strains suggesting psychrotolerance. This was confirmed by growth at 7 °C but not at 43 °C. The other B. cereus and B. mycoides strains and all B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. pseudomycoides harbored the mesophilic signature sequences. The strains tested grew at 43 °C but did not grow at 7 °C. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from comparisons of the concatenated nucleotide sequences. Three groups and one branch were revealed. Group I, II, and III comprised the mesophilic B. cereus, some mesophilic B. mycoides, and all B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis strains; the psychrotolerant B. cereus and B. mycoides, and all B. weihenstephanensis strains; and some mesophilic B. mycoides and all B. pseudomycoides strains, respectively. The branch corresponds to the single B. cytotoxicus strain. Based on psychrotolerance and multilocus sequence analysis, further confirmed by comparisons of amino acid sequences, we show that some B. cereus and B. mycoides strains should be reclassified as B. weihenstephanensis. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a new high density Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Cambie, Rossana; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Pershin, Yuri; Ponomarenko, Alexander; Kondratenko, Valeriy

    2008-07-21

    State of the art soft x-ray spectroscopy techniques like Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) require diffraction gratings which can provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106. This problem may be addressed with a sliced multilayer grating with an ultra-high groove density (up to 50,000 mm-1) proposed in the recent publication [Voronov, D. L., Cambie, R., Feshchenko, R. M., Gullikson, E., Padmore, H. A., Vinogradov, A. V., Yashchuk, V. V., Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007)]. It has been suggested to fabricate such a grating by deposition of a soft x-ray multilayer on a substrate which is a blazed saw-tooth grating (echellette) with low groove density. Subsequent polishing applied to the coated grating removes part of the coating and forms an oblique-cut multiline structure that is a sliced multilayer grating. The resulting grating has a short-scale periodicity of lines (bilayers), which is defined by the multilayer period and the oblique-cut angle. We fabricated and tested a Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating suitable for EUV applications, which is a first prototype based on the suggested technique. In order to fabricate an echellette substrate, we used anisotropic KOH etching of a Si wafer. The etching regime was optimized to obtain smooth and flat echellette facets. A Sc/Si multilayer was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering, and after that it was mechanically polished using a number of diamond pastes. The resulting sliced grating prototype with ~;;270 nm line period has demonstrated a dispersive ability in the 41-49 nm photon wavelength range with a diffraction efficiency of ~;;7percent for the optimized 38th order assigned to the echellette grating of 10 mu m period.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of a new high density Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Cambie, Rossana; Gullikson, Eric M.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.; Pershin, Yuri P.; Ponomarenko, Alexander G.; Kondratenko, Valeriy V.

    2008-08-01

    State of the art soft x-ray spectroscopy techniques like Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) require diffraction gratings which can provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106. This problem may be addressed with a sliced multilayer grating with an ultra-high groove density (up to 50,000 mm-1) proposed in the recent publication [Voronov, D. L., et al., Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050E (2007)]. It has been suggested to fabricate such a grating by deposition of a soft x-ray multilayer on a substrate which is a blazed saw-tooth grating (echellette) with low groove density. Subsequent polishing applied to the coated grating removes part of the coating and forms an oblique-cut multiline structure that is a sliced multilayer grating. The resulting grating has a short-scale periodicity of lines (bilayers), which is defined by the multilayer period and the oblique-cut angle. We fabricated and tested a Sc/Si multilayer sliced grating suitable for EUV applications, which is a first prototype based on the suggested technique. In order to fabricate an echellette substrate, we used anisotropic KOH etching of a Si wafer. The etching regime was optimized to obtain smooth and flat echellette facets. A Sc/Si multilayer was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering, and after that it was mechanically polished using a number of diamond pastes. The resulting sliced grating prototype with ~270 nm line period has demonstrated a dispersive ability in the 41-49 nm photon wavelength range with a diffraction efficiency of ~7% for the optimized 38th order assigned to the echellette grating of 10 μm period.

  3. The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, W; Nicholas, R A J; Janakat, S; Abu-Basha, E; Ayling, R D

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species-M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions of Jordan. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed some Mycoplasma species-specific differences, with M. capricolum subsp. capricolum being more susceptible to tylosin and erythromycin. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were the least effective for all three Mycoplasma species. No trends or significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities were observed between sheep and goat isolates, between milk or nasal swab isolates, or between isolates from different regions of Jordan. Some isolates of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens showed higher MIC levels with oxytetracycline, as did two isolates of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC with tylosin, possibly indicating signs of development of antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Variation in the Morphology of Bacillus mycoides Due to Applied Force and Substrate Structure

    PubMed Central

    Stratford, James P.; Woodley, Michael A.; Park, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Response to mechanical force is a well characterised phenomenon in eukaryotic organisms, helping to organise multicellular structures. Mechanotactic responses have only rarely been observed in prokaryotic taxa. This work reports on a morphological change due to variations in applied force and surface structure by Bacillus mycoides Flügge. B. mycoides is a ubiquitous soil organism well known among microbiologists for its characteristic spreading colony morphology. An apparent mechanotactic response is elicited by physical deformation of the gel media on which B.mycoides is growing, including applied forces of compression or tension. Variations in the surface such as curvature produced by casting the agar gel in the presence of curved objects also elicited the change. The morphological change in B.mycoides colonies associated with the application of force manifests as a pattern of parallel rhizoid filaments perpendicular to compressing force and parallel to stretching force in the agar medium. The phenomenon is most clearly demonstrated by reversible changes in the orientation of B. mycoides filaments during time-lapse microscopy. PMID:24324702

  5. 77 FR 33455 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Potato in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Bacillus mycoides isolate J; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Potato in... the pesticide Bacillus mycoides isolate J to treat up to 2,675 acres of potato to control Potato Virus... isolate J on potato to control PVY. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted as...

  6. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.H.; Wiessner, M.; Albu, M.; Wurster, S.; Sartory, B.; Hofer, F.; Schumacher, P.

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)

  7. Development of an efficient electroporation method for rhizobacterial Bacillus mycoides strains.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yanglei; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2017-02-01

    In order to develop a method for electroporation of environmental Bacillus mycoides strains, we optimized several conditions that affect the electroporation efficiency of this bacterium. By combining the optimized conditions, the electroporation efficiency of strain EC18 was improved to (1.3±0.6)×10(5)cfu/μg DNA, which is about 10(3)-fold increase in comparison with a previously reported value. The method was further validated on various B. mycoides strains, yielding reasonable transformation efficiencies. Furthermore, we confirmed that restriction/modification is the main barrier for electroporation of this bacterium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic investigation of various parameters of electroporation of B. mycoides. The electroporation method reported will allow for efficient genetic manipulation of this bacterium.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of highly c-textured Al(1-x)Sc(x)N thin films in view of telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M. A.; Bjurström, J.; Yantchev, V.; Katardjiev, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wurtzite AlN is a piezoelectric material with excellent electro-acoustic properties and is used for the fabrication of high frequency thin film micro-acoustic components, most notably filters, duplexers, resonators, etc. Its moderate electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt2) of 6%-7% is insufficient for applications requiring larger bandwidths. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate that AlN alloyed with Sc exhibits a substantially higher piezoelectric constant than pure AlN. This study aims at determining the main electro-acoustic parameters of Al(1-x)Sc(x)N in view of large bandwidth applications. To this end, highly c-textured Al(1-x)Sc(x)N thin films have been synthesized with relative Sc concentrations of up to 0,15. Subsequently, FBAR resonators were fabricated and characterized as a function of the Sc content. It is seen that kt2 increases linearly with the latter to a value of 12% for a Sc concentration of x=0,15, while the Q value decreases from 739 to about 348 in the same concentration range. Likewise, the TCF varies from -35,9ppm/°C to -39,8ppm/°C, while the dielectric constant increases from ɛ=10 to a value of 14,1 for x=0,15. Finally, the relative dielectric losses are seen to increase by approximately a factor of two.

  9. Generation and characterization of a scFv against recombinant coat protein of the geminivirus tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus.

    PubMed

    Zakri, Adel M; Ziegler, Angelika; Torrance, Lesley; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2010-03-01

    We report the establishment of a hybridoma cell line secreting the monoclonal antibody (mAb) HAV, which recognizes the coat (AV1) protein of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), a begomovirus. The cell line was obtained following immunization of mice with purified recombinant AV1 fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST). A single-chain variable fragment (scFv-SAV) was assembled from hybridoma cDNA, but sequence analysis revealed a single nucleotide deletion causing a frame shift that resulted in a 21-residue N-terminal truncation. The missing nucleotide was restored by in vitro site-directed mutagenesis to create scFv-RWAV. The binding properties of mAb HAV and the corresponding scFvs were characterized by western blot, ELISA and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. MAb HAV bound to AV1 with nanomolar affinity but reacted neither with the N-terminal region of the protein nor with the GST fusion partner. This suggested that the antibody recognized a linear epitope in a region of the coat protein that is conserved among begomoviruses. Both scFvs retained the antigen specificity of mAb HAV, although the dissociation rate constant of scFv-RWAV was tenfold greater than that of scFv-SAV, showing the importance of restoring the 21 N-terminal amino acids.

  10. Analysis of immune responses to recombinant proteins from strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Perez-Casal, Jose; Prysliak, Tracy; Maina, Teresa; Wang, Yejun; Townsend, Hugh; Berverov, Emil; Nkando, Isabel; Wesonga, Hezron; Liljander, Anne; Jores, Joerg; Naessens, Jan; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew

    2015-11-15

    Current contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccines are based on live-attenuated strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). These vaccines have shortcomings in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity and in some cases show severe side effects at the inoculation site; hence the need to develop new vaccines to combat the disease. Reverse vaccinology approaches were used and identified 66 candidate Mycoplasma proteins using available Mmm genome data. These proteins were ranked by their ability to be recognized by serum from CBPP-positive cattle and thereafter used to inoculate naïve cattle. We report here the inoculation of cattle with recombinant proteins and the subsequent humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses to these proteins and conclude that a subset of these proteins are candidate molecules for recombinant protein-based subunit vaccines for CBPP control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of an anti-Bla g 1 scFv: epitope mapping and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Ankney, John A; Glesner, Jill; Khurana, Taruna; Edwards, Lori L; Pedersen, Lars C; Perera, Lalith; Slater, Jay E; Pomés, Anna; London, Robert E

    2014-06-01

    Bla g 1 is a major allergen from Blatella germanica and one of the primary allergens used to assess cockroach allergen exposure. The epitope of an anti-Bla g 1 scFv was mapped in order to better understand cross reactivity with other group 1 cockroach allergens and patient IgE epitopes. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of the scFv. The scFv epitope on Bla g 1 was located by alanine scanning site-directed mutagenesis and ELISA. Twenty-six rBla g 1-GST alanine mutants were evaluated for variations in binding to the scFv compared to the wild type allergen. Six mutants showed a significant difference in scFv binding affinity. These mutations clustered to form a discontinuous epitope mainly comprising two helices of Bla g 1. The allergen-scFv complex was modeled based on the results, and the epitope region was found to have low sequence similarity with Per a 1, especially among the residues identified as functionally important for the scFv binding to Bla g 1. Indeed, the scFv failed to bind Per a 1 in American cockroach extract. The scFv was unable to inhibit the binding of IgE antibodies from a highly cockroach allergic patient to Bla g 1. Based on the surface area of Bla g 1 occluded by the scFv, putative regions of patient IgE-Bla g 1 interactions can be inferred. This scFv could be best utilized as a capture antibody in an IgE detection ELISA, or to differentiate Bla g 1 from Per a 1 in environmental exposure assays.

  12. A minor role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the control of a primary infection of cattle with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, is an important livestock disease in Africa. The current control measures rely on a vaccine with limited efficacy and occasional severe side effects. Knowledge of the protective arms of immunity involved in this disease will be beneficial for the development of an improved vaccine. In previous studies on cattle infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, a correlation was detected between the levels of mycoplasma-specific IFN-γ-secreting CD4+ T lymphocytes and reduced clinical signs. However, no cause and effect has been established, and the role of such cells and of protective responses acquired during a primary infection is not known. We investigated the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in CBPP by comparing disease patterns and post mortem findings between CD4+ T cell depleted and non-depleted cattle. The depletion was carried out using several injections of BoCD4 specific murine monoclonal antibody on day 6 after experimental endotracheal infection with the strain Afadé. All cattle were monitored clinically daily and sacrificed 28-30 days post-infection. Statistically significant but small differences were observed in the mortality rate between the depleted and non-depleted animals. However, no differences in clinical parameters (fever, signs of respiratory distress) and pathological lesions were observed, despite elimination of CD4+ T cells for more than a week. The slightly higher mortality in the depleted group suggests a minor role of CD4+ T cells in control of CBPP. PMID:21663697

  13. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake. PMID:25838494

  14. Molecular cloning and immune response analysis of putative variable lipoproteins from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp capri.

    PubMed

    Xu, C G; Hao, Y Q; Zhang, L; Hao, R X; Liu, X L; Huang, Z Y

    2014-03-12

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp capri is the cause of goat "MAKePS" (Mastitis, Arthritis, Keratoconjunctivitis, Pneumonia, Septicemia) syndrome. We identified three genes (GL_ 000459; 000461; 000462) as variable lipoprotein genes in the M. mycoides subsp capri str. PG3 genome by genomic information and comparative genomic analyses. To study the role of variable lipoproteins in M. mycoides subsp capri pathogenesis and evaluate the immunogenic and protective potentials of those proteins, we constructed the expression systems and expressed the mature peptide portion of the three proteins in E. coli. We also determined the titers and opsonophagocytosis activity of total IgG antibodies and the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in sera, and we ran a lymphocyte proliferation assay in mice immunized with recombinant proteins His-tag-GL000459, His-tag-GL000461, and His-tag-GL000462. These three lipoproteins induced humoral and cellular immune responses in the immunized mice. Additionally, the whole blood opsonophagocitic in vitro assay demonstrated that the antibodies produced by the immunized groups can neutralize strain PG3; consequently, these three variable lipoproteins could be the major surface antigens in M. mycoides subsp capri str. PG3.

  15. Generation and characterization of chicken-sourced single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) against porcine interferon-gamma (pIFN-γ).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Xiu; He, Fan; Sun, Yuan; Luo, Yuzi; Qiu, Hua-Ji; Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Sutton, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Development of chicken-sourced antibodies offers an alternative strategy for the development of highly specific antibodies against mammalian proteins with conserved epitopes due to the phylogenetic distance between avian and mammalian species. In this study, the single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) against porcine interferon-gamma was screened and characterized from a hyperimmunized chicken phage display library. The expressed soluble scFvs exhibited highly specific recognition of porcine interferon-gamma in ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining assays. Results of the current study indicate that it is possible to develop scFv IgY antibodies to a mammalian interferon by using Biopanning technology. Furthermore, it also confirms that monoclonal avian IgY antibody technique could be applied as a promising tool to produce immunoglobulin molecules with high specificity and affinity towards conserved mammalian epitopes or antigens.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of La, Sc, Yb and Nd co-doped Gadolinium doped Cerium (GDC) Composite Electrolyte for IT-SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damisih; Raharjo, Jarot; Masmui; Setya Aninda, Raffty; Ami Lestari, Novita

    2017-07-01

    Composite based on gadolinium doped cerium (GDC) co-doped Lanthanum (La), Scandium (Sc), Ytterbium (Yb) were investigated as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), namely GDC-La, GDC-Sc, GDC-Yb and GDC-Nd, respectively. The second co-doped La, Sc, Yb and Nd ensured the stability and high ionic conductivity of the GDC ceria-based electrolyte materials for SOFC. The GDC powder was synthesized via sol-gel technique. Then the La-GDC, Sc-GDC, Yb-GDC and GDC-Nd were subsequently prepared by mixing the GDC with La, Sc, Yb, and Nd respectively, through solid-state reaction in ballmill at 200rpm alumina balls. The composite electrolytes were then characterized in terms of its morphology, phase and thermal properties of the powders. Among the composite electrolytes investigated, GDC-Yb powder show higher purity and better dispersion than the others co-doped GDC. TGA analysis present that the addition of co-dopant led to improve thermal resistance and stability of solid electrolyte powders. The results confirm that GDC with co-dopant is promising alternative electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC).

  17. Characterization of Anti-Citrinin Specific ScFvs Selected from Non-Immunized Mouse Splenocytes by Eukaryotic Ribosome Display

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Haiwei; Chen, Yifei; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xueqiu; Guo, Xiaolu; Du, Aifang

    2015-01-01

    Single chain variable fragments (scFvs) against citrinin (CIT) were selected from a scFv library constructed from the splenocytes of non-immunized mice by an improved eukaryotic ribosome display technology in this study. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)/ CIT-BSA and ovalbumin (OVA)/ CIT-OVA were used as the antigens to select specific anti-CIT scFvs. Eukaryotic in situ RT-PCR method was used to recover the selected mRNA after every affinity selection. After six rounds of ribosome display, expression vector pTIG-TRX carrying specific scFv DNAs were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression. Thirteen positive clones were selected out of which three (designated 23, 68 and 109) showed high binding activity and specificity to CIT by indirect ELISA, while no clone showed binding activity with carrier proteins. The three scFvs showed high specificity to CIT and the cross reactivity with other mycotoxins was below 0.01% as determined by indirect competitive ELISA. These specific scFvs offer a potential novel immunoassay method for CIT residues. This study confirmed the effectiveness of the improved eukaryotic ribosome display system and could be used as a reference for the selection of scFvs specific to other small molecules using ribosome display. PMID:26131718

  18. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species. PMID:23031072

  19. Rescue of mutant fitness defects using in vitro reconstituted designer transposons in Mycoplasma mycoides

    PubMed Central

    Karas, Bogumil J.; Wise, Kim S.; Sun, Lijie; Venter, J. Craig; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Suzuki, Yo

    2014-01-01

    With only hundreds of genes contained within their genomes, mycoplasmas have become model organisms for precise understanding of cellular processes, as well as platform organisms for predictable engineering of microbial functions for mission-critical applications. Despite the availability of “whole genome writing” in Mycoplasma mycoides, some traditional methods for genetic engineering are underdeveloped in mycoplasmas. Here we demonstrate two facile transposon-mediated approaches for introducing genes into the synthetic cell based on M. mycoides. The marker-less approach involves preparing a fragment containing only a small genomic region of interest with flanking transposase-binding sites, followed by in vitro transposase loading and introduction into the cells. The marker-driven approach involves cloning an open reading frame (ORF) of interest into a vector containing a marker for mycoplasma transformation, as well as sites for transposase loading and random genomic integration. An innovative feature of this construct is to use a single promoter to express the transformation marker and the introduced ORF. The marker-driven approach can be conveniently applied to any exogenous or synthetic gene without any information on the effect of the gene on the strain, whereas the marker-less approach requires that the fragment has a recognizable effect. Using the marker-less method, we found that a region containing the nusG gene rescues a slow growth phenotype of a strain containing a larger deletion encompassing this gene. Using the marker-driven approach, we better defined this finding, thereby establishing that nusG is required for a normal growth rate in synthetic M. mycoides. These methods are suitable for complementation tests to identify genes responsible for assorted functions lacking in deletion mutants. These approaches are also expected to facilitate rapid testing of various natural and engineered genes or gene clusters from numerous sources in M. mycoides

  20. Rescue of mutant fitness defects using in vitro reconstituted designer transposons in Mycoplasma mycoides.

    PubMed

    Karas, Bogumil J; Wise, Kim S; Sun, Lijie; Venter, J Craig; Glass, John I; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O; Suzuki, Yo

    2014-01-01

    With only hundreds of genes contained within their genomes, mycoplasmas have become model organisms for precise understanding of cellular processes, as well as platform organisms for predictable engineering of microbial functions for mission-critical applications. Despite the availability of "whole genome writing" in Mycoplasma mycoides, some traditional methods for genetic engineering are underdeveloped in mycoplasmas. Here we demonstrate two facile transposon-mediated approaches for introducing genes into the synthetic cell based on M. mycoides. The marker-less approach involves preparing a fragment containing only a small genomic region of interest with flanking transposase-binding sites, followed by in vitro transposase loading and introduction into the cells. The marker-driven approach involves cloning an open reading frame (ORF) of interest into a vector containing a marker for mycoplasma transformation, as well as sites for transposase loading and random genomic integration. An innovative feature of this construct is to use a single promoter to express the transformation marker and the introduced ORF. The marker-driven approach can be conveniently applied to any exogenous or synthetic gene without any information on the effect of the gene on the strain, whereas the marker-less approach requires that the fragment has a recognizable effect. Using the marker-less method, we found that a region containing the nusG gene rescues a slow growth phenotype of a strain containing a larger deletion encompassing this gene. Using the marker-driven approach, we better defined this finding, thereby establishing that nusG is required for a normal growth rate in synthetic M. mycoides. These methods are suitable for complementation tests to identify genes responsible for assorted functions lacking in deletion mutants. These approaches are also expected to facilitate rapid testing of various natural and engineered genes or gene clusters from numerous sources in M. mycoides.

  1. Theoretical prediction of the structures and properties of metal sulfide fullerene Sc2S@C80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Li-Hua; Lei, Dan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Sc2S@C80 has been detected but not been isolated and characterized. To investigate the structures and properties of Sc2S@C80, a density functional theory study on fullerene C80 and metallofullerene Sc2S@C80 was carried out. The calculations demonstrate that Sc2S prefers to be encapsulated inside D5h-C80 and C2v-C80, instead of the well-known Ih-C80. The two lowest-energy isomers of Sc2S@C80 may coexist in the soot. The calculations reveal that there exists strong covalent interaction between the cage and Sc2S cluster, suggesting Sc2S@C80 may have different properties from those usual C80-based metallofullerenes. Raman spectra are provided to help future experimental identification of Sc2S@C80.

  2. Molecular Characterization and Seroprevalence in Pigs of SC0806, a Cat Que Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiake; Wang, Jinglin; Wang, Lihua; Fu, Shihong; Li, Minghua; Zhao, Guoyan; Zhu, Wuyang; Wang, David; Liang, Guodong

    2015-07-01

    The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Cat Que virus (CQV), a Simbu serogroup virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae), was first isolated in 2004 from mosquitoes during surveillance of arbovirus activity in acute pediatric encephalitis in northern Vietnam. We report here the complete genome sequence of SC0806 isolated from mosquitoes (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) in Sichuan Province, China. Consistent with the genomic organization of Simbu serogroup viruses, the SC0806 genome comprises three RNA segments-a large (L) segment (6928 nucleotides) that encodes the 2261-amino-acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a medium (M) segment (4481 nucleotides) that encodes the 1433-amino-acid polyprotein, and a small (S) segment (984 nucleotides) that encodes a 234-amino-acid nucleocapsid protein and a 95-amino-acid nonstructural protein. The respective lengths of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 3'-UTR of L, M, and S are 56 and 86, 43 and 136, and 44 and 238 nucleotides. Sequence (nucleotide and deduced amino acid) comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SC0806 was closely related to the reported Vietnam isolate CQV. This is the first time that CQV has been isolated in Sichuan Province, China. Anti-SC0806 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were found in pigs reared locally, indicating that CQV has formed a natural cycle in the local area. Surveillance of the distribution and pathogenicity of SC0806 should be strengthened.

  3. Molecular Characterization and Seroprevalence in Pigs of SC0806, a Cat Que Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiake; Wang, Jinglin; Wang, Lihua; Fu, Shihong; Li, Minghua; Zhao, Guoyan; Zhu, Wuyang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Cat Que virus (CQV), a Simbu serogroup virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae), was first isolated in 2004 from mosquitoes during surveillance of arbovirus activity in acute pediatric encephalitis in northern Vietnam. We report here the complete genome sequence of SC0806 isolated from mosquitoes (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) in Sichuan Province, China. Consistent with the genomic organization of Simbu serogroup viruses, the SC0806 genome comprises three RNA segments—a large (L) segment (6928 nucleotides) that encodes the 2261-amino-acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a medium (M) segment (4481 nucleotides) that encodes the 1433-amino-acid polyprotein, and a small (S) segment (984 nucleotides) that encodes a 234-amino-acid nucleocapsid protein and a 95-amino-acid nonstructural protein. The respective lengths of the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) and 3′-UTR of L, M, and S are 56 and 86, 43 and 136, and 44 and 238 nucleotides. Sequence (nucleotide and deduced amino acid) comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SC0806 was closely related to the reported Vietnam isolate CQV. This is the first time that CQV has been isolated in Sichuan Province, China. Anti-SC0806 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were found in pigs reared locally, indicating that CQV has formed a natural cycle in the local area. Surveillance of the distribution and pathogenicity of SC0806 should be strengthened. PMID:26186514

  4. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from clinical cases of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in Dorper sheep in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kidanemariam, A; Gouws, J; van Vuuren, M; Gummow, B

    2005-12-01

    The in vitro activities of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were determined against field isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) by means of the broth microdilution technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these antimicrobial drugs were determined for a representative number of 10 isolates and 1 type strain. The susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by means of an agar disk diffusion test. The MICs of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were within the ranges of 0.125-0.5, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and 4.0-8.0 microg/ml, respectively. This study has shown that resistance of MmmLC against enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin was negligible. All the field strains of A. pyogenes that were tested were susceptible to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin with mean inhibition zones of 30.6, 42.3 and 35.8 mm, respectively. Although there is lack of data on in vivo efficacy and in vitro MIC or inhibition zone diameter breakpoints of these antimicrobial drugs for MmmLC, the MIC results indicate that these 4 classes of antimicrobial drugs should be effective in the treatment of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep in South Africa.

  5. Characterization of gingerol analogues in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, R.,).

    PubMed

    Swapna Sonale, R; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2014-11-01

    Organically grown ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) SC CO2 extract obtained at 280 bar and 40 °C and its column chromatographic fractions are characterised for its composition. The components in the extract and fractions are identified by HPLC and LC based MS and are used as standard for the estimation of gingerol analogues in the extract. HPLC and mass analysis of the extracts confirmed the various forms of gingerol constituents [4]-, [6]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-, [8]-, [10]-shogaols in ginger extracts. SC CO2 extract of organic ginger was found to show 6-gingerol around 25.97 % of total extract. The estimation of [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaols, [4]gingerol, [10]-gingerol and 6-gingediol content of the SC CO2 purified ginger extract was found to be 75.92 ± 1.14, 1.25 ± 0.04, 4.54 ± 0.04, 13.15 ± 0.30 and 0.37 ± 0.00 % respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the assay have shown 652 ± 0.37 mg TE/g and 3.68 ± 0.18 mg TE/100 g respectively, are significantly higher results with SC CO2 organic ginger extract. Paradol analogues are not detected in this study. Small quantities of [4]-, [10]gingediol and [6]-gingediacetate are also found in ginger extract.

  6. DARPA Antibody Technology Program. Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody Produced by Illumina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    For this reason, the extinction coefficient is used in conjunction with the A280 value to determine an accurate concentration. The MS2 scFv...concentrations were determined by dividing the average A280 value by 1.77, which is the extinction coefficient for a scFv. Each reading required a 2 µL sample...4.056 AFX-719 1 4.423 2 4.961 3 4.497 6 For each antibody, these three numbers were averaged and divided by the extinction coefficient of

  7. Localization of new peptidoglycan at poles in Bacillus mycoides, a member of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Luana; Santini, Tiziana; Beccari, Elena; Di Franco, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Bacillus mycoides is a sporogenic Gram-positive soil bacillus of the B. cereus group. This bacillus, which forms hyphal colonies, is composed of cells connected in filaments that make up bundles and turn clock- or counterclockwise depending on the strain. A thick peptidoglycan wall gives the rod cells of these bacilli strength and shape. One approach used to study peptidoglycan neoformation in Gram positives exploits the binding properties of antibiotics such as vancomycin and ramoplanin to nascent peptidoglycan, whose localization in the cell is monitored by means of a fluorescent tag. When we treated B. mycoides strains with BODIPY-vancomycin, we found the expected accumulation of fluorescence at the midcell septa and localization along the cell sidewall in small foci distributed quite uniformly. Intense fluorescence was also observed at the poles of many cells, more clearly visible at the outer edges of the cell chains. The unusual abundance of peptidoglycan intermediates at the cell poles after cell separation suggests that the construction process of this structure is different from that of B. subtilis, in which the free poles are rarely reactive to vancomycin.

  8. Recombinant Mycoplasma mycoides proteins elicit protective immune responses against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nkando, Isabel; Perez-Casal, Jose; Mwirigi, Martin; Prysliak, Tracy; Townsend, Hugh; Berberov, Emil; Kuria, Joseph; Mugambi, John; Soi, Reuben; Liljander, Anne; Jores, Joerg; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2016-03-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a devastating respiratory disease mainly affecting cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. The current vaccines are based on live-attenuated Mmm strains and present problems with temperature stability, duration of immunity and adverse reactions, thus new vaccines are needed to overcome these issues. We used a reverse vaccinology approach to identify 66 Mmm potential vaccine candidates. The selection and grouping of the antigens was based on the presence of specific antibodies in sera from CBPP-positive animals. The antigens were used to immunize male Boran cattle (Bos indicus) followed by a challenge with the Mmm strain Afadé. Two of the groups immunized with five proteins each showed protection after the Mmm challenge (Groups A and C; P<0.05) and in one group (Group C) Mmm could not be cultured from lung specimens. A third group (Group N) showed a reduced number of animals with lesions and the cultures for Mmm were also negative. While immunization with some of the antigens conferred protection, others may have increased immune-related pathology. This is the first report that Mmm recombinant proteins have been successfully used to formulate a prototype vaccine and these results pave the way for the development of a novel commercial vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and structural characterization of anti-T-antigen single-chain antibodies (scFvs) and analysis of their binding to T-antigen by surface plasmon resonance and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Koyama, Tsubasa; Subedi, Ganesh P; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Matsushita, Misao; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2013-12-01

    T-antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-1-Ser/Thr), also known as Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF antigen), is an oncofetal antigen commonly found in cancerous tissues. Availability of anti-T-antigen human antibodies could lead to the development of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Four groups of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) genes were previously isolated from a phage library (Matsumoto-Takasaki et al. (2009) Isolation and characterization of anti-T-antigen single chain antibodies from a phage library. BioSci Trends 3:87-95.). Here, four anti-T-antigen scFv genes belonging to Group 1-4 were expressed and produced in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system. ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses confirmed the binding activity of 1E8 scFv protein to various T-antigen presenting conjugates. NMR experiments provided evidence of the folded nature of the 1E8 scFv protein. ScFv-ligand contact was identified by STD NMR, indicating that the galactose unit of T-antigen at the non-reducing end was primarily recognized by 1E8 scFv. This thus provides direct evidence of T-antigen specificity.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of ScGluD2, a New Sugarcane beta-1,3-Glucanase D Family Gene Induced by Sporisorium scitamineum, ABA, H2O2, NaCl, and CdCl2 Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Wang, Zhuqing; Liu, Feng; Li, Zhu; Peng, Qiong; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39), commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181) from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted ScGluD2 protein was classified into subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase. Localization of the ScGluD2 protein in the plasma membrane was determined by tagging it with green fluorescent protein. The expression of ScGluD2 was more up-regulated in sugarcane smut-resistant cultivars in the early stage (1 or 3 days) than in the susceptible ones after being challenged by the smut pathogen, revealing that ScGluD2 may be involved in defense against the invasion of Sporisorium scitamineum. Transient overexpression of ScGluD2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced a defense response and exhibited antimicrobial action on the tobacco pathogens Pseudomonas solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, further demonstrating that ScGluD2 was related to the resistance to plant pathogens. However, the transcripts of ScGluD2 partially increased (12 h) under NaCl stress, and were steadily up-regulated from 6 to 24 h upon ABA, H2O2, and CdCl2 treatments, suggesting that ABA may be a signal molecule regulating oxidative stress and play a role in the salt and heavy metal stress-induced stimulation of ScGluD2 transcripts. Taken together, ScGluD2, a novel member of subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase, was a stress-related gene of sugarcane involved in plant defense against smut pathogen attack and salt and heavy metal stresses. PMID:27642288

  11. Production of bioactive tryptamine derivatives by co-culture of marine Streptomyces with Bacillus mycoides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyan; Hu, Zhifei; Ma, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Tryptamine derivatives such as tryptamine and bacillamides were strong algicidal compounds promising in controlling harmful algae blooms, but their bioactivity and application researches were hindered by extremely low natural production rates. This study found an induced production of algicidal tryptamine derivatives by co-culture of marine Streptomyces with Bacillus mycoides, and optimised the culture method through changing important factors such as medium nutrition content, culture mode and pH value. The final established co-culture method used only 5 g yeast extracts and 5 g glycerol in 1 L 75% sea water, but got a yield of 14.9 mg/L N-acetyltryptamine, 2.8 mg/L N-propanoyltryptamine, 3.0 mg/L bacillamide A, 13.7 mg/L bacillamide B and 9.6 mg/L bacillamide C, which were all undetectable under normal culture conditions.

  12. Final Report “Electrical and mechanical characterization of rocks at the sub-millimeter scale” DE-SC0000757

    SciTech Connect

    Scales, John

    2016-06-01

    The broad purpose of CSM's 6-year (3 years plus renewal) DOE project was to develop and apply new experimental physics technology to the material characterization of rocks at the grain scale or smaller. This is motivated by a knowledge that the bulk chemistry and physics of rocks are strongly influenced by processes occurring at the grain scale: the flow of fluids, cation exchange, the state of cementation of grains, and many more. It may also be possible in some cases to ``upscale'' or homogenize the mesoscopic properties of rocks in order to directly infer the large-scale properties of formations, but that is not our central goal. Understanding the physics and chemistry at the small scale is. During the first 3 years, most effort was devoted to developing and validating the near-field scanning technology. During the 3 year renewal phase, most effort was focused on applying the technology in the labs Professors Batzle (now deceased) in Geophysics and Prasad in Petroleum engineering.

  13. Molecular characterization of a single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) specific for PspA from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jang, ShinA; Kim, Gyuhee; Oh, Jihye; Lee, Seungyeop; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Kook-Han; Kim, Yong Ho; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Sangho

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major infectious agent responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, sepsis and meningitis. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a well-characterized virulence factor localized on the surface and a target for vaccine development. In this study, we screened a single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) using phage display from a human synthetic library to select a clone 2B11. Affinity (Kd) of 2B11 was measured to be 5 nM using biolayer interferometry. 2B11 exhibited a dose-dependent recognition of recombinant PspA with no cross-reactivity towards pneumococcal antigens. The epitope on PspA was defined to residues 231-242 by mutational analysis. Molecular docking analysis supported the experimentally determined epitope, suggesting that the helix spanning residues 231-242 can bind to 2B11 with residues in the CDR-H3 (complementarity determining region 3 in the heavy chain) actively participating in the molecular contacts. Comparison of 2B11 with a commercial PspA antibody revealed that 2B11 exhibited a better specificity towards recombinant PspA antigen. 2B11 was capable of detecting endogenous PspA from pneumococcal lysates with affinity similar to that of the commercial antibody. Our study provides a molecular tool for biosensors detecting pneumococcal diseases.

  14. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    PubMed

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Characterization of phase development in non-isothermally annealed mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Vlach, M. Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Zaludova, N.

    2010-12-15

    The effect of Mn addition on microstructure and mechanical properties during isochronal annealing in the temperature range of 20 deg. C - 570 deg. C of the mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Sc-Zr alloys with a various content of Mn and Zr was studied. The electrical resistometry together with the microhardness (HV0.3) measurements were compared to microstructure development. The microstructure development was examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Relative resistivity changes and the microhardness of the mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys exhibit similar dependence on annealing temperature. Precipitation of the Al{sub 3}Sc particles is responsible for the peak microhardness in all these alloys. The microhardness decrease is slightly delayed during the isochronal annealing and during the high temperature heat treatment in the mould-cast alloy with the higher Zr-content due to a higher oversaturation of Zr. The decomposition sequence of the oversaturated solid solution of the studied Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys is compatible with the recently published decomposition sequence of the Al-Sc-Zr system and also with the formation of Mn,Fe-containing particles. It seems very probable that the addition of Mn does not influence the decomposition of solid solution of the ternary Al-Sc-Zr system. - Research Highlights: {yields} Al{sub 3}Sc particles are responsible for the peak microhardness in all the studied alloys. {yields} The microhardness decrease is delayed in the alloy with the higher Zr-content. {yields} The peak hardening of the heat-treated alloys is shifted to higher temperatures. {yields} Mn does not influence the decomposition sequence of the Al-Sc-Zr system.

  16. Species Composition (SC)

    Treesearch

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON Species Composition (SC) method is used to provide ocular estimates of cover and height measurements for plant species on a macroplot. The SC method provides plant species composition and coverage estimates to describe a stand or plant community and can be used to document changes over time. It is suited for a wide variety of vegetation types and is...

  17. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    PubMed

    Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Amores, J; Prats-van der Ham, M; Sánchez, A; de la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, Á

    2016-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 17 antimicrobials against 41 Spanish caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) obtained from different specimens (milk, external auricular canal and semen) were determined using a liquid microdilution method. For half of the isolates, the MIC was also estimated for seven of the antimicrobials using an epsilometric test (ET), in order to compare both methods and assess the validity of ET. Mutations in genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, which have been recently described in Mmc, were investigated using PCR. The anatomical origin of the isolate had no effect on its antimicrobial susceptibility. Moxifloxacin and doxycycline had the lowest MIC values. The rest of the fluoroquinolones studied (except norfloxacin), together with tylosin and clindamycin, also had low MIC values, although the MMC obtained for clindamycin was higher than for the other antimicrobials. For all the aminoglycosides, spiramycin and erythromycin, a notable level of resistance was observed. The ET was in close agreement with broth microdilution at low MICs, but not at intermediate or high MICs. The analysis of the genomic sequences revealed the presence of an amino acid substitution in codon 83 of the gene gyrA, which has not been described previously in Mmc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. Results In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37°C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40–60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Conclusions Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells. PMID:25027643

  19. Kinetic Study of the Active Site Structure of β-Amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Y; Shirakawa, M; Takasaki, Y

    1996-01-01

    The subsite affinities of the active site of β-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides were evaluated based on Hiromi's theory, using (14)C-radiolabeled maltooligosaccharides as substrate. It was estimated that the active site consisted of six subsites, and all subsite affinities could be evaluated. The active site had a common subsite arrangement with those of β -amylases from soybean and wheat bran. The intrinsic breakdown rate constant of α-1,4 glucosidic linkage (kint) was five to seven times as large as those of the other enzymes.From the pH dependence of log[k0/Km], pK values of two functional ionizable groups were pK1 =4.0 and pK2 = 8.4. The pK values were 0.5-0.6 units for pK1 and 0.2-0.3 units for pK2 larger than those of the other enzymes. For the affinity-labeling of this enzyme by 2, 3 epoxypropyl α-D-glucopyranoside (α-EPG), the binding affinity of α-EPG was 1-1.6kcal/mol larger than those of the other β-amylases.

  20. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ordenes-Aenishanslins, Nicolás Alexis; Saona, Luis Alberto; Durán-Toro, Vicente María; Monrás, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Denisse Margarita; Pérez-Donoso, José Manuel

    2014-07-16

    One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37 ° C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40-60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells.

  1. Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster".

    PubMed

    Kama-Kama, Francisca; Midiwo, Jacob; Nganga, Joseph; Maina, Naomi; Schiek, Elise; Omosa, Leonidah Kerubo; Osanjo, George; Naessens, Jan

    2016-11-04

    Members of 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' are important ruminant pathogens in Africa. Diseases caused by these Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through losses in livestock productivity, mortality and international trade restrictions. There is therefore urgent need to develop antimicrobials from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb these diseases. In Kenya, smallholder farmers belonging to the Maasai, Kuria and Luo rely on traditional Kenyan herbals to treat respiratory symptoms in ruminants. In the current study extracts from some of these plants were tested against the growth of members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. This study aimed at identifying plants that exhibit antimycoplasmal activities using an ethnobotanical approach. Kenyan farmers of Maasai, Luo and Kuria ethnic groups were interviewed for plant remedies given to livestock with respiratory syndromes. The plant materials were thereafter collected and crude extracts prepared using a mixture of 50% of methanol (MeOH) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), neat methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and water to yield four crude extracts per plant part. The extracts were tested in vitro against five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and one strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capricolum using broth micro-dilution assays with an initial concentration of 1mg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts were determined by serial dilution. Extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum exhibited the highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were more susceptible to these extracts than Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum susp. capricolum. The activities of the crude extracts varied with the solvent used for

  2. The Sc+NO→ScO+N reaction: Rotational state distribution in ScOX 2Σ+(v″=0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, P.; Vetter, R.

    2001-12-01

    The Sc+NO→ScO+N reaction has been investigated in a beam-gas arrangement, with characterization of ScO products by cw laser-induced fluorescence: absorption versus laser frequency over the A 2Π(v'=1)-X2Σ+(v″=0) band and fluorescence over the A 2Π(v'=1)-X2Σ+(v″=1) one. It leads to the direct determination of the nascent rotational state distribution in the X 2Σ+(v″=0) level of ScO. This distribution is close to a Prior statistical one, with a well-characterized weak "surprisal," indicating that a momentum constraint takes place during the reaction process. In the frame of this statistical distribution, a new accurate value for the dissociation energy of ScO is proposed: D00(ScO)=(6.92±0.01) eV. Spectroscopic data are reported for the A 2Π(v'=1)-X 2Σ+(v=0) band, up to N=98.

  3. Purification, characterization, and partial primary sequence of a major-maltotriose-producing alpha-amylase, ScAmy43, from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelmalek-Khedher, Imen; Urdaci, Maria Camino; Limam, Ferid; Schmitter, Jean Marie; Marzouki, M Nejib; Bressollier, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    A novel alpha-amylase (alpha-1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1), ScAmy43, was found in the culture medium of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum grown on oats flour. Purified to homogeneity, ScAmy43 appeared as a 43 kDa monomeric enzyme, as estimated by SDS-PAGE and Superdex 75 gel filtration. The MALDI peptide mass fingerprint of ScAmy43 tryptic digest as well as internal sequence analyses indicate that the enzyme has an original primary structure when compared with other fungal alpha- amylases. However, the sequence of the 12 N-terminal residues is homologous with those of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus kawachii amylases, suggesting that the new enzyme belongs to the same GH13 glycosyl hydrolase family. Assayed with soluble starch as substrate, this enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 4 and 55oC with an apparent Km value of 1.66 mg/ml and Vmax of 0.1 micromol glucose x min-1 x ml-1. ScAmy43 activity was strongly inhibited by Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ba2+, moderately by Fe2+, and was only weakly affected by Ca2+ addition. However, since EDTA and EGTA did not inhibit ScAmy43 activity, this enzyme is probably not a metalloprotein. DTT and beta-mercaptoethanol strongly increased the enzyme activity. Starting with soluble starch as substrate, the end products were mainly maltotriose, suggesting for this enzyme an endo action.

  4. {sup 45}Sc Solid State NMR studies of the silicides ScTSi (T=Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    SciTech Connect

    Harmening, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Fehse, Constanze M.; Sebastian, C. Peter; Poettgen, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    The silicides ScTSi (T=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) were synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The structures of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi were refined from single crystal diffractometer data. These silicides crystallize with the TiNiSi type, space group Pnma. No systematic influences of the {sup 45}Sc isotropic magnetic shift and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling parameters on various structural distortion parameters calculated from the crystal structure data can be detected. {sup 45}Sc MAS-NMR data suggest systematic trends in the local electronic structure probed by the scandium atoms: both the electric field gradients and the isotropic magnetic shifts relative to a 0.2 M aqueous Sc(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution decrease with increasing valence electron concentration and within each T group the isotropic magnetic shift decreases monotonically with increasing atomic number. The {sup 45}Sc nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants are generally well reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc-melting synthesis of silicides ScTSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal X-ray data of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 45}Sc solid state NMR of silicides ScTSi.

  5. An attempt to protect winter wheat against Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici by the use of rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus mycoides.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Ksiezniak, Andrzej; Wróblewska, Barbara; Paszkowski, Wojciech L

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains III107 and II21 and Bacillus mycoides strains JC192 and K184, stimulating growth of winter wheat, were chosen for the studies. The bacterial strains inhibited on agar nutrient medium the growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt)--the pathogenic fungus causing take-all on wheat. Both strains of pseudomonads synthesized relatively high amounts of Fe3+ chelators. The strains of bacilli were characterized by the very fast spreading on agar media. Furthermore, strain II21 was highly cyanogenic, and strain JC192 highly chitinolytic. Bacterization of winter wheat seeds (especially with strains III107 and JC192) significantly reduced the percentage of the plants infested with the pathogen in the 28 day glasshouse pot experiment. In the plot experiment, the winter wheat seeds were inoculated with a mixture of strains III107, II21 and JC192. Due to the bacterization the yield of wheat grain and straw was higher in comparison to the series with Ggt alone by 122% and 75%, respectively, but it amounted only to 45% and 43% of the control series not contaminated with Ggt. The decrease of percentage of wheat ears with weight less than 500 mg from 61% in Ggt-series to 25% in Ggt-bacterized-series, and especially the decrease of percentage of wheat ears with weight less than 200 mg from 43% to 14% additionally indicate the partial protection of the winter wheat against Ggt by the rhizobacteria. In the experimental series not contaminated with Ggt the percentage of these wheat ears fractions did not exceed 3% and 0.5%, respectively.

  6. Characterization and comparison of 1% at Yb-doped Lu2O3 and Sc2O3 ceramics as laser gain media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirri, A.; Toci, G.; Vannini, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first laser oscillation achieved on Yb-doped Sc2O3 and Lu2O3 ceramics with a level of doping as low as 1 at %, under quasi-continuous wave pumping at 968 nm. Ceramic samples reached comparable performances in terms of tunability ranges, which exceeds 41 nm, and laser output powers. In particular, with the former sample emitting at 1040.5 nm we measured a maximum output power of 2.2 W with a corresponding slope efficiency of η = 59%. The latter medium delivered 1.8 W with a slope of η = 45% at 1032.5 nm while at 1078 nm we measured 1.5 W with η = 34%. Finally, we report the measured level of the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) for both samples, which was found to be less than 0.1 mW at the maximum pump power.

  7. MICs of Selected Antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides From a Range of Clinical and Environmental Sources as Determined by the Etest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    1184–1187. 21. Kemmerly, S. A., and G. A. Pankey. 1993. Oral ciprofloxacin therapy for Bacillus cereus wound infection and bacteremia . Clin. Infect...Antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus , Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a Range of Clinical and Environmental Sources...76 isolates of Bacillus anthracis chosen for their diverse histories and 67, 12, and 4 cultures, respectively, of its close relatives B. cereus , B

  8. An Amphiprotic Novel Chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides and Its Application in the Production of Chitooligomers with Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Nguyen, Anh Dzung; Pan, Po-Shen; Wang, San-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to produce a novel chitosanase for application in industries and waste treatment. The transformation of chitinous biowaste into valuable bioactive chitooligomers (COS) is one of the most exciting applications of chitosanase. An amphiprotic novel chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides TKU038 using squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium was retrieved from a Taiwan soil sample, which was purified by column chromatography, and characterized by biochemical protocol. Extracellular chitosanase (CS038) was purified to 130-fold with a 35% yield, and its molecular mass was roughly 48 kDa. CS038 was stable over a wide range of pH values (4–10) at 50 °C and exhibited an optimal temperature of 50 °C. Interestingly, the optimum pH values were estimated as 6 and 10, whereas CS038 exhibited chitosan-degrading activity (100% and 94%, respectively). CS038 had Km and Vmax values of 0.098 mg/mL and 1.336 U/min, separately, using different concentrations of water-soluble chitosan. A combination of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer data revealed that the chitosan oligosaccharides obtained from the hydrolysis of chitosan by CS038 comprise oligomers with multiple degrees of polymerization (DP), varying from 3–9, as well as CS038 in an endolytic fashion. The TKU038 culture supernatant and COS mixture exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities. The COS activities were dose dependent and correlated to their DP. The COS with high DP exhibited enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capability compared with COS with low DP. Furthermore, the COS exhibited inhibitory behavior on nitric oxide (NO) production in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, which was induced by Escherichia coli O111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The COS with low DP possesses a more potent anti-inflammatory capability to decrease NO production (IC50, 76.27

  9. An Amphiprotic Novel Chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides and Its Application in the Production of Chitooligomers with Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Nguyen, Anh Dzung; Pan, Po-Shen; Wang, San-Lang

    2016-08-10

    The objectives of this investigation were to produce a novel chitosanase for application in industries and waste treatment. The transformation of chitinous biowaste into valuable bioactive chitooligomers (COS) is one of the most exciting applications of chitosanase. An amphiprotic novel chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides TKU038 using squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium was retrieved from a Taiwan soil sample, which was purified by column chromatography, and characterized by biochemical protocol. Extracellular chitosanase (CS038) was purified to 130-fold with a 35% yield, and its molecular mass was roughly 48 kDa. CS038 was stable over a wide range of pH values (4-10) at 50 °C and exhibited an optimal temperature of 50 °C. Interestingly, the optimum pH values were estimated as 6 and 10, whereas CS038 exhibited chitosan-degrading activity (100% and 94%, respectively). CS038 had Km and Vmax values of 0.098 mg/mL and 1.336 U/min, separately, using different concentrations of water-soluble chitosan. A combination of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer data revealed that the chitosan oligosaccharides obtained from the hydrolysis of chitosan by CS038 comprise oligomers with multiple degrees of polymerization (DP), varying from 3-9, as well as CS038 in an endolytic fashion. The TKU038 culture supernatant and COS mixture exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities. The COS activities were dose dependent and correlated to their DP. The COS with high DP exhibited enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capability compared with COS with low DP. Furthermore, the COS exhibited inhibitory behavior on nitric oxide (NO) production in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, which was induced by Escherichia coli O111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The COS with low DP possesses a more potent anti-inflammatory capability to decrease NO production (IC50, 76.27 ± 1

  10. The high-temperature modification of ScRuSi - Structure, 29Si and 45Sc solid state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Haverkamp, Sandra; Benndorf, Christopher; Eckert, Hellmut; Heying, Birgit; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2017-10-01

    A polycrystalline sample of the TiNiSi type low-temperature (LT) modification of ScRuSi was synthesized by arc-melting. Longer annealing in a sealed silica tube (6 weeks at 1270 K) followed by quenching led to the high-temperature (HT) phase. HT-ScRuSi adopts the ZrNiAl structure type: P 6 bar 2 m , a = 688.27(9), c = 336.72(5) pm, wR2 = 0.0861, 260 F2 values, 14 variables. The striking structural building units are regular, tricapped trigonal prisms Si1@Ru3Sc6 and Si2@Ru6Sc3. Both polymorphs have been characterized by 29Si and 45Sc MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The local scandium environments in the two polymorphs are easily distinguished by their electric field gradient tensor values, in agreement with theoretically calculated values.

  11. Extinction in SC galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Salzer, John J.; Wegner, Gary; da Costa, Luiz N.; Freudling, Wolfram

    1994-06-01

    We analyze the photometric properties of a sample of Sbc-Sc galaxies with known redshifts, single-dish H I profiles, and Charge Coupled Device (CCD) I band images. We derive laws that relate the measured isophotal radius at muI = 23.5, magnitude, scale length, and H I flux to the face-on aspect. We find spiral galaxies to be substantially less transparent than suggested in most previous determinations, but not as opaque as claimed by Valentijn (1990). Regions in the disk farther than two or three scale lengths from the center are close to completely transparent. In addition to statistically derived relations for the inclination dependence of photometric parameters, we present the results of a modeling exercise that utilizes the 'triplex' model of Disney et al. (1989) to obtain upper limits of the disk opacity. Within the framework of that model, and with qualitative consideration of the effects of scattering on extinction, we estimate late spiral disks at I band to have central optical depths tauI(0) less than 5 and dust absorbing layers with scale heights on the order of half that of the stellar component or less. We discuss our results in light of previous determinations of internal extinction relations and point out the substantial impact of internal extinction on the scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation. We also find that the visual diameters by which large catalogs are constructed (UGC, ESO-Uppsala) are nearly proportional to face-on isophotal diameters.

  12. Functional characterization of two scFv-Fc antibodies from an HIV controller selected on soluble HIV-1 Env complexes: a neutralizing V3- and a trimer-specific gp41 antibody.

    PubMed

    Trott, Maria; Weiβ, Svenja; Antoni, Sascha; Koch, Joachim; von Briesen, Hagen; Hust, Michael; Dietrich, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) represent an important tool in view of prophylactic and therapeutic applications for HIV-1 infection. Patients chronically infected by HIV-1 represent a valuable source for nAbs. HIV controllers, including long-term non-progressors (LTNP) and elite controllers (EC), represent an interesting subgroup in this regard, as here nAbs can develop over time in a rather healthy immune system and in the absence of any therapeutic selection pressure. In this study, we characterized two particular antibodies that were selected as scFv antibody fragments from a phage immune library generated from an LTNP with HIV neutralizing antibodies in his plasma. The phage library was screened on recombinant soluble gp140 envelope (Env) proteins. Sequencing the selected peptide inserts revealed two major classes of antibody sequences. Binding analysis of the corresponding scFv-Fc derivatives to various trimeric and monomeric Env constructs as well as to peptide arrays showed that one class, represented by monoclonal antibody (mAb) A2, specifically recognizes an epitope localized in the pocket binding domain of the C heptad repeat (CHR) in the ectodomain of gp41, but only in the trimeric context. Thus, this antibody represents an interesting tool for trimer identification. MAb A7, representing the second class, binds to structural elements of the third variable loop V3 and neutralizes tier 1 and tier 2 HIV-1 isolates of different subtypes with matching critical amino acids in the linear epitope sequence. In conclusion, HIV controllers are a valuable source for the selection of functionally interesting antibodies that can be selected on soluble gp140 proteins with properties from the native envelope spike.

  13. Functional Characterization of Two scFv-Fc Antibodies from an HIV Controller Selected on Soluble HIV-1 Env Complexes: A Neutralizing V3- and a Trimer-Specific gp41 Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Trott, Maria; Weiß, Svenja; Antoni, Sascha; Koch, Joachim; von Briesen, Hagen; Hust, Michael; Dietrich, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) represent an important tool in view of prophylactic and therapeutic applications for HIV-1 infection. Patients chronically infected by HIV-1 represent a valuable source for nAbs. HIV controllers, including long-term non-progressors (LTNP) and elite controllers (EC), represent an interesting subgroup in this regard, as here nAbs can develop over time in a rather healthy immune system and in the absence of any therapeutic selection pressure. In this study, we characterized two particular antibodies that were selected as scFv antibody fragments from a phage immune library generated from an LTNP with HIV neutralizing antibodies in his plasma. The phage library was screened on recombinant soluble gp140 envelope (Env) proteins. Sequencing the selected peptide inserts revealed two major classes of antibody sequences. Binding analysis of the corresponding scFv-Fc derivatives to various trimeric and monomeric Env constructs as well as to peptide arrays showed that one class, represented by monoclonal antibody (mAb) A2, specifically recognizes an epitope localized in the pocket binding domain of the C heptad repeat (CHR) in the ectodomain of gp41, but only in the trimeric context. Thus, this antibody represents an interesting tool for trimer identification. MAb A7, representing the second class, binds to structural elements of the third variable loop V3 and neutralizes tier 1 and tier 2 HIV-1 isolates of different subtypes with matching critical amino acids in the linear epitope sequence. In conclusion, HIV controllers are a valuable source for the selection of functionally interesting antibodies that can be selected on soluble gp140 proteins with properties from the native envelope spike. PMID:24828352

  14. Crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides at 2.2 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Oyama, T; Kusunoki, M; Kishimoto, Y; Takasaki, Y; Nitta, Y

    1999-06-01

    The crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The structure was refined to a final R-factor of 0.186 for 102,807 independent reflections with F/sigma(F) > or = 2.0 at 2.2 A resolution with root-mean-square deviations from ideality in bond lengths, and bond angles of 0.014 A and 3.00 degrees, respectively. The asymmetric unit comprises four molecules exhibiting a dimer-of-dimers structure. The enzyme, however, acts as a monomer in solution. The beta-amylase molecule folds into three domains; the first one is the N-terminal catalytic domain with a (beta/alpha)8 barrel, the second one is the excursion part from the first one, and the third one is the C-terminal domain with two almost anti-parallel beta-sheets. The active site cleft, including two putative catalytic residues (Glu172 and Glu367), is located on the carboxyl side of the central beta-sheet in the (beta/alpha)8 barrel, as in most amylases. The active site structure of the enzyme resembles that of soybean beta-amylase with slight differences. One calcium ion is bound per molecule far from the active site. The C-terminal domain has a fold similar to the raw starch binding domains of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and glucoamylase.

  15. Discrimination between Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum using PCR-RFLP and PCR.

    PubMed

    Cillara, Grazia; Manca, Maria Giovanna; Longheu, Carla; Tola, Sebastiana

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (lpdA) gene was used to distinguish Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) from Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc), two of four Mycoplasma species that cause contagious agalactia in sheep and goats. After alignment of nucleotide sequences of both species, specific primer sets were designed from unchanging and variable gene segments. The first primer set LPD-C1-F/LPD-C1-R was used to amplify a 911 bp fragment that was subsequently co-digested with FastDigest PstI, SspI, EcoRI and ClaI enzymes. The PCR-RFLP profiles differentiated the two mycoplasma species. The second primer set was used to distinguish Mmc from Mcc by single tube PCR. Both methods were further applied to identify 54 isolates collected from dairy herds from different provinces in Sardinia. The results of this study showed that PCR-RFLP and PCR could be used in routine diagnosis for rapid and specific simultaneous discrimination of Mmc and Mcc.

  16. Deposition of ScAIN thin film using RF-sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Kadena, Hayate; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2017-07-01

    High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectric properties. Akiyama et al. found that the piezoelectricity of ScAlN thin films increased monotonically with increasing Sc concentration, r. The piezoelectricity reached a maximum at r = 43 at%, at which the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, was five times that of pure AlN. The Akiyama group showed that the d33 of a ScAlN thin film with a high Sc content and wurtzite structure would be much larger than that of the 43 at% Sc film, as calculated by first-principles methods. However, ScAlN thin films typically exhibit a rock-salt rather than a wurtzite structure with increasing Sc content, because ScN has a rock-salt structure at thermal equilibrium. In this report, we studied the deposition of ScAlN thin films using a RF-sputtering method, and it's characterization to clarify the deposition conditions needed for films with high piezoelectricity. The result of micro-Raman spectroscopy measurement shows that, as the Sc content of the ScAlN thin film increases, the peak at ˜800 nm-1 of the A1 mode, due to Sc atoms in the Al sites of the wurtzite structure, shifts to lower frequency for these sputtering conditions. This means that Sc atoms occupy Al sites in the wurtzite structure in the thin film until the Sc content reaches 33%. This phenomenon was also observed for AlGaN thin films. The peak near 700 cm-1 for the ScN thin film, ascribed to a cubic structure, is deformed with increasing Al content.

  17. Final Project Report, DE-SC0001280, Characterizing the Combined Roles of Iron and Transverse Mixing on Uranium Bioremediation in Groundwater using Microfluidic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Finneran, Kevin; Werth, Charles; Strathmann, Timothy

    2015-01-10

    In situ bioremediation of U(VI) involves amending groundwater with an appropriate electron donor and limiting nutrients to promote biological reduction to the less soluble and mobile U(IV) oxidation state. Groundwater flow is laminar; mixing is controlled by hydrodynamic dispersion. Recent studies indicate that transverse dispersion along plume margins can limit mixing of the amended electron donor and accepter (such as U(VI) in remediation applications). As a result, microbial growth, and subsequently contaminant reaction, may be limited to these transverse mixing zones during bioremediation. The primary objective of this work was to characterize the combined effects of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology on the (bio)remediation of U(VI). Our underlying hypothesis was that U(VI) reaction in groundwater is controlled by transverse mixing with an electron donor along plume margins, and that iron bioavailability in these zones affects U(VI) reduction kinetics and U(IV) re-oxidation. Our specific objectives were to a) quantify reaction kinetics mediated by biological versus geochemical reactions leading to U(VI) reduction and U(IV) re-oxidation, b) understand the influence of bioavailable iron on U(VI) reduction and U(IV) re-oxidation along the transverse mixing zones, c) determine how transverse mixing limitations and the presence of biomass in pores affects these reactions, and d) identify how microbial populations that develop along transverse mixing zones are influenced by the presence of iron and the concentration of electron donor. In the completed work, transverse mixing zones along plume margins were re-created in microfluidic pore networks, referred to as micromodels. We conducted a series of experiments that allowed us to distinguish among the hydraulic, biological, and geochemical mechanisms that contribute to U(VI) reduction, U(IV) re-oxidation, and U(VI) abiotic reaction with the limiting biological nutrient HP042-. This systematic approach may lead to a

  18. Crystal structure of a catalytic site mutant of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides cocrystallized with maltopentaose.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideo; Kurisu, Genji; Kusunoki, Masami; Nishimura, Sigenori; Kitamura, Shinichi; Nitta, Yasunori

    2003-05-20

    The X-ray crystal structure of a catalytic site mutant of beta-amylase, E172A (Glu172 --> Ala), from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides complexed with a substrate, maltopentaose (G5), and the wild-type enzyme complexed with maltose were determined at 2.1 and 2.0 A resolution, respectively. Clear and continuous density corresponding to G5 was observed in the active site of E172A, and thus, the substrate, G5, was not hydrolyzed. All glucose residues adopted a relaxed (4)C(1) conformation, and the conformation of the maltose unit for Glc2 and Glc3 was much different from those of other maltose units, where each glucose residue of G5 is named Glc1-Glc5 (Glc1 is at the nonreducing end). A water molecule was observed 3.3 A from the C1 atom of Glc2, and 3.0 A apart from the OE1 atom of Glu367 which acts as a general base. In the wild-type enzyme-maltose complex, two maltose molecules bind at subsites -2 and -1 and at subsites +1 and +2 in tandem. The conformation of the maltose molecules was similar to that of the condensation product of soybean beta-amylase, but differed from that of G5 in E172A. When the substrate flips between Glc2 and Glc3, the conformational energy of the maltose unit was calculated to be 20 kcal/mol higher than that of the cis conformation by MM3. We suggest that beta-amylase destabilizes the bond that is to be broken in the ES complex, decreasing the activation energy, DeltaG(++), which is the difference in free energy between this state and the transition state.

  19. Anatomic location of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma agalactiae in naturally infected goat male auricular carriers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; De la Fe, Christian; Amores, Joaquín; Sánchez, Antonio; Contreras, Antonio; Paterna, Ana; Buendía, Antonio J; Corrales, Juan C

    2012-06-15

    This study sought to determine whether male goat auricular carriers of mycoplasmas known to cause contagious agalactia could harbour these microorganisms at anatomical sites other than the ears. A microbiological study was conducted in 6 naturally infected bucks that had been diagnosed as chronic auricular asymptomatic carriers of Mycoplasma (M.) mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) more than one year previously. To detect mycoplasmas, cultures and PCR were performed on 46 samples taken from each goat from the cardio-respiratory, digestive, nervous, lymph and genitourinary systems and several joints. Of a total of 274 samples analyzed, 28 were positive for mycoplasmas (10.1%): Mmc was detected in 17 (6.1%), Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae in 12 (4.3%) and both microorganisms were identified in one of the samples. In all 6 goats, mixed infection was observed despite none being auricular carriers of M. agalactiae. Mycoplasma spp. were identified at 15 different sites; the most frequent sites being the joints (31.2%, 5 positive samples), lymph nodes (25%, 4 positive samples) and respiratory tract (25%, 4 positive samples). Positive results were also obtained in three brain tissue (18.7%), two cardiac tissue (12.5%) and one ileum, urethra, testicle and bulbourethral gland (6.25%) samples. The histopathological findings may suggest the presence of mild chronic conditions in some of the organs where the bacteria were found. Our findings reveal for the first time the capacity of Mmc and M. agalactiae to colonize several other organ systems in chronically naturally infected auricular carriers, possibly representing an added risk factor for the spread of these microorganisms. In the case of M. agalactiae, colonization seemed to be independent of the animal's auricular carrier state.

  20. Suppression-subtractive hybridization as a strategy to identify taxon-specific sequences within the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster: design and validation of an M. capricolum subsp. capricolum-specific PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Maigre, Laure; Citti, Christine; Marenda, Marc; Poumarat, François; Tardy, Florence

    2008-04-01

    The phylogenetically related Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype Large Colony are two small-ruminant pathogens involved in contagious agalactia. Their respective contributions to clinical outbreaks are not well documented, because they are difficult to differentiate with the current diagnostic techniques. In order to identify DNA sequences specific to one taxon or the other, a suppression-subtractive hybridization approach was developed. DNA fragments resulting from the reciprocal subtraction of the type strains were used as probes on a panel of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype Large Colony strains to assess their intrataxon specificity. Due to a high intrataxon polymorphism and important cross-reactions between taxa, a single DNA fragment was shown to be specific for M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and to be present in all M. capricolum subsp. capricolum field isolates tested in this study. A PCR assay targeting the corresponding gene (simpA51) was designed that resulted in a 560-bp amplification only in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (the etiological agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia). simpA51 was further improved to generate a multiplex PCR (multA51) that allows the differentiation of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae from M. capricolum subsp. capricolum. Both the simpA51 and multA51 assays accurately identify M. capricolum subsp. capricolum among other mycoplasmas, including all members of the M. mycoides cluster. simpA51 and multA51 PCRs are proposed as sensitive and robust tools for the specific identification of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

  1. SC3: consensus clustering of single-cell RNA-seq data.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Vladimir Yu; Kirschner, Kristina; Schaub, Michael T; Andrews, Tallulah; Yiu, Andrew; Chandra, Tamir; Natarajan, Kedar N; Reik, Wolf; Barahona, Mauricio; Green, Anthony R; Hemberg, Martin

    2017-03-27

    Single-cell RNA-seq enables the quantitative characterization of cell types based on global transcriptome profiles. We present single-cell consensus clustering (SC3), a user-friendly tool for unsupervised clustering, which achieves high accuracy and robustness by combining multiple clustering solutions through a consensus approach (http://bioconductor.org/packages/SC3). We demonstrate that SC3 is capable of identifying subclones from the transcriptomes of neoplastic cells collected from patients.

  2. Xemilofiban: SC 54684A, xemlofiban.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Xemilofiban [SC 54684, SC 54684A (HCl), xemlofiban], a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, is an orally available prodrug of a non-peptide mimetic of the tetrapeptide RGDF. It is converted to the active metabolite, SC 54701 (the free base form of SC 54701A). Development was initiated by Searle (Monsanto). Searle became part of Pharmacia Corporation, which was acquired by, and merged into, Pfizer in April 2003. Searle had co-development and co-marketing agreements with Sankyo in Japan; these have been discontinued. In January 2003, Pharmacia donated the intellectual property for xemilofiban to Western Michigan University. In February 2003, Western Michigan University granted an exclusive worldwide licence of xemilofiban to VDDI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Virtual Drug Development Inc.). Xemilofiban was in a phase III clinical trial, the Evaluation of Xemilofiban in Controlling Thrombotic Events (EXCITE) trial, with Searle (Monsanto) in the US and Europe for the treatment of thrombosis in patients with unstable angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction undergoing angioplasty. However, as xemilofiban demonstrated no significant clinical benefit, Searle discontinued its development. In Japan, Sankyo discontinued the development of xemilofiban for thrombosis at phase II following Searle's decision to drop the project. VDDI Pharmaceuticals plans to develop xemilofiban in cardiovascular disorders following on from the phase III studies completed by Pharmacia; a restructured dosing schedule and narrowed patient selection will be used. VDDI has research facilities worldwide and will utilise facilities in Ireland for the European clinical development programme; research facilities in the Southwest Michigan Innovation Center are planned while the head office of VDDI is based in Tennessee. Xemilofiban is in phase III development for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in conjunction with percutaneous coronary intervention.

  3. ScRu2B3 and Sc2RuB6: Borides Featuring a 2D Infinite Boron Clustering.

    PubMed

    Salamakha, Leonid P; Sologub, Oksana; Stöger, Berthold; Rogl, Peter Franz; Waas, Monika; Kapustianyk, Volodymyr B; Bauer, Ernst

    2017-09-05

    Two borides, ScRu2B3 and Sc2RuB6, were obtained by argon-arc melting of the elements followed by annealing at 800 °C. ScRu2B3 exhibits a new structure type with the space group Cmcm (a = 3.0195(2) Å, b = 15.4056(8) Å, c = 5.4492(3) Å; single crystal X-ray data; RF(2) = 0.0105). Sc2RuB6 adopts the Y2ReB6-type structure (space group Pbam; a = 8.8545(2) Å, b = 11.1620(3) Å, c = 3.4760(1) Å; single crystal X-ray data; RF(2) = 0.0185). ScRu2B3 displays an unusual intergrowth of CeCo3B2- and AlB2-related slabs; a striking feature is a boat configuration of puckered boron hexagons within infinite graphite like boron layers (6(3) nets). Sc2RuB6 presents two-dimensional planar nets of condensed boron pentagons, hexagons, and heptagons sandwiched between metal layers. In Sc/Y substituted Y2ReB6-type, Y atoms are distributed exclusively inside the boron heptagons. Exploration of the Sc-Ru-B system at 800 °C including binary boundaries employing EPMA and powder X-ray diffraction technique furthermore rules out the existence of previously reported "ScRuB4" but confirms the formation and crystal structure of Sc2Ru5B4. ScRu4B4 forms in cast alloys (LuRu4B4-type structure; space group I41/acd (No. 142), a = 7.3543(2) Å, c = 14.92137(8) Å). Cell parameters and atomic coordinates have been refined for ScRu2B3, Sc2RuB6, and ScRu4B4 in the scope of the generalized gradient approximation. Ab initio electronic structure calculations indicate a moderate electronic density of states at the Fermi level situated near the upper edge of essentially filled d-bands. Electrical resistivity measurements characterize ScRu2B3 and Sc2RuB6 as metals in concord with electronic band structure calculations.

  4. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-05

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements.

  5. Promising prospects for 44Sc-/47Sc-based theragnostics: application of 47Sc for radionuclide tumor therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cristina; Bunka, Maruta; Haller, Stephanie; Köster, Ulli; Groehn, Viola; Bernhardt, Peter; van der Meulen, Nicholas; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, (47)Sc has attracted attention because of its favorable decay characteristics (half-life, 3.35 d; average energy, 162 keV; Eγ, 159 keV) for therapeutic application and for SPECT imaging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of (47)Sc for radionuclide therapy in a preclinical setting. For this purpose a novel DOTA-folate conjugate (cm10) with an albumin-binding entity was used. (47)Sc was produced via the (46)Ca(n,γ)(47)Ca[Formula: see text](47)Sc nuclear reaction at the high-flux reactor at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Separation of the (47)Sc from the target material was performed by a semi-automated process using extraction chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. (47)Sc-labeled cm10 was tested on folate receptor-positive KB tumor cells in vitro. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging experiments were performed in KB tumor-bearing mice. Radionuclide therapy was conducted with two groups of mice, which received either (47)Sc-cm10 (10 MBq) or only saline. Tumor growth and survival time were compared between the two groups of mice. Irradiation of (46)Ca resulted in approximately 1.8 GBq of (47)Ca, which subsequently decayed to (47)Sc. Separation of (47)Sc from (47)Ca was obtained with 80% yield in only 10 min. The (47)Sc was then available in a small volume (∼500 μL) of an ammonium acetate/HCl (pH 4.5) solution suitable for direct radiolabeling. (47)Sc-cm10 was prepared with a radiochemical yield of more than 96% at a specific activity of up to 13 MBq/nmol. In vitro (47)Sc-cm10 showed folate receptor-specific binding and uptake into KB tumor cells. In vivo SPECT/CT images allowed the visualization of accumulated radioactivity in KB tumors and in the kidneys. The therapy study showed a significantly delayed tumor growth in mice, which received (47)Sc-cm10 (10 MBq, 10 Gy) resulting in a more than 50% increase in survival time, compared with untreated control mice. With this study, we demonstrated the suitability of

  6. Interconversion of perovskite and fluorite structures in Ce-Sc-O system.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rakesh; Arya, Ashok; Tyagi, Avesh K

    2010-02-01

    CeScO(3) was synthesized by a two-step synthesis route involving a combustion method followed by vacuum heating at 1100 degrees C in the presence of Zr sponge which acts as an oxygen getter. The compound was characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), high temperature XRD, thermogravimetry, diffuse reflectance (DR)-UV visible spectrophotometry, and Raman spectroscopy. Fluorite-type (F-type) solid solution with composition Ce(0.5)Sc(0.5)O(1.75) was observed as an intermediate during the synthesis of CeScO(3). Only by mere redox reaction was a reversible transformation between fluorite-type structure and perovskites structure observed. CeScO(3) was found as semiconducting oxide with band gap of 3.2 eV arising mainly between O p states in the valence band and Sc d and Ce d states in the conduction band with small contributions coming from Ce f and Sc p states. First-principles potential plane-wave-based calculations were performed for the band gap and its origin in CeScO(3). Photoluminescence measurement showed that CeScO(3) is a potential host material giving broad blue emission. This was further confirmed by demonstrating CeScO(3) doped with 2 mol % Tb(3+) compound as an efficient green light emitter.

  7. Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 and Er x Sc2-x SiO5) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence measurements. The Er-Sc silicate phase Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 is the dominant film, and Er and Sc are homogeneously distributed after thermal treatment because of the excess of oxygen from SiO2 interlayers. The Er concentration of 6.7 × 1021 atoms/cm3 was achieved due to the presence of Sc that dilutes the Er concentration and generates concentration quenching. During silicate formation, the erbium diffusion coefficient in the silicate phase is estimated to be 1 × 10-15 cm2/s at 1,250°C. The dominant Er x Sc2 - x Si2O7 layer shows a room-temperature photoluminescence peak at 1,537 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.6 nm. The peak emission shift compared to that of the Y-Er silicate (where Y and Er have almost the same ionic radii) and the narrow FWHM are due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+ which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of the Sc silicate. The Er-Sc silicate with narrow FWHM opens a promising way to prepare photonic crystal light-emitting devices. PMID:25114648

  8. One-pot occurrence of two polymorphs of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F and their structural, spectroscopic and computational characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Manninger, Tanja; Perfler, Lukas; Többens, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    Single-crystal growth experiments in the system RbF–Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} resulted in the crystallization of two forms of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F within the same run. Basic crystallographic data of the two concomitant polymorphs at ambient conditions are as follows: phase I: space group I4/m, a=11.2619(3) Å, c=8.3053(4) Å, V=1053.36(6) Å{sup 3}, Z=4; phase II: space group P2{sub 1}/m, a=11.5085(6) Å, b=8.3805(3) Å, c=11.6750(6) Å, β=111.147(6)°, V=1050.19(9) Å{sup 3}, Z=4. The structures were determined by direct methods and refined to residuals of R(|F|)=0.0231 (phase I) for 516 and 0.0249 (phase II) for 2050 independent observed reflections with I>2σ(I). Phase I showed twinning by merohedry which was accounted for during the refinement process. Both compounds are based on multiple chains of [SiO{sub 4}]-tetrahedra forming closed columns or tubes. The multiplicity of the unbranched fundamental chains is two (for phase I) and four (for phase II), respectively. The periodicity of the multiple chains has a value of four in both modifications which is also reflected in similar translation periods along the chain directions (phase I: t{sub [001]}=8.31 Å; phase II: t{sub [010]}=8.38 Å). Alternatively, both polymorphs can be described as mixed octahedral–tetrahedral frameworks, which can be classified according to their polyhedral microensembles. A topological analysis of both networks is presented. Structural investigations have been supplemented by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The interpretation of the spectroscopic data including the allocation of the bands to certain vibrational species has been aided by DFT-calculations. - Graphical abstract: Mixed tetrahedral–octahedral framework of the tetragonal polymorph of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F. - Highlights: • We report the crystal structures of two polymorphs of Rb{sub 2}ScSi{sub 4}O{sub 10}F. • Both phases crystallized concomitantly in the same flux-growth experiment. • The

  9. 33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.703 Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of the sand spit on...

  10. 33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.703 Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of the sand spit on...

  11. 33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.703 Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of the sand spit on...

  12. 33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.703 Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of the sand spit on...

  13. Delayed formation of zero-valent selenium nanoparticles by Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 as a consequence of selenite reduction under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selenite (SeO32−) oxyanion shows severe toxicity to biota. Different bacterial strains exist that are capable of reducing SeO32− to non-toxic elemental selenium (Se0), with the formation of Se nanoparticles (SeNPs). These SeNPs might be exploited for technological applications due to their physico-chemical and biological characteristics. The present paper discusses the reduction of selenite to SeNPs by a strain of Bacillus sp., SeITE01, isolated from the rhizosphere of the Se-hyperaccumulator legume Astragalus bisulcatus. Results Use of 16S rRNA and GyrB gene sequence analysis positioned SeITE01 phylogenetically close to B. mycoides. On agarized medium, this strain showed rhizoid growth whilst, in liquid cultures, it was capable of reducing 0.5 and 2.0 mM SeO32− within 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The resultant Se0 aggregated to form nanoparticles and the amount of Se0 measured was equivalent to the amount of selenium originally added as selenite to the growth medium. A delay of more than 24 hours was observed between the depletion of SeO32 and the detection of SeNPs. Nearly spherical-shaped SeNPs were mostly found in the extracellular environment whilst rarely in the cytoplasmic compartment. Size of SeNPs ranged from 50 to 400 nm in diameter, with dimensions greatly influenced by the incubation times. Different SeITE01 protein fractions were assayed for SeO32− reductase capability, revealing that enzymatic activity was mainly associated with the membrane fraction. Reduction of SeO32− was also detected in the supernatant of bacterial cultures upon NADH addition. Conclusions The selenite reducing bacterial strain SeITE01 was attributed to the species Bacillus mycoides on the basis of phenotypic and molecular traits. Under aerobic conditions, the formation of SeNPs were observed both extracellularly or intracellullarly. Possible mechanisms of Se0 precipitation and SeNPs assembly are suggested. SeO32− is proposed to be enzimatically reduced to

  14. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  15. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  16. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium–Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes—Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80 and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the TiIV/TiIII Redox Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B.; Samoylova, Nataliya A.; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Balch, Alan L.; Popov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc–Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4C2@C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3C2@C80, isomers of Sc2C2@C82, and the family Sc2C2n (2n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3CH@C80. The Sc–Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2TiC@C2n (2n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2TiC2@C2n (2n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80, and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80, were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2TiC@Ih-C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2TiC- and Sc2TiC2-containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster–cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. PMID:27459520

  17. Superconductivity at 3.1 K in the orthorhombic ternary silicide ScRuSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Bin-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Yu, Jia; Pan, Bo-Jin; Mu, Qing-Ge; Liu, Tong; Chen, Gen-Fu; Ren, Zhi-An

    2017-02-01

    We report the synthesis, crystal structure, superconductivity and physical property characterizations of the ternary equiatomic compound ScRuSi. Polycrystalline samples of ScRuSi were prepared by an arc-melting method. The as-prepared samples were identified as the orthorhombic Co2P-type o-ScRuSi by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Electrical resistivity measurements show o-ScRuSi to be a metal which superconducts below a T c of 3.1 K; the upper critical field μ 0 H c2(0) is estimated to be 0.87 T. The magnetization and specific heat measurements confirm the bulk type-II superconductivity in o-ScRuSi, with a specific heat jump within the BCS weak coupling limit. o-ScRuSi is the first Co2P-type superconductor to contain scandium. After annealing at 1273 K for a week, o-ScRuSi transforms into hexagonal Fe2P-type h-ScRuSi, which is a Pauli-paramagnetic metal with no superconductivity observed above 1.8 K.

  18. Two additional carbohydrate-binding sites of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides are involved in hydrolysis and raw starch-binding.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhengmao; Miyake, Hideo; Tatsumi, Maki; Nishimura, Shigenori; Nitta, Yasunori

    2004-03-01

    In the previous X-ray crystallographic study, it was found that beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides has three carbohydrate-binding sites aside from the active site: two (Site2 and Site3) in domain B and one (Site1) in domain C. To investigate the roles of these sites in the catalytic reaction and raw starch-binding, Site1 and Site2 were mutated. From analyses of the raw starch-binding of wild-type and mutant enzymes, it was found that Site1 contributes to the binding affinity to raw-starch more than Site2, and that the binding capacity is maintained when either Site1 or Site2 exists. The raw starch-digesting ability of this enzyme was poor. From inhibition studies by maltitol, GGX and alpha-CD for hydrolyses of maltopentaose (G5) and amylose ( (n) = 16) catalyzed by wild-type and mutant enzymes, it was found that alpha-CD is a competitive inhibitor, while, maltitol behaves as a mixed-type or competitive inhibitor depending on the chain length of the substrate and the mutant enzyme. From the analysis of the inhibition mechanism, we conclude that the bindings of maltitol and GGX to Site2 in domain B form an abortive ESI complex when amylose ( (n) = 16) is used as a substrate.

  19. Crystal structures of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var mycoides in complexes with substrate analogs and affinity-labeling reagents.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Takuji; Miyake, Hideo; Kusunoki, Masami; Nitta, Yasunori

    2003-04-01

    The crystal structures of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides in complexes with five inhibitors were solved. The inhibitors used were three substrate analogs, i.e. glucose, maltose (product), and a synthesized compound, O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-xylopyranose (GGX), and two affinity-labeling reagents with an epoxy alkyl group at the reducing end of glucose. For all inhibitors, one molecule was bound at the active site cleft and the non-reducing end glucose of the four inhibitors except GGX was located at subsite 1, accompanied by a large conformational change of the flexible loop (residues 93-97), which covered the bound inhibitor. In addition, another molecule of maltose or GGX was bound about 30 A away from the active site. A large movement of residues 330 and 331 around subsite 3 was also observed upon the binding of GGX at subsites 3 to 5. Two affinity-labeling reagents, alpha-EPG and alpha-EBG, were covalently bound to a catalytic residue (Glu-172). A substrate recognition mechanism for the beta-amylase was discussed based on the modes of binding of these inhibitors in the active site cleft.

  20. Synergistic capture of Clostridium botulinum Type A neurotoxin by scFv antibodies to novel epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sean A.; Barr, John R.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Marks, James D.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A non-immune library of human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for binding to the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A (Hc)] with the goal of identifying scFv to novel epitopes. To do this, an antibody-mediated labeling strategy was used in which antigen-binding yeast clones were selected after labeling with previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the Hc. Twenty unique scFv clones were isolated that bound Hc. Of these, three also bound to full-length BoNT/A toxin complex with affinities ranging from 5 nM to 48 nM. Epitope binning showed that the three unique clones recognized at least two epitopes distinct from one another as well as from the detection MAbs. After production in E. coli, scFv were coupled to magnetic particles and tested for their ability to capture BoNT/A holotoxin using an Endopep-MS assay. In this assay, toxin captured by scFv coated magnetic particles was detected by incubation of the complex with a peptide containing a BoNT/A-specific cleavage sequence. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the ratio of intact peptide to cleavage products as evidence for toxin capture. When tested individually, each of the scFv showed a weak positive Endopep-MS result. However, when the particles were coated with all three scFv simultaneously, they exhibited significantly higher Endopep-MS activity, consistent with synergistic binding. These results demonstrate novel approaches toward the isolation and characterization of scFv antibodies specific to unlabeled antigens. They also provide evidence that distinct scFv antibodies can work synergistically to increase the efficiency of antigen capture onto a solid support. PMID:21538339

  1. Synergistic capture of Clostridium botulinum Type A neurotoxin by scFv antibodies to novel epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Sean A.; Barr, John R.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Marks, James D.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    A non-immune library of human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for binding to the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A (Hc)] with the goal of identifying scFv to novel epitopes. To do this, an antibody-mediated labeling strategy was used in which antigen-binding yeast clones were selected after labeling with previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the Hc. Twenty unique scFv clones were isolated that bound Hc. Of these, three also bound to full-length BoNT/A toxin complex with affinities ranging from 5 nM to 170 nM. Epitope binning showed that the three unique clones recognized at least two epitopes that were distinct from one another and from the detection MAbs. After production in E. coli, the scFv were coupled to magnetic particles and tested for their ability to capture BoNT/A holotoxin using an Endopep-MS assay. In this assay, toxin captured by scFv coated magnetic particles was detected by incubation of the complex with a peptide containing a BoNT/A-specific cleavage sequence. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the ratio of intact peptide to cleavage products as evidence for toxin capture. When tested individually, each of the scFv showed a weak positive Endopep-MS result. However, when the particles were coated with all three scFv simultaneously, they exhibited significantly higher Endopep-MS activity, consistent with synergistic binding. These results demonstrate novel approaches toward the isolation and characterization of scFv antibodies specific to unlabeled antigen. They also provide evidence that distinct scFv antibodies can work synergistically to increase the efficiency of antigen capture onto a solid support.

  2. Gradient Optimization for SC CW Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, William; Kneisel, Peter; Rode, Claus

    2003-05-01

    The proposed rare isotope accelerator (RIA) design consists of a normally conducting radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) section, a superconducting (SC) drift tube cavity section, a SC elliptical multi-cell cavity section and two charge strippers with associated charge state selection and beam matching optics. The SC elliptical section uses two or three multi-cell beta cavity types installed into cryomodules to span the energy region of about 84.5 MeV/nucleon up to 400 MeV/nucleon. This paper focuses on the gradient optimization of these SC elliptical cavities that provide a significant portion of the total acceleration to the beam. The choice of gradient coupled with the cavity quality factor has a strong affect on the overall cost of the accelerator. The paper describes the optimization of the capital and operating cost associated with the RIA elliptical cavity cryomodules.

  3. Preparation and characterization of (Ba,Cs)(M,Ti) 8O 16 (M = Al 3+, Fe 3+, Ga 3+, Cr 3+, Sc 3+, Mg 2+) hollandite ceramics developed for radioactive cesium immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin-Chevaldonnet, V.; Caurant, D.; Dannoux, A.; Gourier, D.; Charpentier, T.; Mazerolles, L.; Advocat, T.

    2007-06-01

    Among the different matrices proposed for selective and durable immobilization of radioactive cesium, (Ba x,Cs y)(M,Ti) 8O 16 hollandite ceramics, with x + y < 2 and M = divalent or trivalent cation appeared as the best candidates. In this study, hollandite ceramics were prepared using oxide route from oxide, carbonate and nitrate powders with and without Cs for different cations M (Al 3+, Cr 3+, Ga 3+, Fe 3+, Mg 2+, Sc 3+) of increasing size, in order to evaluate the effect of composition on ceramics microstructure and structure and on cesium incorporation. To reduce the risks of Cs vaporization during synthesis, calcined powders were sintered in air at moderate temperature (1200 °C). This oxide route appeared as an alternative to the alkoxide route generally proposed to prepare hollandite waste form. For y = 0, single phase Ba x(M,Ti) 8O 16 was obtained only for M 3+ = Al 3+, Cr 3+ and Fe 3+. For y ≠ 0 and Fe 3+, all cesium was incorporated in hollandite and ceramic was well densified. For Cr 3+ and Ga 3+, only 46% and 63%, respectively, of Cs were retained in hollandite phase. For these samples, a high fraction of Cs was either evaporated and/or concentrated in a Cs-rich parasitic phase. Mixed hollandite samples with M 3+ = Ga 3+ + Al 3+ and M 3+ = Fe 3+ + Al 3+ were also synthesized and the best results regarding Cs immobilization and ceramic density were obtained with iron + aluminum but the sample porosity was higher than that of the sample containing only iron. All results were discussed by considering cations size and refractory character of oxides and hollandite ceramics.

  4. MICs of selected antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a range of clinical and environmental sources as determined by the Etest.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Peter C B; Sirianni, Nicky M; LeBron, Carlos I; Samaan, Marian N; Sutton, Felicia N; Reyes, Anatalio E; Peruski, Leonard F

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents Etest determinations of MICs of selected antimicrobial agents for 76 isolates of Bacillus anthracis chosen for their diverse histories and 67, 12, and 4 cultures, respectively, of its close relatives B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides derived from a range of clinical and environmental sources. NCCLS breakpoints are now available for B. anthracis and ciprofloxacin, penicillin, and tetracycline; based on these breakpoints, the B. anthracis isolates were all fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, and all except four cultures, three of which had a known history of penicillin resistance and were thought to originate from the same original parent, were susceptible to penicillin. Based on NCCLS interpretive standards for gram-positive and/or aerobic bacteria, all cultures were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and gentamicin and 99% (one with intermediate sensitivity) of cultures were susceptible to vancomycin. No group trends were apparent among the different categories of B. cereus (isolates from food poisoning incidents and nongastrointestinal infections and food and environmental specimens not associated with illness). Differences between B. anthracis and the other species were as expected for amoxicillin and penicillin, with all B. anthracis cultures, apart from the four referred to above, being susceptible versus high proportions of resistant isolates for the other three species. Four of the B. cereus and one of the B. thuringiensis cultures were resistant to tetracycline and a further six B. cereus and one B. thuringiensis cultures fell into the intermediate category. There was a slightly higher resistance to azithromycin among the B. anthracis strains than for the other species. The proportion of B. anthracis strains fully susceptible to erythromycin was also substantially lower than for the other species, although just a single B. cereus strain was fully resistant. The Etest compared favorably with agar

  5. MICs of Selected Antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a Range of Clinical and Environmental Sources as Determined by the Etest

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Peter C. B.; Sirianni, Nicky M.; LeBron, Carlos I.; Samaan, Marian N.; Sutton, Felicia N.; Reyes, Anatalio E.; Peruski, Jr., Leonard F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Etest determinations of MICs of selected antimicrobial agents for 76 isolates of Bacillus anthracis chosen for their diverse histories and 67, 12, and 4 cultures, respectively, of its close relatives B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides derived from a range of clinical and environmental sources. NCCLS breakpoints are now available for B. anthracis and ciprofloxacin, penicillin, and tetracycline; based on these breakpoints, the B. anthracis isolates were all fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, and all except four cultures, three of which had a known history of penicillin resistance and were thought to originate from the same original parent, were susceptible to penicillin. Based on NCCLS interpretive standards for gram-positive and/or aerobic bacteria, all cultures were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and gentamicin and 99% (one with intermediate sensitivity) of cultures were susceptible to vancomycin. No group trends were apparent among the different categories of B. cereus (isolates from food poisoning incidents and nongastrointestinal infections and food and environmental specimens not associated with illness). Differences between B. anthracis and the other species were as expected for amoxicillin and penicillin, with all B. anthracis cultures, apart from the four referred to above, being susceptible versus high proportions of resistant isolates for the other three species. Four of the B. cereus and one of the B. thuringiensis cultures were resistant to tetracycline and a further six B. cereus and one B. thuringiensis cultures fell into the intermediate category. There was a slightly higher resistance to azithromycin among the B. anthracis strains than for the other species. The proportion of B. anthracis strains fully susceptible to erythromycin was also substantially lower than for the other species, although just a single B. cereus strain was fully resistant. The Etest compared favorably with agar

  6. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1-x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (<0.5%). The performance of the two types of devices was also investigated and compared, using acoustofluidics as an example. The AlScN/Si SAW devices achieved much lower threshold powers for the acoustic streaming and pumping of liquid droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  7. Sc20C60: a volleyballene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable.An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sc20C60: a Volleyballene_SI. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07784b

  8. Aerodynamic Characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 Airfoils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Development, and Engineering Command Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California December 2003 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames...60A ROTOR BLADE AND AIRFOILS ................................................................................... 2 EVALUATION OF SECTION CHARACTERISTICS...Characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 Airfoils WILLIAM G. BOUSMAN Aeroflightdynamics Directorate U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command Ames

  9. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by the...

  10. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...

  11. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...

  12. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...

  13. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...

  14. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost point on Cape Romain to the... northernmost extremity of Northeast Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Bull Island to...

  15. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost point on Cape Romain to the... northernmost extremity of Northeast Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Bull Island to...

  16. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by the...

  17. K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction) models instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. It enables the user to remove both position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability (e.g., for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution timescale of the variability for periodic variables and can be run on ASCII and FITS light curve files. Written in Python, this pipeline requires NumPy, SciPy, MPI4Py, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and George (ascl:1511.015).

  18. Isolation of a complementary DNA that encodes the mammalian splicing factor SC35.

    PubMed

    Fu, X D; Maniatis, T

    1992-04-24

    The mammalian splicing factor SC35 is required for the first step in the splicing reaction and for spliceosome assembly. The cloning and characterization of a complementary DNA encoding this protein revealed that it is a member of a family of splicing factors that includes mammalian SF2/ASF. This family of proteins is characterized by the presence of a ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-type RNA binding motif and a carboxyl-terminal serine-arginine-rich (SR) domain. A search of the DNA sequence database revealed that the thymus-specific exon (ET) of the c-myb proto-oncogene is encoded on the antisense strand of the SC35 gene.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy control of the structural, optical, and electronic properties of ScN(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Arthur R.; AL-Brithen, Hamad A. H.; Ingram, David C.; Gall, Daniel

    2001-08-15

    Scandium nitride (001) oriented layers have been grown on magnesium oxide (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using a rf-plasma source and a scandium effusion cell. The Sc/N flux ratio is found to be critical in determining the structural, optical, and electronic properties of the grown epitaxial layers. A distinct transition occurs at the point where the Sc/N flux ratio equals 1, which defines the line between N-rich and Sc-rich growth. Under N-rich conditions, the growth is epitaxial, and the surface morphology is characterized by a densely packed array of square-shaped plateaus and four-faced pyramids with the terraces between steps being atomically smooth. The films are stoichiometric and transparent with a direct optical transition at 2.15 eV. Under Sc-rich conditions, the growth is also epitaxial, but the morphology is dominated by spiral growth mounds. The morphology change is consistent with increased surface diffusion due to a Sc-rich surface. Excess Sc leads to understoichiometric layers with N vacancies which act as donors. The increased carrier density results in an optical reflection edge at 1 eV, absorption below the 2.15 eV band gap, and a drop in electrical resistivity. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  20. ViSC Social Competence Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Hoffmann, Christine; Schiller, Eva-Maria; Stefanek, Elisabeth; Spiel, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The ViSC Social Competence Program has been implemented in Austrian schools within the scope of a national strategy plan, Together Against Violence. The program is a primary preventive program designed for grades 5 to 8. The prevention of aggression and bullying is defined as a school development task, and the initial implementation of the program…

  1. Photoionization of Sc 2+: Experimental link with photorecombination of Sc 3+ by application of detailed balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Ricz, S.; Bannister, M. E.; Dunn, G. H.; Bozek, J.; Schlachter, A. S.; Hinojosa, G.; Cisneros, C.; Aguilar, A.; Covington, A. M.; Gharaibeh, M. F.; Phaneuf, R. A.

    2003-05-01

    The principle of microscopic time-reversal of physical processes, detailed balance, is widely used and depended upon in the theoretical community as a connection between the inverse processes of photorecombination (PR) and photoionization (PI). This paper reports on a novel use of detailed balance and the comparison of experimental results obtained by two very distinct techniques to determine both the metastable fraction of an ion beam and partial Sc3+ PR cross sections and partial Sc2+ PI cross sections for the ground state and for two metastable states. The Sc2+ to Sc3+ system presents a unique opportunity to obtain comprehensive state-selective information by combining results from PR and PI experiments.

  2. Thermal stability studies of short period Sc/Cr and Sc/B₄C/Cr multilayers.

    PubMed

    Prasciolu, Mauro; Leontowich, Adam F G; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Bajt, Saša

    2014-04-01

    The stability of short period Sc/Cr and Sc/B₄C/Cr multilayers was investigated over a large temperature range. The aim was to find a stable reflective coating for an off-axis parabola for focusing x rays from a soft x-ray free-electron laser. Normal incidence reflectivity, surface roughness, and intrinsic stress were investigated as a function of annealing temperature and two samples were also studied with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), a scanning TEM, and through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Interface-engineered Sc/B₄C/Cr multilayers showed increased thermal stability and higher reflectivity as compared to pure Sc/Cr multilayers.

  3. Phase Composition and Hardening of Castable Al - Ca - Ni - Sc Alloys Containing 0.3% Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Doroshenko, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The phase composition of aluminum alloys of the Al - Ca - Ni - Sc system containing 0.3 wt.% Sc is studied. It is shown that the aluminum solid solution may be in equilibrium not only with binary phases (Al4Ca, Al3Sc and Al3Ni) but also with a ternary Al9NiCa compound. The temperature of attainment of maximum hardening due to precipitation of nanoparticles of phase Al3Sc is determined for all the alloys studied. Principal possibility of creation of castable alloys based on an (Al) + Al4Ca + Al9NiCa eutectic, the hardening heat treatment of which does not require quenching, is substantiated.

  4. Identification of the gene encoding scHelI, a DNA helicase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bean, D W; Matson, S W

    1997-12-01

    The gene encoding scHelI, a previously characterized DNA helicase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been identified as YER176w, an open reading frame on chromosome V. The gene has been named HEL1 to indicate the DNA helicase activity of the gene product. HEL1 was identified by screening a lambda gt11 yeast protein expression library with antiserum to purified scHelI. Several independent immunopositive clones were isolated and shown to contain portions of HEL1 either by sequencing or by hybridization to a probe containing HEL1 sequences. The HEL1 open reading frame includes the seven conserved helicase motifs, consistent with the DNA helicase activity of scHelI, and the predicted size of the protein is in agreement with the size of purified scHelI. Partially purified cellular extracts from a hel1 deletion mutant strain did not contain scHelI activity. Homology searches revealed protein sequence homology between HEL1 and two previously identified and biochemically characterized yeast helicases, encoded by the DNA2 and UPF1 genes. Haploid hel1 deletion strains were constructed and shown to be viable with growth rates equivalent to those of parental strains. These strains did not differ from the parental strains in ultraviolet light sensitivity or the generation of petite colonies. Furthermore, these haploid deletion strains were capable for mating, the resultant diploid homozygous mutants were viable, capable of sporulation, and the spores displayed no reduction in viability.

  5. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  6. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hemolytic Anemia Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases Iron Deficiency Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Thalassemias Vitamin Deficiency Anemia ( ... Hemolytic Anemia Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases Iron Deficiency Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Thalassemias Vitamin Deficiency Anemia ...

  7. Single chain Fab (scFab) fragment.

    PubMed

    Hust, Michael; Jostock, Thomas; Menzel, Christian; Voedisch, Bernd; Mohr, Anja; Brenneis, Mariam; Kirsch, Martina I; Meier, Doris; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-03-08

    The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH) and and the variable part of the light chain (VL) by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv) was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv) fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab) with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd) and the light chain (LC), resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab), can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabDeltaC) connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1) and the constant part of the light chain (CL) were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies) as well as multimers were characterised. A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of common standard sera for detection.

  8. Single chain Fab (scFab) fragment

    PubMed Central

    Hust, Michael; Jostock, Thomas; Menzel, Christian; Voedisch, Bernd; Mohr, Anja; Brenneis, Mariam; Kirsch, Martina I; Meier, Doris; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH) and and the variable part of the light chain (VL) by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv) was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv) fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab) with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Results Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd) and the light chain (LC), resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab), can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabΔC) connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1) and the constant part of the light chain (CL) were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies) as well as multimers were characterised. Conclusion A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of common standard sera

  9. D2d(23)-C84 versus Sc2C2@D2d(23)-C84: Impact of Endohedral Sc2C2 Doping on Chemical Reactivity in the Photolysis of Diazirine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michio; Tanabe, Yukiko; Dang, Jing-Shuang; Sato, Satoru; Mizorogi, Naomi; Hachiya, Makoto; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Kurihara, Hiroki; Maeda, Yutaka; Zhao, Xiang; Lian, Yongfu; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2016-12-21

    We compared the chemical reactivity of D2d(23)-C84 and that of Sc2C2@D2d(23)-C84, both having the same carbon cage geometry, in the photolysis of 2-adamantane-2,3'-[3H]-diazirine, to clarify metal-atom doping effects on the chemical reactivity of the carbon cage. Experimental and computational studies have revealed that the chemical reactivity of the D2d(23)-C84 carbon cage is altered drastically by endohedral Sc2C2 doping. The reaction of empty D2d(23)-C84 with the diazirine under photoirradiation yields two adamantylidene (Ad) adducts. NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that the major Ad monoadduct (C84(Ad)-A) has a fulleroid structure and that the minor Ad monoadduct (C84(Ad)-B) has a methanofullerene structure. The latter was also characterized using X-ray crystallography. C84(Ad)-A is stable under photoirradiation, but it interconverted to C84(Ad)-B by heating at 80 °C. In contrast, the reaction of endohedral Sc2C2@D2d(23)-C84 with diazirine under photoirradiation affords four Ad monoadducts (Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-A, Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-B, Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-C, and Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-D). The structure of Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-C was characterized using X-ray crystallography. Thermal interconversion of Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-A and Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-B to Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-C was also observed. The reaction mechanisms of the Ad addition and thermal interconversion were elucidated from theoretical calculations. Calculation results suggest that C84(Ad)-B and Sc2C2@C84(Ad)-C are thermodynamically favorable products. Their different chemical reactivities derive from Sc2C2 doping, which raises the HOMO and LUMO levels of the D2d(23)-C84 carbon cage.

  10. Hyperfine Structure measurements of 45Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. D.; Rossi, D. M.; Minamisono, K.; Miller, A. J.; Asberry, H.; Mantica, P. F.

    2015-10-01

    A chain of charge radii shows discontinuity at nucleon magic numbers. This signature of the shell closure, however, is missing at the neutron magic number N = 20 for Ar, Ca and K isotopes. A collinear laser spectroscopy experiment on the stable 45Sc isotope, which is one proton added to Ca, was performed as a prerequisite of radioactive beam experiments on Sc across N = 20 to further investigate the abnormal behavior. The experiment was performed at BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL and a hyperfine spectrum was measured for the electronic transition of 3 d 4 s 3D1 --> 3 d 4 p 3F2 at λ = 364 . 3 nm in 45ScII. The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine coupling constants A and B of both the lower and upper states were obtained from the hyperfine structure by fitting a pseudo-Voigt profile. The results obtained from these data are in good agreement with previous values and have smaller statistical errors. The detail of experiment and analysis will be discussed. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-11-02511.

  11. 49 CFR 372.205 - Charleston, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charleston, S.C. 372.205 Section 372.205... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.205 Charleston, S.C. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Charleston, S.C., within which transportation by motor vehicle in interstate or...

  12. 49 CFR 372.205 - Charleston, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Charleston, S.C. 372.205 Section 372.205... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.205 Charleston, S.C. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Charleston, S.C., within which transportation by motor vehicle in interstate or foreign...

  13. Roberts-SC syndrome, a rare syndrome and cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Jyotsna; Dewan, Madhu; Hussain, Altaf

    2008-07-01

    Roberts SC syndrome is a rare syndrome with only 17 previously recognized patients reported in medical literature. The syndrome is characterized by multiple malformations, particularly, symmetrical limb reduction, craniofacial anomalies such as bilateral cleft lip and palate, micrognathia, and severe growth and mental retardation. Our patient, a young child of five years having Roberts-SC, was successfully operated for cleft palate under general anesthesia. The main features of the syndrome and the technical problems of anesthesia and surgery are discussed in this report.

  14. Computational prediction of endohedral dimetalloborofullerenes M2@B80 (M = Sc, Y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Yang, Le; Jin, Peng; Hou, Qinghua; Li, Lanlan

    2017-05-01

    The geometries and electronic properties of two new endohedral metalloborofullerenes M2@B80 (M = Sc, Y) were investigated by means of density functional theory computations. The two complexes feature favorable binding energies, suggesting a considerable possibility to be achieved. Sc2@B80 exhibits a flexible metal motion with tunable magnetic moment and may be a promising single molecular magnetic switch. The metal-metal and metal-cage bonding natures were thoroughly disclosed by using various theoretical approaches. Their excellent stabilities were confirmed by the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations at different temperatures. Finally, infrared spectra and 11B nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were simulated to assist experimental characterization.

  15. High-temperature deformation and microstructural analysis for Si3N4-Sc2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheong, Deock-Soo; Sanders, William A.

    1990-01-01

    It was indicated that Si3N4 doped with Sc2O3 may exhibit high temperature mechanical properties superior to Si3N4 systems with various other oxide sintered additives. High temperature deformation of samples was studied by characterizing the microstructures before and after deformation. It was found that elements of the additive, such as Sc and O, exist in small amounts at very thin grain boundary layers and most of them stay in secondary phases at triple and multiple grain boundary junctions. These secondary phases are devitrified as crystalline Sc2Si2O7. Deformation of the samples was dominated by cavitational processes rather than movements of dislocations. Thus the excellent deformation resistance of the samples at high temperature can be attributed to the very small thickness of the grain boundary layers and the crystalline secondary phase.

  16. Wound-healing effect of micronized sacchachitin (mSC) nanogel on corneal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ray-Neng; Lee, Lin-Wen; Chen, Ling-Chun; Ho, Hsiu-O; Lui, Shiao-Chuan; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Su, Ching-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The extraction residue of the Ganoderma fruiting body, named sacchachitin, has been demonstrated to have the potential to enhance cutaneous wound healing by inducing cell proliferation. In this study, a nanogel formed from micronized sacchachitin (mSC) was investigated for the potential treatment of superficial chemical corneal burns. Reportedly, mSC has been produced successfully and its chemical properties confirmed, and physical and rheological properties characterized. An in vitro cell proliferation study has revealed that at the concentrations of 200, 300, and 400 μg/mL, mSC nanogel significantly increased Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) cell proliferation after 24 hours of incubation. In cell migration assay, migration of SIRC cell to wound closure was observed after 24 hours of incubation with the addition of 200 μg/mL mSC of nanogel. In an animal study, acceleration of corneal wound healing was probably due to the inhibition of proteolysis. In conclusion, the findings of this study substantiate the potential application of sacchachitin in the form of mSC nanogel for the treatment of superficial corneal injuries. PMID:22956870

  17. Topographic Organization and Corticocortical Connections of the Forepaw Representation in Areas S1 and SC of the Opossum: Evidence for a Possible Role of Area SC in Multimodal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Anomal, Renata Figueiredo; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Franca, João G.

    2011-01-01

    In small-brained mammals, such as opossums, the cortex is organized in fewer sensory and motor areas than in mammals endowed with larger cortical sheets. The presence of multimodal fields, involved in the integration of sensory inputs has not been clearly characterized in those mammals. In the present study, the corticocortical connections of the forepaw representation in the somatosensory caudal (SC) area of the Didelphis aurita opossum was studied with injections of fluorescent anatomical tracers in SC. Electrophysiological mapping of S1 was used to delimit its respective rostral and caudal borders, and to guide SC injections. The areal borders of S1 and the location of area SC were further confirmed by myeloarchitecture. In S1, we found a well-delimited forepaw representation, although it presented a crude internal topographic organization. Cortical projections to S1 originate in somatosensory areas of the parietal cortex, and appeared to be mostly homotopic. Physiological and connectional evidence were provided for a topographic organization in opossum area SC as well. Most notably, corticocortical projections to the forepaw representation of SC originated from somatosensory cortical areas and from cortex representing other sensory modalities, especially the visual peristriate cortex. This suggests that SC might be involved in multimodal processing similar to the posterior parietal cortex of species with larger brains. PMID:22069381

  18. Thermodynamics of Sc-H and Sc-D Systems: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiao-qiu; Tang, Tao; Ao, Bing-yun; Luo, De-li; Sang, Ge; Zhu, Hong-zhi

    2013-04-01

    The pressure composition isotherms ( p- c-T) of Sc-H and Sc-D systems have been experimentally measured using the PVT method in the same work. The enthalpies and entropies are extracted from van't Hoff plots and compared with the literature values. The results show that the enthalpy and entropy for hydrogen absorption are in good agreement with the data reported by Manchester et al. (J Phase Equilib 18(2):194-205, 1997), while those for deuterium absorption are in variance with the data reported by Wu et al. (J Fusion Energ, 2012). First principles calculations further prove that the thermodynamic data of Sc-D system reported by us are more reasonable.

  19. Spectroscopy of {sup 52,53}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Gelin, M.; Mittig, W.; Mukherjee, G.; Rejmund, F.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Poves, A.; Theisen, Ch.

    2009-01-15

    Excited states of neutron-rich odd-A and odd-odd Sc isotopes, populated in deep inelastic multinucleon transfer reactions, induced by a {sup 238}U beam on a thin {sup 48}Ca target, have been identified. A strong feeding of both yrast and nonyrast states in such a reaction is illustrated using a combination of a large efficiency spectrometer and a {gamma} detector array. The structure of the populated states is interpreted in terms of the role of the valence proton and neutrons and compared to shell model calculations in the full pf shell.

  20. ViSC Social Competence Program.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Hoffmann, Christine; Schiller, Eva-Maria; Stefanek, Elisabeth; Spiel, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The ViSC Social Competence Program has been implemented in Austrian schools within the scope of a national strategy plan, Together Against Violence. The program is a primary preventive program designed for grades 5 to 8. The prevention of aggression and bullying is defined as a school development task, and the initial implementation of the program lasts one school year. The program consists of universal and specific actions that are implemented through in-school teacher training and a class project for students. The program was evaluated with a randomized intervention control group design. Data were collected from teachers and students. Results suggest that the program reduces aggression in schools.

  1. Measurement of (43)Sc and (44)Sc production cross-section with an 18MeV medical PET cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Carzaniga, Tommaso Stefano; Auger, Martin; Braccini, Saverio; Bunka, Maruta; Ereditato, Antonio; Nesteruk, Konrad Pawel; Scampoli, Paola; Türler, Andreas; van der Meulen, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    (43)Sc and (44)Sc are positron emitter radionuclides that, in conjunction with the β(-) emitter (47)Sc, represent one of the most promising possibilities for theranostics in nuclear medicine. Their availability in suitable quantity and quality for medical applications is an open issue and their production with medical cyclotrons represents a scientific and technological challenge. For this purpose, an accurate knowledge of the production cross sections is mandatory. In this paper, we report on the cross section measurement of the reactions (43)Ca(p,n)(43)Sc, (44)Ca(p,2n) (43)Sc, (46)Ti(p,α)(43)Sc, and (44)Ca(p,n)(44)Sc at the Bern University Hospital cyclotron. A study of the production yield and purity performed by using commercially available enriched target materials is also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Assessing Sc1 for GCSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that investigations that `fit' the National Curriculum or examination board criteria are few in number. The fair testing emphasis means that pupils all over the country are finding out what affects the rate of a chemical reaction, the rate of photosynthesis or, in the case of Physics, the resistance of a wire. This book focuses on nine of the most common Sc1 investigations and how to prepare for them, manage and assess them. The author, a GCSE examiner, has turned his expertise into a handbook for improving Sc1 performance in the classroom. He has produced a book that would be extremely useful to both newly qualified teachers and experienced teachers. The first aim of the book, however, is to explain the requirements of Sc1. This is done comprehensively with examples of what the jargon means in practice. By breaking down the elements of planning, obtaining evidence, analysing evidence and evaluating, it is easy to see the subtleties of the mark descriptors. At first glance there seems to be little difference between the type of scientific knowledge needed for planning at level 6 and level 8. However, the level 8 statement specifies `detailed' scientific knowledge and understanding, which would mean a student should use equations from physics or symbolic chemical equations to support their arguments. One of the most useful sections in the book details the marking problems that can arise with some investigations. For example, in an investigation into electromagnets it is difficult for students to provide sufficient relevant scientific theory to satisfy the requirements of planning at level 6. One of the problems with Sc1 is that certain requirements, such as graph plotting, are difficult for many students. This book provides exercises that can be given to students to improve those skills. Each of the nine investigations is covered in great detail. Each investigation begins with an introduction detailing the rationale for choosing it, whether students

  3. Inoculation with Metal-Mobilizing Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. SC2b and Its Role in Rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain SC2b was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sedum plumbizincicola grown in lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mine soils and characterized as Bacillus sp. based on (1) morphological and biochemical characteristics and (2) partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Strain SC2b exhibited high levels of resistance to cadmium (Cd) (300 mg/L), Zn (730 mg/L), and Pb (1400 mg/L). This strain also showed various plant growth-promoting (PGP) features such as utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, solubilization of phosphate, and production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore. The strain mobilized high concentration of heavy metals from soils and exhibited different biosorption capacity toward the tested metal ions. Strain SC2b was further assessed for PGP activity by phytagar assay with a model plant Brassica napus. Inoculation of SC2b increased the biomass and vigor index of B. napus. Considering such potential, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of inoculating the metal-resistant PGPB SC2b on growth and uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by S. plumbizincicola in metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Inoculation with SC2b elevated the shoot and root biomass and leaf chlorophyll content of S. plumbizincicola. Similarly, plants inoculated with SC2b demonstrated markedly higher Cd and Zn accumulation in the root and shoot system, indicating that SC2b enhanced Cd and Zn uptake by S. plumbizincicola through metal mobilization or plant-microbial mediated changes in chemical or biological soil properties. Data demonstrated that the PGPB Bacillus sp. SC2b might serve as a future biofertilizer and an effective metal mobilizing bioinoculant for rhizoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  4. Aging Behavior of Flexcast® Al-Mg Alloys with Sc and Zr Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohi, M.; Singh, N.; Sinclair, C. W.; Poole, W. J.; Gallerneault, M.

    The Flexcaster® is a strip casting technology that transforms liquid aluminum into a directly reliable cast ingot that is not subject to scalping or homogenization processing. This technology is characterized by relatively high solidification and cooling rates and was used to lab-produce AlMg-based alloys with minor additions of Sc and/or Zr. The presence of these is known to develop strengthening phases that also influence other metallurgical phenomena such as recovery and recrystallization. Aging experiments were performed on as-cast and cold-rolled samples to study the evolution of strengthening precipitates and their impact on recovery and recrystallization. Two Al- 3%Mg alloys were cast, one Sc-free and the other containing 0.4% Sc. Both alloys were artificially aged following casting at 300 and 400°C for times ranging from 30s to 72h. The samples were characterized by hardness and electrical resistivity measurements. Results show enhanced strengthening in the Sc-containing alloy and superior high temperature microstructural stability.

  5. Enzymatic Assembly for scFv Library Construction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mieko; Hanyu, Yoshiro

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be established by displaying single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries on phages and then biopanning against the target. For constructing superior scFv libraries, antibody light-chain variable region (VL) and heavy-chain variable region (VH) fragments must be assembled into scFvs without loss of diversity. A high-quality scFv library is a prerequisite for obtaining strong binders from the scFv library. However, the technical challenges associated with the construction of a diverse library have been the bottleneck in the establishment of recombinant antibodies through biopanning. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method for assembling VL and VH fragments through the concerted action of λ-exonuclease and Bst DNA polymerase. We successfully used this method to construct a diverse chicken scFv library.

  6. X-ray spectroscopic application of Cr /Sc periodic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guen, K.; Maury, H.; André, J.-M.; Jonnard, P.; Hardouin, A.; Delmotte, F.; Ravet-Krill, M.-F.

    2007-12-01

    The use of Cr /Sc multilayer interferential mirrors (MIMs) in optical systems such as x-ray microscopes or telescopes have been reported for the water window (between C K- and O K-absorption edges). However, their possibilities in spectroscopic application have never been described in the literature. The purpose of the paper is to report for the first time on the performances of Cr /Sc MIMs as Bragg dispersive devices for the analysis in wavelength dispersive spectrometry of samples containing N or Sc atoms. The possibility to distinguish the chemical state of the emitting N or Sc atoms is evidenced by using Johan-type and double-crystal spectrometers.

  7. Purification and refolding of anti-T-antigen single chain antibodies (scFvs) expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Koyama, Tsubasa; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-02-01

    T-antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-1-Ser/Thr) is an oncofetal antigen that is commonly expressed as a carbohydrate determinant in many adenocarcinomas. Since it is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, production of recombinant antibodies specific for T-antigen could lead to the development of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Previously, we isolated and characterized 11 anti-T-antigen phage clones from a phage library displaying human single-chain antibodies (scFvs) and purified one scFv protein, 1G11. More recently, we purified and characterized 1E8 scFv protein using a Drosophila S2 expression system. In the current study, four anti-T-antigen scFv genes belonging to Groups 1-4 were purified from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Inclusion bodies isolated from E. coli cells were denatured in 3.5 M Gdn-HCl. Solubilized His-tagged scFv proteins were purified using Ni(2+)-Sepharose column chromatography in the presence of 3.5 M Gdn-HCl. Purified scFv proteins were refolded according to a previously published method of step-wise dialysis. Two anti-T-antigen scFv proteins, 1E6 and 1E8 that belong to Groups 1 and 2, respectively, were produced in sufficient amounts, thus allowing further characterization of their binding activity with T-antigen. Specificity and affinity constants determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), respectively, provided evidence that both 1E8 and 1E6 scFv proteins are T-antigen specific and suggested that 1E8 scFv protein has a higher affinity for T-antigen than 1E6 scFv protein.

  8. Novel permeability characteristics of red blood cells from sickle cell patients heterozygous for HbS and HbC (HbSC genotype).

    PubMed

    Dalibalta, S; Ellory, J C; Browning, J A; Wilkins, R J; Rees, D C; Gibson, J S

    2010-06-15

    Individuals heterozygous for HbS and HbC (HbSC) represent about 1/3(rd) of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Whilst HbSC disease is generally milder, there is considerable overlap in symptoms with HbSS disease. HbSC patients, as well as HbSS ones, present with the chronic anaemia and panoply of acute vaso-occlusive complications that characterize SCD. However, there are important clinical and haematological differences. Certain complications occur with greater frequency in HbSC patients (like proliferative retinopathy and osteonecrosis) whilst intravascular haemolysis is reduced. Patients with HbSC disease can be considered as a discrete subset of SCD cases. Although much work has been carried out on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in HbSS homozygotes, including the contribution of altered red blood cell permeability, relatively little pertains directly to HbSC individuals. Results reported in the literature suggest that HbSC cells, and particularly certain subpopulations, present with similar permeability to HbSS cells but there are also important differences - these have not been well characterized. We hypothesise that their unique cell transport properties accounts for the different pattern of disease in HbSC patients and represents a potential chemotherapeutic target not shared in red blood cells from HbSS patients. The distinct pattern of clinical haematology in HbSC disease is emphasised here. We analyse some of the electrophysiological properties of single red blood cells from HbSC patients, comparing them with those from HbSS patients and normal HbAA individuals. We also use the isosmotic haemolysis technique to investigate the behaviour of total red blood cell populations. Whilst both HbSS and HbSC cells show increased monovalent and divalent (Ca(2+)) cation conductance further elevated upon deoxygenation, the distribution of current magnitudes differs, and outward rectification is greatest for HbSC cells. In addition, although Gd(3+) largely

  9. Inactivating Mutations in ESCO2 Cause SC Phocomelia and Roberts Syndrome: No Phenotype-Genotype Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Birgitt; Oviedo, Angelica; Johnston, Kathreen; Pai, Shashidhar; Francke, Uta

    2005-01-01

    The rare, autosomal recessive Roberts syndrome (RBS) is characterized by tetraphocomelia, profound growth deficiency of prenatal onset, craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and mental deficiency. SC phocomelia (SC) has a milder phenotype, with a lesser degree of limb reduction and with survival to adulthood. Since heterochromatin repulsion (HR) is characteristic for both disorders and is not complemented in somatic-cell hybrids, it has been hypothesized that the disorders are allelic. Recently, mutations in ESCO2 (establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2) on 8p21.1 have been reported in RBS. To determine whether ESCO2 mutations are also responsible for SC, we studied three families with SC and two families in which variable degrees of limb and craniofacial abnormalities, detected by fetal ultrasound, led to pregnancy terminations. All cases were positive for HR. We identified seven novel mutations in exons 3–8 of ESCO2. In two families, affected individuals were homozygous—for a 5-nucleotide deletion in one family and a splice-site mutation in the other. In three nonconsanguineous families, probands were compound heterozygous for a single-nucleotide insertion or deletion, a nonsense mutation, or a splice-site mutation. Abnormal splice products were characterized at the RNA level. Since only protein-truncating mutations were identified, regardless of clinical severity, we conclude that genotype does not predict phenotype. Having established that RBS and SC are caused by mutations in the same gene, we delineated the clinical phenotype of the tetraphocomelia spectrum that is associated with HR and ESCO2 mutations and differentiated it from other types of phocomelia that are negative for HR. PMID:16380922

  10. 2D-ELDOR using full S(c-) fitting and absorption lineshapes.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio; Freed, Jack H

    2007-10-01

    Recent progress in developing 2D-ELDOR (2D electron-electron double resonance) techniques to better capture molecular dynamics in complex fluids, particularly in model and biological membranes, is reported. The new "full S(c-) method", which corrects the spectral analysis for the phase distortion effects present in the experiments, is demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of 2D-ELDOR in reporting on molecular dynamics in complex membrane environments. That is, instead of performing spectral fitting in the magnitude mode, our new method enables simultaneous fitting of both the real and imaginary components of the S(c-) signal. The full S(c-) fitting not only corrects the phase distortions in the experimental data but also more accurately determines instrumental dead times. The phase corrections applied to the S(c-) spectrum enable the extraction of the pure absorption-mode spectrum, which is characterized by much better resolution than the magnitude-mode spectrum. In the absorption mode, the variation of homogeneous broadening, which reports on the dynamics of the spin probe, can even be observed by visual inspection. This new method is illustrated with results from model membranes of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-cholesterol binary mixtures, as well as with results from plasma membrane vesicles of mast cells. In addition to the dynamic parameters, which provide quantitative descriptions for membranes at the molecular level, the high-resolution absorption spectra themselves may be used as a "fingerprint" to characterize membrane phases and distinguish coexisting components in biomembranes. Thus we find that 2D-ELDOR is greatly improved with the new "full S(c-) method" especially for exploring the complexity of model and biological membranes.

  11. 2D-ELDOR using full Sc- fitting and absorption lineshapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio; Freed, Jack H.

    2007-10-01

    Recent progress in developing 2D-ELDOR (2D electron-electron double resonance) techniques to better capture molecular dynamics in complex fluids, particularly in model and biological membranes, is reported. The new "full Sc- method", which corrects the spectral analysis for the phase distortion effects present in the experiments, is demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of 2D-ELDOR in reporting on molecular dynamics in complex membrane environments. That is, instead of performing spectral fitting in the magnitude mode, our new method enables simultaneous fitting of both the real and imaginary components of the Sc- signal. The full Sc- fitting not only corrects the phase distortions in the experimental data but also more accurately determines instrumental dead times. The phase corrections applied to the Sc- spectrum enable the extraction of the pure absorption-mode spectrum, which is characterized by much better resolution than the magnitude-mode spectrum. In the absorption mode, the variation of homogeneous broadening, which reports on the dynamics of the spin probe, can even be observed by visual inspection. This new method is illustrated with results from model membranes of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-cholesterol binary mixtures, as well as with results from plasma membrane vesicles of mast cells. In addition to the dynamic parameters, which provide quantitative descriptions for membranes at the molecular level, the high-resolution absorption spectra themselves may be used as a "fingerprint" to characterize membrane phases and distinguish coexisting components in biomembranes. Thus we find that 2D-ELDOR is greatly improved with the new "full Sc- method" especially for exploring the complexity of model and biological membranes.

  12. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of TIG and FSW Joints of a New Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guofu; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Dan; Deng, Ying; Lu, Liying; Yin, Zhimin

    2016-04-01

    A new Al-5.8%Mg-0.4%Mn-0.25%Sc-0.10%Zr (wt.%) alloy was successfully welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and friction stir welding (FSW) techniques, respectively. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated by microhardness measurements, tensile tests, and microscopy methods. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to failure are 358, 234 MPa, and 27.6% for TIG welded joint, and 376, 245 MPa and 31.9% for FSW joint, respectively, showing high strength and superior ductility. The TIG welded joint fails in the heat-affected zone and the fracture of FSW joint is located in stirred zone. Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy is characterized by lots of dislocation tangles and secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) particles. The superior mechanical properties of the TIG and FSW joints are mainly derived from the Orowan strengthening and grain boundary strengthening caused by secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) nano-particles (20-40 nm). For new Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy, the positive effect from secondary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles in the base metal can be better preserved in FSW joint than in TIG welded joint.

  13. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process. PMID:26764487

  14. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Aerin; Shin, Jung Won; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process.

  15. Regioselective benzyl radical addition to an open-shell cluster metallofullerene. Crystallographic studies of cocrystallized Sc3C2@Ih-C80 and its singly bonded derivative.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hongyun; Cong, Hailin; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Bao, Lipiao; Yu, Bing; Xie, Yunpeng; Mizorogi, Naomi; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi; Lu, Xing

    2014-07-23

    The endohedral fullerene once erroneously identified as Sc3@C82 was recently shown to be Sc3C2@Ih-C80, the first example of an open-shell cluster metallofullerene. We herein report that benzyl bromide (1) reacts with Sc3C2@ Ih-C80 via a regioselective radical addition that affords only one isomer of the adduct Sc3C2@Ih-C80(CH2C6H5) (2) in high yield. An X-ray crystallographic study of 2 demonstrated that the benzyl moiety is singly bonded to the fullerene cage, which eliminates the paramagnetism of the endohedral in agreement with the ESR results. Interestingly, X-ray results further reveal that the 3-fold disordered Sc3C2 cluster adopts two different configurations inside the cage. These configurations represent the so-called "planar" form and the computationally predicted, but not crystallographically characterized, "trifoliate" form. It is noteworthy that this is the first crystallographic observation of the "trifoliate" form for the Sc3C2 cluster. In contrast, crystallographic investigation of a Sc3C2@Ih-C80/Ni(OEP) cocrystal, in which the endohedral persists in an open-shell structure with paramagnetism, indicates that only the former form occurs in pristine Sc3C2@ Ih-C80. These results demonstrate that the cluster configuration in EMFs is highly sensitive to the electronic structure, which is tunable by exohedral modification. In addition, the electrochemical behavior of Sc3C2@Ih-C80 has been markedly changed by the radical addition, but the absorption spectra of the pristine and the derivative are both featureless. These results suggest that the unpaired electron of Sc3C2@Ih-C80 is buried in the Sc3C2 cluster and does not affect the electronic configuration of the cage.

  16. Production of medical Sc radioisotopes with an alpha particle beam.

    PubMed

    Szkliniarz, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Mateusz; Walczak, Rafał; Jastrzębski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Choiński, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Majkowska, Agnieszka; Stolarz, Anna; Trzcińska, Agnieszka; Zipper, Wiktor

    2016-12-01

    The internal α-particle beam of the Warsaw Heavy Ion Cyclotron was used to produce research quantities of the medically interesting Sc radioisotopes from natural Ca and K and isotopically enriched (42)Ca targets. The targets were made of metallic calcium, calcium carbonate and potassium chloride. New data on the production yields and impurities generated during the target irradiations are presented for the positron emitters (43)Sc, (44g)Sc and (44m)Sc. The different paths for the production of the long lived (44m)Sc/(44g)Sc in vivo generator, proposed by the ARRONAX team, using proton and deuteron beams as well as alpha-particle beams are discussed. Due to the larger angular momentum transfer in the formation of the compound nucleus in the case of the alpha particle induced reactions, the isomeric ratio of (44m)Sc/(44g)Sc at a bombarding energy of 29MeV is five times larger than previously determined for a deuteron beam and twenty times larger than for proton induced reactions on enriched CaCO3 targets. Therefore, formation of this generator via the alpha-particle route seems a very attractive way to form these isotopes. The experimental data presented here are compared with theoretical predictions made using the EMPIRE evaporation code. Reasonable agreement is generally observed.

  17. 46 CFR 7.65 - Charleston Harbor, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charleston Harbor, SC. 7.65 Section 7.65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.65 Charleston Harbor, SC. A line drawn from Charleston Light on Sullivans Island to latitude...

  18. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Saluda County Airport, Saluda, SC....

  19. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654)...

  20. Cyclotron production of (44)Sc: From bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Nicholas P; Bunka, Maruta; Domnanich, Katharina A; Müller, Cristina; Haller, Stephanie; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger

    2015-09-01

    (44)Sc, a PET radionuclide, has promising decay characteristics (T1/2 = 3.97 h, Eβ(+)av = 632 keV) for nuclear imaging and is an attractive alternative to the short-lived (68)Ga (T1/2 = 68 min, Eβ(+)av = 830 keV). The aim of this study was the optimization of the (44)Sc production process at an accelerator, allowing its use for preclinical and clinical PET imaging. (44)CaCO3 targets were prepared and irradiated with protons (~11 MeV) at a beam current of 50 μA for 90 min. (44)Sc was separated from its target material using DGA extraction resin and concentrated using SCX cation exchange resin. Radiolabeling experiments at activities up to 500 MBq and stability tests were performed with DOTANOC by investigating different scavengers, including gentisic acid. Dynamic PET of an AR42J tumor-bearing mouse was performed after injection of (44)Sc-DOTANOC. The optimized chemical separation method yielded up to 2 GBq (44)Sc of high radionuclidic purity. In the presence of gentisic acid, radiolabeling of (44)Sc with DOTANOC was achieved with a radiochemical yield of ~99% at high specific activity (10 MBq/nmol) and quantities which would allow clinical application. The dynamic PET images visualized increasing uptake of (44)Sc-DOTANOC into AR42J tumors and excretion of radioactivity through the kidneys of the investigated mouse. The concept "from-bench-to-bedside" was clearly demonstrated in this extended study using cyclotron-produced (44)Sc. Sufficiently high activities of (44)Sc of excellent radionuclidic purity are obtainable for clinical application, by irradiation of enriched calcium at a cyclotron. This work demonstrates a promising basis for introducing (44)Sc to clinical routine of nuclear imaging using PET. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Engineering Peptide Linkers for scFv Immunosensors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhihong; Yan, Heping; Zhang, Ying; Mernaugh, Raymond L.; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2008-01-01

    Using A10B single-chain fragment variable (scFv) as a model system, we demonstrated that the flexibility of scFv linker engineering can be combined with the inherent quick and adaptable characters of surface coupling chemistry (e.g., electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, or covalent attachment) to attach scFv to preformed functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Six arginines, which were separated by glycine or serine as spacer, were incorporated in the peptide linker to form a 15-mer peptide linker (RGRGRGRGRSRGGGS). The polycationic arginine peptide was engineered into the A10B scFv-RG3 to favor its adsorption at anionic charged template surface (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS))). This new approach was compared with the other engineered scFv constructs. Our results demonstrated that the anionic charged SAM template facilitated the oriented immobilization of scFvs on the SAM template surface as well as reduced the possibility of protein denaturation when directly immobilized on the solid surface. A 42-fold improvement of detection limits using MUA/A10B scFv-RG3 (less than 0.2 nM experimentally determined) was achieved compared to A10B Fab antibody and a 5-fold improvement was observed compared to A10B scFv that was engineered with a cysteine in the linker sequence. Using protein A-coated gold nanoparticles, a picomolar experimental detection limit was achieved. With 20 amino acids to choose from, engineered recombinant scFv in combination with SAM technology and nanoparticle mass amplification provide an emerging strategy for the development of highly sensitive and specific scFv immunosensors. PMID:18290668

  2. ScII: an abundant chromosome scaffold protein is a member of a family of putative ATPases with an unusual predicted tertiary structure

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of ScII, the second most abundant protein after topoisomerase II, of the chromosome scaffold fraction to be identified. ScII is structurally related to a protein, Smc1p, previously found to be required for accurate chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ScII and the other members of the emerging family of SMC1-like proteins are likely to be novel ATPases, with NTP-binding A and B sites separated by two lengthy regions predicted to form an alpha-helical coiled-coil. Analysis of the ScII B site predicted that ScII might use ATP by a mechanism similar to the bacterial recN DNA repair and recombination enzyme. ScII is a mitosis-specific scaffold protein that colocalizes with topoisomerase II in mitotic chromosomes. However, ScII appears not to be associated with the interphase nuclear matrix. ScII might thus play a role in mitotic processes such as chromosome condensation or sister chromatid disjunction, both of which have been previously shown to involve topoisomerase II. PMID:7929577

  3. 75 FR 13697 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pickens, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the office of the Eastern Service... designations extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the Earth are published in Paragraph... Feet or More Above the Surface of the Earth. * * * * * ASO SC E5 Clemson, SC Clemson-Oconee...

  4. Ba and BaO on W and on Sc 2O 3 coated W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A.; Yater, J. E.; Hor, C.

    2005-03-01

    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) are used to characterize the surface layers that form under an evaporating flux of a dispenser cathode (which is a Ba and BaO source) on a W substrate and Sc 2O 3-coated W substrate to simulate the surface layer of a conventional dispenser cathode and scandate cathode, respectively. The surface layers were prepared while the substrate was either at 940 °C b (1272 K), a typical operating temperature, or at 1125 °C b (1477 K), a typical activation temperature. Our investigation found that a partial layer of BaO formed on W, similar to the surface layer that forms on a dispenser cathode. Heating to the activation temperature causes the BaO to form a stronger bond with W. For the Sc 2O 3-coated W substrate, heating to the activation temperature is necessary for the inter-diffusion between the Sc 2O 3 and W to occur. BaO layers form a stronger bond to the inter-diffused layer than to pure W. However, the most important finding is that a stable BaO-containing compound forms and continues to accumulate under the impinging flux on the Sc 2O 3 and W covered substrate at 940 °C b. Surface emission models describe successfully all other dispenser cathodes, but fail to explain the emission characteristics of scandate cathodes. Raju and Maloney proposed an alternate model, which requires the presence of a thick layer of semi-conducting material. Our finding suggests that it is possible to form a thick layer from simultaneous presence of BaO, Sc 2O 3 and W. However, further investigation is necessary to determine if the Raju and Maloney type layer is indeed present on top of scandate cathodes.

  5. Development of Human-Like scFv-Fc Neutralizing Botulinum Neurotoxin E.

    PubMed

    Miethe, Sebastian; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Liu, Yvonne; Chahboun, Siham; Korkeala, Hannu; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Pelat, Thibaut; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Hust, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are considered to be the most toxic substances known on earth and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food-poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agent by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and are listed among the six agents with the highest risk to be used as bioweapons. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of effective anti-botulism therapies to deal with the potential risk of exposure. In this study, a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was immunized with recombinant light chain of BoNT/E3 and an immune phage display library was constructed. After a multi-step panning, several antibody fragments (scFv, single chain fragment variable) with nanomolar affinities were isolated, that inhibited the endopeptidase activity of pure BoNT/E3 in vitro by targeting its light chain. Furthermore, three scFv were confirmed to neutralize BoNT/E3 induced paralysis in an ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay. The most effective neutralization (20LD50/mL, BoNT/E3) was observed with scFv ELC18, with a minimum neutralizing concentration at 0.3 nM. Furthermore, ELC18 was highly effective in vivo when administered as an scFv-Fc construct. Complete protection of 1LD50 BoNT/E3 was observed with 1.6 ng/dose in the mouse flaccid paralysis assay. These scFv-Fcs antibodies are the first recombinant antibodies neutralizing BoNT/E by targeting its light chain. The human-like nature of the isolated antibodies is predicting a good tolerance for further clinical development.

  6. Development of Human-Like scFv-Fc Neutralizing Botulinum Neurotoxin E

    PubMed Central

    Miethe, Sebastian; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Liu, Yvonne; Chahboun, Siham; Korkeala, Hannu; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Pelat, Thibaut; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Hust, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are considered to be the most toxic substances known on earth and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food-poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agent by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and are listed among the six agents with the highest risk to be used as bioweapons. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of effective anti-botulism therapies to deal with the potential risk of exposure. Results In this study, a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was immunized with recombinant light chain of BoNT/E3 and an immune phage display library was constructed. After a multi-step panning, several antibody fragments (scFv, single chain fragment variable) with nanomolar affinities were isolated, that inhibited the endopeptidase activity of pure BoNT/E3 in vitro by targeting its light chain. Furthermore, three scFv were confirmed to neutralize BoNT/E3 induced paralysis in an ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay. The most effective neutralization (20LD50/mL, BoNT/E3) was observed with scFv ELC18, with a minimum neutralizing concentration at 0.3 nM. Furthermore, ELC18 was highly effective in vivo when administered as an scFv-Fc construct. Complete protection of 1LD50 BoNT/E3 was observed with 1.6 ng/dose in the mouse flaccid paralysis assay. Conclusion These scFv-Fcs antibodies are the first recombinant antibodies neutralizing BoNT/E by targeting its light chain. The human-like nature of the isolated antibodies is predicting a good tolerance for further clinical development. PMID:26440796

  7. Infectivity-associated PrP(Sc) and disease duration-associated PrP(Sc) of mouse BSE prions.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which is a structural isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, is thought to be a causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the specific role of PrP(Sc) in prion pathogenesis and its relationship to infectivity remain controversial. A time-course study of prion-affected mice was conducted, which showed that the prion infectivity was not simply proportional to the amount of PrP(Sc) in the brain. Centrifugation (20,000 ×g) of the brain homogenate showed that most of the PrP(Sc) was precipitated into the pellet, and the supernatant contained only a slight amount of PrP(Sc). Interestingly, mice inoculated with the obtained supernatant showed incubation periods that were approximately 15 d longer than those of mice inoculated with the crude homogenate even though both inocula contained almost the same infectivity. Our results suggest that a small population of fine PrP(Sc) may be responsible for prion infectivity and that large, aggregated PrP(Sc) may contribute to determining prion disease duration.

  8. CD40-directed scFv-TRAIL fusion proteins induce CD40-restricted tumor cell death and activate dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    El-Mesery, M; Trebing, J; Schäfer, V; Weisenberger, D; Siegmund, D; Wajant, H

    2013-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy concepts often aim at the induction of adjuvant antitumor immunity or stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis. There is further evidence that combined application of immune stimulating and tumor apoptosis-inducing compounds elicits a synergistic antitumor effect. Here, we describe the development and characterization of bifunctional fusion proteins consisting of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) domain derived from the CD40-specific monoclonal antibody G28-5 that is fused to the N-terminus of stabilized trimeric soluble variants of the death ligand TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). As shown before by us and others for other cell surface antigen-targeted scFv-TRAIL fusion proteins, scFv:G28-TRAIL displayed an enhanced capacity to induce apoptosis upon CD40 binding. Studies with scFv:G28 fusion proteins of TRAIL mutants that discriminate between the two TRAIL death receptors, TRAILR1 and TRAILR2, further revealed that the CD40 binding-dependent mode of apoptosis induction of scFv:G28-TRAIL is operable with each of the two TRAIL death receptors. Binding of scFv:G28-TRAIL fusion proteins to CD40 not only result in enhanced TRAIL death receptor signaling but also in activation of the targeted CD40 molecule. In accordance with the latter, the scFv:G28-TRAIL fusion proteins triggered strong CD40-mediated maturation of dendritic cells. The CD40-targeted TRAIL fusion proteins described in this study therefore represent a novel type of bifunctional fusion proteins that couple stimulation of antigen presenting cells and apoptosis induction. PMID:24232092

  9. Lattice dynamics of the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn6Sc.

    PubMed

    Euchner, H; Yamada, T; Rols, S; Ishimasa, T; Ollivier, J; Schober, H; Mihalkovic, M; de Boissieu, M

    2014-02-05

    A comparison of periodic approximants and their quasicrystalline counterparts offers the opportunity to better understand the structure, physical properties and stabilizing mechanisms of these complex phases. We present a combined experimental and computational study of the lattice dynamics of the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and compare these to the lattice dynamics of the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn6Sc. The two phases, quasicrystal and approximant, are built up from the same atomic clusters, which are packed either quasiperiodically or on a body centered cubic lattice, respectively. Using inelastic neutron scattering and atomic scale simulations, we show that the vibrational spectra of these three systems are very similar, however, they contain a clear signature of the increasing structural complexity from approximant to quasicrystal.

  10. Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Fredrik; Ghafoor, Naureen; Hultman, Lars; Birch, Jens

    2008-09-15

    It is shown that the thermal stability in vacuum of Cr/Sc multilayer thin films used as reflective optical components in soft x-ray instrumentation has substantial dependence on incorporation of N. The thermal stability is increased by incorporating 34 at.% of N in Cr/Sc multilayers. A pure Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirror starts a continuous degradation already at {approx}100 deg. C with a complete destruction of the multilayer at 500 deg. C. The resulting structure is a mixture of Cr and Sc nanocrystallites. The degradation can be described by linear diffusion theory and is suggested to be due to the formation of uniformly distributed phase-separated nanocrystallites followed by an Ostwald ripening process with an apparent activation energy of 0.5 eV. At the multilayer-substrate interface, a 7 nm thin Sc-Si layer is formed which effectively hinders indiffusion of Si and outdiffusion of Cr and Sc. A nitrided multilayer, initially consisting of crystalline fcc CrN{sub x} and fcc ScN{sub y} layers (x and y<1), is observed to improve in structural quality up to {approx}250 deg. C where it is stable for more than 12 h. At {approx}330 deg. C, the multilayer separates into regions with two multilayer periods, differing by less than 0.04 nm, which are stable at 420 deg. C over an extended period of time >40 h. It is proposed that the separation into the different multilayer periods is a consequence of redistribution of N within the Cr layers. Sc is observed to be stabilized in the ScN layers, which, in turn, inhibit the formation of a Sc-Si barrier layer at the substrate leading to a strong exchange of Si and Cr across the film substrate. This leads to a Cr-Si/ScN layered structure close to the substrate and chromium silicide crystallites inside the substrate. Close to the top of the multilayer, a CrN/ScN multilayer appears to be retained.

  11. RadNet Air Data From Columbia, SC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Columbia, SC from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. Toward the Atomic Structure of PrP(Sc).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Jiang, Lin; Eisenberg, David S

    2017-09-01

    In this review, we detail our current knowledge of PrP(Sc) structure on the basis of structural and computational studies. We discuss the progress toward an atomic resolution description of PrP(Sc) and results from the broader field of amyloid studies that may further inform our knowledge of this structure. Moreover, we summarize work that investigates the role of PrP(Sc) structure in its toxicity, transmissibility, and species specificity. We look forward to an atomic model of PrP(Sc), which is expected to bring diagnostics and/or therapeutics to the field of prion disease. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Amit H.

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  14. Surface composition of Kuiper belt object 1993SC.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H; Cruikshank, D P; Pendleton, Y; Veeder, G J

    1997-05-09

    The 1.42- to 2.40-micrometer spectrum of Kuiper belt object 1993SC was measured at the Keck Observatory in October 1996. It shows a strongly red continuum reflectance and several prominent infrared absorption features. The strongest absorptions in 1993SC's spectrum occur near 1.62, 1.79, 1.95, 2.20, and 2.32 micrometers in wavelength. Features near the same wavelengths in the spectra of Pluto and Neptune's satellite Triton are due to CH4 on their surfaces, suggesting the presence of a simple hydrocarbon ice such as CH4, C2H6, C2H4, or C2H2 on 1993SC. In addition, the red continuum reflectance of 1993SC suggests the presence of more complex hydrocarbons.

  15. Surface composition of Kuiper belt object 1993SC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Pendleton, Y.; Veeder, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The 1.42- to 2.40-micrometer spectrum of Kuiper belt object 1993SC was measured at the Keck Observatory in October 1996. It shows a strongly red continuum reflectance and several prominent infrared absorption features. The strongest absorptions in 1993SC's spectrum occur near 1.62, 1.79, 1.95, 2.20, and 2.32 micrometers in wavelength. Features near the same wavelengths in the spectra of Pluto and Neptune's satellite Triton are due to CH4 on their surfaces, suggesting the presence of a simple hydrocarbon ice such as CH4, C2H6, C2H4, or C2H2 on 1993SC. In addition, the red continuum reflectance of 1993SC suggests the presence of more complex hydrocarbons.

  16. Development and investigation of recombinant immunotoxin protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40).

    PubMed

    Shilova, O N; Souslova, E A; Pilunov, A M; Deyev, S M; Petrov, R V

    2016-11-01

    Development of agents for theranostics implies combining the targeting module, the effector module, and the detection module within the same complex or recombinant protein. We have constructed, isolated, and characterized the 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) protein, which exhibits fluorescent properties and specifically binds to cancer cells expressing the HER2 receptor and reduces their viability. The ability of the obtained targeted antitumor agent 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) to selectively stain the HER2-positive cells and its highly selective cytotoxicity against these cells make the obtained targeted recombinant protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) a promising theranostic agent for the diagnostics and therapy of HER2-positive human tumors.

  17. Homogenization of alloys in the system Al-Mg-Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drits, M. E.; Toropova, L. S.; Bykov, Yu. G.

    1983-07-01

    A reduction in homogenizing anneal temperature and a reduction in soaking time leads to an increase in yield point for alloys of the system Al-Mg-Sc. The optimum homogenizing schedule for alloys of this system is heating to 400°C and soaking for up to 10 h. This homogenizing schedule provides an alloy structure of fine coherent ScAl3-phase precipitates and dissolution of excess β-phase precipitates.

  18. Constant Power Allocation Methods for SC-FDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Yung-Fang; Chang, Dah-Chung

    A simple suboptimal power allocation method is proposed for SC-FDMA systems. It is known that the performance of constant power-based allocation methods is close to that of optimal solutions. In this letter, by utilizing the waterfilling condition inequality derived for SC-FDMA systems, a threshold is set to select subcarriers for loading constant power to these selected subcarriers. It offers competitive performance as confirmed by the simulation results.

  19. The Roberts syndrome/SC phocomelia spectrum--a case report of an adult with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Goh, Elaine Suk-Ying; Li, Chumei; Horsburgh, Sheri; Kasai, Yumi; Kolomietz, Elena; Morel, Chantal France

    2010-02-01

    Roberts syndrome (RBS) (OMIM #268300) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by tetraphocomelia (symmetrical limb reduction), craniofacial anomalies, growth retardation, mental retardation, cardiac and renal abnormalities. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the ESCO2 (establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2) (Entrez 609353) gene, which is located at 8p21.1, and encodes a protein essential in establishing sister chromatid cohesion during S phase. SC phocomelia (SC) (OMIM #269000), has less severe symmetric limb reduction, flexion contractures of various joints, minor facial anomalies, growth retardation and occasionally, mental retardation. These two syndromes can be considered part of a spectrum, with RBS at the most severe range in which severely affected infants may be stillborn or die in the post-natal period, while individuals with SC phocomelia represent the milder end of the spectrum and typically survive to adulthood. In both presentations, karyotype investigations characteristically reveal premature centromere separation (PCS), otherwise known as heterochromatin repulsion or puffing. There is little literature about the follow-up of adults with the spectrum of RBS/SC phocomelia or their recommended management. We report on an adult presentation of RBS/SC phocomelia spectrum disorder with a history of major cardiac malformation in childhood, normal limbs on physical examination, mild facial anomalies, mild learning difficulties, and PCS. Molecular studies of ESCO2 have confirmed the diagnosis. A literature review, focussing on adult manifestations of this condition and a discussion of follow-up guidelines are presented.

  20. Microstructure and Properties of TIG/FSW Welded Joints of a New Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xuefeng; Deng, Ying; Peng, Yongyi; Yin, Zhimin; Xu, Guofu

    2013-09-01

    A new Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy with low Sc content was welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and friction stir welding (FSW) techniques. The microstructure and properties of those two welded joints were investigated by property tests and microstructural observations. The results show that the new Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy has desirable welding property. The ultimate tensile strength and welding coefficient of the TIG joint reach 405 MPa and 76.7%, respectively, and in FSW joint those property values reach 490 MPa and 92.6%, respectively. The studied base metal has a deformed fibrous subgrains structure, many nano-scaled Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, and very fine aging precipitates. In the TIG joint, the fusion zone consists of coarsened dendritic grains and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) has fibrous micro-scaled subgrains. The FSW welded joint is characterized by a weld nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and HAZ. Due to plastic deformation around the rotating pin and anti-recrystallized effectiveness of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, the weld nugget zone has a very fine subgrain structure. The TMAZ experiences some dissolution of aging precipitates. Coarsening of aging precipitates was observed in the HAZ. The better mechanical properties of the FSW joint are derived from a fine subgrain structure and homogeneous chemical compositions.

  1. Theoretical studies of the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    Bonding in the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS is theoretically studied. Excellent agreement is obtained with experimental spectroscopic constants for the low-lying states of ScO and VO. The results for VS and ScS show that the bonding in the oxides and sulfides is similar, but that the smaller electronegativity in S leads to a smaller ionic component in the bonding. The computed D0 of the sulfides are about 86 percent of the corresponding oxides, and the low-lying excited states are lower in the sulfides than in the corresponding oxides. The CPF method is shown to be an accurate and cost-effective method for obtaining reliable spectroscopic constants for these systems.

  2. Heteronuclear transition metal diatomics - The bonding and electronic structure of ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faegri, Knut, Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    High quality ab initio calculations show that ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd all have 2Sigma(+) ground states in agreement with electron spin resonance experiments. For ScNi and YNi, this is expected based on the lowest atomic asymptote. For ScPd and YPd, the lowest atomic asymptote would give the order of stability 2Delta greater than 2Pi equal to about 2Sigma(+), but the calculations show that mixing in of the excited asymptotes preferentially lowers the 2Sigma(+) state. The calculations show that the quartet states are about 20-30 kcal/mol above the ground state, and therefore probably do not contribute significantly to the unexpected g(vertical) values found in experiment. Calculations of excited states for YPd reveal some strong transitions that should be amenable to spectroscopic studies.

  3. Extensive spectroscopic data for multiply ionized scandium: Sc III to Sc XXI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacrier, G.; Artru, M.-C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Spectroscopic data for scandium is sparse, while an extensive set is needed to introduce this element into stellar opacity calculations and, more importantly, into stellar models dealing with radiative diffusion. Aims: Our goal is to provide extensive energy levels and radiative transitions data for nineteen ionization stages of scandium relevant to stellar interiors, namely from Sc iii to Sc xxi. Methods: We used the FAC code. This code provides ab initio theoretical values for energy levels in jj-coupling and oscillator strengths of all permitted transitions. Detailed correspondences are established with compiled data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, to locate as much as possible the observed levels and lines at their experimental values and to estimate the quality of our data. Comparison were also made with the spectroscopic data delivered by Kurucz. Results: The theoretical data retained in tables include 21 842 levels and more than two millions transtions. By comparison, the NIST compilation gives a total of 820 levels and 677 gf-values. The good agreement obtained when comparing the new data with those of the NIST compilation demonstrates their quality. This work on scandium shows that the FAC code is efficient in providing spectrocopic data that are unavailable from laboratory analyses but necessary for accurate simulations of stellar plasmas. Full Tables 4-6 and extensive line lists for each ion are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/538/A52

  4. Compensation of native donor doping in ScN: Carrier concentration control and p-type ScN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bivas; Garbrecht, Magnus; Perez-Taborda, Jaime A.; Fawey, Mohammed H.; Koh, Yee Rui; Shakouri, Ali; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol; Hultman, Lars; Sands, Timothy D.

    2017-06-01

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is an emerging indirect bandgap rocksalt semiconductor that has attracted significant attention in recent years for its potential applications in thermoelectric energy conversion devices, as a semiconducting component in epitaxial metal/semiconductor superlattices and as a substrate material for high quality GaN growth. Due to the presence of oxygen impurities and native defects such as nitrogen vacancies, sputter-deposited ScN thin-films are highly degenerate n-type semiconductors with carrier concentrations in the (1-6) × 1020 cm-3 range. In this letter, we show that magnesium nitride (MgxNy) acts as an efficient hole dopant in ScN and reduces the n-type carrier concentration, turning ScN into a p-type semiconductor at high doping levels. Employing a combination of high-resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and room temperature optical and temperature dependent electrical measurements, we demonstrate that p-type Sc1-xMgxN thin-film alloys (a) are substitutional solid solutions without MgxNy precipitation, phase segregation, or secondary phase formation within the studied compositional region, (b) exhibit a maximum hole-concentration of 2.2 × 1020 cm-3 and a hole mobility of 21 cm2/Vs, (c) do not show any defect states inside the direct gap of ScN, thus retaining their basic electronic structure, and (d) exhibit alloy scattering dominating hole conduction at high temperatures. These results demonstrate MgxNy doped p-type ScN and compare well with our previous reports on p-type ScN with manganese nitride (MnxNy) doping.

  5. Organization of a hybrid between phage f1 and plasmid pSC101.

    PubMed Central

    Ravetch, J V; Ohsumi, M; Model, P; Vovis, G F; Fischhoff, D; Zinder, N D

    1979-01-01

    We have characterized the 200-nucleotide-long insertion found in f1 after segregation of a chimeric phage containing the genomes of f1 and pSC101 [Ohsumi, M., Vovis, G.F. & Zinder, N.D. (1978) Virology 89, 438--449]. The insertion in this novel f1 species, called f1', is derived from pSC101 and has the potential to form an extended base-paired secondary structure, as determined by nucleotide sequence analysis. A five-nucleotide direct repeat, derived from f1 sequences, is present in f1'. The 200 additional nucleotides that are inserted into the DNA sequence coding for the carboxy terminus of f1 gene IV protein have generated a novel carboxy terminus for the f1' gene IV protein. In vitro transcription--translation studies demonstrate that a read-through protein can be expressed, as predicted from the f1' nucleotide sequence results. This 200-nucleotide-long sequence appears to be a transposable element found within pSC101 and is similar in sequence to the inverted repeat found in Tn3. Restriction enzyme analysis of the chimeric phage DNA, coupled with the nucleotide sequencing results, allows us to predict a structure for the genomic organization of this chimera. Images PMID:287058

  6. Selective cyclooxygenase inhibition by SC-560 improves hepatopulmonary syndrome in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Lee, Wen-Shin; Hsieh, Hsian-Guey; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Objective Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by hypoxia in patients with chronic liver disease. The mechanism of HPS includes pulmonary vasodilatation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Prostaglandins synthesized by cyclooxygenases (COX) participate in vascular responsiveness, inflammation and angiogenesis, which can be modulated by COX inhibitors. We therefore evaluated the impact of COX inhibition in rats with common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-induced liver cirrhosis and HPS. Methods Cirrhotic rats were randomly allocated to receive non-selective COX inhibitor (indomethacin), selective COX-1 inhibitor (SC-560), or COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) for 14 days. After that, hemodynamic parameters, severity of hypoxia and intrapulmonary shunts, liver and renal biochemistry parameters, histological finding and protein expressions were evaluated. Results Non-selective COX inhibition by indomethacin improved hepatic fibrosis and pulmonary inflammation in cirrhotic rats with HPS. It also decreased mean arterial blood pressure, portal pressure, and alleviated hypoxia and intrapulmonary shunts. However, indomethacin increased mortality rate. In contrast, selective COX inhibitors neither affected hemodynamics nor increased mortality rate. Hypoxia was improved by SC-560 and celecoxib. In addition, SC-560 decreased intrapulmonary shunts, attenuated pulmonary inflammation and angiogenesis through down-regulating COX-, NFκB- and VEGF-mediated pathways. Conclusion Selective COX-1 inhibitor ameliorated HPS by mitigating hypoxia and intrapulmonary shunts, which are related to anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenesis. PMID:28632747

  7. Ultrasensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of macaques infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Imamura, Morikazu; Ono, Fumiko; Shibata, Hiroaki; Tobiume, Minoru; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Terao, Keiji; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2014-11-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the prominent accumulation of the misfolded form of a normal cellular protein (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. The pathological features and biochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in macaque monkeys infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion have been found to be similar to those of human subjects with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Non-human primate models are thus ideally suited for performing valid diagnostic tests and determining the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents. In the current study, we developed a highly efficient method for in vitro amplification of cynomolgus macaque BSE PrP(Sc). This method involves amplifying PrP(Sc) by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) using mouse brain homogenate as a PrP(C) substrate in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white blood cells (WBCs), as well as in the peripheral tissues of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the BSE prion. After clinical signs of the disease appeared in three macaques, we detected PrP(Sc) in the CSF by serial PMCA, and the CSF levels of PrP(Sc) tended to increase with disease progression. In addition, PrP(Sc) was detectable in WBCs at the clinical phases of the disease in two of the three macaques. Thus, our highly sensitive, novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of the tissue distribution of PrP(Sc) in non-human primate models of CJD. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Phase competition and effect of chemical ordering in ferroelectric relaxor PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paściak, M.; Welberry, T. R.; Hlinka, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present results of first principles calculations for ferroelectric relaxor PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3. An ordered supercell with Sc and Nb atoms alternating in all directions (NaCl-like superstructure) has a ferroelectric ground state with R3 spacegroup. It is characterized by a tilt system a-a-a- as well as different sizes of adjacent oxygen octahedra. Analysis of phonon instabilities in cubic ? reveals similarity with an antiferroelectric PbZrO3. This is further confirmed by the fact that possibly antiferroelectric P21/b structure of PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 (symmetry lowered from Pbam due to Sc/Nb superstructure) is energetically very close to the ground state. The ferroelectric order is shown to be less sensitive to deviations in the B-site distribution than the antiferroelectric one.

  9. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN.

    PubMed

    Caro, Miguel A; Zhang, Siyuan; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Moram, Michelle A; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Molarius, Jyrki; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-06-24

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in Sc(x)Al(1-x)N alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients e(ij), piezoelectric moduli d(ij) and elastic constants C(ij). The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material.

  10. Molecular dynamics study of ion capture from water by a model ionophore, tetraprotonated cryptand SC24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owenson, Brian; Macelroy, Robert D.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The molecular dynamics of chloride capture from water by the tetraprotonated cryptand SC24 has been studied for the cases of 19 distances between the criptand and the chloride. The chloride capture is found to be characterized by a rapid cooperative change in the conformation of the cryptand when the Cl(-) begins to enter the ligand and just as it encounters the energy barrier. The conformational transition is associated with a shift of three N-H bonds from the pure endo orientation, such that they point toward the chloride.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of ion capture from water by a model ionophore, tetraprotonated cryptand SC24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owenson, Brian; Macelroy, Robert D.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The molecular dynamics of chloride capture from water by the tetraprotonated cryptand SC24 has been studied for the cases of 19 distances between the criptand and the chloride. The chloride capture is found to be characterized by a rapid cooperative change in the conformation of the cryptand when the Cl(-) begins to enter the ligand and just as it encounters the energy barrier. The conformational transition is associated with a shift of three N-H bonds from the pure endo orientation, such that they point toward the chloride.

  12. Purification of PEGylated proteins, with the example of PEGylated lysozyme and PEGylated scFv.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Anna; Müller, Egbert; Böttinger, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    PEGylation is a common and highly accepted possibility for half-life prolongation of proteins by increasing the hydrodynamic size. The chromatographic purification of PEGylated protein, using PEG (poly-ethylene glycol) of different PEG chain lengths, with the example of lysozyme and a scFv, is described in detail here, and helpful suggestions for the purification of other PEGylated proteins are listed. The relevant characterization methods for PEGylated proteins, important for the successful purification, are also described. The purification starts with a CEX (cation exchange) chromatography leading to about 95 % purity for polishing HIC (hydrophobic interaction chromatography) is described.

  13. Development of Field-Controlled Smart Optic Materials (ScN, AlN) with Rare Earth Dopants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop the fundamental materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics that are essential for industry, NASA, and DOD applications such as: membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras, flat-panel displays, etc. ScN and AlN thin films were fabricated on c-axis Sapphire (0001) or quartz substrate with the RF and DC magnetron sputtering. The crystal structure of AlN in fcc (rocksalt) and hcp (wurtzite) were controlled. Advanced electrical characterizations were performed, including I-V and Hall Effect Measurement. ScN film has a free carrier density of 5.8 x 10(exp 20)/per cubic centimeter and a conductivity of 1.1 x 10(exp 3) per centimeter. The background ntype conductivity of as-grown ScN has enough free electrons that can readily interact with the photons. The high density of free electrons and relatively low mobility indicate that these films contain a high level of shallow donors as well as deep levels. Also, the UV-Vis spectrum of ScN and AlN thin films with rare earth elements (Er or Ho) were measured at room temperature. Their optical band gaps were estimated to be about 2.33eV and 2.24eV, respectively, which are obviously smaller than that of undoped thin film ScN (2.4eV). The red-shifted absorption onset gives direct evidence for the decrease of band gap (Eg) and the energy broadening of valence band states are attributable to the doping. As the doped elements enter the ScN crystal lattices, the localized band edge states form at the doped sites with a reduction of Eg. Using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer, the decrease in refractive index with applied field is observed with a smaller shift in absorption coefficient.

  14. Construction of a human functional single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody recognizing the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Wajanarogana, Sumet; Prasomrothanakul, Teerawat; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2006-04-01

    Falciparum malaria is one of the most deadly and profound human health problems around the tropical world. Antimalarial drugs are now considered to be a powerful treatment; however, there are drugs currently being used that are resistant to Plasmodium falciparum parasites spreading in different parts of the world. Although the protective immune response against intraerythrocytic stages of the falciparum malaria parasite is still not fully understood, immune antibodies have been shown to be associated with reduced parasite prevalence. Therefore antibodies of the right specificity present in adequate concentrations and affinity are reasonably effective in providing protection. In the present study, VH (variable domain of heavy chain) and VL (variable domain of light chain) were isolated from human blood lymphocytes of P. falciparum in one person who had high serum titre to RESA (ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen). Equal amounts of VH and VL were assembled together with universal linker (G4S)3 to generate scFvs (single-chain variable fragments). The scFv antibodies were expressed with a phage system for the selection process. Exclusively, an expressed scFv against asynchronous culture of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes was selected and characterized. Sequence analysis of selected scFv revealed that this clone could be classified into a VH family-derived germline gene (VH1) and Vkappa family segment (Vkappa1). Using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we could show that soluble expressed scFv reacted with falciparum-infected erythrocytes. The results encourage the further study of scFvs for development as a potential immunotherapeutic agent.

  15. Synthesis and structure of perovskite ScMnO3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyan; Yu, Tian; Gao, Peng; Bai, Jianming; Tao, Jing; Tyson, Trevor A; Wang, Liping; Lalancette, Roger

    2013-08-19

    The rare-earth manganites RMnO3 (R = rare earth) are a class of important multiferroics with stable hexagonal structures for small R ion radius (Sc, Lu, Yb, ...). Metastable perovskite phases of these systems possess intriguing electronically driven electrical polarization, but the synthesis of the perovskite phase for the end member ScMnO3 system has proven to be elusive. We report the structure of a new monoclinic P2(1)/n perovskite phase of ScMnO3 synthesized from the hexagonal phase under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. This extends the small ion region for so-called E-phase electronically driven ferroelectric manganese perovsites.

  16. Experience with OpenMP for MADX-SC

    SciTech Connect

    D'Imperio, Nicholas; Montag, Christophe; Yu, Kwangmin; Kapin, Valery; McIntosh, Eric; Renshall, Harry; Schmidt, Frank

    2014-07-01

    MADX-SC allows the treatment of frozen space charge using beam-beam elements in a thin lattice, i.e. one can take advantage of the standard set-up of MAD-X lattices without the need for specialized codes for the space-charge (SC) evaluation. The idea is to simulate over many turns without the problem of noise as in the PIC SC codes. For the examples under study, like the PS and RHIC, it would be desirable to simulate up to 1 million turns or more. To this end one had to make an effort to optimize the scalar speed and, most importantly, get a speed-up of approximately a factor of 5 using OpenMP.

  17. Generation of a stable anti-human CD44v6 scFv and analysis of its cancer-targeting ability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinting; Huang, Kaihong; Li, Xuexian; Lin, Xiangan; Zhu, Zhaohua; Wu, Ying

    2010-06-01

    CD44v6 is a cancer-associated antigen that mainly expresses in a subset of adenocarcinomas. Therefore, in this study, anti-human CD44v6 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) has been selected and characterized because it is the first step of primary importance towards the construction of a novel cancer-targeted agent for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In our study, anti-human CD44v6 scFv was selected from a human phage-displayed scFv library based on its ability to bind in vitro to CD44v6 antigen. Subsequently, immunofluorescent staining and Western blot analyses were performed to measure the binding characteristics of this scFv. In addition, flow cytometric analysis was done to verify its cancer-targeting ability in vitro. And a flow cytometry-based assay was used to determine its equilibrium dissociation constant (K (D)). Finally, one functional anti-CD44v6 scFv was selected and characterized. Nucleotide sequencing verified that it was an incomplete scFv gene but had a variable heavy chain (V(H)) alone. However, anti-CD44v6 scFv demonstrated cell-binding and antigen-binding activities by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot analyses. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis proved that this scFv specifically targeted CD44v6-expressing cancer cells other than CD44v6 non-expressing normal cells or tumor cells in vitro. The K (D) of this scFv was calculated to be 7.85 +/- 0.93 x 10(-8) M. In summary, the selected human scFv against CD44v6 has specific binding activity and favorable binding affinity despite lacking a variable light chain (V(L)). Moreover, it can effectively and specifically target CD44v6-expressing cancer cells. All these characteristics make anti-CD44v6 scFv a promising agent for cancer detection and anti-cancer therapy.

  18. Hydrogen from water photolysis via SC-SEP cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ottova, A.L.; Tien, H.T.; Tan, Z.; Ren, P.; Luo, W.

    1997-12-31

    The use of semiconductor septum electrochemical photovoltaic (SC-SEP) cell, modeled after green plant photosynthesis, in an application of solar energy conversion,m is reported. A SC-SEP cell consists of a thin film of CdSe deposited on a metallic substrate (Ti, Ni, or stainless steel) as a bipolar septum electrode separating two aqueous solutions. It has been established that, upon irradiation of the septum electrode with visible light of the solar spectrum, photogenerated electron-hole pairs are separated under light.

  19. Sc-phthalocyanine sheet: Promising material for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Kun; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Le; Wang, Qian; Sun, Qiang; Jena, Puru

    2011-10-01

    It has been a long-standing dream to have high surface area materials with isolated and exposed transition-metal ions for hydrogen storage. The flexible synthesis procedure proposed recently by M. Abel, et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 1203 (2011)] and A. Sperl et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 11007 (2011)] provides a different pathway to achieve this goal. Using first-principles theory and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation, we carry out a systematic study of 3d transition metals (Sc to Zn)-phthalocyanine porous sheets and find that Sc-phthalocyanine can store 4.6 wt. % hydrogen at 298 K and 100 bar.

  20. Tetrahedron dynamics in the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn6Sc.

    PubMed

    Euchner, H; Yamada, T; Rols, S; Ishimasa, T; Kaneko, Y; Ollivier, J; Schober, H; Mihalkovic, M; de Boissieu, M

    2013-03-20

    A comparison of periodic approximants and their quasicrystalline counterparts offers the opportunity to better understand the structure, physical properties and stabilizing mechanisms of these complex phases. We present a combined experimental and molecular dynamics study of the lattice dynamics of the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and compare it to recently published results obtained for the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn(6)Sc. Both phases, quasicrystal and approximant, are built up from large atomic clusters which contain a tetrahedral shell at the cluster centre and are packed either quasiperiodically or on a bcc lattice. Using quasielastic neutron scattering and atomic scale simulations, we show that in the quasicrystal the tetrahedra display a dynamics similar to that observed in the 1/1-approximant: the tetrahedra behave as a 'single molecule' and reorient dynamically on a timescale of the order of a few ps. The tetrahedra reorientation is accompanied by a large distortion of the surrounding cluster shells which provide a unique dynamical flexibility to the quasicrystal. However, whereas in the 1/1-approximant the tetrahedron reorientation is observed down to T(c) = 160 K, where a phase transition takes place, in the quasicrystal the tetrahedron dynamics is gradually freezing from 550 to 300 K, similarly to a glassy system.

  1. Adipocyte Browning and Higher Mitochondrial Function in Periadrenal But Not SC Fat in Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Vergnes, Laurent; Davies, Graeme R; Lin, Jason Y; Yeh, Michael W; Livhits, Masha J; Harari, Avital; Symonds, Michael E; Sacks, Harold S; Reue, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Patients with pheochromocytoma (pheo) show presence of multilocular adipocytes that express uncoupling protein 1 within periadrenal (pADR) and omental (OME) fat depots. It has been hypothesized that this is due to adrenergic stimulation by catecholamines produced by the pheo tumors. To characterize the prevalence and respiratory activity of brown-like adipocytes within pADR, OME, and SC fat depots in human adult pheo patients. This was an observational cohort study. The study took place in a university hospital. We studied 46 patients who underwent surgery for benign adrenal tumors (21 pheos and 25 controls with adrenocortical adenomas). We characterized adipocyte browning in pADR, SC, and OME fat depots for histological and immunohistological features, mitochondrial respiration rate, and gene expression. We also determined circulating levels of catecholamines and other browning-related hormones. Eleven of 21 pheo pADR adipose samples, but only one of 25 pADR samples from control patients exhibited multilocular adipocytes. The pADR browning phenotype was associated with higher plasma catecholamines and raised uncoupling protein 1. Mitochondria from multilocular pADR fat of pheo patients exhibited increased rates of coupled and uncoupled respiration. Global gene expression analysis in pADR fat revealed enrichment in β-oxidation genes in pheo patients with multilocular adipocytes. No SC or OME fat depots exhibited aspects of browning. Browning of the pADR depot occurred in half of pheo patients and was associated with increased catecholamines and mitochondrial activity. No browning was detected in other fat depots, suggesting that other factors are required to promote browning in these depots.

  2. Superconductivity in the Hexagonal Ternary Phosphide ScIrP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Inohara, Takumi; Yamakawa, Youichi; Yamakage, Ai; Takenaka, Koshi

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bulk superconducting transition at 3.4 K in the ternary phosphide, ScIrP, which crystallizes in a hexagonal ZrNiAl-type structure without spatial inversion symmetry. On the basis of heat capacity data in a zero magnetic field, ScIrP is suggested to be a weakly-coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor. Alternatively, experimental results under magnetic fields indicate that this material is a type-II superconductor with an upper critical field Hc2 at magnetic fields above 5 T at zero temperature. This moderately high Hc2 does not violate the Pauli limit, but it does imply that there is a significant effect from the strong spin-orbit interaction of Ir 5d electrons in the noncentrosymmetric crystal structure. Electronic structure calculations show an interesting feature of ScIrP, where both the Sc 3d and Ir 5d orbitals contribute to the electronic density of states at the Fermi level.

  3. 77 FR 51471 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of the.... The Swim Around Charleston is scheduled to take place on Sunday, September 23, 2012. The temporary...

  4. 76 FR 38586 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish a temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on..., South Carolina. The Swim Around Charleston is scheduled to take place on Sunday, October 23, 2011. The...

  5. 78 FR 35798 - Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston; Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston; Charleston, SC... establish temporary moving safety zones during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on the.... The Swim Around Charleston is scheduled on Sunday, September 29, 2013. The temporary safety zones are...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter hansenii Strain SC-3B

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Richard; Ebels, Marcus; Bordbar, Darius

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study reports the release of the complete nucleotide sequence of Komagataeibacter hansenii SC-3B, a new efficient producer of cellulose. Elucidation of the genome may provide more information to aid in understanding the genes necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:28408681

  7. 78 FR 20369 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00021

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of South Carolina... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Horry. Contiguous Counties: South Carolina: Dillon...

  8. 78 FR 62001 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of South Carolina... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Georgetown. Contiguous Counties: South Carolina...

  9. 75 FR 67910 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...: This action amends Class E Airspace at Charleston, SC, by removing the East Cooper Airport from the airspace description. The East Cooper Airport has been renamed Mt. Pleasant Regional Airport- Faison Field... Charleston AFB/International Airport, the Charleston Executive Airport, and the East Cooper Airport. The...

  10. Annual evapotranspiration of a forested wetland watershed, SC

    Treesearch

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, hydro-meteorological data collected from 1 964 to 1 9 76 on an approximately 5, 000 ha predominantly forested coastal watershed (Turkey Creek) at the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC were analyzed to estimate annual evapotranspiration (E T) using four different empirical methods. The first one, reported by Zhang et a/. (2001), that...

  11. South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

  12. Genome Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain SC16

    PubMed Central

    Rastrojo, Alberto; López-Muñoz, Alberto Domingo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), also known as Human herpesvirus 1, is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including lethal encephalitis. Here, we report the genome sequence of the HSV-1 strain SC16. PMID:28126930

  13. SC3: Protecting Students and Staff with Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    EPA's Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign (SC3) is working to encourage schools to use green cleaning practices to safely clean their classrooms and grounds. From elementary school maintenance closets to high school chemistry labs, schools use a variety of chemicals. Some of the most essential chemicals are those that keep schools clean and safe…

  14. South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

  15. Determining volume sensitive waters in Beaufort County, SC tidal creeks

    Treesearch

    Andrew Tweel; Denise Sanger; Anne Blair; John Leffler

    2016-01-01

    Non-point source pollution from stormwater runoff associated with large-scale land use changes threatens the integrity of ecologically and economically valuable estuarine ecosystems. Beaufort County, SC implemented volume-based stormwater regulations on the rationale that if volume discharge is controlled, contaminant loading will also be controlled.

  16. Effect of Sc{sup 3+} on structural and magnetic properties of Mn-Zn nano ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Angadi, Jagadeesha V.; Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Srinatha, N.; Rudraswamy, B. E-mail: jagadeeshbub@gmail.com; Melagiriyappa, E.

    2016-05-23

    In the present investigation, for the first time, we report on the effect of Sc{sup 3+} on the structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Sc{sub y}Fe{sub 2-y}O{sub 4} (y = 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) nanoferrites synthesized by solution combustion method using the mixture of fuels. As synthesized powders were characterized for the detailed structural analysis by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and room temperature magnetic properties by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results of XRD and FTIR confirm that the formation of nano crystalline, single-phased Mn-Zn ferrite with cubic spinel structure belongs to Fd-3m space group. The room temperature magnetic studies shows that, the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}), remanence magnetization (M{sub R}) and magnetic moment (η{sub B}), magnetic particle size (D{sub m}) have found to increase with Sc{sup 3+} ion concentration up to x = 0.3 and then decrease. The values of αY-K and the magnetic particle size (D{sub m}) are found to be in the range of 68-75° and 10-19 nm respectively, with Sc{sup 3+} concentration.

  17. AAV-mediated expression of anti-tau scFvs decreases tau accumulation in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Ising, Christina; Gallardo, Gilbert; Leyns, Cheryl E G; Wong, Connie H; Stewart, Floy; Koscal, Lauren J; Roh, Joseph; Robinson, Grace O; Remolina Serrano, Javier; Holtzman, David M

    2017-05-01

    Tauopathies are characterized by the progressive accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, aggregated forms of tau. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that passive immunization with an anti-tau antibody, HJ8.5, decreased accumulation of pathological tau in a human P301S tau-expressing transgenic (P301S-tg) mouse model of frontotemporal dementia/tauopathy. To investigate whether the Fc domain of HJ8.5 is required for the therapeutic effect, we engineered single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) derived from HJ8.5 with variable linker lengths, all specific to human tau. Based on different binding properties, we selected two anti-tau scFvs and tested their efficacy in vivo by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer to the brain of P301S-tg mice. The scFvs significantly reduced levels of hyperphosphorylated, aggregated tau in brain tissue of P301S-tg mice, associated with a decrease in detergent-soluble tau species. Interestingly, these mice showed substantial levels of scFvs in the cerebrospinal fluid without significant effects on total extracellular tau levels. Therefore, our study provides a novel strategy for anti-tau immunotherapeutics that potentially limits a detrimental proinflammatory response. © 2017 Ising et al.

  18. Construction of a single chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) against tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its interaction with TTX.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongzhi; Huang, Ailing; Liu, Licai; Xiang, Shuangshuang; Li, Xiufeng; Ling, Sumei; Wang, Lei; Lu, Tun; Wang, Shihua

    2014-06-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a small molecular weight neurotoxin that occludes voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve and muscle tissue, resulting in respiratory paralysis and death. A high affinity antibody that can neutralize the toxicity of TTX is still lacking, so it is very important to prepare an antibody for TTX therapy and detection. In the present study, a chemical method was used to prepare the tetrodotoxin complete antigen, and a small amount, repeatedly immunity way was carried to immunize 4 mice. The amplified genes encoding monoclonal antibodies against TTX were used to construct the phage display library. After six rounds of biopanning, an antibody named scFv-T53 was characterized from clones showing high affinity and specific to TTX, and its affinity constant was 1.1 × 10(6) L/mol. Three dimensional structure of the scFv-T53 was constructed by computer modeling, and TTX was docked to the scFv-T53 model to obtain the structure of the binding complex. Two predicted essential amino acids, K183 and I189, were mutated to verify the theoretical model. Both mutants lost binding activity significantly against TTX as predicted by the theoretical model. Hence, the above results will be useful for screening the high affinity anti-TTX scFv mutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective isolation of hydrophobin SC3 by solid-phase extraction with polytetrafluoroethylene microparticles and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kupčík, Rudolf; Zelená, Miroslava; Řehulka, Pavel; Bílková, Zuzana; Česlová, Lenka

    2016-02-01

    Hydrophobins are small proteins that play a role in a number of processes during the filamentous fungi growth and development. These proteins are characterized by the self-assembly of their molecules into an amphipathic membrane at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Isolation and purification of hydrophobins generally present a challenge in their analysis. Hydrophobin SC3 from Schizophyllum commune was selected as a representative of class I hydrophobins in this work. A novel procedure for selective and effective isolation of hydrophobin SC3 based on solid-phase extraction with polytetrafluoroethylene microparticles loaded in a small self-made microcolumn is reported. The tailored binding of hydrophobins to polytetrafluoroethylene followed by harsh elution conditions resulted in a highly specific isolation of hydrophobin SC3 from the model mixture of ten proteins. The presented isolation protocol can have a positive impact on the analysis and utilization of these proteins including all class I hydrophobins. Hydrophobin SC3 was further subjected to reduction of its highly stable disulfide bonds and to chymotryptic digestion followed by mass spectrometric analysis. The isolation and digestion protocols presented in this work make the analysis of these highly hydrophobic and compact proteins possible.

  20. Update on the NSF PAARE Program at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Ajello, Marco; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    We report on results from our NSF PAARE program during Year 2 of the project. Our partnership under this PAARE award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. Our recent work on variable and peculiar stars, work with the Kepler Observatory and our educational products in cosmology for non-STEM majors will be presented. We have successfully piloted sharing our teaching resources by offering an upper-level astrophysics course taught at Clemson via video conferencing , allowing a graduating senior from SC State to take a course not available through his home institution. Additionally, we are working on a memorandum of agreement between the two institutions that will allow for the seamless transfer of an undergraduate from SC State to Clemson’s graduate program in physics and astronomy. Our curriculum work includes new web-based cosmology activities and laboratory experiments. SC State undergraduates are reporting at this conference on their work with the light curves of semiregular variables using Kepler data. Additionally, we are heavily involved in the Citizen CATE Experiment. A PAARE scholarship student from SC State and the PAARE PI traveled to Indonesia for the March 2016 solar eclipse. Their results are also being presented elsewhere at this conference (see Myles McKay’s poster). Support for this work includes our NSF PAARE award AST-1358913 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Additional support has been provided by the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium and from NASA to SC State under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. CATE work has been supported by NASA SMD award NNX16AB92A to the National Solar Observatory. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu

  1. The crystallography of cleavage fracture in Al sub 3 Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Hazzledine, P.M. )

    1992-04-01

    The intermetallic compound Al{sub 3}Sc is a trialuminide with the L1{sub 2} structure, which deforms easily in compression at room temperature, with yield stresses around 100 MPa. As shown by single crystal compression experiments, slip occurs on {l brace}111{r brace} planes. In tension Al{sub 3}Sc fractures transgranularly in a brittle manner. The predominant cleavage plane is {l brace}011{r brace}. In a scanning electron microscope (SEM) numerous cleavage steps, which are aligned in three major crystallographic directions, are observed. The fracture surfaces almost always show some microscopic waviness along the traces of intersecting slip planes. Regions that are flat within the experimental resolution of the SEM are only occasionally observed. Some of the cleavage steps consist of {l brace}111{r brace} or {l brace}001{r brace} planes, but others are not distinctly crystallographic. Plastic deformation involving dislocation motion or twinning may have occurred at these steps. Reactions among different types of steps are also observed. One type of cleavage pattern found is strikingly similar to the typical appearance of fracture surfaces of fcc or fcc related materials after stress corrosion cracking. However, this particular pattern is only rarely observed in Al{sub 3}Sc and can therefore not be taken as evidence for stress corrosion cracking in this material. Our observations indicate that an interpretation of cleavage fracture in Al{sub 3}Sc in terms of surface energies alone is unlikely to be successful. Similarly, any criterion that categorizes its fracture behavior into either fully brittle or fuly ductile is faced with difficulties. A full understanding of the fracture morphology of Al{sub 3}Sc will therefore require detailed atomistic simulations.

  2. Growth of ScN(111) on Sc2O3(111) for GaN integration on Si(111): Experiment and ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, P.; Tetzner, H.; Dabrowski, J.; Lupina, L.; Costina, I.; Thapa, S. B.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.; Zoellner, M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Growth mechanism of ScN on Sc2O3 for integration of Ga-polar GaN on Si(111) is investigated by in-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, ex-situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ScN films are grown by molecular beam epitaxy from e-beam evaporated Sc and N plasma. The films grow in a layer-by-layer (Frank-van der Merwe, FM) fashion. Diffusion of nitrogen into Sc2O3 and segregation of oxygen onto ScN are observed. The segregated O atoms are gradually removed from the surface by N atoms from the plasma. Experiment and theory show that nitrogen cannot be efficiently incorporated into Sc2O3 by exposing it to N plasma alone, and calculations indicate that anion intermixing between ScN and Sc2O3 should be weak. On the basis of ab-initio data, the in-diffusion of N into Sc2O3 is attributed mostly to the effect of interaction between ScN ad-dimers on the Sc2O3 surface in the initial stage of growth. The segregation of O to the ScN surface is understood as driven by the tendency to compensate build-up of the electric field in the polar ScN film. This segregation is computed to be energetically favorable (by 0.4 eV per O atom) already for a monolayer of ScN; the energy gain increases to 1.0 eV and 1.6 eV per O atom for two and three ScN layers, respectively. Finally, it is verified by DFT that the ScN deposition method in which Sc metallic film is deposited first and then nitridized would lead to strong incorporation of O into the grown film, accompanied by strong reduction of the Sc2O3 substrate.

  3. SC-III3, a novel scopoletin derivative, induces cytotoxicity in hepatocellular cancer cells through oxidative DNA damage and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated nuclear protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Chen, Li; Li, Lin-Hu; Wei, Zhi-Feng; Tong, Bei; Jia, Yu-Gai; Kong, Ling-Yi; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue

    2014-12-19

    Natural products from plants have been proven to be important resources of antitumor agents. In this study, we exploited the antitumor activity of (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl) acrylamide (SC-III3), a newly synthesized derivative of scopoletin, by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cells and xenograft of HepG2 cells in BALB/c nude mice were used to investigate the effects of SC-III3 on hepatocellular cancers. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and ATM-Chk pathway-related proteins were characterized by western blot. SC-III3 selectively inhibited the viability of HepG2 cells without significant cytotoxicity against human normal liver cells LO2. In mouse xenograft model of HepG2 cells, SC-III3 showed a marked inhibition of tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis revealed that SC-III3 induced cells to accumulate in S phase, which was accompanied by a marked decrease of the expressions of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin E and Cdk2 proteins, the crucial regulators of S phase cell cycle. SC-III3 treatment resulted in DNA breaks in HepG2 cells, which might contribute to its S phase arrest. The S arrest and the activation of ATM-Chk1/Chk2-Cdc25A-Cdk2 pathways induced by SC-III3 in HepG2 cells could be efficiently abrogated by pretreatments of either Ku55933 (an inhibitor of ATM) or UCN-01 (an inhibitor of Chk1/Chk2). The activation of p53-p21 pathway by SC-III3 was also reversed by Ku55933 treatment. SC-III3 led to significant accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), a breaker of DNA strand, in HepG2 cells but not LO2 cells. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, could reverse SC-III3-caused ROS accumulation, DNA damage, activation of signal pathways relevant to DNA damage, S phase arrest and cell viability decrease in HepG2 cells. SC-III3 is able to efficiently inhibit the

  4. Biochemical characterization of ketosis-resistant young diabetics of northern India. In vivo effects of i.v. glucose, s.c. epinephrine and i.v. glucagon and in vitro effects of anti-insulin serum on adipose tissue lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Krishna Ram, B; Sachdev, G; Chopra, A; Karmarkar, M G

    1984-01-01

    Epinephrine (10 micrograms/kg body weight) s.c., glucagon (1 microgram/kg body weight) i.v. and glucose (0.5 g/kg body weight) i.v. were injected in groups of ketosis-prone young diabetics, ketosis-resistant young diabetics, maturity-onset diabetics, young and mature controls, each group comprising 8 subjects. Samples were drawn at timed intervals and analyzed for glucose, FFA, acetone, citrate and plasma free insulin. FFA and glycerol release by the adipose tissue in vitro was studied in 6 of each of the following groups: young diabetics and young controls in the presence of norepinephrine, anti-insulin serum or both. Failure of the adipose tissue of ketosis-resistant young diabetics to respond to lipolytic and ketogenic hormones has been suggested by others as the basis for the clinically observed resistance to ketoacidosis. The present data do not confirm any failure of the liver or adipose tissue to respond to glucagon, epinephrine or norepinephrine in these diabetics. The ketosis-resistant young diabetics have some endogenous insulin secretory capacity still preserved as evident from their basal and post-glucose free insulin levels and effects of anti-insulin serum on in vitro lipolysis by their adipose tissues. The available endogenous insulin though adequate in preventing excessive lipolysis and ketogenesis, appears insufficient to check hyperglycemia.

  5. DiScRIBinATE: a rapid method for accurate taxonomic classification of metagenomic sequences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In metagenomic sequence data, majority of sequences/reads originate from new or partially characterized genomes, the corresponding sequences of which are absent in existing reference databases. Since taxonomic assignment of reads is based on their similarity to sequences from known organisms, the presence of reads originating from new organisms poses a major challenge to taxonomic binning methods. The recently published SOrt-ITEMS algorithm uses an elaborate work-flow to assign reads originating from hitherto unknown genomes with significant accuracy and specificity. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of reads still get misclassified. Besides, the use of an alignment-based orthology step (for improving the specificity of assignments) increases the total binning time of SOrt-ITEMS. Results In this paper, we introduce a rapid binning approach called DiScRIBinATE (Distance Score Ratio for Improved Binning And Taxonomic Estimation). DiScRIBinATE replaces the orthology approach of SOrt-ITEMS with a quicker 'alignment-free' approach. We demonstrate that incorporating this approach reduces binning time by half without any loss in the specificity and accuracy of assignments. Besides, a novel reclassification strategy incorporated in DiScRIBinATE results in reducing the overall misclassification rate to around 3 - 7%. This misclassification rate is 1.5 - 3 times lower as compared to that by SOrt-ITEMS, and 3 - 30 times lower as compared to that by MEGAN. Conclusions A significant reduction in binning time, coupled with a superior assignment accuracy (as compared to existing binning methods), indicates the immense applicability of the proposed algorithm in rapidly mapping the taxonomic diversity of large metagenomic samples with high accuracy and specificity. Availability The program is available on request from the authors. PMID:21106121

  6. Topotactic oxidation pathway of ScTiO3 and high-temperature structure evolution of ScTiO3.5 and Sc4Ti3O12-type phases.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Shahid P; Hernden, Bradley C; Cranswick, Lachlan M D; Hansen, Thomas C; Bieringer, Mario

    2012-02-06

    The novel oxide defect fluorite phase ScTiO(3.5) is formed during the topotactic oxidation of ScTiO(3) bixbyite. We report the oxidation pathway of ScTiO(3) and structure evolution of ScTiO(3.5), Sc(4)Ti(3)O(12), and related scandium-deficient phases as well as high-temperature phase transitions between room temperature and 1300 °Cusing in-situ X-ray diffraction. We provide the first detailed powder neutron diffraction study for ScTiO(3). ScTiO(3) crystallizes in the cubic bixbyite structure in space group Ia3 (206) with a = 9.7099(4) Å. The topotactic oxidation product ScTiO(3.5) crystallizes in an oxide defect fluorite structure in space group Fm3m (225) with a = 4.89199(5) Å. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis experiments combined with in-situ X-ray powder diffraction studies illustrate a complex sequence of a topotactic oxidation pathway, phase segregation, and ion ordering at high temperatures. The optimized bulk synthesis for phase pure ScTiO(3.5) is presented. In contrast to the vanadium-based defect fluorite phases AVO(3.5+x) (A = Sc, In) the novel titanium analogue ScTiO(3.5) is stable over a wide temperature range. Above 950 °C ScTiO(3.5) undergoes decomposition with the final products being Sc(4)Ti(3)O(12) and TiO(2). Simultaneous Rietveld refinements against powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data showed that Sc(4)Ti(3)O(12) also exists in the defect fluorite structure in space group Fm3m (225) with a = 4.90077(4) Å. Sc(4)Ti(3)O(12) undergoes partial reduction in CO/Ar atmosphere to form Sc(4)Ti(3)O(11.69(2)).

  7. Two anionically derivatized scandium oxoselenates(IV): ScF[SeO3] and Sc2O2[SeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Stefan; Chou, Sheng-Chun; Schleid, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Scandium fluoride oxoselenate(IV) ScF[SeO3] and scandium oxide oxoselenate(IV) Sc2O2[SeO3] could be synthesized through solid-state reactions. ScF[SeO3] was obtained phase-pure, by reacting mixtures of Sc2O3, ScF3 and SeO2 (molar ratio: 1:1:3) together with CsBr as fluxing agent in corundum crucibles embedded into evacuated glassy silica ampoules after firing at 700 °C for seven days. Sc2O2[SeO3] first emerged as by-product during the attempts to synthesize ScCl[SeO3] following aforementioned synthesis route and could later be reproduced from appropriate Sc2O3/SeO3 mixtures. ScF[SeO3] crystallizes monoclinically in space group P21/m with a=406.43(2), b =661.09(4), c=632.35(4) pm, β=93.298(3)° and Z=2. Sc2O2[SeO3] also crystallizes in the monoclinic system, but in space group P21/n with a=786.02(6), b=527.98(4), c=1086.11(8) pm, β=108.672(3)° for Z=4. The crystal structures of both compounds are strongly influenced by the stereochemically active lone pairs of the ψ1-tetrahedral [SeO3]2- anions. They also show partial structures, where the derivatizing F- or O2- anions play an important role. For ScF[SeO3] chains of the composition 2+ ∞ 1[FSc2/2] form from connected [FSc2]5+ dumbbells, while [OSc3]7+ pyramids and [OSc4]10+ tetrahedra units are condensed to layers according to 2+ ∞ 2[O2Sc2 ] in Sc2O2[SeO3].

  8. Improved input and output couplers for SC acceleration structure

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Latina, A.; Lunin, A.; Poloubotko, V.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Different couplers are described that allow the reduction of both transverse wake potential and RF kick in the SC acceleration structure of ILC. A simple rotation of the couplers reducing the RF kick and transverse wake kick is discussed for both the main linac and bunch compressors, along with possible limitations of this method. Designs of a coupler unit are presented which preserve axial symmetry of the structure, and provide reduced both the RF kick and transverse wake field.

  9. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Buses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a space telescope and the other for a formation-flying occulter. SC buses typically supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads. Unique requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter, and comunications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). However, TPF-O is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) with a Field of View (FOV) much larger than that of HST. Ths WFC is also expected to provide fine guidance. TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large science FOV require higher performance communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. The velocity required for reachng SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Finally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived fiom that of HST to allow servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  10. Observation of subsonic and supersonic radiation fronts on OMEGA utilizing radiation transport through Sc-doped aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, H. M.; Kline, J.; Lanier, N.; Perry, T.; Fontes, C.; Fryer, C.; Brown, C.; Morton, J.; Hager, J.

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of a heat front in an astrophysical or inertial confinement fusion plasma involves both the equation of state and the opacity of the plasma, and is therefore an important and challenging radiation transport problem. Past experiments have used absorption spectroscopy in chlorinated foams to measure the heat front. (D. Hoarty et al. PRL 82, 3070, 1999). Recent development of Ti-doped cylindrical aerogel foam targets (J. Hager et al. submitted to RSI) results in a more suitable platform for higher temperatures on NIF than Cl dopant. Ti K-shell absorption spectra can be modeled with PrismSPECT to obtain spatially resolved temperature profiles between 100-180eV. Sc dopant has been selected to characterize the heat front between 60-100eV. Improved understanding of non-planckian x-ray drives generated by hohlraums will advance characterization of the radiation transport. Prior work demonstrates PrismSPECT with OPLIB is more physically complete for Sc (H. Johns et al. submitted to RSI). We will present the first application of spectroscopic analysis of the Sc-doped aerogels utilizing this method. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. Stability of ScGaN alloys: a SIESTA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandler, Nancy; Ordejon, Pablo; Constantin, Costel; Al-Brithen, Hamad; Haider, Muhammad; Ingram, David; Smith, Arthur

    2004-03-01

    We report on a first-principle study on the stability of alloy formation ScGaN as observed in recent experiments [1]. Our simulations are performed using SIESTA [2], a self-consistent density functional method using standard norm-conserving pseudo-potentials and a flexible numerical linear combination of atomic orbitals basis set. The original GaN wurtzite structure is modeled with a 32 atom supercell and modified by the introduction of different Sc concentrations. After full relaxation, anisotropic deviations on the values for the wurtzite lattice parameters are observed. For small Sc concentrations, these averaged anisotropic distortions are consistent with the existence of a non-fully developed metastable layered hexagonal phase as proposed in [3]. [1] C. Constantin, H. Al-Brithen, M. Haider, D. Ingram and A. Smith (Unpublished) [2] D. Sanchez-Portal, P. Ordejon, E. Artacho, and J. M. Soler, Int. Journ. of Quant. Chem. 65, 453 (1999). [3] N. Farrer and L. Bellaiche PRB 66, 201203 (2002)

  12. Bulk viscosity in 2SC and CFL quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark G.; Schmitt, Andreas

    2007-11-19

    The bulk viscosities of two color-superconducting phases, the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase and the 2SC phase, are computed and compared to the result for unpaired quark matter. In the case of the CFL phase, processes involving kaons and the superfluid mode give the largest contribution to the bulk viscosity since all fermionic modes are gapped. In the case of the 2SC phase, ungapped fermionic modes are present and the process u+d{r_reversible}u+s provides the dominant contribution. In both cases, the bulk viscosity can become larger than that of the unpaired phase for sufficiently large temperatures (T > or approx. 1 MeV for CFL, T > or approx. 0.1 MeV for 2SC). Bulk viscosity (as well as shear viscosity) is important for the damping of r-modes in compact stars and thus can potentially be used as an indirect signal for the presence or absence of color-superconducting quark matter.

  13. Development of human-like scFv-Fc antibodies neutralizing Botulinum toxin serotype B

    PubMed Central

    Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Chahboun, Siham; Tierney, Rob; Bak, Nicola; Miethe, Sebastian; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael; Pelat, Thibaut; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, 7 subtypes of BoNT/B were identified showing that subtypes B1 (16 strains) and B2 (32 strains) constitute the vast majority of BoNT/B strains. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of anti-botulism drugs to deal with the potential risk. In this study, macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with recombinant light chain (LC) or heavy chain (HC) of BoNT/B2, followed by the construction of 2 hyper-immune phage display libraries. The best single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) isolated from each library were selected according to their affinities and cross reactivity with BoNT/B1 toxin subtype. These scFvs against LC and HC were further analyzed by assessing the inhibition of in vitro endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B1 and B2 and neutralization of BoNT/B1 and B2 toxin-induced paralysis in the mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. The antibodies B2–7 (against HC) and BLC3 (against LC) were produced as scFv-Fc, and, when tested individually, neutralized BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 in a mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. Whereas only scFv-Fc BLC3 alone protected mice against BoNT/B2-induced paralysis in vivo, when B2–7 and BLC3 were combined they exhibited potent synergistic protection. The present study provided an opportunity to assess the extent of antibody-mediated neutralization of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 subtypes in ex vivo and in vitro assays, and to confirm the benefit of the synergistic effect of antibodies targeting the 2 distinct functional domains of the toxin in vivo. Notably, the framework regions of the most promising antibodies (B2–7 and BLC3) are close to the human germline sequences

  14. Development of human-like scFv-Fc antibodies neutralizing Botulinum toxin serotype B.

    PubMed

    Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Chahboun, Siham; Tierney, Rob; Bak, Nicola; Miethe, Sebastian; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael; Pelat, Thibaut; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, 7 subtypes of BoNT/B were identified showing that subtypes B1 (16 strains) and B2 (32 strains) constitute the vast majority of BoNT/B strains. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of anti-botulism drugs to deal with the potential risk. In this study, macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with recombinant light chain (LC) or heavy chain (HC) of BoNT/B2, followed by the construction of 2 hyper-immune phage display libraries. The best single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) isolated from each library were selected according to their affinities and cross reactivity with BoNT/B1 toxin subtype. These scFvs against LC and HC were further analyzed by assessing the inhibition of in vitro endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B1 and B2 and neutralization of BoNT/B1 and B2 toxin-induced paralysis in the mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. The antibodies B2-7 (against HC) and BLC3 (against LC) were produced as scFv-Fc, and, when tested individually, neutralized BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 in a mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. Whereas only scFv-Fc BLC3 alone protected mice against BoNT/B2-induced paralysis in vivo, when B2-7 and BLC3 were combined they exhibited potent synergistic protection. The present study provided an opportunity to assess the extent of antibody-mediated neutralization of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 subtypes in ex vivo and in vitro assays, and to confirm the benefit of the synergistic effect of antibodies targeting the 2 distinct functional domains of the toxin in vivo. Notably, the framework regions of the most promising antibodies (B2-7 and BLC3) are close to the human germline sequences, which

  15. Isolation of scFv fragments specific to OmpD of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Stratmann-Selke, Janin; Meens, Jochen; Schirrmann, Thomas; Gerlach, Gerald F; Frank, Ronald; Dübel, Stefan; Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Hust, Michael

    2011-01-10

    Pork meat is one of the major sources for human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars. Further, zoonoses caused by S. enterica subspecies enterica serovars are responsible for substantial economical losses in industrial countries. Quick and reliable detection of this infection is urgently needed to improve consumer security. Due to its capability to identify infections independent of the species, a competitive ELISA is the preferable method for the detection of anti-Salmonella antibodies in serum. Recombinant antibody fragments (scFvs) were isolated from the naive human antibody gene library HAL7 by phage display. Recombinant produced outer membrane protein D (OmpD) of Salmonella Typhimurium was used as antigen. The characterization of the isolated single chain Fv (scFv) antibodies was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblot, sequencing, epitope mapping and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The detection of anti-OmpD IgGs in swine sera by competitive ELISA was shown in a proof of principle concept. Furthermore, the developed competitive ELISA would be compatible to a recently published DIVA vaccine, allow to distinguish between infected and vaccinated pigs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth and magnetic properties of MnCl2-4SC(NH2)2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Xu, H. S.; Chen, L. M.; Song, J. D.; Wu, J. C.; Liu, X. G.; Zhao, X.; Sun, X. F.

    2016-10-01

    NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTN) is a famous one-dimensional antiferromagnet with magnon Bose-Einstein condensation. In this work, single crystals of MnCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTM) with size up to (8-10)×(8-10)×(3-5) mm3 are grown by using the slow evaporation method with optimized conditions. The single crystals are characterized by measurements of X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat. It is found that although DTM has a similar crystal structure to DTN, it shows a paramagnetic behavior. The reason for no spin exchange among Mn2+ ions can be understood in terms of the negligible overlap of the Mn2+-3d orbital and the neighboring Cl--3p orbital.

  17. Production of single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies in Escherichia coli using the LEX™ bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Miethe, Sebastian; Meyer, Torsten; Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2013-01-20

    For proteome research, antibodies against a growing number of antigens must be generated and characterized. The high throughput generation of antibody fragments, using in vitro selection, requires bacterial expression of antibody fragments. This created a need to establish an expression method to improve the parallel production of many antibody fragments. In this study, we describe the development of a high throughput bacterial production method for single chain fragment variables (scFvs) using shaking flasks or the LEX™ bioreactor. We compared the influence of a set of production parameters on Escherichia coli production of four different scFv. The results led to an optimized protocol for the parallel production of multiple antibody fragments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diffuse scattering and phason fluctuations in the Zn-Mg-Sc icosahedral quasicrystal and its Zn-Sc periodic approximant.

    PubMed

    de Boissieu, M; Francoual, S; Kaneko, Y; Ishimasa, T

    2005-09-02

    We report on the absolute scale measurement of the x-ray diffuse scattering in the ZnMgSc icosahedral quasicrystal and its periodic approximant. Whereas the diffuse scattering in the approximant is purely accounted for by thermal diffuse scattering, an additional signal is observed in the quasicrystal. It is related to phason fluctuations as indicated by its Q(2)(per) dependence. Moreover, when compared to previous measurements carried out on the i-AlPdMn phase, we find that the amount of diffuse scattering is smaller in the i-ZnMgSc phase, in agreement with larger phason elastic constants in this phase. This is confirmed by the observation of a large number of weak Bragg peaks having a high Q(per) reciprocal space component.

  19. Diffuse Scattering and Phason Fluctuations in the Zn-Mg-Sc Icosahedral Quasicrystal and Its Zn-Sc Periodic Approximant

    SciTech Connect

    Boissieu, M. de; Francoual, S.; Kaneko, Y.; Ishimasa, T.

    2005-09-02

    We report on the absolute scale measurement of the x-ray diffuse scattering in the ZnMgSc icosahedral quasicrystal and its periodic approximant. Whereas the diffuse scattering in the approximant is purely accounted for by thermal diffuse scattering, an additional signal is observed in the quasicrystal. It is related to phason fluctuations as indicated by its Q{sub per}{sup 2} dependence. Moreover, when compared to previous measurements carried out on the i-AlPdMn phase, we find that the amount of diffuse scattering is smaller in the i-ZnMgSc phase, in agreement with larger phason elastic constants in this phase. This is confirmed by the observation of a large number of weak Bragg peaks having a high Q{sub per} reciprocal space component.

  20. First-principles lattice dynamical study of ScAs and ScSb at zero and high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Bipul; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Celino, Massimo

    A first-principles pseudopotential method is used to investigate the structural and elastic properties of ScAs and ScSb in their ambient B1(NaCl) and in high pressure B2 (CsCl) phases and phonon structures at zero and close to phase transition pressure. The calculated lattice constants, static bulk modulus, first order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus and the elastic constants are reported in B1 and B2 structures and compared with available experimental and other theoretical results. The phonon properties of these two compounds are compared among themselves which reveal that these compounds are predominantly metallic, due to degeneracy of optical frequencies at the zone centre. At high pressure, near the B1 to B2 transition, the LA mode at X-point softens leading to structural instability.

  1. The nonlinear large-eddy simulation method applied to Sc ≈1 and Sc ≫1 passive-scalar mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Gregory C.

    2008-03-01

    The nonlinear large-eddy simulation (nLES) method is extended here to simulations of Sc ≈1 and Sc ≫1 turbulent mixing of passive-scalar fields. These are the first LES studies to reproduce the instantaneous structure of the scalar-energy field ϕ¯2(x,t) at viscous-convective scales in the high Schmidt-number regime. The simulations employ a refinement of the nLES method with multifractal modeling first proposed by G. C. Burton and W. J. A. Dahm [Phys. Fluids 17, 075111 (2005)]. In this approach, the nonlinear inertial stresses uiuj¯ in the filtered Navier-Stokes equation and the nonlinear scalar fluxes ujϕ¯ in the filtered advection-diffusion equation are calculated directly, using multifractal models for the subgrid velocity and scalar fields, ujsgs and ϕsgs. Resolved energy levels are controlled by a new adaptive backscatter limiter that adjusts locally to changing flow conditions consistent with the mechanism governing energy transfer in actual hydrodynamic turbulence. No artificial viscosity or diffusivity closures are applied and no explicit de-aliasing is performed. The nLES approach is shown to simulate accurately Sc ≈1 mixing for flows between Reλ≈35 and 4100, the highest Reλ tested. Characteristics of the resulting scalar field are examined, including the turbulence-to-scalar time-scale ratio and total scalar variance ⟨ϕ'2⟩, indicating good agreement with prior studies. Simulations between Sc =8 and 8192 produce the first scalar-energy spectra from an LES that exhibit k-1 scaling in the viscous-convective range, consistent with the analytical prediction of G. K. Batchelor [J. Fluid Mech. 5, 113 (1959)]. The simulations indicate decreasing scalar anisotropy and increasing intermittency with increasing Schmidt number, also consistent with prior studies.

  2. Experimental Link of Photoionization of Sc2+ to Photorecombination of Sc3+: An Application of Detailed Balance in a Unique Atomic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Ricz, S.; Bannister, M. E.; Dunn, G. H.; Bozek, J.; Schlachter, A. S.; Hinojosa, G.; Cisneros, C.; Aguilar, A.; Covington, A. M.; Gharaibeh, M. F.; Phaneuf, R. A.

    2002-10-01

    The principle of microscopic time reversal of physical processes, detailed balance, is widely used and depended upon in the theoretical community as a connection between photorecombination (PR) and photoionization (PI). This paper reports on a novel use of detailed balance and the comparison of experimental results obtained by two very distinct techniques to determine both the metastable fraction of an ion beam and partial Sc3+ PR cross sections and partial Sc2+ PI cross sections for the ground state and for two metastable states. The Sc2+ to Sc3+ system presents a unique opportunity to obtain comprehensive state-selective information by combining results from PR and PI experiments.

  3. Acid-base chemistry in the formation of Mackay-type icosahedral clusters: μ3-acidity analysis of Sc-rich phases of the Sc-Ir system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiming; Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-05-19

    The crystal structures of intermetallic phases offer a wealth of geometrical features (helices, multishelled clusters, and host-guest motifs) whose formation has yet to be explained or predicted by chemical theory. A recently developed extension of the acid-base concept to metallic systems, the μ3-acidity model, provides an avenue for developing this understanding for intermetallics formed from transition metals. In this Article, we illustrate how this approach can be used to understand one of the most striking geometrical entities to emerge in intermetallic chemistry, the Mackay cluster of icosahedral quasicrystals. We present μ3-acidity analyses, based on DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations, for a series of Sc-Ir intermetallics: ScIr (CsCl-type), Sc2Ir (Ti2Ni-type), Sc11Ir4, and the Mackay cluster containing phases Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7. We begin by illustrating that a μ3-acidity model correctly predicts that each of these phases is stable relative to disproportionation into their neighboring compounds when a common set of Hückel parameters and d-orbital occupancies is used. Next, we explain these results by developing a relationship between the distance distribution of homoatomic contacts within an atom's coordination sphere and the μ3-neutralization it experiences. For a given average homoatomic distance, the role of heteroatomic contacts is higher when the distribution of homoatomic contacts is narrower. This effect is key to the strength of the acid-base neutralization of the Sc-rich phases, where the Sc atoms find a scarcity of Ir atoms from which to obtain neutralization. Under these circumstances, Sc-Ir contacts should be maximized, whereas the number and distance variations of the Sc-Sc contacts should be minimized. These expectations are borne out by the observed crystal structures. In particular, the Mackay clusters of Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7, in which a central Ir atom is icosahedrally coordinated by a pentagonal dodecahedral array of face-sharing Sc

  4. Study of structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in rocksalt and zincblende structure: A DFT approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Vikas Verma, U. P.

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in zincblende (ZB) and rocksalt (RS) phases. We have employed the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-APW) method within the density functional theory (DFT). Generalized gradient approximation (GGA), due to Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) has been used to estimate the exchange-correlation functional. Our band structure results for ScN shows the metallic nature, whereas ScAs shows the semiconducting behavior. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data.

  5. Hydrophobins Sc3 and Sc4 gene expression in mounds, fruiting bodies and vegetative hyphae of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutami; Robertson, Deborah L; Leonard, Thomas J

    2008-03-01

    An abnormal growth form called mound has been hypothesized to be a neoplasm in the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune. An alternative hypothesis is that mounds represent some unusual developmental form in the fruiting body morphogenetic pathway. Hydrophobin proteins have been found in fruiting bodies where they line the surface of gas exchange pores and function to keep the pores hydrophobic. To further determine possible relationships between mounds and fruiting bodies, mound tissue was examined for gas exchange pores and the presence of hydrophobins. Cryoscanning electron microscopic images revealed the presence of channels in mound tissue and presumptive hydrophobin rodlets similar to the air channels in fruiting bodies. Hydrophobin gene expression was also measured in mound tissue using quantitative real-time PCR and showed both monokaryotic and dikaryotic mound tissue exhibited high expression of the dikaryotic specific Sc4 hydrophobin gene. In contrast, Sc4 hydrophobin expression was barely detectable in monokaryotic fruiting bodies. The expression of Sc4 hydrophobin genes in mounds suggests mound development uses this aspect of the dikaryotic fruiting developmental pathway.

  6. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C: Establishing AN Accurate Structure of ScC2 (tilde{X}2A1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Mark; Halfen, DeWayne T.; Min, Jie; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    Pure rotational spectra of Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C (tilde{X}2A1) have been obtained using Fourier Transform Microwave methods. These molecules were created from scandium vapor in combination with 13CH4 and/or 12CH4, diluted in argon, using a Discharge Assisted Laser Ablation Source (DALAS). Transitions in the frequency range of 14-30 GHz were observed for both species including hyperfine splitting due to the nuclear spin of Sc (I = 7/2) and 13C (I = 1/2). Rotational, spin-rotational, and hyperfine constants have been determined for Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C, as well as a refined structure for ScC2. In agreement with theoretical calculations and previous Sc12C2 results, these data confirm a cyclic (or T-shaped) structure for this molecule. Scandium carbides have been shown to form endohedral-doped fullerenes, which have unique electrical and magnetic properties due to electron transfer between the metal and the carbon-cage. Spectroscopy of ScC2 provides data on model systems for comparison with theory.

  7. The electronic level structure of lanthanide impurities in REPO4, REBO3, REAlO3, and RE2O3 (RE = La, Gd, Y, Lu, Sc) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorenbos, Pieter

    2013-06-01

    The vacuum referred binding energies of electrons in divalent and trivalent lanthanide impurity states and host band states in the rare earth (RE = La, Gd, Y, Lu, Sc) orthophosphates REPO4, orthoborates REBO3, aluminum perovskites REAlO3, and sesqui-oxides RE2O3 have been determined by combining the recently developed chemical shift model with spectroscopic data from the archival literature. The main trends in impurity and host band level locations with changing type of RE, which determines the site size, and with changing P, B, Al, or RE cation, which determines the strength of bonding with the oxygen ligands, are identified. Sc3+-based compounds are characterized by a relatively low energy for the conduction band bottom, or equivalently a high electron affinity, which is attributed to a relatively strong electron bonding in the 3d-shell of Sc2+.

  8. Active role of nonmagnetic cations in magnetic interactions for double-perovskite S r2B Os O6(B =Y ,In ,Sc )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, Sudipta; Yan, Binghai; Felser, Claudia; Jansen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Using first-principles density-functional theory, we have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of recently synthesized and characterized 5 d double-perovskites S r2B Os O6(B =Y ,In ,Sc ) . The electronic structure calculations show that in all compounds the O s5 + (5 d3 ) site is the only magnetically active one, whereas Y3 +, I n3 + , and S c3 + remain in nonmagnetic states with Sc/Y and In featuring d0 and d10 electronic configurations, respectively. Our studies reveal the important role of closed-shell (d10) versus open-shell (d0) electronic configurations of the nonmagnetic sites in determining the overall magnetic exchange interactions. Although the magnetic O s5 + (5 d3 ) site is the same in all compounds, the magnetic superexchange interactions mediated by nonmagnetic Y/In/Sc species are strongest for S r2ScOs O6 , weakest for S r2InOs O6 , and intermediate in the case of the Y (d0) due to different energy overlaps between Os-5 d and Y/In/Sc-d states. This explains the experimentally observed substantial differences in the magnetic transition temperatures of these materials, despite an identical magnetic site and underlying magnetic ground state. Furthermore, short-range Os-Os exchange interactions are more prominent than long-range Os-Os interactions in these compounds, which contrasts with the behavior of other 3 d -5 d double perovskites.

  9. Target-specific cytotoxic activity of recombinant immunotoxin scFv(MUC1)-ETA on breast carcinoma cells and primary breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravibhushan; Samant, Urmila; Hyland, Stephen; Chaudhari, Pradip R; Wels, Winfried S; Bandyopadhyay, Dilip

    2007-02-01

    MUC1 is a mucin family protein, overexpressed in more than 90% of breast cancers in an underglycosylated form, exposing the core peptides of the extracellular domain that act as a potential target for antibody-mediated therapy. We have developed an anti-MUC1 scFv antibody from a phage library of mice immunized with synthetic peptide MUC1-variable number of tandem repeats. MUC1 binding phages were affinity selected through biopanning using a biotin-streptavidin pull-down method. The selected phage clones showed target-specific binding to MUC1-expressing cells. Fusion of truncated Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) to a high binder, phage-derived scFv clone and bacterial expression and purification of recombinant scFv(MUC1)-ETA immunotoxin were done with good yield and purity. In vitro target-specific cytotoxic activity and target-specific binding of immunotoxin were shown on MUC1-expressing cells and primary breast tumor samples. A truncated ETA fusion protein expressed from the same vector but lacking scFv did not show cytotoxic effects, confirming target specificity. Our results suggest that the scFv(MUC1)-ETA immunotoxin has therapeutic potential and deserves further development and characterization for MUC1-specific breast cancers treatment.

  10. Effect of Grain Refinement on Jerky Flow in an Al-Mg-Sc Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogucheva, Anna; Yuzbekova, Diana; Kaibyshev, Rustam; Lebedkina, Tatiana; Lebyodkin, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    The influence of microstructure on the manifestations of the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect was studied in an Al-Mg-Sc alloy with unrecrystallized, partially recrystallized, and fully recrystallized grain structures. It was found that the extensive grain refinement promotes plastic instability: the temperature-strain rate domain of the PLC effect becomes wider and the critical strain for the onset of serrations decreases. Besides, the amplitude of regular stress serrations observed at room temperature and an intermediate strain rate increases several times, indicating a strong increase of the contribution of solute solution hardening to the overall strength. Moreover, the grain refinement affects the usual sequence of the characteristic types of stress serrations, which characterize the dynamical mechanisms governing a highly heterogeneous unstable plastic flow. Finally, it reduces the strain localization and surface roughness and diminishes the difference between the surface markings detected in the necked area and in the region of uniform elongation.

  11. Optical and electronic properties of double perovskite Ba2ScSbO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Rajyavardhan; Himanshu, A. K.; Lahiri, J.; Kumar, Uday; Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-05-01

    The ordered double perovskite Ba2ScSbO6 (BSS) has been synthesized in polycrystalline form by solid state reaction at 1400 C for 72 Hrs. Structural characterization of the compound was done through X-ray diffraction (XRD) followed by Rietveld analysis. The crystal structure is cubic, with space group Fm-3m (No. 225) and lattice parameter, a = 8.20 Ǻ. Optical band-gap has been calculated using UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Kubelka-Munk (KM) function, yielding 4.23 eV. A detailed Ab-initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) study of the electronic properties has been carried out using the Full-Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) as implemented in WIEN2k. BSS is found to be a large band-gap insulator with potential technological applications.

  12. Theoretical study of stability and superconductivity of ScHn (n =4 -8 ) at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shifeng; Sheng, Xiaowei; Yan, Xiaozhen; Chen, Yangmei; Song, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The synthesis of hydrogen sulfides, with the potential of high-temperature superconductivity, was recently proposed at high Tc = 203 K. It motivated us to employ an ab initio approach for the predictions of crystal structures to find the stable scandium hydrides. In addition to the earlier predicted three stoichiometries of ScH, ScH2, and ScH3, we identify three other metallic stoichiometries of ScH4, ScH6, and ScH8, which show superconductivity at significantly higher temperatures. The phases of ScH4 and ScH6, whose stability does not require extremely high pressures (<150 GPa with ZPE), are primarily ionic compounds containing exotic quasimolecular H2 arrangements. The present electron-phonon calculations revealed the superconductive potential of ScH4 and ScH6 with estimated Tc of 98 K and 129 K at 200 GPa and 130 GPa, respectively. The superconductivity of ScHn stems from the large electron-phonon coupling associated with the wagging, bending, and intermediate-frequency modes attributed mainly to the hydrogen atoms.

  13. A Further Study of the Products of Sc and Dioxygen Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Zhou, Mingfei; Andrews, Lester; Johnson, J. R. Tobias; Panas, Itai; Snis, Anders; Roos, Bjoern O.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The products of the reaction of Sc and dioxygen have been reinvestigated. By adding the electron-trapping molecule CC14, additional information about the IR spectra has been obtained, as well as the observation of new bands. New ab initio calculations are also performed on possible products of the Sc plus O2 reaction. The previously observed band at 722.5 per cm is assigned as the b2 mode of ScO2(-). Bands arising from ScO(+), Sc(O2)(+), and(O2)ScO are also assigned. We are still unable to assign any bands to OScO. The problems associated with the computational study of ScO2 are discussed.

  14. Theoretical investigation of defect structure in B2 TrSc (Tr =Cd, Ru) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidoussi, Aissam; Belgacem-Bouzida, Aissa; Braga, Maria Helena; Righi, Haroun

    2015-12-01

    Point defect structure of B2 TrSc (Tr =Cd, Ru) alloys was investigated using supercell and special quasi-random structure (SQS) approaches. According to our results, Tr and Sc anti-sites are the constitutional point defects in Tr-rich and Sc-rich B2 TrSc, respectively. To investigate the thermal defect concentrations at finite temperatures, we adopted the Wagner-Schottky model using point defect formation enthalpies obtained from supercell and SQS approaches. The present results suggest that the predominant thermal defects in B2 CdSc are of exchange type, and in B2 RuSc are of interbranch Sc type. The calculated results show an agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data.

  15. Spectroscopy of the open cluster remnant candidate ESO429-SC02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, M. S.; Corradi, W. J. B.; Santos, J. F. C., Jr.; Maia, F. F. S.

    2014-10-01

    In this study we intend to assess the physical nature of the open cluster remnant (OCR) candidate ESO429-SC02. In a previous work, the method of characterization devised by Pavani & Bica (2007) failed to characterize the object as an OCR or as an asterism, classifying it as a possible OCR. We carried out multi-object spectroscopy of 31 stars in its inner area (r lesssim 4^{'}) using GMOS/GEMINI-S (resolution R≍ 2000). We cross-correlated (IRAF's FXCOR task) our science spectra with all templates from ELODIE and PHOENIX libraries to obtain radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. We also employed 2MASS photometric data and proper motions from UCAC4. Individual distances via spectroscopic parallax and reddening values were derived for our science stars. In order to identify candidate member stars, we performed a 5-dimensional sigma-clipping routine using positional an kinematical data to interactively reject outliers and selected those stars well fitted by a Padova isochrone in K_{s} × (J-K_{s}) and (J-H) × (H-K_{s}) diagrams. Although a isochrone fitting solution was found, individual distances of stars close to the turnoff point or to the RGB range from 1.5 kpc to 4.4 kpc; E(B-V) values range from 0.0 to 0.46; [Fe/H] from -0.95 to 0.61 dex and radial velocities from 9 to 64 km/s. Besides, spectral types distribution of candidate member stars along the main sequence and the high dispersion in the parameters derived for them are inconsistent with what is expected for a coeval system. Our results suggest that ESO429-SC02 is a random overdensity of field stars along the line of sight.

  16. Crystal chemistry and spectroscopic properties of ScAuSn, YAuSn, and LuAuSn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, C. Peter; Eckert, Hellmut; Rayaprol, Sudhindra; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2006-05-01

    The stannides ScAuSn, YAuSn, and LuAuSn were synthesized as single phase materials from the elements via arc-melting. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals: MgAgAs type, F4¯3m, a=641.94(12) pm, wR2=0.035, 85 F values, 5 variables for ScAuSn, a=656.52(8) pm, wR2=0.029, 89 F values, 5 variables for LuAuSn, and NdPtSb type, P6mc, a=463.55(16), c=737.26(15) pm, wR2=0.057, 233 F values, 11 variables for YAuSn. The gold and tin atoms in ScAuSn and LuAuSn build up three-dimensional [AuSn] networks of corner-sharing AuSn 4/4 tetrahedra (278 and 284 pm Au sbnd Sn in ScAuSn and LuAuSn, respectively) similar to the blende type structure. The scandium atoms fill octahedral voids formed by the tin substructure. In contrast, the [AuSn] network of YAuSn is two-dimensional. The gold and tin atoms build up layers of puckered [Au 3Sn 3] hexagons with intralayer Au sbnd Sn distances of 277 pm, while the interlayer Au sbnd Sn distances of 297 pm are much longer. In every other layer the [Au 3Sn 3] hexagons are rotated by 60°. The layers are separated by the yttrium atoms. Spectroscopic measurements indicate significant differences in the chemical bonding properties: As revealed by both 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and 119Sn solid-state NMR data, the local electronic environment at the tin site is more anisotropic in YAuSn as compared to the other materials, which feature tin on a site with cubic point symmetry. In ScAuSn, the cubic site symmetry of the scandium position is reflected by a single sharp line in the 45Sc solid-state NMR spectrum.

  17. ESR Investigations on 13C enriched Sc3@C82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, J.; Mehring, M.; Dorn, H. C.

    2002-10-01

    13C enrichment of Sc3@C82 for the first time allows the resolution of 13C hyperfine satellite lines in the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of this material. A simple model is proposed to simulate the spectra. The ESR data is well reproduced under the assumption that two or three carbon atoms have a significantly stronger hyperfine coupling than all other atoms. Relating this result to the geometry of the C3υ cage leads to the conclusion that the electron density is concentrated on the upper hemisphere of the C82 cage.

  18. SQUID measurements of MnxSc(1-x)N and Fe0.1Sc0.9N Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Han-Jong; Constantin, Costel; Wang, Kangkang; Chinchore, Abhijit; Smith, Arthur; Markert, John

    2009-03-01

    We report SQUID magnetic measurements on N-rich and N-poor MnxSc(1-x)N and Fe0.1Sc0.9N films grown on ScN(001)/MgO(001) substrates by radio frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Ferromagnetism is present in both the Mn doped (x ranging from 3 to 15%) and the Fe doped ScN samples. Measurements on N-poor Mn0.03Sc0.97N and Mn0.15Sc0.85N (x=15%) show Curie temperatures of 383 K and 361 K, respectively. The Fe0.1Sc0.9N film shows a Curie temperature above 350 K as well. Further studies will be required to determine the origin of the ferromagnetism and the Curie temperature of the remaining MnxSc(1-x)N films. This work is supported by: Seton Hall: University Research Council; Ohio University: DOE-BES Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46317 and NSF Grant No. 0730257; and UT Austin: NSF Grant Nos. DMR-0605828 and DGE-0549417, Welch Foundation Grant No. F-1191.

  19. In-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by anisotropic strain relaxation in high lattice-mismatched Dy/Sc superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, L.; Ballesteros, C.; Ward, R. C. C.

    2014-04-01

    We report on the magnetic and structural characterization of high lattice-mismatched [Dy2nm/SctSc] superlattices, with variable Sc thickness tSc= 2-6 nm. We find that the characteristic in-plane effective hexagonal magnetic anisotropy K66,ef reverses sign and undergoes a dramatic reduction, attaining values of ≈13-24 kJm-3, when compared to K66=-0.76 MJm-3 in bulk Dy. As a result, the basal plane magnetic anisotropy is dominated by a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) unfound in bulk Dy, which amounts to ≈175-142 kJm-3. We attribute the large downsizing in K66,ef to the compression epitaxial strain, which generates a competing sixfold magnetoelastic (MEL) contribution to the magnetocrystalline (strain-free) magnetic anisotropy. Our study proves that the in-plane UMA is caused by the coupling between a giant symmetry-breaking MEL constant Mγ ,22≈1 GPa and a morphic orthorhombiclike strain ɛγ ,1≈10-4, whose origin resides on the arising of an in-plane anisotropic strain relaxation process of the pseudoepitaxial registry between the nonmagnetic bottom layers in the superstructure. This investigation shows a broader perspective on the crucial role played by epitaxial strains at engineering the magnetic anisotropy in multilayers.

  20. Molecular analysis of snRNAs and scRNAs using autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Martinez, F; Reyes, P A; Cortes, J J

    1997-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation analysis of total HeLa cells RNA extract by protein A-Sheparose purified autoantibodies and pCp 32P-3' end labeling RNAs revealed that U1, U2, U4 and U5 snRNAs are related with anti-Sm or U1nRNP autoantibodies, while the hY1, hY3, hY4 and hY5 scRNAs were related to anti-SSA/Ro autoantibodies present in sera of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The authors detected molecular snRNAs and scRNAs specificities by autoantibodies in 71 sera, the molecular RNA specificity for anti-Sm (U1, U2, U4 and U5 snRNAs) was present in 39%; anti-SSA/Ro sera reacted against scRNAs (hY1, hY3, hY4 and hY5) in 36%, then anti-U1nRNP sera recognized U1 snRNA in 13% of sera and anti-rRNP related with rRNA were recognized in 8%. Twenty-nine SLE sera were RNA negative. A molecular characterization of the autoantibodies in sera from SLE patients may be a useful tool for clinical and laboratory diagnosis of SLE, and the use of autoantibodies as molecular probes allows to continue exploring some basic mechanism of gene expression.

  1. Metal-rich phosphides RE5Ir 19P 12 with Sc 5Co 19P 12 type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfannenschmidt, Ulrike; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2011-10-01

    The iridium-rich phosphides RE5Ir 19P 12 ( RE=Sc, Y, La-Nd, Sm-Lu) with Sc 5Co 19P 12 type structure, space group P62¯ m were synthesized by solid state reactions of the elements in tantalum crucibles. Well shaped single crystals were obtained in bismuth fluxes. All phosphides were characterized on the basis of X-ray powder data. The structures of RE5Ir 19P 12 with RE=Sc, La, Ce, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb were refined from single crystal diffractometer data. The complex structure of these phosphides can be described by an intergrowth of simpler ThCr 2Si 2 and SrPtSb related slabs. Striking structural motifs of the RE5Ir 19P 12 structures are slightly distorted tricapped trigonal prisms of the metal atoms around the phosphorus atoms. The iridium and phosphorus atoms build up three-dimensional [Ir 19P 12] polyanionic networks (230-286 pm Ir-P and 282-296 pm Ir-Ir in La 5Ir 19P 12) which leave cavities of coordination numbers 16 and 15 for the rare earth atoms.

  2. On 3d bonding in the transition metal trimers - The electronic structure of equilateral triangle Ca3, Sc3, Sc3(+), and Ti3(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that transition metals and transition metal (TM) compounds are currently of considerable interest because of their relevance to catalysis and to materials science problems such as hydrogen embrittlement and crack propagation in metals. The present paper is concerned with complete active space Self-Consistent Field (SCF) externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) calculations for the low-lying states of Sc3 and Sc3(+). A comparison is conducted regarding the bonding in the Ca3, Sc3, and Cu3 molecules. This comparison makes it possible to predict general trends for the TM trimers. Attention is given to the qualitative features of the bonding in the TM trimers, the basis sets and other technical details of the calculations, the calculated results for Sc3 and Sc3(+), and conclusions from this work.

  3. Structural transformations in Sc/Si multilayers irradiated by EUVlasers

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, D.L.; Zubarev, E.N.; Pershyn, Y.P.; Sevryukova, V.A.; Kondratenko, V.V.; Vinogradov, A.V.; Artioukov, I.A.; Uspenskiy, Y.A.; Grisham, M.; Vaschenko, G.; Menoni, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.

    2007-08-21

    Multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) are keyelements for numerous applications of coherent EUV sources such as newtabletop lasers and free-electron lasers. However the field ofapplications is limited by the radiation and thermal stability of themultilayers. Taking into account the growing power of EUV sources thestability of the optics becomes crucial. To overcome this problem it isnecessary to study the degradation of multilayers and try to increasetheir temporal and thermal stability. In this paper we report the resultsof detailed study of structural changes in Sc/Simultilayers when exposedto intense EUV laser pulses. Various types of surface damage such asmelting, boiling, shockwave creation and ablation were observed asirradiation fluencies increase. Cross-sectional TEM study revealed thatthe layer structure was completely destroyed in the upper part ofmultilayer, but still survived below. The layers adjacent tothe substrateremained intact even through the multilayer surface melted down, thoughthe structure of the layers beneath the molten zone was noticeablychanged. The layer structure in this thermally affected zone is similarto that of isothermally annealed samples. All stages of scandium silicideformation such as interdiffusion, solid-state amorphization, silicidecrystallization, etc., are present in the thermally affected zone. Itindicates a thermal nature of the damage mechanism. The tungstendiffusion barriers were applied to the scandium/silicon interfaces. Itwas shown that the barriers inhibited interdiffusion and increased thethermal stability of Sc/Si mirrors.

  4. Spontaneous current generation in the 2SC phase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Mei

    2006-02-15

    It is found that, except chromomagnetic instability, the gapless 2SC phase also exhibits a paramagnetic response to the perturbation of an external color neutral baryon current. The spontaneously generated baryon current driven by the mismatch is equivalent to the one-plane wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fudde-Ferrell (LOFF) state. We describe the 2SC phase in the nonlinear realization framework, and show that each instability indicates the spontaneous generation of the corresponding pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone current. We show this Nambu-Goldstone currents generation state covers the gluon phase as well as the one-plane wave LOFF state. We further point out that, when the charge neutrality condition is required, there exists a narrow unstable LOFF (Us-LOFF) window, where not only off-diagonal gluons but the diagonal 8th gluon cannot avoid the magnetic instability. We discuss that the diagonal magnetic instability in this Us-LOFF window cannot be cured by an off-diagonal gluon condensate in the color superconducting phase, and it will also show up in some constrained Abelian asymmetric superfluid/superconducting systems.

  5. Magnetic Ordering in FeSc2 S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, K. W.; Morey, J. R.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Broholm, C. L.

    FeSc2S4 is a cubic spinel where orbitally active Fe2+ ions occupy the A-site diamond sublattice. Despite a high spin (S=2) state and Curie Weiss temperature of 45 K thermodynamic measurements show no indication of a phase transition and the material has been proposed as a unique example of a spin-orbital liquid. This ground state might arise from competition between on site spin-orbit coupling and Kugel-Khomskii exchange. We report neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline samples of FeSc2S4 which bring this picture into question. They reveal a previously unreported magnetically ordered state below 11 K. No structural distortions are visible with neutron or x-ray scattering. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic excitation spectrum was also explored and found to be minimal. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544.

  6. The ASCI Network for SC 2000: Gigabyte Per Second Networking

    SciTech Connect

    PRATT, THOMAS J.; NAEGLE, JOHN H.; MARTINEZ JR., LUIS G.; HU, TAN CHANG; MILLER, MARC M.; BARNABY, MARTY L.; ADAMS, ROGER L.; KLAUS, EDWARD J.

    2001-11-01

    This document highlights the Discom's Distance computing and communication team activities at the 2000 Supercomputing conference in Dallas Texas. This conference is sponsored by the IEEE and ACM. Sandia's participation in the conference has now spanned a decade, for the last five years Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab have come together at the conference under the DOE's ASCI, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiatives, Program rubric to demonstrate ASCI's emerging capabilities in computational science and our combined expertise in high performance computer science and communication networking developments within the program. At SC 2000, DISCOM demonstrated an infrastructure. DISCOM2 uses this forum to demonstrate and focus communication and pre-standard implementation of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the first gigabyte per second data IP network transfer application, and VPN technology that enabled a remote Distributed Resource Management tools demonstration. Additionally a national OC48 POS network was constructed to support applications running between the show floor and home facilities. This network created the opportunity to test PSE's Parallel File Transfer Protocol (PFTP) across a network that had similar speed and distances as the then proposed DISCOM WAN. The SCINET SC2000 showcased wireless networking and the networking team had the opportunity to explore this emerging technology while on the booth. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their convention exhibit floor. We also supported the production networking needs of the implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports DISCOM overall strategies in high performance computing networking.

  7. Reduction of the thermal conductivity of the thermoelectric material ScN by Nb alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tureson, Nina; Van Nong, Ngo; Fournier, Daniele; Singh, Niraj; Acharya, Somnath; Schmidt, Susann; Belliard, Laurent; Soni, Ajay; le Febvrier, Arnaud; Eklund, Per

    2017-07-01

    ScN-rich (Sc,Nb)N solid solution thin films have been studied, motivated by the promising thermoelectric properties of ScN-based materials. Cubic Sc1-xNbxN films for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 were epitaxially grown by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on a c-plane sapphire substrate and oriented along the (111) orientation. The crystal structure, morphology, thermal conductivity, and thermoelectric and electrical properties were investigated. The ScN reference film exhibited a Seebeck coefficient of -45 μV/K and a power factor of 6 × 10-4 W/m K2 at 750 K. Estimated from room temperature Hall measurements, all samples exhibit a high carrier density of the order of 1021 cm-3. Inclusion of heavy transition metals into ScN enables the reduction in thermal conductivity by an increase in phonon scattering. The Nb inserted ScN thin films exhibited a thermal conductivity lower than the value of the ScN reference (10.5 W m-1 K-1) down to a minimum value of 2.2 Wm-1 K-1. Insertion of Nb into ScN thus resulted in a reduction in thermal conductivity by a factor of ˜5 due to the mass contrast in ScN, which increases the phonon scattering in the material.

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance of Cr{sup 3+} ions in ABO{sub 3} (A = Sc, Lu, In) diamagnetic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Vorotynov, A. M. Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Rudenko, V. V.; Vorotynova, O. V.

    2016-04-15

    A magnetic resonance method is applied to the investigation of a number of isostructural diamagnetic compounds ABO{sub 3} (A = Sc, Lu, In) with small additions of Cr{sup 3+} ions (S = 3/2) sufficient to observe single-ion spectra. It is shown that the resonance spectra for isolated Cr{sup 3+} ions can be described to a good accuracy by the ordinary axial spin Hamiltonian for 3d ions in octahedral oxygen environment. The parameters of the spin Hamiltonian are determined. It is established that Cr{sup 3+} ions in these crystals are characterized by easy-axis-type anisotropy.

  9. Effect of Severe Plastic Deformation on Structure and Properties of Al-Sc-Ta and Al-Sc-Ti Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezina, Alla; Monastyrska, Tetiana; Davydenko, Olexandr; Molebny, Oleh; Polishchuk, Sergey

    2017-03-01

    The comparative analysis of the effect of monotonous and non-monotonous severe plastic deformations (SPD) on the structure and properties of aluminum alloys has been carried out. Conventional hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a constant deformation direction and equal-channel angular hydroextrusion (ECAH) with an abrupt change in the deformation direction were chosen for the cases of monotonous and non-monotonous SPD, respectively. Model cast hypoeutectic Al-0.3%Sc alloys and hypereutectic Al-0.6%Sc alloys with Ta and Ti additives were chosen for studying. It was demonstrated that SPD of the alloys resulted in the segregation of the material into active and inactive zones which formed a banded structure. The active zones were shown to be bands of localized plastic deformation. The distance between zones was found to be independent of the accumulated strain degree and was in the range of 0.6-1 μm. Dynamic recrystallization in the active zones was observed using TEM. The dynamic recrystallization was accompanied by the formation of disclinations, deformation bands, low-angle, and high-angle boundaries, i.e., rotational deformation modes developed. The dynamic recrystallization was more intense during the non-monotonous deformation as compared with the monotonous one, which was confirmed by the reduction of texture degree in the materials after ECAH.

  10. Effect of Severe Plastic Deformation on Structure and Properties of Al-Sc-Ta and Al-Sc-Ti Alloys.

    PubMed

    Berezina, Alla; Monastyrska, Tetiana; Davydenko, Olexandr; Molebny, Oleh; Polishchuk, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    The comparative analysis of the effect of monotonous and non-monotonous severe plastic deformations (SPD) on the structure and properties of aluminum alloys has been carried out. Conventional hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a constant deformation direction and equal-channel angular hydroextrusion (ECAH) with an abrupt change in the deformation direction were chosen for the cases of monotonous and non-monotonous SPD, respectively. Model cast hypoeutectic Al-0.3%Sc alloys and hypereutectic Al-0.6%Sc alloys with Ta and Ti additives were chosen for studying. It was demonstrated that SPD of the alloys resulted in the segregation of the material into active and inactive zones which formed a banded structure. The active zones were shown to be bands of localized plastic deformation. The distance between zones was found to be independent of the accumulated strain degree and was in the range of 0.6-1 μm. Dynamic recrystallization in the active zones was observed using TEM. The dynamic recrystallization was accompanied by the formation of disclinations, deformation bands, low-angle, and high-angle boundaries, i.e., rotational deformation modes developed. The dynamic recrystallization was more intense during the non-monotonous deformation as compared with the monotonous one, which was confirmed by the reduction of texture degree in the materials after ECAH.

  11. Coupling functionalized cobalt ferrite nanoparticle enrichment with online LC/MS/MS for top-down phosphoproteomics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Material and methods, characterization of the NPs, and top-down MS. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc05435h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bifan; Hwang, Leekyoung; Ochowicz, William; Lin, Ziqing; Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M.; Cai, Wenxuan; Xiu, Lichen; Dani, Kunal; Colah, Cyrus

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylation plays pivotal roles in cellular processes and dysregulated phosphorylation is considered as an underlying mechanism in many human diseases. Top-down mass spectrometry (MS) analyzes intact proteins and provides a comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation. However, top-down MS-based phosphoproteomics is challenging due to the difficulty in enriching low abundance intact phosphoproteins as well as separating and detecting the enriched phosphoproteins from complex mixtures. Herein, we have designed and synthesized the next generation functionalized superparamagnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs), and have further developed a top-down phosphoproteomics strategy coupling phosphoprotein enrichment enabled by the functionalized CoFe2O4 NPs with online liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS for comprehensive characterization of phosphoproteins. We have demonstrated the highly specific enrichment of a minimal amount of spike-in β-casein from a complex tissue lysate as well as effective separation and quantification of its phosphorylated genetic variants. More importantly, this integrated top-down phosphoproteomics strategy allows for enrichment, identification, quantification, and comprehensive characterization of low abundance endogenous phosphoproteins from complex tissue extracts on a chromatographic time scale. PMID:28660060

  12. Depletion of Arabidopsis SC35 and SC35-like serine/arginine-rich proteins affects the transcription and splicing of a subset of genes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qingqing; Xia, Xi; Sun, Zhenfei; Fang, Yuda

    2017-03-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors which play significant roles in spliceosome assembly and splicing regulation. However, little is known regarding their biological functions in plants. Here, we analyzed the phenotypes of mutants upon depleting different subfamilies of Arabidopsis SR proteins. We found that loss of the functions of SC35 and SC35-like (SCL) proteins cause pleiotropic changes in plant morphology and development, including serrated leaves, late flowering, shorter roots and abnormal silique phyllotaxy. Using RNA-seq, we found that SC35 and SCL proteins play roles in the pre-mRNA splicing. Motif analysis revealed that SC35 and SCL proteins preferentially bind to a specific RNA sequence containing the AGAAGA motif. In addition, the transcriptions of a subset of genes are affected by the deletion of SC35 and SCL proteins which interact with NRPB4, a specific subunit of RNA polymerase II. The splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) intron1 and transcription of FLC were significantly regulated by SC35 and SCL proteins to control Arabidopsis flowering. Therefore, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the functions of plant SC35 and SCL proteins in the regulation of splicing and transcription in a direct or indirect manner to maintain the proper expression of genes and development.

  13. Depletion of Arabidopsis SC35 and SC35-like serine/arginine-rich proteins affects the transcription and splicing of a subset of genes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xi; Sun, Zhenfei

    2017-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors which play significant roles in spliceosome assembly and splicing regulation. However, little is known regarding their biological functions in plants. Here, we analyzed the phenotypes of mutants upon depleting different subfamilies of Arabidopsis SR proteins. We found that loss of the functions of SC35 and SC35-like (SCL) proteins cause pleiotropic changes in plant morphology and development, including serrated leaves, late flowering, shorter roots and abnormal silique phyllotaxy. Using RNA-seq, we found that SC35 and SCL proteins play roles in the pre-mRNA splicing. Motif analysis revealed that SC35 and SCL proteins preferentially bind to a specific RNA sequence containing the AGAAGA motif. In addition, the transcriptions of a subset of genes are affected by the deletion of SC35 and SCL proteins which interact with NRPB4, a specific subunit of RNA polymerase II. The splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) intron1 and transcription of FLC were significantly regulated by SC35 and SCL proteins to control Arabidopsis flowering. Therefore, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the functions of plant SC35 and SCL proteins in the regulation of splicing and transcription in a direct or indirect manner to maintain the proper expression of genes and development. PMID:28273088

  14. Synthesis and Superconducting Properties of a Hexagonal Phosphide ScRhP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inohara, Takumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Yamakawa, Youichi; Takenaka, Koshi

    2016-09-01

    We report the synthesis and superconducting properties of the ternary phosphide ScRhP. The crystal structure of ScRhP is determined to be the ordered Fe2P type with the hexagonal Pbar{6}2m space group by powder X-ray diffraction experiments. Resistivity, magnetization, and heat capacity data indicate that ScRhP is a bulk superconductor with a transition temperature Tc of 2 K. This Tc is lower than that of its 5d analogue, ScIrP (Tc = 3.4 K), although ScRhP is found to have larger electronic density of states at the Fermi energy and a higher Debye temperature than those of ScIrP.

  15. Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA _ Implicit (ScIFEi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, James E.; Bomarito, Geoffrey F.; Heber, Gerd; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA (ScIFEN) is a parallel finite element analysis code written in C++. ScIFEN is designed to provide scalable solutions to computational mechanics problems. It supports a variety of finite element types, nonlinear material models, and boundary conditions. This report provides an overview of ScIFEi (\\Sci-Fi"), the implicit solid mechanics driver within ScIFEN. A description of ScIFEi's capabilities is provided, including an overview of the tools and features that accompany the software as well as a description of the input and output le formats. Results from several problems are included, demonstrating the efficiency and scalability of ScIFEi by comparing to finite element analysis using a commercial code.

  16. In vitro neutralization of prions with PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Taschuk, Ryan; Van der Merwe, Jacques; Marciniuk, Kristen; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases reflect the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into an infectious, pathological isomer (PrP(Sc)). By targeting epitopes uniquely exposed by misfolding, our group developed PrP(Sc)-specific vaccines to 3 disease specific epitopes (DSEs). Here, antibodies induced by individual DSE vaccines are evaluated for their capacity to neutralize prions in vitro. For both purified antibodies and immunoreactive sera, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies were equally effective in neutralizing prions. Further, there was no significant increase in neutralizing activity when multiple DSEs were targeted within an assay. At a low antibody concentration, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies matched the neutralization achieved by an antibody that may act via both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). At higher doses, however, this pan-specific antibody was more effective, potentially due to a combined deactivation of PrP(Sc) and depletion of PrP(C).

  17. Interleukin-2 production in SC and TK chickens infected with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangxing; Lillehoj, Erik P; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2002-01-01

    SC and TK inbred chicken strains display differential protective immunity to coccidiosis, SC being more resistant and TK susceptible to disease. In this study, the association between interleukin (IL)-2 and disease phenotype was assessed by cytokine quantification in serum, duodenum, cecum, and spleen cell cultures of SC and TK chickens experimentally infected with Eimeria tenella. In general, after primary infection, SC and TK strains produced equivalent amounts of IL-2 in all sources examined. However, after secondary infection, SC animals displayed significantly greater IL-2 levels in serum and the duodenum compared with strain TK. IL-2 production after reinfection with Eimeria may be an important factor contributing to the genetic differences in coccidiosis between SC and TK chickens and provides a rational foundation for cytokine-based immunotherapeutic approaches to disease control strategies.

  18. A 45Sc-NMR and DFT calculation study of crystalline scandium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuniger, Thomas; Hofmann, Andreas J.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Hoch, Constantin; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    A series of scandium compounds, namely ScPO4, ScOF, Li3Sc(BO3)2, and CaSc2O4, were prepared according to procedures described in the literature, and then characterised by powder X-ray diffraction and solid-state 45Sc-NMR spectroscopy. By computer fitting, the quadrupolar interaction parameters χ and η, as well as the isotropic chemical shifts δiso were extracted from the NMR spectra. For comparison and site assignment of 45Sc, density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the EFG tensor were carried out with the CASTEP code. For the compounds with a well-defined formal coordination number (CN), a convincing linear correlation between CN and isotropic chemical shift could be established.

  19. Valence Band Alignment at (111)/(0001) ScN/SiC and ScN/GaN Interfaces as Determined by Photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Sean; Nemanich, Robert; Davis, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is a transition metal nitride material that over the past decade has garnered significant interest for nano-electronic, spin-tronic, optoelectronic, electro-acoustic, and thermoelectric applications. This is due to the reasonably close lattice matching exhibited between the (111) plane of ScN (0.3139 nm) and the (111) / (0001) planes of SiC and GaN (0.3073 and 0.3189 nm respectively). For these specific applications, the valence and conduction band alignment of ScN to SiC and GaN will play a significant role. In this regard, we have utilized x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the growth and interfacial valence band alignment for gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE) of ScN on (111) 3C-SiC / (0001) 6H-SiC substrates. Using a detailed analysis of the attenuation of the Si2p core level from multiple ScN growths and XPS measurements, we find that ScN grows on (111) 3C-SiC in a layer by layer fashion. UPS measurements (Figure 1) show the ScN valence band to be 1.6-2.1 eV below the system Fermi level indicating a minimum band gap on this order. Detailed XPS/UPS measurements indicate the ScN/3C-SiC valence band offset is small (<= 0.3 eV). Additional measurements for GSMBE GaN on ScN show a larger interfacial valence band discontinuity of ~ 0.8 eV.

  20. Sulfated dextrans enhance in vitro amplification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy PrP(Sc) and enable ultrasensitive detection of bovine PrP(Sc).

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Masujin, Kentaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Matsuura, Yuichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Onoe, Sadao; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2010-10-04

    Prions, infectious agents associated with prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and scrapie in sheep and goats, are primarily comprised of PrP(Sc), a protease-resistant misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrP(C). Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) is a highly sensitive technique used to detect minute amounts of scrapie PrP(Sc). However, the current PMCA technique has been unsuccessful in achieving good amplification in cattle. The detailed distribution of PrP(Sc) in BSE-affected cattle therefore remains unknown. We report here that PrP(Sc) derived from BSE-affected cattle can be amplified ultra-efficiently by PMCA in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) from the saliva, palatine tonsils, lymph nodes, ileocecal region, and muscular tissues of BSE-affected cattle. Individual differences in the distribution of PrP(Sc) in spleen and cerebrospinal fluid samples were observed in terminal-stage animals. However, the presence of PrP(Sc) in blood was not substantiated in the BSE-affected cattle examined. The distribution of PrP(Sc) is not restricted to the nervous system and can spread to peripheral tissues in the terminal disease stage. The finding that PrP(Sc) could be amplified in the saliva of an asymptomatic animal suggests a potential usefulness of this technique for BSE diagnosis. This highly sensitive method also has other practical applications, including safety evaluation or safety assurance of products and byproducts manufactured from bovine source materials.

  1. Isolation of a human-like antibody fragment (scFv) that neutralizes ricin biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Pelat, Thibaut; Hust, Michael; Hale, Martha; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Dübel, Stefan; Thullier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background Ricin is a lethal toxin that inhibits protein synthesis. It is easily extracted from a ubiquitously grown plant, Ricinus communis, and thus readily available for use as a bioweapon (BW). Anti-ricin antibodies provide the only known therapeutic against ricin intoxication. Results In this study, after immunizing a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) with the ricin chain A (RTA), a phage-displayed immune library was built (2 × 108 clones), that included the λ light chain fragment. The library was screened against ricin, and specific binders were sequenced and further analyzed. The best clone, 43RCA, was isolated using a new, stringent neutralization test. 43RCA had a high, picomolar affinity (41 pM) and neutralized ricin efficiently (IC50 = 23 ± 3 ng/ml, corresponding to a [scFv]/[ricin] molar ratio of 4). The neutralization capacity of 43RCA compared favourably with that of polyclonal anti-deglycosylated A chain (anti-dgRCA) IgGs, obtained from hyperimmune mouse serum, which were more efficient than any monoclonal at our disposal. The 43RCA sequence is very similar to that for human IgG germline genes, with 162 of 180 identical amino acids for the VH and VL (90% sequence identity). Conclusion Results of the characterization studies, and the high degree of identity with human germline genes, altogether make this anti-ricin scFv, or an IgG derived from it, a likely candidate for use in humans to minimize effects caused by ricin intoxication. PMID:19563687

  2. Electron spin resonance (ESR) of magnetic sublattices in Sc-substituted barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pardo, Rebeca; Bierlich, Silvia; Töpfer, Jörg; Monjaras, Raúl Valenzuela

    2016-05-01

    The partial substitution of Fe3+ by Sc3+ in barium hexaferrite has shown to be an effective method to tailor anisotropy for many novel microwave applications. Some basic studies have revealed that this substitution leads to unusual interactions among the magnetic sublattices of the ferrite. In order to investigate these interactions, samples with formula BaScxFe12-xO19 (1 ≤x ≤ 2) were prepared by sintering (1300°C, 6h). After structural characterization by x-ray diffraction, their ferromagnetic resonance spectra were measured in the X-band (9.4 GHz), in the 100-500 K temperature range. For x = 2, a single, broad resonance peak was observed at the low temperatures (103 K), exhibiting a progressive splitting into two peaks for increasing T, to finally coalesce again into a single (paramagnetic) narrow peak at 473 K. These results are interpreted in terms of a substitution of Fe3+ by Sc3+ ions in the 4fvi and 2b sublattices; the diamagnetic cations disrupt the superexchange interactions and produce a splitting of the 12k sublattice (which interacts directly with the 4fvi sublattice) into two sublattices with different canting angles, and different thermal dependence. As a result, the fraction of the 12k sublattices that are nearest neighbours of substituted 4fvi sites can behave as an independent sublattice for some temperature ranges. A similar behavior is observed for all the compositions with varying degrees of amplitude, but it is more evident for x = 2. A deconvolution of peaks has been attempted, in order to shed more light into this behavior.

  3. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sean A; Weigel, Kris M; Ali, Ibne K M; Lakey, Annie A; Capalungan, Jeremy; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Cangelosi, Gerard A

    2012-01-01

    The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv) in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  4. Toward Low-Cost Affinity Reagents: Lyophilized Yeast-scFv Probes Specific for Pathogen Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sean A.; Weigel, Kris M.; Ali, Ibne K. M.; Lakey, Annie A.; Capalungan, Jeremy; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2012-01-01

    The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv) in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2–3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research. PMID:22363793

  5. Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study; Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 7 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Charleston Harbor, SC, Regional Sediment Management Study ...Management Study ; Beneficial Use of Dredged Material through Nearshore Placement Layla R. Kashlan U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P.O. Box...454632, “Charleston Harbor, SC; Regional Sediment Management Study ” ERDC/CHL TR-17-7 ii Abstract The 2015 Charleston Harbor, SC, final

  6. Nonequilibrium product distributions observed in the multiple collision chemiluminescent reaction of Sc with NO2. Perturbations, rapid energy transfer routes and evidence for a low-lying reservoir state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gole, J. L.; Pace, S. A.

    1980-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide reacts with scandium to yield the B 2Σ+-X 2Σ+ spectrum of ScO. This reaction has been characterized from 10-5 to 1 Torr in order to study relaxation and rapid intramolecular E-E transfer among ScO excited states. At the lowest pressures, a ground state metal atom interacts with a tenuous atmosphere of oxidant gas (beam-gas configuration). These ''single collision'' studies are extended in a controlled manner to higher pressure by entraining the metal atoms in argon and subsequently carrying out the oxidation of this mixture. At all pressures, the measured B 2Σ+ vibrational populations follow a markedly non-Boltzmann distribution. At the lowest pressures, the formation of ScO B 2Σ+ results directly from the reaction Sc+NO2→ScO*+NO. At higher pressures, the B 2Σ+ state is also populated via rapid intramolecular energy transfer from long-lived, weakly emitting ''reservoir'' states via the sequence Sc+NO2+Ar→ScO(res)+NO+Ar and ScO(res)+Ar→ScO(B 2Σ+)+Ar. Spin orbit and Coriolis interactions in ScO connect rovibronic levels of B 2Σ+ and low-lying 4Πr or 2Πi reservoir states resulting in the observation of substantial perturbations in B 2Σ+. Collisional energy transfer is particularly efficient for the most strongly perturbed levels of the B2Σ+ state. This energy transfer is manifest by the appearance of ''extra'' band heads representing normally forbidden (small electronic transition moment or Franck-Condon factor) ''reservoir state''- ground state transitions which become allowed because of a small admixture of B 2Σ+ character. The relative intensities of the extra and ''main'' B 2Σ+-X 2Σ+ transitions are strongly dependent on argon buffer gas pressure. A quantitative description of this dependence gives an estimate for the amount of mixing between the reservoir state and B 2Σ+ and for the rate of energy transfer between these two states. Collisional transfer to ScO B 2Σ+ v'=3-9 s found to proceed at rates which for certain levels

  7. Final Report for DOE Grant Number DE-SC0001481

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Edison

    2013-12-02

    This report covers research activities, major results and publications supported by DE-SC-000-1481. This project was funded by the DOE OFES-NNSA HEDLP program. It was a joint research program between Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin. The physics of relativistic plasmas was investigated in the context of ultra-intense laser irradiation of high-Z solid targets. Laser experiments using the Texas Petawatt Laser were performed in the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Numerical simulations of laser-plasma interactions were performed using Monte Carlo and Particle-in-Cell codes to design and support these experiments. Astrophysical applications of these results were also investigated.

  8. High Precision SC Cavity Diagnostics with HOM Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Josef; Hendrickson, Linda; McCormick, Douglas; May, Justin; Molloy, Stephen; Ross, Marc; /SLAC

    2006-08-18

    Experiments at the FLASH linac at DESY have demonstrated that the Higher Order Modes induced in Superconducting Cavities can be used to provide a variety of beam and cavity diagnostics. The centers of the cavities can be determined from the beam orbit which produces minimum power in the dipole HOM modes. The phase and amplitude of the dipole modes can be used as a high resolution beam position monitor, and the phase of the monopole modes to measure the beam phase relative to the accelerator RF. Beam orbit feedback which minimizes the dipole HOM power in a set of structures has been demonstrated. For most SC accelerators, the existing HOM couplers provide the necessary signals, and the down mix and digitizing electronics are straightforward, similar to those for a conventional BPM.

  9. Note on the SC Linear Collider TESLA Cavity Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekutowicz, J.; Proch, D.; Tang, C.

    1997-05-01

    The experience we have gained over the last few years from experiments with superconducting cavities for the TESLA test facility justifies a revision of the design decided almost five years ago. The proposed new design takes advantage of the high quality factor Q0 > 10^10 and the low electron emission as demonstrated by some tested cavities. The main aim of the new design is to simplify the production and preparation of sc cavities and thus to reduce the cost of the linear collider. The new cavity shape has an enlarged iris diameter with the following advantages: significant lower loss factors, simplified and less expensive scheme for the HOM damping, suitability of hydroforming and higher stability of the field profile.

  10. Running Tests of a Combined SC Type Linear Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Murai, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    In the superconducting maglev system, it is important to develop a non-contact on-board power source without environmental pollution such as noise and exhaust gas. We have studied a combined SC (Superconducting Coil) type linear generator as the most realistic system. The linear generator system has improved to increase output, power factor and measuring equipment. In this paper, the linear generator system is experimented in running tests on the Yamanashi Test line. We can supply power of 25kW to half a car in the speed range 400km/h to 500km/h. A good correlation is recognized between the analysis and measurement in the running tests. This linear generator system can be expected to be applicable in the practical use

  11. Experimental investigations of DC-SC photoinjector at Peking University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Rong; Ding, Yuantao; Zhao, Kui; Lu, Xiangyang; Quan, Shengwen; Zhang, Baocheng; Wang, Lifang; Huang, Senlin; Lin, Lin; Chen, Jia'er

    2004-08-01

    We report the progress of the DC-SC photoinjector at Peking University. This is a compact electron gun integrating a DC Pierce gun with a 1.3 GHz superconducting cavity. The photoinjector is designed to provide an electron beam having an average current of 1 mA with the energy of 2.61 MeV and normalized rms transverse emittance of 3 mm mrad. The test facility has been completely installed in our laboratory. The photocathode preparation chamber can produce Cs 2Te and Cs 3Sb cathodes, and the laser system can provide laser pulses with 532 or 266 nm wavelength at an 81.25 MHz repetition rate. The timing jitter of less than 1 ps between the laser and RF power has been achieved by using a timing stabilizer. A new method using "duo image pattern" of Cherenkov radiation will be commissioned to measure beam emittance. This paper summarizes some of the ongoing experimental activities.

  12. Domain structure and phase transition in Sc-doped zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunauer, G.; Boysen, H.; Frey, F.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2002-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the domain structure associated with the ferroelastic phase transition (Fm↔R bar 3 m) in ZrO2 doped with 11% Sc2O3 has been determined from a peak shape analysis of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data. In the temperature region of coexisting phases the observed characteristic anisotropic broadening and asymmetry of the lines is modelled by three different phases: a main rhombohedral phase, a distorted rhombohedral phase with a smaller c/a ratio, and a cubic phase. The latter two are assigned to the internal structure of the domain walls between two adjacent twin domains. The size and amount of the cubic phase show an initially slow increase with temperature followed by a very steep increase and a slow one after that. The size of the (main) rhombohedral domains remains nearly constant, while (micro-) strain in the distorted regions gradually decreases.

  13. Piezoelectrically forced vibrations of rectangular SC-cut quartz plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P. C. Y.; Lin, W. S.

    1998-06-01

    A system of two-dimensional first-order equations for piezoelectric crystal plates with general symmetry and with electroded faces was recently deduced from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity. Solutions of these equations for AT-cut plates of quartz were shown to give accurate dispersion curves without corrections, and the resonances predicted agree closely with the experimental data of Koga and Fukuyo [I. Koga and H. Fukuyo, J. Inst. Electr. Commun. Eng. Jpn. 36, 59 (1953)] and that of Nakazawa, Horiuchi, and Ito (M. Nakazawa, K. Horiuchi, and H. Ito, Proceedings of the 1990 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 547-555). In this article, these equations are employed to study the free as well as the forced vibrations of doubly rotated quartz plates. Solutions of straight-crested vibrational modes varying in the x1 and x3 directions of SC-cut quartz plates of infinite extent are obtained and from which dispersion curves are computed. Comparison of those dispersion curves with those from the three-dimensional equations shows that the agreement is very close without any corrections. Resonance frequencies for free vibrations and capacitance ratios for piezoelectrically forced vibrations are computed and examined for various length-to-thickness or width-to-thickness ratios of rectangular SC-cut quartz plates. The capacitance ratio as a function of forcing frequency is computed for a rectangular AT-cut quartz and compared with the experimental data of Seikimoto, Watanabe, and Nakazawa (H. Sekimoto, Y. Watanabe, and M. Nakazawa, Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 532-536) and is in close agreement.

  14. Remarkable metal-rich ternary chalcogenides Sc14M3Te8 (M = Ru, Os).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Corbett, John D

    2003-02-05

    In this novel motif, scandium atoms define infinite parallel chains of alternate trans-face-sharing cubes and pairs of square antiprisms in which each polyhedron is also centered by an M atom (M = Ru, Os). These chains are further linked into a three-dimensional structure by Sc(Te2Te4/2) octahedra. Physical property measurements show Sc14Ru3Te8 to be metallic and Pauli-paramagnetic, consistent with the results of extended Hückel band structure calculations. Matrix effects are evident in the dimensions within the chains. The major interactions are Sc-M and Sc-Te.

  15. Electronic states and potential energy surfaces of ScH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1987-04-01

    Complete active space MC SCF (CAS SCF) followed by second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) calculations are carried out for the three lowest-lying states of ScH 2. The potential energy surface of the 2A 1 state is investigated as a function of bending angle. A barrier (< 36 kcal/mole) is found for the insertion of Sc into H 2 to form the linear 2Σ +g state. The ScH 22Σ +g state is found to be only 5 kcal/mole more stable than Sc+H 2.

  16. Targeting the endoplasmic reticulum with a membrane-interactive luminescent ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complex† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization of 2 and Fig. S1–S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc51725j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin R.; Cecchin, Denis; Walker, Michael G.; Mulla, Raminder S.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization and bioactivity of the dinuclear ruthenium(ii) complex [(Ru(DIP)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (DIP = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c:3′′,2′′-h:2′′′,3′′′-j]phenazine) is reported. This new complex is found to be luminescent in acetonitrile, where excitation into MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge-transfer) bands in the visible area of the spectrum (λ ex = 450 nm, ε = 45 000 M–1 cm–1) result in red emission (λ em,max = 620 nm, Φ MLCT = 0.017). Aqueous in vitro binding studies indicate that this complex binds to duplex DNA with an affinity of 1.8 × 106 M–1 through a non-classical groove-binding interaction, however, unlike the parent complex [(Ru(phen)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), it also displays an increase in MLCT luminescence on addition of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and TEM studies show that this lipophilic complex targets the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, where it functions as an imaging agent for this organelle, and cytotoxicity studies in human cancer cell lines indicate a comparable potency to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin. PMID:25580209

  17. Precipitation Evolution in Al-0.1Sc, Al-0.1Zr and Al-0.1Sc-0.1Zr (at.%) Alloys During Isochronal Aging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    charged ( Al2 +, 13.5 amu) ions produced during pulsed field-evaporation. Sc is field evaporated in the doubly charged state (Sc2+, 22.5 amu), whereas Zr...figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 N um be r o f e ve nt s

  18. Production of single chain Fab (scFab) fragments in Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Eva; Al-Halabi, Laila; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background The demand on antigen binding reagents in research, diagnostics and therapy raises questions for novel antibody formats as well as appropriate production systems. Recently, the novel single chain Fab (scFab) antibody format combining properties of single chain Fv (scFv) and Fab fragments was produced in the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. In this study we evaluated the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the recombinant production of scFab and scFvs in comparison to E. coli. Results The lysozyme specific D1.3 scFab was produced in B. megaterium and E. coli. The total yield of the scFab after purification obtained from the periplasmic fraction and culture supernatant of E. coli was slightly higher than that obtained from culture supernatant of B. megaterium. However, the yield of functional scFab determined by analyzing the antigen binding activity was equally in both production systems. Furthermore, a scFv fragment with specificity for the human C reactive protein was produced in B. megaterium. The total yield of the anti-CRP scFv produced in B. megaterium was slightly lower compared to E. coli, whereas the specific activity of the purified scFvs produced in B. megaterium was higher compared to E. coli. Conclusion B. megaterium allows the secretory production of antibody fragments including the novel scFab antibody format. The yield and quality of functional antibody fragment is comparable to the periplasmic production in E. coli. PMID:18042285

  19. Insights into scFv:drug binding using the molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guodong; Zhang, Qinggang; Chen, L Y

    2011-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculation have been performed to study how the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) binds methamphetamine (METH) and amphetamine (AMP). The structures of the scFv:METH and the scFv:AMP complexes are analyzed by examining the time-dependence of their RMSDs, by analyzing the distance between some key atoms of the selected residues, and by comparing the averaged structures with their corresponding crystallographic structures. It is observed that binding an AMP to the scFv does not cause significant changes to the binding pocket of the scFv:ligand complex. The binding free energy of scFv:AMP without introducing an extra water into the binding pocket is much stronger than scFv:METH. This is against the first of the two scenarios postulated in the experimental work of Celikel et al. (Protein Science 18, 2336 (2009)). However, adding a water to the AMP (at the position of the methyl group of METH), the binding free energy of the scFv:AMP-H2O complex, is found to be significantly weaker than scFv:METH. This is consistent with the second of the two scenarios given by Celikel et al. Decomposition of the binding energy into ligand-residue pair interactions shows that two residues (Tyr175 and Tyr177) have nearly-zero interactions with AMP in the scFv:AMP-H2O complex, whereas their interactions with METH in the scFv:METH complex are as large as -0.8 and -0.74 kcal mol(-1). The insights gained from this study may be helpful in designing more potent antibodies in treating METH abuse.

  20. Performance of Ni/ScSZ cermet anode modified by coating with Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2} for a SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Bo . E-mail: huangbo2k@hotmail.com; Ye, X.F.; Wang, S.R.; Nie, H.W.; Liu, R.Z.; Wen, T.L.

    2007-09-04

    A Ni/scandia-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) cermet anode was modified by coating with nano-sized gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC, Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2}) within the pores of the anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed in the anode characterizations. Open circuit voltages (OCVs) increased from 1.027 to 1.078 V, and the maximum power densities increased from 238 to 825 mW/cm{sup 2}, as the operating temperature of a SOFC with 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode was increased from 700 to 850 deg. C in humidified hydrogen. The coating of nano-sized Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2} particle within the pores of the porous Ni/ScSZ anode significantly improved the performance of anode supported cell. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) illustrated that the cell with Ni/ScSZ anode exhibited far greater impedances than the cell with 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode. Consequently, 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode could be used as a novel anode material for a SOFC due to better electrochemical performance.

  1. Experimental Studies on the Interaction of scCO2 and scCO2-SO2 With Rock Forming Minerals at Conditions of Geologic Carbon Storages - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzinger, J.; Wilke, F.; Wiersberg, T.; Vasquez Parra, M.

    2010-12-01

    Co-injection of SO2 (plus possibly NOx and O2) during CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers may cause stronger brine acidification than CO2 alone. Because of that, we investigate chemical corrosion of rocks and rock-forming minerals with impure supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at possible storage conditions of >73.7 bar and >31°C. Contaminates were chosen with respect to the composition of CO2 captured industrially from coal-fired power plants using the oxyfuel technology. The resulting data should build a base for the long-term prediction of the behavior of CO2 in geologic storage reservoirs. Experiments of up to 1000 hrs duration have been performed with 10 natural mineral concentrates (calcite, dolomite, siderite, anhydrite, hematite, albite, microcline, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite) in 3n NaCl solution and pure scCO2 or scCO2+SO2 (99.5+0.5 vol%). The NaCl reaction fluid resembles the average salinity of deep formation waters of the North German Basin and is not free of oxygen. To increase reaction rates all minerals were ground and the reagents agitated either by stirring or shaking in autoclaves of about one liter in volume. The autoclaves consist of Hastelloy™ or ferromagnetic stainless steel fully coated with PTFE. We used in average 15 g of solids, 700 ml liquid, and the vessels were pressurized up to 100 bars with CO2 or CO2-SO2 mixture. Experiments were run at temperatures up to 90°C. Before, during and after the experiments small amounts fluids were sampled and analyzed for dissolved constituents and pH. Solid phases were characterized by XRF, XRD, and EMPA before and after the experiments. Pure scCO2 corrodes all carbonates, reacts only slightly with anhydrite, albite, and microcline at a minimum pH of 4, and does not recognizably interact with the others. After the experiment, albite has gained in a, not yet fully identified, carbonate phase which might be dawsonite. Reaction fluids of the experiments with scCO2+SO2 have mostly lower pH than using scCO2

  2. Influence of Sc3+ doping in B-site on electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 anode materials for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoyao; Zhang, Chunming; Lin, Ye; Xiong, Ding-Bang; Wang, Dan; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Dannong

    2014-03-01

    Anode materials Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and Sc-doped Li4Ti4.95Sc0.05O12-δ (LTSO) for lithium-ion batteries are both successfully synthesized by the modified sol-gel method with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as a bi-components chelating agent. The samples are characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, EDX and SEM. The dopant Sc totally enters into the 16d sites of the spinel structure of LTO, and then further affects its morphology and property. The LTSO powder exhibits a 3D network morphology and its grain size is about 200 nm. The LTSO electrode material exhibits an excellent initial discharge capacities of 174 and 94 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 40 C, respectively. The reversible capacities of LTSO at different current rates remain nearly 100% after 50 cycles, which are compared with the capacities of the second cycles. Sc3+ doping can greatly improve the electronic conductivity of LTO which is demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry measurements also reveal that LTSO has small polarization resistance due to the high electrical conductivity and Li-ion apparent diffusion rate.

  3. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  4. S-F and S-C activation of SF6 and SF5 derivatives at rhodium: conversion of SF6 into H2S.

    PubMed

    Zámostná, Lada; Braun, Thomas; Braun, Beatrice

    2014-03-03

    The degradation of SF6 and SF5 organyls by S-F and S-C bond-activation reactions at [{Rh(μ-H)(dippp)}2] under mild conditions is reported. Fluorido and thiolato species were identified as products or intermediates, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. An unprecedented cyclic process for the conversion of the potent greenhouse gas SF6 into H2S was developed.

  5. Characterizing aliphatic moieties in hydrocarbons with atomic force microscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements as well as NMR, optical spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) characterization of the five model compounds are provided. For CPNP and CHNP the synthetic route is described. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04698c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Collazos, Sara; Fatayer, Shadi; Meyer, Gerhard; Pérez, Dolores; Guitián, Enrique; Harper, Michael R.; Kushnerick, J. Douglas; Gross, Leo

    2017-01-01

    We designed and studied hydrocarbon model compounds by high-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy. In addition to planar polycyclic aromatic moieties, these novel model compounds feature linear alkyl and cycloaliphatic motifs that exist in most hydrocarbon resources – particularly in petroleum asphaltenes and other petroleum fractions – or in lipids in biological samples. We demonstrate successful intact deposition by sublimation of the alkyl-aromatics, and differentiate aliphatic moieties from their aromatic counterparts which were generated from the former by atomic manipulation. The characterization by AFM in combination with atomic manipulation provides clear fingerprints of the aromatic and aliphatic moieties that will facilitate their assignment in a priori unknown samples. PMID:28451335

  6. EngenuitySC Commercialization and Entrepreneurial Training Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Meghan; Hutton, Katherine R

    2012-12-31

    A team led by EngenuitySC has performed education and outreach on development of advanced energy markets that will enable wider use of clean energy technologies. This report details the efforts that have made significant advances to improve the market place through education, outreach, and increased communications between industry members. The project resulted in two self-funded industry clusters known as the Fuel Cell Collaborative and NuHub. This project has focused on building and strengthening the leading clean energy clusters in South Carolina: nuclear energy and fuel cell technologies. For the nuclear industry, a new cluster was developed that is now known as NuHub. This cluster has already engaged over 25 nuclear industry leaders or suppliers, four public sector partners, six community economic development foundations, and nearly ten academic partners in a 175 mile radius between Augusta, Georgia and Charlotte, North Carolina. Our outreach has touched over 2,000 stakeholders through the website alone, not including the public audiences and members of the business community reached through news stories and releases that were distributed to over 620 print and online publications. NuHub has established a formal leadership structure, developed subcommittees to focus on industry issues, instituted educational programs for the workforce, and created an industry funding structure that will sustain the industry cluster and mission. NuHub has participated in a wide-variety of community building and outreach activities since its formation under this grant. In the two years since its creation in 2010, we have initiated efforts focused in four main areas that correlate with the four NuHub subcommittees including: innovation, workforce development, industry engagement, and marketing and communications. NuHub successfully raised over $160,000 in both public and private funding, which has supported work to grow the cluster and engage partners including NuScale, Fluor, and

  7. Final Technical Report – DOE Grant DE-SC0005904

    SciTech Connect

    Dear, Jody

    2013-10-23

    DOE grant DE-SC0005904 was allocated to fund the faculty development, curriculum development and travel to support the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System’s (CSUS) Initiative for Nanotechnology-related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development. DOE grant DE-SC0005072 was also awarded for this program. In 2010, CSUS had identified the establishment of nanotechnology programs and infrastructure as a priority. At that time, the system set the goal of establishing an academic initiative in nanotechnology for the CSUS, beginning with the development of a series of courses at the graduate level. Implementation was planned via a collaborative effort including faculty from all four of the CSUS campuses. The CSUS Nanotechnology Working Group [CSUS NWG] was established to accomplish this goal. A faculty member from the Physics Department at Southern Connecticut State University [SCSU] was assigned the task of organizing and coordinating the work of the CSUS NWG. Representatives from each of the four CSUS campuses were appointed to join the CSUS NWG with the following initial representation: SCSU [Physics and Biology], Western Connecticut State University (WCSU) [Chemistry], Eastern Connecticut State University (ECSU) [Chemistry] and Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) [Chemistry. As a further outcome it was determined that this collaborative effort would lead to the establishment of a formal nanotechnology center, serving as the nucleus of CSUS student and faculty learning and research. This CSUS Nanotechnology Center [CSUS-NC] was to be located at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU). The goal of this grant was to provide funding for curriculum and faculty development necessary to facilitate the development and implementation of a collaborative Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology for the Connecticut State University System. This outcome has been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the Graduate

  8. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. 165.708 Section 165.708 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC. (a... Cooper River. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 1983. (2) All waters within 100 yards of...

  9. High-efficient physical adsorption and detection of formaldehyde using Sc- and Ti-decorated graphdiyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Gao, Pengfei; Guo, Lei; Wen, Yanni; Fang, Dangqi; Gong, Baihua; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-03-01

    In sensitive analysis, the ultimate limit is to achieve reliable detection on trace amount of molecules. In this work, Sc- and Ti-decorated graphdiyne were proposed as promising materials for high-efficient molecular detection. Using density functional theory calculations, we investigated the electronic response of single Sc- and Ti-atom-decorated graphdiyne to HCHO (as a typical air pollutant). Thermodynamic analysis predicted that Sc or Ti adatom could be stabilized on the corner sites of single-layer graphdiyne sheet, with migration barriers high enough to prevent Sc or Ti adatom aggregation. The adsorption of HCHO on Sc- or Ti-decorated graphdiyne was found stronger than on pristine graphene or graphdiyne, which provides a prerequisite for molecular sensing. The electronegativity of HCHO leads to strong electronic attraction from Sc or Ti adatom to HCHO, resulting in a remarkable decrease of carrier density in graphdiyne. On Ti-decorated graphdiyne, the electronic attraction of HCHO appears to be stronger than on Sc-decorated graphdiyne and changes the system from metal to n-doped semiconductor. Quantum transport calculations show a decrease of current caused by the adsorbed HCHO. The results systematically exhibit the electronic response of Sc- or Ti-decorated graphdiyne to HCHO and suggest them as promising materials for molecule detection.

  10. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  11. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  12. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  13. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  14. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  15. 33 CFR 110.72c - Lake Murray, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Murray, S.C. 110.72c Section 110.72c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72c Lake Murray, S.C. (a) The area beginning at the 125...

  16. 33 CFR 165.T07-0161 - Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC. 165.T07-0161 Section 165.T07-0161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....T07-0161 Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC. (a) Regulated area. The following regulated area...

  17. 75 FR 6096 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Charleston, SC, Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Charleston, SC, Captain of the Port... Vessels, Charleston, South Carolina, Captain of the Port (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section: COTP means Captain of the Port Charleston, SC. Designated representatives...

  18. Linking Gateway Technical College with Workforce Development: The SC Johnson-A Family Company Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Seven years ago, SC Johnson--A Family Company approached Gateway Technical College with a need to further strengthen their incumbent workforce's technical training and education. Retirements, brain drain, and competition for technical expertise were the forces driving SC Johnson to develop a comprehensive, flexible, and timely workplace education…

  19. Structural and electronic studies of metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs-C72

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Wang, Taishan; Wu, Jingyi; Feng, Lai; Xiang, Junfeng; Ma, Yihan; Zhang, Zhuxia; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru

    2013-07-01

    We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed.We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, HPLC chromatogram, and DFT calculations. CCDC 917712. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01739g

  20. 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Meili; Wan, Fuqiang; Li, Zhengling; Zhang, Fenghua

    2016-03-04

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell activity by 4SC-202, a novel class I HDAC inhibitor (HDACi). The associated signaling mechanisms were also analyzed. We showed that 4SC-202 treatment induced potent cytotoxic and proliferation–inhibitory activities against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, HepB3, SMMC-7721) and patient-derived primary HCC cells. Further, adding 4SC-202 in HCC cells activated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which was evidenced by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, cytochrome C cytosol release and caspase-3/-9 activation. Inhibition of this apoptosis pathway, by caspase-3/-9 inhibitors, mPTP blockers, or by shRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D, a key component of mPTP), significantly attenuated 4SC-202-induced HCC cell death and apoptosis. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D enhanced 4SC-202's sensitivity in HCC cells. Further studies showed that 4SC-202 induced apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation, causing it translocation to mitochondria and physical association with Cyp-D. This mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation appeared required for mediating 4SC-202-induced apoptosis activation. ASK1 stable knockdown by targeted-shRNAs largely inhibited 4SC-202-induced mPTP opening, cytochrome C release, and following HCC cell apoptotic death. Together, we suggest that 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to potently inhibit human HCC cells. - Highlights: • 4SC-202 exerts potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity against established/primary HCC cells. • SC-202-induced anti-HCC cell activity relies on caspase-dependent apoptosis activation. • 4SC-202 activates Cyp-D-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in HCC cells. • 4SC-202 activates ASK1 in HCC cells, causing it translocation to mitochondria. • Mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation mediates 4SC-202's activity in HCC cells.

  1. The Successive OH Binding Energies of Sc(OH)n+ for n=1-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The geometries of Sc(OH)n+, for n = 1-3, have been optimized using density functional theory, in conjunction with the B3LYP hybrid functional. The zero-point energies are computed at the same level of theory. The successive OH bond energies have been computed at the CCSD(T) level for ScOH+ and Sc(OH)2+. The computed result for ScOD+ is in excellent agreement with the recent experiment of Armentrout and co-workers. There is a dramatic drop for the third OH, because Sc+ has only two valence electrons and therefore the bonding changes when the third OH is added. The difference between the B3LYP and CCSD(T) OH binding energies for the first two OH groups is discussed.

  2. Mechanism of electromigration failure in Al thin film interconnects containing Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Choong-un; Kang, S.H.; Morris, J.W. Jr.; Genin, F.Y.

    1995-05-01

    In order to understand the role of Sc on electromigration (EM) failure, Al interconnects with 0.1 and 0.3 wt.% Sc sere tested as a function of post-pattern annealing time. In response to the evolution of the line structure, the statistics of lifetime evolved. While the addition of Sc greatly reduces the rate of evolution of the failure statistics because the grain growth rate decreases, the MTF variation was found to be very similar to that of pure Al. These observations seem to show that Sc has little influence on the kinetics of Al EM; however, it has some influence on the EM resistance of the line since it is an efficient grain refiner. Unlike Cu in Al, Sc does not seem to migrate, which may explain its lack of influence on the kinetics of Al EM.

  3. Scandium-44: benefits of a long-lived PET radionuclide available from the (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    PubMed

    Roesch, F

    2012-07-01

    (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generators are of interest for molecular imaging. The 3.97 hours half-life of (44)Sc and its high positron branching of 94.27% may stimulate the application of (44)Sc-labeled PET radiopharmaceuticals. This review describes the current status of (44)Ti production, (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generator development, post-processing of generator eluates towards medical application, identification of ligands adequate to Sc(III) co-ordination chemistry, proof-of-principle labeling of (44)Sc-DOTA-octreotides, investigation of in vitro and in vivo parameters, and initial applications for molecular imaging - both in small animals and humans.

  4. One-neutron knockout from 51-55 Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwertel, S.; Maierbeck, P.; Krücken, R.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kröll, T.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aksouh, F.; Aumann, T.; Behr, K.; Benjamim, E. A.; Benlliure, J.; Bildstein, V.; Böhmer, M.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Brünle, A.; Bürger, A.; Caamaño, M.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Enders, J.; Eppinger, K.; Faestermann, T.; Friese, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Gascón, M.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Hansen, P. G.; Jonson, B.; Kanungo, R.; Kiselev, O.; Kojouharov, I.; Klimkiewicz, A.; Kurtukian, T.; Kurz, N.; Larsson, K.; Le Bleis, T.; Mahata, K.; Maier, L.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Pascual-Izarra, C.; Perea, A.; Perez, D.; Prochazka, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Schaffner, H.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Stanoiu, M.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Weick, H.; Winkler, S.; Brown, B. A.; Otsuka, T.; Tostevin, J. A.; Rae, W. D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a one-neutron knockout experiment at relativistic energies of ≈ 420 A MeV on 51-55Sc using the GSI Fragment Separator as a two-stage magnetic spectrometer and the MINIBALL array for gamma-ray detection. Inclusive longitudinal momentum distributions and cross-sections were measured enabling the determination of the contributions corresponding to knockout from the ν p_{1/2} , ν p_{3/2} , ( L = 1 and ν f_{7/2} , ν f_{5/2} ( L = 3 neutron orbitals. The observed L = 1 and L = 3 contributions are compared with theoretical cross-sections using eikonal knockout theory and spectroscopic factors from shell model calculations using the GXPF1A interaction. The measured inclusive knockout cross-sections generally follow the trends expected theoretically and given by the spectroscopic strength predicted from the shell model calculations. However, the deduced L = 1 cross-sections are generally 30-40% higher while the L = 3 contributions are about a factor of two smaller than predicted. This points to a promotion of neutrons from the ν f_{7/2} to the ν p_{3/2} orbital indicating a weakening of the N = 28 shell gap in these nuclei. While this is not predicted for the phenomenological GXPF1A interaction such a weakening is predicted by recent calculations using realistic low-momentum interactions V_{low k} obtained by evolving a chiral N3LO nucleon-nucleon potential.

  5. Nonspecificity in a nonimmune human scFv repertoire.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan L; Zhao, Jessie; Le, Doris; Wittrup, K Dane

    2017-09-14

    Efforts to develop effective antibody therapeutics are frequently hampered by issues such as aggregation and nonspecificity, often only detected in late stages of the development process. In this study, we used a high throughput cross-reactivity assay to select nonspecific clones from a naïve human repertoire scFv library displayed on the surface of yeast. Most antibody families were de-enriched; however, the rarely expressed VH6 family was highly enriched among nonspecific clones, representing almost 90% of isolated clones. Mutational analysis of this family reveals a dominant role of CDRH2 in driving nonspecific binding. Homology modeling of a panel of VH6 antibodies shows a constrained beta-sheet structure in CDRH2 that is not present in other families, potentially contributing to nonspecificity of the family. These findings confirm the common decision to exclude VH6 from synthetic antibody libraries, and support VH6 polyreactivity as a possible important role for the family in early ontogeny and cause for its overabundance in cases of some forms of autoimmunity.

  6. Oligomeric forms of single chain immunoglobulin (scIgG)

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Christian; Hust, Michael; Prilop, Jessica; Jostock, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Assembly of immunoglobulin G (igG) molecules from two heavy and two light chains can be facilitated by connecting the light chain to the heavy chain by an oligopeptide linker. production of the anti-lysozyme D1.3-single chain (sc) igG1 in HeK293t cells yielded up to 8 mg/L functional scigG polypeptide. Size exclusion chromatography of material purified by protein-A affinity chromatography revealed that the majority of the D1.3-scigG1 molecules were 150 kDa monomers, with a KD of 1.8 × 10−10 M measured by surface plasmon resonance; however, significant fractions of scigG dimers and oligomers with molecular masses of 300 kDa and >600 kDa, respectively, were identified. the oligomerization resulted in an increased avidity. observed oligomerization capability may allow new approaches for the generation of bispecific/multivalent antibodies. PMID:20081378

  7. The stellar content of the nuclear regions of Sc galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnrose, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    Stellar-population syntheses based on absolute spectral energy distributions over the wavelength range from 3300 to 10,400 A are used to determine the stellar content of the nuclear regions of seven nearby Sc galaxies (NGC 628, 1073, 1084, 1637, 2903, 4321, and 5194). A linear-programming procedure is employed to construct models of the overall stellar populations whose spectra closely match those of the seven galaxies. Absolute measurements of the emission-line spectra of the nuclear regions are also provided. It is found that: (1) intrinsic reddening is probably present in each nuclear region; (2) the upper main sequence is substantially populated in most of the models; (3) the lower main sequence contributes insignificantly to the luminosity in all optimal solutions; (4) substantial contributions are made by evolved M stars at long wavelengths in all the models; (5) the model photometric M/L ratios are low, of the order of unity; and (6) the O-B stars arising naturally in the population models are just sufficient to provide the observed nuclear ionization in all the galaxies except NGC 5194, which may be collisionally ionized. The properties of the nuclear regions are shown to be consistent with the existence of a common initial mass function for star formation and a variety of time dependences for the star-formation process. A possibly significant correlation is noted between nuclear stellar content and overall dynamical properties in four of the galaxies.

  8. The stellar content of the nuclear regions of Sc galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnrose, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    Stellar-population syntheses based on absolute spectral energy distributions over the wavelength range from 3300 to 10,400 A are used to determine the stellar content of the nuclear regions of seven nearby Sc galaxies (NGC 628, 1073, 1084, 1637, 2903, 4321, and 5194). A linear-programming procedure is employed to construct models of the overall stellar populations whose spectra closely match those of the seven galaxies. Absolute measurements of the emission-line spectra of the nuclear regions are also provided. It is found that: (1) intrinsic reddening is probably present in each nuclear region; (2) the upper main sequence is substantially populated in most of the models; (3) the lower main sequence contributes insignificantly to the luminosity in all optimal solutions; (4) substantial contributions are made by evolved M stars at long wavelengths in all the models; (5) the model photometric M/L ratios are low, of the order of unity; and (6) the O-B stars arising naturally in the population models are just sufficient to provide the observed nuclear ionization in all the galaxies except NGC 5194, which may be collisionally ionized. The properties of the nuclear regions are shown to be consistent with the existence of a common initial mass function for star formation and a variety of time dependences for the star-formation process. A possibly significant correlation is noted between nuclear stellar content and overall dynamical properties in four of the galaxies.

  9. Motion Parameters Determination of the SC and Phobos in the Project Phobos-Grunt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akim, E. L.; Stepanyants, V. A.; Tuchin, A. G.; Shishov, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    The SC "Phobos-Grunt" flight is planned to 2009 in Russia with the purpose to deliver to the Earth the soil samples of the Mars satellite Phobos. The mission will pass under the following scheme [1-4]: the SC flight from the Earth to the Mars, the SC transit on the Mars satellite orbit, the motion round the Mars on the observation orbit and on the quasi-synchronous one [5], landing on Phobos, taking of a ground and start in the direction to the Earth. The implementation of complicated dynamical operations in the Phobos vicinity is foreseen by the project. The SC will be in a disturbance sphere of gravitational fields from the Sun, the Mars and the Phobos. The SC orbit determination is carried out on a totality of trajectory measurements executed from ground tracking stations and measurements of autonomous systems onboard space vehicle relatively the Phobos. As ground measurements the radio engineering measurements of range and range rate are used. There are possible as onboard optical observations of the Phobos by a television system and ranges from the SC up to the Phobos surface by laser locator. As soon as the Phobos orbit accuracy is insufficient for a solution of a problem of landing its orbit determination will be carried out together with determination of the SC orbit. Therefore the algorithms for joint improving of initial conditions of the SC and the Phobos are necessary to determine parameters of the SC relative the Phobos motion within a single dynamical motion model. After putting on the martial satellite orbit, on the Phobos observation orbit, on the quasi-synchronous orbit in the Phobos vicinity the equipment guidance and the following process of the SC orbit determination relatively Phobos requires a priori knowledge of the Phobos orbit parameters with sufficiently high precision. These parameters should be obtained beforehand using both all modern observations and historical ones.

  10. [Construction and panning of scFv phage display library against recombinant interleukin 4 receptor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangyong; Guo, Haitao; Liu, Ximing; He, Guangzhi; Tian, Weiyi; Cai, Kun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Wenjia

    2016-06-01

    Objective To construct the recombinant human interleukin 4 receptor (rhIL-4R) single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody library by phage display technique to obtain the anti-IL-4R scFv clones selected from the library. Methods Total RNA was extracted from splenocytes of the BALB/c mice immunized with rhIL-4R. Complementary DNA fragments of variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) chains of the antibodies were prepared by reverse transcription PCR and assembled into scFv by splice overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR). Both scFv and the pCANTAB5E vector were respectively double-digested with restriction endonuclease Sfi I and Not I, connected with T4 ligase, and then transformed into the competent cells E.coli TG1; it was cultured in medium to obtain the phage scFv antibody library; after three rounds of enrichment and panning, the specific antigen scFv with high affinity was selected for the sequencing. Results After three rounds of panning, we obtained a diversity of approximately 2×10(8) anti-rhIL-4R scFv antibody library. Sequencing analysis of one positive clone showed that the anti-rhIL-4R scFv was 741 bp and coded 247 amino acids. The analysis of VBASE2 database indicated that VH and VL gene sequences of anti-rhIL-4R protein all had three complementarity determining regions and four backbone areas.Conclusion The anti-rhIL-4R scFv was obtained from the scFv antibody library.

  11. Resistive Switching Characteristics of 10-nm-Thick Amorphous HoScO x Films Doped with Nb and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sea-Fue; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Chu, Jinn P.; Liu, Yi-Xin; Chen, Liang-Wei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, 10-nm rare-earth metal-oxide (REMO) films, namely, pure HoScO x (HSO) and HoScO x doped with Nb (HSO-Nb) and Zn (HSO-Zn), were deposited to build resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices with a Pt/REMO/Pt structure using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The results of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that all as-deposited REMO films are featureless microstructures lacking long-range order. In all RRAM devices, layer structures were well adhered to each other with relatively smooth interfaces and no cracks or holes were observed. Hall measurements demonstrated n-type conduction in the as-deposited films. The addition of Nb and Zn increased carrier concentration and mobility of the HSO films and reduced electrical resistivity. The former was possibly caused by the electronic compensation of NbSc ··, thereby triggering the formation of polarons, and the latter was probably due to the increase in concentration of oxygen vacancies associated with acceptor doping. The RRAM devices revealed unipolar switching behavior characterized by a resistance ratio of more than three orders of magnitude, good endurance, and a long retention time. The switching behavior of the RRAM with amorphous HSO films was altered by the doping species. Doping with Nb and Zn decreased the forming voltage, facilitated the use of a smaller switching voltage, and increased the resistance ratio of high- and low-resistance states. The conduction mechanisms for the low resistive state and high resistive state were dominated by Ohmic conduction and trap-controlled space-charge-limited current mechanisms, respectively.

  12. Development of neutralizing scFv-Fc against botulinum neurotoxin A light chain from a macaque immune library.

    PubMed

    Miethe, Sebastian; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Liu, Yvonne; Chahboun, Siham; Pelat, Thibaut; Avril, Arnaud; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Hust, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are among the most toxic substances on earth, with serotype A toxin being the most toxic substance known. They are responsible for human botulism, a disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally through food poisoning or the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNT has been classified as a category A agent by the Centers for Disease Control, and it is one of six agents with the highest potential risk of use as bioweapons. Human or human-like neutralizing antibodies are thus required for the development of anti-botulinum toxin drugs to deal with this possibility. In this study, Macaca fascicularis was hyperimmunized with a recombinant light chain of BoNT/A. An immune phage display library was constructed and, after multistep panning, several scFv with nanomolar affinities that inhibited the endopeptidase activity of BoNT/A1 in vitro as scFv-Fc, with a molar ratio (ab binding site:toxin) of up to 1:1, were isolated. The neutralization of BoNT/A-induced paralysis by the SEM120-IID5, SEM120-IIIC1 and SEM120-IIIC4 antibodies was demonstrated in mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations with the holotoxin. The neutralization observed is the strongest ever measured in the phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay for BoNT/A1 for a monoclonal antibody. Several scFv-Fc inhibiting the endopeptidase activity of botulinum neurotoxin A were isolated. For SEM120-IID5, SEM120-IIIC1, and SEM120-IIIC4, inhibitory effects in vitro and protection against the toxin ex vivo were observed. The human-like nature of these antibodies makes them promising lead candidates for further development of immunotherapeutics for this disease.

  13. Development of neutralizing scFv-Fc against botulinum neurotoxin A light chain from a macaque immune library

    PubMed Central

    Miethe, Sebastian; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Liu, Yvonne; Chahboun, Siham; Pelat, Thibaut; Avril, Arnaud; Frenzel, Andrè; Schirrmann, Thomas; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Hust, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are among the most toxic substances on earth, with serotype A toxin being the most toxic substance known. They are responsible for human botulism, a disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally through food poisoning or the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNT has been classified as a category A agent by the Centers for Disease Control, and it is one of six agents with the highest potential risk of use as bioweapons. Human or human-like neutralizing antibodies are thus required for the development of anti-botulinum toxin drugs to deal with this possibility. In this study, Macaca fascicularis was hyperimmunized with a recombinant light chain of BoNT/A. An immune phage display library was constructed and, after multistep panning, several scFv with nanomolar affinities that inhibited the endopeptidase activity of BoNT/A1 in vitro as scFv-Fc, with a molar ratio (ab binding site:toxin) of up to 1:1, were isolated. The neutralization of BoNT/A-induced paralysis by the SEM120-IID5, SEM120-IIIC1 and SEM120-IIIC4 antibodies was demonstrated in mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations with the holotoxin. The neutralization observed is the strongest ever measured in the phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay for BoNT/A1 for a monoclonal antibody. Several scFv-Fc inhibiting the endopeptidase activity of botulinum neurotoxin A were isolated. For SEM120-IID5, SEM120-IIIC1, and SEM120-IIIC4, inhibitory effects in vitro and protection against the toxin ex vivo were observed. The human-like nature of these antibodies makes them promising lead candidates for further development of immunotherapeutics for this disease. PMID:24492304

  14. Resistive Switching Characteristics of 10-nm-Thick Amorphous HoScO x Films Doped with Nb and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sea-Fue; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Chu, Jinn P.; Liu, Yi-Xin; Chen, Liang-Wei

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 10-nm rare-earth metal-oxide (REMO) films, namely, pure HoScO x (HSO) and HoScO x doped with Nb (HSO-Nb) and Zn (HSO-Zn), were deposited to build resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices with a Pt/REMO/Pt structure using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The results of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that all as-deposited REMO films are featureless microstructures lacking long-range order. In all RRAM devices, layer structures were well adhered to each other with relatively smooth interfaces and no cracks or holes were observed. Hall measurements demonstrated n-type conduction in the as-deposited films. The addition of Nb and Zn increased carrier concentration and mobility of the HSO films and reduced electrical resistivity. The former was possibly caused by the electronic compensation of NbSc ··, thereby triggering the formation of polarons, and the latter was probably due to the increase in concentration of oxygen vacancies associated with acceptor doping. The RRAM devices revealed unipolar switching behavior characterized by a resistance ratio of more than three orders of magnitude, good endurance, and a long retention time. The switching behavior of the RRAM with amorphous HSO films was altered by the doping species. Doping with Nb and Zn decreased the forming voltage, facilitated the use of a smaller switching voltage, and increased the resistance ratio of high- and low-resistance states. The conduction mechanisms for the low resistive state and high resistive state were dominated by Ohmic conduction and trap-controlled space-charge-limited current mechanisms, respectively.

  15. First-principle calculation on mechanical and thermal properties of B2-NiSc with point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhipeng; Cui, Hongbao; Guo, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    Using the first-principles plane-wave pseudo-potential method based on density functional theory, the effect of vacancy and anti-position defect on the mechanical and thermal properties of B2-NiSc intermetallics were discussed in detail. Several parameters, such as the shear modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of elasticity, C 11–C 11, the Debye temperature and Poisson's ratio, have been calculated to evaluate the effect of vacancy and anti-position defect on the hardness, ductility and thermal properties of B2-NiSc intermetallics. The results show that VNi, ScNi, VSc and NiSc the four point defects all make the crystal hardness decrease and improve plasticity of B2-NiSc intermetallics. The entropy, enthalpy and free energy of VNi, ScNi, VSc and NiSc are monotonously changed as temperature changes. From the perspective of free energy, NiSc is the most stable, while ScNi is the most unstable. Debye temperature of NiSc intermetallics with four different point defects shows VNi, ScNi, VSc and NiSc the four point defects all reduce the stability of B2-NiSc intermetallics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51301063, 51571086) and the Talent Introduction Foundation of Henan Polytechnic University (No. Y-2009).

  16. Effects of Al3(Sc,Zr) and Shear Band Formation on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongfeng; Jiang, Feng; Zhou, Jiang; Wei, Lili; Qu, Jiping; Liu, Lele

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructures of Al-6Mg-0.25Sc-0.1Zr alloy (wt.%) during annealing were investigated by means of uniaxial tensile testing, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The results show that a large number of micro and grain-scale shear bands form in this alloy after cold rolling. As the tensile-loading force rises, strain softening would generate in shear bands, resulting in the occurrence of shear banding fracture in cold-rolled Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys. Recrystallization takes place preferentially in shear bands during annealing. Due to the formation of coarse-grain bands constructed by new subgrains, recrystallization softening tends to occur in these regions. During low-temperature annealing, recrystallization is inhibited by nano-scale Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates which exert significant coherency strengthening and modulus hardening. However, the strengthening effect of Al3(Sc,Zr) decreases with the increasing of particle diameter at elevated annealing temperature. The mechanical properties of the recrystallized Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy decrease to a minimum level, and the fracture plane exhibits pure ductile fracture characteristics.

  17. Single crystal to single crystal (SC-to-SC) transformation from a nonporous to porous metal-organic framework and its application potential in gas adsorption and Suzuki coupling reaction through postmodification.

    PubMed

    Sen, Rupam; Saha, Debraj; Koner, Subratanath; Brandão, Paula; Lin, Zhi

    2015-04-07

    A new amino-functionalized strontium-carboxylate-based metal-organic framework (MOF) has been synthesized that undergoes single crystal to single crystal (SC-to-SC) transformation upon desolvation. Both structures have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The desolvated structure shows an interesting 3D porous structure with pendent -NH2 groups inside the pore wall, whereas the solvated compound possesses a nonporous structure with DMF molecules on the metal centers. The amino group was postmodified through Schiff base condensation by pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and palladium was anchored on that site. The modified framework has been utilized for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. The compound shows high activity towards the C-C cross-coupling reaction with good yields and turnover frequencies. Gas adsorption studies showed that the desolvated compound had permanent porosity and was microporous in nature with a BET surface area of 2052 m(2)  g(-1). The material also possesses good CO2 (8 wt %) and H2 (1.87 wt %) adsorption capabilities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware

  19. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    One option under current study for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-Occulter (TPF-O) observatory shares some key features of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Both are space telescopes with a primary mirror aperture of around 2.4 meters and designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths, with the major difference in science capability being that TPF-O has an areal FOV on the order of 100 times larger than that of HST. This larger FOV, whose science camera is also expected to provide fine guidance, and other mission differences, mean that most TPF-O SC bus subsystems will have very different requirements than those of HST. Unlike HST in LEO, TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large FOV require much higher performance data processing and communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. TPF-O will have a specialized tracking system that allows the formation flying occulter to maintain its required position. However, despite these additional features, the velocity required for reaching SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require TPF-O to have a compact and low-mass design relative to HST. Finally, TPF-O may utilize a modular design to reduce development cost and, if it required, allow servicing using approaches different from those of HST.

  20. The Properties of Globular Cluster ESO452-SC11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, A. S. M.; Phelps, R. L.; Briley, M. M.; Friel, E. D.

    2005-12-01

    The globular cluster ESO452-SC11 has been observed using Johnson V and Cousin I filters and PSF photometry has been performed. The resulting color-magnitude diagrams were compared to theoretical isochrones to derive the cluster's age, overall chemical composition, and distance modulus. These isochrone models include those published by Girardi et al., Bergbusch & VandenBerg with BVRI color-Teff relations as described by VandenBerg & Clem, and Demarque et al. (known as the Yale isochrones). From the Yale isochrones, it is estimated that the cluster has an age 9-11 Gyr, a metallicity [Fe/H] between -1.4 and -1.0 dex, and a distance modulus (m-M)V =16.10-16.31 mag resulting in a heliocentric distance of 7.3-7.5 kpc. Using the Bergbusch & VandenBerg models, it is estimated that the cluster has an age of 11-13 Gyr, with an iron-to hydrogen ratio between -1.3 and -0.8 dex, a distance modulus (m-M)V =15.87-16.12 mag, and a heliocentric distance between 7.0-7.2 kpc. The Girardi isochrone models yield a derived age of 13-16 Gyr, metallicity between -1.3 and -0.4 dex, distance modulus (m-M)V =15.59-16.19 mag, and heliocentric distance between 6.6-7.1 kpc. The derived parameters from these models are consistent for metallicity [Fe/H] between -1.3 and -1.0 dex, reddening E(V-I) =0.70 - 0.76, and (m-M)V =16.10 - 16.12 mag. A.C. would like to acknowledge the HACU National Internship program for supporting the data analysis portion of this research.

  1. State of the art of multicell SC cavities and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel

    2002-08-01

    Superconducting cavity technology has made major progresses in the last decade with the introduction of high purity niobium on an industrial scale and, at the same time, by an improved understanding of the limiting processes in cavity performance, such as multipacting, field emission loading and thermal break-down. Multicell niobium cavities for beta = 1 particle acceleration, e.g. for the TESLA project, are routinely exceeding gradients of Eacc = 20 MV/m after the application of surface preparation techniques such as buffered chemical polishing or electropolishing, high pressure ultrapure water rinsing, UHV heat treatment and clean room assembly. The successes of the technology for beta = 1 accelerators has triggered a whole set of possible future applications for beta < 1 particle acceleration such as spallation neutron sources (SNS, ESS), transmutation of nuclear waste (TRASCO, ASH) or rare isotopes (RIA). The most advanced of these projects is SNS now under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper will review the technical solutions adopted to advance SRF technology and their impact on cavity performance, based on the SNS prototyping efforts. 2K at these high gradients are no longer out of reach. For the accelerator builder the challenge remains to come up with a good and reasonable design, which takes into account the status of the technology and does not over-estimate the achievable cavity performances in a large assembly such as, e.g., a multi-cavity cryo-module. In the following the criteria for multi-cell sc cavity design are reviewed and it is attempted to give a snapshot of the present status of multi-cell cavity performances.

  2. Past and Future: NSF PAARE at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    We review our progress to date and the path forward under the NSF program 'Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)'. Our project 'A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)' was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort and in August 2014 we received a second award (POCA II) to continue for another three years. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. We present our recent publications which include educational courseware in cosmology, a study of long-period variables using Kepler and spectroscopic variability of peculiar stars. Our graduate student successes include support for two females who have completed their Ph.Ds. in astronomy plus two additional students from underrepresented groups who have received their M.S. degrees in astronomy but are continuing their doctoral work in related fields. At SC State we have graduated 3 physics majors with the astronomy option with five more in the pipeline and review the challenges and obstacles faced along the way. We discuss our strategic plan for POCA II, which is based on lessons learned under POCA and moves us forward to the follow-on period when our efforts will be sustained by other resources.Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  3. Chronic Hypoxia Suppresses the Co2 Response of Solitary Complex (Sc) Neurons from Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Wilkinson, Katherine A.; Powell, Frank L.; Dean, Jay B.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHx; 10-11% O2) on the response to hypercapnia (15% CO2) of individual solitary complex (SC) neurons from adult rats. We simultaneously measured the intracellular pH and firing rate responses to hypercapnia of SC neurons in superfused medullary slices from control and CHx-adapted adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. We found that CHx caused the percentage of SC neurons inhibited by hypercapnia to significantly increase from about 10% up to about 30%, but did not significantly alter the percentage of SC neurons activated by hypercapnia (50% in control versus 35% in CHx). Further, the magnitudes of the responses of SC neurons from control rats (chemosensitivity index for activated neurons of 166±11% and for inhibited neurons of 45±15%) were the same in SC neurons from CHx-adapted rats. This plasticity induced in chemosensitive SC neurons by CHx appears to involve intrinsic changes in neuronal properties since they were the same in synaptic blockade medium. PMID:19619674

  4. Validity evaluation of Sc x Al1-x N material constants based on SAW characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Yamazaki, Kenta; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed at examining the validity of material constants reported for use in surface acoustic wave (SAW) device simulations. First, based on the full set of material constants calculated by first principle, bulk acoustic wave velocities are calculated for Sc x Al1-x N and compared with published experimental results. Then, the effects of the Sc x Al1-x N material constants with different Sc content on acoustic characteristics are calculated and the influence of shear vibrations on SAW characteristics are recognized. Then, a series of SAW devices are fabricated on Sc x Al1-x N film/Si substrate structure with various Cu and ScAlN thicknesses h Cu and h ScAlN, respectively, and measured variations of phase velocity V and effective electromechanical coupling factor K\\text{e}2 with these parameters are compared with the calculation. The fairly well-agreed results indicate a reliable set of Sc x Al1-x N material constants for SAW device simulations.

  5. Theoretical study of neutral and charged Sc n≤2-(benzene) m≤3 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynez-Rojas, Miguel; Castro, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Interactions of benzene molecules with scandium atoms, Sc n≤2-(C6H6) m≤3, in the gas phase were studied by means of density functional theory. All-electron calculations were performed using the B3LYP hybrid functional in concert with 6-311+G(d,p) orbital basis sets for the Sc, C, and H atoms. Multiple-decker sandwich (MDS) structures are identified as the ground states for Sc n≤2-(C6H6) m≤3, where the ligands are attached to the metal through Sc-C bonding, formed between the 3d electrons and the π-clouds of the benzene rings. Significant distortion is produced on the absorbed benzene molecules by the metal-ligand bonding. Rice ball structures also appeared, but they were found at higher energies, in such a way that essentially MDS isomers may emerge in the molecular beams. Even the low number of valence electrons (3d24s1) of the Sc atom; sextuple coordinations are formed, but they show different Sc-C bond lengths, diminishing the symmetry of neutral and charged clusters. The estimated ionization energies, in near agreement with experimental data, and electron affinities, suggest delocalization of the valence electrons through the network of 3d-π bonds of Sc1,2-(C6H6) m≤3. The binding energies decrease with the absorption of more benzene molecules, and in some cases increase as more metal atoms are added to the cluster.

  6. Radiolabeling of DOTATOC with the long-lived positron emitter 44Sc.

    PubMed

    Pruszyński, Marek; Majkowska-Pilip, Agnieszka; Loktionova, Natalia S; Eppard, Elisabeth; Roesch, Frank

    2012-06-01

    The positron-emitting radionuclide (44)Sc with a half-life of 3.97 h and a β(+) branching of 94.3% is of potential interest for clinical PET. As so far it is available from a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator in Mainz, where long-lived (44)Ti decays to no-carrier-added (nca) (44)Sc. The (44)Sc is a trivalent metal cation and should be suitable for complexation with many well established bifunctional chelators conjugated to peptides or other molecular targeting vectors. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the potential of (44)Sc for labeling of DOTA-conjugated peptides. DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide (DOTATOC) was used as a model molecule to study and optimize labeling procedure. Reaction parameters such as buffer conditions, concentration of peptide, pH range, reaction temperature and time were optimized. Addition of 21 nmol of DOTATOC to (44)Sc in ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.0 provided labeling yields >98% within 25 min of heating in an oil-bath at 95°C. This time can be reduced to 3 min only by applying microwave supported heating. (44)Sc-DOTATOC was found to be stable in 0.9% NaCl, PBS pH 7.4, fetal calf and human serums, and also in the presence of competing metal cations (Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+)), as well as other ligand competitors, like EDTA and DTPA, even after almost 25 h incubation at 37°C. Present study shows that nca (44)Sc forms stable complexes with the macrocyclic ligand DOTA and that (44)Sc-DOTATOC and analog targeting vectors may be synthesized for further preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SC-41930: An inhibitor of leukotriene B4-stimulated human neutrophil functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, B.S.; Villani-Price, D.; Keith, R.H.; Zemaitis, J.M.; Bauer, R.F.; Leonard, R.; Djuric, S.W.; Shone, R.L. )

    1989-12-01

    SC-41930 was evaluated for effects on human neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation. At concentrations up to 100 microM, SC-41930 alone exhibited no effect on neutrophil migration, but dose-dependently inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in a modified Boyden chamber. Concentrations of SC-41930 from 0.3 microM to 3 microM competitively inhibited LTB4-induced chemotaxis with a pA2 value of 6.35. While inactive at 10 microM against C5a-induced chemotaxis, SC-41930 inhibited N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced chemotaxis, with 10 times less potency than against LTB4-induced chemotaxis. SC-41930 inhibited (3H)LTB4 and (3H)fMLP binding to their receptor sites on human neutrophils with KD values of 0.2 microM and 2 microM, respectively. SC-41930 also inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by 20-OH LTB or 12(R)-HETE. At concentrations up to 10 microM, SC-41930 alone did not cause neutrophil degranulation, but inhibited LTB4-induced degranulation in a noncompetitive manner. SC-41930 also inhibited fMLP- or C5a-induced degranulation, but was about 8 and 10 times less effective for fMLP and C5a, respectively. The results indicate that SC-41930 is a human neutrophil LTB4 receptor antagonist with greater specificity for LTB4 than for fMLP or C5a receptors.

  8. Flow cytometry-based methods for assessing soluble scFv activities and detecting pathogen antigens in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Sean; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung'u, Joseph; Buscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao N.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-04-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. A limiting step in the isolation of scFv from nonimmune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeastdisplayed and secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of its ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv toidentify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind nonoverlapping or noncompeting epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries.

  9. Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Characterization of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Long Bay, SC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, R. F.; McCoy, C.; Quafisi, D.; Gayes, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been identified as a significant contributor of dissolved nutrients and contaminants to near-shore waters. Little is known, however, about geologic controls on the spatial distribution of SGD seeps. Discharge estimates are typically derived from geochemical tracers such as Rn-222. Such estimates of total fluxes over a given area do not consider the potential for spatial variability in discharge rates. Higher fluxes of chemically distinct SGD over smaller areas could have complex effects on localized water masses, ecosystems, and geological features. In an effort to assess the distribution of SGD, electrical resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted along the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina during a series of cruises between October, 2005 and November 2006. In addition, basic bottom water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, and pH were measured. Preliminary submarine groundwater flux estimates for northern Long Bay were also generated from measurements of Rn-222. The resistivity signal is highly variable along shore with several instances of elevated values suggesting presence of relatively fresher pore waters. In some cases, elevated resistivity measurements were spatially co-registered with seismically defined paleochannels extending across the shelf. Other areas of elevated resistivity values correlate with smaller discontinuities in seismic reflectors. A third category of resistivity anomalies does not correlate with seismically defined features. Overall, anomaly frequency and intensity decrease rapidly with increasing distance from shore. At distances > 1 km from shore, the resistivity signal is uniform in space and low in magnitude, implying less of a fresh water contribution. Water quality parameters are variable along shore and may reflect the influence of SGD. Rn-derived fluxes suggest SGD equivalent to as much as 50% of riverine discharge into Long Bay. Ongoing work is focused on sampling pore water in a variety of geologic settings for redox conditions, nutrients and Rn-222. This information will ultimately provide the basis for determination of SGD-related nutrient fluxes to nearshore waters.

  10. Effect of Rare Earth Elements (Er, Ho) on Semi-Metallic Materials (ScN) in an Applied Electric Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    The development of materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics is essential for applications such as membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras and flat-panel displays. The dopants of rare earth elements, in a host of optical systems, create a number of absorption and emission band structures and can easily be incorporated into many high quality crystalline and amorphous hosts. In wide band-gap semiconductors like ScN, the existing deep levels can capture or emit the mobile charges, and can be ionized with the loss or capture of the carriers which are the fundamental basis of concept for smart optic materials. The band gap shrinkage or splitting with dopants supports the possibility of this concept. In the present work, a semi-metallic material (ScN) was doped with rare earth elements (Er, Ho) and tested under an applied electric field to characterize spectral and refractive index shifts by either Stark or Zeeman Effect. These effects can be verified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the Hall Effect measurement and the ellipsometric spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of ScN doped with Er and doped with Ho were experimentally estimated as 2.33eV and 2.24eV ( 0.2eV) respectively. This is less than that of undoped ScN (2.5 0.2eV). The red-shifted absorption onset is a direct evidence for the decrease of band gap energy (Eg), and the broadening of valence band states is attributable to the doping cases. A decrease in refractive index with an applied field was observed as a small shift in absorption coefficient using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. In the presence of an electric field, mobile carriers are redistributed within the space charge region (SCR) to produce this electro-refractive effect. The shift in refractive index is also affected by the density and location of deep potential wells within the SCR. In addition, the microstructure change was observed by a TEM

  11. Identification of a GTP-bound Rho specific scFv molecular sensor by phage display selection

    PubMed Central

    Goffinet, Marine; Chinestra, Patrick; Lajoie-Mazenc, Isabelle; Medale-Giamarchi, Claire; Favre, Gilles; Faye, Jean-Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background The Rho GTPases A, B and C proteins, members of the Rho family whose activity is regulated by GDP/GTP cycling, function in many cellular pathways controlling proliferation and have recently been implicated in tumorigenesis. Although overexpression of Rho GTPases has been correlated with tumorigenesis, only their GTP-bound forms are able to activate the signalling pathways implicated in tumorigenesis. Thus, the focus of much recent research has been to identify biological tools capable of quantifying the level of cellular GTP-bound Rho, or determining the subcellular location of activation. However useful, these tools used to study the mechanism of Rho activation still have limitations. The aim of the present work was to employ phage display to identify a conformationally-specific single chain fragment variable (scFv) that recognizes the active, GTP-bound, form of Rho GTPases and is able to discriminate it from the inactive, GDP-bound, Rho in endogenous settings. Results After five rounds of phage selection using a constitutively activated mutant of RhoB (RhoBQ63L), three scFvs (A8, C1 and D11) were selected for subsequent analysis. Further biochemical characterization was pursued for the single clone, C1, exhibiting an scFv structure. C1 was selective for the GTP-bound form of RhoA, RhoB, as well as RhoC, and failed to recognize GTP-loaded Rac1 or Cdc42, two other members of the Rho family. To enhance its production, soluble C1 was expressed in fusion with the N-terminal domain of phage protein pIII (scFv C1-N1N2), it appeared specifically associated with GTP-loaded recombinant RhoA and RhoB via immunoprecipitation, and endogenous activated Rho in HeLa cells as determined by immunofluorescence. Conclusion We identified an antibody, C1-N1N2, specific for the GTP-bound form of RhoB from a phage library, and confirmed its specificity towards GTP-bound RhoA and RhoC, as well as RhoB. The success of C1-N1N2 in discriminating activated Rho in

  12. Effect of rare earth elements (Er, Ho) on semi-metallic materials (ScN) in an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-04-01

    The development of materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics is essential for applications such as membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras and flat-panel displays. The dopants of rare earth elements, in a host of optical systems, create a number of absorption and emission band structures and can easily be incorporated into many high quality crystalline and amorphous hosts. In wide band-gap semiconductors like ScN, the existing deep levels can capture or emit the mobile charges, and can be ionized with the loss or capture of the carriers which are the fundamental basis of concept for smart optic materials. The band gap shrinkage or splitting with dopants supports the possibility of this concept. In the present work, a semi-metallic material (ScN) was doped with rare earth elements (Er, Ho) and tested under an applied electric field to characterize spectral and refractive index shifts by either Stark or Zeeman Effect. These effects can be verified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the Hall Effect measurement and the ellipsometric spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of ScN doped with Er and doped with Ho were experimentally estimated as 2.33eV and 2.24eV (+/-0.2eV) respectively. This is less than that of undoped ScN (2.5+/-0.2eV). The red-shifted absorption onset is a direct evidence for the decrease of band gap energy (Eg), and the broadening of valence band states is attributable to the doping cases. A decrease in refractive index with an applied field was observed as a small shift in absorption coefficient using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. In the presence of an electric field, mobile carriers are redistributed within the space charge region (SCR) to produce this electro-refractive effect. The shift in refractive index is also affected by the density and location of deep potential wells within the SCR. In addition, the microstructure change was observed by a

  13. Effects of Dopant on Depoling Temperature in Modified BiScO3 - PbTiO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, Benjamin; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for high temperature piezoelectrics for both terrestrial and aerospace applications. These applications are limited in part by the operating temperature, which is usually taken as one half of the Curie temperature (Tc), and is 200C for one of the most widely used commercial piezoelectrics, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). In an effort to increase Tc, subsequent research into high temperature Bi(BB)O3 PbTiO3 piezoelectrics led to the discovery of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the high-Tc BiScO3 PbTiO3 (BS-PT) system with a Tc of 460C and a d33 of 460 pmV. The Tc marks the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transformation and while, in general, a phase transformation leads to thermal depoling in piezoelectrics with low or moderate Tcs, for high Tc piezoelectrics thermally assisted dipole rotation can lead to randomization of domains at temperatures below Tc. It becomes necessary to determine the depoling temperature (Td) which dictates the actual working temperature range. By doping for Sc and Ti the Td can be shifted while maintaining similar electromechanical properties as a function of temperature. The effect of this B-site doping on depoling temperature has been explored through the characterization of microstructure and weakhigh field measurements.

  14. Enhanced sampling molecular dynamics identifies PrP(Sc) structures harboring a C-terminal β-core.

    PubMed

    Baillod, Pascal; Garrec, Julian; Colombo, Maria-Carola; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2012-12-11

    We perform a replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation corresponding to a 2.8 μs total time for the extensive enhanced sampling of the conformational space of the C-terminal part (residues 124-226) of the mouse prion protein (PrP); 1.3% of the conformations sampled display a high level of β-structure (≥19 residues), allowing the assessment of β-propensities along the sequence and highlighting the most structurally labile hot spots. A clustering algorithm is applied to sort the structures of this pool according to their fold. Ten β-rich folds are thus defined and analyzed with regard to their topology, accumulation temperatures, and structural characteristics. In contrast to the so-called spiral and β-helix models suggesting that the β-rich core of the scrapie isoform (PrP(Sc)) comprises the N-terminal tail and part of the C-terminal domain up to helix 1 (H1), we present putative structural models for monomeric precursors of PrP(Sc) and PrP β-oligomers that are characterized by a C-terminal β-rich core, in agreement with the suggestions of a series of recent experiments.

  15. Production of recombinant single chain antibodies (scFv) in vegetatively reproductive Kalanchoe pinnata by in planta transformation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yuchul; Rhee, Yong; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Shim, Hyekyung; Choi, Jung-Jin; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Sukchan

    2009-10-01

    We developed an asexual reproductive plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a new bioreactor for plant-based molecular farming using a newly developed transformation method. Leaf crenate margins were pin-pricked to infect the plant with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and vacuum infiltration was also applied to introduce the target gene into the plants. Subsequently, the young mother leaf produced new clones at the leaf crenate margins without the need for time- and labor-consuming tissue culture procedures. The average transformation rates were approximately 77 and 84% for pin-prickling and vacuum-infiltration methods, respectively. To functionally characterize an introduced target protein, a nucleic acid hydrolyzing recombinant 3D8 scFv was selected and the plant based 3D8 scFv proteins were purified and analyzed. Based on abzyme analysis, the purified protein expressed with this system had catalytic activity and exhibited all of properties of the protein produced in an E. coli system. This result suggested that vegetatively reproductive K. pinnata can be a novel and potent bioreactor for bio-pharmaceutical proteins.

  16. Synthesis of Perovskite ScMnO3 under High Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tian; Gao, Peng; Tyson, Trevor A.

    2012-02-01

    Perovskite type ScMnO3 was synthesized under high temperature and pressure starting with hexagonal ScMnO3. The detail of the structure is examined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy at room temperature. A highly distorted perovskite phase which is similar to the structure of LaMnO3 is identified by XRD Rietveld Refinement. Due to the small Sc ion radius, each Mn site has a distorted MnO6 polyhedron. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER46402.

  17. Standardisation and precise determination of the half-life of (44)Sc.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Peyrés, V; Roteta, M; Sánchez-Cabezudo, A I; Romero, E; Martínez Ortega, A

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (44)Sc has been determined by following the decay rate with two measurement systems; an Ionisation Chamber and a HPGe detector. The combination of seven results gives a value of T1/2=4.042 (25)h, about 2% higher than the recommended value of T1/2=3.97 (4)h (Browne, 2011) and with a lower uncertainty. This radionuclide has also been standardised by coincidence counting, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. A (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator developed at CIEMAT was used to obtain the (44)Sc solutions used in all measurements.

  18. Promising electron mobility and high thermal conductivity in Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuhong; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Francisco, Joseph S; Luo, Kan; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-21

    MXenes, the new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have recently attracted extensive attention due to their diverse applications and excellent performances. However, the thermal and electrical properties of most MXene materials are yet to be studied. In this work, we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of semiconducting Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes using first-principles calculations. Both of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes are determined to show excellent carrier mobilities. The electron mobility in the Sc2CF2 MXene is found to be strongly anisotropic at room temperature, with values of 5.03 × 10(3) and 1.07 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The predicted electron mobility in the zigzag direction of the Sc2CF2 is nearly four-fold that in the armchair direction of the promising semiconductor phosphorene. In contrast to Sc2CF2, Sc2C(OH)2 presents approximately isotropic electron mobility. The values at room temperature in the zigzag and armchair directions are calculated as 2.06 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 2.19 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In regard to the thermal properties, the thermal conductivities of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes have been determined. The predicted values are higher than those of most metals and semiconducting low-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2 and phosphorene. In particular, the room-temperature thermal conductivity along the Sc2CF2 armchair direction has been determined to be as high as 472 W m(-1) K(-1) based on a flake length of 5 μm, which is even higher than that of the best traditional conductor silver. The corresponding value in the zigzag direction of Sc2CF2 is calculated to be 178 W m(-1) K(-1). The thermal conductivity in Sc2C(OH)2 is less anisotropic and lower compared to that in Sc2CF2. The room-temperature value in the armchair (zigzag) direction is determined to be 173 W m(-1) K(-1) (107 W m(-1) K(-1)). Based on their excellent

  19. The Fifth Annual Sc2.0 and Synthetic Genomes Conference: Synthetic Genomes in High Gear.

    PubMed

    Walker, Roy S K; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-09-16

    The Sc2.0 project is perhaps the largest synthetic biology project in the public domain, and ultimately aims to construct a new version of the humble brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each year, the Sc2.0 consortium gather to discuss progress in this ambitious project and highlight new developments at the forefront of synthetic genome engineering. This viewpoint summarizes some of the key moments of the 2016 conference, including updates on the Sc2.0 project itself, mammalian synthetic biology, DNA assembly automation, HGP-Write and a panel discussion on the social and ethical perspectives of synthetic biology.

  20. Current Lead System of the SuperKEKB Final Focus SC Magnet Cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Z. G.; Ohuchi, N.; Tsuchiya, K.; Arimoto, Y.; Higashi, N.; Yamaoka, H.; Kondou, Y.; Kawai, M.

    To energize the SuperKEKB final focus superconducting (SC) magnets, 110 current leads in total will be equipped in the two service cryostats. For the SC quadrupoles and solenoids, 22 leads are the conventional vapor cooled type and the others for the SC correction coils employ an HTS section at the cold ends. The qualification program on the leads is being carried out at KEK as the cryogenic acceptance test prior to installation. This paper presents the thermal and electrical results of the cryogenic tests.

  1. On nd bonding in the transition metal trimers: Comparison of Sc3 and Y3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    CASSCF/CCI calculations are presented for the low-lying states of Y3. Comparison of the wave functions for Y3 and Sc3 indicates substantial 4d-5p hybridization in Y3, but little 3d-4p hybridization in Sc3. The increased 4d-5p hybridization leads to stabilization of 4dpi bonding with respect to 4dsigma bonding for equilateral triangle Y3, and also leads to 4d-5p bonding for linear geometries. These effects lead to a different ordering of states for equilateral triangle geometries and a smaller excitation energy to the linear configuration for Y3 as compared to Sc3.

  2. Solid-Phase Equilibria for Metal-Silicon-Oxygen Ternary Systems. II. Sc, Y, and La

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-28

    Organization: Regents of the University of California TECHNICAL REPORT No. 9 SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA FOR METAL-SILICON-OXYGEN TERNARY SYSTEMS: 11: Sc, Y, AND La...34’ SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA FOR METAL-SILICON-OXYGEN TERNARY SYSTEMS: 11: Sc, Y, AND 1a 13 0911OtiA AUTHORCS) Haojie Yuan and R. Stanley Williams lI" TV...0660te tCLhSSWI=) Solid phase equilibria for metal-silicon-oxygen ternary systems I1: Sc, Y and La Haojie Yuan and R. Stanley Williams Department of

  3. Lightweight hydrogen-storage material Mg(0.65)Sc(0.35)D2 studied with 2H and 2H-{45Sc} MAS NMR exchange spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Magusin, P C M M

    2011-01-01

    Using double-quantum (2)H MAS NMR with (45)Sc recoupling and Bloch-Siegert compensated (2)H-{(45)Sc} TRAPDOR we have identified the overlapping NMR signals of deuterium with and without scandium neighbors in Mg(0.65)Sc(0.35)D(2), a candidate lightweight material for hydrogen storage. At room temperature we also observe a third type of mobile deuterium. Deuterium mobility among the three NMR-distinct sites has been investigated by means of one-and two-dimensional exchange spectroscopy (Exsy). Complete deuterium exchange within 0.1s is observed, which indicates that the three NMR-distinct sites are close together in the crystal lattice. The weak temperature- and MAS-rate dependences observed in Exsy are indicative for a combination of chemical exchange and spin diffusion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-06-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er3+/Yb3+ NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal

  5. Guest-induced SC-SC transformation within the first K/Cd heterodimetallic triazole complex: a luminescent sensor for high-explosives and cyano molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jia, Wei; Chen, Ran; Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2017-01-03

    The first K/Cd heterodimetallic complex {[Cd1.5(TTPE)1.5Cl3K(H2O)3]·3H2O}n (1b) based on triazole has been generated from {[Cd(TTPE)(HCOO)](NO3)·3DMAC·H2O}n (1) during the ion- and solvent-exchange experiment in an irreversible SC-SC transformation. Based on its luminescence properties, we have, for the first time, demonstrated that 1b is a heterodimetallic sensor for detection of high-explosives and cyano molecules.

  6. Cyclotron production of high purity (44m,44)Sc with deuterons from (44)CaCO3 targets.

    PubMed

    Alliot, C; Kerdjoudj, R; Michel, N; Haddad, F; Huclier-Markai, S

    2015-06-01

    Due to its longer half-life, (44)Sc (T1/2 = 3.97 h) as a positron emitter can be an interesting alternative to (68)Ga (T1/2 = 67.71 min). It has been already proposed as a PET radionuclide for scouting bone disease and is already available as a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator. (44)Sc has an isomeric state, (44 m)Sc (T1/2 = 58.6 h), which can be co-produced with (44)Sc and that has been proved to be considered as an in-vivo PET generator (44 m)Sc/(44)Sc. This work presents the production route of (44 m)Sc/(44)Sc generator from (44)Ca(d,2n), its extraction/purification process and the evaluation of its performances. Irradiation was performed in a low activity target station using a deuteron beam of 16 MeV, which favors the number of (44 m)Sc atoms produced simultaneously to (44)Sc. Typical irradiation conditions were 60 min at 0.2 μA producing 44 MBq of (44)Sc with a (44)Sc/(44 m)Sc activity ratio of 50 at end of irradiation. Separations of the radionuclides were performed by means of cation exchange chromatography using a DGA® resin (Triskem). Then, the developed process was applied with bigger targets, and could be used for preclinical studies. The extraction/purification process leads to a radionucleidic purity higher than 99.99% ((43)Sc, (46)Sc, (48)Sc < DL). (44 m)Sc/(44)Sc labeling towards DOTA moiety was performed in order to get an evaluation of the specific activities that could be reached with regard to all metallic impurities from the resulting source. Reaction parameters of radiolabeling were optimized, reaching yields over 95%, and leading to a specific activity of about 10-20 MBq/nmol for DOTA. A recycling process for the enriched (44)Ca target was developed and optimized. The quality of the final batch with regard to radionucleidic purity, specific activity and metal impurities allowed a right away use for further radiopharmaceutical evaluation. This radionucleidic pair of (44 m)Sc/(44)Sc offers a quite interesting PET radionuclide for being further

  7. A novel obatoclax derivative, SC-2001, induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through SHP-1-dependent STAT3 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuen-Feng; Su, Jung-Chen; Liu, Chun-Yu; Huang, Jui-Wen; Chen, Kuei-Chiu; Chen, Wei-Lin; Tai, Wei-Tien; Shiau, Chung-Wai

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a novel compound, SC-2001, on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SC-2001, which is structurally related to the Mcl-1 inhibitor obatoclax, showed better antitumor effects than obatoclax in HCC cell lines, including HepG2, PLC5 and Huh-7. Like obatoclax, SC-2001 inhibited the protein-protein interactions between Mcl-1 and Bak. However, SC-2001 downregulated the protein levels of Mcl-1 by reducing its transcription whereas obatoclax had no significant effect on Mcl-1 expression. As Mcl-1 is regulated by signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), we found that SC-2001 downregulated the phosphorylation of STAT3 (Tyr 705) and subsequently inhibited transcriptional activities of STAT3 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition to Mcl-1, STAT3-regulated proteins, including survivin and cyclin D1, were also repressed by SC-2001. Notably, SC-2001 reduced IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in HepG2 and PLC5 cells. Ectopic expression of STAT3 abolished the prominent apoptotic death in SC-2001-treated PLC5 cells, indicating that STAT3 is indispensable in mediating the effects of SC-2001. Importantly, SC-2001 enhanced the expression of SHP1, a negative regulator of STAT3. Inhibition of SHP-1 by either specific inhibitor or small interference RNA reduced the apoptotic effects of SC-2001, indicating that SHP-1 plays a key role in mediating SC2001-induced cell death. SC-2001 enhanced the activity of SHP-1 in all tested HCC cells including HepG2, PLC5 and Huh-7. Finally, SC-2001 reduced PLC5 tumor growth, downregulated p-STAT3 and upregulated SHP-1 expression and activity in vivo. In conclusion, our results suggest that SC-2001 induces apoptosis in HCC, and that this effect is mediated through SHP-1-dependent STAT3 inactivation.

  8. Activation of SC during electrical stimulation of LGN: retinal antidromic stimulation or corticocollicular activation?

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yusuke; Augath, Mark; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2011-12-01

    We have recently used combined electrostimulation, neurophysiology, microinjection and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the cortical activity patterns elicited during stimulation of cortical afferents in monkeys. We found that stimulation of a site in lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) increases the fMRI signal in the regions of primary visual cortex receiving input from that site, but suppresses it in the retinotopically matched regions of extrastriate cortex. Intracortical injection experiments showed that such suppression is due to synaptic inhibition. During these experiments, we have consistently observed activation of superior colliculus (SC) following LGN stimulation. Since LGN does not directly project to SC, the current study investigated the origin of SC activation. By examining experimental manipulations inactivating the primary visual cortex, we present here evidence that the robust SC activation, which follows the stimulation of LGN, is due to the activation of corticocollicular pathway.

  9. Radioiodination and biodistribution of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 and its scFv fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubaštová, H.; Kleinova, V.; Seifert, D.; Fišer, M.; Kranda, K.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 and its scFv fragment to specifically bind to the C-end of the class III beta-tubulin makes these preparations useful as potential diagnostics for in vivo determination of neurodegenerative diseases that entail degradation of neuronal cytoskeleton. To examine this hypothesis, TU-20 and its scFv were labelled with 125I and their properties were extensively investigated. TU-20 and its scFv were labelled via chloramine-T with the yield 90 95% and 64 78%, respectively. Their quality control, performed by an ELISA and gel electrophoresis, determined adequate properties for further studies. The in vitro experiment, involving autoradiography and immunohistochemistry of mice’ brain slices, enabled confirmation of preserved immunospecificity of the radiolabelled substances. Finally, the in vivo biodistribution proved differences in elimination of either TU-20, scFv TU-20, or iodide from the mice.

  10. Thortveitite and associated Sc-bearing minerals from Ravalli County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Birmingham, S.D.; Demartin, F.; Pilati, T.; Gramaccioli, C.M.; Lichte, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    The rare Sc mineral thortveitite, (Sc,Y)2Si2O7, occurs as ??m- to mm-sized crystals in fluorite-bearing granitic pegmatites and the host melagabbro within the Crystal Mountain fluorite deposit, Ravalli County, Montana. Thortveitite is found as colorless and clear to smoky and translucent, subhedral to euhedral prisms up to 3 mm in length in the massive fluroite, as mm-sized anhedra to subhedra in diopside and edenite, and as ??m-sized droplet-like crystals in actinolite. Micrometric textures suggest that some thortveitite exsolved from actinolite, which contains between 1.2 and 2.9 wt.% Sc2O3. The source of the Sc is believed to be magmatic. The physical, optical and crystallographic properties of thortveitite are described. -from Authors

  11. 77 FR 51475 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... life and property on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Myrtle Beach, SC... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier...

  12. Near infrared emission of Eu2+ ions in Ca3Sc2Si3O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, I. V.; Dotsenko, V. P.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.; Smola, S. S.

    2013-10-01

    The luminescent properties of Eu2+ ions in Ca3Sc2Si3O12 have been studied for the first time. The Eu2+-doped Ca3Sc2Si3O12 exhibit a broadband emission in the 720-1100 nm region with a maximum at about 840 nm, which is due to the 4f65d → 4f7 transition of Eu2+ ions. This interpretation is supported by the appearance of the fine structure in the emission spectrum of Eu2+-doped Ca3Sc2Si3O12 at 77 K. Probably, the near infrared emission of Eu2+ ions in Ca3Sc2Si3O12 is the most long-wavelength 4f65d → 4f7 emission of these ions within more than three hundreds of Eu2+-doped inorganic compounds studied to date.

  13. 34. FORMER SANDBOX ON SAR1 FLOWLINE. EEC print no. SC0100559 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. FORMER SANDBOX ON SAR-1 FLOWLINE. EEC print no. S-C-01-00559 (print is marked '81' outside vignette frame), no date. Photographer unknown. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Promising electron mobility and high thermal conductivity in Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuhong; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Francisco, Joseph S.; Luo, Kan; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-01

    MXenes, the new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have recently attracted extensive attention due to their diverse applications and excellent performances. However, the thermal and electrical properties of most MXene materials are yet to be studied. In this work, we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of semiconducting Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes using first-principles calculations. Both of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes are determined to show excellent carrier mobilities. The electron mobility in the Sc2CF2 MXene is found to be strongly anisotropic at room temperature, with values of 5.03 × 103 and 1.07 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The predicted electron mobility in the zigzag direction of the Sc2CF2 is nearly four-fold that in the armchair direction of the promising semiconductor phosphorene. In contrast to Sc2CF2, Sc2C(OH)2 presents approximately isotropic electron mobility. The values at room temperature in the zigzag and armchair directions are calculated as 2.06 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.19 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. In regard to the thermal properties, the thermal conductivities of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes have been determined. The predicted values are higher than those of most metals and semiconducting low-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2 and phosphorene. In particular, the room-temperature thermal conductivity along the Sc2CF2 armchair direction has been determined to be as high as 472 W m-1 K-1 based on a flake length of 5 μm, which is even higher than that of the best traditional conductor silver. The corresponding value in the zigzag direction of Sc2CF2 is calculated to be 178 W m-1 K-1. The thermal conductivity in Sc2C(OH)2 is less anisotropic and lower compared to that in Sc2CF2. The room-temperature value in the armchair (zigzag) direction is determined to be 173 W m-1 K-1 (107 W m-1 K-1). Based on their excellent electron mobilities and high thermal

  15. Walterboro, SC receives Technical Assistance to Boost Local Foods, Neighborhood Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Walterboro, SC has been selected as one of 27 rural community projects across the country to participate in Local Foods, Local Places, a federal initiative that helps communities increase economic opportunities for local farmers and relate

  16. Geomagnetic Sudden Commencement (SC) Events Observed at the Topside Ionosphere by ROCSAT from 1999 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shin-Yi; Kikuchi, Takashi

    Topside ionospheric plasma variations in response to the geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) events observed by ROCSAT from 1999 to 2004 during the moderate to high solar activ-ity years have been studied. These SC events observed at the topside ionosphere indicate one particular feature in the flow and density variations. That is, large flow variations in the two mutually perpendicular directions of the geomagnetic field are observed in contrast to a nil vari-ation in the field-aligned flow and very little or no variation in ion density. These observations indicate that the SC events encountered by ROCSAT are the wave transit phenomena that are resulted from the disturbances at the magnetopause caused by the arrival of the interplan-etary discontinuity. These observed ionospheric variations in the local-time and dip-latitude distributions of the SC events are explained with the aid of a physical model of Araki [1994].

  17. Strained rocksalt ScN: ab initio studies of electronic structure and lattice-dynamical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Bouarissa, Nadir

    2017-05-01

    Generalized gradient approximation calculations are performed to determine electronic and lattice vibration properties of unstrained and strained rocksalt scandium nitride (ScN). In agreement with earlier studies, our results reveal that unstrained rocksalt ScN is an indirect gap semiconductor from the valence band at Γ point to the conduction band at the X point. The effect of strain is found to have a large variation of energy band gaps and optical phonon frequencies. A large longitudinal and transverse optical phonon frequencies splitting is noted for the material of interest suggesting thus a remarkable dynamic ionicity of rocksalt ScN which varies significantly when ScN is strained. This can lead to engineering novel behaviors and holds promise for new technological applications.

  18. Anatomical, physiological and experimental factors affecting the bioavailability of sc administered large biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous route of administration is highly desirable for protein therapeutics. It improves patient compliance and quality of life1,2, while reducing healthcare cost2. Recent evidence also suggests that sc administration of protein therapeutics can increase tolerability to some treatments such as intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) by administering it subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy SCIG), which will reduce fluctuation in plasma drug concentration3. Furthermore, sc administration may reduce the risk of systemic infections associated with iv infusion1,2. This route, however, has its challenges especially for large multi-domain proteins. Poor bioavailability and poor scalability from preclinical models are often cited. This commentary will discuss barriers to sc absorption as well as physiological and experimental factors that could affect pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered large protein therapeutics in preclinical models. A mechanistic pharmacokinetic model is proposed as a potential tool to address the issue of scalability of sc pharmacokinetic from preclinical models to humans PMID:25411114

  19. Site-Specific Labeling of scVEGF with Fluorine-18 for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Haokao; Guo, Ning; Niu, Gang; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important mediators of angiogenesis. Single-chain (sc)-VEGF protein containing an N-terminal Cys-tag has been designed for site-specific modification with a variety of imaging and therapeutic moieties. Site-specific labeling of scVEGF with thiol-reactive prosthetic group, N-[2-(4-18F-fluorobenzamido) ethyl] maleimide ([18F]FBEM) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of VEFGR may provide a new tracer which has great potential for clinical translation. Methods: [18F]FBEM-scVEGF was synthesized by site-specific conjugation of 18F-FBEM to a thiol group in Cys-tag of scVEGF at room temperature. The functional activity after labeling was tested by immunofluorescence staining, cellular uptake and efflux. The tumor targeting and in vivo properties were evaluated by biodistribution and microPET studies in tumor-bearing mice. Results: The radiolabeling yield and specific activity of [18F]FBEM-scVEGF were 20.6 ± 15.1% (based on starting [18F]FBEM, uncorrected, n = 5) and 58.8 ± 12.4 GBq/µmol, respectively. Noninvasive microPET and direct tissue sampling experiments demonstrated that [18F]FBEM-scVEGF had VEGFR specific tumor uptake in MDA-MB-435, U87MG and 4T1 xenograft models. The optimal tumor uptake was achieved at 2 h p.i., which can be partially, but significantly blocked by co-injection of non-labeled scVEGF protein. Overall, [18F]FBEM-scVEGF showed VEGFR specific tumor uptake. Conclusion: The scVEGF was site-specifically labeled with 18F via [18F]FBEM prosthetic group and the tracer [18F]FBEM-scVEGF exhibited high receptor binding affinity and tumor targeting efficacy. Further study of [18F] FBEM-scVEGF to evaluate angiogenesis in cancer and other disease types is warranted. PMID:22768028

  20. Tetragonal to triclinic structural transition in the prototypical CeScSi induced by a two-step magnetic ordering: a temperature-dependent neutron diffraction study of CeScSi, CeScGe and LaScSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, C.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pathak, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    An investigation on the ground state magnetism of CeScSi, CeScGe (tetragonal CeScSi-type, tI12, space group I4/mmm) by temperature-dependent powder neutron diffraction has been carried out, as debated and controversial data regarding the low temperature magnetic behaviours of these two compounds were reported. Our studies reveal that, while cooling, long-range magnetic ordering in CeScSi and CeScGe takes place by a two-step process. A first transition leads to a magnetic structure with the Ce moments aligned ferromagnetically onto two neighbouring tetragonal basal a-b planes of the CeScSi-type structure; the double layers are then antiferromagnetically coupled to each other along the c-axis. The transition temperature associated with the first ordering is T N ~ 26 K and T N ~ 48 K for the silicide and the germanide, respectively. Here the spin directions are rigorously confined to the basal plane, with values of the Ce magnetic moments of μ Ce  =  0.8-1.0 μ B. A second magnetic transition, which takes place at slightly lower temperatures, results in a canting of the ordered magnetic moments out of the basal plane which is accompanied by an increase of the magnetic moment value of Ce to μ Ce  =  1.4-1.5 μ B. Interestingly, the second magnetic transition leads to a structural distortion in both compounds from the higher-symmetry tetragonal space group I4/mmm to the lower-symmetry and triclinic I-1 (non-standard triclinic). Magnetic symmetry analysis shows that the canted structure would not be allowed in the I4/mmm space group; this result further confirms the structural transition. The transition temperatures T S from I4/mmm to I-1 are about 22 K in CeScSi and 36 K in CeScGe, i.e. well below the temperature of the first onset of antiferromagnetic order observed in this work (or below the ordering temperature, previously reported as either T C or T N). This result, along with the synchronism of the magnetic and structural transitions

  1. Tetragonal to triclinic structural transition in the prototypical CeScSi induced by a two-step magnetic ordering: a temperature-dependent neutron diffraction study of CeScSi, CeScGe and LaScSi.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Provino, A; Manfrinetti, P; Pathak, A K

    2017-02-01

    An investigation on the ground state magnetism of CeScSi, CeScGe (tetragonal CeScSi-type, tI12, space group I4/mmm) by temperature-dependent powder neutron diffraction has been carried out, as debated and controversial data regarding the low temperature magnetic behaviours of these two compounds were reported. Our studies reveal that, while cooling, long-range magnetic ordering in CeScSi and CeScGe takes place by a two-step process. A first transition leads to a magnetic structure with the Ce moments aligned ferromagnetically onto two neighbouring tetragonal basal a-b planes of the CeScSi-type structure; the double layers are then antiferromagnetically coupled to each other along the c-axis. The transition temperature associated with the first ordering is T N ~ 26 K and T N ~ 48 K for the silicide and the germanide, respectively. Here the spin directions are rigorously confined to the basal plane, with values of the Ce magnetic moments of μ Ce  =  0.8-1.0 μ B. A second magnetic transition, which takes place at slightly lower temperatures, results in a canting of the ordered magnetic moments out of the basal plane which is accompanied by an increase of the magnetic moment value of Ce to μ Ce  =  1.4-1.5 μ B. Interestingly, the second magnetic transition leads to a structural distortion in both compounds from the higher-symmetry tetragonal space group I4/mmm to the lower-symmetry and triclinic I-1 (non-standard triclinic). Magnetic symmetry analysis shows that the canted structure would not be allowed in the I4/mmm space group; this result further confirms the structural transition. The transition temperatures T S from I4/mmm to I-1 are about 22 K in CeScSi and 36 K in CeScGe, i.e. well below the temperature of the first onset of antiferromagnetic order observed in this work (or below the ordering temperature, previously reported as either T C or T N). This result, along with the synchronism of the magnetic and structural transitions

  2. Original Research: Use of hydroxyurea and phlebotomy in pediatric patients with hemoglobin SC disease.

    PubMed

    Summarell, Carly C Ginter; Sheehan, Vivien A

    2016-04-01

    Hydroxyurea is an excellent therapeutic agent for the pharmacological induction of HbF in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, all completed clinical trials of hydroxyurea have excluded patients with hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease. HbSC differs significantly in pathophysiology from HbSS, as HbC does not sickle, but instead causes cellular dehydration which potentiates sickling of HbS. Many severely affected HbSC patients have been placed on hydroxyurea on a case by case basis, but there are no large scale prospective data on safety or efficacy of hydroxyurea in this subset of patients with SCD. Here, we report a case series of 14 pediatric patients with HbSC treated to maximum tolerated dose (MTD) with hydroxyurea. Those who failed to show clinical improvement after at least six months at MTD were offered phlebotomy in addition to hydroxyurea. Five out of 11 patients with HbSC who achieved MTD failed to demonstrate clinical improvement on hydroxyurea. Of the four placed on dual hydroxyurea and phlebotomy therapy, all showed at least partial clinical improvement. Percent dense red blood cells (%DRBC) were measured via an ADVIA hematology analyzer. A marked rise in percent dense cells preceded clinical complications in three patients. Dual therapy with hydroxyurea and phlebotomy may be an effective approach to patients with HbSC that do not experience improvement with hydroxyurea alone. Monitoring of %DRBC may predict adverse events and aid in assessing hydroxyurea compliance. Large scale clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea and hydroxyurea with phlebotomy in patients with HbSC disease. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  3. Etaria Omekwe, M.Sc. | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Scientific Program Analyst Ms. Etaria Omekwe serves as liaison between the various Tissue Source Sites, Biospecimen Core Resource and the Program Office for the CPTAC Program.  Ms. Omekwe mainly focuses on managing the CPTAC Biospecimen Collection/Accrual and works with CPTAC components to implement program wide Quality metrics.  Ms. Omekwe holds a B.Sc. in Biology from Hampton University and a M.Sc. in Physiology and Biophysics from Georgetown University.

  4. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  5. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  6. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  7. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  8. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  9. Large vibrational effects upon calculated phase boundaries in Al-Sc.

    PubMed

    Ozoliņs, V; Asta, M

    2001-01-15

    The fcc portion of the Al-Sc phase diagram is calculated from first principles including contributions to alloy free energies associated with ionic vibrations. It is found that vibrational entropy accounts for a 27-fold increase in the calculated solubility limits for Sc in fcc Al at high temperatures, bringing calculated and measured values into very good agreement. The present work gives a clear example demonstrating a large effect of vibrational entropy upon calculated phase boundaries in substitutional alloys.

  10. Early Detection of NSCLC with scFv Selected against IgM Autoantibody

    PubMed Central

    Pedchenko, Tetyana; Mernaugh, Ray; Parekh, Dipti; Li, Ming; Massion, Pierre P.

    2013-01-01

    Survival of patients with lung cancer could be significantly prolonged should the disease be diagnosed early. Growing evidence indicates that the immune response in the form of autoantibodies to developing cancer is present before clinical presentation. We used a phage-displayed antibody library to select for recombinant scFvs that specifically bind to lung cancer-associated IgM autoantibodies. We selected for scFv recombinant antibodies reactive with circulating IgM autoantibodies found in the serum of patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma but not matched controls. Discriminatory performance of 6 selected scFvs was validated in an independent set of serum from stage 1 adenocarcinoma and matching control groups using two independent novel methods developed for this application. The panel of 6 selected scFvs predicted cancer based on seroreactivity value with sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.87. Receiver Operative Characteristic curve (ROC) for combined 6 scFv has an AUC of 0.88 (95%CI, 0.76–1.0) as determined by fluorometric microvolume assay technology (FMAT) The ROC curve generated using a homogeneous bridging Mesa Scale Discovery (MSD) assay had an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59–0.85). The panel of all 6 antibodies demonstrated better discriminative power than any single scFv alone. The scFv panel also demonstrated the association between a high score - based on seroreactivity - with poor survival. Selected scFvs were able to recognize lung cancer associated IgM autoantibodies in patient serum as early as 21 months before the clinical presentation of disease. The panel of antibodies discovered represents a potential unique non-invasive molecular tool to detect an immune response specific to lung adenocarcinoma at an early stage of disease. PMID:23585862

  11. Sc(III)-doped zeolites as new heterogeneous catalysts: mukaiyama aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Andrea; Alix, Aurélien; Sommer, Jean; Pale, Patrick

    2009-10-26

    Sc(III)-doped solids based on zeolite materials have been investigated for the first time as catalysts in organic synthesis. Sc(III)-USY zeolite proved to be a novel and very efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the Mukaiyama aldol reaction. This easy-to-prepare catalyst exhibited wide scope and compatibility with functional groups and is very simple to use, easy to remove (by simple filtration), and is recyclable (up to three times without loss of activity).

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Haemophilus parasuis Serotype 11 Strain SC1401

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ke; Jin, Jin; Wen, Xintian; He, Lvqin; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, a normal Gram-negative bacterium, may cause Glässer’s disease and pneumonia in pigs. This study aims to identify the genes related to natural competence of the serotype 11 strain SC1401, which frequently shows competence and high pathogenicity. SC1401 shows many differences from strains without natural competence within the molecular basis. We performed complete genome sequencing together with restriction modification system analysis to lay the foundation for later study. PMID:27445368

  13. Original Research: Use of hydroxyurea and phlebotomy in pediatric patients with hemoglobin SC disease

    PubMed Central

    Summarell, Carly C Ginter

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is an excellent therapeutic agent for the pharmacological induction of HbF in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, all completed clinical trials of hydroxyurea have excluded patients with hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease. HbSC differs significantly in pathophysiology from HbSS, as HbC does not sickle, but instead causes cellular dehydration which potentiates sickling of HbS. Many severely affected HbSC patients have been placed on hydroxyurea on a case by case basis, but there are no large scale prospective data on safety or efficacy of hydroxyurea in this subset of patients with SCD. Here, we report a case series of 14 pediatric patients with HbSC treated to maximum tolerated dose (MTD) with hydroxyurea. Those who failed to show clinical improvement after at least six months at MTD were offered phlebotomy in addition to hydroxyurea. Five out of 11 patients with HbSC who achieved MTD failed to demonstrate clinical improvement on hydroxyurea. Of the four placed on dual hydroxyurea and phlebotomy therapy, all showed at least partial clinical improvement. Percent dense red blood cells (%DRBC) were measured via an ADVIA hematology analyzer. A marked rise in percent dense cells preceded clinical complications in three patients. Dual therapy with hydroxyurea and phlebotomy may be an effective approach to patients with HbSC that do not experience improvement with hydroxyurea alone. Monitoring of %DRBC may predict adverse events and aid in assessing hydroxyurea compliance. Large scale clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea and hydroxyurea with phlebotomy in patients with HbSC disease. PMID:26993671

  14. Rational synthetic tuning between itinerant antiferromagnetism and ferromagnetism in the complex boride series Sc2FeRu(5-n)RhnB2 (0

    PubMed

    Fokwa, Boniface P T; Lueken, Heiko; Dronskowski, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of the complex boride series Sc(2)FeRu(5-n)Rh(n)B(2) (n=1, 3, 4) were synthesized by arc-melting the elements in water-cooled copper crucibles under argon atmospheres and were chemically characterized by single-crystal XRD and EDX analyses. The new compounds are isotypic and crystallize in the tetragonal space group P4/mbm with Z=2, adopting a substitutional variant of the Ti(3)Co(5)B(2)-type structure. The magnetically active iron atoms are arranged in chains with intra- and interchain distances of about 3.02 and 6.60 A, respectively. Strong ferromagnetic interactions are observed for both Sc(2)FeRuRh(4)B(2) (64 valence electrons (VE), TC approximately 350 K, mu(a)=3.1 mu(B)) and Sc(2)FeRu(2)Rh(3)B(2) (63 VE, T(C) approximately 300 K, mu(a)=3.0 mu(B)), whereas antiferromagnetic interactions are found in the case of Sc(2)FeRu(4)RhB(2) (61 VE, T(N) approximately 10 K, mu(eff)=3.2): The magnetism of the entire Sc(2)FeRu(5-n)Rh(n)B(2) (0

  15. Stroke in a Child with Hemoglobin SC Disease: A Case Report Describing use of Hydroxyurea after Transfusion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fridlyand, Diana; Wilder, Caroline; Clay, E. Leila Jerome; Gilbert, Bruce; Pace, Betty S.

    2017-01-01

    Children with hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease suffer a significant incidence of silent cerebral infarcts but stroke is rare. A 2-year-old African American boy with HbSC disease presented with focal neurologic deficits associated with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of cerebral infarction with vascular abnormalities. After the acute episode he was treated with monthly transfusions and subsequently transitioned to hydroxyurea therapy. The benefits of hydroxyurea as a fetal hemoglobin inducer in HbSC disease, to ameliorate clinical symptoms are supported by retrospective studies. This case highlights the rare occurrence of stroke in a child with HbSC disease and the use of hydroxyurea therapy. PMID:28435652

  16. IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.

    PubMed

    Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Kossida, Sofia; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2017-06-26

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( http://www.imgt.org ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) are managed and described in the IMGT® databases and tools at the level of receptor, chain and domain. The analysis of the IG and TR variable (V) domain rearranged nucleotide sequences is performed by IMGT/V-QUEST (online since 1997, 50 sequences per batch) and, for next generation sequencing (NGS), by IMGT/HighV-QUEST, the high throughput version of IMGT/V-QUEST (portal begun in 2010, 500,000 sequences per batch). In vitro combinatorial libraries of engineered antibody single chain Fragment variable (scFv) which mimic the in vivo natural diversity of the immune adaptive responses are extensively screened for the discovery of novel antigen binding specificities. However the analysis of NGS full length scFv (~850 bp) represents a challenge as they contain two V domains connected by a linker and there is no tool for the analysis of two V domains in a single chain. The functionality "Analyis of single chain Fragment variable (scFv)" has been implemented in IMGT/V-QUEST and, for NGS, in IMGT/HighV-QUEST for the analysis of the two V domains of IG and TR scFv. It proceeds in five steps: search for a first closest V-REGION, full characterization of the first V-(D)-J-REGION, then search for a second V-REGION and full characterization of the second V-(D)-J-REGION, and finally linker delimitation. For each sequence or NGS read, positions of the 5'V-DOMAIN, linker and 3'V-DOMAIN in the scFv are provided in the 'V-orientated' sense. Each V-DOMAIN is fully characterized (gene identification, sequence description, junction analysis, characterization of mutations and amino

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Sulfonated Carbon-Based Catalysts Derived From Rubber Tree Leaves and Pulp and Paper Mill Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janaun, J.; Sinin, E.; Hiew, S. F.; Kong, A. M. T.; Lahin, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    Sulfonated carbon-based catalysts derived from rubber tree leaves, and pulp and paper mill waste were synthesized and characterized. Three types of catalyst synthesized were sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL), pyrolysed sludge char (P-SC) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC). Sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC) were prepared through pyrolysis followed by functionalization via sulfonation process whereas, P- SC was only pyrolyzed without sulfonation. The characterization results indicated sulfonic acids, hydroxyl, and carboxyl moieties were detected in S-RTL and S-SC, but no sulfonic acid was detected in P-SC. Total acidity test showed S-RTL had the highest value followed by S-SC and P-SC. The thermal stability of S-RTL and S-SC were up to 230oC as the loss was associated with the decomposition of sulfonic acid group, whereas, P-SC showed higher stability than the S-RTL and S-SC. Morphology analysis showed that S-RTL consisted of an amorphous carbon structure, and a crystalline structure for P-SC and S-SC. Furthermore, traces of metal components were also detected on all of the catalysts. The catalyst catalytic activity was tested through esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The results showed that the reaction using S-RTL catalyst produced the highest conversion (99.9%) followed by P-SC (88.4%) and lastly S-SC (82.7%). The synthesized catalysts showed high potential to be used in biodiesel production.

  18. The role of interplanetary shock orientation on SC/SI rise time and geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumaran, R.; Veenadhari, B.; Ebihara, Y.; Kumar, Sandeep; Prasad, D. S. V. V. D.

    2017-03-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks interact with the Earth's magnetosphere, resulting in compression of the magnetosphere which in turn increases the Earth's magnetic field termed as Sudden commencement/Sudden impulse (SC/SI). Apart from IP shock speed and solar wind dynamic pressure, IP shock orientation angle also plays a major role in deciding the SC rise time. In the present study, the IP shock orientation angle and SC/SI rise time for 179 IP shocks are estimated which occurred during solar cycle 23. More than 50% of the Shock orientations are in the range of 140°-160°. The SC/SI rise time decreases with the increase in the orientation angle and IP shock speed. In this work, the type of IP shocks i.e., Radio loud (RL) and Radio quiet (RQ) are examined in connection with SC/SI rise time. The RL associated IP shock speeds show a better correlation than RQ shocks with SC/SI rise time irrespective of the orientation angle. Magnetic Cloud (MC) associated shocks dominate in producing less rise time when compared to Ejecta (EJ) shocks. Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are used for three different IP shock orientation categories to see the importance of orientation angle in determining the geoeffectiveness. Simulations results reveal that shocks hitting parallel to the magnetosphere are more geoeffective as compared to oblique shocks by means of change in magnetic field, pressure and Field Aligned Current (FAC).

  19. Refolded scFv Antibody Fragment against Myoglobin Shows Rapid Reaction Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Wan; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Park, Sung-Goo; Lee, Myung Kyu; Paek, Se-Hwan; Woo, Eui-Jeon

    2014-01-01

    Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage of in vivo immunization. We produced a recombinant scFv fragment for the premature antibody from Escherichia coli using refolding technology. The scFv gene was constructed by connection of the VH–VL sequence with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The scFv fragment without the pelB leader sequence was expressed at a high level, but the solubility was extremely low. A high concentration of 8 M urea was used for denaturation. The dilution refolding process in the presence of arginine and the redox reagents GSH and GSSH successfully produced a soluble scFv protein. The resultant refolded scFv protein showed association and dissociation values of 9.32 × 10−4 M−1·s−1 and 6.29 × 10−3 s−1, respectively, with an affinity value exceeding 107 M−1 (kon/koff), maintaining the original rapid reaction kinetics of the premature antibody. The refolded scFv could provide a platform for protein engineering for the clinical application for diagnosis of heart disease and the development of a continuous biosensor. PMID:25530617

  20. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    PubMed

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic structure, phase transition, and elastic properties of ScC under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Jun; Hao, Yan-Jun; Li, Zi-Yuan; Chen, Long-Qing; Ji, Guang-Fu

    2015-12-01

    The structural properties and the phase transition for scandium carbide (ScC) have been studied in NaCl (B1), CsCl (B2), ZB (B3), WZ (B4), NiAs (B81), WC (B h ), and Pmmn structures by using the pseudopotential plane-wave method in the framework of the density functional theory. Our theoretical results show that the most stable structure is the B1 phase, contrary to the result of Rahim et al. The phase transitions B1 → Pmmn and Pmmn → B2 are predicted at 83.7 and 109.7 GPa, respectively. At the same time, we find that the B3, B4, B81, and B h phases are not stable over the whole pressure range considered. In particular, the elastic constants of Pmmn-ScC under high pressure are obtained successfully. The effects of pressure on the elastic properties of B1-ScC and Pmmn-ScC are also predicted. The Debye temperatures Θ and the sound velocities of these two structures are estimated from the elastic constants, and by analyzing G/ B, the brittle-ductile behavior of ScC is assessed. In addition, the density of states of B1-ScC at high pressures is also discussed.

  2. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lihua; Zhang, Meiling

    2017-01-01

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG). It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H2 molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of −0.429 eV/H2. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of −0.296 eV/H2. The adsorption of H2 molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H2 molecules and positively charged Sc atoms. PMID:28767084

  3. Sc-Decorated Porous Graphene for High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage: First-Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lihua; Zhang, Meiling; Zhang, Cairong

    2017-08-02

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) function based on density functional theory is adopted to investigate the optimized geometrical structure, electron structure and hydrogen storage performance of Sc modified porous graphene (PG). It is found that the carbon ring center is the most stable adsorbed position for a single Sc atom on PG, and the maximum number of adsorbed H₂ molecules is four with the average adsorption energy of -0.429 eV/H₂. By adding a second Sc atom on the other side of the system, the hydrogen storage capacity of the system can be improved effectively. Two Sc atoms located on opposite sides of the PG carbon ring center hole is the most suitable hydrogen storage structure, and the hydrogen storage capacity reach a maximum 9.09 wt % at the average adsorption energy of -0.296 eV/H₂. The adsorption of H₂ molecules in the PG system is mainly attributed to orbital hybridization among H, Sc, and C atoms, and Coulomb attraction between negatively charged H₂ molecules and positively charged Sc atoms.

  4. Isolation of scFv fragments specific for monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG) using phage display.

    PubMed

    Eteshola, Edward

    2010-06-30

    Iterative affinity selection procedures were used to isolate a number of single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment clones from naïve Tomlinson I+J phage display libraries that specifically recognize and bind a chemokine, monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG/CXCL9). MIG is an important transplant rejection/biology chemokine protein. ELISA-based affinity characterization results indicate that selectants preferentially bind to MIG in the presence of key biopanning component materials and closely related chemokine proteins. These novel antibody fragments may find utility as molecular affinity interface receptors in various electrochemical biosensor platforms to provide specific MIG binding capability with potential applications in transplant rejection monitoring, and other biomedical applications where detection of MIG level is important. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. High-energy X-ray diffraction studies of i-Sc[subscript 12]Zn[subscript 88

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.I.; Kreyssig, A.; Nandi, S.; Kim, M.G.; Caudle, M.L.; Canfield, P.C.

    2012-09-06

    Although quasicrystals form in a wide variety of ternary and quaternary metallic alloys, examples of stable binary icosahedral quasicrystals are quite rare. Indeed, it has been a decade since the discovery of icosahedral phases in Yb-Cd and Ca-Cd. We have discovered millimeter-sized facetted grains of i-Sc{sub 12}Zn{sub 88} with icosahedral (pentagonal dodecahedral and rhombic triacontahedral) morphologies in solution-grown samples. Structural characterization of the bulk icosahedral phase was accomplished through single-grain high-energy X-ray diffraction. For both growth morphologies, all diffraction peaks could be indexed by a primitive (P-type) icosahedral phase. The two types of morphology do, however, present interesting differences in their respective degrees of quasicrystalline order.

  6. Optical and electronic properties of double perovskite Ba{sub 2}ScSbO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Rajyavardhan; Himanshu, A. K.; Lahiri, J. Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-05-23

    The ordered double perovskite Ba{sub 2}ScSbO{sub 6} (BSS) has been synthesized in polycrystalline form by solid state reaction at 1400 C for 72 Hrs. Structural characterization of the compound was done through X-ray diffraction (XRD) followed by Rietveld analysis. The crystal structure is cubic, with space group Fm-3m (No. 225) and lattice parameter, a = 8.20 Å. Optical band-gap has been calculated using UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Kubelka-Munk (KM) function, yielding 4.23 eV. A detailed Ab-initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) study of the electronic properties has been carried out using the Full-Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) as implemented in WIEN2k. BSS is found to be a large band-gap insulator with potential technological applications.

  7. Luminescent and scintillation properties of Lu3Al5O12:Sc single crystal and single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Savchyn, V.; Nizhankovskiy, S.; Dan'ko, A.; Puzikov, V.; Laguta, V.; Mares, J. A.; Nikl, M.; Nejezchleb, K.; Batentschuk, M.; Winnacker, A.

    2012-10-01

    The work is dedicated to growth by the liquid phase epitaxy method and study of the luminescence and scintillation properties of Sc3+ doped single crystalline films (SCF) of Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) garnet. The scintillation properties of SCF are compared with single crystal (SC) analogues grown by the Horizontal Direct Crystallization and Czochralski methods. We consider the dependence of intensity of the Sc3+ emission in LuAG host on the activator concentration and influence of flux contamination on the light yield (LY) of the Sc3+ luminescence in LuAG:Sc SCF with respect to their SC counterparts and the reference YAP:Ce scintillator. From the NMR investigations of LuAG:Sc SCF we confirm the substitution by Sc3+ ions both the octahedral and dodecahedral positions of LuAG host and formation of the ScAl and ScLu related emission centers, respectively. We also show that the luminescence spectrum in the UV range and decay kinetics of LuAG:Sc SCF can be effectively tuned by changing the scandium content.

  8. Low-dimensional ScO2 with tunable electronic and magnetic properties: first-principles studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Wu, Jian; Yin, Wen-Jin; Zhang, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their appealing properties for device applications. In this work, we explored the structure stability, electronic structure and magnetism of low-dimensional scandium dioxides, ScO2, by using the first-principles calculations. The results demonstrate that bulk ScO2, monolayers and nanoribbons (NRs) are thermodynamically stable, implying a high possibility of fabricating ScO2 nanocrystals in experiments. Despite the metallic characteristics of bulk ScO2, low-dimensional ScO2 possesses various electronic behaviors that can be further modulated by crystal structure and dimensionality. The results also show that the ground states of ScO2 monolayers and NRs are ferromagnetic (FM) with about 1 μ B per ScO2 formula. Our studies expand a new realm in low-dimensional TMDs, with tunable electronic and magnetic properties.

  9. SC-228 Inclusion of DAA Warning Alert for TCAS Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This white paper summarizes NASA research results that have informed Special Committee 228 (SC-228) discussions and decisions regarding the inclusion of a warning-level alert within the detect and avoid (DAA) alerting structure for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). For UAS, the removal of the pilot from onboard the aircraft has eliminated the ability of the ground-based pilot in command (PIC) to use out-the-window visual information to make judgments about a potential threat of a loss of well clear with another aircraft. As a result, the DAA traffic display will be the primary source of information that the PIC can use to execute the three primary well clear functions: 1) detect a potential loss of well clear, 2) determine a resolution maneuver, and 3) upload that maneuver to the aircraft via the ground control station (GCS). In addition, pilots are required to coordinate with air traffic control (ATC) prior to maneuvering off of their approved flight plan. In determining an appropriate resolution maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear, the PIC must decide both when and how to maneuver, and both the timeliness and the accuracy (i.e., correctness) of the maneuver are critical to reducing the likelihood and/or severity of a loss of well clear. Alerting information is one of three critical components of the DAA display, along with traffic information elements (e.g., relative heading, speed and altitude) and maneuver guidance. Alerting information and maneuver guidance, in particular, have been found to have a significant impact, both statistically and practically, on pilots' ability to avoid and minimize the severity of losses of well clear While all three display components are key to pilots performing the traffic avoidance task of remaining well clear, in general, alerting information provides crucial information about when a resolution maneuver is required while maneuver guidance assists the pilot in determining how best to maneuver. A fundamental task of the DAA

  10. Two-gap superconductivity in R2Fe3Si5 (R=Lu, Sc) and Sc5Ir4Si10

    PubMed Central

    Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Li, Guoji; Harima, Hisatomo

    2008-01-01

    R2Fe3Si5 (R= Sc, Y, Lu) contains nonmagnetic iron and has a relatively high superconducting transition temperature Tc among iron-containing superconductors. An anomalous temperature dependence of specific heat C(T) has been reported for polycrystalline samples down to 1 K. We have grown R2Fe3Si5 single crystals, confirmed the anomalous C(T) dependence, and found a second drop in specific heat below 1 K. In Lu2Fe3Si5, we can reproduce C(T) below Tc, assuming two distinct energy gaps 2Δ 1/kBTc = 4.4 and 2Δ 2/kBTc = 1.1, with nearly equal weights, indicating that Lu2Fe3Si5 is a two-gap superconductor similar to MgB2. Hall coefficient measurements and band structure calculation also support the multiband contributions to the normal-state properties. The specific heat in the Sc2Fe3Si5 single crystals also shows the two-gap feature. R5Ir4Si10 (R = Sc, rare earth) is also a superconductor where competition between superconductivity and the charge-density wave is known for rare earths but not for Sc. We have performed detailed specific heat measurements on Sc5Ir4Si10 single crystals and found that C(T) deviates slightly from the behavior expected for weak-coupling superconductors. C(T) for these superconductors can also be reproduced well by assuming two superconducting gaps. PMID:27878023

  11. Ternary rare earth silicides RE2M3Si4 (RE = Sc, Y, Lu; M = Mo, W): crystal structure, coloring and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten B; Xie, Weiwei; Cava, Robert J

    2016-03-07

    The ternary compounds Sc2Mo3Si4, Y2Mo3Si4, Lu2Mo3Si4 and Sc2W3Si4 have been synthesized using arc melting and structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds are isostructural with Gd5Si4 but with coloring (order of the rare earth and transition metals) on the Gd site. In contrast to group 4 and 5 ternaries of the same type, we observe no site mixing between the rare earth and transition metals. The Y compound displays a different, less common coloring from the others and through DFT calculations and investigation of the solid solution between Sc2Mo3Si4 and Y2Mo3Si4 it is shown that the different coloring of the latter is only marginally more stable. The electronic structures of the ternary compounds have been investigated using DFT calculations, yielding densities of states very similar to Gd5Si4. These predict metallic behavior and no magnetism, which is confirmed through resistivity and magnetization measurements.

  12. Conversion of Fe-rich waste sludge into nano-flake Fe-SC hybrid Fenton-like catalyst for degradation of AOII.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingjun; Zhu, Yuting; Liu, Mingxiang; Chang, Xiangyang; Xiong, Ya; Chen, Diyun

    2016-09-01

    Permanently increasing in the amount of sludge resulted in the serious environment burden. This work reports a novel carbothermal process for converting the Fe-rich waste sludge into cleaner nano-flake Fenton-like catalyst to relieve the crisis. The transformation of Fe species at different carbothermal temperature was evaluated by XRD analysis. SEM and XPS analyses were involved to characterize the morphology and chemical bonds of the catalysts. Results shown that the resulted catalyst carbonized at 800 °C (Fe-SC-800) was composed of Fe(0) and Fe3O4, performing nano-flake-like structure. The Fe-SC-800 has the highest catalytic activity in degradation of AOII in C0 = 200 mg/L. The efficiency achieves at 98% within 30 min at neutral pH, which is ascribed to the hydroxyl radical oxidation. Moreover, no iron is leached and the Fe-SC-800 could be recycled for three times at least. Thus, the Fe rich sludge could be reutilized as a valuable source for eco-friendly catalyst production, constituting an ecological way to manage these sludge wastes and eliminate the sludge and organic pollution to environment.

  13. Inducible scAAV2.GRE.MMP1 lowers IOP long-term in a large animal model for steroid-induced glaucoma gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Borrás, T; Buie, L K; Spiga, M G

    2016-05-01

    Current treatment of glaucoma relies on administration of daily drops or eye surgery. A gene therapy approach to treat steroid-induced glaucoma would bring a resolution to millions of people worldwide who depend on glucocorticoid therapy for a myriad of inflammatory disorders. Previously, we had characterized a short-term Adh.GRE.MMP1 gene vector for the production of steroid-induced MMP1 in the trabecular meshwork and tested reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in a sheep model. Here we conducted a trial transferring the same transgene cassette to a clinically safe vector (scAAV2), and extended the therapeutic outcome to longer periods of times. No evidence of ocular and/or systemic toxicity was observed. Viral genome distributions showed potential reinducible vector DNAs in the trabecular meshwork (0.4 v.g. per cell) and negligible copies in six major internal organs (0.00002-0.005 v.g. per cell). Histological sections confirmed successful transduction of scAAV2.GFP to the trabecular meshwork. Optimization of the sheep steroid-induced hypertensive model revealed that topical ophthalmic drug difluprednate 0.05% (durezol) induced the highest IOP elevation in the shortest time. This is the first efficacy/toxicity study of a feasible gene therapy treatment of steroid-induced hypertension using clinically accepted self-complementary adeno-associated vectors (scAAV) vectors in a large animal model.

  14. Tri-icosahedral Gold Nanocluster [Au37(PPh3)10(SC2H4Ph)10X2](+): Linear Assembly of Icosahedral Building Blocks.

    PubMed

    Jin, Renxi; Liu, Chong; Zhao, Shuo; Das, Anindita; Xing, Hongzhu; Gayathri, Chakicherla; Xing, Yan; Rosi, Nathaniel L; Gil, Roberto R; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-08-25

    The [Au37(PPh3)10(SR)10X2](+) nanocluster (where SR = thiolate and X = Cl/Br) was theoretically predicted in 2007, but since then, there has been no experimental success in the synthesis and structure determination. Herein, we report a kinetically controlled, selective synthesis of [Au37(PPh3)10(SC2H4Ph)10X2](+) (counterion: Cl(-) or Br(-)) with its crystal structure characterized by X-ray crystallography. This nanocluster shows a rod-like structure assembled from three icosahedral Au13 units in a linear fashion, consistent with the earlier prediction. The optical absorption and the electrochemical and catalytic properties are investigated. The successful synthesis of this new nanocluster allows us to gain insight into the size, structure, and property evolution of gold nanoclusters that are based upon the assembly of icosahedral units (i.e., cluster of clusters). Some interesting trends are identified in the evolution from the monoicosahedral [Au13(PPh3)10X2](3+) to the bi-icosahedral [Au25(PPh3)10(SC2H4Ph)5X2](2+) and to the tri-icosahedral [Au37(PPh3)10(SC2H4Ph)10X2](+) nanocluster, which also points to the possibility of achieving even longer rod nanoclusters based upon assembly of icosahedral building blocks.

  15. HIV-1-Tat Protein Inhibits SC35-mediated Tau Exon 10 Inclusion through Up-regulation of DYRK1A Kinase.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Ferdous; Pacifici, Marco; Wilk, Anna; Parker-Struckhoff, Amanda; Del Valle, Luis; Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E; Parsons, Christopher; Jeansonne, Duane; Lassak, Adam; Peruzzi, Francesca

    2015-12-25

    The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat is implicated in the neuronal damage that contributes to neurocognitive impairment affecting people living with HIV/AIDS. Aberrant splicing of TAU exon 10 results in tauopathies characterized by alterations in the proportion of TAU isoforms containing three (3R) or four (4R) microtubule-binding repeats. The splicing factor SC35/SRSF2 binds to nuclear RNA and facilitates the incorporation of exon 10 in the TAU molecule. Here, we utilized clinical samples, an animal model, and neuronal cell cultures and found that Tat promotes TAU 3R up-regulation through increased levels of phosphorylated SC35, which is retained in nuclear speckles. This mechanism involved Tat-mediated increased expression of DYRK1A and was prevented by DYRK1A silencing. In addition, we found that Tat associates with TAU RNA, further demonstrating that Tat interferes with host RNA metabolism in the absence of viral infection. Altogether, our data unravel a novel mechanism of Tat-mediated neuronal toxicity through dysregulation of the SC35-dependent alternative splicing of TAU exon 10. Furthermore, the increased immunostaining of DYRK1A in HIV+ brains without pathology points at dysregulation of DYRK1A as an early event in the neuronal complications of HIV infection.

  16. HIV-1-Tat Protein Inhibits SC35-mediated Tau Exon 10 Inclusion through Up-regulation of DYRK1A Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Ferdous; Pacifici, Marco; Wilk, Anna; Parker-Struckhoff, Amanda; Del Valle, Luis; Hauser, Kurt F.; Knapp, Pamela E.; Parsons, Christopher; Jeansonne, Duane; Lassak, Adam; Peruzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat is implicated in the neuronal damage that contributes to neurocognitive impairment affecting people living with HIV/AIDS. Aberrant splicing of TAU exon 10 results in tauopathies characterized by alterations in the proportion of TAU isoforms containing three (3R) or four (4R) microtubule-binding repeats. The splicing factor SC35/SRSF2 binds to nuclear RNA and facilitates the incorporation of exon 10 in the TAU molecule. Here, we utilized clinical samples, an animal model, and neuronal cell cultures and found that Tat promotes TAU 3R up-regulation through increased levels of phosphorylated SC35, which is retained in nuclear speckles. This mechanism involved Tat-mediated increased expression of DYRK1A and was prevented by DYRK1A silencing. In addition, we found that Tat associates with TAU RNA, further demonstrating that Tat interferes with host RNA metabolism in the absence of viral infection. Altogether, our data unravel a novel mechanism of Tat-mediated neuronal toxicity through dysregulation of the SC35-dependent alternative splicing of TAU exon 10. Furthermore, the increased immunostaining of DYRK1A in HIV+ brains without pathology points at dysregulation of DYRK1A as an early event in the neuronal complications of HIV infection. PMID:26534959

  17. Inducible scAAV2.GRE.MMP1 lowers IOP long-term in a large animal model for steroid-induced glaucoma gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Borrás, Teresa; Buie, LaKisha K.; Spiga, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of glaucoma relies on administration of daily drops or eye surgery. A gene therapy approach to treat steroid-induced glaucoma would bring a resolution to millions of people worldwide that depend on glucocorticoid therapy for a myriad of inflammatory disorders. Previously, we had characterized a short-term Adh.GRE.MMP1 gene vector for the production of steroid-induced MMP1 in the trabecular meshwork and tested reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in a sheep model. Here we conducted a trial transferring the same transgene cassette to a clinically safe vector (scAAV2), and extended the therapeutic outcome to longer periods of times. No evidence of ocular and/or systemic toxicity was observed. Viral genome distributions showed potential re-inducible vector DNAs in the trabecular meshwork (0.4 vg/cell) and negligible copies in six major internal organs (0.00002-0.005 vg/cell). Histological sections confirmed successful transduction of scAAV2.GFP to the trabecular meshwork. Optimization of the sheep steroid–induced hypertensive model revealed that topical ophthalmic drug difluprednate 0.05% (durezol) induced the highest IOP elevation in the shortest time. This is the first efficacy/toxicity study of a feasible gene therapy treatment of steroid-induced hypertension using clinically accepted scAAV vectors in a large animal model. PMID:26855269

  18. Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) Materials Proposed for Inert Matrix Fuel Applications.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John R; Grosvenor, Andrew P; Saoudi, Mouna

    2016-02-01

    Inert matrix fuels (IMF) consist of transuranic elements (i.e., Pu, Am, Np, Cm) embedded in a neutron transparent (inert) matrix and can be used to "burn up" (transmute) these elements in current or Generation IV nuclear reactors. Yttria-stabilized zirconia has been extensively studied for IMF applications, but the low thermal conductivity of this material limits its usefulness. Other elements can be used to stabilize the cubic zirconia structure, and the thermal conductivity of the fuel can be increased through the use of a lighter stabilizing element. To this end, a series of Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) materials has been synthesized via a co-precipitation reaction and characterized by multiple techniques (Nd was used as a surrogate for Am). The long-range and local structures of these materials were studied using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, the stability of these materials over a range of temperatures has been studied by annealing the materials at 1100 and 1400 °C. It was shown that the Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) materials maintained a single cubic phase upon annealing at high temperatures only when both Nd and Sc were present with y ≥ 0.10 and x + y > 0.15.

  19. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    processed using a validated procedure included in the Bio- Rad Experion Pro260 analysis kit, rev. C (3). Briefly, a Pro260 microfluidic chip was prepared by...UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 30 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Renu B. Rastogi a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c . THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER...Analysis Using a Bio- Rad ProteOn XPR36 System ......................6 3. RESULTS

  20. Performance of Ni/ScSZ cermet anode modified by coating with Gd 0.2Ce 0.8O 2 for an SOFC running on methane fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Ye, X. F.; Wang, S. R.; Nie, H. W.; Shi, J.; Hu, Q.; Qian, J. Q.; Sun, X. F.; Wen, T. L.

    A Ni/scandia-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) cermet anode was modified by coating with nano-sized gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC, Gd 0.2Ce 0.8O 2) prepared using a simple combustion process within the pores of the anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on methane fuel. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed in the anode characterizations. Then, the short-term stability for the cells with the Ni/ScSZ and 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anodes in 97%CH 4/3%H 2O at 700 °C was checked over a relative long period of operation. Open circuit voltages (OCVs) increased from 1.098 to 1.179 V, and power densities increased from 224 to 848 mW cm -2, as the operating temperature of an SOFC with 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode was increased from 700 to 850 °C in humidified methane. The coating of nano-sized Gd 0.2Ce 0.8O 2 particle within the pores of the porous Ni/ScSZ anode significantly improved the performance of anode supported cells. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) illustrated that the cell with Ni/ScSZ anode exhibited far greater impedances than the cell with 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode. Introduction of nano-sized GDC particles into the pores of porous Ni/ScSZ anode will result in a substantial increase in the ionic conductivity of the anode and increase the triple phase boundary region expanding the number of sites available for electrochemical activity. No significant degradation in performance has been observed after 84 h of cell testing when 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode was exposed to 97%CH 4/3%H 2O at 700 °C. Very little carbon was detected on the anodes, suggesting that carbon deposition was limited during cell operation. Consequently, the GDC coating on the pores of anode made it possible to have good stability for long-term operation due to low carbon deposition.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Importance of Associated Variables in Children and Adolescents in Guabiruba - SC, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosini, Nilton; Moura, Solange A. Z. Oppermann; Rosini, Rodrigo Diegoli; Machado, Marcos José; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk factors that characterize metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be present in childhood and adolescence, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Objective Evaluate the prevalence of MetS and the importance of its associated variables, including insulin resistance (IR), in children and adolescents in the city of Guabiruba-SC, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1011 students (6-14 years, 52.4% girls, 58.5% children). Blood samples were collected for measurement of biochemical parameters by routine laboratory methods. IR was estimated by the HOMA-IR index, and weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were determined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between risk variables and MetS. Results The prevalence of MetS, IR, overweight and obesity in the cohort were 14%, 8.5%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Among students with MetS, 27% had IR, 33% were overweight, 45.5% were obese and 22% were eutrophic. IR was more common in overweight (48%) and obese (41%) students when compared with eutrophic individuals (11%; p = 0.034). The variables with greatest influence on the development of MetS were obesity (OR = 32.7), overweight (OR = 6.1), IR (OR = 4.4; p ≤ 0.0001 for all) and age (OR = 1.15; p = 0.014). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents evaluated in this study. Students who were obese, overweight or insulin resistant had higher chances of developing the syndrome. PMID:25993484

  2. Contact analysis studies of an ESCAP resist with scCO2 compatible additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Abhinav; Toepperwein, Gregory N.; Tanaka, Manabu; Riggleman, Robert A.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2009-03-01

    Rapid technological advances have presented several environmental issues and call for the use of environmentally friendly processes. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is a widely used solvent that can enhance processing performance in photolithography, especially in the development step. Supercritical CO2 is a good solvent for many nonpolar molecules with low molecular weights. However, it is generally a very poor solvent for high molecular-weight photoresists. Recently researchers have reported the ability to develop conventional polymeric resists in scCO2 using tailored soluble additives. The mechanism of dissolution of a polymer photoresist in scCO2 in the presence of these additives is clearly at a very early stage of understanding. To understand this mechanism in more detail, we synthesized a series of scCO2 compatible quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) and used them as additives in the dry development of model and commercially available photoresists. In this paper, we describe the various interactions that the QAS additive has with the different functional groups on the polymer resist to assist its dissolution in scCO2. Using contact analysis plots we report the dominant interactions between the additive and the resist material. We report the results with two salts (QAS-I and QAS-II) to show the structure-property relation of these amphiphilic additives with an ESCAP resist. Finally, we report the lithographic evaluation of a commercial EUV resist using an appropriate scCO2 compatible QAS after development in scCO2.

  3. TSE strain differentiation in mice by immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles and triplex Western blot.

    PubMed

    van Keulen, Lucien J M; Langeveld, Jan P M; Dolstra, Corry H; Jacobs, Jorg; Bossers, Alex; van Zijderveld, Fred G

    2015-10-01

    TSE strains are routinely identified by their incubation period and vacuolation profile in the brain after intracerebral inoculation and serial passaging in inbred mouse lines. There are some major drawbacks to this method that are related to the variation in vacuolation that exists in the brains of mice infected with the same TSE strain and to variation between observers and laboratories in scoring vacuolation and determining the final incubation period. We investigated the potential of PrP(Sc) immunohistochemistry and triplex Western blotting as possible alternative methods to differentiate between TSE strains. TSE reference strains ME7, 87A/87V, 22A/22C, 79A/79V and 301C/301V were intracerebrally inoculated in RIII or VM inbred mice that differ in their PrP genotype. Immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles were drawn up by scanning light microscopy both on coronal and sagittal sections. On the basis of the localization of PrP(Sc) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex and the overall type of PrP(Sc) staining, all TSE strains could be well differentiated from each other through their typical strain dependent characteristics. In addition, Western blot showed that the combination of glycosylation profile and 12B2 epitope content of PrP(Sc) allowed to distinguish between all reference strains except for ME7 and 22A in VM mice. TSE strains in mice can be identified on the basis of their PrP(Sc) profile alone. The potential to identify TSE strains in ruminants with these PrP(Sc) profiles after a single primary passage in mice will be the topic of future studies. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  4. Imaging Mantle Discontinuities Beneath North America Using ScS Reverberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, K. A.; Schmerr, N. C.; Courtier, A. M.; Lekic, V.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities are rapid changes in velocity and density over depth that arise from mechanisms such as changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. Seismic imaging of discontinuities complements information provided by seismic tomography and is important for understanding the dynamics and the structure of the mantle. For example, imaging variations in the depth and sharpness of discontinuities can trace underlying variations in temperature and composition in the mantle. We use ScSScS precursors and ScS postcursors (ScS reverberations) to map the depth and sharpness of upper- and mid- mantle discontinuities beneath North America. To observe the reverberations, we collected broadband data recordings of earthquakes with depth > 300 km, source moment magnitude ≥ 5.5, and location < 60 degrees of EarthScope USArray stations. Two primary source regions met our qualifications: earthquakes from the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America, and earthquakes from the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. Our dataset consists of ~15 deep focus earthquakes that have well defined ScS and ScSScS arrivals. We use array processing to generate vespagrams for detecting the ScS reverberations. Seismic energy falling at the appropriate slowness and travel time for reflections from upper- and mid- mantle discontinuities is migrated to depth. We use the resulting ScS reverberation derived reflectivity profiles to obtain estimates for discontinuity depth and impedance contrast in the regions falling between the source and array. We can use this information to image parts of the mantle under North America. Preliminary results indicate presence of multiple discontinuities in the upper mantle, including the 410 km discontinuity, a complex 660 km discontinuity, and intermittent mid-mantle discontinuities at 800-900 km depth.

  5. Evaluation of the difficulty of crystallization of organic compounds using the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Daiki; Ida, Yasuo; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the case of solvent selection, supersolubility is an index for improving crystallization behavior. However, supersolubility is affected by kinetic factors such as the cooling rate. An index for suitable solvent selection is needed. The supersaturation ratio (S) is one of the operation design indices of controlling crystallization behavior such as supersolubility. The S at 298 K (S298) of the pharmaceutical compounds theophylline, noscapine, clotrimazole, indomethacin, carbamazepine, naproxene and tolbutamide were measured in ethanol using a polythermal method. If the compound had a large lnS298, the cooling rate strongly affected the temperature of the cloud point in the cooling crystallization method. In order to estimate the crystallization behavior without the cooling rate effect, the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc) was proposed. Sc at 298 K (Sc298) was calculated from dissolution/cloud points at 0 K/min extrapolated from that of several heating/cooling rates to remove the kinetic effects on S. The lnSc298 values of theophylline, noscapine and clotrimazole were estimated in acetonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. The lnSc298 value of clotrimazole was the largest in all solvents. The results showed that lnSc298 was a simple index which could be used to evaluate the crystallization behavior resulting from the interaction between the solvent and the compound. In conclusion, the proposed lnSc298 should be useful for comparing the difficulty of crystallization which indicates how we should obtain desired crystals within a certain finite time period for development API in the manufacturing field without considering the effect of the heating/cooling rate.

  6. Enrichment of Sc2O3 and TiO2 from bauxite ore residues.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bona; Li, Guanghui; Luo, Jun; Ye, Qing; Liu, Mingxia; Peng, Zhiwei; Jiang, Tao

    2017-06-05

    As a major byproduct generated in the alumina industry, bauxite ore residue is an important reserve of scandium and titanium. In this study, the feasibility and mechanism of enriching Sc2O3 and TiO2 from a non-magnetic material, which was obtained from carbothermal reductive roasting and magnetic separation of bauxite ore residue, were investigated based on a two-step (acidic and alkali) leaching process. It was revealed that approximately 78% SiO2 and 30-40% of CaO, FeO and Al2O3 were removed from a non-magnetic material with 0.0134wt.% Sc2O3 and 7.64wt.% TiO2 by phosphoric acidic leaching, while about 95% Al2O3 and P2O5 were further leached by subsequent sodium hydroxide leaching of the upper-stream leach residue. A Sc2O3-, TiO2- rich material containing 0.044wt.% Sc2O3 and 25.5wt.% TiO2 was obtained, the recovery and the enrichment factor of Sc2O3 and TiO2 were about 85% and 5, respectively. The enrichment of Sc2O3 was attributed to higher pH (>3.3) of phosphoric acid solution than its dissolution pH(0), and the enrichment of TiO2 was mainly associated with the insoluble perovskite (CaTiO3) in the acidic solution at ambient temperature. As Sc2O3 and TiO2 cannot be dissolved in the alkali solution, they were further enriched in the leach residue.

  7. The p75NTR-interacting protein SC1 inhibits cell cycle progression by transcriptional repression of cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Chittka, Alexandra; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Guzman, Maria; Pérez, Pilar; Chao, Moses V.; Sendtner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Schwann cell factor 1 (SC1), a p75 neurotrophin receptor–interacting protein, is a member of the positive regulatory/suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, trithorax (PR/SET) domain-containing zinc finger protein family, and it has been shown to be regulated by serum and neurotrophins. SC1 shows a differential cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution, and its presence in the nucleus correlates strongly with the absence of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in these nuclei. Here, we investigated potential transcriptional activities of SC1 and analyzed the function of its various domains. We show that SC1 acts as a transcriptional repressor when it is tethered to Gal4 DNA-binding domain. The repressive activity requires a trichostatin A–sensitive histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, and SC1 is found in a complex with HDACs 1, 2, and 3. Transcriptional repression exerted by SC1 requires the presence of its zinc finger domains and the PR domain. Additionally, these two domains are involved in the efficient block of BrdU incorporation by SC1. The zinc finger domains are also necessary to direct SC1's nuclear localization. Lastly, SC1 represses the promoter of a promitotic gene, cyclin E, suggesting a mechanism for how growth arrest is regulated by SC1. PMID:15051733

  8. Synthesis, structure, bonding, and properties of the oxide carbide ScAlOC, a new type of compound.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Melanie; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2009-09-02

    Single crystals of ScAlOC were obtained by reacting Sc(2)O(3) and C in an Al melt at 1600 degrees C. The crystal structure (space group R3m, Z = 6, a = 3.2599(7) A, c = 30.116(9) A, 190 refl., 15 param., R(1)(F) = 0.0212, wR(2)(F(2)) = 0.0397) can directly be derived from the binary nitrides AlN and ScN. ScAlOC represents a new type of compound. It is the first oxide carbide of a transition metal with an ordered distribution of the anions. They form a cubic closest packing with alternating double layers of C and O while Al and Sc occupy tetrahedral and octahedral voids, respectively. The resulting polyhedra are AlC(3)O tetrahedra as well as ScO(6) and ScC(6) octahedra. According to band structure calculations ScAlOC is electron precise with an indirect band gap of 0.6 eV. Calculations of charges and charge densities reveal that the mainly ionic bonding contains significant covalent contributions, too. The black crystals of ScAlOC are very brittle and show a microhardness of 9.0 GPa. Thermal decomposition on air starts at 650 degrees C; in inert atmosphere ScAlOC is stable up to 1300 degrees C at least.

  9. Spectral embedding based probabilistic boosting tree (ScEPTre): classifying high dimensional heterogeneous biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Reed, Galen; Kurhanewicz, John; Madabhushi, Anant

    2009-01-01

    The major challenge with classifying high dimensional biomedical data is in identifying the appropriate feature representation to (a) overcome the curse of dimensionality, and (b) facilitate separation between the data classes. Another challenge is to integrate information from two disparate modalities, possibly existing in different dimensional spaces, for improved classification. In this paper, we present a novel data representation, integration and classification scheme, Spectral Embedding based Probabilistic boosting Tree (ScEPTre), which incorporates Spectral Embedding (SE) for data representation and integration and a Probabilistic Boosting Tree classifier for data classification. SE provides an alternate representation of the data by non-linearly transforming high dimensional data into a low dimensional embedding space such that the relative adjacencies between objects are preserved. We demonstrate the utility of ScEPTre to classify and integrate Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopy (MRS) and Imaging (MRI) data for prostate cancer detection. Area under the receiver operating Curve (AUC) obtained via randomized cross validation on 15 prostate MRI-MRS studies suggests that (a) ScEPTre on MRS significantly outperforms a Haar wavelets based classifier, (b) integration of MRI-MRS via ScEPTre performs significantly better compared to using MRI and MRS alone, and (c) data integration via ScEPTre yields superior classification results compared to combining decisions from individual classifiers (or modalities).

  10. Multi-channeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) based microfluidic device for explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Davis, Jasmine; Adams, André A; Anderson, George P; Liu, Jinny L; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2015-11-01

    The development of explosives detection technologies has increased significantly over the years as environmental and national security agencies implement tighter pollution control measures and methods for improving homeland security. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), known primarily as a component in munitions, has been targeted for both its toxicity and carcinogenic properties that if present at high concentrations can be a detriment to both humans, marine and plant ecosystems. Enabling end users with environmental detection and monitoring systems capable of providing real-time, qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of these toxic compounds would be extremely beneficial. Reported herein is the development of a multi-channeled microfluidic device immobilized with single chain fragment variable (scFv) recombinant proteins specific for the explosive, TNT. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays performed under constant flow demonstrated trace level sensitivity and specificity for TNT. The utility of three multi-channeled devices immobilized with either (1) scFv recombinant protein, (2) biotinylated-scFv (bt-scFv) and (3) monoclonal anti-TNT (whole IgG molecule) were investigated and compared. Fluorescence dose response curves, crossreactivity measurements and limits of detection (LOD) for TNT were determined. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays for TNT in natural seawater demonstrated detection limits at sub-parts-per-billion levels (0.5 ppb) utilizing the microfluidic device with immobilized bt-scFv. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafari, M. E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu; Gleiter, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Itou, M.; Peng, G.; Fang, Y. N.; Feng, T.; Hahn, H.; Kamali, S. E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu

    2015-09-28

    An amorphous alloy Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co.

  12. ScVO4 under non-hydrostatic compression: a new metastable polymorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Alka B.; Errandonea, D.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2017-02-01

    The high-pressure (HP) behaviour of scandium vanadate (ScVO4) is investigated under non-hydrostatic compression. The compound is studied by means of synchrotron-based powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical-absorption techniques. The occurrence of a non-reversible phase transition is detected. The transition is from the zircon structure to the fergusonite-type structure and takes place around 6 GPa with nearly 10% volume discontinuity. XRD measurements on the pressure cycled sample confirm for the first time that the fergusonite-type ScVO4 can be recovered as the metastable phase at ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopic measurements verify the metastable phase to be of a fergusonite-type phase. Theoretical calculations also corroborate the experimental findings. The fergusonite phase is found to be stiffer than the ambient-pressure zircon phase, as indicated by the observed experimental and theoretical bulk moduli. The optical properties and lattice-dynamics calculation of the fergusonite ScVO4 are discussed. At ambient pressure the band gap of the zircon (fergusonite)-type ScVO4 is 2.75 eV (2.3 eV). This fact suggests that the novel metastable polymorph of ScVO4 can have applications in green technologies; for instance, it can be used as photocatalytic material for hydrogen production by water splitting.

  13. Hot Deformation and Processing Maps of Al-15%B4C Composites Containing Sc and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhan; Chen, X.-Grant

    2017-04-01

    Hot deformation behavior and processing maps of three Al-15%B4C composites denoted as the base composite (Al-15vol.%B4C), S40 (Al-15vol.%B4C-0.4wt.%Sc) and SZ40 (Al-15 vol.%B4C-0.4wt.%Sc-0.24wt.%Zr) were studied by uniaxial compression tests performed at various deformation temperatures and strain rates. The constitutive equations of the three composites were established to describe the effect of the temperature and strain rate on hot deformation behavior. Using the established constitutive equations, the predicted flow stresses on various deformation conditions agreed well with the experimental data. The peak flow stress of the composites increased with the addition of Sc and Zr, attributing to the synthetic effect of solute atoms and dynamic precipitation. The addition of Sc and Zr increased the activation energy for hot deformation of Al-B4C composites. The processing maps of the three composites were constructed to evaluate the hot workability of the composites. The safe domains with optimal deformation conditions were identified for all three composites. In the safe domains, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization were involved as softening mechanisms. The addition of Sc and Zr limited the dynamic softening process, especially for dynamic recrystallization. The microstructure analysis revealed that the flow instability was attributed to the void formation, cracking and flow localization during hot deformation of the composites.

  14. Isotropic Zero Thermal Expansion and Local Vibrational Dynamics in (Sc,Fe)F3.

    PubMed

    Qin, Feiyu; Chen, Jun; Aydemir, Umut; Sanson, Andrea; Wang, Lu; Pan, Zhao; Xu, Jiale; Sun, Chengjun; Ren, Yang; Deng, Jinxia; Yu, Ranbo; Hu, Lei; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Xing, Xianran

    2017-09-18

    Scandium fluoride (ScF3) exhibits a pronounced negative thermal expansion (NTE), which can be suppressed and ultimately transformed into an isotropic zero thermal expansion (ZTE) by partially substituting Sc with Fe in (Sc0.8Fe0.2)F3 (Fe20). The latter displays a rather small coefficient of thermal expansion of -0.17 × 10(-6)/K from 300 to 700 K. Synchrotron X-ray and neutron pair distribution functions confirm that the Sc/Fe-F bond has positive thermal expansion (PTE). Local vibrational dynamics based on extended X-ray absorption fine structure indicates a decreased anisotropy of relative vibration in the Sc/Fe-F bond. Combined analysis proposes a delicate balance between the counteracting effects of the chemical bond PTE and NTE from transverse vibration. The present study extends the scope of isotropic ZTE compounds and, more significantly, provides a complete local vibrational dynamics to shed light on the ZTE mechanism in chemically tailored NTE compounds.

  15. Spinal Cord Infarction in Hemoglobin SC Disease as an Amusement Park Accident.

    PubMed

    Eid, Ryan; Raj, Ashok; Farber, Darren; Puri, Vinay; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an increasingly recognized cause of SCI after events that put strain on the axial skeleton, such as many amusement park rides. Although radiologic criteria for FCE have been proposed, FCE remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of SCI in a patient with HbSC and the first case of FCE after an amusement park accident. This case report highlights that HbSC may confound the differential diagnosis of SCI and aims to document an association with FCE in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. ITH12410/SC058: a new neuroprotective compound with potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; González-Muñoz, Gema C; Martín de Saavedra, Ma Dolores; del Barrio, Laura; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Conde, Santiago; López, Manuela G; Villarroya, Mercedes; de los Ríos, Cristóbal

    2014-09-17

    The neuroprotective profile of the dibenzothiadiazepine ITH12410/SC058 (2-chloro-5,6-dihydro-5,6-diacetyldibenzo[b,f][1,4,5]thiadiazepine) against several neurotoxicity models related to neurodegenerative diseases is herein described. ITH12410/SC058 protected SH-SY5Y cells against the loss of cell viability elicited by amyloid beta peptide and okadaic acid, a selective inhibitor of phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A that induces neurofibrillary tangle formation. Furthermore, ITH12410/SC058 is neuroprotective against several in vitro models of oxidative stress, that is, H2O2 exposure or incubation with rotenone plus oligomycin A in SH-SY5Y cells, and oxygen and glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation in rat hippocampal slices. By contrast, ITH12410/SC058 was unable to significantly protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against the toxicity elicited by Ca(2+) overload. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the dibenzothiadiazepine ITH12410/SC058 features its neuroprotective actions in a multitarget fashion, and is a promising drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. SC-52151, a novel inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus protease.

    PubMed

    Bryant, M; Getman, D; Smidt, M; Marr, J; Clare, M; Dillard, R; Lansky, D; DeCrescenzo, G; Heintz, R; Houseman, K

    1995-10-01

    SC-52151 is a potent, selective, tight-binding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor containing the novel (R)-(hydroxyethyl) urea isostere. The mean 50% effective concentration for lymphotropic, monocytotropic strains and field isolates of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus is 26 ng/ml (43 nM). The combination of SC-52151 and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication without additive toxicity. An extended postantiviral effect correlates with inhibition of gag and gag-pol polyprotein processing. SC-52151 is highly protein bound ( >90%) in human plasma, and the level of partitioning into erythrocytes is low. Physiological concentrations of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, but not albumin, substantially affect the antiviral potency of SC-52151. The oral bioavailability of [14C]SC-52151 is 17% when it is administered as an elixir to the rat, dog, or monkey. Oxidation of the t-butyl moiety is the major route of biotransformation, and elimination is mainly by biliary excretion. No toxicologically significant effects have been observed in animals. Pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies in multiple animal species predict 20 to 30% systemic bioavailability, an elimination half-life of 1 to 2 h, and a volume of distribution of greater than 3 liters/kg in humans.

  18. Primary study and anti-tumor mechanisms of analog from SC002.

    PubMed

    Chi, Shu-ping; Gao, Rong; Wang, Chen; You, Li-yue; Lei, Hai-min; Cheng, Yun; Li, Jin

    2011-02-01

    To study the anti-tumor mechanisms of ascidiacea analog SC002. After treated the tumor cells with ascidiacea analog SC002, the changes of a serials of tumor associated cell signal molecules, including VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), P53, P21 and Bcl-2 et al, were detected by Western blot; further more the expression of serum VEGF in tumor-bearing mice and the activity of Caspase-3, 8, 9 in tumor tissue were investigated by ELISA; at last. Ascidiacea analog SC002 can obviously induce the expression of P53, while decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and VEGF, but have on effect on p21 in tumor tissue; ELISA shown that SC002 can also reduce the concentration of serum VEGF in tumor bearing mice, but did not affected the activity of Caspase-3, 8 and 9. SC002 have the anti-tumor function through promoting the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53, supress the expression of Bcl-2 and VEGF. This founding will provided an important base theory for it's further use as a novel anti-tumor drugs.

  19. SC-52151, a novel inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus protease.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, M; Getman, D; Smidt, M; Marr, J; Clare, M; Dillard, R; Lansky, D; DeCrescenzo, G; Heintz, R; Houseman, K

    1995-01-01

    SC-52151 is a potent, selective, tight-binding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor containing the novel (R)-(hydroxyethyl) urea isostere. The mean 50% effective concentration for lymphotropic, monocytotropic strains and field isolates of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus is 26 ng/ml (43 nM). The combination of SC-52151 and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors synergistically inhibited HIV-1 replication without additive toxicity. An extended postantiviral effect correlates with inhibition of gag and gag-pol polyprotein processing. SC-52151 is highly protein bound ( >90%) in human plasma, and the level of partitioning into erythrocytes is low. Physiological concentrations of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, but not albumin, substantially affect the antiviral potency of SC-52151. The oral bioavailability of [14C]SC-52151 is 17% when it is administered as an elixir to the rat, dog, or monkey. Oxidation of the t-butyl moiety is the major route of biotransformation, and elimination is mainly by biliary excretion. No toxicologically significant effects have been observed in animals. Pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies in multiple animal species predict 20 to 30% systemic bioavailability, an elimination half-life of 1 to 2 h, and a volume of distribution of greater than 3 liters/kg in humans. PMID:8619573

  20. ScVO4 under non-hydrostatic compression: a new metastable polymorph.

    PubMed

    Garg, Alka B; Errandonea, D; Rodríguez-Hernández, P; Muñoz, A

    2017-02-08

    The high-pressure (HP) behaviour of scandium vanadate (ScVO4) is investigated under non-hydrostatic compression. The compound is studied by means of synchrotron-based powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical-absorption techniques. The occurrence of a non-reversible phase transition is detected. The transition is from the zircon structure to the fergusonite-type structure and takes place around 6 GPa with nearly 10% volume discontinuity. XRD measurements on the pressure cycled sample confirm for the first time that the fergusonite-type ScVO4 can be recovered as the metastable phase at ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopic measurements verify the metastable phase to be of a fergusonite-type phase. Theoretical calculations also corroborate the experimental findings. The fergusonite phase is found to be stiffer than the ambient-pressure zircon phase, as indicated by the observed experimental and theoretical bulk moduli. The optical properties and lattice-dynamics calculation of the fergusonite ScVO4 are discussed. At ambient pressure the band gap of the zircon (fergusonite)-type ScVO4 is 2.75 eV (2.3 eV). This fact suggests that the novel metastable polymorph of ScVO4 can have applications in green technologies; for instance, it can be used as photocatalytic material for hydrogen production by water splitting.

  1. Hardness and microstructural variation of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Sumiha; Strodahs, Ansis; Saghi, Zineb; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Burdet, Pierre; Hata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Midgley, Paul A; Kaneko, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Variations of Vickers hardness were observed in Al-Mg-Mn alloy and Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy at different ageing times, ranging from a peak value of 81.2 HV at 54 ks down to 67.4 HV at 360 ks, below the initial hardness value, 71.8 HV at 0 ks for the case of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy. Microstructures of samples at each ageing stage were examined carefully by transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions. The presence of different types, densities, and sizes of particles were observed dispersed spherical Al3Sc1-xZrx and also block-shaped Al3Sc precipitates growing along <100>Al with facets {100} and {110} of the precipitates. TEM analysis both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions, performed on various samples, confirmed the direct correlation between the hardness and the density of Al3Sc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fast conversion of scFv to Fab antibodies using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sanmark, Hanna; Huovinen, Tuomas; Matikka, Tero; Pettersson, Tiina; Lahti, Maria; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2015-11-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries are widely used for developing novel bioaffinity reagents, although Fab or IgG molecules are the preferred antibody formats in many final applications. Therefore, rapid conversion methods for combining multiple DNA fragments are needed to attach constant domains to the scFv derived variable domains. In this study we describe a fast and easy cloning method for the conversion of single framework scFv fragments to Fab fragments using type IIS restriction enzymes. All cloning steps excluding plating of the Fab transformants can be done in 96 well plates and the procedure can be completed in one working day. The concept was tested by converting 69 scFv clones into Fab format on 96 well plates, which resulted in 93% success rate. The method is particularly useful as a high-throughput tool for the conversion of the chosen scFv clones into Fab molecules in order to analyze them as early as possible, as the conversion can significantly affect the binding properties of the chosen clones.

  3. Hot Deformation and Processing Maps of Al-15%B4C Composites Containing Sc and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhan; Chen, X.-Grant

    2017-03-01

    Hot deformation behavior and processing maps of three Al-15%B4C composites denoted as the base composite (Al-15vol.%B4C), S40 (Al-15vol.%B4C-0.4wt.%Sc) and SZ40 (Al-15 vol.%B4C-0.4wt.%Sc-0.24wt.%Zr) were studied by uniaxial compression tests performed at various deformation temperatures and strain rates. The constitutive equations of the three composites were established to describe the effect of the temperature and strain rate on hot deformation behavior. Using the established constitutive equations, the predicted flow stresses on various deformation conditions agreed well with the experimental data. The peak flow stress of the composites increased with the addition of Sc and Zr, attributing to the synthetic effect of solute atoms and dynamic precipitation. The addition of Sc and Zr increased the activation energy for hot deformation of Al-B4C composites. The processing maps of the three composites were constructed to evaluate the hot workability of the composites. The safe domains with optimal deformation conditions were identified for all three composites. In the safe domains, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization were involved as softening mechanisms. The addition of Sc and Zr limited the dynamic softening process, especially for dynamic recrystallization. The microstructure analysis revealed that the flow instability was attributed to the void formation, cracking and flow localization during hot deformation of the composites.

  4. A Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor (SC-58125) Blocks Growth of Established Human Colon Cancer Xenografts1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher S; Hongmiao, Sheng; Brockman, Jeffrey A; Armandla, Radhika; Shao, Jinyi; Washington, M Kay; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Dubois, Raymond N

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Selective COX-2 inhibitors reduce adenoma formation and cancer progression in rodent models of colorectal cancer. To assess the therapeutic activity of selective COX-2 inhibitors, we tested the effect of SC-58125 treatment on the growth of human colon carcinoma cells in nude mice. Delaying treatment by 2, 4, or 7 weeks following implantation of the carcinoma cells resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, short-term (48 hours) treatment with SC-58125 was sufficient to attenuate tumor growth for up to 15 days. SC-58125 treatment did not alter the rate at which cells underwent apoptosis, but did result in a delayed progression through the cell cycle at the G2/M transition. Accordingly, p34cdc2 protein levels and activity were decreased following SC-58125 treatment. We conclude that SC-58125 primarily exerts a cytostatic effect in vivo, which is likely to be mediated through inhibition of progression through the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. PMID:11687954

  5. Integrating scFv into xMAP Assays for the Detection of Marine Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Liu, Jinny L.; Brozozog Lee, P. Audrey; Goldman, Ellen R.; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Anderson, George P.

    2016-01-01

    Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive care in case of intoxication; environmental monitoring to detect the presence of toxin is also important for prevention of intoxication. Immunoassays are one tool that has successfully been applied to the detection of marine toxins. Herein, we had the variable regions of two saxitoxin binding monoclonal antibodies sequenced and used the information to produce recombinant constructs that consist of linked heavy and light variable domains that make up the binding domains of the antibodies (scFv). Recombinantly produced binding elements such as scFv provide an alternative to traditional antibodies and serve to “preserve” monoclonal antibodies as they can be easily recreated from their sequence data. In this paper, we combined the anti-saxitoxin scFv developed here with a previously developed anti-domoic acid scFv and demonstrated their utility in a microsphere-based competitive immunoassay format. In addition to detection in buffer, we demonstrated equivalent sensitivity in oyster and scallop matrices. The potential for multiplexed detection using scFvs in this immunoassay format is demonstrated. PMID:27879646

  6. SC83288 is a clinical development candidate for the treatment of severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Pegoraro, Stefano; Duffey, Maëlle; Otto, Thomas D; Wang, Yulin; Rösemann, Roman; Baumgartner, Roland; Fehler, Stefanie K; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Avery, Vicky M; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique; Vial, Henri J; Strobl, Stefan; Sanchez, Cecilia P; Lanzer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Severe malaria is a life-threatening complication of an infection with the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which requires immediate treatment. Safety and efficacy concerns with currently used drugs accentuate the need for new chemotherapeutic options against severe malaria. Here we describe a medicinal chemistry program starting from amicarbalide that led to two compounds with optimized pharmacological and antiparasitic properties. SC81458 and the clinical development candidate, SC83288, are fast-acting compounds that can cure a P. falciparum infection in a humanized NOD/SCID mouse model system. Detailed preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies reveal no observable drawbacks. Ultra-deep sequencing of resistant parasites identifies the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting PfATP6 as a putative determinant of resistance to SC81458 and SC83288. Features, such as fast parasite killing, good safety margin, a potentially novel mode of action and a distinct chemotype support the clinical development of SC83288, as an intravenous application for the treatment of severe malaria. PMID:28139658

  7. Phage display of ScFv peptides recognizing the thymidine(6–4)thymidine photoproduct

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Anamaria G.; Lancaster, Thaddeus; Groopman, John D.; Strickland, Paul T.; Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan

    2000-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA photoproducts in skin cells and is the predominant cause of human skin cancers. To understand human susceptibility to skin cancer and to facilitate the development of prevention measures, highly specific reagents to detect and quantitate UV-induced DNA adducts in human skin will be needed. One approach towards this end is the use of monoclonal antibody-based molecular dosimetry methods. To facilitate the development of photoproduct-specific antibody reagents we have: (i) cloned and sequenced a single chain variable fragment (ScFv) gene coding for one such high affinity monoclonal antibody, αUVssDNA-1 (mAb C3B6), recognizing the thymidine(6–4)thymidine photoproduct; (ii) expressed and displayed the cloned ScFv gene on the surface of phage; (iii) selected functional recombinant phage by panning; (iv) purified the ScFv peptide; (v) shown that the purified ScFv peptide binds to UV-irradiated polythymidylic acid but not unirradiated polythymidylic acid. This is the first demonstration of the use of phage display to select a ScFv recognizing DNA damage. In addition, this is the initial step towards immortalizing the antibody gene for genetic manipulation, structure–function studies and application to human investigations. PMID:10710441

  8. Gallic acid grafting modulates the oxidative potential of ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic SC-45.

    PubMed

    Corazzari, Ingrid; Tomatis, Maura; Turci, Francesco; Ferraris, Sara; Bertone, Elisa; Prenesti, Enrico; Vernè, Enrica

    2016-12-01

    Magnetite-containing glass-ceramics are promising bio-materials for replacing bone tissue after tumour resection. Thanks to their ferrimagnetic properties, they generate heat when subjected to an alternated magnetic field. In virtue of this they can be employed for the hyperthermic treatment of cancer. Moreover, grafting anti-cancer drugs onto their surface produces specific anti-neoplastic activity in these biomaterials. Gallic acid (GA) exhibits antiproliferative activity which renders it a promising candidate for anticancer applications. In the present paper, the reactivity of ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic SC-45 grafted with GA (SC-45+GA) was studied in terms of ROS release, rupture of the C-H bond of the formate molecule and Fenton reactivity by EPR/spin trapping in acellular systems. The ability of these materials to cause lipid peroxidation was assessed by UV-vis/TBA assay employing linoleic acid as a model of membrane lipid. The results, compared to those obtained with SC-45, showed that GA grafting (i) significantly enhanced the Fenton reactivity and (ii) restored the former reactivity of SC-45 towards both the C-H bond and linoleic acid which had been completely suppressed by prolonged contact with water. Fe(2+) centres at the surface are probably implicated. GA, acting as a pro-oxidant, reduces Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) by maintaining a supply of Fe(2+) at the surface of SC-45+GA.

  9. Influence of relative binding affinity on efficacy in a panel of anti-CD3 scFv immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hexham, J M; Dudas, D; Hugo, R; Thompson, J; King, V; Dowling, C; Neville, D M; Digan, M E; Lake, P

    2001-09-01

    The in vitro cell killing potency of an immunotoxin reflects the aggregate of several independent biochemical properties. These include antigen binding affinity; internalization rate, intracellular processing and intrinsic toxin domain potency. This study examines the influence of antigen binding affinity on potency in various immunotoxin fusion proteins where target antigen binding is mediated by single chain antibody variable region fragments (scFv). Firstly, the relationship between affinity and potency was examined in a panel of four scFv immunotoxins generated from different anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies fused to the 38 kDa fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE38). Of these four scFv-PE38 immunotoxins, the one derived from the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody UCHT1 has highest cell killing potency. Analysis of these four scFv-PE38 immunotoxins indicated a correlation between antigen binding affinity and immunotoxin potency in the cell killing assay with the exception of the scFvPE38 immunotoxin derived from the antibody BC3. However this scFv appeared to suffer a greater drop in affinity ( approximately 100x), relative to the parent Mab than did the other three scFvs used in this study (2-10x). Secondly, the scFv(UCHT1)-PE38 immunotoxin was then compared with a further panel of scFv(UCHT1)-derived immunotoxins including a divalent PE38 version and both monovalent and divalent Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin (DT389) fusion proteins. When the scFv-UCHT1 domain was amino-terminally positioned relative to the toxin, as in the scFv(UCHT1)-PE38, an approximately 10-fold higher antigen-binding affinity was observed than with the C-terminal fusion, used in the DT389-scFv(UCHT1) molecule. Despite this lower antigen-binding activity, the DT389-scFv immunotoxin had a 60-fold higher potency in the T-cell-killing assay. Thirdly, a divalent form of the DT389-scFv construct, containing tandem scFv domains, had a 10-fold higher binding activity, which was exactly

  10. Preliminary Analysis of the Social and Scientific Impact of the UAEM-ININ M.Sc. and D.Sc. Graduate Programme in Medical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsoura, Eleni; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Torres-Garcia, Eugenio; Camacho-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Hardy-Perez, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1994, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) started in Mexico a teaching and training programme (Diplomado) in Radiotherapy Medical Physics. Based on this experience, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) launched two years later, the first Graduate Programme in Science (M.Sc. and D.Sc.), specialised in Medical Physics in Mexico. A preliminary analysis of the social and scientific impact of the UAEM-ININ Programme is presented in this work based on the achievements attained, regarding the number of graduated Medical Physicists, their geographic and academic origin, their current professional activities and the number of scientific publications produced as a result of the thesis, as well as their citations.

  11. Enhanced hardness in epitaxial TiAlScN alloy thin films and rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Bivas; Lawrence, Samantha K.; Bahr, David F.; Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Birch, Jens; Sands, Timothy D.

    2014-10-13

    High hardness TiAlN alloys for wear-resistant coatings exhibit limited lifetimes at elevated temperatures due to a cubic-AlN to hexagonal-AlN phase transformation that leads to decreasing hardness. We enhance the hardness (up to 46 GPa) and maximum operating temperature (up to 1050 °C) of TiAlN-based coatings by alloying with scandium nitride to form both an epitaxial TiAlScN alloy film and epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices on MgO substrates. The superlattice hardness increases with decreasing period thickness, which is understood by the Orowan bowing mechanism of the confined layer slip model. These results make them worthy of additional research for industrial coating applications.

  12. FINAL REPORT. DOE Grant Award Number DE-SC0004062

    SciTech Connect

    Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-07-15

    With the support of the DOE-OFES Early Career Award and the Tufts startup support the PI has developed experimental and analytical expertise on the electromechanical characterization of Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) and High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for high magnetic field applications. These superconducting wires and cables are used in fusion and high-energy physics magnet applications. In a short period of time, the PI has built a laboratory and research group with unique capabilities that include both experimental and numerical modeling effort to improve the design and performance of superconducting cables and magnets. All the projects in the PI’s laboratory explore the fundamental electromechanical behavior of superconductors but the types of materials, geometries and operating conditions are chosen to be directly relevant to real machines, in particular fusion machines like ITER.

  13. Anomalous Halo Formation in an Arc-Melted ScNi-Sc₂Ni Off-Eutectic Binary Alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wei, Ming; Zhang, Lijun

    2016-07-18

    Diverse non-equilibrium eutectic structures have attracted numerous experimental and theoretical studies. One special type is the formation of a halo of one phase around a primary dendrite of another phase. In our experiments, it was occasionally observed that ScNi halos grow as dendritic morphology around the primary Sc 2 Ni dendrites in an arc-melted ScNi-Sc 2 Ni off-eutectic binary alloy. The formation of this anomalous halo structure was then well reproduced by employing quantitative phase-field simulations. Based on the phase-field simulation, It was found that (i) the large undercooling and growth velocity of the ScNi phase during solidification causes the formation of halos; and (ii) the released latent heat induces the recalescence phenomenon, and changes the solidification sequence largely, resulting in the anomalous halo structure in the Sc-34 at % Ni alloy.

  14. RECOMBINANT SINGLE CHAIN VARIABLE FRAGMENT ANTIBODIES (scFv) AGAINST Pro144-Leu155 FRAGMENT OF HUMAN PROTEIN C.

    PubMed

    Oliinyk, O S; Palyvoda, K O; Lugovskaya, N E; Kolibo, D V; Lugovskoy, E V; Komisarenko, S V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain the recombinant single chain variable fragments of antibodies (scFv) against human protein C, the key component of blood anticoagulation system. For this purpose a peptide that mimics a Pro144-Leu155 sequence of protein C was synthesized and the murine immune scFv library against this peptide was constructed. The protein C specific scFv 9E were selected from the constructed library by the phage-display method. The scFv 9E dissociation constant was found to be 2∙10(-9) M. It was shown that scFv 9E were suitable for protein C detection by ELISA and Western blotting. Selected scFv could be further used for protein C investigation and for the development of quantitative methods for protein C detection in human blood.

  15. Electronic shell structures of Russian-doll-style Sc 4C 2@C 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhifan; Kah, Cherno B.; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2011-04-01

    We have studied the electronic properties of a 'Russian-doll'-style endohedral fullerene Sc 4C 2@C 80 based on first-principles density-functional calculations coupled with many-body GW correction. Our calculation results yield a GW rectified gap of 1.8 eV for the 'Russian doll' structured Sc 4C 2@C 80, in very good conformity with experimental observed value of 1.6 eV. The calculated electronic characteristics of the Russian-doll fullerene reveal distinct shell structures, which are embellished in the GW approach. The analysis of vibrational frequency demonstrates profound hybridizations associated with the interactions between the Sc 4C 2 core and C 80 shell.

  16. Electronic structure of cubic ScF3 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, D.; Žguns, P.; Piskunov, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Purans, J.

    2016-07-01

    The ground state properties of cubic scandium trifluoride (ScF3) perovskite were studied using first-principles calculations. The electronic structure of ScF3 was determined by linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) and plane wave projector augmented-wave (PAW) methods using modified hybrid exchange-correlation functionals within the density functional theory (DFT). The comprehensive comparison of the results obtained by two methods is presented. Both methods allowed us to reproduce the lattice constant found experimentally in ScF3 at low temperatures and to predict its electronic structure in good agreement with known experimental valence-band photoelectron and F 1s x-ray absorption spectra.

  17. Very diluted RE's in (Sc, Y, La)Al 2: Crystals field systematics and spin dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, B.; Loewenhaupt, M.

    1985-05-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering results are presented which extend earlier work especially to RE's in ScAl 2 and furthermore to some RE's in LaAl 2 (Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho in ScAl 2; Pr, Ho in LaAl 2). For different RE's we report about the systematics of CF-parameters within and between the non-magnetic hosts (Sc, Y, La)Al 2. A detailed study of the magnetic single ion behavior and the description with the dynamical single ion susceptibility as calculated by Becker, Fulde and Keller was done on 3000 ppm of Tm, Tb and Er in YAl 2 and LaAl 2 over a temperange between 1.5 K and room temperature.

  18. Structural relationship between negative thermal expansion and quartic anharmonicity of cubic ScF3.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen W; Tang, Xiaoli; Muñoz, J A; Keith, J B; Tracy, S J; Abernathy, D L; Fultz, B

    2011-11-04

    Cubic scandium trifluoride (ScF3) has a large negative thermal expansion over a wide range of temperatures. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed to study the temperature dependence of the lattice dynamics of ScF3 from 7 to 750 K. The measured phonon densities of states show a large anharmonic contribution with a thermal stiffening of modes around 25 meV. Phonon calculations with first-principles methods identified the individual modes in the densities of states, and frozen phonon calculations showed that some of the modes with motions of F atoms transverse to their bond direction behave as quantum quartic oscillators. The quartic potential originates from harmonic interatomic forces in the DO9 structure of ScF3, and accounts for phonon stiffening with the temperature and a significant part of the negative thermal expansion.

  19. Structural relationship between negative thermal expansion and quartic anharmonicity of cubic ScF3

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chen W.; Tang, Xiaoli; Munoz, Jorge A.; Keith, J. Brian; Tracy, Sally J.; Abernathy, Douglas L; Fultz, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cubic scandium trifluoride (ScF{sub 3}) has a large negative thermal expansion over a wide range of temperatures. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed to study the temperature dependence of the lattice dynamics of ScF{sub 3} from 7 to 750 K. The measured phonon densities of states show a large anharmonic contribution with a thermal stiffening of modes around 25 meV. Phonon calculations with first-principles methods identified the individual modes in the densities of states, and frozen phonon calculations showed that some of the modes with motions of F atoms transverse to their bond direction behave as quantum quartic oscillators. The quartic potential originates from harmonic interatomic forces in the DO{sub 9} structure of ScF{sub 3}, and accounts for phonon stiffening with the temperature and a significant part of the negative thermal expansion.

  20. Identification of Highly Specific scFvs against Total Adiponectin for Diagnostic Purposes.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Peter; Steidel, Michael; Krczal, Gabriele; Hermanns, Iris; Pfützner, Andreas; Konnerth, Alisa; Boonrod, Kajohn

    2017-04-26

    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines secreted from adipose tissue. It acts as an endogenous insulin sensitizer and plasma concentrations are inversely correlated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. A decrease in plasma adiponectin levels normally indicates increased hormonal activity of the visceral lipid tissue, which is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. It may therefore be considered a valuable biomarker for elucidating the underlying deteriorations resulting in type 2 diabetes and macrovascular disease. Here we present the use of phage display technology to identify highly specific antibody fragments (scFvs) against adiponectin. The selected scFvs showed highly specific binding to globular and native adiponectin in ELISA tests. By using our phage display technology, we were able to obtain monoclonal antibodies with specific high affinity binding to the target protein in an effective and easy to upscale manner. The selected scFvs against adiponectin can be used for developing immunoassays suitable for use in metabolic syndrome diagnosis and monitoring.