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Sample records for mycoides sc characterization

  1. Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Lipoprotein LppQ from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, El-Mostafa; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    Lipoprotein LppQ, a predominant 48-kDa antigen, and its corresponding gene, lppQ, were characterized in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, the etiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. The lppQ gene is specific to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and was found in the type strain and in field strains isolated in Europe, Africa, and Australia, as well as in vaccinal strains. LppQ is encoded as a precursor with a consensus sequence for prokaryotic signal peptidase II and a lipid attachment site. The leader sequence shows significant prominent transmembrane helix structure with a predicted outside-to-inside helix formation capacity. The N-terminal domain of the mature LppQ was shown to be surface exposed. It induced a strong, specific, early, and persistent immune response in naturally and experimentally infected animals. The C-terminal domain of LppQ possesses an integral membrane structure built up of repeated units, rich in hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids, which have a pore formation potential. A recombinant peptide representing the N-terminal domain of LppQ was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of nine Mycoplasma-specific TGA (Trp) codons into universal TGG (Trp) codons and expression in Escherichia coli hosts. It was used for serodetection of cattle infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, in which it was detected postinfection for significantly longer than conventional serological test reactions. PMID:10882657

  2. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Glycerol Uptake in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC: Its Impact on H2O2 Production and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Vilei, Edy M.; Frey, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Highly virulent strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC belonging to the African cluster contain an operon with the genes gtsA, gtsB, and gtsC, encoding membrane ATP binding cassette transporter proteins GtsA, GtsB, and GtsC, which are involved in glycerol transport. Strain Afadé from the African cluster incorporated [U-14C]glycerol with a time-dependent increase. The less virulent strain L2 of the European cluster, which lacks gtsB and gtsC, failed to incorporate glycerol. Antibodies against GtsB noncompetitively inhibited glycerol uptake. l-α-Glycerophosphate was not transported by M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. It is postulated to be synthesized by phosphorylation of glycerol during transport and subsequently metabolized further to dihydroxyacetone phosphate accompanied by release of H2O2. Peroxide production in glycerol-containing growth medium was high for the African strain Afadé but very low for the European strain L2. Virtually no H2O2 was produced by both strains without glycerol. Hence, the efficient glycerol uptake system found in the virulent strain of the African cluster leads to a strong release of peroxide, a potential virulence factor which is lacking in the less virulent European strains. M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC might have adopted, as a strategy for virulence, a highly efficient uptake system for glycerol which allows the production of an active metabolic intermediate that damages host cells. PMID:11139200

  3. Domain analysis of lipoprotein LppQ in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC

    PubMed Central

    Bonvin-Klotz, Laetitia; Kühni-Boghenbor, Kathrin; Kapp, Nadine; Frey, Joachim; Stoffel, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    The lipoprotein LppQ is the most prominent antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) during infection of cattle. This pathogen causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a devastating disease of considerable socio-economic importance in many countries worldwide. The dominant antigenicity and high specificity for M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC of lipoprotein LppQ have been exploited for serological diagnosis and for epidemiological investigations of CBPP. Scanning electron microscopy and immunogold labelling were used to provide ultrastructural evidence that LppQ is located to the cell membrane at the outer surface of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. The selectivity and specificity of this method were demonstrated through discriminating localization of extracellular (i.e., in the zone of contact with host cells) vs. integral membrane domains of LppQ. Thus, our findings support the suggestion that the accessible N-terminal domain of LppQ is surface exposed and such surface localization may be implicated in the pathogenesis of CBPP. PMID:17674137

  4. Rapid Detection of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia by a Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, John B.; Kerr, Karen; Lema, Benedict

    2003-01-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) has been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The latex microspheres were coated with MmmSC polyclonal immunoglobulin G antiserum and detected MmmSC antigen in the serum of cattle infected with CBPP and in growth medium containing MmmSC. The specific antigen recognizsed by this test appeared to be the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The LAT recognized all 23 strains of MmmSC examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 5 × 103 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml. Therefore, rapid identification of MmmSC cultures should be possible. Agglutination was also observed with the related goat pathogens and “Mycoplasma mycoides” cluster members Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype (four of six strains positive) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (three of six strains positive), in agreement with the suggestion that these latter two mycoplasmas may in fact represent a single species (although collectively exhibiting two capsular serotypes). Comparisons in diagnosis with the complement fixation test (CFT) were made by using African field sera from CBPP-infected cattle. After 2 (or 3) min of incubation, the test detected 55% (or 61%) of CFT-positive sera and 29% (or 40%) of CFT-negative sera, with an overall correlation in diagnosis of 62% (or 61%). The rates for false-positive diagnoses made by using “known” CBPP-negative sera from the United Kingdom were 3 or 13% after 2 or 3 min of incubation, respectively. The data agree with previous findings that some CBPP CFT-negative misdiagnoses may occur due to “antibody eclipsing” by excess circulating antigen. The LAT combines low cost and high specificity with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:12626448

  5. Characterization of the in vitro core surface proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Ivanka; Liljander, Anne; Fischer, Anne; Smith, David G E; Inglis, Neil F; Scacchia, Massimo; Pini, Attilio; Jores, Joerg; Sacchini, Flavio

    2014-01-10

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is a severe cattle disease, present in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The development of improved diagnostic tests and vaccines for CBPP control remains a research priority. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the Triton X-114 soluble proteome of nine Mmm strains isolated from Europe or Africa. Of a total of 250 proteins detected, 67 were present in all strains investigated. Of these, 44 were predicted to be lipoproteins or cytoplasmic membrane-associated proteins and are thus likely to be members of the core in vitro surface membrane-associated proteome of Mmm. Moreover, the presence of all identified proteins in other ruminant Mycoplasma pathogens were investigated. Two proteins of the core proteome were identified only in other cattle pathogens of the genus Mycoplasma pointing towards a role in host-pathogen interactions. The data generated will facilitate the identification and prioritization of candidate Mycoplasma antigens for improved control measures, as it is likely that surface-exposed membrane proteins will include those that are involved in host-pathogen interactions.

  6. Assessment of a novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of the CBPP agent Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC through experimental infection in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC is the pathogenic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), the most important disease of cattle in Africa causing significant economic losses. The re-emergence of CBPP in Europe in the 1980s and 1990s illustrates that it is still a threat also to countries that have successfully eradicated the disease in the past. Nowadays, probe-based real-time PCR techniques are among the most advanced tools for a reliable identification and a sensitive detection of many pathogens, but only few protocols have been published so far for CBPP diagnosis. Therefore we developed a novel TaqMan®-based real-time PCR assay comprising the amplification of two independent targets (MSC_0136 and MSC_1046) and an internal exogenous amplification control in a multiplex reaction and evaluated its diagnostic performance with clinical samples. Results The assays detected 49 MmmSC strains from diverse temporal and geographical origin, but did not amplify DNA from 82 isolates of 20 non-target species confirming a specificity of 100%. The detection limit was determined to be 10 fg DNA per reaction for the MSC_0136 assay and 100 fg per reaction for the MSC_1046 assay corresponding to 8 and 80 genome equivalents, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated with clinical samples from 19 experimentally infected cattle and from 20 cattle without CBPP and compared to those of cultivation and a conventional PCR protocol. The two rt-PCR tests proved to be the most sensitive methods and identified all 19 infected animals. The different sample types used were not equally suitable for MmmSC detection. While 94.7% of lung samples from the infected cohort were positively tested in the MSC_0136 assay, only 81% of pulmonal lymph nodes, 31% of mediastinal lymph nodes and 25% of pleural fluid samples gave a positive result. Conclusions The developed multiplex rt-PCR assay is recommended as an efficient tool for rapid confirmation of

  7. Variable Surface Protein Vmm of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony Type

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Anja; Jacobsson, Karin; Frykberg, Lars; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Poumarat, François

    2002-01-01

    A variable surface protein, Vmm, of the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (M. mycoides SC) has been identified and characterized. Vmm was specific for the SC biotype and was expressed by 68 of 69 analyzed M. mycoides SC strains. The protein was found to undergo reversible phase variation at a frequency of 9 × 10−4 to 5 × 10−5 per cell per generation. The vmm gene was present in all of the 69 tested M. mycoides SC strains and encodes a lipoprotein precursor of 59 amino acids (aa), where the mature protein was predicted to be 36 aa and was anchored to the membrane by only the lipid moiety, as no transmembrane region could be identified. DNA sequencing of the vmm gene region from ON and OFF clones showed that the expression of Vmm was regulated at the transcriptional level by dinucleotide insertions or deletions in a repetitive region of the promoter spacer. Vmm-like genes were also found in four closely related mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. capricolum subsp . capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma sp. bovine serogroup 7, and Mycoplasma putrefaciens. However, Vmm could not be detected in whole-cell lysates of these species, suggesting that the proteins encoded by the vmm-like genes lack the binding epitope for the monoclonal antibody used in this study or, alternatively, that the Vmm-like proteins were not expressed. PMID:12057968

  8. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  9. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  10. Observations on Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides infection in Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Bar-Moshe, B; Rapapport, E

    1981-07-01

    An epizootic in white Saanen goats, caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is described. Twenty-five flocks totalling approximately 4,500 animals were involved. The disease was characterized by a high, transient temperature, general malaise and mastitis in the lactating does, and a keratoconjunctivitis, arthritis, mycoplasmaemia and death among the kids. In one goat flock there was a precipitous change in the character of the disease, from a predominantly mastitis syndrome to a fulminating pleuropneumonia. In another goat flock, twin kids were born with an advanced purulent, proliferative arthritis, suggesting early congenital infection. In yet another infected flock there were cases of subcutaneous abscesses from which both M. mycoides and Corynebacterium pyogenes were cultured. M. mycoides was also isolated from synovial fluid and the parenchymal organs of an Ibex mountain goat that died of a purulent polyarthritis. Experimental infection in kids caused a diffuse cellulitis at the site of inoculation, a high fever, polyarthritis and death.

  11. IS1634, a Novel Insertion Element Creating Long, Variable-Length Direct Repeats Which Is Specific for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small-Colony Type

    PubMed Central

    Vilei, Edy M.; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    A new insertion sequence, IS1634, has been identified in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC). IS1634 shows structural and functional similarities to IS1549 of Mycobacterium smegmatis and with it seems to form a new class or family of insertion sequences. IS1634 has a size of 1,872 bp, including two 13-bp terminal inverted repeats. It contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a product of 533 amino acids which shows similarity to the transposase of IS1549 and to a lesser extent to the transposases of IS elements of the IS4 family. IS1634 is present at about 30 copies in the genome of all 22 different field strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC tested. Characteristic of IS1634 are the long and variable-length direct repeats at the sites of insertion which were found to reach up to about 500 bp. IS1634 is specific to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and is not present in any of the other members of the M. mycoides cluster. Neither was it found in other closely related Mycoplasma species of ruminants. PMID:9973360

  12. Isolation of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides from Polyarthritis and Mastitis of Goats in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, H. L.; Rosendal, S.; Goltz, J.; Blackwell, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical signs, pathomorphological changes, and microbiological findings in Canadian goats infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides are discussed. The disease affected mainly young goats and was characterized by septicemia and polyarthritis. Mastitis followed by septicemia was seen in two mature goats. The diagnosis was made by culture and identification of the mycoplasma. Infected goats without clinical signs were identified by cultural and serological (complement fixation) techniques. Healthy carriers are presumably able to transmit the infection and may have brought the disease to Canada. PMID:17422225

  13. Mycoplasma mycoides, from "mycoides Small Colony" to "capri". A microevolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster consists of five species or subspecies that are ruminant pathogens. One subspecies, Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC), is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Its very close relative, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), is a more ubiquitous pathogen in small ruminants causing mastitis, arthritis, keratitis, pneumonia and septicaemia and is also found as saprophyte in the ear canal. To understand the genetics underlying these phenotypic differences, we compared the MmmSC PG1 type strain genome, which was already available, with the genome of an Mmc field strain (95010) that was sequenced in this study. We also compared the 95010 genome with the recently published genome of another Mmc strain (GM12) to evaluate Mmc strain diversity. Results The MmmSC PG1 genome is 1,212 kbp and that of Mmc 95010 is ca. 58 kbp shorter. Most of the sequences present in PG1 but not 95010 are highly repeated Insertion Sequences (three types of IS) and large duplicated DNA fragments. The 95010 genome contains five types of IS, present in fewer copies than in PG1, and two copies of an integrative conjugative element. These mobile genetic elements have played a key role in genome plasticity, leading to inversions of large DNA fragments. Comparison of the two genomes suggested a marked decay of the PG1 genome that seems to be correlated with a greater number of IS. The repertoire of gene families encoding surface proteins is smaller in PG1. Several genes involved in polysaccharide metabolism and protein degradation are also absent from, or degraded in, PG1. Conclusions The genome of MmmSC PG1 is larger than that of Mmc 95010, its very close relative, but has less coding capacity. This is the result of large genetic rearrangements due to mobile elements that have also led to marked gene decay. This is consistent with a non-adaptative genomic complexity theory, allowing duplications or pseudogenes to

  14. Highly Dynamic Genomic Loci Drive the Synthesis of Two Types of Capsular or Secreted Polysaccharides within the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Citti, Christine; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Gaurivaud, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster are all ruminant pathogens. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS). Previous studies have strongly suggested a role for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides polysaccharides in pathogenicity. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted EPS was recently characterized as a β(1→6)-galactofuranose homopolymer (galactan) identical to the capsular product. Here, we extended the characterization of secreted polysaccharides to all other members of the M. mycoides cluster: M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum, M. leachii, and M. mycoides subsp. capri (including the LC and Capri serovars). Extracted EPS was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, resulting in the identification of a homopolymer of β(1→2)-glucopyranose (glucan) in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii. Monoclonal antibodies specific for this glucan and for the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides-secreted galactan were used to detect the two polysaccharides. While M. mycoides subsp. capri strains of serovar LC produced only capsular galactan, no polysaccharide could be detected in strains of serovar Capri. All strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and M. leachii produced glucan CPS and EPS, whereas glucan production and localization varied among M. capricolum subsp. capricolum strains. Genes associated with polysaccharide synthesis and forming a biosynthetic pathway were predicted in all cluster members. These genes were organized in clusters within two loci representing genetic variability hot spots. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some of these genes, notably galE and glf, were acquired via horizontal gene transfer. These findings call for a reassessment of the specificity of the serological tests based on mycoplasma polysaccharides. PMID:25398856

  15. In vitro pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John D; Goh, Shan; McKellar, Quintin A; McKeever, Declan J

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is responsible for major economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control relies on live attenuated vaccines, which are of limited efficacy, and antimicrobials are now being assessed as an alternative or adjunct to vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro effector kinetics of the macrolide antimicrobial, gamithromycin, against MmmSC in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Furthermore, it was determined if any differences in gamithromycin activity between these two matrices were mirrored by the older macrolides, tylosin and tilmicosin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 were determined in artificial medium and serum. Time-kill curves were constructed at concentrations corresponding to multiples of the MIC for all three macrolides in artificial medium and for gamithromycin in serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models. Post-antibiotic effects (PAE) were established by exposing strain B237 to antimicrobials at 10× MIC for 1h and monitoring mycoplasma growth thereafter. MICs for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin were 64-, 8- and 64-fold lower, respectively, in serum than in artificial medium at an inoculum size of 10(6)cfu/mL B237. A similar pattern emerged for Tan8. All three antimicrobials were mycoplasmastatic with maximum effects of -0.44, -0.32 and -0.49log10(cfu/mL) units for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin, respectively, against B237 in artificial medium. Tylosin and tilmicosin elicited longer PAEs than gamithromycin. In conclusion, gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin all demonstrated in vitro efficacy against MmmSC and represent potential candidates for clinical studies to assess their therapeutic effect against CBPP. PMID:23810743

  16. In vitro pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John D; Goh, Shan; McKellar, Quintin A; McKeever, Declan J

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is responsible for major economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control relies on live attenuated vaccines, which are of limited efficacy, and antimicrobials are now being assessed as an alternative or adjunct to vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro effector kinetics of the macrolide antimicrobial, gamithromycin, against MmmSC in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Furthermore, it was determined if any differences in gamithromycin activity between these two matrices were mirrored by the older macrolides, tylosin and tilmicosin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 were determined in artificial medium and serum. Time-kill curves were constructed at concentrations corresponding to multiples of the MIC for all three macrolides in artificial medium and for gamithromycin in serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models. Post-antibiotic effects (PAE) were established by exposing strain B237 to antimicrobials at 10× MIC for 1h and monitoring mycoplasma growth thereafter. MICs for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin were 64-, 8- and 64-fold lower, respectively, in serum than in artificial medium at an inoculum size of 10(6)cfu/mL B237. A similar pattern emerged for Tan8. All three antimicrobials were mycoplasmastatic with maximum effects of -0.44, -0.32 and -0.49log10(cfu/mL) units for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin, respectively, against B237 in artificial medium. Tylosin and tilmicosin elicited longer PAEs than gamithromycin. In conclusion, gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin all demonstrated in vitro efficacy against MmmSC and represent potential candidates for clinical studies to assess their therapeutic effect against CBPP.

  17. Comparison of in vitro activity of danofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and tilmicosin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type.

    PubMed

    Ayling, R D; Baker, S E; Nicholas, R A; Peek, M L; Simon, A J

    2000-02-26

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentrations (MMC) of the antimicrobials danofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and tilmicosin were determined in vitro for 20 isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (MmmSC), the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The majority of strains were most susceptible to tilmicosin, followed by danofloxacin, oxytetracycline, florfenicol and spectinomycin with MIC50 values of 0.015, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 8 microg/ml, and MMC50 values of 0.06, 0.5, 8, 8 and 16 microg/ml, respectively. However, tilmicosin had poor mycoplasmacidal activity against two recent strains from Portugal. There was no evidence of resistance to danofloxacin in any of the strains. PMID:10737293

  18. Genetic and Serological Analysis of Lipoprotein LppA in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    PubMed Central

    Monnerat, Marie-Pierre; Thiaucourt, François; Poveda, Jose B.; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    The genes encoding the 62-kDa lipoproteins from the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type (LC) strain Y-goat and the M. mycoides subsp. capri strain PG3 were cloned and analyzed by sequencing. These two lipoproteins have been named LppA[MmymyLC] and LppA[Mmyca], and their corresponding genes have been named lppA[MmymyLC] and lppA[Mmyca], respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of these two lipoproteins showed a very high degree of similarity between these two mycoplasmas. Given the sequence data, LppA seems to fulfill the same structural functions as the previously described major lipoproteins P72 of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type and P67 of the Mycoplasma species bovine group 7. Based on lppA gene sequences of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and M. mycoides subsp. capri type strains, a specific PCR assay was developed so that it amplified this gene in all field strains of the two species analyzed in this study but not in the other members of the M. mycoides cluster. Analysis of the PCR-amplified lppA genes with frequently cutting restriction enzymes showed a certain degree of genetic variability which, however, did not cluster the two subspecies. This PCR therefore allows a rapid identification of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and M. mycoides subsp. capri but does not distinguish between these two closely related subspecies. LppA was expressed in Escherichia coli K-12 and used for the production of polyclonal mouse antiserum. Antibodies against recombinant LppA[MmymyLC] reacted with a 62-kDa protein in all M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and M. mycoides subsp. capri type strains and field strains tested but not with the other members of the M. mycoides cluster, thus showing the antigenic specificity of LppA and further supporting the concept that a close relationship exists between these two mycoplasmas. PMID:10066658

  19. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kusiluka, L J; Semuguruka, W D; Kazwala, R R; Ojeniy, B; Friis, N F

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia involving about 1200 goats in the Coast and Morogoro regions of eastern Tanzania is reported. The major clinical findings were severe respiratory distress, fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge and high mortality involving all age groups and both sexes of goats. The morbidity and mortality rates were 45%-90% and 14%-50%, respectively. The principal pathological lesions were confined to the thoracic cavity and comprised hydrothorax and serofibrinous pleuropneumonia. The histopathological features consisted of a necrotizing fibrinous pleuropneumonia characterized by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type were concurrently isolated.

  20. Disruption of the S41 Peptidase Gene in Mycoplasma mycoides capri Impacts Proteome Profile, H2O2 Production, and Sensitivity to Heat Shock

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ayman B.; Brown, Mary B.; Reyes, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Members of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster are among the most virulent of the mycoplasmas, causing worldwide economically significant diseases of cattle and goats. A distinguishing phenotype among the members of the cluster is the ability to degrade casein. The MMCAP2_0241 gene, an S41 peptidase, confers the proteolytic phenotype in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri GM12. In order to determine the impact of disruption of the gene, we used differential proteome profiling to compare the M. mycoides subsp. capri wild type with a mutant lacking the proteolytic phenotype. Disruption of MMCAP2_0241 resulted in altered phenotypes reminiscent of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and had significant impacts on the proteome profile of the microbe. The mutant exhibited increased production of hydrogen peroxide, decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity, and increased sensitivity to heat shock. PMID:23300541

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  2. Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Aye, Racheal; Soi, Reuben; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2016-01-01

    The current control method for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa is vaccination with a live, attenuated strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). However, this method is not very efficient and often causes serious adverse reactions. Several studies have attempted to induce protection using inactivated mycoplasma, but with widely contradictory results. Therefore, we compared the protective capacity of the live T1/44 vaccine with two inactivated preparations of Mmm strain Afadé, inoculated with an adjuvant. Protection was measured after a challenge with Afadé. The protection levels were 31%, 80.8% and 74.1% for the formalin-inactivated, heat-inactivated and live attenuated preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that low doses of heat-inactivated Mmm can offer protection to a level similar to the current live attenuated (T1/44) vaccine formulation.

  3. Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Aye, Racheal; Soi, Reuben; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2016-01-01

    The current control method for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa is vaccination with a live, attenuated strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). However, this method is not very efficient and often causes serious adverse reactions. Several studies have attempted to induce protection using inactivated mycoplasma, but with widely contradictory results. Therefore, we compared the protective capacity of the live T1/44 vaccine with two inactivated preparations of Mmm strain Afadé, inoculated with an adjuvant. Protection was measured after a challenge with Afadé. The protection levels were 31%, 80.8% and 74.1% for the formalin-inactivated, heat-inactivated and live attenuated preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that low doses of heat-inactivated Mmm can offer protection to a level similar to the current live attenuated (T1/44) vaccine formulation. PMID:26827840

  4. Systemic Disease in Vaal Rhebok (Pelea capreolus) Caused by Mycoplasmas in the Mycoides Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Melissa M.; Stalis, Ilse H.; Clippinger, Tracy L.; Busch, Martin; Nordhausen, Robert; Maalouf, Gabriel; Schrenzel, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    In the winter of 2002, an outbreak of mycoplasma infection in Vaal rhebok (Pelea capreolus) originating from South Africa occurred 15 weeks after their arrival in San Diego, Calif. Three rhebok developed inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, signs related to pulmonary or arthral dysfunction, and sepsis. All three rhebok died or were euthanized. Primary postmortem findings were erosive tracheitis, pleuropneumonia, regional cellulitis, and necrotizing lymphadenitis. Mycoplasmas were detected in numerous tissues by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. The three deceased rhebok were coinfected with ovine herpesvirus-2, and two animals additionally had a novel gammaherpesvirus. However, no lesions indicative of herpesvirus were seen microscopically in any animal. The rheboks' mycoplasmas were characterized at the level of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and the fructose biphosphate aldolase gene. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to address the possibility of infection with multiple strains. Two of the deceased rhebok were infected with a single strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, and the third animal had a single, unique strain most closely related to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony. A PCR survey of DNA samples from 46 other ruminant species demonstrated the presence of several species of mycoplasmas in the mycoides cluster, including a strain of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum identical to that found in two of the rhebok. These findings demonstrate the pervasiveness of mycoplasmas in the mycoides cluster in small ruminants and the potential for interspecies transmission and disease when different animal taxa come in contact. PMID:15750104

  5. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides isolate J; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  8. Susceptibility of goats and calves after experimental inoculation or contact exposure to a Canadian strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides isolated from a goat.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S

    1983-01-01

    Transmissibility of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides infection from experimentally inoculated goats to other goats and calves was studied. Eight goats and six calves were housed in an 18 m2 room. Six of the goats were inoculated endobronchially with strain D44 isolated from a natural case of polyarthritis in Ontario. These six goats died within a week of Mycoplasma septicemia. The two contact goats or the six calves never showed signs of disease and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered from these animals. The contact goats and four calves were killed 25 days after exposure. They were all seronegative, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was not recovered at necropsy and none had pathomorphological changes attributable to this Mycoplasma. The two remaining calves were inoculated endobronchially with 10(9) CFU of strain D44 and observed for 20 days. They never showed signs of disease and did not have significant lesions at necropsy. Both developed a significant serological response to M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, although this organism was not recovered during the experimental period or at necropsy. This study did not provide evidence for transmission of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides from endobronchially inoculated goats to contact goats or calves and endobronchially inoculated calves did not develop pneumonia. This would suggest that the infection of the goat population in Canada with this pathogen would not be a significant threat to the cattle population. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6365296

  9. Changes in pathogenicity and immunogenicity of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides strains revealed by comparative genomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Yang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Yongqiang; Liu, Suli; Wang, Qi; Shao, Jiari; Chen, Ying; Gao, Liping; Zhou, Changping; Liu, Henggui; Wang, Xiumei; Zheng, Huajun; Xin, Jiuqing

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. A pathogenic strain BEN-1 was isolated from bovine lung and underwent continuous passages in rabbits for 468 generations. During this process, the strain’s strong virulence became weak and, gradually, it lost the ability to confer protective immunity in cattle but developed virulence in rabbits. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms behind the reduction in virulence and the loss of immunogenicity, we sequenced five representative strains of the BEN series, including the original strain (BEN-1), the strain generation that first acquired virulence in rabbits (BEN-50), the two vaccine strain generations (BEN-181 and BEN-326), and the strain generation showing the greatest loss of immunogenicity (BEN-468). The gene mutation rate in the four different propagation stages varied greatly, and over half of variations observed in each generation were removed during the propagation process. However, the variation maintained in the BEN-468 generation might contribute to its changes in virulence and immunogenicity. We thus identified 18 genes associated with host adaptation, six genes contributing to virulence in cattle, and 35 genes participating in conferring immunity in cattle. These findings might help us optimize the vaccine to obtain more effective immunization results. PMID:26750304

  10. Characterizing coal beds in western Kentucky with the Al-La-Sc coherent triad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chyi, L.L.; Medlin, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Cyclic sedimentation and lateral facies changes make coal bed correlations inconclusive and difficult. This uncertainty can be further complicated if a coal basin has been structurally deformed. Coal macerals can be studied to indicate the nature and degree of coalification. Their use in coal bed correlation, however, is limited. Most of the trace elements and their ratios that have been studied show significant within-bed lateral and stratigraphic variations, and thus are not effective in correlating coal beds regionally. Geochemically coherent groups of elements, such as rare earth elements (REE) and platinum group elements (PGE), appear to be highly differentiated in coal-forming environments. Geochemical coherent elemental triads appear to be useful for coal bed identification or fingerprinting. The best triad which was demonstrated to be effective in coal bed characterization in western Kentucky, is that of Al, La and Sc. These three elements are highly correlated with one another and they can be determined accurately and simultaneously with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The elemental triad Al-La-Sc is used to identify and fingerprint three key coal beds in western Kentucky: the Springfield (western Kentucky No. 9), the Davis (western Kentucky No. 6), and the Mining City and Dawson Springs are both considered to be the No. 4 coal bed in western Kentucky). Four distinct groupings can be recognized by use of the Al-La-Sc triad. The Dawson Springs coals have the highest Al/(La + Sc) ratios, followed by the Springfield, the Davis and the Mining City. The Mining City coal bed generally has the highest La/Sc ratio. However, the Dawson Springs is not correlated with the Mining City using the triad analysis, even though they have reportedly similar stratigraphic positions in the western Kentucky coal basin. The Al-La-Sc triad appears to be effective in discriminating between the Springfield and the Davis coal beds throughout the entire Illinois

  11. Production, purification, and characterization of human scFv antibodies expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Jane M.; Gray, Sean A.; Siegel, Robert W.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2005-08-01

    Single chain (scFv) antibodies are used as affinity reagents for diagnostics, therapeutics, and proteomic analyses. The antibody discovery platform we use to identify novel antigen binders involves discovery, characterization, and production. The discovery and characterization components have previously been characterized but in order to fully utilize the capabilities of affinity reagents from our yeast surface display library, efforts were focused on developing a production component to obtain purified, soluble, and active scFvs. Instead of optimizing conditions to achieve maximum yield, efforts were focused on using a system that could quickly and easily produce and process hundreds of scFv antibodies. Heterologous protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli were evaluated for their ability to rapidly, efficaciously, and consistently produce scFv antibodies for use in downstream proteomic applications. Following purification, the binding activity of several scFv antibodies were quantified using a novel Biacore assay. All three systems produced soluble scFv antibodies which ranged in activity from 0-99%. scFv antibody yields from Saccharomyces, Pichia, and E. coli were 1.5-4.2, 0.4-7.3, and 0.63-16.4 mg L-1 culture, respectively. For our purposes, expression in E. coli proved to be the quickest and most consistent way to obtain and characterize purified scFv for downstream applications. The E. coli expression system was also used to compare scFv production levels from the periplasm, inclusion bodies, and culture media. The E. coli production system was then used to produce variants of several scFv to determine structure function relationships.

  12. The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, W; Nicholas, R A J; Janakat, S; Abu-Basha, E; Ayling, R D

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species-M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions of Jordan. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed some Mycoplasma species-specific differences, with M. capricolum subsp. capricolum being more susceptible to tylosin and erythromycin. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were the least effective for all three Mycoplasma species. No trends or significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities were observed between sheep and goat isolates, between milk or nasal swab isolates, or between isolates from different regions of Jordan. Some isolates of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens showed higher MIC levels with oxytetracycline, as did two isolates of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC with tylosin, possibly indicating signs of development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:17405622

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to surface-exposes proteins of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (small-colony strain), which causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiarie, M N; Rurangirwa, F R; Perryman, L E; Jasmer, D P; McGuire, T C

    1996-01-01

    Outbreaks of bovine pleuropneumonia caused by small-colony strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides occur in Africa, and vaccination is used for control. Since protein subunits are needed to improve multivalent vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were made to facilitate protein identification and isolation. Eleven immunoglobulin M MAbs derived from mouse spleen donors immunized with disrupted whole organisms bound periodate-sensitive epitopes on externally exposed polysaccharide. Seven of these MAbs caused in vitro growth inhibition of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides; however, reaction with carbohydrate epitopes prevented their use in identifying proteins. Ten additional MAbs from mouse spleen donors immunized with Triton X-114-phase integral membrane proteins reacted with periodate-insensitive, proteinase K-sensitive epitopes. These MAbs were classified into three groups based on immunoblots of Triton X-114-phase proteins. One group reacted with 96-, 16-, and 15-kDa proteins. Another group reacted with 26-, 21-, and 16-kDa proteins, while a third group reacted only with 26- and 21-kDa proteins. One MAb from each group reacted with trypsinsensitive epitopes on live organisms, yet none caused in vitro growth inhibition. Representative MAbs reacted with all small-colony strains in immunoblots and did not react with large colony strains. However, these MAbs were not specific for small-colony strains, as proteins from two other M. mycoides cluster organisms were identified. Nevertheless, MAbs to surface-exposed epitopes on integral membrane proteins will be useful for isolation of these proteins for immunization, since one or more might induce growth-inhibiting antibodies or other protective responses. PMID:8914769

  14. 77 FR 33455 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Potato in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Bacillus mycoides isolate J; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Potato in... the pesticide Bacillus mycoides isolate J to treat up to 2,675 acres of potato to control Potato Virus... isolate J on potato to control PVY. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted as...

  15. Switching of the rotational direction of rhizoidal colonies in a newly isolated Bacillus mycoides strain Ko01.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Courtney; Masuda, Hisako

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides are known to form rhizoidal colonies on solid medium. In this study, a new strain of B. mycoides, strain Ko01, was isolated from soil. Genetic and growth patterns indicated that this strain belongs to subgroup II of the B. cereus group. Strain Ko01 forms extensive rhizoidal colonies with predictable directions of rotation. The concentration of the agar, and not the chemical composition, altered the direction of the colony rotation, switching from counterclockwise to clockwise. Agar concentration-dependent switching of rotation direction was unique to strain Ko01 and was not seen in colonies of other B. mycoides strains that were tested. Factors affecting colony chirality patterns appeared to be variable among B. mycoides strains. This feature can be used for the classification of B. mycoides strains. PMID:27118071

  16. Preparation and characterization of Sc doped MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Burdusel, M.

    2016-09-01

    The in-situ technique was used to manufacture scandium (Sc) doped MgB2 wires in a composite Cu-Nb sheath. After reaction at 700 °C, at most 1 at.% Mg was replaced by Sc in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its superconducting transition temperature. For higher Sc concentrations in the nominal composition, the formation of Sc-rich impurity phases was evidenced by SEM/EDS observations. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are weakly dependant on the Sc content. It is believed that these effects are related more to modifications of the thermal behaviour of the precursor powders revealed by DTA measurements than to actual doping. The best performance was obtained in a wire with Mg:Sc = 0.995_0.005 atomic ratio.

  17. Growth and characterization of Sc-doped EuO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Altendorf, S. G.; Reisner, A.; Chang, C. F.; Hollmann, N.; Rata, A. D.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2014-02-03

    The preparation of 3d-transition metal-doped EuO thin films by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated using the example of Sc doping. The Sc-doped EuO samples display a good crystalline structure, despite the relatively small ionic radius of the dopant. The Sc doping leads to an enhancement of the Curie temperature to up to 125 K, remarkably similar to previous observations on lanthanide-doped EuO.

  18. The mechanism of Microcystis aeruginosa death upon exposure to Bacillus mycoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, J. R.; Cloete, T. E.

    Electron microscopy observations revealed at least two mechanisms of Microcystis aeruginosa cell death upon exposure to Bacillus mycoides, i.e. cell membrane lysis and shadowing of algal cells leading to photo-inhibition. There were ultra-structural changes that occurred in bacteria treated M. aeruginosa cells. SEM images showed swollen M. aeruginosa cells due to cell membrane damage and increased osmotic pressure. The production of intracellular stress related structures by M. aeruginosa indicated cell stress as a result of bacteria causing shadowing and photo-inhibition affecting the photosynthetic system. There is evidence, which showed that B. mycoides B16 might be an ectoparasite during the lysis of Microcystis cells and exhibit multicellular forms that are Bdellovibrio-like bacteria during the last stages lysis of Microcystis cells in order to survive an adverse external environment that was nutrient limited. The mechanism of cyanobacterial lysis may involve changes in ultrastructure of M. aeruginosa, possibly affecting energy sources and the photosynthetic system after exposure to bacteria. This may lead to the death of the cyanobacteria after exhaustion of energy sources and loss of nutrients to the predator bacteria, B. mycoides B16. A better understanding of the interactions between B. mycoides 16 and M. aeruginosa is important for the development of a biological control agent and ultimately the management of harmful algal blooms dominated by M. aeruginosa.

  19. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species. PMID:23031072

  20. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. PMID:27033804

  2. Structural and functional characterization of a novel scFv anti-HSP60 of Strongyloides sp.

    PubMed Central

    Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; de Almeida Araújo Santos, Fabiana; Fujimura, Patrícia Tiemi; Caneiro, Ana Paula; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Phage display is a powerful technology that selects specific proteins or peptides to a target. We have used Phage Display to select scFv (single-chain variable fragment) clones from a combinatorial library against total proteins of Strongyloides venezuelensis. After scFv characterization, further analysis demonstrated that this recombinant fragment of antibody was able to bind to an S. venezuelensis antigenic fraction of ~65 kDa, present in the body periphery and digestive system of infective larvae (L3), as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Mass spectrometry results followed by bioinformatics analysis showed that this antigenic fraction was a heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of Strongyloides sp. The selected scFv was applied in serodiagnosis by immune complexes detection in serum samples from individuals with strongyloidiasis using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showing sensitivity of 97.5% (86.84–99.94), specificity of 98.81 (93.54–99.97), positive likelihood ratio of 81.60 and an area under the curve of 0.9993 (0.9973–1.000). Our study provided a novel monoclonal scFv antibody fragment which specifically bound to HSP60 of Strongyloides sp. and was applied in the development of an innovative serodiagnosis method for the human strongyloidiasis. PMID:25994608

  3. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yuichi; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01 ± 0.10) up to 40 μm in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06 eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 1018-1020 cm-3, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284 cm2 V-1 s-1 at n = 3.7 × 1018 cm-3.

  4. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Yuichi Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-21

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01 ± 0.10) up to 40 μm in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06 eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at n = 3.7 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}.

  5. Generation and characterization of a human single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody against cytosine deaminase from Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mallano, Alessandra; Zamboni, Silvia; Carpinelli, Giulia; Santoro, Filippo; Flego, Michela; Ascione, Alessandro; Gellini, Mara; Tombesi, Marina; Podo, Franca; Cianfriglia, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Background The ability of cytosine deaminase (CD) to convert the antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into one of the most potent and largely used anticancer compound such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) raised considerable interest in this enzyme to model gene or antibody – directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT/ADEPT) aiming to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects) of cancer chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody in single chain fragment (scFv) format represents a powerful reagent to allow in in vitro and in vivo detection of CD expression in GDEPT/ADEPT studies. Results An enzymatic active recombinant CD from yeast (yCD) was expressed in E. coli system and used as antigen for biopanning approach of the large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Several scFvs were isolated and specificity towards yCD was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Further, biochemical and functional investigations demonstrated that the binding of specific scFv with yCD did not interfere with the activity of the enzyme in converting 5-FC into 5-FU. Conclusion The construction of libraries of recombinant antibody fragments that are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage, and the selection of phage antibodies against target antigens, have become an important biotechnological tool in generating new monoclonal antibodies for research and clinical applications. The scFvH5 generated by this method is the first human antibody which is able to detect yCD in routinary laboratory techniques without interfering with its enzymatic function. PMID:18783590

  6. Growth and characterization of iron scandium sulfide (FeSc2S4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, J. R.; Plumb, K. W.; Pasco, C. M.; Trump, B. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Koohpayeh, S. M.

    2016-11-01

    Here we report successful growth of mm scale single crystals of stoichiometric FeSc2S4. Single crystal X-ray diffraction yields a cubic structure, spacegroup Fd 3 ̅ m , with a=10.5097(2) Å at T=110(2) K consistent with previous literature on polycrystalline samples. Models fit to the data reveal no detectable antisite mixing or deviations from the ideal stoichiometry. Heat capacity and dc magnetization measurements on the single crystals match those of high quality powder specimens. The novel traveling solvent crystal growth method presented in this work opens the door to studies requiring sizable single crystals of the candidate spin-orbital liquid FeSc2S4.

  7. Characterization of perfluorinated cation-exchange membranes MF-4SC surface modified with halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A.; Afonin, D.; Kononenko, N.; Shkirskaya, S.

    2015-10-01

    The electrical conductivity and diffusion permeability through perfluorinated cation-exchange membranes MF-4SC (Russian analog of the Nafion-type membrane), whose surface is modified by nanotubes of halloysite using short exposures of low temperature microwave plasma, are theoretically investigated using the Nernst-Planck approach. The method of quantitative evaluation of physicochemical parameters (individual and averaged diffusion coefficients and averaged distribution coefficients of ion pairs in the membrane) of the systems `electrolyte solution - bi-layer ion-exchange membrane - water/electrolyte solution', which was proposed by us earlier, is further developed. The aforementioned parameters of modified MF-4SC/halloysite membranes were found using the least squares method. For this purpose we used electrical conductivity as well as diffusion permeability data experimentally obtained for NaCl and HCl solutions of different concentration. A new model of bi-layer membrane system can be used for refining the calculated results by taking into account the difference between co- and counter-ion diffusivities inside the membrane layers. We showed that grafting the layer of halloysite nanotubes onto the membrane surface noticeably affects the exchange capacity as well as the structural and transport characteristics of the original perfluorinated membrane. In particular, such a membrane may show weak asymmetry of diffusion permeability when its position inside a measuring cell is changed. Hybrid MF-4SC/halloysite membranes can thus be productively used in fuel cells and catalysis.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of highly c-textured Al(1-x)Sc(x)N thin films in view of telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M. A.; Bjurström, J.; Yantchev, V.; Katardjiev, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wurtzite AlN is a piezoelectric material with excellent electro-acoustic properties and is used for the fabrication of high frequency thin film micro-acoustic components, most notably filters, duplexers, resonators, etc. Its moderate electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt2) of 6%-7% is insufficient for applications requiring larger bandwidths. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate that AlN alloyed with Sc exhibits a substantially higher piezoelectric constant than pure AlN. This study aims at determining the main electro-acoustic parameters of Al(1-x)Sc(x)N in view of large bandwidth applications. To this end, highly c-textured Al(1-x)Sc(x)N thin films have been synthesized with relative Sc concentrations of up to 0,15. Subsequently, FBAR resonators were fabricated and characterized as a function of the Sc content. It is seen that kt2 increases linearly with the latter to a value of 12% for a Sc concentration of x=0,15, while the Q value decreases from 739 to about 348 in the same concentration range. Likewise, the TCF varies from -35,9ppm/°C to -39,8ppm/°C, while the dielectric constant increases from ɛ=10 to a value of 14,1 for x=0,15. Finally, the relative dielectric losses are seen to increase by approximately a factor of two.

  9. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.H.; Wiessner, M.; Albu, M.; Wurster, S.; Sartory, B.; Hofer, F.; Schumacher, P.

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides M2E15, a Strain Isolated from the Endosphere of Potato

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yanglei; de Jong, Anne; Spoelder, Jan; Elzenga, J. Theo M.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Bacillus mycoides M2E15, a bacterium isolated from potato endosphere. Analysis of the 6.08-Mbp draft genome sequence identified 6,386 protein-encoding sequences, including potential plant growth promoting genes. Specifically, genes for proteins involved in phosphate utilization, iron acquisition, and bacteriocin production were identified. PMID:26950325

  11. Characterization of the Native and Denatured Herceptin by ELISA and QCM using a High-Affinity Single Chain Fragment Variable (scFv) Recombinant Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuqin; Mernaugh, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Herceptin/Trastuzumab is a humanized IgG1κ light chain antibody used to treat some forms of breast cancer. A phage-displayed recombinant antibody library was used to obtain an scFv (designated 2B4) to a linear synthetic peptide representing Herceptin’s heavy chain CDR3. ELISAs and piezoimmunosensor/quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assays were used to characterize 2B4-binding activity to both native and heat denatured Herceptin. The 2B4 scFv specifically bound to heat denatured Herceptin in a concentration dependent manner over a wide (35–220.5 nM) dynamic range. Herceptin denatures and forms significant amount of aggregates when heated. UV-Vis characterization confirms that Herceptin forms aggregates as the temperature used to heat Herceptin increases. QCM affinity assay shows that binding stoichiometry between 2B4 scFv and Herceptin follows a 1:2 relationship proving that 2B4 scFv binds strongly to the dimers of heat denatured Herceptin aggregates and exhibits an affinity constant of 7.17 × 1013 M−2. The 2B4-based QCM assay was more sensitive than the corresponding ELISA. Combining QCM with ELISA can be used to more fully characterize non-specific binding events in assays. The potential theoretical and clinical implications of these results and the advantages of using QCM to characterize human therapeutic antibodies in samples are also discussed. PMID:22934911

  12. Surface Structure Spread Single Crystals ((SC)-C-4): Preparation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    de Alwis, A; Holsclaw, B; Pushkarev, V V; Reinicker, A; Lawton, T J; Blecher, M E; Sykes, E C. H.; Gellman, A J

    2013-02-01

    A set of six spherically curved Cu single crystals referred to as Surface Structure Spread Single Crystals (S{sup 4}Cs) has been prepared in such a way that their exposed surfaces collectively span all possible crystallographic surface orientations that can be cleaved from the face centered cubic Cu lattice. The method for preparing these S{sup 4}Cs and for finding the high symmetry pole point are described. Optical profilometry has been used to determine the true shapes of the S{sup 4}Cs and show that over the majority of the surface, the shape is extremely close to that of a perfect sphere. The local orientations of the surfaces lie within ±1{degree} of the orientation expected on the basis of the spherical shape; their orientation is as good as that of many commercially prepared single crystals. STM imaging has been used to characterize the atomic level structure of the Cu(111)±11{degree}-S{sup 4}C. This has shown that the average step densities and the average step orientations match those expected based on the spherical shape. In other words, although there is some distribution of step-step spacing and step orientations, there is no evidence of large scale reconstruction or faceting. The Cu S{sup 4}Cs have local structures based on the ideal termination of the face centered cubic Cu lattice in the direction of termination. The set of Cu S{sup 4}Cs will serve as the basis for high throughput investigations of structure sensitive surface chemistry on Cu.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of oxyanion (phosphate, sulphate) doped Ba2Sc2-yGayO5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. D.; Shin, J. F.; Slater, P. R.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of partial substitution of Ga for Sc in the oxyanion (phosphate, sulphate) containing perovskites, Ba2Sc2-xPxO5+x and Ba2Sc2-xSxO5+3x/2 with the samples analysed through a combination of X-ray diffraction, TGA, Raman spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. The results demonstrate that in both cases, Ga can be incorporated in place of Sc up to 40%. In order to accommodate the increasing Ga content, a reduction in the oxyanion content is required. Thus for the highest Ga content sample achieved, only 10% oxyanion incorporation was achieved giving endmember compositions of Ba2ScGa0.8P0.2O5.2 and Ba2ScGa0.8S0.2O5.3 for phosphate and sulphate doping respectively. While the Ga doping was shown to significantly improve the stability of the systems towards CO2 containing atmospheres, conductivity measurements showed a reduction in the conductivity with increasing Ga content.

  14. Chemical understanding of carbide cluster metallofullerenes: a case study on Sc2C2@C2v(5)-C80 with complete X-ray crystallographic characterizations.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroki; Lu, Xing; Iiduka, Yuko; Nikawa, Hidefumi; Mizorogi, Naomi; Slanina, Zdenek; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2012-02-15

    Little is known about the chemical properties of carbide cluster metallofullerenes (CCMFs). Here we report the photochemical reaction of a newly assigned CCMF Sc(2)C(2)@C(2v)(5)-C(80) with 2-adamantane-2,3-[3H]-diazirine (AdN(2), 1), which provides a carbene reagent under irradiation. Five monoadduct isomers (2a-2e), with respective abundances of 20%, 40%, 25%, 5%, and 10%, were isolated and characterized with a combination of experimental techniques including unambiguous single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Results show that the two Sc atoms of the bent Sc(2)C(2) cluster tend to move in most cases, whereas the C(2)-unit is almost fixed. Accordingly, it is difficult to explain the addition patterns by considering the strain and charge density on the cage with a fixed cluster, and thus a moving cluster may account for the addition patterns. These results show that the situation of CCMFs is more complicated than those in other metallofullerenes. Furthermore, a thermal isomerization process from 2b to 2c was observed, confirming that the most abundant isomer 2b is a kinetically favored adduct. Finally, it is revealed that the electronic and electrochemical properties of pristine Sc(2)C(2)@C(2v)(5)-C(80) have been markedly altered by exohedral modification.

  15. Theoretical prediction of the structures and properties of metal sulfide fullerene Sc2S@C80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Li-Hua; Lei, Dan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Sc2S@C80 has been detected but not been isolated and characterized. To investigate the structures and properties of Sc2S@C80, a density functional theory study on fullerene C80 and metallofullerene Sc2S@C80 was carried out. The calculations demonstrate that Sc2S prefers to be encapsulated inside D5h-C80 and C2v-C80, instead of the well-known Ih-C80. The two lowest-energy isomers of Sc2S@C80 may coexist in the soot. The calculations reveal that there exists strong covalent interaction between the cage and Sc2S cluster, suggesting Sc2S@C80 may have different properties from those usual C80-based metallofullerenes. Raman spectra are provided to help future experimental identification of Sc2S@C80.

  16. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    PubMed

    Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Amores, J; Prats-van der Ham, M; Sánchez, A; de la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, Á

    2016-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 17 antimicrobials against 41 Spanish caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) obtained from different specimens (milk, external auricular canal and semen) were determined using a liquid microdilution method. For half of the isolates, the MIC was also estimated for seven of the antimicrobials using an epsilometric test (ET), in order to compare both methods and assess the validity of ET. Mutations in genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, which have been recently described in Mmc, were investigated using PCR. The anatomical origin of the isolate had no effect on its antimicrobial susceptibility. Moxifloxacin and doxycycline had the lowest MIC values. The rest of the fluoroquinolones studied (except norfloxacin), together with tylosin and clindamycin, also had low MIC values, although the MMC obtained for clindamycin was higher than for the other antimicrobials. For all the aminoglycosides, spiramycin and erythromycin, a notable level of resistance was observed. The ET was in close agreement with broth microdilution at low MICs, but not at intermediate or high MICs. The analysis of the genomic sequences revealed the presence of an amino acid substitution in codon 83 of the gene gyrA, which has not been described previously in Mmc. PMID:27387734

  17. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. Results In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37°C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40–60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Conclusions Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells. PMID:25027643

  18. Molecular Characterization and Seroprevalence in Pigs of SC0806, a Cat Que Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiake; Wang, Jinglin; Wang, Lihua; Fu, Shihong; Li, Minghua; Zhao, Guoyan; Zhu, Wuyang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Cat Que virus (CQV), a Simbu serogroup virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae), was first isolated in 2004 from mosquitoes during surveillance of arbovirus activity in acute pediatric encephalitis in northern Vietnam. We report here the complete genome sequence of SC0806 isolated from mosquitoes (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) in Sichuan Province, China. Consistent with the genomic organization of Simbu serogroup viruses, the SC0806 genome comprises three RNA segments—a large (L) segment (6928 nucleotides) that encodes the 2261-amino-acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a medium (M) segment (4481 nucleotides) that encodes the 1433-amino-acid polyprotein, and a small (S) segment (984 nucleotides) that encodes a 234-amino-acid nucleocapsid protein and a 95-amino-acid nonstructural protein. The respective lengths of the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) and 3′-UTR of L, M, and S are 56 and 86, 43 and 136, and 44 and 238 nucleotides. Sequence (nucleotide and deduced amino acid) comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SC0806 was closely related to the reported Vietnam isolate CQV. This is the first time that CQV has been isolated in Sichuan Province, China. Anti-SC0806 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were found in pigs reared locally, indicating that CQV has formed a natural cycle in the local area. Surveillance of the distribution and pathogenicity of SC0806 should be strengthened. PMID:26186514

  19. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar choleraesuis field isolates and differentiation from homologous live vaccine strains suisaloral and SC-54.

    PubMed Central

    Weide-Botjes, M; Liebisch, B; Schwarz, S; Watts, J L

    1996-01-01

    Four independent molecular methods were used to characterize the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar choleraesuis live vaccine strains SC-54 and Suisaloral and to differentiate them from S. choleraesuis field isolates. Plasmid analysis revealed the presence of seven plasmid profiles. A virulence plasmid of 52-kbp was identified by hybridization with an spvB-spvC gene probe in each of the S. choleraesuis field isolates and in the Suisaloral vaccine strain, but not in the SC-54 vaccine strain. Ribotyping, performed with a gene probe that recognized 23S, 16S, and 5S rRNA genes, resulted in three closely related hybridization patterns. IS200 elements were not detected in the field isolates or in the two S. choleraesuis live vaccine strains. Macrorestriction analysis with the enzymes XbaI, SpeI, NotI, and SfiI differentiated the 29 S. choleraesuis strains included in this study into 10, 13, 8, and 13 different fragment patterns, respectively. While the Suisaloral vaccine strain showed a unique XbaI macrorestriction pattern, the fragment patterns of the SC-54 strain obtained with the different enzymes were shared by 2 to 18 S. choleraesuis field strains. A combination of plasmid analysis and macrorestriction analysis proved to be most suitable for the molecular typing of S. choleraesuis and the differentiation of both live vaccine strains from field isolates of this serovar. PMID:8880500

  20. Characterization of gingerol analogues in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, R.,).

    PubMed

    Swapna Sonale, R; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2014-11-01

    Organically grown ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) SC CO2 extract obtained at 280 bar and 40 °C and its column chromatographic fractions are characterised for its composition. The components in the extract and fractions are identified by HPLC and LC based MS and are used as standard for the estimation of gingerol analogues in the extract. HPLC and mass analysis of the extracts confirmed the various forms of gingerol constituents [4]-, [6]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-, [8]-, [10]-shogaols in ginger extracts. SC CO2 extract of organic ginger was found to show 6-gingerol around 25.97 % of total extract. The estimation of [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaols, [4]gingerol, [10]-gingerol and 6-gingediol content of the SC CO2 purified ginger extract was found to be 75.92 ± 1.14, 1.25 ± 0.04, 4.54 ± 0.04, 13.15 ± 0.30 and 0.37 ± 0.00 % respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the assay have shown 652 ± 0.37 mg TE/g and 3.68 ± 0.18 mg TE/100 g respectively, are significantly higher results with SC CO2 organic ginger extract. Paradol analogues are not detected in this study. Small quantities of [4]-, [10]gingediol and [6]-gingediacetate are also found in ginger extract.

  1. Characterization of gingerol analogues in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, R.,).

    PubMed

    Swapna Sonale, R; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2014-11-01

    Organically grown ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) SC CO2 extract obtained at 280 bar and 40 °C and its column chromatographic fractions are characterised for its composition. The components in the extract and fractions are identified by HPLC and LC based MS and are used as standard for the estimation of gingerol analogues in the extract. HPLC and mass analysis of the extracts confirmed the various forms of gingerol constituents [4]-, [6]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-, [8]-, [10]-shogaols in ginger extracts. SC CO2 extract of organic ginger was found to show 6-gingerol around 25.97 % of total extract. The estimation of [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaols, [4]gingerol, [10]-gingerol and 6-gingediol content of the SC CO2 purified ginger extract was found to be 75.92 ± 1.14, 1.25 ± 0.04, 4.54 ± 0.04, 13.15 ± 0.30 and 0.37 ± 0.00 % respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the assay have shown 652 ± 0.37 mg TE/g and 3.68 ± 0.18 mg TE/100 g respectively, are significantly higher results with SC CO2 organic ginger extract. Paradol analogues are not detected in this study. Small quantities of [4]-, [10]gingediol and [6]-gingediacetate are also found in ginger extract. PMID:26396335

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of SC-NTR: a subsidiary dye of allura red AC dye (FD&C red no. 40).

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Goda, Y; Noguchi, H; Yamada, T; Yoshihira, K; Takeda, M

    1994-01-01

    A major subsidiary dye in US certified Allura Red AC dye (FD&C Red No. 40) has been isolated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. The paper chromatographic properties of the isolated dye indicate that it is the dye designated as SC-NTR in a previous paper (Marmion 1971). Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated dye is consistent with the disodium salt of 6-hydroxy-5-(2-methoxy-5-methyl-3-sulphophenylazo)-2-naphthalen esulphonic acid, which is an azo-coupling product between the meta-isomer of cresidine-p-sulphonic acid (CSA) and Schaeffer's salt (SS).

  3. Isolation and Characterization of ScGluD2, a New Sugarcane beta-1,3-Glucanase D Family Gene Induced by Sporisorium scitamineum, ABA, H2O2, NaCl, and CdCl2 Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Wang, Zhuqing; Liu, Feng; Li, Zhu; Peng, Qiong; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39), commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181) from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted ScGluD2 protein was classified into subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase. Localization of the ScGluD2 protein in the plasma membrane was determined by tagging it with green fluorescent protein. The expression of ScGluD2 was more up-regulated in sugarcane smut-resistant cultivars in the early stage (1 or 3 days) than in the susceptible ones after being challenged by the smut pathogen, revealing that ScGluD2 may be involved in defense against the invasion of Sporisorium scitamineum. Transient overexpression of ScGluD2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced a defense response and exhibited antimicrobial action on the tobacco pathogens Pseudomonas solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, further demonstrating that ScGluD2 was related to the resistance to plant pathogens. However, the transcripts of ScGluD2 partially increased (12 h) under NaCl stress, and were steadily up-regulated from 6 to 24 h upon ABA, H2O2, and CdCl2 treatments, suggesting that ABA may be a signal molecule regulating oxidative stress and play a role in the salt and heavy metal stress-induced stimulation of ScGluD2 transcripts. Taken together, ScGluD2, a novel member of subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase, was a stress-related gene of sugarcane involved in plant defense against smut pathogen attack and salt and heavy metal stresses.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of ScGluD2, a New Sugarcane beta-1,3-Glucanase D Family Gene Induced by Sporisorium scitamineum, ABA, H2O2, NaCl, and CdCl2 Stresses.

    PubMed

    Su, Yachun; Wang, Zhuqing; Liu, Feng; Li, Zhu; Peng, Qiong; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39), commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181) from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted ScGluD2 protein was classified into subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase. Localization of the ScGluD2 protein in the plasma membrane was determined by tagging it with green fluorescent protein. The expression of ScGluD2 was more up-regulated in sugarcane smut-resistant cultivars in the early stage (1 or 3 days) than in the susceptible ones after being challenged by the smut pathogen, revealing that ScGluD2 may be involved in defense against the invasion of Sporisorium scitamineum. Transient overexpression of ScGluD2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced a defense response and exhibited antimicrobial action on the tobacco pathogens Pseudomonas solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, further demonstrating that ScGluD2 was related to the resistance to plant pathogens. However, the transcripts of ScGluD2 partially increased (12 h) under NaCl stress, and were steadily up-regulated from 6 to 24 h upon ABA, H2O2, and CdCl2 treatments, suggesting that ABA may be a signal molecule regulating oxidative stress and play a role in the salt and heavy metal stress-induced stimulation of ScGluD2 transcripts. Taken together, ScGluD2, a novel member of subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase, was a stress-related gene of sugarcane involved in plant defense against smut pathogen attack and salt and heavy metal stresses. PMID:27642288

  5. Isolation and Characterization of ScGluD2, a New Sugarcane beta-1,3-Glucanase D Family Gene Induced by Sporisorium scitamineum, ABA, H2O2, NaCl, and CdCl2 Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Wang, Zhuqing; Liu, Feng; Li, Zhu; Peng, Qiong; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39), commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181) from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted ScGluD2 protein was classified into subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase. Localization of the ScGluD2 protein in the plasma membrane was determined by tagging it with green fluorescent protein. The expression of ScGluD2 was more up-regulated in sugarcane smut-resistant cultivars in the early stage (1 or 3 days) than in the susceptible ones after being challenged by the smut pathogen, revealing that ScGluD2 may be involved in defense against the invasion of Sporisorium scitamineum. Transient overexpression of ScGluD2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced a defense response and exhibited antimicrobial action on the tobacco pathogens Pseudomonas solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, further demonstrating that ScGluD2 was related to the resistance to plant pathogens. However, the transcripts of ScGluD2 partially increased (12 h) under NaCl stress, and were steadily up-regulated from 6 to 24 h upon ABA, H2O2, and CdCl2 treatments, suggesting that ABA may be a signal molecule regulating oxidative stress and play a role in the salt and heavy metal stress-induced stimulation of ScGluD2 transcripts. Taken together, ScGluD2, a novel member of subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase, was a stress-related gene of sugarcane involved in plant defense against smut pathogen attack and salt and heavy metal stresses. PMID:27642288

  6. Cation transport mechanisms in Mycoplasma mycoides var. Capri cells. The nature of the link between K+ and Na+ transport

    PubMed Central

    Benyoucef, Mohammed; Rigaud, Jean-Louis; Leblanc, Gérard

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the links between the mechanisms of Na+, K+ and H+ movements in glycolysing Mycoplasma mycoides var. Capri cells. In the light of the results reported in the preceding paper [Benyoucef, Rigaud & Leblanc (1982) Biochem. J. 208, 529–538], we investigated certain properties of the membrane-bound ATPase of Mycoplasma cells, with special reference to its ionic requirements and sensitivity to specific inhibitors. Our findings show, first, that, although Na+ stimulated ATPase activity, K+ did not affect it, and, secondly, that NN′-dicyclocarboidi-imide and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) were potent inhibitors of the basal ATPase activity, which was unaffected by vanadate and ouabain. We also investigated the movements of Na+ and H+ under the experimental conditions applied to the study of the K+ uptake reported in the preceding paper, and found that when `Na+-loaded cells' previously equilibrated with 22Na+ were diluted in a sodium-free medium, addition of glucose induced a rapid efflux of 22Na+. This energy-dependent efflux was independent of the presence of KCl in the medium. Studies of the changes in internal pH by 9-aminoacridine fluorescence or [14C]methylamine distribution indicated that the movement of Na+ was coupled to that of protons moving in the opposite direction, a finding that supports the presence of an Na+/H+ antiport. When Na+-loaded cells are diluted in an Na+-rich medium the Na+/H+ antiport is still active, but cannot decrease the intracellular Na+ concentration. Under such conditions, net 22Na+ extrusion is specifically dependent on the presence of K+ in the medium. The present results and those derived from the study of K+ accumulation (the preceding paper) can be rationalized by assuming that Mycoplasma mycoides var. Capri cells contain two transport systems for Na+ extrusion: an Na+/H+ antiport and an ATP-consuming Na+/K+-exchange system. PMID:6219666

  7. Carbon Dioxide Activation by Scandium Atoms and Scandium Monoxide Molecules: Formation and Spectroscopic Characterization of ScCO3 and OCScCO3 in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingnan; Qu, Hui; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-01-28

    The reactions of carbon dioxide with scandium monoxide molecules and scandium atoms are investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy in solid neon. The species formed are identified by the effects of isotopic substitution on their infrared spectra as well as density functional calculations. The results show that the ground state ScO molecule reacts with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate complex ScCO3 spontaneously on annealing. The ground state Sc atom reacts with two carbon dioxide molecules to give the carbonate carbonyl complex OCScCO3 via the previously reported OScCO insertion intermediate on annealing. The observation of these spontaneous reactions is consistent with theoretical predictions that both the Sc + 2CO2 → OCScCO3 and ScO + CO2 → ScCO3 reactions are thermodynamically exothermic and are kinetically facile, requiring little or no activation energy. PMID:26738558

  8. Carbon Dioxide Activation by Scandium Atoms and Scandium Monoxide Molecules: Formation and Spectroscopic Characterization of ScCO3 and OCScCO3 in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingnan; Qu, Hui; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-01-28

    The reactions of carbon dioxide with scandium monoxide molecules and scandium atoms are investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy in solid neon. The species formed are identified by the effects of isotopic substitution on their infrared spectra as well as density functional calculations. The results show that the ground state ScO molecule reacts with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate complex ScCO3 spontaneously on annealing. The ground state Sc atom reacts with two carbon dioxide molecules to give the carbonate carbonyl complex OCScCO3 via the previously reported OScCO insertion intermediate on annealing. The observation of these spontaneous reactions is consistent with theoretical predictions that both the Sc + 2CO2 → OCScCO3 and ScO + CO2 → ScCO3 reactions are thermodynamically exothermic and are kinetically facile, requiring little or no activation energy.

  9. Beta-lactam biosynthesis in a gram-negative eubacterium: purification and characterization of isopenicillin N synthase from Flavobacterium sp. strain SC 12.154.

    PubMed Central

    Palissa, H; von Döhren, H; Kleinkauf, H; Ting, H H; Baldwin, J E

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence, localization, and extraction of isopenicillin N-synthase (IPNS) were investigated in the gram-negative low-level beta-lactam producer Flavobacterium sp. strain SC 12.154, which forms deacetoxycephalosporin and excretes the cephabacin 7-formamidocephalosporin. IPNS was detected with anti-IPNS antibodies raised against the Cephalosporium acremonium enzyme. The flavobacterium enzyme, whose molecular mass (38 kilodaltons) and cofactor requirements resemble those of the fungal and Streptomyces enzymes, is formed at the transition from growth to the stationary phase. It was extracted into the polyethylene glycol phase of a polyethylene glycol-Ficoll-dextran three-phase system and was purified by quaternary aminoethyl ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, covalent chromatography on cystamine-Sepharose, and fast-protein liquid chromatography on Mono Q. The enzyme was characterized with respect to sulfhydryl requirement, inhibition by disulfides and metal ions, pH and temperature dependence, and stimulation by polyethylene glycol and low Triton X-100 concentrations, as well as by several amino acids, including alpha-aminoadipic acid and cysteine. The Km for alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-D-valine was 0.08 mM. An inactive membrane-associated form of IPNS was detected together with a beta-lactamase active on isopenicillin N. The system has been suggested as a model for the study of endogenous functions of beta-lactams in bacteria. Images PMID:2793834

  10. An Amphiprotic Novel Chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides and Its Application in the Production of Chitooligomers with Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Nguyen, Anh Dzung; Pan, Po-Shen; Wang, San-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to produce a novel chitosanase for application in industries and waste treatment. The transformation of chitinous biowaste into valuable bioactive chitooligomers (COS) is one of the most exciting applications of chitosanase. An amphiprotic novel chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides TKU038 using squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium was retrieved from a Taiwan soil sample, which was purified by column chromatography, and characterized by biochemical protocol. Extracellular chitosanase (CS038) was purified to 130-fold with a 35% yield, and its molecular mass was roughly 48 kDa. CS038 was stable over a wide range of pH values (4-10) at 50 °C and exhibited an optimal temperature of 50 °C. Interestingly, the optimum pH values were estimated as 6 and 10, whereas CS038 exhibited chitosan-degrading activity (100% and 94%, respectively). CS038 had Km and Vmax values of 0.098 mg/mL and 1.336 U/min, separately, using different concentrations of water-soluble chitosan. A combination of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer data revealed that the chitosan oligosaccharides obtained from the hydrolysis of chitosan by CS038 comprise oligomers with multiple degrees of polymerization (DP), varying from 3-9, as well as CS038 in an endolytic fashion. The TKU038 culture supernatant and COS mixture exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities. The COS activities were dose dependent and correlated to their DP. The COS with high DP exhibited enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capability compared with COS with low DP. Furthermore, the COS exhibited inhibitory behavior on nitric oxide (NO) production in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, which was induced by Escherichia coli O111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The COS with low DP possesses a more potent anti-inflammatory capability to decrease NO production (IC50, 76.27 ± 1

  11. An Amphiprotic Novel Chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides and Its Application in the Production of Chitooligomers with Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Nguyen, Anh Dzung; Pan, Po-Shen; Wang, San-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to produce a novel chitosanase for application in industries and waste treatment. The transformation of chitinous biowaste into valuable bioactive chitooligomers (COS) is one of the most exciting applications of chitosanase. An amphiprotic novel chitosanase from Bacillus mycoides TKU038 using squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium was retrieved from a Taiwan soil sample, which was purified by column chromatography, and characterized by biochemical protocol. Extracellular chitosanase (CS038) was purified to 130-fold with a 35% yield, and its molecular mass was roughly 48 kDa. CS038 was stable over a wide range of pH values (4–10) at 50 °C and exhibited an optimal temperature of 50 °C. Interestingly, the optimum pH values were estimated as 6 and 10, whereas CS038 exhibited chitosan-degrading activity (100% and 94%, respectively). CS038 had Km and Vmax values of 0.098 mg/mL and 1.336 U/min, separately, using different concentrations of water-soluble chitosan. A combination of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer data revealed that the chitosan oligosaccharides obtained from the hydrolysis of chitosan by CS038 comprise oligomers with multiple degrees of polymerization (DP), varying from 3–9, as well as CS038 in an endolytic fashion. The TKU038 culture supernatant and COS mixture exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities. The COS activities were dose dependent and correlated to their DP. The COS with high DP exhibited enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capability compared with COS with low DP. Furthermore, the COS exhibited inhibitory behavior on nitric oxide (NO) production in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, which was induced by Escherichia coli O111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The COS with low DP possesses a more potent anti-inflammatory capability to decrease NO production (IC50, 76.27

  12. Aerodynamic Characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Two airfoils are used on the main rotor blade of the UH-60A helicopter, the SC1095 and the SC1094 R8. Measurements of the section lift, drag, and pitching moment have been obtained in ten wind tunnel tests for the SC1095 airfoil, and in five of these tests, measurements have also been obtained for the SC1094 R8. The ten wind tunnel tests are characterized and described in the present study. A number of fundamental parameters measured in these tests are compared and an assessment is made of the adequacy of the test data for use in look-up tables required by lifting-line calculation methods.

  13. Cloning and molecular characterization of the salt-regulated jojoba ScRab cDNA encoding a small GTP-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi-Aviv, Ela; Mills, David; Benzioni, Aliza; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2002-10-01

    Salt stress results in a massive change in gene expression. An 837 bp cDNA designated ScRab was cloned from shoot cultures of the salt tolerant jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis). The cloned cDNA encodes a full length 200 amino acid long polypeptide that bears high homology to the Rab subfamily of small GTP binding proteins, particularly, the Rab5 subfamily. ScRab expression is reduced in shoots grown in the presence of salt compared to shoots from non-stressed cultures. His6-tagged ScRAB protein was expressed in E. coli, and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein bound radiolabelled GTP. The unlabelled guanine nucleotides GTP, GTP gamma S and GDP but not ATP, CTP or UTP competed with GTP binding.

  14. Performance Assessment of the BluePoint MycoID Plus Kit for Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Including Rifampin- and Isoniazid-resistant Isolates, and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Jung-Yien; Chang, Tsung-Chain; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Yu, Chong-Jen; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the BluePoint MycoID plus kit (Bio Concept Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan), which was designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), rifampin- and isoniazid-resistant MTB, and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was first evaluated with 950 consecutive positive cultures in Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system (BACTEC, MGIT 960 system, Becton-Dickinson, Sparks) from clinical respiratory specimens. The discrepant results between kit and culture-based identification were finally assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and clinical diagnosis. The accuracy rate of this kit for identification of all Mycobacterium species was 96.3% (905/940). For MTB identification, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the kit were 99.7%, 99.3%, 99.0% and 99.8%, respectively. For rifampicin-resistant MTB identification, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the kit were 100.0%, 99.4%, 91.3%, and 100.0%, respectively, while the corresponding values of isoniazid-resistant MTB identification were 82.6%, 99.4%, 95.0%, and 97.6%, respectively. In identifying specific NTM species, the kit correctly identified 99.3% of M. abscessus (147/148) complex, 100% of M. fortuitum (32/32), M. gordonae (38/38), M. avium (39/39), M. intracellulare (90/90), M. kansasii (36/36), and M. avium complex species other than M. avium and M. intracellulare (94/94). In conclusions, the diagnostic value of the BluePoint MycoID plus kit was superior to culture method for recoveries and identification of NTM to species level. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of BluePoint MycoID plus kit in MTB identification was similar to conventional culture method with high accuracy rate of rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis identification. PMID:25938668

  15. Characterization of ScAP-23, a new cell line from murine subcutaneous adipose tissue, identifies genes for the molecular definition of preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Wu, Yu; Smas, Cynthia M

    2007-10-22

    The 3T3-L1 model of in vitro adipogenesis has provided key insights into the molecular nature of this process. However, given that 3T3-L1 are of an embryonic origin, it is not clear to what extent they represent adipogenesis as it occurs in white adipose tissue (WAT). With the goal of better defining preadipocytes and adipogenesis in WAT, we have generated a new cell culture model from adipocyte precursors present in C57BL/6 mouse subcutaneous WAT. ScAP-23 preadipocytes show fibroblastic morphology, and on treatment with dexamethasone, 3-methylisobutylxanthine, insulin, and indomethacin, convert to nearly 100% adipocyte morphology. ScAP-23 adipocytes contain abundant lipid droplets and express transcripts for PPAR gamma, C/EBP family, and SREBP-1c transcription factors, SCD1, aFABP, ATGL, GLUT4, FAS, LDL, and GPDH, and are insulin responsive. Differential screening of 1,176 genes using nylon DNA arrays identified 10 transcripts enriched in ScAP-23 adipocytes vs. preadipocytes and 26 transcripts enriched in ScAP-23 preadipocytes vs. adipocytes. Semiquantitative or real-time PCR analyses identified a common cohort of 14 transcripts markedly downregulated in both ScAP-23 and 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. These included catenin-beta1, chemokine ligand-2, serine or cysteine peptidase inhibitor f1, aurora kinase B, thrombospondin2, and solute carrier-7a5. Five of these transcripts (Ccl2, Serpinf1, Aurkb, Thbs2, and Slc7a5) demonstrated at least a twofold increase in WAT from obese (ob/ob) mice compared with that of wild-type mice. This suggests that comparative gene expression studies of ScAP-23 and 3T3-L1 adipogenesis may be particularly fruitful in identifying preadipocyte-expressed genes that play a role in adipose tissue physiology and/or pathophysiology. PMID:17609412

  16. {sup 45}Sc Solid State NMR studies of the silicides ScTSi (T=Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    SciTech Connect

    Harmening, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Fehse, Constanze M.; Sebastian, C. Peter; Poettgen, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    The silicides ScTSi (T=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) were synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The structures of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi were refined from single crystal diffractometer data. These silicides crystallize with the TiNiSi type, space group Pnma. No systematic influences of the {sup 45}Sc isotropic magnetic shift and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling parameters on various structural distortion parameters calculated from the crystal structure data can be detected. {sup 45}Sc MAS-NMR data suggest systematic trends in the local electronic structure probed by the scandium atoms: both the electric field gradients and the isotropic magnetic shifts relative to a 0.2 M aqueous Sc(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution decrease with increasing valence electron concentration and within each T group the isotropic magnetic shift decreases monotonically with increasing atomic number. The {sup 45}Sc nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants are generally well reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc-melting synthesis of silicides ScTSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal X-ray data of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 45}Sc solid state NMR of silicides ScTSi.

  17. Purification, characterization, and partial primary sequence of a major-maltotriose-producing alpha-amylase, ScAmy43, from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelmalek-Khedher, Imen; Urdaci, Maria Camino; Limam, Ferid; Schmitter, Jean Marie; Marzouki, M Nejib; Bressollier, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    A novel alpha-amylase (alpha-1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1), ScAmy43, was found in the culture medium of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum grown on oats flour. Purified to homogeneity, ScAmy43 appeared as a 43 kDa monomeric enzyme, as estimated by SDS-PAGE and Superdex 75 gel filtration. The MALDI peptide mass fingerprint of ScAmy43 tryptic digest as well as internal sequence analyses indicate that the enzyme has an original primary structure when compared with other fungal alpha- amylases. However, the sequence of the 12 N-terminal residues is homologous with those of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus kawachii amylases, suggesting that the new enzyme belongs to the same GH13 glycosyl hydrolase family. Assayed with soluble starch as substrate, this enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 4 and 55oC with an apparent Km value of 1.66 mg/ml and Vmax of 0.1 micromol glucose x min-1 x ml-1. ScAmy43 activity was strongly inhibited by Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ba2+, moderately by Fe2+, and was only weakly affected by Ca2+ addition. However, since EDTA and EGTA did not inhibit ScAmy43 activity, this enzyme is probably not a metalloprotein. DTT and beta-mercaptoethanol strongly increased the enzyme activity. Starting with soluble starch as substrate, the end products were mainly maltotriose, suggesting for this enzyme an endo action.

  18. Sc-Sc bonding in the new ternary phosphide ScNiP

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinke, H.; Franzen, H.F.

    1998-05-01

    The new phosphide ScNiP can be synthesized by arc-melting of ScP and Ni, or by arc-melting of Sc with NiP. The lattice constants, as obtained from the bulk sample, are a = 6.3343(8) {angstrom}, b = 3.7375(7) {angstrom}, c = 7.0917(8), and V = 167.89(4) {angstrom}{sup 3}. ScNiP crystallizes in the Co{sub 2}Si structure type. Although one might assign the trivalent state to Sc, corresponding to a formal ionic formula of Sc{sup 3+}Ni{sup {+-}0}P{sup 3{minus}}, the structure of ScNiP contains Sc-Sc bonds and shows weak metallic properties, as expected based on extended Hueckel calculations.

  19. Characterization and comparison of 1% at Yb-doped Lu2O3 and Sc2O3 ceramics as laser gain media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirri, A.; Toci, G.; Vannini, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first laser oscillation achieved on Yb-doped Sc2O3 and Lu2O3 ceramics with a level of doping as low as 1 at %, under quasi-continuous wave pumping at 968 nm. Ceramic samples reached comparable performances in terms of tunability ranges, which exceeds 41 nm, and laser output powers. In particular, with the former sample emitting at 1040.5 nm we measured a maximum output power of 2.2 W with a corresponding slope efficiency of η = 59%. The latter medium delivered 1.8 W with a slope of η = 45% at 1032.5 nm while at 1078 nm we measured 1.5 W with η = 34%. Finally, we report the measured level of the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) for both samples, which was found to be less than 0.1 mW at the maximum pump power.

  20. Epitaxial growth and piezoelectric characterization of the (1-x)BiScO{sub 3}-(x)PbTiO{sub 3} ultrathin film

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Youngsoo; Jin, Yeryeong; Kim, Bongju; Kwon, Daeyoung; Kim, Bog G.

    2011-03-15

    We studied ferroelectric properties of morphotropic phase boundary (1-x)BiScO{sub 3}-(x)PbTiO{sub 3} (BSPT, x = 0.64) epitaxial thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} (001). BSPT thin films with various thicknesses were deposited using off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputtering. By analyzing x-ray data of BSPT thin films with various thicknesses, we confirmed that films thinner than {approx}22 nm were in a strained state. Films thicker than {approx}22 nm were in a relaxed state because of the strain relaxation mechanism caused by misfit dislocation formation. Clear piezoresponses and polarization reversal phenomena can be observed in the ultrathin limit down to 8 nm through Piezo Force Microscope experiments. The piezoresponse data as a function of thickness correlates with the structural modification of thin films.

  1. Characterization and Functional Analysis of scFv-based Chimeric Antigen Receptors to Redirect T Cells to IL13Rα2-positive Glioma.

    PubMed

    Krenciute, Giedre; Krebs, Simone; Torres, David; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Dotti, Gianpietro; Li, Xiao-Nan; Lesniak, Maciej S; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is an attractive approach to improve outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). IL13Rα2 is expressed at a high frequency in GBM but not in normal brain, making it a promising CAR T-cell therapy target. IL13Rα2-specific CARs generated up to date contain mutated forms of IL13 as an antigen-binding domain. While these CARs target IL13Rα2, they also recognize IL13Rα1, which is broadly expressed. To overcome this limitation, we constructed a panel of IL13Rα2-specific CARs that contain the IL13Rα2-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) 47 as an antigen binding domain, short or long spacer regions, a transmembrane domain, and endodomains derived from costimulatory molecules and CD3.ζ (IL13Rα2-CARs). IL13Rα2-CAR T cells recognized IL13Rα2-positive target cells in coculture and cytotoxicity assays with no cross-reactivity to IL13Rα1. However, only IL13Rα2-CAR T cells with a short spacer region produced IL2 in an antigen-dependent fashion. In vivo, T cells expressing IL13Rα2-CARs with short spacer regions and CD28.ζ, 41BB.ζ, and CD28.OX40.ζ endodomains had potent anti-glioma activity conferring a significant survival advantage in comparison to mice that received control T cells. Thus, IL13Rα2-CAR T cells hold the promise to improve current IL13Rα2-targeted immunotherapy approaches for GBM and other IL13Rα2-positive malignancies. PMID:26514825

  2. Delayed formation of zero-valent selenium nanoparticles by Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 as a consequence of selenite reduction under aerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selenite (SeO32−) oxyanion shows severe toxicity to biota. Different bacterial strains exist that are capable of reducing SeO32− to non-toxic elemental selenium (Se0), with the formation of Se nanoparticles (SeNPs). These SeNPs might be exploited for technological applications due to their physico-chemical and biological characteristics. The present paper discusses the reduction of selenite to SeNPs by a strain of Bacillus sp., SeITE01, isolated from the rhizosphere of the Se-hyperaccumulator legume Astragalus bisulcatus. Results Use of 16S rRNA and GyrB gene sequence analysis positioned SeITE01 phylogenetically close to B. mycoides. On agarized medium, this strain showed rhizoid growth whilst, in liquid cultures, it was capable of reducing 0.5 and 2.0 mM SeO32− within 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The resultant Se0 aggregated to form nanoparticles and the amount of Se0 measured was equivalent to the amount of selenium originally added as selenite to the growth medium. A delay of more than 24 hours was observed between the depletion of SeO32 and the detection of SeNPs. Nearly spherical-shaped SeNPs were mostly found in the extracellular environment whilst rarely in the cytoplasmic compartment. Size of SeNPs ranged from 50 to 400 nm in diameter, with dimensions greatly influenced by the incubation times. Different SeITE01 protein fractions were assayed for SeO32− reductase capability, revealing that enzymatic activity was mainly associated with the membrane fraction. Reduction of SeO32− was also detected in the supernatant of bacterial cultures upon NADH addition. Conclusions The selenite reducing bacterial strain SeITE01 was attributed to the species Bacillus mycoides on the basis of phenotypic and molecular traits. Under aerobic conditions, the formation of SeNPs were observed both extracellularly or intracellullarly. Possible mechanisms of Se0 precipitation and SeNPs assembly are suggested. SeO32− is proposed to be enzimatically reduced to

  3. Final Project Report, DE-SC0001280, Characterizing the Combined Roles of Iron and Transverse Mixing on Uranium Bioremediation in Groundwater using Microfluidic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Finneran, Kevin; Werth, Charles; Strathmann, Timothy

    2015-01-10

    In situ bioremediation of U(VI) involves amending groundwater with an appropriate electron donor and limiting nutrients to promote biological reduction to the less soluble and mobile U(IV) oxidation state. Groundwater flow is laminar; mixing is controlled by hydrodynamic dispersion. Recent studies indicate that transverse dispersion along plume margins can limit mixing of the amended electron donor and accepter (such as U(VI) in remediation applications). As a result, microbial growth, and subsequently contaminant reaction, may be limited to these transverse mixing zones during bioremediation. The primary objective of this work was to characterize the combined effects of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology on the (bio)remediation of U(VI). Our underlying hypothesis was that U(VI) reaction in groundwater is controlled by transverse mixing with an electron donor along plume margins, and that iron bioavailability in these zones affects U(VI) reduction kinetics and U(IV) re-oxidation. Our specific objectives were to a) quantify reaction kinetics mediated by biological versus geochemical reactions leading to U(VI) reduction and U(IV) re-oxidation, b) understand the influence of bioavailable iron on U(VI) reduction and U(IV) re-oxidation along the transverse mixing zones, c) determine how transverse mixing limitations and the presence of biomass in pores affects these reactions, and d) identify how microbial populations that develop along transverse mixing zones are influenced by the presence of iron and the concentration of electron donor. In the completed work, transverse mixing zones along plume margins were re-created in microfluidic pore networks, referred to as micromodels. We conducted a series of experiments that allowed us to distinguish among the hydraulic, biological, and geochemical mechanisms that contribute to U(VI) reduction, U(IV) re-oxidation, and U(VI) abiotic reaction with the limiting biological nutrient HP042-. This systematic approach may lead to a

  4. Wurtzite structure Sc{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N solid solution films grown by reactive magnetron sputter epitaxy: Structural characterization and first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeglund, Carina; Birch, Jens; Bareno, Javier; Persson, Per O. A.; Wingqvist, Gunilla; Zukauskaite, Agne; Hultman, Lars; Alling, Bjoern; Czigany, Zsolt

    2010-06-15

    AlN(0001) was alloyed with ScN with molar fractions up to {approx}22%, while retaining a single-crystal wurtzite (w-) structure and with lattice parameters matching calculated values. Material synthesis was realized by magnetron sputter epitaxy of thin films starting from optimal conditions for the formation of w-AlN onto lattice-matched w-AlN seed layers on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and MgO(111) substrates. Films with ScN contents between 23% and {approx}50% exhibit phase separation into nanocrystalline ScN and AlN, while ScN-rich growth conditions yield a transformation to rocksalt structure Sc{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N(111) films. The experimental results are analyzed with ion beam analysis, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, together with ab initio calculations of mixing enthalpies and lattice parameters of solid solutions in wurtzite, rocksalt, and layered hexagonal phases.

  5. 45Sc Solid State NMR studies of the silicides Sc TSi ( T=Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmening, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Fehse, Constanze M.; Sebastian, C. Peter; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    The silicides Sc TSi ( T=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) were synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The structures of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi were refined from single crystal diffractometer data. These silicides crystallize with the TiNiSi type, space group Pnma. No systematic influences of the 45Sc isotropic magnetic shift and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling parameters on various structural distortion parameters calculated from the crystal structure data can be detected. 45Sc MAS-NMR data suggest systematic trends in the local electronic structure probed by the scandium atoms: both the electric field gradients and the isotropic magnetic shifts relative to a 0.2 M aqueous Sc(NO 3) 3 solution decrease with increasing valence electron concentration and within each T group the isotropic magnetic shift decreases monotonically with increasing atomic number. The 45Sc nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants are generally well reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code.

  6. Endohedral metallofullerene Sc3NC@C82: A theoretical prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Ya; Sun, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, Cui-Yan; Wang, Dong-Lai

    2014-10-01

    All nine IPR C82 isomers and two non-IPR C82 isomers (C2v(39705) and Cs(39663)) are considered to explore that which one has the more possibility of encapsulating Sc3NC cluster in the C82 fullerene. Significantly, the favorable binding energies and large HOMO-LUMO energy gaps suggest two non-IPR Sc3NC@C2v(39705)sbnd C82 and Sc3NC@Cs(39663)sbnd C82 should be found among the possible structures of Sc3NC@C82. Furthermore, Raman spectra and 13C NMR spectra have also been explored to assist future experimental characterization.

  7. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. PMID:27459520

  8. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements.

  9. 33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. 80.703 Section 80.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of the sand spit on...

  10. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium–Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes—Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80 and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the TiIV/TiIII Redox Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B.; Samoylova, Nataliya A.; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Balch, Alan L.; Popov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc–Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4C2@C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3C2@C80, isomers of Sc2C2@C82, and the family Sc2C2n (2n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3CH@C80. The Sc–Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2TiC@C2n (2n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2TiC2@C2n (2n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80, and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80, were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2TiC@Ih-C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2TiC- and Sc2TiC2-containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster–cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. PMID:27459520

  11. Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Timothy C; Ahnesjö, Anders; Lam, Kwok Leung; Li, X Allen; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Palta, Jatinder R; Sharpe, Michael B; Thomadsen, Bruce; Tailor, Ramesh C

    2009-11-01

    The concept of in-air output ratio (Sc) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of Sc. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of Sc. The in-air output ratio, Sc, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, Kp, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of Sc. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct Sc from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure Sc for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of Sc, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate Sc for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

  12. Electronic and optical properties of ScN and (Sc,Mn)N thin films deposited by reactive DC-magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Bivas; Naik, Gururaj; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Drachev, Vladimir P.; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Sands, Timothy D.

    2013-08-14

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is a rocksalt semiconductor that has attracted significant attention from various researchers for a diverse range of applications. Motivated by the prospect of using its interesting electronic structure for optoelectronic and dilute magnetic semiconductor applications, we present detailed studies of the electronic transport and optical properties of ScN and its alloys with manganese nitride (MnN). Our results suggest (a) dilute manganese doping in ScN compensates for the high n-type carrier concentrations arising due to oxygen impurities and (b) an n-type to p-type carrier type transition occurs at a composition between 5.8% and 11% Mn on Sc sites. In terms of its optical properties, our analysis clearly indicates direct and indirect bandgap absorption edges of ScN located at 2.04 eV and 1.18 eV, respectively. In addition to the direct gap absorption edge, (Sc,Mn)N samples also show Mn-defect induced electronic absorption. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature from ScN films exhibit a yellowish-green emission corresponding to direct gap radiative recombination. Direct gap recombination is not expected given the smaller indirect gap. A possible role of high excitation intensities in suppressing relaxation and recombination across the indirect bandgap is suspected. Raman spectroscopic and ellipsometric characterization of the dielectric permittivities of ScN and (Sc,Mn)N are also presented to assist in understanding the potential of ScN for optoelectronic applications.

  13. One-pot occurrence of two polymorphs of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F and their structural, spectroscopic and computational characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Manninger, Tanja; Perfler, Lukas; Többens, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    Single-crystal growth experiments in the system RbF–Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} resulted in the crystallization of two forms of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F within the same run. Basic crystallographic data of the two concomitant polymorphs at ambient conditions are as follows: phase I: space group I4/m, a=11.2619(3) Å, c=8.3053(4) Å, V=1053.36(6) Å{sup 3}, Z=4; phase II: space group P2{sub 1}/m, a=11.5085(6) Å, b=8.3805(3) Å, c=11.6750(6) Å, β=111.147(6)°, V=1050.19(9) Å{sup 3}, Z=4. The structures were determined by direct methods and refined to residuals of R(|F|)=0.0231 (phase I) for 516 and 0.0249 (phase II) for 2050 independent observed reflections with I>2σ(I). Phase I showed twinning by merohedry which was accounted for during the refinement process. Both compounds are based on multiple chains of [SiO{sub 4}]-tetrahedra forming closed columns or tubes. The multiplicity of the unbranched fundamental chains is two (for phase I) and four (for phase II), respectively. The periodicity of the multiple chains has a value of four in both modifications which is also reflected in similar translation periods along the chain directions (phase I: t{sub [001]}=8.31 Å; phase II: t{sub [010]}=8.38 Å). Alternatively, both polymorphs can be described as mixed octahedral–tetrahedral frameworks, which can be classified according to their polyhedral microensembles. A topological analysis of both networks is presented. Structural investigations have been supplemented by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The interpretation of the spectroscopic data including the allocation of the bands to certain vibrational species has been aided by DFT-calculations. - Graphical abstract: Mixed tetrahedral–octahedral framework of the tetragonal polymorph of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F. - Highlights: • We report the crystal structures of two polymorphs of Rb{sub 2}ScSi{sub 4}O{sub 10}F. • Both phases crystallized concomitantly in the same flux-growth experiment. • The

  14. Scandium carbides/cyanides in the boron cage: computational prediction of X@B80 (X = Sc2C2, Sc3C2, Sc3CN and Sc3C2CN).

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Liu, Chang; Hou, Qinghua; Li, Lanlan; Tang, Chengchun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-08-01

    As the first study on metal carbide/cyanide boron clusterfullerenes, the geometries, energies, stabilities and electronic properties of four novel scandium cluster-containing B80 buckyball derivatives, namely Sc2C2@B80, Sc3C2@B80, Sc3CN@B80 and Sc3C2CN@B80, were investigated by means of density functional theory computations. The rather favorable binding energies, which are very close to those of the experimentally abundant carbon fullerene analogues, suggest a considerable possibility to realize these doped boron clusterfullerenes. Their intracluster and cluster-cage bonding natures were thoroughly revealed by various theoretical approaches. In contrast to carbon clusterfullerenes, in which the encaged non-metal atoms mainly play a stabilizing role in the metal clusters, the encapsulated carbon and nitrogen atoms inside the B80 cage covalently bond to the boron framework, resulting in strong cluster-cage interactions. Furthermore, infrared spectra and (11)B nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were simulated and fingerprint peaks were proposed to assist future experimental characterization.

  15. Scandium carbides/cyanides in the boron cage: computational prediction of X@B80 (X = Sc2C2, Sc3C2, Sc3CN and Sc3C2CN).

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Liu, Chang; Hou, Qinghua; Li, Lanlan; Tang, Chengchun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-08-01

    As the first study on metal carbide/cyanide boron clusterfullerenes, the geometries, energies, stabilities and electronic properties of four novel scandium cluster-containing B80 buckyball derivatives, namely Sc2C2@B80, Sc3C2@B80, Sc3CN@B80 and Sc3C2CN@B80, were investigated by means of density functional theory computations. The rather favorable binding energies, which are very close to those of the experimentally abundant carbon fullerene analogues, suggest a considerable possibility to realize these doped boron clusterfullerenes. Their intracluster and cluster-cage bonding natures were thoroughly revealed by various theoretical approaches. In contrast to carbon clusterfullerenes, in which the encaged non-metal atoms mainly play a stabilizing role in the metal clusters, the encapsulated carbon and nitrogen atoms inside the B80 cage covalently bond to the boron framework, resulting in strong cluster-cage interactions. Furthermore, infrared spectra and (11)B nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were simulated and fingerprint peaks were proposed to assist future experimental characterization. PMID:27424658

  16. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  17. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  18. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  19. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  20. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  1. Synergistic capture of Clostridium botulinum Type A neurotoxin by scFv antibodies to novel epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Sean A.; Barr, John R.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Marks, James D.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    A non-immune library of human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for binding to the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A (Hc)] with the goal of identifying scFv to novel epitopes. To do this, an antibody-mediated labeling strategy was used in which antigen-binding yeast clones were selected after labeling with previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the Hc. Twenty unique scFv clones were isolated that bound Hc. Of these, three also bound to full-length BoNT/A toxin complex with affinities ranging from 5 nM to 170 nM. Epitope binning showed that the three unique clones recognized at least two epitopes that were distinct from one another and from the detection MAbs. After production in E. coli, the scFv were coupled to magnetic particles and tested for their ability to capture BoNT/A holotoxin using an Endopep-MS assay. In this assay, toxin captured by scFv coated magnetic particles was detected by incubation of the complex with a peptide containing a BoNT/A-specific cleavage sequence. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the ratio of intact peptide to cleavage products as evidence for toxin capture. When tested individually, each of the scFv showed a weak positive Endopep-MS result. However, when the particles were coated with all three scFv simultaneously, they exhibited significantly higher Endopep-MS activity, consistent with synergistic binding. These results demonstrate novel approaches toward the isolation and characterization of scFv antibodies specific to unlabeled antigen. They also provide evidence that distinct scFv antibodies can work synergistically to increase the efficiency of antigen capture onto a solid support.

  2. Single Step Stone-Wales Transformation Linking Two Thermodynamically Stable Sc2O@C78 Isomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pei; Li, Meng-Yang; Guo, Yi-Jun; Zhao, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Among the very recently reported dimetallic oxide fullerenes Sc2O@C2n (n = 35-47), a representative Sc2O@C78 still lacks of further characterizations. Herein, a systematical investigation on Sc2O@C78 has been performed by density functional theory combined with statistical thermodynamic studies. Two isolated pentagon rule (IPR) satisfying isomers, Sc2O@D3h(24109)-C78 and Sc2O@C2v(24107)-C78, are disclosed to possess prominent thermodynamic stabilities at the temperature region of fullerene formation. Significantly, these two structures are related by a single Stone-Wales transformation. Moreover, bonding critical points, bond orders, and delocalization indices have been analyzed to uncover covalent interactions in both isomers. In addition, (13)C NMR spectra and UV-vis-NIR adsorptions of the two stable structures are introduced to assist experimental identification and characterization in the future. PMID:26909549

  3. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1-x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (<0.5%). The performance of the two types of devices was also investigated and compared, using acoustofluidics as an example. The AlScN/Si SAW devices achieved much lower threshold powers for the acoustic streaming and pumping of liquid droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  4. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1‑x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (<0.5%). The performance of the two types of devices was also investigated and compared, using acoustofluidics as an example. The AlScN/Si SAW devices achieved much lower threshold powers for the acoustic streaming and pumping of liquid droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  5. A magnetron sputtered microcrystalline β-NiAl coating for SC superalloys. Part I. Characterization and comparison of isothermal oxidation behavior at 1100 °C with a NiCrAlY coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shaojun; Zhu, Shenglong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Fuhui

    2015-01-01

    A microcrystalline β-NiAl coating was prepared on a single-crystal (SC) superalloy substrate via magnetron sputtering and subsequent vacuum annealing. The grain sizes of the coating ranged from about 300 nm to 1 μm. A reference NiCrAlY coating, which was mainly comprised of γ‧-Ni3Al and α-Cr, was prepared by means of vacuum arc evaporation (VAE). Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out at 1100 °C in air for 50 h. Both coatings formed thin and adherent α-Al2O3 scales during tests, while the oxide scales on the bare superalloy primarily consisted of spinel (Ni,Co)Al2O4 with underlying α-Al2O3 scale. The parabolic rate constant of the NiAl-coated specimens was about one order of magnitude lower than that of the NiCrAlY coated specimens. After oxidation tests, only a small amount of γ‧ phase was detected at some columnar boundaries of the β-NiAl coating, and about 2/3 parts of the NiCrAlY coating transformed into γ phase which resolved the α-Cr precipitations, while an Al-depleted zone in thickness of about 10 μm formed beneath the TGO of the bare superalloy. Inter-diffusion zones and secondary reaction zones were observed on the specimens coated by either β-NiAl or NiCrAlY. The oxidation mechanism and microstructure evolvement of the specimens during high temperature exposures were discussed.

  6. Introduction to SC-Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, Victor

    2011-03-01

    A new type of potential for nucleus, which is different from Coulomb potential or Yukawa potential, is introduced. This new called Smarandache-Christianto potential may have effect for radius range within r = 5-10 fm. For experimental verification of this potential, we find possible applications in the context of Condensed Matter Nuclear reaction. According to Takahashi's research, it is more likely to get condensed matter nuclear reaction using cluster of deuterium (4D) rather than using D+D reaction (as in hot-fusion, in this process Coulomb barrier is very high). In recent work, Takahashi shows that in the TSC framework it is also possible to do CMNS reaction not only with DDDD, but also with DDDH, DDHH, DHHH, or HHHH, where the reaction can be different. In other words, TSC can be a mixture of heavy and light water (as in neutrosophic logic). More interestingly, his EQPET/TSC (tetrahedra symmetric condensate) model, Takahashi can predict a new potential called STTBA (sudden-tall thin barrier approximate) which includes negative potential (reverse potential) and differs from Coulomb potential. The SC-potential, which has sinusoidal form, can be viewed as a generalization of Takahashi's TSC/STTBA potential.

  7. Gradient Optimization for SC CW Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, William; Kneisel, Peter; Rode, Claus

    2003-05-01

    The proposed rare isotope accelerator (RIA) design consists of a normally conducting radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) section, a superconducting (SC) drift tube cavity section, a SC elliptical multi-cell cavity section and two charge strippers with associated charge state selection and beam matching optics. The SC elliptical section uses two or three multi-cell beta cavity types installed into cryomodules to span the energy region of about 84.5 MeV/nucleon up to 400 MeV/nucleon. This paper focuses on the gradient optimization of these SC elliptical cavities that provide a significant portion of the total acceleration to the beam. The choice of gradient coupled with the cavity quality factor has a strong affect on the overall cost of the accelerator. The paper describes the optimization of the capital and operating cost associated with the RIA elliptical cavity cryomodules.

  8. Hydrogenation studies on NdScSi and NdScGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tencé, Sophie; Mahon, Tadhg; Gaudin, Etienne; Chevalier, Bernard; Bobet, Jean-Louis; Flacau, Roxana; Heying, Birgit; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    NdScSi and NdScGe were synthesized from the elements via arc-melting and subsequent annealing. Their ordered La2Sb type structures, with space group I4/mmm, were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: a=428.94(6) and b=1570.5(3) pm, wR2=0.0395, 309 F2 values for NdScSi and a=431.2(1) and c=1581.3(5) pm, wR2=0.1220, 227 F2 values for NdScGe, with 11 variables per refinement. Hydrogen insertion was performed on both Nd-based intermetallics by solid/gas reaction. Hydrogen uptake keeps the pristine compound space group but yields an anisotropic expansion of the unit cell with a large increase of c (≈+7%) and a slight decrease of a (≈-1.7%) parameters. Hydrogen absorption at 350 °C and under 5 bar of H2 pressure shows that the hydride NdScSiH1.48(5) is formed. An in-situ neutron diffraction study during the deuteration of NdScSi reveals for the first time in a CeScSi-type compound, the possibility to fill two interstitial sites with deuterium atoms, leading to the composition NdScSiD1.5 for the deuteride adopting then the La2Fe2Se2O3-type structure. From magnetization measurements, we evidence that hydrogenation strongly reduces the Curie temperature of NdScSi (TC=175 K) and NdScGe (TC=194 K) since NdScSiH1.5 and NdScGeHx undergo a magnetic transition at 4 K and around 2 K, respectively.

  9. Magnetic properties of ErSc2N@C80, Er2ScN@C80 and Er3N@C80 fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Archana; Dantelle, Geraldine; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Watt, Andrew A. R.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

    2008-12-01

    The magnetic properties of ErScN@C, ErScN@C and ErN@C metallofullerenes are characterized in the temperature range 2 to 300 K up to a magnetic field of 7 T. The magnetic susceptibility of these fullerenes follows the Curie-Weiss law. The fitting parameters to the Curie-Weiss law provide an effective magnetic moment μ of Er ion in each of the fullerenes. The magnetic moment decreases with the increase in number of Er ions inside the cage. This is related to crystal-field effects, intramolecular interactions and the local quenching of the angular momentum of the ion within the fullerene cage.

  10. Sc3N and Sc2C2 encapsulated B40: Smarter than its carbon analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Esha V.; Roy, Debesh R.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed comparative investigation on the recently synthesised B40 and C40 along with their metal nitride (Sc3N)and carbide (Sc2C2) encapsulated endohedral fullerenes, is performed under density functional theory for the first time. The structures, electronic, thermodynamic and magnetic properties of all the considered compounds are explored in detail. The present study identifies borospherene (B40) and its encapsulated nitride (Sc3N@B40) and carbide (Sc2C2@B40) endohedral borofullerenes as the better candidates for future novel nano-applications compared to their carbon bucky ball analogues.

  11. Downregulation of the Musca domestica peptidoglycan recognition protein SC (PGRP-SC) leads to overexpression of antimicrobial peptides and tardy pupation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yifu; Tang, Ting; Gu, Jihai; Sun, Lingling; Gao, Xiaobin; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Xiaochun; Liu, Fengsong; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-10-01

    PGRP (peptidoglycan recognition protein) is a conserved protein family that recognizes the peptidoglycan in bacterial cell wall and causes the activation of various innate immune responses. Previous studies have reported that PGRP-SCs in Drosophila dampen the activation of Immune Deficiency (Imd) pathway to microbial infection, and participate in the lifespan extension of the insects. To facilitate understanding the function of PGRP-SCs from an evolutionary angle, we identified and functionally characterized the PGRP-SC gene in the housefly Musca domestica, a species that has adapted to a septic environment much harsher than the natural habitat of Drosophila. The gene designated as MdPGRP-SC was found most abundantly expressed in the 3rd instar larvae, and is expressed at this developmental stage predominantly in the gut. MdPGRP-SC was virtually unchanged in whole larvae after a septic injury at the second larval instar, while two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), diptericin and attacin, were upregulated in the first 24h but not later. Through dsRNA microinjection, MdPGRP-SC was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), and caused the significant increased expression of diptericin and attacin. The pupation of MdPGRP-SC-depleted larvae was severely suppressed compared to controls. Opposite to the expression trend of MdPGRP-SC, a spontaneous active expression of diptericin and attacin was found in pre-pupae but not in third instar larvae. Taken together, our study reveals that downregulation of MdPGRP-SC leads to the overexpression of the AMPs, and is involved in the larvae-to-pupa transition of housefly.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy control of the structural, optical, and electronic properties of ScN(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Arthur R.; AL-Brithen, Hamad A. H.; Ingram, David C.; Gall, Daniel

    2001-08-15

    Scandium nitride (001) oriented layers have been grown on magnesium oxide (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using a rf-plasma source and a scandium effusion cell. The Sc/N flux ratio is found to be critical in determining the structural, optical, and electronic properties of the grown epitaxial layers. A distinct transition occurs at the point where the Sc/N flux ratio equals 1, which defines the line between N-rich and Sc-rich growth. Under N-rich conditions, the growth is epitaxial, and the surface morphology is characterized by a densely packed array of square-shaped plateaus and four-faced pyramids with the terraces between steps being atomically smooth. The films are stoichiometric and transparent with a direct optical transition at 2.15 eV. Under Sc-rich conditions, the growth is also epitaxial, but the morphology is dominated by spiral growth mounds. The morphology change is consistent with increased surface diffusion due to a Sc-rich surface. Excess Sc leads to understoichiometric layers with N vacancies which act as donors. The increased carrier density results in an optical reflection edge at 1 eV, absorption below the 2.15 eV band gap, and a drop in electrical resistivity. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  13. 75 FR 43815 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace: Pickens, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... amend Class E airspace at Clemson, SC and establish Class E airspace at Pickens, SC (75 FR 13697) Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace: Pickens, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION:...

  14. 75 FR 13697 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pickens, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pickens, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION..., SC, to correct the airspace description and establish Class E airspace at Pickens, SC, to achieve...

  15. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost point on Cape Romain to the... northernmost extremity of Northeast Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Bull Island...

  16. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  17. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  18. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  19. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  20. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  1. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  2. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  3. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  4. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost point on Cape Romain to the... northernmost extremity of Northeast Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Bull Island...

  5. Sc20C60: a volleyballene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable.An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sc20C60: a Volleyballene_SI. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07784b

  6. Construction of multiform scFv antibodies using linker peptide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihua; Zheng, Cengjie; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Huirong; Wang, Zonghua

    2008-05-01

    Multiform single chain variable fragments (scFvs) including different length linker scFvs and bispecific scFv were constructed. The linker lengths of 0, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 15 amino acids between V(H) and V(L) of antideoxynivalenol (anti-DON) scFv were used to analyze the affinities of scFvs. The affinity constants of these scFvs increased when the linker was lower than 12 amino acids. The affinity constant would not change when the linker was longer than 12 amino acids. Fusion gene of anti-DON scFv and antizearalenone (anti-ZEN) scFv was also constructed through connection by a short peptide linker DNA to express a bispecific scFv. The affinity constants assay showed that the two scFvs of fusion bispecific scFv remained their own affinity compared to their parental scFvs. Competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect DON and ZEN in contaminated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples, and the results indicated that this bispecific scFv was applicable in DON and ZEN detection. This work confirmed that bispecific scFv could be successfully obtained, and might also have an application in diagnosing fungal infection, and breeding transgenic plants.

  7. Magnetic structure in Dy/Sc superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, F.; Flynn, C. P.; Beach, R. S.; Borchers, J. A.; Erwin, R. W.; Rhyne, J. J.

    1993-05-01

    We have investigated magnetic order in superlattices of Dy and Sc grown along the hcp c axis by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. Our neutron diffraction experiments reveal that individual Dy layers order ferromagnetically below Tc˜150 K. The magnetic coherence length along the growth direction is less than the Dy-layer thickness. Previous studies of rare-earth superlattices with Y or Lu as spacer layers have shown that magnetic coherence propagates through sufficiently thin nonmagnetic interlayers. This arises from the long-range exchange interaction that originates from nesting features in the Fermi surface of the spacer material. The lack of coupling in Dy/Sc superlattices reflects the very different Fermi surface of Sc, with much weaker nesting than Y and Lu.

  8. K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction) models instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. It enables the user to remove both position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability (e.g., for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution timescale of the variability for periodic variables and can be run on ASCII and FITS light curve files. Written in Python, this pipeline requires NumPy, SciPy, MPI4Py, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and George (ascl:1511.015).

  9. Sc20C60: a volleyballene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as "Volleyballene". Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (∼1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. PMID:26878201

  10. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  11. High-temperature deformation and microstructural analysis for Si3N4-Sc2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheong, Deock-Soo; Sanders, William A.

    1990-01-01

    It was indicated that Si3N4 doped with Sc2O3 may exhibit high temperature mechanical properties superior to Si3N4 systems with various other oxide sintered additives. High temperature deformation of samples was studied by characterizing the microstructures before and after deformation. It was found that elements of the additive, such as Sc and O, exist in small amounts at very thin grain boundary layers and most of them stay in secondary phases at triple and multiple grain boundary junctions. These secondary phases are devitrified as crystalline Sc2Si2O7. Deformation of the samples was dominated by cavitational processes rather than movements of dislocations. Thus the excellent deformation resistance of the samples at high temperature can be attributed to the very small thickness of the grain boundary layers and the crystalline secondary phase.

  12. Sc3CH@C80: selective (13)C enrichment of the central carbon atom.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Rosenkranz, Marco; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-05-01

    Sc3CH@C80 is synthesized and characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (45)Sc NMR. A large negative chemical shift of the proton, -11.73 ppm in the Ih and -8.79 ppm in the D5h C80 cage isomers, is found. (13)C satellites in the (1)H NMR spectrum enabled indirect determination of the (13)C chemical shift for the central carbon at 173 ± 1 ppm. Intensity of the satellites allowed determination of the (13)C content for the central carbon atom. This unique possibility is applied to analyze the cluster/cage (13)C distribution in mechanistic studies employing either (13)CH4 or (13)C powder to enrich Sc3CH@C80 with (13)C. PMID:27109443

  13. Sc3CH@C80: selective 13C enrichment of the central carbon atom†

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Katrin; Rosenkranz, Marco; Popov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    Sc3CH@C80 is synthesized and characterized by 1H, 13C, and 45Sc NMR. A large negative chemical shift of the proton, −11.73 ppm in the Ih and −8.79 ppm in the D5h C80 cage isomers, is found. 13C satellites in the 1H NMR spectrum enabled indirect determination of the 13C chemical shift for the central carbon at 173 ± 1 ppm. Intensity of the satellites allowed determination of the 13C content for the central carbon atom. This unique possibility is applied to analyze the cluster/cage 13C distribution in mechanistic studies employing either 13CH4 or 13C powder to enrich Sc3CH@C80 with 13C. PMID:27109443

  14. Wound-healing effect of micronized sacchachitin (mSC) nanogel on corneal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ray-Neng; Lee, Lin-Wen; Chen, Ling-Chun; Ho, Hsiu-O; Lui, Shiao-Chuan; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Su, Ching-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The extraction residue of the Ganoderma fruiting body, named sacchachitin, has been demonstrated to have the potential to enhance cutaneous wound healing by inducing cell proliferation. In this study, a nanogel formed from micronized sacchachitin (mSC) was investigated for the potential treatment of superficial chemical corneal burns. Reportedly, mSC has been produced successfully and its chemical properties confirmed, and physical and rheological properties characterized. An in vitro cell proliferation study has revealed that at the concentrations of 200, 300, and 400 μg/mL, mSC nanogel significantly increased Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) cell proliferation after 24 hours of incubation. In cell migration assay, migration of SIRC cell to wound closure was observed after 24 hours of incubation with the addition of 200 μg/mL mSC of nanogel. In an animal study, acceleration of corneal wound healing was probably due to the inhibition of proteolysis. In conclusion, the findings of this study substantiate the potential application of sacchachitin in the form of mSC nanogel for the treatment of superficial corneal injuries. PMID:22956870

  15. Electronic structure of Sc3N@C68

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Shojun; Ogasawara, Naoko; Ohta, Tomona; Yagi, Hajime; Miyazaki, Takafumi; Nishi, Tatsuhiko; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2013-06-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of non-IPR endohedral fullerene Sc3N@C68 are measured. A simulated spectrum generated from a geometry optimized structure calculated by the density functional theory reproduces the UPS very well. XPS chemical shift of Sc2p3/2 level and electron population analysis of Sc3N@C68 suggest the electronic configuration of (Sc3N)6+@C686-. The Sc2p3/2 and N1s levels of Sc3N@C68, Sc3N@C78 and Sc3N@C80 move toward lower binding energy in accordance with cage size contraction.

  16. Differences between the in vitro combinations of secretory component (SC) and immunoglobulin polymers (Ig) by enumeration of SC epitopes.

    PubMed

    Geneste, C; Mangalo, R; Iscaki, S

    1984-01-01

    The enumeration of the SC epitopes has been established on 125I-labelled free and combined SC, by binding to anti-SC coated beads, then by addition of 3H-labelled anti-SC Fab' fragments of various specificities. The number of moles of Fab' fragments found on the beads increases in relation to the introduced amount. The extrapolation to an infinite concentration of added Fab' fragments gives the maximal theoretical accessible number of SC epitopes. The number of hidden epitopes (cryptotopes) is established by subtracting the total number found on sIgA, IgA-SC and IgM-SC from those found for free SC. These values are confirmed with Fab' fragments specific for the inaccessible determinant of SC. There are 4 cryptotopes in the case of sIgA, 3 for IgA1-SC, 2 for dimer IgA-SC and only 1 for IgM-SC (polyclonal or monoclonal). Thus the in vitro combinations of SC with polyclonal IgA dimers are different from the in vitro combinations with polyclonal or monoclonal IgM. The structural implications of these differences are discussed.

  17. Inoculation with Metal-Mobilizing Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. SC2b and Its Role in Rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain SC2b was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sedum plumbizincicola grown in lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mine soils and characterized as Bacillus sp. based on (1) morphological and biochemical characteristics and (2) partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Strain SC2b exhibited high levels of resistance to cadmium (Cd) (300 mg/L), Zn (730 mg/L), and Pb (1400 mg/L). This strain also showed various plant growth-promoting (PGP) features such as utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, solubilization of phosphate, and production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore. The strain mobilized high concentration of heavy metals from soils and exhibited different biosorption capacity toward the tested metal ions. Strain SC2b was further assessed for PGP activity by phytagar assay with a model plant Brassica napus. Inoculation of SC2b increased the biomass and vigor index of B. napus. Considering such potential, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of inoculating the metal-resistant PGPB SC2b on growth and uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by S. plumbizincicola in metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Inoculation with SC2b elevated the shoot and root biomass and leaf chlorophyll content of S. plumbizincicola. Similarly, plants inoculated with SC2b demonstrated markedly higher Cd and Zn accumulation in the root and shoot system, indicating that SC2b enhanced Cd and Zn uptake by S. plumbizincicola through metal mobilization or plant-microbial mediated changes in chemical or biological soil properties. Data demonstrated that the PGPB Bacillus sp. SC2b might serve as a future biofertilizer and an effective metal mobilizing bioinoculant for rhizoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  18. Inoculation with Metal-Mobilizing Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. SC2b and Its Role in Rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain SC2b was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sedum plumbizincicola grown in lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mine soils and characterized as Bacillus sp. based on (1) morphological and biochemical characteristics and (2) partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Strain SC2b exhibited high levels of resistance to cadmium (Cd) (300 mg/L), Zn (730 mg/L), and Pb (1400 mg/L). This strain also showed various plant growth-promoting (PGP) features such as utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, solubilization of phosphate, and production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore. The strain mobilized high concentration of heavy metals from soils and exhibited different biosorption capacity toward the tested metal ions. Strain SC2b was further assessed for PGP activity by phytagar assay with a model plant Brassica napus. Inoculation of SC2b increased the biomass and vigor index of B. napus. Considering such potential, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of inoculating the metal-resistant PGPB SC2b on growth and uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by S. plumbizincicola in metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Inoculation with SC2b elevated the shoot and root biomass and leaf chlorophyll content of S. plumbizincicola. Similarly, plants inoculated with SC2b demonstrated markedly higher Cd and Zn accumulation in the root and shoot system, indicating that SC2b enhanced Cd and Zn uptake by S. plumbizincicola through metal mobilization or plant-microbial mediated changes in chemical or biological soil properties. Data demonstrated that the PGPB Bacillus sp. SC2b might serve as a future biofertilizer and an effective metal mobilizing bioinoculant for rhizoremediation of metal polluted soils. PMID:26167758

  19. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654) Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY... establishes Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace, Incorporation...

  20. 76 FR 56099 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC AGENCY... July 25, 2011, that amends Class E airspace at Orangeburg Municipal Airport, Orangeburg, SC. DATES...), amends Class E airspace at Orangeburg Municipal Airport, Orangeburg, SC. A typographical error was...

  1. 49 CFR 372.205 - Charleston, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charleston, S.C. 372.205 Section 372.205... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.205 Charleston, S.C. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Charleston, S.C., within which transportation by motor vehicle in interstate or...

  2. Purification and refolding of anti-T-antigen single chain antibodies (scFvs) expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Koyama, Tsubasa; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-02-01

    T-antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-1-Ser/Thr) is an oncofetal antigen that is commonly expressed as a carbohydrate determinant in many adenocarcinomas. Since it is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, production of recombinant antibodies specific for T-antigen could lead to the development of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Previously, we isolated and characterized 11 anti-T-antigen phage clones from a phage library displaying human single-chain antibodies (scFvs) and purified one scFv protein, 1G11. More recently, we purified and characterized 1E8 scFv protein using a Drosophila S2 expression system. In the current study, four anti-T-antigen scFv genes belonging to Groups 1-4 were purified from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Inclusion bodies isolated from E. coli cells were denatured in 3.5 M Gdn-HCl. Solubilized His-tagged scFv proteins were purified using Ni(2+)-Sepharose column chromatography in the presence of 3.5 M Gdn-HCl. Purified scFv proteins were refolded according to a previously published method of step-wise dialysis. Two anti-T-antigen scFv proteins, 1E6 and 1E8 that belong to Groups 1 and 2, respectively, were produced in sufficient amounts, thus allowing further characterization of their binding activity with T-antigen. Specificity and affinity constants determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), respectively, provided evidence that both 1E8 and 1E6 scFv proteins are T-antigen specific and suggested that 1E8 scFv protein has a higher affinity for T-antigen than 1E6 scFv protein.

  3. 77 FR 22190 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbia, SC, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbia, SC, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at Columbia, SC, by removing Corporate Airport...

  4. Microstructural investigations on as-cast and annealed Al-Sc and Al-Sc-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lohar, A.K.; Mondal, B.; Rafaja, D.; Klemm, V.; Panigrahi, S.C.

    2009-11-15

    Al-Sc and Al-Sc-Zr alloys containing 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 wt.% Sc and 0.15 wt.% Zr were investigated using optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The phase composition of the alloys and the morphology of precipitates that developed during solidification in the sand casting process and subsequent thermal treatment of the samples were studied. XRD analysis shows that the weight percentage of the Al{sub 3}Sc/Al{sub 3}(Sc, Zr) precipitates was significantly below 1% in all alloys except for the virgin Al0.5Sc0.15Zr alloy. In this alloy the precipitates were observed as primary dendritic particles. In the binary Al-Sc alloys, ageing at 470 deg. C for 24 h produced precipitates associated with dislocation networks, whereas the precipitates in the annealed Al-Sc-Zr alloys were free of interfacial dislocations except at the lowest content of Sc. Development of large incoherent precipitates during precipitation heat treatment reduced hardness of all the alloys studied. Growth of the Al{sub 3}Sc/Al{sub 3}(Sc, Zr) precipitates after heat treatment was less at low Sc content and in the presence of Zr. Increase in hardness was observed after heat treatment at 300 deg. C in all alloys. There is a small difference in hardness between binary and ternary alloys slow cooled after sand casting.

  5. Rich structural chemistry in scandium selenium/tellurium oxides: mixed-valent selenite-selenates, Sc2(SeO3)2(SeO4) and Sc2(TeO3)(SeO3)(SeO4), and ternary tellurite, Sc2(TeO3)3.

    PubMed

    Song, Seung Yoon; Lee, Dong Woo; Ok, Kang Min

    2014-07-01

    Both single crystals and pure bulk phases of three new scandium selenium/tellurium oxides, Sc2(SeO3)2(SeO4), Sc2(TeO3)(SeO3)(SeO4), and Sc2(TeO3)3, have been synthesized through hydrothermal and solid-state reactions. X-ray diffractions were used to determine the structures and confirm the phase purities of the reported materials. Isostructural Sc2(SeO3)2(SeO4) and Sc2(TeO3)(SeO3)(SeO4) reveal three-dimensional frameworks with ScO7 pentagonal bipyramids, SeO3 (and TeO3) trigonal pyramids, and SeO4 tetrahedra. A novel ternary scandium tellurite, Sc2(TeO3)3, also shows a three-dimensional framework that is composed of ScO6 octahedra, ScO7-capped octahedra, and TeO3 trigonal pyramids. All three materials accommodate local asymmetric coordination moieties owing to the lone pairs on Se(4+) and Te(4+) cations. The effect of coordination environments of constituent cations on the frameworks, dimensionalities, and centricities of products is discussed. Thorough characterizations including elemental analyses, infrared and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies, thermal analyses, and dipole moment calculations for the reported materials are reported. Crystal data: Sc2(SeO3)2(SeO4), monoclinic, space group P21/c (No. 14), a = 6.5294(2) Å, b = 10.8557(4) Å, c = 12.6281(6) Å, β = 103.543(3)°, V = 870.21(6) Å(3), and Z = 4; Sc2(TeO3)(SeO3)(SeO4), monoclinic, space group P21/c (No. 14), a = 6.5345(12) Å, b = 10.970(2) Å, c = 12.559(2) Å, β = 102.699(10)°, V = 878.3(6) Å(3), and Z = 4; Sc2(TeO3)3, monoclinic, space group P21/n (No. 14), a = 5.2345(3) Å, b = 24.3958(15) Å, c = 6.8636(4) Å, β = 106.948(2)°, V = 838.42(9) Å(3), and Z = 4.

  6. Theoretical Insight into Sc2O@C84: Interplay between Small Cluster and Large Carbon Cage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi-Jun; Zhao, Xiang; Zhao, Pei; Yang, Tao

    2015-10-15

    Very recently, a series of endohedral fullerenes Sc2O@C2n (n = 35-47) were facilely produced. However, only two of them have been further characterized so far. Theoretically, we studied another discandium oxide endohedral fullerene without any characterizations, Sc2O@C84, which is the second most-abundant species in terms of relative heights of all mass spectrum peaks. Two thermodynamically stable isomers with isolated pentagon rule-obeying cages were found, namely, Sc2O@C2v(51575)-C84 and Sc2O@C1(51580)-C84. This is the first case that an endohedral fullerene containing the C2v(51575)-C84 cage acts as the lowest-energy isomer, and it is the first report of a clusterfullerene containing the C1(51580)-C84 cage. The endohedral Sc2O cluster can keep its ideal structure after encapsulation, while both C84 cages have deformed dramatically. Orbital analysis suggests that nucleophilic and oxidization reactions of both isomers should take place on the cage, while regioselectivity of Sc2O@C2v(51575)-C84 and Sc2O@C1(51580)-C84 is different due to their different characteristics of the highest occupied orbital distribution. Two-dimensional electron localization function and Laplacian of electron density maps unambiguously indicate strong electrostatic interactions exist between one scandium atom and the oxygen one. Meanwhile, overlaps of occupied metal atom orbitals and the cage ones along with Mayer bond order analysis identify that covalent interactions between a scandium atom and each C84 cage cannot be neglected. At last, (13)C NMR, UV-vis-NIR, and IR spectra of both Sc2O@C84 isomers were simulated theoretically. Because of their structural difference, all spectra between two isomers are significantly divergent. Consequently, these spectra are helpful to distinguish Sc2O@C2v(51575)-C84 and Sc2O@C1(51580)-C84 in further experimental characterizations. PMID:26390279

  7. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of TIG and FSW Joints of a New Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guofu; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Dan; Deng, Ying; Lu, Liying; Yin, Zhimin

    2016-04-01

    A new Al-5.8%Mg-0.4%Mn-0.25%Sc-0.10%Zr (wt.%) alloy was successfully welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and friction stir welding (FSW) techniques, respectively. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated by microhardness measurements, tensile tests, and microscopy methods. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to failure are 358, 234 MPa, and 27.6% for TIG welded joint, and 376, 245 MPa and 31.9% for FSW joint, respectively, showing high strength and superior ductility. The TIG welded joint fails in the heat-affected zone and the fracture of FSW joint is located in stirred zone. Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy is characterized by lots of dislocation tangles and secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) particles. The superior mechanical properties of the TIG and FSW joints are mainly derived from the Orowan strengthening and grain boundary strengthening caused by secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) nano-particles (20-40 nm). For new Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy, the positive effect from secondary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles in the base metal can be better preserved in FSW joint than in TIG welded joint.

  8. Thermodynamics of Sc-H and Sc-D Systems: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiao-qiu; Tang, Tao; Ao, Bing-yun; Luo, De-li; Sang, Ge; Zhu, Hong-zhi

    2013-04-01

    The pressure composition isotherms ( p- c-T) of Sc-H and Sc-D systems have been experimentally measured using the PVT method in the same work. The enthalpies and entropies are extracted from van't Hoff plots and compared with the literature values. The results show that the enthalpy and entropy for hydrogen absorption are in good agreement with the data reported by Manchester et al. (J Phase Equilib 18(2):194-205, 1997), while those for deuterium absorption are in variance with the data reported by Wu et al. (J Fusion Energ, 2012). First principles calculations further prove that the thermodynamic data of Sc-D system reported by us are more reasonable.

  9. Expression of sclerostin scFv and the effect of sclerostin scFv on healing of osteoporotic femur fracture in rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Ni, Jie; Hou, Yu; Ding, Lixiang; Zhang, Licheng; Jiang, Hua

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease characterized by low bone mass with deterioration of the bony microstructure which leads to both bone brittleness and increased risk of fracture. Sclerostin is a protein encoded by the SOST gene which is specifically expressed in osteocyte. Monoclonal antibodies of sclerostin can promote bone formation by antagonizing its inhibitory action. However, the effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies to exert such effects are limited by the large molecular mass and high immunogenicity. Here, we report that we purified a high immune affinity, single-chain antibody of SOST: SOST-single-chain Fv (scFv). Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of the variable regions of the heavy- and light-chain gene from a secretory anti-SOST antibody was performed. Animal experiments showed that SOST-scFv promoted bone healing in a rat model of osteoporosis.

  10. Structure, chemical bonding, and 45Sc solid state NMR of Sc 2RuSi 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmening, Thomas; Al Alam, Adel; Matar, Samir F.; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2009-07-01

    The silicide Sc 2RuSi 2 was synthesized from the elements by arc-melting. The structure was refined on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Zr 2CoSi 2 type, C2/ m, a = 1004.7 (2), b = 406.8 (1), c = 946.6 (2) pm, β = 117.95 (2), w R2 = 0.0230, 743 F2 values, and 32 variables. The structure consists of a rigid three-dimensional [RuSi 2] network in which the two crystallographically independent scandium atoms fill larger cages of coordination numbers 16 and 15, respectively. The [RuSi 2] network shows short Ru-Si distances (234-247 pm) and two different Si 2 pairs: Si1-Si1 at 247 and Si2-Si2 at 243 pm. Each silicon atom has trigonal prismatic Sc 6 (for Si2) or Sc 4Ru 2 (for Si1) coordination. These building units are condensed via common edges and faces. The various Sc-Sc distances between the prisms range from 327 to 361 pm. From electronic structure investigation within DFT, chemical bonding shows a major role of Ru-Si bonding and the presence of strong electron localization around Si-Si pairs pointing to a polyanionic silicide network [RuSi 2] δ-. The 45Sc MAS-NMR spectra recorded at 11.7 and 9.4 T clearly resolve the two distinct scandium sites. The large electric field gradients present at both scandium sites result in typical line shapes arising from second-order quadrupole perturbation effects.

  11. Sc2O@Td 19151)-C76 : hindered cluster motion inside a tetrahedral carbon cage probed by crystallographic and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Hao, Yajuan; Abella, Laura; Tang, Qiangqiang; Li, Xiaohong; Wan, Yingbo; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Poblet, Josep M; Feng, Lai; Chen, Ning

    2015-07-27

    A new cluster fullerene, Sc2 O@Td (19151)-C76 , has been isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry, UV/Vis/NIR absorption, (45) Sc NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystallographic analysis unambiguously assigned the cage structure as Td (19151)-C76 , which is the first tetrahedral fullerene cage characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This study also demonstrated that the Sc2 O cluster has a much smaller ScOSc angle than that of Sc2 O@Cs (6)-C82 and the Sc2 O unit is fully ordered inside the Td (19151)-C76 cage. Computational studies further revealed that the cluster motion of the Sc2 O is more restrained in the Td (19151)-C76 cage than that in the Cs (6)-C82 cage. These results suggest that cage size affects not only the shapes but also the cluster motion inside fullerene cages. PMID:26088830

  12. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process. PMID:26764487

  13. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Aerin; Shin, Jung Won; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process.

  14. Spectroscopy of {sup 52,53}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Gelin, M.; Mittig, W.; Mukherjee, G.; Rejmund, F.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Poves, A.; Theisen, Ch.

    2009-01-15

    Excited states of neutron-rich odd-A and odd-odd Sc isotopes, populated in deep inelastic multinucleon transfer reactions, induced by a {sup 238}U beam on a thin {sup 48}Ca target, have been identified. A strong feeding of both yrast and nonyrast states in such a reaction is illustrated using a combination of a large efficiency spectrometer and a {gamma} detector array. The structure of the populated states is interpreted in terms of the role of the valence proton and neutrons and compared to shell model calculations in the full pf shell.

  15. Measurement of Low-Lying States in {sup 40}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    V. Y. Hansper; A. E. Champagne; C. Iliadis; S. E. Hale; D. C. Powell

    1999-12-31

    In explosive hydrogen burning nucleosynthesis material is processed via the proton capture sequence {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc(p,{gamma}){sup 41}Ti. It has been predicted that the isotope {sup 39}Ca represents a waiting point for a continuous reaction flow. Therefore, its reaction rate is of interest. The {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc reaction rate is determined by three resonances corresponding to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited states of {sup 40}Sc. Improved nuclear structure information of the low-lying levels of {sup 40}Sc is necessary to reduce uncertainties in the reaction rate of {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc. Results from a current measurement of {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,t){sup 40}Sc at TUNL indicate that the 4th excited state is a doublet and further investigation is warranted.

  16. Measurement of Low-lying states in {sup 40}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Hansper, V. Y.; Champagne, A. E.; Iliadis, C.; Hale, S. E.; Powell, D. C.

    1999-11-16

    In explosive hydrogen burning nucleosynthesis material is processed via the proton capture sequence {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc(p,{gamma}){sup 41}Ti. It has been predicted that the isotope {sup 39}Ca represents a waiting point for a continuous reaction flow. Therefore, its reaction rate is of interest. The {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc reaction rate is determined by three resonances corresponding to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited states of {sup 40}Sc. Improved nuclear structure information of the low-lying levels of {sup 40}Sc is necessary to reduce uncertainties in the reaction rate of {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc. Results from a current measurement of {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,t){sup 40}Sc at TUNL indicate that the 4th excited state is a doublet and further investigation is warranted.

  17. IHAVS NITE Hawk SC targeting FLIR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Bob

    1996-06-01

    Loral Aeronutronic is supporting the IHAVS project by integrating Navy-furnished NITE Hawk Targeting FLIR Pod (AN/AAS-38B) Weapons Replaceable Assemblies (WRAs) with Loral-furnished aft section and interface module WRAs for flight testing on a TAV-8B. Loral developed an aft section WRA without the conformal fairing required for installation on an F/A-18 and incorporated a self-cooling system. WRAs from the AN/AAS-38B pod are integrated in this aft section to provide a pod which is functionally the same as the F/A-18 system yet can be installed on any aircraft. Loral calls this derivative of the F/A-18 NITE Hawk pod the NITE Hawk Self-Cooled (SC) pod. The NITE Hawk SC has also has also been flight demonstrated on the F-15, F-16 and F-14 platforms and is the baseline laser targeting system on the Spanish Air Force's EF-2000 aircraft. The Loral-developed interface module WRA provides the capability to translate messages from any aircraft mission computer into the particular format design for the F/A-18 controller processor WRA. This maintains maximum commonality to the AN/AAS-38B WRAs. The interface module provides for signal processing of the FLIR video and includes the capability to electronically zoom, freeze, and format the video output into any standard required by the aircraft.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Assessing Sc1 for GCSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that investigations that `fit' the National Curriculum or examination board criteria are few in number. The fair testing emphasis means that pupils all over the country are finding out what affects the rate of a chemical reaction, the rate of photosynthesis or, in the case of Physics, the resistance of a wire. This book focuses on nine of the most common Sc1 investigations and how to prepare for them, manage and assess them. The author, a GCSE examiner, has turned his expertise into a handbook for improving Sc1 performance in the classroom. He has produced a book that would be extremely useful to both newly qualified teachers and experienced teachers. The first aim of the book, however, is to explain the requirements of Sc1. This is done comprehensively with examples of what the jargon means in practice. By breaking down the elements of planning, obtaining evidence, analysing evidence and evaluating, it is easy to see the subtleties of the mark descriptors. At first glance there seems to be little difference between the type of scientific knowledge needed for planning at level 6 and level 8. However, the level 8 statement specifies `detailed' scientific knowledge and understanding, which would mean a student should use equations from physics or symbolic chemical equations to support their arguments. One of the most useful sections in the book details the marking problems that can arise with some investigations. For example, in an investigation into electromagnets it is difficult for students to provide sufficient relevant scientific theory to satisfy the requirements of planning at level 6. One of the problems with Sc1 is that certain requirements, such as graph plotting, are difficult for many students. This book provides exercises that can be given to students to improve those skills. Each of the nine investigations is covered in great detail. Each investigation begins with an introduction detailing the rationale for choosing it, whether students

  19. Development of Human-Like scFv-Fc Neutralizing Botulinum Neurotoxin E

    PubMed Central

    Miethe, Sebastian; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Liu, Yvonne; Chahboun, Siham; Korkeala, Hannu; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Pelat, Thibaut; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Hust, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are considered to be the most toxic substances known on earth and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food-poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agent by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and are listed among the six agents with the highest risk to be used as bioweapons. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of effective anti-botulism therapies to deal with the potential risk of exposure. Results In this study, a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was immunized with recombinant light chain of BoNT/E3 and an immune phage display library was constructed. After a multi-step panning, several antibody fragments (scFv, single chain fragment variable) with nanomolar affinities were isolated, that inhibited the endopeptidase activity of pure BoNT/E3 in vitro by targeting its light chain. Furthermore, three scFv were confirmed to neutralize BoNT/E3 induced paralysis in an ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay. The most effective neutralization (20LD50/mL, BoNT/E3) was observed with scFv ELC18, with a minimum neutralizing concentration at 0.3 nM. Furthermore, ELC18 was highly effective in vivo when administered as an scFv-Fc construct. Complete protection of 1LD50 BoNT/E3 was observed with 1.6 ng/dose in the mouse flaccid paralysis assay. Conclusion These scFv-Fcs antibodies are the first recombinant antibodies neutralizing BoNT/E by targeting its light chain. The human-like nature of the isolated antibodies is predicting a good tolerance for further clinical development. PMID:26440796

  20. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Saluda County Airport, Saluda, SC. DATES... (74 FR 46894), Docket No. FAA-2009-0603; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-16. The FAA uses the direct...

  1. 76 FR 54690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... E airspace at Clemson, SC (76 FR 38582) Docket No. FAA-2011-0394. Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC AGENCY: Federal.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  2. 76 FR 44257 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC AGENCY..., SC (76 FR 12298) Docket No. FAA-2010- 1325. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3CFR, 1959-1963...

  3. Human bulbar conjunctival hemodynamics in hemoglobin SS and SC disease.

    PubMed

    Wanek, Justin; Gaynes, Bruce; Lim, Jennifer I; Molokie, Robert; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2013-08-01

    The known biophysical variations of hemoglobin (Hb) S and Hb C may result in hemodynamic differences between subjects with SS and SC disease. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare conjunctival hemodynamics between subjects with Hb SS and SC hemoglobinopathies. Image sequences of the conjunctival microcirculation were acquired in 9 healthy control subjects (Hb AA), 24 subjects with SC disease, and 18 subjects with SS disease, using a prototype imaging system. Diameter (D) and blood velocity (V) measurements were obtained in multiple venules of each subject. Data were categorized according to venule caliber by averaging V and D for venules with diameters less than (vessel size 1) or greater than (vessel size 2) 15 µm. V in vessel size 2 was significantly greater than V in vessel size 1 in the AA and SS groups (P ≥ 0.009), but not in the SC group (P = 0.1). V was significantly lower in the SC group as compared to the SS group (P = 0.03). In AA and SS groups, V correlated with D (P ≤ 0.005), but the correlation was not statistically significant in the SC group (P = 0.08). V was inversely correlated with hematocrit in the SS group for large vessels (P = 0.03); however, no significant correlation was found in the SC group (P ≥ 0.2). Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular hemodynamics in SS and SC disease may advance understanding of sickle cell disease pathophysiology and thereby improve therapeutic interventions.

  4. 76 FR 58401 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 38586). We received no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of...

  5. [Human amniotic epithelium (HAE) as a possible source of stem cells (SC)].

    PubMed

    García-López, Guadalupe; García-Castro, Irma Lydia; Avila-González, Daniela; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Díaz-Martínez, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    There have been major recent advances in the field of developmental biology due to the investigation on stem cells (SC). Stem cells are characterized by their capacity of auto-renewal and differentiation to different cellular phenotypes. Based on the developmental stage, they can be classified into two different types: embryonic SCs and adult SCs. It has been widely reported that several problems need to be resolved before their possible clinical applications. As a result, fetal membranes have been suggested as an alternative source of SCs. In the human amniotic epithelium, the presence of markers of pluripotent SC´s has been reported, and its capacity as a feeder layer for expansion of different SC types. Also, fetal membranes are a discarded product after delivery, and thus there are not any ethical issues related to its use. In conclusion, the human amniotic epithelium can be a strong candidate for regenerative medicine.

  6. Microstructure and Properties of TIG/FSW Welded Joints of a New Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xuefeng; Deng, Ying; Peng, Yongyi; Yin, Zhimin; Xu, Guofu

    2013-09-01

    A new Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy with low Sc content was welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and friction stir welding (FSW) techniques. The microstructure and properties of those two welded joints were investigated by property tests and microstructural observations. The results show that the new Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy has desirable welding property. The ultimate tensile strength and welding coefficient of the TIG joint reach 405 MPa and 76.7%, respectively, and in FSW joint those property values reach 490 MPa and 92.6%, respectively. The studied base metal has a deformed fibrous subgrains structure, many nano-scaled Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, and very fine aging precipitates. In the TIG joint, the fusion zone consists of coarsened dendritic grains and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) has fibrous micro-scaled subgrains. The FSW welded joint is characterized by a weld nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and HAZ. Due to plastic deformation around the rotating pin and anti-recrystallized effectiveness of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, the weld nugget zone has a very fine subgrain structure. The TMAZ experiences some dissolution of aging precipitates. Coarsening of aging precipitates was observed in the HAZ. The better mechanical properties of the FSW joint are derived from a fine subgrain structure and homogeneous chemical compositions.

  7. Development of specific scFv antibodies to detect neurocysticercosis antigens and potential applications in immunodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva; Araújo, Thaise Gonçalves; Gonzaga, Henrique Tomaz; Nascimento, Rafael; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that detection of circulating antibodies against mimotopes selected by phage display were useful in neurocysticercosis diagnosis. However, circulating antigens may also be useful in patients' clinical follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to select novel combinatorial antibodies, single-chain variable fragment (scFv), which can be used for specific antigens with pre-defined affinity and specificity without prior immunization. A phage scFv antibody library was selected against Taenia solium mimotopes displayed on phages coupled in beads and total saline extract of T. solium metacestodes (S) immobilized on microtiter plate wells. After two rounds of selection, 96 phage clones were evolved and validated against each target by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and dot-blot, and three specific antibodies (B6, G10 and A4) were further characterized by sequencing and indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) assays. IFI revealed tegument staining for the B6, while the others showed a non-uniform staining in the whole parasite. The selected scFvs were used to capture their antigen targets that were elucidated through mass spectrometry, and used for antibody detection in NC patients' sera by ELISA, which achieved sensitivities greater than 97% and specificities above 95%. We have successfully developed scFv antibodies against important mimotopes used in NC diagnosis, and can be further explored to detect circulating antigens for clinical follow-up of patients with NC. Our strategy also highlighted the possibility of using this combinatorial approach to select, capture and characterize specific antigens to better understand this intriguing parasite infection and disease evolution.

  8. Fermi surface study of ScAu{sub 2}(Al, In) and ScPd{sub 2}(Sn, Pb) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P. V. Sreenivasa; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-06-24

    A detailed study on the electronic structure and Fermi surface (FS) of superconducting Heusler compounds ScAu{sub 2}(Al, In) and ScPd{sub 2}(Sn, Pb) has been carried out using first principles electronic structure calculations. The spin orbit coupling is found to play a major role in understanding the band structure and FS. Analysis of the data shows the importance of spin orbit coupling effect in the above compounds. The bands which cross Fermi level (EF) are found to be dominated by the Sc d{sub t2g}-states. The calculated total density of states are in good agreement with the experimentally reported value for ScPd{sub 2}Sn. Under compression we find a change in the Fermi surface topology of ScPd{sub 2}Sn at V/V{sub 0} = 0.95 (pressure of≈15 GPa), which is explained using the band structure calculations.

  9. Ultrasensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of macaques infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Imamura, Morikazu; Ono, Fumiko; Shibata, Hiroaki; Tobiume, Minoru; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Terao, Keiji; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2014-11-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the prominent accumulation of the misfolded form of a normal cellular protein (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. The pathological features and biochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in macaque monkeys infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion have been found to be similar to those of human subjects with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Non-human primate models are thus ideally suited for performing valid diagnostic tests and determining the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents. In the current study, we developed a highly efficient method for in vitro amplification of cynomolgus macaque BSE PrP(Sc). This method involves amplifying PrP(Sc) by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) using mouse brain homogenate as a PrP(C) substrate in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white blood cells (WBCs), as well as in the peripheral tissues of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the BSE prion. After clinical signs of the disease appeared in three macaques, we detected PrP(Sc) in the CSF by serial PMCA, and the CSF levels of PrP(Sc) tended to increase with disease progression. In addition, PrP(Sc) was detectable in WBCs at the clinical phases of the disease in two of the three macaques. Thus, our highly sensitive, novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of the tissue distribution of PrP(Sc) in non-human primate models of CJD.

  10. Gadolinium scandium germanide, Gd2Sc3Ge4

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, S.; Miller, G.

    2009-02-26

    Gd{sub 2}Sc{sub 3}Ge{sub 4} adopts the orthorhombic Pu{sub 5}Rh{sub 4}-type structure. The crystal structure contains six sites in the asymmetric unit: two sites are statistically occupied by rare-earth atoms with Gd:Sc ratios of 0.967 (4):0.033 (4) and 0.031 (3):0.969 (3), one site (.m. symmetry) is occupied by Sc atoms, and three distinct sites (two of which with .m. symmetry) are occupied by Ge atoms. The rare-earth atoms form two-dimensional slabs with Ge atoms occupying the trigonal-prismatic voids.

  11. Infectivity-associated PrP(Sc) and disease duration-associated PrP(Sc) of mouse BSE prions.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which is a structural isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, is thought to be a causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the specific role of PrP(Sc) in prion pathogenesis and its relationship to infectivity remain controversial. A time-course study of prion-affected mice was conducted, which showed that the prion infectivity was not simply proportional to the amount of PrP(Sc) in the brain. Centrifugation (20,000 ×g) of the brain homogenate showed that most of the PrP(Sc) was precipitated into the pellet, and the supernatant contained only a slight amount of PrP(Sc). Interestingly, mice inoculated with the obtained supernatant showed incubation periods that were approximately 15 d longer than those of mice inoculated with the crude homogenate even though both inocula contained almost the same infectivity. Our results suggest that a small population of fine PrP(Sc) may be responsible for prion infectivity and that large, aggregated PrP(Sc) may contribute to determining prion disease duration.

  12. Effect of Sc3+ on structural and magnetic properties of Mn-Zn nano ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha Angadi, V.; Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Srinatha, N.; Melagiriyappa, E.; Rudraswamy, B.

    2016-05-01

    In the present investigation, for the first time, we report on the effect of Sc3+ on the structural and magnetic properties of Mn0.5Zn0.5ScyFe2-yO4 (y = 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) nanoferrites synthesized by solution combustion method using the mixture of fuels. As synthesized powders were characterized for the detailed structural analysis by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and room temperature magnetic properties by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results of XRD and FTIR confirm that the formation of nano crystalline, single-phased Mn-Zn ferrite with cubic spinel structure belongs to Fd-3m space group. The room temperature magnetic studies shows that, the saturation magnetization (MS), remanence magnetization (MR) and magnetic moment (ηB), magnetic particle size (Dm) have found to increase with Sc3+ ion concentration up to x = 0.3 and then decrease. The values of αY-K and the magnetic particle size (Dm) are found to be in the range of 68-75° and 10-19 nm respectively, with Sc3+ concentration.

  13. Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries.

  14. Development of Field-Controlled Smart Optic Materials (ScN, AlN) with Rare Earth Dopants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop the fundamental materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics that are essential for industry, NASA, and DOD applications such as: membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras, flat-panel displays, etc. ScN and AlN thin films were fabricated on c-axis Sapphire (0001) or quartz substrate with the RF and DC magnetron sputtering. The crystal structure of AlN in fcc (rocksalt) and hcp (wurtzite) were controlled. Advanced electrical characterizations were performed, including I-V and Hall Effect Measurement. ScN film has a free carrier density of 5.8 x 10(exp 20)/per cubic centimeter and a conductivity of 1.1 x 10(exp 3) per centimeter. The background ntype conductivity of as-grown ScN has enough free electrons that can readily interact with the photons. The high density of free electrons and relatively low mobility indicate that these films contain a high level of shallow donors as well as deep levels. Also, the UV-Vis spectrum of ScN and AlN thin films with rare earth elements (Er or Ho) were measured at room temperature. Their optical band gaps were estimated to be about 2.33eV and 2.24eV, respectively, which are obviously smaller than that of undoped thin film ScN (2.4eV). The red-shifted absorption onset gives direct evidence for the decrease of band gap (Eg) and the energy broadening of valence band states are attributable to the doping. As the doped elements enter the ScN crystal lattices, the localized band edge states form at the doped sites with a reduction of Eg. Using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer, the decrease in refractive index with applied field is observed with a smaller shift in absorption coefficient.

  15. 49 CFR 372.205 - Charleston, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and which are west of South Carolina Highway 41; and all points in Dorchester County, SC. (d) All of...) and (c) of this section, and (e) All of any municipality wholly surrounded, or so surrounded...

  16. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Amit H.

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  17. Human bulbar conjunctival hemodynamics in hemoglobin SS and SC disease

    PubMed Central

    Wanek, Justin; Gaynes, Bruce; Lim, Jennifer I.; Molokie, Robert; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The known biophysical variations of hemoglobin (Hb) S and Hb C may result in hemodynamic differences between subjects with SS and SC disease. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare conjunctival hemodynamics between subjects with Hb SS and SC hemoglobinopathies. Image sequences of the conjunctival microcirculation were acquired in 9 healthy control subjects (Hb AA), 24 subjects with SC disease, and 18 subjects with SS disease, using a prototype imaging system. Diameter (D) and blood velocity (V) measurements were obtained in multiple venules of each subject. Data were categorized according to venule caliber by averaging V and D for venules with diameters less than (vessel size 1) or greater than (vessel size 2) 15 µm. V in vessel size 2 was significantly greater than V in vessel size 1 in the AA and SS groups (P ≥ 0.009), but not in the SC group (P = 0.1). V was significantly lower in the SC group as compared to the SS group (P = 0.03). In AA and SS groups, V correlated with D (P ≥ 0.005), but the correlation was not statistically significant in the SC group (P = 0.08). V was inversely correlated with hematocrit in the SS group for large vessels (P = 0.03); however, no significant correlation was found in the SC group (P ≥ 0.2). Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular hemodynamics in SS and SC disease may advance understanding of sickle cell disease pathophysiology and thereby improve therapeutic interventions. PMID:23657867

  18. Voltammetry of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82}

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Dorn, H.C.; Stevenson, S.; Burbank, P.M.; Gibson, J.R.

    1997-01-15

    This paper describes the first electrochemical data for a polymetallic endohedral metallofullerene. The voltammetric behavior of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82} resembles that for La@C{sub 82} and Y@C{sub 82}, indicating that the identity of the metal does not influence dramatically the energies of the metallofullerene molecular orbitals. The three Sc atoms, however, transfer more electrons from the encapsulated metals to the cage than the monometallic counterparts, accounting for the differences in the voltammetry for Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82}. The similarity of the voltammetry of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82} with that of the monometallic fullerenes suggests that Sc{sub 3}{sup +4}@C{sub 82}{sup 4-} may describe the formal charges on the Sc trimer and the C{sub 82} cage of these species. Metallofullerene electronic structure and physical properties should be better understood as more metallofullerenes become available for investigation. 31 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Theoretical studies of the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    Bonding in the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS is theoretically studied. Excellent agreement is obtained with experimental spectroscopic constants for the low-lying states of ScO and VO. The results for VS and ScS show that the bonding in the oxides and sulfides is similar, but that the smaller electronegativity in S leads to a smaller ionic component in the bonding. The computed D0 of the sulfides are about 86 percent of the corresponding oxides, and the low-lying excited states are lower in the sulfides than in the corresponding oxides. The CPF method is shown to be an accurate and cost-effective method for obtaining reliable spectroscopic constants for these systems.

  20. Heteronuclear transition metal diatomics - The bonding and electronic structure of ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faegri, Knut, Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    High quality ab initio calculations show that ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd all have 2Sigma(+) ground states in agreement with electron spin resonance experiments. For ScNi and YNi, this is expected based on the lowest atomic asymptote. For ScPd and YPd, the lowest atomic asymptote would give the order of stability 2Delta greater than 2Pi equal to about 2Sigma(+), but the calculations show that mixing in of the excited asymptotes preferentially lowers the 2Sigma(+) state. The calculations show that the quartet states are about 20-30 kcal/mol above the ground state, and therefore probably do not contribute significantly to the unexpected g(vertical) values found in experiment. Calculations of excited states for YPd reveal some strong transitions that should be amenable to spectroscopic studies.

  1. Extensive spectroscopic data for multiply ionized scandium: Sc III to Sc XXI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacrier, G.; Artru, M.-C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Spectroscopic data for scandium is sparse, while an extensive set is needed to introduce this element into stellar opacity calculations and, more importantly, into stellar models dealing with radiative diffusion. Aims: Our goal is to provide extensive energy levels and radiative transitions data for nineteen ionization stages of scandium relevant to stellar interiors, namely from Sc iii to Sc xxi. Methods: We used the FAC code. This code provides ab initio theoretical values for energy levels in jj-coupling and oscillator strengths of all permitted transitions. Detailed correspondences are established with compiled data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, to locate as much as possible the observed levels and lines at their experimental values and to estimate the quality of our data. Comparison were also made with the spectroscopic data delivered by Kurucz. Results: The theoretical data retained in tables include 21 842 levels and more than two millions transtions. By comparison, the NIST compilation gives a total of 820 levels and 677 gf-values. The good agreement obtained when comparing the new data with those of the NIST compilation demonstrates their quality. This work on scandium shows that the FAC code is efficient in providing spectrocopic data that are unavailable from laboratory analyses but necessary for accurate simulations of stellar plasmas. Full Tables 4-6 and extensive line lists for each ion are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/538/A52

  2. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN.

    PubMed

    Caro, Miguel A; Zhang, Siyuan; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Moram, Michelle A; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Molarius, Jyrki; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-06-24

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in Sc(x)Al(1-x)N alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients e(ij), piezoelectric moduli d(ij) and elastic constants C(ij). The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material.

  3. Sex Chromosome Meiotic Drive Systems in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER I. Abnormal Spermatid Development in Males with a Heterochromatin-Deficient X Chromosome (sc4sc8)

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, W. J.; Miklos, George L. Gabor; Goodchild, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The meiotic drive characteristics of the In(1)sc4Lsc8R/Y system have been examined by genetic analysis and by light and electron microscopy. sc4sc8/Y males show a direct correlation between nondisjunction frequency and meiotic drive. Temperature-shift experiments reveal that the temperature-sensitive period for nondisjunction is at meiosis, whereas that for meiotic drive has both meiotic and post-meiotic components. Cytological analyses in the light and electron microscopes reveal failures in spermiogenesis in the testes of sc4sc8 males. The extent of abnormal spermatid development increases as nondisjunction becomes more extreme. PMID:805751

  4. The crystallography of cleavage fracture in Al3Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneibel, J. H.; Hazzeldine, P. M.

    1992-04-01

    Detailed observations of fracture surface in Al3Sc are presented. Al3Sc is soft and exhibits five independent slip systems, yet it is brittle. The main fracture surface is 011-plane. The 001-plane, 111-plane, and 012-plane surfaces are only occasionally found and are usually highly localized. The fracture surfaces usually exhibit striations along the traces of slip planes and evidence for twinning is also found. Only occasionally are small regions found that may be atomically flat. Steps aligned along 0 1 -1 line consist of 111-plane cleavage planes. Most steps aligned along 2 1 -1 line exhibit multiple angles and are not fully crystallographic. Reactions between 001-line and 211-line steps are sometimes observed. Although fracture in Al3Sc is not thought to be primarily an environmental effect, certain fractographic similarities with the stress corrosion cracking of fcc materials and Cu3Au are found.

  5. Experience with OpenMP for MADX-SC

    SciTech Connect

    D'Imperio, Nicholas; Montag, Christophe; Yu, Kwangmin; Kapin, Valery; McIntosh, Eric; Renshall, Harry; Schmidt, Frank

    2014-07-01

    MADX-SC allows the treatment of frozen space charge using beam-beam elements in a thin lattice, i.e. one can take advantage of the standard set-up of MAD-X lattices without the need for specialized codes for the space-charge (SC) evaluation. The idea is to simulate over many turns without the problem of noise as in the PIC SC codes. For the examples under study, like the PS and RHIC, it would be desirable to simulate up to 1 million turns or more. To this end one had to make an effort to optimize the scalar speed and, most importantly, get a speed-up of approximately a factor of 5 using OpenMP.

  6. CHARACTERIZING COUPLED CHARGE TRANSPORT WITH MULTISCALE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Jessica

    2011-08-31

    This is the final progress report for Award DE-SC0004920, entitled 'Characterizing coupled charge transport with multi scale molecular dynamics'. The technical abstract will be provided in the uploaded report.

  7. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-07-01

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C , which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C (OH) 2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  8. Growth of ScN(111) on Sc2O3(111) for GaN integration on Si(111): Experiment and ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, P.; Tetzner, H.; Dabrowski, J.; Lupina, L.; Costina, I.; Thapa, S. B.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.; Zoellner, M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Growth mechanism of ScN on Sc2O3 for integration of Ga-polar GaN on Si(111) is investigated by in-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, ex-situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ScN films are grown by molecular beam epitaxy from e-beam evaporated Sc and N plasma. The films grow in a layer-by-layer (Frank-van der Merwe, FM) fashion. Diffusion of nitrogen into Sc2O3 and segregation of oxygen onto ScN are observed. The segregated O atoms are gradually removed from the surface by N atoms from the plasma. Experiment and theory show that nitrogen cannot be efficiently incorporated into Sc2O3 by exposing it to N plasma alone, and calculations indicate that anion intermixing between ScN and Sc2O3 should be weak. On the basis of ab-initio data, the in-diffusion of N into Sc2O3 is attributed mostly to the effect of interaction between ScN ad-dimers on the Sc2O3 surface in the initial stage of growth. The segregation of O to the ScN surface is understood as driven by the tendency to compensate build-up of the electric field in the polar ScN film. This segregation is computed to be energetically favorable (by 0.4 eV per O atom) already for a monolayer of ScN; the energy gain increases to 1.0 eV and 1.6 eV per O atom for two and three ScN layers, respectively. Finally, it is verified by DFT that the ScN deposition method in which Sc metallic film is deposited first and then nitridized would lead to strong incorporation of O into the grown film, accompanied by strong reduction of the Sc2O3 substrate.

  9. Isolation of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins. Purification and characterization of the 40 S ribosomal subunit proteins Sa, Sc, S3a, S3b, S5', S9, S10, S11, S12, S14, S15, S15', S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S26, S27', and S29.

    PubMed

    Collatz, E; Ulbrich, N; Tsurugi, K; Lightfoot, H N; MacKinlay, W; Lin, A; Wool, I G

    1977-12-25

    The proteins of the small subunit of rat liver ribosomes were separated into five main groups by stepwise elution from carboxymethylcellulose with LiCl at pH 6.5. Twenty-one proteins (Sa, Sc, S3a, S3b, S5', S9, S10, S11, S12, S14, S15, S15', S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S26, S27', and S29) were isolated from three groups (A40, C40, and D40) by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, and phosphocellulose and by filtration through Sephadex. The amount of protein obtained varied from 0.1 to 11 mg. Six of the proteins (S5', S10, S11, S18, S19, and S27') had no detectable contamination; the impurities in the others were no greater than 9%. The molecular weight of the proteins was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate; the amino acid composition was determined.

  10. Synaptonemal complex (SC) component Zip1 plays a role in meiotic recombination independent of SC polymerization along the chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Storlazzi, A; Xu, L; Schwacha, A; Kleckner, N

    1996-01-01

    Zip1 is a yeast synaptonemal complex (SC) central region component and is required for normal meiotic recombination and crossover interference. Physical analysis of meiotic recombination in a zip1 mutant reveals the following: Crossovers appear later than normal and at a reduced level. Noncrossover recombinants, in contrast, seem to appear in two phases: (i) a normal number appear with normal timing and (ii) then additional products appear late, at the same time as crossovers. Also, Holliday junctions are present at unusually late times, presumably as precursors to late-appearing products. Red1 is an axial structure component required for formation of cytologically discernible axial elements and SC and maximal levels of recombination. In a red1 mutant, crossovers and noncrossovers occur at coordinately reduced levels but with normal timing. If Zip1 affected recombination exclusively via SC polymerization, a zip1 mutation should confer no recombination defect in a red1 strain background. But a red1 zip1 double mutant exhibits the sum of the two single mutant phenotypes, including the specific deficit of crossovers seen in a zip1 strain. We infer that Zip1 plays at least one role in recombination that does not involve SC polymerization along the chromosomes. Perhaps some Zip1 molecules act first in or around the sites of recombinational interactions to influence the recombination process and thence nucleate SC formation. We propose that a Zip1-dependent, pre-SC transition early in the recombination reaction is an essential component of meiotic crossover control. A molecular basis for crossover/noncrossover differentiation is also suggested. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8799151

  11. Analysis of pSC138, the multidrug resistance plasmid of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis SC-B67.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiehua; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Jianbing; Yu, Jun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) usually causes systemic infections in man and needs antimicrobial treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in S. Choleraesuis is thus a great concern in the treatment of systemic non-typhoid salmonellosis. A large plasmid, pSC138, was identified in 2002 from a S. Choleraesuis strain SC-B67 that was resistant to all antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat salmonellosis, including ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Complete DNA sequence of the plasmid had been determined previously (Chiu et al., 2005). In the present study, the sequence of pSC138 was reannotated in detail and compared with several newly sequenced plasmids. Some transposable elements and drug resistance genes were further delineated. Plasmid pSC138 was 138,742 bp in length and consisted of 177 open reading frames (ORFs). While 134 of the ORFs displayed significant identity levels to other plasmid and prokaryotic sequences, the remaining 43 ORFs have not been previously reported. Mobile elements, including two integrons, seven insertion sequences and eight transposons, and a truncated prophage together encompass at least 66,781 bp (48.1%) of the plasmid genome. The sequence of pSC138 consists of three major regions: a large composite transposable region Tn6088 with a Tn21-like backbone inserted by a variety of integrons or transposable elements; a transfer/maintenance region that contains a conserved ISEcp1-mediated transposon-like element Tn6092, carrying an AmpC gene, bla(CMY-2), that confers the ceftriaxone resistance; and a Rep_3 type of replication region. Another seven bacteremic strains of S. Choleraesuis that expressed the same MDR phenotype were identified during 2003-2008. The same Rep_3 type replicase and the bla(CMY-2)-containing, ISEcp1-mediated transposon-like element were found in the MDR isolates, suggesting a successful preservation and dissemination of the MDR plasmid. Comparison of pSC138 with other recently published plasmids

  12. Analysis of pSC138, the multidrug resistance plasmid of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis SC-B67.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiehua; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Jianbing; Yu, Jun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) usually causes systemic infections in man and needs antimicrobial treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in S. Choleraesuis is thus a great concern in the treatment of systemic non-typhoid salmonellosis. A large plasmid, pSC138, was identified in 2002 from a S. Choleraesuis strain SC-B67 that was resistant to all antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat salmonellosis, including ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Complete DNA sequence of the plasmid had been determined previously (Chiu et al., 2005). In the present study, the sequence of pSC138 was reannotated in detail and compared with several newly sequenced plasmids. Some transposable elements and drug resistance genes were further delineated. Plasmid pSC138 was 138,742 bp in length and consisted of 177 open reading frames (ORFs). While 134 of the ORFs displayed significant identity levels to other plasmid and prokaryotic sequences, the remaining 43 ORFs have not been previously reported. Mobile elements, including two integrons, seven insertion sequences and eight transposons, and a truncated prophage together encompass at least 66,781 bp (48.1%) of the plasmid genome. The sequence of pSC138 consists of three major regions: a large composite transposable region Tn6088 with a Tn21-like backbone inserted by a variety of integrons or transposable elements; a transfer/maintenance region that contains a conserved ISEcp1-mediated transposon-like element Tn6092, carrying an AmpC gene, bla(CMY-2), that confers the ceftriaxone resistance; and a Rep_3 type of replication region. Another seven bacteremic strains of S. Choleraesuis that expressed the same MDR phenotype were identified during 2003-2008. The same Rep_3 type replicase and the bla(CMY-2)-containing, ISEcp1-mediated transposon-like element were found in the MDR isolates, suggesting a successful preservation and dissemination of the MDR plasmid. Comparison of pSC138 with other recently published plasmids

  13. Tetrahedron dynamics in the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn6Sc.

    PubMed

    Euchner, H; Yamada, T; Rols, S; Ishimasa, T; Kaneko, Y; Ollivier, J; Schober, H; Mihalkovic, M; de Boissieu, M

    2013-03-20

    A comparison of periodic approximants and their quasicrystalline counterparts offers the opportunity to better understand the structure, physical properties and stabilizing mechanisms of these complex phases. We present a combined experimental and molecular dynamics study of the lattice dynamics of the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and compare it to recently published results obtained for the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn(6)Sc. Both phases, quasicrystal and approximant, are built up from large atomic clusters which contain a tetrahedral shell at the cluster centre and are packed either quasiperiodically or on a bcc lattice. Using quasielastic neutron scattering and atomic scale simulations, we show that in the quasicrystal the tetrahedra display a dynamics similar to that observed in the 1/1-approximant: the tetrahedra behave as a 'single molecule' and reorient dynamically on a timescale of the order of a few ps. The tetrahedra reorientation is accompanied by a large distortion of the surrounding cluster shells which provide a unique dynamical flexibility to the quasicrystal. However, whereas in the 1/1-approximant the tetrahedron reorientation is observed down to T(c) = 160 K, where a phase transition takes place, in the quasicrystal the tetrahedron dynamics is gradually freezing from 550 to 300 K, similarly to a glassy system.

  14. Growth and magnetic properties of MnCl2-4SC(NH2)2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Xu, H. S.; Chen, L. M.; Song, J. D.; Wu, J. C.; Liu, X. G.; Zhao, X.; Sun, X. F.

    2016-10-01

    NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTN) is a famous one-dimensional antiferromagnet with magnon Bose-Einstein condensation. In this work, single crystals of MnCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTM) with size up to (8-10)×(8-10)×(3-5) mm3 are grown by using the slow evaporation method with optimized conditions. The single crystals are characterized by measurements of X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat. It is found that although DTM has a similar crystal structure to DTN, it shows a paramagnetic behavior. The reason for no spin exchange among Mn2+ ions can be understood in terms of the negligible overlap of the Mn2+-3d orbital and the neighboring Cl--3p orbital.

  15. Entrapping a Group-VB Transition Metal, Vanadium, within an Endohedral Metallofullerene: V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)-C80 (x = 1, 2).

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Wang, Song; Lu, Xing; Tan, Yuanzhi; Huang, Jing; Liu, Fupin; Li, Qunxiang; Xie, Suyuan; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-01-13

    So far the entrapped metals for the isolated endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) are primarily limited to rare earth metals, whereas except group-IVB metals, whether it is possible to entrap other d-block transition metals remains unclear. Herein we report the successful entrapment of the group-VB transition metal vanadium(V) into fullerene cage, affording the heretofore unknown V-containing EMFs. Two novel V-containing EMFs--V(x)Sc(3-x)N@C80 (x = 1, 2)--were isolated, and their molecular structures were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography to be I(h)(7)-C80 cage entrapping the planar VSc2N/V2ScN clusters. V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) were further characterized by UV-vis-NIR and ESR spectroscopies and electrochemistry, revealing that the electronic and magnetic properties of V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) are tunable upon varying the number of entrapped V atoms (i.e., x value). The molecular structures and electronic properties of V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) were further compared with those of the reported analogous EMFs based on lanthanide metals and the adjacent group-IVB transition metal Ti, revealing the peculiarity of the group-VB transition metal V-based EMFs. PMID:26645852

  16. Morphology Controllable Synthesis of ScF3:Er3+, Yb3+ Nano/Sub-Microncrystals by Hydrothermal/Solvothermal Process.

    PubMed

    Han, Lili; Li, Hua; Ci, Zhipeng; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, red phosphors Yb3+-Er3+ co-doped ScF3 nano/microcrystals were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal/solvothermal route using the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the surfactant. The structure, morphologies and up-conversion (UC) photoluminescence properties of the as-prepared products were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. The SEM images show that the obtained samples are the uniform cubic and cuboid crystals. With the increase of the surfactant SDBS or the change in the solvent types, the sample change their size from nanometer to submicron. Upon the 980 nm laser diode excitation, the ScF3:Era+, Yb3+ nanocrystals exhibit red emission which can be assigned to the characteristic 4F9/2/4I15/2 transition of Er3+. In order to understand the emission mechanisms of ScF3:ErS+, Yb3+ nanocrystals, the dependence of UC luminescence intensity on the 980 nm excitation power was measured, suggesting that the UC phenomenon results from a two-photon process. Meanwhile, the emission intensities of the YbS+-Er3+ codoped ScF3 nano/sub-micro crystals with different solution composition show an obvious change under the 980 nm laser excitation. Therefore, the phosphors Yb3+-Er3+ co-doped ScF3 possibly have a potential application in the biological applications.

  17. Active role of nonmagnetic cations in magnetic interactions for double-perovskite S r2B Os O6(B =Y ,In ,Sc )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, Sudipta; Yan, Binghai; Felser, Claudia; Jansen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Using first-principles density-functional theory, we have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of recently synthesized and characterized 5 d double-perovskites S r2B Os O6(B =Y ,In ,Sc ) . The electronic structure calculations show that in all compounds the O s5 + (5 d3 ) site is the only magnetically active one, whereas Y3 +, I n3 + , and S c3 + remain in nonmagnetic states with Sc/Y and In featuring d0 and d10 electronic configurations, respectively. Our studies reveal the important role of closed-shell (d10) versus open-shell (d0) electronic configurations of the nonmagnetic sites in determining the overall magnetic exchange interactions. Although the magnetic O s5 + (5 d3 ) site is the same in all compounds, the magnetic superexchange interactions mediated by nonmagnetic Y/In/Sc species are strongest for S r2ScOs O6 , weakest for S r2InOs O6 , and intermediate in the case of the Y (d0) due to different energy overlaps between Os-5 d and Y/In/Sc-d states. This explains the experimentally observed substantial differences in the magnetic transition temperatures of these materials, despite an identical magnetic site and underlying magnetic ground state. Furthermore, short-range Os-Os exchange interactions are more prominent than long-range Os-Os interactions in these compounds, which contrasts with the behavior of other 3 d -5 d double perovskites.

  18. Formation of amorphous alloys by ion beam mixing and its multiscale theoretical modeling in the equilibrium immiscible Sc-W system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R F; Shen, Y X; Yan, H F; Liu, B X

    2005-03-17

    Unique amorphous alloys are synthesized at the compositions of 25 and 40 atom % of W by ion beam mixing in the equilibrium immiscible Sc-W system characterized by a positive heat of formation of +14 kJ/mol. In thermodynamic modeling, a Gibbs free energy diagram is constructed based on Miedema's theory, and the diagram predicts a glass-forming range of the Sc-W system to be within 12-58 atom % of W. To develop an atomistic model, ab initio calculations are first conducted to assist the construction of an n-body Sc-W potential under the embedded atom method. The proven realistic potential is applied in molecular dynamic simulations to study the crystal-to-amorphous transition in the Sc-W solid solutions, thus determining the glass-forming ability of the system to be within 15-50 atom % of W. Apparently, both theoretical predicted glass-forming ranges cover the experimentally measured one, showing an excellent agreement. We report, in this paper, the experimental results from ion beam mixing and the multiscale theoretical modeling concerning the amorphous alloy formation in the Sc-W system together with a brief discussion of the structural transition mechanism. PMID:16851507

  19. Morphology Controllable Synthesis of ScF3:Er3+, Yb3+ Nano/Sub-Microncrystals by Hydrothermal/Solvothermal Process.

    PubMed

    Han, Lili; Li, Hua; Ci, Zhipeng; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, red phosphors Yb3+-Er3+ co-doped ScF3 nano/microcrystals were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal/solvothermal route using the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the surfactant. The structure, morphologies and up-conversion (UC) photoluminescence properties of the as-prepared products were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. The SEM images show that the obtained samples are the uniform cubic and cuboid crystals. With the increase of the surfactant SDBS or the change in the solvent types, the sample change their size from nanometer to submicron. Upon the 980 nm laser diode excitation, the ScF3:Era+, Yb3+ nanocrystals exhibit red emission which can be assigned to the characteristic 4F9/2/4I15/2 transition of Er3+. In order to understand the emission mechanisms of ScF3:ErS+, Yb3+ nanocrystals, the dependence of UC luminescence intensity on the 980 nm excitation power was measured, suggesting that the UC phenomenon results from a two-photon process. Meanwhile, the emission intensities of the YbS+-Er3+ codoped ScF3 nano/sub-micro crystals with different solution composition show an obvious change under the 980 nm laser excitation. Therefore, the phosphors Yb3+-Er3+ co-doped ScF3 possibly have a potential application in the biological applications. PMID:27451694

  20. South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

  1. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Miguel A.; Zhang, Siyuan; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Moram, Michelle A.; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Molarius, Jyrki; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-06-01

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in ScxAl1-xN alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients eij, piezoelectric moduli dij and elastic constants Cij. The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material.

  2. SC3: Protecting Students and Staff with Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    EPA's Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign (SC3) is working to encourage schools to use green cleaning practices to safely clean their classrooms and grounds. From elementary school maintenance closets to high school chemistry labs, schools use a variety of chemicals. Some of the most essential chemicals are those that keep schools clean and safe…

  3. 77 FR 14700 - Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish temporary moving safety zones during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on...

  4. 77 FR 51471 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (77 FR...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston,...

  5. 76 FR 38586 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish a temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring...

  6. 78 FR 54583 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of...

  7. Development of human-like scFv-Fc antibodies neutralizing Botulinum toxin serotype B.

    PubMed

    Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Chahboun, Siham; Tierney, Rob; Bak, Nicola; Miethe, Sebastian; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael; Pelat, Thibaut; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, 7 subtypes of BoNT/B were identified showing that subtypes B1 (16 strains) and B2 (32 strains) constitute the vast majority of BoNT/B strains. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of anti-botulism drugs to deal with the potential risk. In this study, macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with recombinant light chain (LC) or heavy chain (HC) of BoNT/B2, followed by the construction of 2 hyper-immune phage display libraries. The best single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) isolated from each library were selected according to their affinities and cross reactivity with BoNT/B1 toxin subtype. These scFvs against LC and HC were further analyzed by assessing the inhibition of in vitro endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B1 and B2 and neutralization of BoNT/B1 and B2 toxin-induced paralysis in the mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. The antibodies B2-7 (against HC) and BLC3 (against LC) were produced as scFv-Fc, and, when tested individually, neutralized BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 in a mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. Whereas only scFv-Fc BLC3 alone protected mice against BoNT/B2-induced paralysis in vivo, when B2-7 and BLC3 were combined they exhibited potent synergistic protection. The present study provided an opportunity to assess the extent of antibody-mediated neutralization of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 subtypes in ex vivo and in vitro assays, and to confirm the benefit of the synergistic effect of antibodies targeting the 2 distinct functional domains of the toxin in vivo. Notably, the framework regions of the most promising antibodies (B2-7 and BLC3) are close to the human germline sequences, which

  8. Development of human-like scFv-Fc antibodies neutralizing Botulinum toxin serotype B

    PubMed Central

    Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Chahboun, Siham; Tierney, Rob; Bak, Nicola; Miethe, Sebastian; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael; Pelat, Thibaut; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, 7 subtypes of BoNT/B were identified showing that subtypes B1 (16 strains) and B2 (32 strains) constitute the vast majority of BoNT/B strains. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of anti-botulism drugs to deal with the potential risk. In this study, macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with recombinant light chain (LC) or heavy chain (HC) of BoNT/B2, followed by the construction of 2 hyper-immune phage display libraries. The best single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) isolated from each library were selected according to their affinities and cross reactivity with BoNT/B1 toxin subtype. These scFvs against LC and HC were further analyzed by assessing the inhibition of in vitro endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B1 and B2 and neutralization of BoNT/B1 and B2 toxin-induced paralysis in the mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. The antibodies B2–7 (against HC) and BLC3 (against LC) were produced as scFv-Fc, and, when tested individually, neutralized BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 in a mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. Whereas only scFv-Fc BLC3 alone protected mice against BoNT/B2-induced paralysis in vivo, when B2–7 and BLC3 were combined they exhibited potent synergistic protection. The present study provided an opportunity to assess the extent of antibody-mediated neutralization of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 subtypes in ex vivo and in vitro assays, and to confirm the benefit of the synergistic effect of antibodies targeting the 2 distinct functional domains of the toxin in vivo. Notably, the framework regions of the most promising antibodies (B2–7 and BLC3) are close to the human germline sequences

  9. Development of human-like scFv-Fc antibodies neutralizing Botulinum toxin serotype B.

    PubMed

    Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Chahboun, Siham; Tierney, Rob; Bak, Nicola; Miethe, Sebastian; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael; Pelat, Thibaut; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, 7 subtypes of BoNT/B were identified showing that subtypes B1 (16 strains) and B2 (32 strains) constitute the vast majority of BoNT/B strains. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of anti-botulism drugs to deal with the potential risk. In this study, macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with recombinant light chain (LC) or heavy chain (HC) of BoNT/B2, followed by the construction of 2 hyper-immune phage display libraries. The best single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) isolated from each library were selected according to their affinities and cross reactivity with BoNT/B1 toxin subtype. These scFvs against LC and HC were further analyzed by assessing the inhibition of in vitro endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B1 and B2 and neutralization of BoNT/B1 and B2 toxin-induced paralysis in the mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. The antibodies B2-7 (against HC) and BLC3 (against LC) were produced as scFv-Fc, and, when tested individually, neutralized BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 in a mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. Whereas only scFv-Fc BLC3 alone protected mice against BoNT/B2-induced paralysis in vivo, when B2-7 and BLC3 were combined they exhibited potent synergistic protection. The present study provided an opportunity to assess the extent of antibody-mediated neutralization of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 subtypes in ex vivo and in vitro assays, and to confirm the benefit of the synergistic effect of antibodies targeting the 2 distinct functional domains of the toxin in vivo. Notably, the framework regions of the most promising antibodies (B2-7 and BLC3) are close to the human germline sequences, which

  10. Solid solubility, phase transitions, thermal expansion, and compressibility in Sc1-xAlxF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelock, Cody R.; Gallington, Leighanne C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.

    2015-02-01

    With the goal of thermal expansion control, the synthesis and properties of Sc1-xAlxF3 were investigated. The solubility limit of AlF3 in ScF3 at ~1340 K is ~50%. Solid solutions (x≤0.50) were characterized by synchrotron powder diffraction at ambient pressure between 100 and 900 K and at pressures <0.414 GPa while heating from 298 to 523 K. A phase transition from cubic to rhombohedral is observed. The transition temperature increases smoothly with Al3+ content, approaching 500 K at the solid solubility limit, and also upon compression at fixed Al3+ content. The slope of the pressure-temperature phase boundary is ~0.5 K MPa-1, which is steep relative to that for most symmetry-lowering phase transitions in perovskites. The volume coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) for the rhombohedral phase is strongly positive, but the cubic-phase CTE varies from negative (x<0.15) to near-zero (x=0.15) to positive (x>0.20) between ~600 and 800 K. The cubic solid solutions elastically stiffen on heating, while Al3+ substitution causes softening at a given temperature.

  11. 75 FR 16335 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC.... SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace at Mount Pleasant, SC, to accommodate Standard... establishes Class E airspace at Mount Pleasant, SC, to provide controlled airspace extending upward from...

  12. 75 FR 57216 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bamberg, SC, to accommodate the additional... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC to provide...

  13. 76 FR 52290 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Pelion, SC, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures... as it would amend Class E airspace at Lexington County Airport at Pelion, Pelion, SC. Lists...

  14. 75 FR 52654 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bamberg, SC, to accommodate the additional... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC to provide...

  15. Study of structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in rocksalt and zincblende structure: A DFT approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Vikas Verma, U. P.

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in zincblende (ZB) and rocksalt (RS) phases. We have employed the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-APW) method within the density functional theory (DFT). Generalized gradient approximation (GGA), due to Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) has been used to estimate the exchange-correlation functional. Our band structure results for ScN shows the metallic nature, whereas ScAs shows the semiconducting behavior. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data.

  16. "Dancing inside the ball": the structures and nonlinear optical properties of three Sc2S@C3v(8)-C82 isomers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-Wei; Gao, Ying; Wang, Li-Jie; Xu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Shi-Ling; Su, Zhong-Min

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the crystal structures and electrochemical properties of the isomers (Sc2S "trapped" in C82) have been reported, in which the Sc2S is located inside the different positions of the C82 cage. In the present work, three isomers of endohedral metallofullerenes Sc2S@C3v(8)-C82 (A, B, and C) have been designed to explore the effect of the position of Sc2S on their interaction energies and nonlinear optical properties. Among three isomers, the Sc2S is located in different positions of the C82 cage: the angles of Sc-S-Sc in A, B, and C are 104.9, 114.8, and 115.7°, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of natural bond orbital (NBO) charge indicates that the electron-transfer is from the Sc2S to the adjacent carbon atoms of the C82 cage. The interaction energy of B is the smallest among three isomers which is -226.2 kcal mol(-1). It was worth mentioning that their first hyperpolarizabilities (β tot) were studied, we found that their β tot values were related to the positions of Sc2S: C (2100) > B (1191) > A (947 au). We hope that the present work can provide a new strategy to promote the nonlinear optical properties of endohedral metallofullerenes by changing the positions of the encapsulated molecular. Graphical abstract Three isomers of endohedral metallofullerenes Sc2S@C3v(8)-C82 (A, B, and C) have been designed to explore the position effect of Sc2S on the interaction energies and nonlinear optical properties. Among three isomers, the Sc2S in B has the most stable position. Significantly, the first hyperpolarizability is related to the position of Sc2S inside the C82 cage, which provides a novel strategy to enhance the first hyperpolarizability by the Sc2S revolving inside the C82 cage.

  17. Acid-base chemistry in the formation of Mackay-type icosahedral clusters: μ3-acidity analysis of Sc-rich phases of the Sc-Ir system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiming; Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-05-19

    The crystal structures of intermetallic phases offer a wealth of geometrical features (helices, multishelled clusters, and host-guest motifs) whose formation has yet to be explained or predicted by chemical theory. A recently developed extension of the acid-base concept to metallic systems, the μ3-acidity model, provides an avenue for developing this understanding for intermetallics formed from transition metals. In this Article, we illustrate how this approach can be used to understand one of the most striking geometrical entities to emerge in intermetallic chemistry, the Mackay cluster of icosahedral quasicrystals. We present μ3-acidity analyses, based on DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations, for a series of Sc-Ir intermetallics: ScIr (CsCl-type), Sc2Ir (Ti2Ni-type), Sc11Ir4, and the Mackay cluster containing phases Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7. We begin by illustrating that a μ3-acidity model correctly predicts that each of these phases is stable relative to disproportionation into their neighboring compounds when a common set of Hückel parameters and d-orbital occupancies is used. Next, we explain these results by developing a relationship between the distance distribution of homoatomic contacts within an atom's coordination sphere and the μ3-neutralization it experiences. For a given average homoatomic distance, the role of heteroatomic contacts is higher when the distribution of homoatomic contacts is narrower. This effect is key to the strength of the acid-base neutralization of the Sc-rich phases, where the Sc atoms find a scarcity of Ir atoms from which to obtain neutralization. Under these circumstances, Sc-Ir contacts should be maximized, whereas the number and distance variations of the Sc-Sc contacts should be minimized. These expectations are borne out by the observed crystal structures. In particular, the Mackay clusters of Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7, in which a central Ir atom is icosahedrally coordinated by a pentagonal dodecahedral array of face-sharing Sc

  18. NC unit trapped by fullerenes: a density functional theory study on Sc3NC@C(2n) (2n = 68, 78 and 80).

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhou, Zhen; Hao, Ce; Gao, Zhanxian; Tan, Kai; Lu, Xin; Chen, Zhongfang

    2010-10-21

    Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) with a trapped cluster size larger than four are rather scarce. Inspired by a recent experimental observation, we explored the possibility of encapsulating an unusual Sc(3)NC unit in three representative fullerene cages, namely, C(68), C(78) and C(80), by means of density functional computations. The geometries, electronic and electrochemical redox properties of the corresponding EMFs, Sc(3)NC@C(2n) (2n = 68, 78 and 80), were investigated. These novel EMFs all have very favorable binding energies, implying a considerable possibility for experimental realization. The recently observed m/z = 1121 peak in the mass spectroscopy was characterized as Sc(3)NC@C(80). Notably the lowest-energy isomer of Sc(3)NC@C(78) has a non-IPR C(78) outer cage, the possibility to accommodate five atoms inside a fullerene as small as C(68) is also intriguing. Moreover, the intracluster and metal-cage covalent interactions were revealed by a quantum theory of atoms in molecules study. Infrared absorption spectra and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were also computed to assist future experimental characterization.

  19. Characteristics of SC Coil Configuration for EDS Maglev to Reduce Leakage Flux with Strengthened Magnetomotive Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Toshiaki; Sasakawa, Takashi

    Vehicles of superconducting maglev system are suspended and driven by superconducting (SC) coils, which have strong magnetic field, and their passenger cabin must be shielded from leakage flux by the SC coils. In order to reduce the leakage flux, we have studied an improved configuration of SC coils, which has small size coils on its end. This configuration can reduce the environmental magnetic field, so that it can strengthen the magnetomotive force of SC coils. This paper describes the characteristics of levitation, guidance and propulsion performance at strengthening the magnetomotive force on the improved configuration of SC coils.

  20. Molecular analysis of snRNAs and scRNAs using autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Martinez, F; Reyes, P A; Cortes, J J

    1997-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation analysis of total HeLa cells RNA extract by protein A-Sheparose purified autoantibodies and pCp 32P-3' end labeling RNAs revealed that U1, U2, U4 and U5 snRNAs are related with anti-Sm or U1nRNP autoantibodies, while the hY1, hY3, hY4 and hY5 scRNAs were related to anti-SSA/Ro autoantibodies present in sera of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The authors detected molecular snRNAs and scRNAs specificities by autoantibodies in 71 sera, the molecular RNA specificity for anti-Sm (U1, U2, U4 and U5 snRNAs) was present in 39%; anti-SSA/Ro sera reacted against scRNAs (hY1, hY3, hY4 and hY5) in 36%, then anti-U1nRNP sera recognized U1 snRNA in 13% of sera and anti-rRNP related with rRNA were recognized in 8%. Twenty-nine SLE sera were RNA negative. A molecular characterization of the autoantibodies in sera from SLE patients may be a useful tool for clinical and laboratory diagnosis of SLE, and the use of autoantibodies as molecular probes allows to continue exploring some basic mechanism of gene expression.

  1. Isolation and spectroscopic properties of Sc[sub 2]C[sub 74], Sc[sub 2]C[sub 82], and Sc[sub 2]C[sub 84

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Hisanori; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Sato, Hiroyasu; Saito, Yahachi ); Ohkohchi, Masato; Ando, Yoshinori )

    1993-04-29

    The endohedral discandium fullerenes, Sc[sub 2]C[sub 74], Sc[sub 2]C[sub 82], and Sc[sub 2]C[sub 84], have been isolated for the first time from soot prepared by the arc burning of Sc[sub 2]O[sub 3]/graphite composite rods. The separation and isolation of the metallofullerenes from various hollow fullerenes have been realized by using a two-stage high-performance liquid chromatography. Laser-desorption time-of-flight mass analyses of the present samples confirm the isolation of the discandium fullerenes. The discandium fullerene, Sc[sub 2]C[sub 74], has been newly found in this study. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the isolated Sc[sub 2]C[sub 74], Sc[sub 2]C[sub 82], and Sc[sub 2]C[sub 84] reveal several salient features which are totally absent in those of the corresponding hollow fullerenes such as C[sub 76], C[sub 78], C[sub 82], and C[sub 84]. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Effect of Grain Refinement on Jerky Flow in an Al-Mg-Sc Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogucheva, Anna; Yuzbekova, Diana; Kaibyshev, Rustam; Lebedkina, Tatiana; Lebyodkin, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    The influence of microstructure on the manifestations of the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect was studied in an Al-Mg-Sc alloy with unrecrystallized, partially recrystallized, and fully recrystallized grain structures. It was found that the extensive grain refinement promotes plastic instability: the temperature-strain rate domain of the PLC effect becomes wider and the critical strain for the onset of serrations decreases. Besides, the amplitude of regular stress serrations observed at room temperature and an intermediate strain rate increases several times, indicating a strong increase of the contribution of solute solution hardening to the overall strength. Moreover, the grain refinement affects the usual sequence of the characteristic types of stress serrations, which characterize the dynamical mechanisms governing a highly heterogeneous unstable plastic flow. Finally, it reduces the strain localization and surface roughness and diminishes the difference between the surface markings detected in the necked area and in the region of uniform elongation.

  3. Time-dependent variation of composition of SC1 solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Isao; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Ryuta, Jiro; Kishimoto, Mikio; Shingyouji, Takayuki

    1993-09-01

    We investigated the time-dependent variation of composition of NH4OH/H2O2/H2O mixture, the standard cleaning 1 (SC1) solution in the RCA cleaning process. The NH4OH concentration decreased with time and that of H2O2 was almost constant. It was clarified that the decrease rate of NH4OH concentration depended on the temperature and H2O2 concentration in the SC1 solution. As the temperature was raised, the decrease rate accelerated. Conversely, as H2O2 concentration was raised, the rate decelerated. It is concluded that the hydrogen bond between NH3 and H2O2 prevents NH3 evaporation.

  4. 33 CFR 110.173 - Port of Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port of Charleston, SC. 110.173... 32°45′34″ N., 79°52′12″ W. (2) Commercial Anchorage B. This anchorage is located adjacent to the... located 1800 yards, 118° true from St. Michaels Church Spire and has a diameter of 500 yards....

  5. 33 CFR 110.173 - Port of Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Port of Charleston, SC. 110.173... 32°45′34″ N., 79°52′12″ W. (2) Commercial Anchorage B. This anchorage is located adjacent to the... located 1800 yards, 118° true from St. Michaels Church Spire and has a diameter of 500 yards....

  6. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Buses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a space telescope and the other for a formation-flying occulter. SC buses typically supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads. Unique requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter, and comunications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). However, TPF-O is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) with a Field of View (FOV) much larger than that of HST. Ths WFC is also expected to provide fine guidance. TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large science FOV require higher performance communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. The velocity required for reachng SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Finally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived fiom that of HST to allow servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  7. Improved input and output couplers for SC acceleration structure

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Latina, A.; Lunin, A.; Poloubotko, V.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Different couplers are described that allow the reduction of both transverse wake potential and RF kick in the SC acceleration structure of ILC. A simple rotation of the couplers reducing the RF kick and transverse wake kick is discussed for both the main linac and bunch compressors, along with possible limitations of this method. Designs of a coupler unit are presented which preserve axial symmetry of the structure, and provide reduced both the RF kick and transverse wake field.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Sulfonated Carbon-Based Catalysts Derived From Rubber Tree Leaves and Pulp and Paper Mill Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janaun, J.; Sinin, E.; Hiew, S. F.; Kong, A. M. T.; Lahin, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    Sulfonated carbon-based catalysts derived from rubber tree leaves, and pulp and paper mill waste were synthesized and characterized. Three types of catalyst synthesized were sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL), pyrolysed sludge char (P-SC) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC). Sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC) were prepared through pyrolysis followed by functionalization via sulfonation process whereas, P- SC was only pyrolyzed without sulfonation. The characterization results indicated sulfonic acids, hydroxyl, and carboxyl moieties were detected in S-RTL and S-SC, but no sulfonic acid was detected in P-SC. Total acidity test showed S-RTL had the highest value followed by S-SC and P-SC. The thermal stability of S-RTL and S-SC were up to 230oC as the loss was associated with the decomposition of sulfonic acid group, whereas, P-SC showed higher stability than the S-RTL and S-SC. Morphology analysis showed that S-RTL consisted of an amorphous carbon structure, and a crystalline structure for P-SC and S-SC. Furthermore, traces of metal components were also detected on all of the catalysts. The catalyst catalytic activity was tested through esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The results showed that the reaction using S-RTL catalyst produced the highest conversion (99.9%) followed by P-SC (88.4%) and lastly S-SC (82.7%). The synthesized catalysts showed high potential to be used in biodiesel production.

  9. A Further Study of the Products of Sc and Dioxygen Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Zhou, Mingfei; Andrews, Lester; Johnson, J. R. Tobias; Panas, Itai; Snis, Anders; Roos, Bjoern O.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The products of the reaction of Sc and dioxygen have been reinvestigated. By adding the electron-trapping molecule CC14, additional information about the IR spectra has been obtained, as well as the observation of new bands. New ab initio calculations are also performed on possible products of the Sc plus O2 reaction. The previously observed band at 722.5 per cm is assigned as the b2 mode of ScO2(-). Bands arising from ScO(+), Sc(O2)(+), and(O2)ScO are also assigned. We are still unable to assign any bands to OScO. The problems associated with the computational study of ScO2 are discussed.

  10. Spectroscopy of the open cluster remnant candidate ESO429-SC02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, M. S.; Corradi, W. J. B.; Santos, J. F. C., Jr.; Maia, F. F. S.

    2014-10-01

    In this study we intend to assess the physical nature of the open cluster remnant (OCR) candidate ESO429-SC02. In a previous work, the method of characterization devised by Pavani & Bica (2007) failed to characterize the object as an OCR or as an asterism, classifying it as a possible OCR. We carried out multi-object spectroscopy of 31 stars in its inner area (r lesssim 4^{'}) using GMOS/GEMINI-S (resolution R≍ 2000). We cross-correlated (IRAF's FXCOR task) our science spectra with all templates from ELODIE and PHOENIX libraries to obtain radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. We also employed 2MASS photometric data and proper motions from UCAC4. Individual distances via spectroscopic parallax and reddening values were derived for our science stars. In order to identify candidate member stars, we performed a 5-dimensional sigma-clipping routine using positional an kinematical data to interactively reject outliers and selected those stars well fitted by a Padova isochrone in K_{s} × (J-K_{s}) and (J-H) × (H-K_{s}) diagrams. Although a isochrone fitting solution was found, individual distances of stars close to the turnoff point or to the RGB range from 1.5 kpc to 4.4 kpc; E(B-V) values range from 0.0 to 0.46; [Fe/H] from -0.95 to 0.61 dex and radial velocities from 9 to 64 km/s. Besides, spectral types distribution of candidate member stars along the main sequence and the high dispersion in the parameters derived for them are inconsistent with what is expected for a coeval system. Our results suggest that ESO429-SC02 is a random overdensity of field stars along the line of sight.

  11. Scandium(III) complexes of monophosphorus acid DOTA analogues: a thermodynamic and radiolabelling study with (44)Sc from cyclotron and from a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator.

    PubMed

    Kerdjoudj, R; Pniok, M; Alliot, C; Kubíček, V; Havlíčková, J; Rösch, F; Hermann, P; Huclier-Markai, S

    2016-01-28

    The complexation ability of DOTA analogs bearing one methylenephosphonic (DO3AP) or methylenephosphinic (DO3AP(PrA) and DO3AP(ABn)) acid pendant arm toward scandium was evaluated. Stability constants of their scandium(iii) complexes were determined by potentiometry combined with (45)Sc NMR spectroscopy. The stability constants of the monophosphinate analogues are somewhat lower than that of the Sc-DOTA complex. The phosphorus acid moiety interacts with trivalent scandium even in very acidic solutions forming out-of-cage complexes; the strong affinity of the phosphonate group to Sc(iii) precludes stability constant determination of the Sc-DO3AP complex. These results were compared with those obtained by the free-ion selective radiotracer extraction (FISRE) method which is suitable for trace concentrations. FISRE underestimated the stability constants but their relative order was preserved. Nonetheless, as this method is experimentally simple, it is suitable for a quick relative comparison of stability constant values under trace concentrations. Radiolabelling of the ligands with (44)Sc was performed using the radioisotope from two sources, a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator and (44m)Sc/(44)Sc from a cyclotron. The best radiolabelling conditions for the ligands were pH = 4, 70 °C and 20 min which were, however, not superior to those of the parent DOTA. Nonetheless, in vitro behaviour of the Sc(iii) complexes in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum showed sufficient stability of (44)Sc complexes of these ligands for in vivo applications. PET images and ex vivo biodistribution of the (44)Sc-DO3AP complex performed on healthy Wistar male rats showed no specific bone uptake and rapid clearance through urine.

  12. Scandium(III) complexes of monophosphorus acid DOTA analogues: a thermodynamic and radiolabelling study with (44)Sc from cyclotron and from a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator.

    PubMed

    Kerdjoudj, R; Pniok, M; Alliot, C; Kubíček, V; Havlíčková, J; Rösch, F; Hermann, P; Huclier-Markai, S

    2016-01-28

    The complexation ability of DOTA analogs bearing one methylenephosphonic (DO3AP) or methylenephosphinic (DO3AP(PrA) and DO3AP(ABn)) acid pendant arm toward scandium was evaluated. Stability constants of their scandium(iii) complexes were determined by potentiometry combined with (45)Sc NMR spectroscopy. The stability constants of the monophosphinate analogues are somewhat lower than that of the Sc-DOTA complex. The phosphorus acid moiety interacts with trivalent scandium even in very acidic solutions forming out-of-cage complexes; the strong affinity of the phosphonate group to Sc(iii) precludes stability constant determination of the Sc-DO3AP complex. These results were compared with those obtained by the free-ion selective radiotracer extraction (FISRE) method which is suitable for trace concentrations. FISRE underestimated the stability constants but their relative order was preserved. Nonetheless, as this method is experimentally simple, it is suitable for a quick relative comparison of stability constant values under trace concentrations. Radiolabelling of the ligands with (44)Sc was performed using the radioisotope from two sources, a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator and (44m)Sc/(44)Sc from a cyclotron. The best radiolabelling conditions for the ligands were pH = 4, 70 °C and 20 min which were, however, not superior to those of the parent DOTA. Nonetheless, in vitro behaviour of the Sc(iii) complexes in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum showed sufficient stability of (44)Sc complexes of these ligands for in vivo applications. PET images and ex vivo biodistribution of the (44)Sc-DO3AP complex performed on healthy Wistar male rats showed no specific bone uptake and rapid clearance through urine. PMID:26675416

  13. Hydrophobins Sc3 and Sc4 gene expression in mounds, fruiting bodies and vegetative hyphae of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutami; Robertson, Deborah L; Leonard, Thomas J

    2008-03-01

    An abnormal growth form called mound has been hypothesized to be a neoplasm in the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune. An alternative hypothesis is that mounds represent some unusual developmental form in the fruiting body morphogenetic pathway. Hydrophobin proteins have been found in fruiting bodies where they line the surface of gas exchange pores and function to keep the pores hydrophobic. To further determine possible relationships between mounds and fruiting bodies, mound tissue was examined for gas exchange pores and the presence of hydrophobins. Cryoscanning electron microscopic images revealed the presence of channels in mound tissue and presumptive hydrophobin rodlets similar to the air channels in fruiting bodies. Hydrophobin gene expression was also measured in mound tissue using quantitative real-time PCR and showed both monokaryotic and dikaryotic mound tissue exhibited high expression of the dikaryotic specific Sc4 hydrophobin gene. In contrast, Sc4 hydrophobin expression was barely detectable in monokaryotic fruiting bodies. The expression of Sc4 hydrophobin genes in mounds suggests mound development uses this aspect of the dikaryotic fruiting developmental pathway.

  14. SQUID measurements of MnxSc(1-x)N and Fe0.1Sc0.9N Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Han-Jong; Constantin, Costel; Wang, Kangkang; Chinchore, Abhijit; Smith, Arthur; Markert, John

    2009-03-01

    We report SQUID magnetic measurements on N-rich and N-poor MnxSc(1-x)N and Fe0.1Sc0.9N films grown on ScN(001)/MgO(001) substrates by radio frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Ferromagnetism is present in both the Mn doped (x ranging from 3 to 15%) and the Fe doped ScN samples. Measurements on N-poor Mn0.03Sc0.97N and Mn0.15Sc0.85N (x=15%) show Curie temperatures of 383 K and 361 K, respectively. The Fe0.1Sc0.9N film shows a Curie temperature above 350 K as well. Further studies will be required to determine the origin of the ferromagnetism and the Curie temperature of the remaining MnxSc(1-x)N films. This work is supported by: Seton Hall: University Research Council; Ohio University: DOE-BES Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46317 and NSF Grant No. 0730257; and UT Austin: NSF Grant Nos. DMR-0605828 and DGE-0549417, Welch Foundation Grant No. F-1191.

  15. On 3d bonding in the transition metal trimers - The electronic structure of equilateral triangle Ca3, Sc3, Sc3(+), and Ti3(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that transition metals and transition metal (TM) compounds are currently of considerable interest because of their relevance to catalysis and to materials science problems such as hydrogen embrittlement and crack propagation in metals. The present paper is concerned with complete active space Self-Consistent Field (SCF) externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) calculations for the low-lying states of Sc3 and Sc3(+). A comparison is conducted regarding the bonding in the Ca3, Sc3, and Cu3 molecules. This comparison makes it possible to predict general trends for the TM trimers. Attention is given to the qualitative features of the bonding in the TM trimers, the basis sets and other technical details of the calculations, the calculated results for Sc3 and Sc3(+), and conclusions from this work.

  16. Directed evolution of human scFvs in DT40 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Alfred W.Y.; Williams, Gareth T.; Rada, Cristina; Sale, Julian E.

    2016-01-01

    Cells that constitutively diversify their immunoglobulin genes can be used for selection of novel antibodies and for refining existing affinities and specificities. Here, we report an adaptation of the chicken DT40 system wherein its capacity for somatic hypermutation is harnessed to evolve human antibodies expressed as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Expression of membrane-anchored scFvs from within the rearranged Igλ locus created self-diversifying scFv libraries from which we could both select scFvs of a desired specificity and evolve both the specificity and affinity of existing scFvs by iterative expansion and selection. From these scFvs, we were able to create fully human IgG antibodies with nanomolar affinities. We further enhanced the functionality of the system by creating a pool of DT40 scFv lines with high levels of mutation driven by the overexpression of a hyperactive variant of activation-induced deaminase. From this library, we successfully isolated scFvs that bound the spliceosome factor CWC15 and the cytokine human IFNγ. Our results demonstrate the flexibility and utility of DT40 for rapid generation of scFv repertoires and efficient selection, evolution and affinity maturation of scFv specificities. PMID:26519451

  17. Directed evolution of human scFvs in DT40 cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Alfred W Y; Williams, Gareth T; Rada, Cristina; Sale, Julian E

    2016-02-01

    Cells that constitutively diversify their immunoglobulin genes can be used for selection of novel antibodies and for refining existing affinities and specificities. Here, we report an adaptation of the chicken DT40 system wherein its capacity for somatic hypermutation is harnessed to evolve human antibodies expressed as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Expression of membrane-anchored scFvs from within the rearranged Igλ locus created self-diversifying scFv libraries from which we could both select scFvs of a desired specificity and evolve both the specificity and affinity of existing scFvs by iterative expansion and selection. From these scFvs, we were able to create fully human IgG antibodies with nanomolar affinities. We further enhanced the functionality of the system by creating a pool of DT40 scFv lines with high levels of mutation driven by the overexpression of a hyperactive variant of activation-induced deaminase. From this library, we successfully isolated scFvs that bound the spliceosome factor CWC15 and the cytokine human IFNγ. Our results demonstrate the flexibility and utility of DT40 for rapid generation of scFv repertoires and efficient selection, evolution and affinity maturation of scFv specificities.

  18. Crystal structure of Sc1.91In1.39Mo15Se19, containing Mo6 and Mo9 clusters.

    PubMed

    Gougeon, Patrick; Gall, Philippe; Salloum, Diala

    2015-07-01

    The structure of scandium indium penta-deca-molybdenum nona-deca-selenide, Sc1.91In1.39Mo15Se19, is isotypic with In2.9Mo15Se19 [Grüttner et al. (1979 ▸). Acta Cryst. B35, 285-292]. It is characterized by two cluster units Mo6Se (i) 8Se (a) 6 and Mo9Se (i) 11Se (a) 6 (where i represents inner and a apical atoms) that are present in a 1:1 ratio. The cluster units are centered at Wyckoff positions 2b and 2c and have point-group symmetry -3 and -6, respectively. The clusters are inter-connected through additional Mo-Se bonds. Sc-Se and In-Se bonds complete the structural set-up. In the title compound, the Sc(3+) cations replace the trivalent indium atoms present in In2.9Mo15Se19, and a deficiency is observed at the monovalent indium site. One Mo, one Se and the Sc atom are situated on mirror planes, whereas two other Se atoms and the In atom are situated on threefold rotation axes. PMID:26279861

  19. Influence of Sc3+ doping in B-site on electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 anode materials for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoyao; Zhang, Chunming; Lin, Ye; Xiong, Ding-Bang; Wang, Dan; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Dannong

    2014-03-01

    Anode materials Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and Sc-doped Li4Ti4.95Sc0.05O12-δ (LTSO) for lithium-ion batteries are both successfully synthesized by the modified sol-gel method with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as a bi-components chelating agent. The samples are characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, EDX and SEM. The dopant Sc totally enters into the 16d sites of the spinel structure of LTO, and then further affects its morphology and property. The LTSO powder exhibits a 3D network morphology and its grain size is about 200 nm. The LTSO electrode material exhibits an excellent initial discharge capacities of 174 and 94 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 40 C, respectively. The reversible capacities of LTSO at different current rates remain nearly 100% after 50 cycles, which are compared with the capacities of the second cycles. Sc3+ doping can greatly improve the electronic conductivity of LTO which is demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry measurements also reveal that LTSO has small polarization resistance due to the high electrical conductivity and Li-ion apparent diffusion rate.

  20. Generation of Anti-Idiotype scFv for Pharmacokinetic Measurement in Lymphoma Patients Treated with Chimera Anti-CD22 Antibody SM03

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Wong, Pui-Fan; Lee, Susanna S. T.; Leung, Shui-On; Cheung, Wing-Tai; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies of therapeutic antibodies require highly specific reagents to examine their immune responses, bio-distributions, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics in patients. Selective antigen-mimicking anti-idiotype antibody facilitates the assessment of therapeutic antibody in the detection, quantitation and characterization of antibody immune responses. Using mouse specific degenerate primer pairs and splenocytic RNA, we generated an idiotype antibody-immunized phage-displayed scFv library in which an anti-idiotype antibody against the therapeutic chimera anti-CD22 antibody SM03 was isolated. The anti-idiotype scFv recognized the idiotype of anti-CD22 antibody and inhibited binding of SM03 to CD22 on Raji cell surface. The anti-idiotype scFv was subsequently classified as Ab2γ type. Moreover, our results also demonstrated firstly that the anti-idiotype scFv could be used for pharmacokinetic measurement of circulating residual antibody in lymphoma patients treated with chimera anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03. Of important, the present approach could be easily adopted to generate anti-idiotype antibodies for therapeutic antibodies targeting membrane proteins, saving the cost and time for producing a soluble antigen. PMID:24816427

  1. Human scFv antibodies (Afribumabs) against Africanized bee venom: Advances in melittin recognition.

    PubMed

    Pessenda, Gabriela; Silva, Luciano C; Campos, Lucas B; Pacello, Elenice M; Pucca, Manuela B; Martinez, Edson Z; Barbosa, José E

    2016-03-15

    Africanized Apis mellifera bees, also known as killer bees, have an exceptional defensive instinct, characterized by mass attacks that may cause envenomation or death. From the years 2000-2013, 77,066 bee accidents occurred in Brazil. Bee venom comprises several substances, including melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Due to the lack of antivenom for bee envenomation, this study aimed to produce human monoclonal antibody fragments (single chain fragment variable; scFv), by using phage display technology. These fragments targeted melittin and PLA2, the two major components of bee venom, to minimize their toxic effects in cases of mass envenomation. Two phage antibody selections were performed using purified melittin. As the commercial melittin is contaminated with PLA2, phages specific to PLA2 were also obtained during one of the selections. Specific clones for melittin and PLA2 were selected for the production of soluble scFvs, named here Afribumabs: prefix: afrib- (from Africanized bee); stem/suffix: -umab (fully human antibody). Afribumabs 1 and 2 were tested in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their ability to inhibit the toxic actions of purified melittin, PLA2, and crude bee venom. Afribumabs reduced hemolysis caused by purified melittin and PLA2 and by crude venom in vitro and reduced edema formation in the paws of mice and prolonged the survival of venom-injected animals in vivo. These results demonstrate that Afribumabs may contribute to the production of the first non-heterologous antivenom treatment against bee envenomation. Such a treatment may overcome some of the difficulties associated with conventional immunotherapy techniques. PMID:26829652

  2. A 45Sc-NMR and DFT calculation study of crystalline scandium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuniger, Thomas; Hofmann, Andreas J.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Hoch, Constantin; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    A series of scandium compounds, namely ScPO4, ScOF, Li3Sc(BO3)2, and CaSc2O4, were prepared according to procedures described in the literature, and then characterised by powder X-ray diffraction and solid-state 45Sc-NMR spectroscopy. By computer fitting, the quadrupolar interaction parameters χ and η, as well as the isotropic chemical shifts δiso were extracted from the NMR spectra. For comparison and site assignment of 45Sc, density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the EFG tensor were carried out with the CASTEP code. For the compounds with a well-defined formal coordination number (CN), a convincing linear correlation between CN and isotropic chemical shift could be established.

  3. Synthesis and Superconducting Properties of a Hexagonal Phosphide ScRhP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inohara, Takumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Yamakawa, Youichi; Takenaka, Koshi

    2016-09-01

    We report the synthesis and superconducting properties of the ternary phosphide ScRhP. The crystal structure of ScRhP is determined to be the ordered Fe2P type with the hexagonal Pbar{6}2m space group by powder X-ray diffraction experiments. Resistivity, magnetization, and heat capacity data indicate that ScRhP is a bulk superconductor with a transition temperature Tc of 2 K. This Tc is lower than that of its 5d analogue, ScIrP (Tc = 3.4 K), although ScRhP is found to have larger electronic density of states at the Fermi energy and a higher Debye temperature than those of ScIrP.

  4. Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA _ Implicit (ScIFEi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, James E.; Bomarito, Geoffrey F.; Heber, Gerd; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA (ScIFEN) is a parallel finite element analysis code written in C++. ScIFEN is designed to provide scalable solutions to computational mechanics problems. It supports a variety of finite element types, nonlinear material models, and boundary conditions. This report provides an overview of ScIFEi (\\Sci-Fi"), the implicit solid mechanics driver within ScIFEN. A description of ScIFEi's capabilities is provided, including an overview of the tools and features that accompany the software as well as a description of the input and output le formats. Results from several problems are included, demonstrating the efficiency and scalability of ScIFEi by comparing to finite element analysis using a commercial code.

  5. In vitro neutralization of prions with PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Taschuk, Ryan; Van der Merwe, Jacques; Marciniuk, Kristen; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases reflect the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into an infectious, pathological isomer (PrP(Sc)). By targeting epitopes uniquely exposed by misfolding, our group developed PrP(Sc)-specific vaccines to 3 disease specific epitopes (DSEs). Here, antibodies induced by individual DSE vaccines are evaluated for their capacity to neutralize prions in vitro. For both purified antibodies and immunoreactive sera, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies were equally effective in neutralizing prions. Further, there was no significant increase in neutralizing activity when multiple DSEs were targeted within an assay. At a low antibody concentration, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies matched the neutralization achieved by an antibody that may act via both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). At higher doses, however, this pan-specific antibody was more effective, potentially due to a combined deactivation of PrP(Sc) and depletion of PrP(C).

  6. Dilute Magnetic and Electronic Properties of MnxSc(1-x)N/ScN(001)/MgO(001) Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Costel; Wang, Kangkang; Chinchore, Abhijit; Smith, Arthur; Chia, Han-Jong; Markert, John

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we report the magnetic and electronic properties of MnxSc(1-x)N films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Recently, theoretical calculations predicted a Curie temperature above 350 K for ScN films with up to 20% Mn impurity concentrations[1]. The magnetic hysteresis data suggests ferromagnetic behavior for Mn0.03Sc0.97N and Mn0.15Sc0.85N films with Curie temperatures of 383 K and 361 K, respectively. Furthermore, the measured electron concentrations for the Mn0.03Sc0.97N and Mn0.15Sc0.85N films are 6.51x10^19 cm-3 and 6.17x10^19 cm-3, respectively. These measured carrier concentration agree well with the prediction of Herwadkar et al. that ferromagnetism above room temperature in MnxSc(1-x)N should be possible by keeping the electron concentration below 10^20 cm-3. This work is supported by: Seton Hall: University Research Council; Ohio University: DOE-BES Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46317 and NSF Grant No. 0730257; and UT Austin: NSF Grant Nos. DMR-0605828 and DGE-0549417, Welch Foundation Grant No. F-1191. [1] A. Herwadkar (et al.), Phys. Rev. B 77, 134433 (2008).

  7. Structure, phase composition, and strengthening of cast Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Alekseeva, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure and phase composition of Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys containing 0.3 wt % Sc, up to 10 wt % Ca, and up to 10 wt % Mg have been investigated in the cast state and state after heat treatment. It has been shown that only binary phases Al4Ca, Al3Sc, and Al3Mg2 can be in equilibrium with the aluminum solid solution. It has been found that the maximum strengthening effect caused by the precipitation of Al3Sc nanoparticles for all investigated alloys is attained after annealing at 300-350°C.

  8. Screening of high-affinity scFvs from a ribosome displayed library using BIAcore biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Wang, Zhongkang; Nian, Siji; Yin, Youping; Chen, Gang; Xia, Yuxian

    2009-02-01

    An experimental protocol was developed to screen high-affinity single-chain Fv antibody fragments (scFvs) from a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) immunized ribosome display library using BIAcore biosensor. The screening methods involved immobilizing antigen [lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Xac] on sensor chip HPA and then unpurified expression products of scFvs flowing over the immobilized sensor chip. The affinity-improved scFvs were selected based on dissociation rate constants (k (d)). Thirty-five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-positive scFvs were analyzed by BIAcore, and three of those (scFv A1, B2, and C5) with lower k (d) were screened. To demonstrate the accuracy of the screening method, the three scFvs were expressed in Escherichia coli HB2151 and purified. The purified scFvs were subsequently further identified according to association rate and affinity constants. The results showed that the three scFvs (A1, B2, and C5) had high affinity for LPS of Xac (3.51 x 10(-11), 1.13 x 10(-10), 5.06 x 10(-10) M, respectively). Furthermore, the scFv B2 was highly specific for LPS of Xac and had no any cross-reactions with bovine serum albumin and LPS from Xac-related bacteria. This provided evidence that the information from the BIAcore screening assay could be accurate. PMID:18574567

  9. Experimental Studies on the Interaction of scCO2 and scCO2-SO2 With Rock Forming Minerals at Conditions of Geologic Carbon Storages - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzinger, J.; Wilke, F.; Wiersberg, T.; Vasquez Parra, M.

    2010-12-01

    Co-injection of SO2 (plus possibly NOx and O2) during CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers may cause stronger brine acidification than CO2 alone. Because of that, we investigate chemical corrosion of rocks and rock-forming minerals with impure supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at possible storage conditions of >73.7 bar and >31°C. Contaminates were chosen with respect to the composition of CO2 captured industrially from coal-fired power plants using the oxyfuel technology. The resulting data should build a base for the long-term prediction of the behavior of CO2 in geologic storage reservoirs. Experiments of up to 1000 hrs duration have been performed with 10 natural mineral concentrates (calcite, dolomite, siderite, anhydrite, hematite, albite, microcline, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite) in 3n NaCl solution and pure scCO2 or scCO2+SO2 (99.5+0.5 vol%). The NaCl reaction fluid resembles the average salinity of deep formation waters of the North German Basin and is not free of oxygen. To increase reaction rates all minerals were ground and the reagents agitated either by stirring or shaking in autoclaves of about one liter in volume. The autoclaves consist of Hastelloy™ or ferromagnetic stainless steel fully coated with PTFE. We used in average 15 g of solids, 700 ml liquid, and the vessels were pressurized up to 100 bars with CO2 or CO2-SO2 mixture. Experiments were run at temperatures up to 90°C. Before, during and after the experiments small amounts fluids were sampled and analyzed for dissolved constituents and pH. Solid phases were characterized by XRF, XRD, and EMPA before and after the experiments. Pure scCO2 corrodes all carbonates, reacts only slightly with anhydrite, albite, and microcline at a minimum pH of 4, and does not recognizably interact with the others. After the experiment, albite has gained in a, not yet fully identified, carbonate phase which might be dawsonite. Reaction fluids of the experiments with scCO2+SO2 have mostly lower pH than using scCO2

  10. Thermoelectric Transport in a ZrN/ScN Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Bian, Zhixi; Singh, Rajeev; Shakouri, Ali; Wortman, Robert; Rawat, Vijay; Sands, Tim

    2009-07-01

    Metal/semiconductor superlattices have the potential for a high thermoelectric figure of merit. The thermopower of these structures can be enhanced by controlling the barrier height using high-energy electron filtering. In addition, phonon scattering at interfaces can reduce the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity. In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental studies of the thermoelectric transport in ZrN/ScN metal/semiconductor superlattices. Preliminary measurement results show an exponential increase in the cross-plane electrical conductivity with increasing temperature, which indicates the presence of the barrier. Fit of the Boltzmann transport-based model with the data indicates a barrier height of 280 meV. The cross-plane Seebeck coefficient of the sample is also measured by combining Seebeck voltage transient measurements with the thermal imaging technique. A Seebeck coefficient of 820 μV/K at room temperature is extracted, which is in good agreement with the simulation result of 800 μV/K. Theoretical calculations predict that the ZrN/ScN structure can exhibit a ZT of 1.5 at 1300 K assuming lateral momentum is conserved and that a ZT of 3 is achievable if the lateral momentum is not conserved.

  11. Structural transformations in Sc/Si multilayers irradiated by EUVlasers

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, D.L.; Zubarev, E.N.; Pershyn, Y.P.; Sevryukova, V.A.; Kondratenko, V.V.; Vinogradov, A.V.; Artioukov, I.A.; Uspenskiy, Y.A.; Grisham, M.; Vaschenko, G.; Menoni, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.

    2007-08-21

    Multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) are keyelements for numerous applications of coherent EUV sources such as newtabletop lasers and free-electron lasers. However the field ofapplications is limited by the radiation and thermal stability of themultilayers. Taking into account the growing power of EUV sources thestability of the optics becomes crucial. To overcome this problem it isnecessary to study the degradation of multilayers and try to increasetheir temporal and thermal stability. In this paper we report the resultsof detailed study of structural changes in Sc/Simultilayers when exposedto intense EUV laser pulses. Various types of surface damage such asmelting, boiling, shockwave creation and ablation were observed asirradiation fluencies increase. Cross-sectional TEM study revealed thatthe layer structure was completely destroyed in the upper part ofmultilayer, but still survived below. The layers adjacent tothe substrateremained intact even through the multilayer surface melted down, thoughthe structure of the layers beneath the molten zone was noticeablychanged. The layer structure in this thermally affected zone is similarto that of isothermally annealed samples. All stages of scandium silicideformation such as interdiffusion, solid-state amorphization, silicidecrystallization, etc., are present in the thermally affected zone. Itindicates a thermal nature of the damage mechanism. The tungstendiffusion barriers were applied to the scandium/silicon interfaces. Itwas shown that the barriers inhibited interdiffusion and increased thethermal stability of Sc/Si mirrors.

  12. The ASCI Network for SC 2000: Gigabyte Per Second Networking

    SciTech Connect

    PRATT, THOMAS J.; NAEGLE, JOHN H.; MARTINEZ JR., LUIS G.; HU, TAN CHANG; MILLER, MARC M.; BARNABY, MARTY L.; ADAMS, ROGER L.; KLAUS, EDWARD J.

    2001-11-01

    This document highlights the Discom's Distance computing and communication team activities at the 2000 Supercomputing conference in Dallas Texas. This conference is sponsored by the IEEE and ACM. Sandia's participation in the conference has now spanned a decade, for the last five years Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab have come together at the conference under the DOE's ASCI, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiatives, Program rubric to demonstrate ASCI's emerging capabilities in computational science and our combined expertise in high performance computer science and communication networking developments within the program. At SC 2000, DISCOM demonstrated an infrastructure. DISCOM2 uses this forum to demonstrate and focus communication and pre-standard implementation of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the first gigabyte per second data IP network transfer application, and VPN technology that enabled a remote Distributed Resource Management tools demonstration. Additionally a national OC48 POS network was constructed to support applications running between the show floor and home facilities. This network created the opportunity to test PSE's Parallel File Transfer Protocol (PFTP) across a network that had similar speed and distances as the then proposed DISCOM WAN. The SCINET SC2000 showcased wireless networking and the networking team had the opportunity to explore this emerging technology while on the booth. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their convention exhibit floor. We also supported the production networking needs of the implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports DISCOM overall strategies in high performance computing networking.

  13. Magnetic Ordering in FeSc2 S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, K. W.; Morey, J. R.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Broholm, C. L.

    FeSc2S4 is a cubic spinel where orbitally active Fe2+ ions occupy the A-site diamond sublattice. Despite a high spin (S=2) state and Curie Weiss temperature of 45 K thermodynamic measurements show no indication of a phase transition and the material has been proposed as a unique example of a spin-orbital liquid. This ground state might arise from competition between on site spin-orbit coupling and Kugel-Khomskii exchange. We report neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline samples of FeSc2S4 which bring this picture into question. They reveal a previously unreported magnetically ordered state below 11 K. No structural distortions are visible with neutron or x-ray scattering. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic excitation spectrum was also explored and found to be minimal. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544.

  14. Quantum Criticality in FeSc2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ish, Daniel; Balents, Leon

    2015-03-01

    Despite possessing a local spin 2 moment on the iron site and a Curie-Weiss temperature of 45 K , the A site spinel FeSc2S4 does not magnetically order down to 50mK. Previous theoretical work by Chen and Balents advanced an explanation for this observation in the form of the ``J2- λ'' model which places FeSc2S4 close to a quantum critical point on the disordered side of a quantum phase transition between a Néel ordered phase and a ``Spin-Orbital Liquid'' in which spins and orbitals are entangled, quenching the magnetization. We present new theoretical studies of the optical properties of the J2- λ model, including a computation of the dispersion relation for the quasiparticle excitations and the form of the collective response to electric field. We argue that the latter directly probes a low energy excitation continuum characteristic of quantum criticality, and that our results reinforce the consistency of this model with experiment.

  15. Dynamic polarizabilities and hyperfine-structure constants for Sc2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Narendra Nath; Roy, Sourav; Deshmukh, P. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we calculate dynamic polarizabilities and hyperfine-structure A and B constants of a few low-lying states for Sc2 +. The sum-over-states technique is applied to calculate the polarizabilities of the 3 d 2D3 /2 ,3 d 2D5 /2 , and 4 s 2S1 /2 states. The most important and correlation sensitive part of the sum is calculated using a highly correlated relativistic coupled-cluster theory. The remaining part of the sum is calculated using a lower-order many-body perturbation theory and the Dirac-Fock theory. Present dynamic polarizabilities are important to investigate the Stark shifts in the 4 s 2S1 /2 - 3 d 2D5 /2 and 4 s 2S1 /2 - 3 d 2D3 /2 clock transitions of Sc2 +. Magic wavelengths for zero Stark shifts corresponding to these transitions are found in the vacuum-ultraviolet region. The coupled-cluster theory is used to estimate the hyperfine A and B constants with a very high accuracy.

  16. Serological studies to determine the occurrence of Johne's disease and mycoplasma infection in the Northern-East Polish population of European bison (Bison bonasus).

    PubMed

    Krzysiak, M K; Dudek, K; Krajewska, M; Bednarek, D; Szulowski, K

    2014-01-01

    A serological study of twenty three European bison (Bison bonasus) derived from Northern-East Poland for the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae was conducted. Only specific antibodies to M. bovis were detected in two animals (8.7%) which were connected with the clinical signs and macroscopic anatomopathological lesions.

  17. Single crystalline Sc2O3/Y2O3 heterostructures as novel engineered buffer approach for GaN integration on Si (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnawska, L.; Giussani, A.; Zaumseil, P.; Schubert, M. A.; Paszkiewicz, R.; Brandt, O.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2010-09-01

    The preparation of GaN virtual substrates on Si wafers via buffer layers is intensively pursued for high power/high frequency electronics as well as optoelectronics applications. Here, GaN is integrated on the Si platform by a novel engineered bilayer oxide buffer, namely, Sc2O3/Y2O3, which gradually reduces the lattice misfit of ˜-17% between GaN and Si. Single crystalline GaN(0001)/Sc2O3(111)/Y2O3(111)/Si(111) heterostructures were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized ex situ by various techniques. Laboratory-based x-ray diffraction shows that the epitaxial Sc2O3 grows fully relaxed on the Y2O3/Si(111) support, creating a high quality template for subsequent GaN overgrowth. The high structural quality of the Sc2O3 film is demonstrated by the fact that the concentration of extended planar defects in the preferred {111} slip planes is below the detection limit of synchrotron based diffuse x-ray scattering studies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveal that the full relaxation of the -7% lattice misfit between the isomorphic oxides is achieved by a network of misfit dislocations at the Sc2O3/Y2O3 interface. X-ray reflectivity and TEM prove that closed epitaxial GaN layers as thin as 30 nm can be grown on these templates. Finally, the GaN thin film quality is studied using a detailed Williamson-Hall analysis.

  18. Scandium-44: benefits of a long-lived PET radionuclide available from the (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    PubMed

    Roesch, F

    2012-07-01

    (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generators are of interest for molecular imaging. The 3.97 hours half-life of (44)Sc and its high positron branching of 94.27% may stimulate the application of (44)Sc-labeled PET radiopharmaceuticals. This review describes the current status of (44)Ti production, (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generator development, post-processing of generator eluates towards medical application, identification of ligands adequate to Sc(III) co-ordination chemistry, proof-of-principle labeling of (44)Sc-DOTA-octreotides, investigation of in vitro and in vivo parameters, and initial applications for molecular imaging - both in small animals and humans.

  19. Effect of cage charges on multiphoton absorptions: first-principles study on metallofullerenes Sc(2)C(2)@C(68) and Sc(3)N@C(68).

    PubMed

    Cheng, W-D; Hu, H; Wu, D-S; Wang, J-Y; Huang, S-P; Xe, Z; Zhang, H

    2009-05-21

    A combined method of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and sum-overstate (SOS) formula was implemented to model multiphoton absorption spectra, including two-photon absorption (2PA) and three-photon absorption (3PA), of Sc(2)C(2)@C(68) and Sc(3)N@C(68) endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs). This method has been proved to be effective by comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of trans-4,4'-bis[diphenylamino]stilbene. It was found that the multiphoton absorption cross sections were larger for Sc(2)C(2)@C(68) than that of Sc(3)N@C(68). The electronic origin of multiphoton absorption has been identified with respect to the molecular orbitals involved in charge transfer process. It shows that the increase of pi-charges on the cage of C(68) results in a large multiphoton absorption cross section in EMFs.

  20. Valence band offsets of Sc x Ga1‑x N/AlN and Sc x Ga1‑x N/GaN heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, H. C. L.; Goff, L. E.; Palgrave, R. G.; Beere, H. E.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Moram, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The valence band offsets of Sc x Ga1‑x N/AlN heterojunctions were measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and were found to increase from 0.42 eV to 0.95 eV as the Sc content x increased from 0 to 0.15. The increase in valence band offset with increasing x is attributed to the corresponding increase in spontaneous polarization of the wurtzite structure. The Sc x Ga1‑x N/AlN heterojunction is type I, similar to other III-nitride-based heterojunctions. The data also indicate that a type II staggered heterojunction, which can enhance spatial charge separation, could be formed if Sc x Ga1‑x N is grown on GaN.

  1. Tumor Targeting by a Multivalent Single-Chain Fv (scFv) Anti-Lewis Y Antibody Construct

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Marcus P.; Lee, F.-T.; Tahtis, Kiki; Power, Barbara E.; Smyth, Fiona E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The use of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) constructs has been investigated in cancer radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimmunodetection, as these molecules permit rapid tumor penetration and clearance from the serum relative to whole IgG. Multimerization of scFv constructs has demonstrated improvements in functional affinity (i.e., avidity) and maximal tumor uptake. In this paper, we report the first biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of a noncovalent, direct-linked scFv (VL-0-VH) trimeric/tetrameric “multimer” of the anti-Lewis Y monoclonal antibody, hu3S193. The in vitro binding and in vivo biodistribution of the hu3S193 multimer was characterized alongside the hu3S193 F(ab′)2 following radiolabeling with the Indium-111 (111In) radioisotope. Immunoreactivities of the radiolabeled multimer and F(ab′)2 were 73% and 53.2%, and binding affinities (Ka) were 1.58 × 107 M−1 and 4.31 × 106 M−1 for the multimer and F(ab′)2, respectively. Maximal tumor uptake in Ley-positive MCF-7 breast cancer xenografted BALB/c nude mice was 12.6 ± 2.5 percent injected dose/per gram (%ID/g) at 6 hours postinjection for the multimer and 15.7 ± 2.1 %ID/g at 24 hours postinjection for the F(ab′)2. However, limited in vitro stability and high renal localization of radiolabeled constructs were observed, which, despite the observed tumor targeting of the hu3S193 multimer, most likely preclude its use in RIT and imaging modalities. PMID:18771345

  2. NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes under internal dry reforming of simulated biogas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratori, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes were operated by directly feeding a fuel mixture of CH 4, CO 2 and N 2 (CH 4 to CO 2 ratio of 3:2). Stable operation under constant current load (200 mA cm -2) was achieved with a NiO-ScSZ type anode during 200 h operating hours at 900 °C. Less stable operation occurred with a Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ type anode. In the case of SOFC with Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ as the anode, the methane reforming activity was higher than that with NiO-ScSZ. This was explained by change in the microstructure promoting reforming reactions. However, the addition of MgO resulted in degradation of electrochemical performance due to increase in ohmic resistance of the anode material during operation.

  3. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  4. Covalent and oriented immobilization of scFv antibody fragments via an engineered glycan moiety.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuejun; Hortigüela, María J; Robin, Sylvain; Lin, Heng; Li, Yajie; Moran, Anthony P; Wang, Wenxin; Wall, J Gerard

    2013-01-14

    Antibody-derived fragments have enormous potential application in solid-phase assays such as biomarker detection and protein purification. Controlled orientation of the immobilized antibody molecules is a critical requirement for the sensitivity and efficacy of such assays. We present an approach for covalent, correctly oriented attachment of scFv antibody fragments on solid supports. Glycosylated scFvs were expressed in Escherichia coli and the C-terminal, binding pocket-distal glycan tag was oxidized for covalent attachment to amine-functionalized beads. The glycosylated scFvs could be immobilized at salt concentrations that precluded nonspecific adsorption of unglycosylated molecules and the covalently attached antibody fragments exhibited 4-fold higher functional activity than ionically adsorbed scFvs. The glyco-tethered scFvs were stable in NaCl concentrations that removed greater than 90% of adsorbed scFvs and they exhibited improved stability of antigen binding over both adsorbed scFvs and soluble, nonimmobilized scFvs in accelerated degradation tests. The simple expression and immobilization approach reported is likely to find broad application in in vitro antibody tests.

  5. 76 FR 77727 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... August 22, 2011 amending Class E airspace at Lexington County Airport at Pelion, Pelion, SC, is being... August 22, 2011, a NPRM was published in the Federal Register amending Class E airspace at Pelion, SC to...-21827), is hereby withdrawn. Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  6. 76 FR 12298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Orangeburg, SC, to accommodate the additional... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Orangeburg Municipal Airport, Orangeburg,...

  7. 75 FR 32268 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC... Register April 1, 2010 that establishes Class E airspace at Mt Pleasant Regional Airport-Faison Field, Mount Pleasant, SC. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC, June 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  8. 76 FR 38582 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Clemson, SC, as a runway extension requires amended Standard... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  9. Structural and electronic studies of metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs-C72

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Wang, Taishan; Wu, Jingyi; Feng, Lai; Xiang, Junfeng; Ma, Yihan; Zhang, Zhuxia; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru

    2013-07-01

    We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed.We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, HPLC chromatogram, and DFT calculations. CCDC 917712. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01739g

  10. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., Executive Secretary to the OCS SC, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 381 Elden Street, Mail Stop...

  11. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  12. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  13. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  14. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  15. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  16. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  17. 33 CFR 165.T07-0161 - Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC. 165.T07-0161 Section 165.T07-0161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....T07-0161 Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC. (a) Regulated area. The following regulated...

  18. Operation of SC5 rapid scan particle spectrometer on SCATHA satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanser, F. A.; Sellers, B.; Hardy, D. A.; Cohen, H. A.; Feynman, J.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The SC5 rapid scan particle spectrometer, operating on the SCATHA satellite, is discussed. SC5 in-orbit operation and reduction of electrostatic analyzer (ESA) spectra are addressed. ESA data summaries from ion and electron gun operations are explained. Data from gun operations show how the satellite potential responds and provide information on the various time constants involved.

  19. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia... 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and...

  20. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. 334.470 Section 334.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area...

  1. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. 334.470 Section 334.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area...

  2. Final Report for DOE Grant Number DE-SC0001481

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Edison

    2013-12-02

    This report covers research activities, major results and publications supported by DE-SC-000-1481. This project was funded by the DOE OFES-NNSA HEDLP program. It was a joint research program between Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin. The physics of relativistic plasmas was investigated in the context of ultra-intense laser irradiation of high-Z solid targets. Laser experiments using the Texas Petawatt Laser were performed in the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Numerical simulations of laser-plasma interactions were performed using Monte Carlo and Particle-in-Cell codes to design and support these experiments. Astrophysical applications of these results were also investigated.

  3. Running Tests of a Combined SC Type Linear Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Murai, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    In the superconducting maglev system, it is important to develop a non-contact on-board power source without environmental pollution such as noise and exhaust gas. We have studied a combined SC (Superconducting Coil) type linear generator as the most realistic system. The linear generator system has improved to increase output, power factor and measuring equipment. In this paper, the linear generator system is experimented in running tests on the Yamanashi Test line. We can supply power of 25kW to half a car in the speed range 400km/h to 500km/h. A good correlation is recognized between the analysis and measurement in the running tests. This linear generator system can be expected to be applicable in the practical use

  4. The shape of the Sc2(μ2-S) unit trapped in C82: crystallographic, computational, and electrochemical studies of the isomers, Sc2(μ2-S)@C(s)(6)-C82 and Sc2(μ2-S)@C(3v)(8)-C82.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Brandon Q; Chen, Ning; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Mackey, Mary A; Stevenson, Steven; Echegoyen, Luis; Poblet, Josep M; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L

    2011-05-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) and Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(3v)(8)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) reveal that both contain fully ordered fullerene cages. The crystallographic data for Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) show two remarkable features: the presence of two slightly different cage sites and a fully ordered molecule Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) in one of these sites. The Sc-S-Sc angles in Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) (113.84(3)°) and Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(3v)(8)-C(82) differ (97.34(13)°). This is the first case where the nature and structure of the fullerene cage isomer exerts a demonstrable effect on the geometry of the cluster contained within. Computational studies have shown that, among the nine isomers that follow the isolated pentagon rule for C(82), the cage stability changes markedly between 0 and 250 K, but the C(s)(6)-C(82) cage is preferred at temperatures ≥250 °C when using the energies obtained with the free encapsulated model (FEM). However, the C(3v)(8)-C(82) cage is preferred at temperatures ≥250 °C using the energies obtained by rigid rotor-harmonic oscillator (RRHO) approximation. These results corroborate the fact that both cages are observed and likely to trap the Sc(2)(μ(2)-S) cluster, whereas earlier FEM and RRHO calculations predicted only the C(s)(6)-C(82) cage is likely to trap the Sc(2)(μ(2)-O) cluster. We also compare the recently published electrochemistry of the sulfide-containing Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) to that of corresponding oxide-containing Sc(2)(μ(2)-O)@C(s)(6)-C(82). PMID:21473581

  5. Electronic structures and optical properties of two-dimensional ScN and YN nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Li, Xi-Bo; Zhang, Hui; Yin, Wen-Jin; Liu, Li-Min E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Peng, Ping E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn

    2014-03-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit different electronic properties than their bulk materials. Here, we present a systematic study of 2D tetragonal materials of ScN and YN using density functional theory calculations. Several thermodynamically stable 2D tetragonal structures were determined, and such novel tetragonal structures have good electronic and optical properties. Both bulk ScN and YN are indirect band gap semiconductors while the electronic structures of 2D ScN and YN are indirect gap semiconductors, with band gaps of 0.62–2.21 eV. The calculated optical spectra suggest that 2D tetragonal ScN and YN nanosheets have high visible light absorption efficiency. These electronic properties indicate that 2D ScN and YN have great potential for applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

  6. The Successive OH Binding Energies of Sc(OH)n+ for n=1-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The geometries of Sc(OH)n+, for n = 1-3, have been optimized using density functional theory, in conjunction with the B3LYP hybrid functional. The zero-point energies are computed at the same level of theory. The successive OH bond energies have been computed at the CCSD(T) level for ScOH+ and Sc(OH)2+. The computed result for ScOD+ is in excellent agreement with the recent experiment of Armentrout and co-workers. There is a dramatic drop for the third OH, because Sc+ has only two valence electrons and therefore the bonding changes when the third OH is added. The difference between the B3LYP and CCSD(T) OH binding energies for the first two OH groups is discussed.

  7. Sc(2)MgGa(2) and Y(2)MgGa(2).

    PubMed

    Sahlberg, Martin; Andersson, Yvonne

    2009-03-01

    Scandium magnesium gallide, Sc(2)MgGa(2), and yttrium magnesium gallide, Y(2)MgGa(2), were synthesized from the corresponding elements by heating under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in the tetragonal Mo(2)FeB(2)-type structure. All three crystallographically unique atoms occupy special positions and the site symmetries of (Sc/Y, Ga) and Mg are m2m and 4/m, respectively. The coordinations around Sc/Y, Mg and Ga are pentagonal (Sc/Y), tetragonal (Mg) and triangular (Ga) prisms, with four (Mg) or three (Ga) additional capping atoms leading to the coordination numbers [10], [8+4] and [6+3], respectively. The crystal structure of Sc(2)MgGa(2 )was determined from single-crystal diffraction intensities and the isostructural Y(2)MgGa(2) was identified from powder diffraction data. PMID:19265212

  8. Composition measurement of epitaxial Sc x Ga1-x N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, H. C. L.; Goff, L. E.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Pereira, S.; Palgrave, R. G.; Davies, R. J.; Beere, H. E.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Moram, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Four different methods for measuring the compositions of epitaxial Sc x Ga1-x N films were assessed and compared to determine which was the most reliable and accurate. The compositions of epitaxial Sc x Ga1-x N films with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.26 were measured directly using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and indirectly using c lattice parameter measurements from x-ray diffraction and c/a ratio measurements from electron diffraction patterns. RBS measurements were taken as a standard reference. XPS was found to underestimate the Sc content, whereas c lattice parameter and c/a ratio were not reliable for composition determination due to the unknown degree of strain relaxation in the film. However, the Sc flux used during growth was found to relate linearly with x and could be used to estimate the Sc content.

  9. Sc(2)MgGa(2) and Y(2)MgGa(2).

    PubMed

    Sahlberg, Martin; Andersson, Yvonne

    2009-03-01

    Scandium magnesium gallide, Sc(2)MgGa(2), and yttrium magnesium gallide, Y(2)MgGa(2), were synthesized from the corresponding elements by heating under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in the tetragonal Mo(2)FeB(2)-type structure. All three crystallographically unique atoms occupy special positions and the site symmetries of (Sc/Y, Ga) and Mg are m2m and 4/m, respectively. The coordinations around Sc/Y, Mg and Ga are pentagonal (Sc/Y), tetragonal (Mg) and triangular (Ga) prisms, with four (Mg) or three (Ga) additional capping atoms leading to the coordination numbers [10], [8+4] and [6+3], respectively. The crystal structure of Sc(2)MgGa(2 )was determined from single-crystal diffraction intensities and the isostructural Y(2)MgGa(2) was identified from powder diffraction data.

  10. Motion Parameters Determination of the SC and Phobos in the Project Phobos-Grunt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akim, E. L.; Stepanyants, V. A.; Tuchin, A. G.; Shishov, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    The SC "Phobos-Grunt" flight is planned to 2009 in Russia with the purpose to deliver to the Earth the soil samples of the Mars satellite Phobos. The mission will pass under the following scheme [1-4]: the SC flight from the Earth to the Mars, the SC transit on the Mars satellite orbit, the motion round the Mars on the observation orbit and on the quasi-synchronous one [5], landing on Phobos, taking of a ground and start in the direction to the Earth. The implementation of complicated dynamical operations in the Phobos vicinity is foreseen by the project. The SC will be in a disturbance sphere of gravitational fields from the Sun, the Mars and the Phobos. The SC orbit determination is carried out on a totality of trajectory measurements executed from ground tracking stations and measurements of autonomous systems onboard space vehicle relatively the Phobos. As ground measurements the radio engineering measurements of range and range rate are used. There are possible as onboard optical observations of the Phobos by a television system and ranges from the SC up to the Phobos surface by laser locator. As soon as the Phobos orbit accuracy is insufficient for a solution of a problem of landing its orbit determination will be carried out together with determination of the SC orbit. Therefore the algorithms for joint improving of initial conditions of the SC and the Phobos are necessary to determine parameters of the SC relative the Phobos motion within a single dynamical motion model. After putting on the martial satellite orbit, on the Phobos observation orbit, on the quasi-synchronous orbit in the Phobos vicinity the equipment guidance and the following process of the SC orbit determination relatively Phobos requires a priori knowledge of the Phobos orbit parameters with sufficiently high precision. These parameters should be obtained beforehand using both all modern observations and historical ones.

  11. Characterization and expression analyses of the H⁺-pyrophosphatase gene in rye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Shui; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Wang, Ji-Rui; Chen, Guo-Yue; Qi, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yuan-Ying; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The H⁺-pyrophosphatase (H⁺-PPase) gene plays an important role in maintaining intracellular proton gradients. Here, we characterized the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) and DNA of the H⁺-PPase gene ScHP1 in rye (Secale cereale L. 'Qinling'). We determined the subcellular localization of this gene and predicted the corresponding protein structure. We analysed the evolutionary relationship between ScHP1 and H⁺-PPase genes in other species, and did real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to explore the expression patterns of ScHP1 in rye plants subjected to N, P and K deprivation and to cold, high-salt and drought stresses. ScHP1 cDNA included a 2289 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 762 amino acid residues with 14 transmembrane domains. The genomic ScHP1 DNA was 4354 bp and contained eight exons and seven introns. ScHP1 was highly homologous with other members of the H⁺-PPase gene family. When the full-length ORF was inserted into the expression vector pA7-YFP, the fluorescent microscopy revealed that ScHP1-YFP fusion protein was located in the plasma membrane. Rye plants that were subjected to N deprivation, cold and high-salt stresses, ScHP1 expression was higher in the leaves than roots. Conversely, plants subjected to P and K deprivation and drought stress, ScHP1 expression was higher in the roots than leaves. Under all the investigated stress conditions, expression of ScHP1 was lower in the stem than in the leaves and roots. Our results imply that ScHP1 functions under abiotic stress response.

  12. Characterization and expression analyses of the H⁺-pyrophosphatase gene in rye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Shui; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Wang, Ji-Rui; Chen, Guo-Yue; Qi, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yuan-Ying; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The H⁺-pyrophosphatase (H⁺-PPase) gene plays an important role in maintaining intracellular proton gradients. Here, we characterized the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) and DNA of the H⁺-PPase gene ScHP1 in rye (Secale cereale L. 'Qinling'). We determined the subcellular localization of this gene and predicted the corresponding protein structure. We analysed the evolutionary relationship between ScHP1 and H⁺-PPase genes in other species, and did real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to explore the expression patterns of ScHP1 in rye plants subjected to N, P and K deprivation and to cold, high-salt and drought stresses. ScHP1 cDNA included a 2289 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 762 amino acid residues with 14 transmembrane domains. The genomic ScHP1 DNA was 4354 bp and contained eight exons and seven introns. ScHP1 was highly homologous with other members of the H⁺-PPase gene family. When the full-length ORF was inserted into the expression vector pA7-YFP, the fluorescent microscopy revealed that ScHP1-YFP fusion protein was located in the plasma membrane. Rye plants that were subjected to N deprivation, cold and high-salt stresses, ScHP1 expression was higher in the leaves than roots. Conversely, plants subjected to P and K deprivation and drought stress, ScHP1 expression was higher in the roots than leaves. Under all the investigated stress conditions, expression of ScHP1 was lower in the stem than in the leaves and roots. Our results imply that ScHP1 functions under abiotic stress response. PMID:27659326

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoidessubsp.mycoidesis the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  14. Effect of Rare Earth Elements (Er, Ho) on Semi-Metallic Materials (ScN) in an Applied Electric Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    The development of materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics is essential for applications such as membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras and flat-panel displays. The dopants of rare earth elements, in a host of optical systems, create a number of absorption and emission band structures and can easily be incorporated into many high quality crystalline and amorphous hosts. In wide band-gap semiconductors like ScN, the existing deep levels can capture or emit the mobile charges, and can be ionized with the loss or capture of the carriers which are the fundamental basis of concept for smart optic materials. The band gap shrinkage or splitting with dopants supports the possibility of this concept. In the present work, a semi-metallic material (ScN) was doped with rare earth elements (Er, Ho) and tested under an applied electric field to characterize spectral and refractive index shifts by either Stark or Zeeman Effect. These effects can be verified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the Hall Effect measurement and the ellipsometric spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of ScN doped with Er and doped with Ho were experimentally estimated as 2.33eV and 2.24eV ( 0.2eV) respectively. This is less than that of undoped ScN (2.5 0.2eV). The red-shifted absorption onset is a direct evidence for the decrease of band gap energy (Eg), and the broadening of valence band states is attributable to the doping cases. A decrease in refractive index with an applied field was observed as a small shift in absorption coefficient using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. In the presence of an electric field, mobile carriers are redistributed within the space charge region (SCR) to produce this electro-refractive effect. The shift in refractive index is also affected by the density and location of deep potential wells within the SCR. In addition, the microstructure change was observed by a TEM

  15. Simplifying the synthesis of SIgA: combination of dIgA and rhSC using affinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Moldt, Brian; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Schultz, Niccole; Burton, Dennis R.; Hessell, Ann J.

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal epithelia together with adaptive immune responses, such as local production and secretion of dimeric and polymeric immunoglobulin A (IgA), are a crucial part of the first line of defense against invading pathogens. IgA is primarily secreted as SIgA and plays multiply roles in mucosal defense. The study of SIgA-mediated protection is an important area of research in mucosal immunity but an easy, fast and reproducible method to generate pathogen-specific SIgA in vitro has not been available. We report here a new method to produce SIgA by co-purification of dimeric IgA, containing J chain, and recombinant human SC expressed in CHO cells. We previously reported the generation, production and characterization of the human recombinant monoclonal antibody IgA2 b12. This antibody, derived from the variable regions of the neutralizing anti-HIV-1 mAb IgG1 b12, blocked viral attachment and uptake by epithelial cells in vitro. We used a cloned CHO cell line that expresses monomeric, dimeric and polymeric species of IgA2 b12 for large-scale production of dIgA2 b12. Subsequently, we generated a CHO cell line to express recombinant human secretory component (rhSC). Here, we combined dIgA2 b12 and CHO-expressed rhSC via column chromatography to produce SIgA2 b12 that remains fully intact upon elution with 0.1M Citric acid, pH 3.0. We have performed biochemical analysis of the synthesized SIgA to confirm the species is of the expected size and retains the functional properties previously described for IgA2 b12. We show that SIgA2 b12 binds to the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein with similar apparent affinity to that of monomeric and dimeric forms of IgA2 b12 and neutralizes HIV-1 isolates with similar potency. An average yield of 6 mg of SIgA2 b12 was achieved from the combination of 20 mg of purified dIgA2 b12 and 2 L of rhSC-containing CHO cell supernatant. We conclude that synthesized production of stable SIgA can be generated by co-purification. This process introduces a

  16. Effect of rare earth elements (Er, Ho) on semi-metallic materials (ScN) in an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-04-01

    The development of materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics is essential for applications such as membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras and flat-panel displays. The dopants of rare earth elements, in a host of optical systems, create a number of absorption and emission band structures and can easily be incorporated into many high quality crystalline and amorphous hosts. In wide band-gap semiconductors like ScN, the existing deep levels can capture or emit the mobile charges, and can be ionized with the loss or capture of the carriers which are the fundamental basis of concept for smart optic materials. The band gap shrinkage or splitting with dopants supports the possibility of this concept. In the present work, a semi-metallic material (ScN) was doped with rare earth elements (Er, Ho) and tested under an applied electric field to characterize spectral and refractive index shifts by either Stark or Zeeman Effect. These effects can be verified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the Hall Effect measurement and the ellipsometric spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of ScN doped with Er and doped with Ho were experimentally estimated as 2.33eV and 2.24eV (+/-0.2eV) respectively. This is less than that of undoped ScN (2.5+/-0.2eV). The red-shifted absorption onset is a direct evidence for the decrease of band gap energy (Eg), and the broadening of valence band states is attributable to the doping cases. A decrease in refractive index with an applied field was observed as a small shift in absorption coefficient using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. In the presence of an electric field, mobile carriers are redistributed within the space charge region (SCR) to produce this electro-refractive effect. The shift in refractive index is also affected by the density and location of deep potential wells within the SCR. In addition, the microstructure change was observed by a

  17. Effects of Dopant on Depoling Temperature in Modified BiScO3 - PbTiO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, Benjamin; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for high temperature piezoelectrics for both terrestrial and aerospace applications. These applications are limited in part by the operating temperature, which is usually taken as one half of the Curie temperature (Tc), and is 200C for one of the most widely used commercial piezoelectrics, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). In an effort to increase Tc, subsequent research into high temperature Bi(BB)O3 PbTiO3 piezoelectrics led to the discovery of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the high-Tc BiScO3 PbTiO3 (BS-PT) system with a Tc of 460C and a d33 of 460 pmV. The Tc marks the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transformation and while, in general, a phase transformation leads to thermal depoling in piezoelectrics with low or moderate Tcs, for high Tc piezoelectrics thermally assisted dipole rotation can lead to randomization of domains at temperatures below Tc. It becomes necessary to determine the depoling temperature (Td) which dictates the actual working temperature range. By doping for Sc and Ti the Td can be shifted while maintaining similar electromechanical properties as a function of temperature. The effect of this B-site doping on depoling temperature has been explored through the characterization of microstructure and weakhigh field measurements.

  18. Flow cytometry-based methods for assessing soluble scFv activities and detecting pathogen antigens in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Sean; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung'u, Joseph; Buscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao N.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-04-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. A limiting step in the isolation of scFv from nonimmune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeastdisplayed and secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of its ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv toidentify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind nonoverlapping or noncompeting epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries.

  19. Flow Cytometry-Based Methods for Assessing Soluble scFv Activities and Detecting Antigens in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sean A.; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung'u, Joseph; Büscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao; Baird, Cheryl; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. Alimiting step in the isolation of scFv from non-immune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeast-displayed and -secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of their ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv to identify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind non-overlapping or non-competing epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast-displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries. PMID:19953671

  20. 76 FR 77727 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbia, SC, and Proposed Establishment of Class E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbia, SC, and Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Columbia, SC by removing Corporate Airport from the airspace designation, and would establish Class...

  1. Differential dynamics of splicing factor SC35 during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Parnaik, Veena K

    2008-09-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing factors are enriched in nuclear domains termed interchromatin granule clusters or nuclear speckles. During mitosis, nuclear speckles are disassembled by metaphase and reassembled in telophase in structures termed mitotic interchromatin granules (MIGs). We analysed the dynamics of the splicing factor SC35 in interphase and mitotic cells. In HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SC35, this was localized in speckles during interphase and dispersed in metaphase. In telophase, GFP-SC35 was highly enriched within telophase nuclei and also detected in MIGs. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that the mobility of GFP-SC35 was distinct in different mitotic compartments. Interestingly, the mobility of GFP-SC35 was 3-fold higher in the cytoplasm of metaphase cells compared with interphase speckles, the nucleoplasm or MIGs. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) caused changes in the organization of nuclear compartments such as nuclear speckles and nucleoli, with corresponding changes in the mobility of GFP-SC35 and GFP-fibrillarin. Our results suggest that the dynamics of SC35 are significantly influenced by the organization of the compartment in which it is localized during the cell cycle.

  2. Study of metal film coating on Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix impregnated cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Taguchi, S.; Aida, T.; Kawase, S.

    Electron emission and surface properties of the Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix impregnated cathode coated with Ir, Os, Pt and Mo are studied. The cathode is composed of porous body of a metal matrix (5 wt% Sc 2O 3 in W) and an impregnant of 4BaO·CaO·Al 23, on which metal films of about 500 nm are evaporated. Sc atoms do not appear on the film surface even after prolonged heating at 1150°C, and the coated cathodes do not show the emission anomaly usually seen for Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix cathodes. The Mo film, however, alloys easily with W in a short heat treatment time and the Sc atoms are distributed nonuniformly over the surface. The Mo coated cathode does show the emission anomaly. A simple coating with Sc film on the ordinary W matrix cathode reveals neither the surface properties nor the emission properties of Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix cathodes.

  3. Final Technical Report – DOE Grant DE-SC0005904

    SciTech Connect

    Dear, Jody

    2013-10-23

    DOE grant DE-SC0005904 was allocated to fund the faculty development, curriculum development and travel to support the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System’s (CSUS) Initiative for Nanotechnology-related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development. DOE grant DE-SC0005072 was also awarded for this program. In 2010, CSUS had identified the establishment of nanotechnology programs and infrastructure as a priority. At that time, the system set the goal of establishing an academic initiative in nanotechnology for the CSUS, beginning with the development of a series of courses at the graduate level. Implementation was planned via a collaborative effort including faculty from all four of the CSUS campuses. The CSUS Nanotechnology Working Group [CSUS NWG] was established to accomplish this goal. A faculty member from the Physics Department at Southern Connecticut State University [SCSU] was assigned the task of organizing and coordinating the work of the CSUS NWG. Representatives from each of the four CSUS campuses were appointed to join the CSUS NWG with the following initial representation: SCSU [Physics and Biology], Western Connecticut State University (WCSU) [Chemistry], Eastern Connecticut State University (ECSU) [Chemistry] and Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) [Chemistry. As a further outcome it was determined that this collaborative effort would lead to the establishment of a formal nanotechnology center, serving as the nucleus of CSUS student and faculty learning and research. This CSUS Nanotechnology Center [CSUS-NC] was to be located at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU). The goal of this grant was to provide funding for curriculum and faculty development necessary to facilitate the development and implementation of a collaborative Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology for the Connecticut State University System. This outcome has been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the Graduate

  4. EngenuitySC Commercialization and Entrepreneurial Training Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Meghan; Hutton, Katherine R

    2012-12-31

    A team led by EngenuitySC has performed education and outreach on development of advanced energy markets that will enable wider use of clean energy technologies. This report details the efforts that have made significant advances to improve the market place through education, outreach, and increased communications between industry members. The project resulted in two self-funded industry clusters known as the Fuel Cell Collaborative and NuHub. This project has focused on building and strengthening the leading clean energy clusters in South Carolina: nuclear energy and fuel cell technologies. For the nuclear industry, a new cluster was developed that is now known as NuHub. This cluster has already engaged over 25 nuclear industry leaders or suppliers, four public sector partners, six community economic development foundations, and nearly ten academic partners in a 175 mile radius between Augusta, Georgia and Charlotte, North Carolina. Our outreach has touched over 2,000 stakeholders through the website alone, not including the public audiences and members of the business community reached through news stories and releases that were distributed to over 620 print and online publications. NuHub has established a formal leadership structure, developed subcommittees to focus on industry issues, instituted educational programs for the workforce, and created an industry funding structure that will sustain the industry cluster and mission. NuHub has participated in a wide-variety of community building and outreach activities since its formation under this grant. In the two years since its creation in 2010, we have initiated efforts focused in four main areas that correlate with the four NuHub subcommittees including: innovation, workforce development, industry engagement, and marketing and communications. NuHub successfully raised over $160,000 in both public and private funding, which has supported work to grow the cluster and engage partners including NuScale, Fluor, and

  5. SC-41930: An inhibitor of leukotriene B4-stimulated human neutrophil functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, B.S.; Villani-Price, D.; Keith, R.H.; Zemaitis, J.M.; Bauer, R.F.; Leonard, R.; Djuric, S.W.; Shone, R.L. )

    1989-12-01

    SC-41930 was evaluated for effects on human neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation. At concentrations up to 100 microM, SC-41930 alone exhibited no effect on neutrophil migration, but dose-dependently inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in a modified Boyden chamber. Concentrations of SC-41930 from 0.3 microM to 3 microM competitively inhibited LTB4-induced chemotaxis with a pA2 value of 6.35. While inactive at 10 microM against C5a-induced chemotaxis, SC-41930 inhibited N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced chemotaxis, with 10 times less potency than against LTB4-induced chemotaxis. SC-41930 inhibited (3H)LTB4 and (3H)fMLP binding to their receptor sites on human neutrophils with KD values of 0.2 microM and 2 microM, respectively. SC-41930 also inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by 20-OH LTB or 12(R)-HETE. At concentrations up to 10 microM, SC-41930 alone did not cause neutrophil degranulation, but inhibited LTB4-induced degranulation in a noncompetitive manner. SC-41930 also inhibited fMLP- or C5a-induced degranulation, but was about 8 and 10 times less effective for fMLP and C5a, respectively. The results indicate that SC-41930 is a human neutrophil LTB4 receptor antagonist with greater specificity for LTB4 than for fMLP or C5a receptors.

  6. Radiolabeling of DOTATOC with the long-lived positron emitter 44Sc.

    PubMed

    Pruszyński, Marek; Majkowska-Pilip, Agnieszka; Loktionova, Natalia S; Eppard, Elisabeth; Roesch, Frank

    2012-06-01

    The positron-emitting radionuclide (44)Sc with a half-life of 3.97 h and a β(+) branching of 94.3% is of potential interest for clinical PET. As so far it is available from a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator in Mainz, where long-lived (44)Ti decays to no-carrier-added (nca) (44)Sc. The (44)Sc is a trivalent metal cation and should be suitable for complexation with many well established bifunctional chelators conjugated to peptides or other molecular targeting vectors. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the potential of (44)Sc for labeling of DOTA-conjugated peptides. DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide (DOTATOC) was used as a model molecule to study and optimize labeling procedure. Reaction parameters such as buffer conditions, concentration of peptide, pH range, reaction temperature and time were optimized. Addition of 21 nmol of DOTATOC to (44)Sc in ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.0 provided labeling yields >98% within 25 min of heating in an oil-bath at 95°C. This time can be reduced to 3 min only by applying microwave supported heating. (44)Sc-DOTATOC was found to be stable in 0.9% NaCl, PBS pH 7.4, fetal calf and human serums, and also in the presence of competing metal cations (Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+)), as well as other ligand competitors, like EDTA and DTPA, even after almost 25 h incubation at 37°C. Present study shows that nca (44)Sc forms stable complexes with the macrocyclic ligand DOTA and that (44)Sc-DOTATOC and analog targeting vectors may be synthesized for further preclinical and clinical investigations.

  7. Syntheses and structures of Li{sub 3}ScF{sub 6} and high pressure LiScF{sub 4-}, luminescence properties of LiScF{sub 4}, a new phase in the system LiF-ScF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, A.K.; Koehler, J. . E-mail: J.Koehler@fkf.mpg.de; Balog, P.; Weber, J.

    2005-09-15

    Colorless single crystals of Li{sub 3}ScF{sub 6} have been prepared by reacting the binary components LiF and ScF{sub 3} at 820{sup o}C for 16h in argon atmosphere. This complex fluoride is the only stable phase in the system LiF-ScF{sub 3} under ambient pressure. According to a structure refinement based on single crystal X-ray diffraction data it crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group P3-bar c1 with a=8.78.3(1)A and c=9.518(1)A. The new structure of Li{sub 3}ScF{sub 6} is a filled variant of the Na{sub 2}GeF{sub 6} type structure and can be described in terms of a hexagonal close packing of fluorine in which 2/3 of the octahedral holes are occupied by Sc and Li. High pressure/high temperature studies of the system LiF-ScF{sub 3} show that the new phase LiScF{sub 4} is formed at around 5.5GPa and 575{sup o}C. According to Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray diffraction data LiScF{sub 4} adopts the Scheelite type structure (space group I4{sub 1}/a) with a=4.980(1)A and c=10.074(1)A. A sample of LiScF{sub 4} doped with 1% Er exhibits an intense luminescence in the far IR region.

  8. Effects of Al3(Sc,Zr) and Shear Band Formation on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongfeng; Jiang, Feng; Zhou, Jiang; Wei, Lili; Qu, Jiping; Liu, Lele

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructures of Al-6Mg-0.25Sc-0.1Zr alloy (wt.%) during annealing were investigated by means of uniaxial tensile testing, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The results show that a large number of micro and grain-scale shear bands form in this alloy after cold rolling. As the tensile-loading force rises, strain softening would generate in shear bands, resulting in the occurrence of shear banding fracture in cold-rolled Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys. Recrystallization takes place preferentially in shear bands during annealing. Due to the formation of coarse-grain bands constructed by new subgrains, recrystallization softening tends to occur in these regions. During low-temperature annealing, recrystallization is inhibited by nano-scale Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates which exert significant coherency strengthening and modulus hardening. However, the strengthening effect of Al3(Sc,Zr) decreases with the increasing of particle diameter at elevated annealing temperature. The mechanical properties of the recrystallized Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy decrease to a minimum level, and the fracture plane exhibits pure ductile fracture characteristics.

  9. On nd bonding in the transition metal trimers: Comparison of Sc3 and Y3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    CASSCF/CCI calculations are presented for the low-lying states of Y3. Comparison of the wave functions for Y3 and Sc3 indicates substantial 4d-5p hybridization in Y3, but little 3d-4p hybridization in Sc3. The increased 4d-5p hybridization leads to stabilization of 4dpi bonding with respect to 4dsigma bonding for equilateral triangle Y3, and also leads to 4d-5p bonding for linear geometries. These effects lead to a different ordering of states for equilateral triangle geometries and a smaller excitation energy to the linear configuration for Y3 as compared to Sc3.

  10. Relationship between solar wind dynamic pressure and amplitude of geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Tohru; Shinbori, Atsuki

    2016-05-01

    The local time variation of geomagnetic sudden commencements (SCs) has not been taken into account in the Siscoe's linear relationship which connects the SC amplitude with the corresponding dynamic pressure variation of the solar wind. By considering the physical background of SC, we studied which local time is best to extract the information of the solar wind dynamic pressure and concluded that the SC amplitude at 4-5 h local time of middle- and low-latitude stations most directly reflects the dynamic pressure effect. This result is used to re-check the order of magnitude of the largest 3 SCs observed since 1868.

  11. The Fifth Annual Sc2.0 and Synthetic Genomes Conference: Synthetic Genomes in High Gear.

    PubMed

    Walker, Roy S K; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-09-16

    The Sc2.0 project is perhaps the largest synthetic biology project in the public domain, and ultimately aims to construct a new version of the humble brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each year, the Sc2.0 consortium gather to discuss progress in this ambitious project and highlight new developments at the forefront of synthetic genome engineering. This viewpoint summarizes some of the key moments of the 2016 conference, including updates on the Sc2.0 project itself, mammalian synthetic biology, DNA assembly automation, HGP-Write and a panel discussion on the social and ethical perspectives of synthetic biology. PMID:27633830

  12. Promising electron mobility and high thermal conductivity in Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuhong; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Francisco, Joseph S; Luo, Kan; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-21

    MXenes, the new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have recently attracted extensive attention due to their diverse applications and excellent performances. However, the thermal and electrical properties of most MXene materials are yet to be studied. In this work, we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of semiconducting Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes using first-principles calculations. Both of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes are determined to show excellent carrier mobilities. The electron mobility in the Sc2CF2 MXene is found to be strongly anisotropic at room temperature, with values of 5.03 × 10(3) and 1.07 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The predicted electron mobility in the zigzag direction of the Sc2CF2 is nearly four-fold that in the armchair direction of the promising semiconductor phosphorene. In contrast to Sc2CF2, Sc2C(OH)2 presents approximately isotropic electron mobility. The values at room temperature in the zigzag and armchair directions are calculated as 2.06 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 2.19 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In regard to the thermal properties, the thermal conductivities of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes have been determined. The predicted values are higher than those of most metals and semiconducting low-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2 and phosphorene. In particular, the room-temperature thermal conductivity along the Sc2CF2 armchair direction has been determined to be as high as 472 W m(-1) K(-1) based on a flake length of 5 μm, which is even higher than that of the best traditional conductor silver. The corresponding value in the zigzag direction of Sc2CF2 is calculated to be 178 W m(-1) K(-1). The thermal conductivity in Sc2C(OH)2 is less anisotropic and lower compared to that in Sc2CF2. The room-temperature value in the armchair (zigzag) direction is determined to be 173 W m(-1) K(-1) (107 W m(-1) K(-1)). Based on their excellent

  13. Promising electron mobility and high thermal conductivity in Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuhong; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Francisco, Joseph S; Luo, Kan; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-21

    MXenes, the new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have recently attracted extensive attention due to their diverse applications and excellent performances. However, the thermal and electrical properties of most MXene materials are yet to be studied. In this work, we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of semiconducting Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes using first-principles calculations. Both of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes are determined to show excellent carrier mobilities. The electron mobility in the Sc2CF2 MXene is found to be strongly anisotropic at room temperature, with values of 5.03 × 10(3) and 1.07 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The predicted electron mobility in the zigzag direction of the Sc2CF2 is nearly four-fold that in the armchair direction of the promising semiconductor phosphorene. In contrast to Sc2CF2, Sc2C(OH)2 presents approximately isotropic electron mobility. The values at room temperature in the zigzag and armchair directions are calculated as 2.06 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 2.19 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In regard to the thermal properties, the thermal conductivities of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes have been determined. The predicted values are higher than those of most metals and semiconducting low-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2 and phosphorene. In particular, the room-temperature thermal conductivity along the Sc2CF2 armchair direction has been determined to be as high as 472 W m(-1) K(-1) based on a flake length of 5 μm, which is even higher than that of the best traditional conductor silver. The corresponding value in the zigzag direction of Sc2CF2 is calculated to be 178 W m(-1) K(-1). The thermal conductivity in Sc2C(OH)2 is less anisotropic and lower compared to that in Sc2CF2. The room-temperature value in the armchair (zigzag) direction is determined to be 173 W m(-1) K(-1) (107 W m(-1) K(-1)). Based on their excellent

  14. Display and selection of scFv antibodies on HEK-293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mitchell; Pastan, Ira

    2009-01-01

    We describe a human cell display strategy to isolate high affinity single chain antibody fragments (scFvs) specific for CD22 for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. Our strategy uses flow cytometry and human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK-293T) cells that are widely used for transient protein expression. Flow cytometry enhances the screen's sensitivity thereby allowing us to isolate high affinity scFvs. Using human cell display one could isolate and engineer scFvs, single domains, Fabs or whole IgGs for increased affinity and other biological functions. PMID:19554290

  15. Standardisation and precise determination of the half-life of (44)Sc.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Peyrés, V; Roteta, M; Sánchez-Cabezudo, A I; Romero, E; Martínez Ortega, A

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (44)Sc has been determined by following the decay rate with two measurement systems; an Ionisation Chamber and a HPGe detector. The combination of seven results gives a value of T1/2=4.042 (25)h, about 2% higher than the recommended value of T1/2=3.97 (4)h (Browne, 2011) and with a lower uncertainty. This radionuclide has also been standardised by coincidence counting, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. A (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator developed at CIEMAT was used to obtain the (44)Sc solutions used in all measurements. PMID:26701659

  16. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-06-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er3+/Yb3+ NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal

  17. The stellar content of the nuclear regions of Sc galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnrose, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    Stellar-population syntheses based on absolute spectral energy distributions over the wavelength range from 3300 to 10,400 A are used to determine the stellar content of the nuclear regions of seven nearby Sc galaxies (NGC 628, 1073, 1084, 1637, 2903, 4321, and 5194). A linear-programming procedure is employed to construct models of the overall stellar populations whose spectra closely match those of the seven galaxies. Absolute measurements of the emission-line spectra of the nuclear regions are also provided. It is found that: (1) intrinsic reddening is probably present in each nuclear region; (2) the upper main sequence is substantially populated in most of the models; (3) the lower main sequence contributes insignificantly to the luminosity in all optimal solutions; (4) substantial contributions are made by evolved M stars at long wavelengths in all the models; (5) the model photometric M/L ratios are low, of the order of unity; and (6) the O-B stars arising naturally in the population models are just sufficient to provide the observed nuclear ionization in all the galaxies except NGC 5194, which may be collisionally ionized. The properties of the nuclear regions are shown to be consistent with the existence of a common initial mass function for star formation and a variety of time dependences for the star-formation process. A possibly significant correlation is noted between nuclear stellar content and overall dynamical properties in four of the galaxies.

  18. Ternary rare earth silicides RE2M3Si4 (RE = Sc, Y, Lu; M = Mo, W): crystal structure, coloring and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten B; Xie, Weiwei; Cava, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    The ternary compounds Sc2Mo3Si4, Y2Mo3Si4, Lu2Mo3Si4 and Sc2W3Si4 have been synthesized using arc melting and structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds are isostructural with Gd5Si4 but with coloring (order of the rare earth and transition metals) on the Gd site. In contrast to group 4 and 5 ternaries of the same type, we observe no site mixing between the rare earth and transition metals. The Y compound displays a different, less common coloring from the others and through DFT calculations and investigation of the solid solution between Sc2Mo3Si4 and Y2Mo3Si4 it is shown that the different coloring of the latter is only marginally more stable. The electronic structures of the ternary compounds have been investigated using DFT calculations, yielding densities of states very similar to Gd5Si4. These predict metallic behavior and no magnetism, which is confirmed through resistivity and magnetization measurements. PMID:26817679

  19. Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) Materials Proposed for Inert Matrix Fuel Applications.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John R; Grosvenor, Andrew P; Saoudi, Mouna

    2016-02-01

    Inert matrix fuels (IMF) consist of transuranic elements (i.e., Pu, Am, Np, Cm) embedded in a neutron transparent (inert) matrix and can be used to "burn up" (transmute) these elements in current or Generation IV nuclear reactors. Yttria-stabilized zirconia has been extensively studied for IMF applications, but the low thermal conductivity of this material limits its usefulness. Other elements can be used to stabilize the cubic zirconia structure, and the thermal conductivity of the fuel can be increased through the use of a lighter stabilizing element. To this end, a series of Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) materials has been synthesized via a co-precipitation reaction and characterized by multiple techniques (Nd was used as a surrogate for Am). The long-range and local structures of these materials were studied using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, the stability of these materials over a range of temperatures has been studied by annealing the materials at 1100 and 1400 °C. It was shown that the Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) materials maintained a single cubic phase upon annealing at high temperatures only when both Nd and Sc were present with y ≥ 0.10 and x + y > 0.15.

  20. Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) Materials Proposed for Inert Matrix Fuel Applications.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John R; Grosvenor, Andrew P; Saoudi, Mouna

    2016-02-01

    Inert matrix fuels (IMF) consist of transuranic elements (i.e., Pu, Am, Np, Cm) embedded in a neutron transparent (inert) matrix and can be used to "burn up" (transmute) these elements in current or Generation IV nuclear reactors. Yttria-stabilized zirconia has been extensively studied for IMF applications, but the low thermal conductivity of this material limits its usefulness. Other elements can be used to stabilize the cubic zirconia structure, and the thermal conductivity of the fuel can be increased through the use of a lighter stabilizing element. To this end, a series of Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) materials has been synthesized via a co-precipitation reaction and characterized by multiple techniques (Nd was used as a surrogate for Am). The long-range and local structures of these materials were studied using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, the stability of these materials over a range of temperatures has been studied by annealing the materials at 1100 and 1400 °C. It was shown that the Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) materials maintained a single cubic phase upon annealing at high temperatures only when both Nd and Sc were present with y ≥ 0.10 and x + y > 0.15. PMID:26751283

  1. Inducible scAAV2.GRE.MMP1 lowers IOP long-term in a large animal model for steroid-induced glaucoma gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Borrás, Teresa; Buie, LaKisha K.; Spiga, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of glaucoma relies on administration of daily drops or eye surgery. A gene therapy approach to treat steroid-induced glaucoma would bring a resolution to millions of people worldwide that depend on glucocorticoid therapy for a myriad of inflammatory disorders. Previously, we had characterized a short-term Adh.GRE.MMP1 gene vector for the production of steroid-induced MMP1 in the trabecular meshwork and tested reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in a sheep model. Here we conducted a trial transferring the same transgene cassette to a clinically safe vector (scAAV2), and extended the therapeutic outcome to longer periods of times. No evidence of ocular and/or systemic toxicity was observed. Viral genome distributions showed potential re-inducible vector DNAs in the trabecular meshwork (0.4 vg/cell) and negligible copies in six major internal organs (0.00002-0.005 vg/cell). Histological sections confirmed successful transduction of scAAV2.GFP to the trabecular meshwork. Optimization of the sheep steroid–induced hypertensive model revealed that topical ophthalmic drug difluprednate 0.05% (durezol) induced the highest IOP elevation in the shortest time. This is the first efficacy/toxicity study of a feasible gene therapy treatment of steroid-induced hypertension using clinically accepted scAAV vectors in a large animal model. PMID:26855269

  2. Tri-icosahedral Gold Nanocluster [Au37(PPh3)10(SC2H4Ph)10X2](+): Linear Assembly of Icosahedral Building Blocks.

    PubMed

    Jin, Renxi; Liu, Chong; Zhao, Shuo; Das, Anindita; Xing, Hongzhu; Gayathri, Chakicherla; Xing, Yan; Rosi, Nathaniel L; Gil, Roberto R; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-08-25

    The [Au37(PPh3)10(SR)10X2](+) nanocluster (where SR = thiolate and X = Cl/Br) was theoretically predicted in 2007, but since then, there has been no experimental success in the synthesis and structure determination. Herein, we report a kinetically controlled, selective synthesis of [Au37(PPh3)10(SC2H4Ph)10X2](+) (counterion: Cl(-) or Br(-)) with its crystal structure characterized by X-ray crystallography. This nanocluster shows a rod-like structure assembled from three icosahedral Au13 units in a linear fashion, consistent with the earlier prediction. The optical absorption and the electrochemical and catalytic properties are investigated. The successful synthesis of this new nanocluster allows us to gain insight into the size, structure, and property evolution of gold nanoclusters that are based upon the assembly of icosahedral units (i.e., cluster of clusters). Some interesting trends are identified in the evolution from the monoicosahedral [Au13(PPh3)10X2](3+) to the bi-icosahedral [Au25(PPh3)10(SC2H4Ph)5X2](2+) and to the tri-icosahedral [Au37(PPh3)10(SC2H4Ph)10X2](+) nanocluster, which also points to the possibility of achieving even longer rod nanoclusters based upon assembly of icosahedral building blocks. PMID:26214221

  3. HIV-1-Tat Protein Inhibits SC35-mediated Tau Exon 10 Inclusion through Up-regulation of DYRK1A Kinase.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Ferdous; Pacifici, Marco; Wilk, Anna; Parker-Struckhoff, Amanda; Del Valle, Luis; Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E; Parsons, Christopher; Jeansonne, Duane; Lassak, Adam; Peruzzi, Francesca

    2015-12-25

    The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat is implicated in the neuronal damage that contributes to neurocognitive impairment affecting people living with HIV/AIDS. Aberrant splicing of TAU exon 10 results in tauopathies characterized by alterations in the proportion of TAU isoforms containing three (3R) or four (4R) microtubule-binding repeats. The splicing factor SC35/SRSF2 binds to nuclear RNA and facilitates the incorporation of exon 10 in the TAU molecule. Here, we utilized clinical samples, an animal model, and neuronal cell cultures and found that Tat promotes TAU 3R up-regulation through increased levels of phosphorylated SC35, which is retained in nuclear speckles. This mechanism involved Tat-mediated increased expression of DYRK1A and was prevented by DYRK1A silencing. In addition, we found that Tat associates with TAU RNA, further demonstrating that Tat interferes with host RNA metabolism in the absence of viral infection. Altogether, our data unravel a novel mechanism of Tat-mediated neuronal toxicity through dysregulation of the SC35-dependent alternative splicing of TAU exon 10. Furthermore, the increased immunostaining of DYRK1A in HIV+ brains without pathology points at dysregulation of DYRK1A as an early event in the neuronal complications of HIV infection. PMID:26534959

  4. Crystal structure of Sc1.91In1.39Mo15Se19, containing Mo6 and Mo9 clusters

    PubMed Central

    Gougeon, Patrick; Gall, Philippe; Salloum, Diala

    2015-01-01

    The structure of scandium indium penta­deca­molybdenum nona­deca­selenide, Sc1.91In1.39Mo15Se19, is isotypic with In2.9Mo15Se19 [Grüttner et al. (1979 ▸). Acta Cryst. B35, 285–292]. It is characterized by two cluster units Mo6Sei 8Sea 6 and Mo9Sei 11Sea 6 (where i represents inner and a apical atoms) that are present in a 1:1 ratio. The cluster units are centered at Wyckoff positions 2b and 2c and have point-group symmetry -3 and -6, respectively. The clusters are inter­connected through additional Mo—Se bonds. Sc—Se and In—Se bonds complete the structural set-up. In the title compound, the Sc3+ cations replace the trivalent indium atoms present in In2.9Mo15Se19, and a deficiency is observed at the monovalent indium site. One Mo, one Se and the Sc atom are situated on mirror planes, whereas two other Se atoms and the In atom are situated on threefold rotation axes. PMID:26279861

  5. Conversion of Fe-rich waste sludge into nano-flake Fe-SC hybrid Fenton-like catalyst for degradation of AOII.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingjun; Zhu, Yuting; Liu, Mingxiang; Chang, Xiangyang; Xiong, Ya; Chen, Diyun

    2016-09-01

    Permanently increasing in the amount of sludge resulted in the serious environment burden. This work reports a novel carbothermal process for converting the Fe-rich waste sludge into cleaner nano-flake Fenton-like catalyst to relieve the crisis. The transformation of Fe species at different carbothermal temperature was evaluated by XRD analysis. SEM and XPS analyses were involved to characterize the morphology and chemical bonds of the catalysts. Results shown that the resulted catalyst carbonized at 800 °C (Fe-SC-800) was composed of Fe(0) and Fe3O4, performing nano-flake-like structure. The Fe-SC-800 has the highest catalytic activity in degradation of AOII in C0 = 200 mg/L. The efficiency achieves at 98% within 30 min at neutral pH, which is ascribed to the hydroxyl radical oxidation. Moreover, no iron is leached and the Fe-SC-800 could be recycled for three times at least. Thus, the Fe rich sludge could be reutilized as a valuable source for eco-friendly catalyst production, constituting an ecological way to manage these sludge wastes and eliminate the sludge and organic pollution to environment. PMID:27321882

  6. Conversion of Fe-rich waste sludge into nano-flake Fe-SC hybrid Fenton-like catalyst for degradation of AOII.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingjun; Zhu, Yuting; Liu, Mingxiang; Chang, Xiangyang; Xiong, Ya; Chen, Diyun

    2016-09-01

    Permanently increasing in the amount of sludge resulted in the serious environment burden. This work reports a novel carbothermal process for converting the Fe-rich waste sludge into cleaner nano-flake Fenton-like catalyst to relieve the crisis. The transformation of Fe species at different carbothermal temperature was evaluated by XRD analysis. SEM and XPS analyses were involved to characterize the morphology and chemical bonds of the catalysts. Results shown that the resulted catalyst carbonized at 800 °C (Fe-SC-800) was composed of Fe(0) and Fe3O4, performing nano-flake-like structure. The Fe-SC-800 has the highest catalytic activity in degradation of AOII in C0 = 200 mg/L. The efficiency achieves at 98% within 30 min at neutral pH, which is ascribed to the hydroxyl radical oxidation. Moreover, no iron is leached and the Fe-SC-800 could be recycled for three times at least. Thus, the Fe rich sludge could be reutilized as a valuable source for eco-friendly catalyst production, constituting an ecological way to manage these sludge wastes and eliminate the sludge and organic pollution to environment.

  7. Low-dimensional ScO2 with tunable electronic and magnetic properties: first-principles studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Wu, Jian; Yin, Wen-Jin; Zhang, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their appealing properties for device applications. In this work, we explored the structure stability, electronic structure and magnetism of low-dimensional scandium dioxides, ScO2, by using the first-principles calculations. The results demonstrate that bulk ScO2, monolayers and nanoribbons (NRs) are thermodynamically stable, implying a high possibility of fabricating ScO2 nanocrystals in experiments. Despite the metallic characteristics of bulk ScO2, low-dimensional ScO2 possesses various electronic behaviors that can be further modulated by crystal structure and dimensionality. The results also show that the ground states of ScO2 monolayers and NRs are ferromagnetic (FM) with about 1 μ B per ScO2 formula. Our studies expand a new realm in low-dimensional TMDs, with tunable electronic and magnetic properties. PMID:26571138

  8. Low-dimensional ScO2 with tunable electronic and magnetic properties: first-principles studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Wu, Jian; Yin, Wen-Jin; Zhang, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their appealing properties for device applications. In this work, we explored the structure stability, electronic structure and magnetism of low-dimensional scandium dioxides, ScO2, by using the first-principles calculations. The results demonstrate that bulk ScO2, monolayers and nanoribbons (NRs) are thermodynamically stable, implying a high possibility of fabricating ScO2 nanocrystals in experiments. Despite the metallic characteristics of bulk ScO2, low-dimensional ScO2 possesses various electronic behaviors that can be further modulated by crystal structure and dimensionality. The results also show that the ground states of ScO2 monolayers and NRs are ferromagnetic (FM) with about 1 μ B per ScO2 formula. Our studies expand a new realm in low-dimensional TMDs, with tunable electronic and magnetic properties.

  9. Stability of the ternary perovskites Sc3EN (E=B,Al,Ga,In) from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylushkin, A. S.; Höglund, C.; Birch, J.; Czigány, Zs.; Hultman, L.; Simak, S. I.; Alling, B.; Tasnádi, F.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    Mechanical and thermodynamic stability of the isoelectronic ternary inverse perovskites Sc3EN (E=B,Al,Ga,In) has been studied from first principles. We confirm stability of recently synthesized cubic phases Sc3AlN and Sc3InN , and predict the stability of cubic Sc3GaN and a triclinic phase aP20- Sc3BN . Substantial phonon softening in Sc3AlN and Sc3GaN is observed indicating a possibility that structural defects could form readily. In accord, our experiments show that magnetron sputter deposited films contain regions with high density of nonperiodic stacking faults along the ⟨111⟩ growth direction. We suggest that defect-free crystals may exhibit anomalies in the carrier properties, promising for electronic applications.

  10. Electronic structure of Sc 2AC (A=Al, Ga, In, Tl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Music, Denis; Sun, Zhimei; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2005-02-01

    Using ab initio calculations, we have studied Sc 2AC with A=Al, Ga, In and Tl. We show that C 2p and Sc 3d as well as A p and Sc 3d states are hybridized, but the antibonding states in the vicinity of the Fermi level weaken the overall bonding. In terms of the chemical bonding, the influence of the size of the A element is minute. Furthermore, the bulk modulus of the corresponding binary transition metal carbide is not conserved in these phases. Therefore, Sc 2AC can be classified as weakly coupled MAX phases according to Sun and co-workers [Z. Sun, D. Music, R. Ahuja, S. Li, J.M. Schneider, Phys. Rev. B 70 (2004) 092102]. It is our ambition that these calculations will stimulate experimental research on these compounds.

  11. Thortveitite and associated Sc-bearing minerals from Ravalli County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Birmingham, S.D.; Demartin, F.; Pilati, T.; Gramaccioli, C.M.; Lichte, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    The rare Sc mineral thortveitite, (Sc,Y)2Si2O7, occurs as ??m- to mm-sized crystals in fluorite-bearing granitic pegmatites and the host melagabbro within the Crystal Mountain fluorite deposit, Ravalli County, Montana. Thortveitite is found as colorless and clear to smoky and translucent, subhedral to euhedral prisms up to 3 mm in length in the massive fluroite, as mm-sized anhedra to subhedra in diopside and edenite, and as ??m-sized droplet-like crystals in actinolite. Micrometric textures suggest that some thortveitite exsolved from actinolite, which contains between 1.2 and 2.9 wt.% Sc2O3. The source of the Sc is believed to be magmatic. The physical, optical and crystallographic properties of thortveitite are described. -from Authors

  12. Radioiodination and biodistribution of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 and its scFv fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubaštová, H.; Kleinova, V.; Seifert, D.; Fišer, M.; Kranda, K.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 and its scFv fragment to specifically bind to the C-end of the class III beta-tubulin makes these preparations useful as potential diagnostics for in vivo determination of neurodegenerative diseases that entail degradation of neuronal cytoskeleton. To examine this hypothesis, TU-20 and its scFv were labelled with 125I and their properties were extensively investigated. TU-20 and its scFv were labelled via chloramine-T with the yield 90 95% and 64 78%, respectively. Their quality control, performed by an ELISA and gel electrophoresis, determined adequate properties for further studies. The in vitro experiment, involving autoradiography and immunohistochemistry of mice’ brain slices, enabled confirmation of preserved immunospecificity of the radiolabelled substances. Finally, the in vivo biodistribution proved differences in elimination of either TU-20, scFv TU-20, or iodide from the mice.

  13. Production of scFv-Conjugated Affinity Silk Powder by Transgenic Silkworm Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsuru; Kojima, Katsura; Sakuma, Chisato; Murakami, Maria; Aratani, Eriko; Takenouchi, Takato; Tamada, Yasushi; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Bombyx mori (silkworm) silk proteins are being utilized as unique biomaterials for medical applications. Chemical modification or post-conjugation of bioactive ligands expand the applicability of silk proteins; however, the processes are elaborate and costly. In this study, we used transgenic silkworm technology to develop single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-conjugated silk fibroin. The cocoons of the transgenic silkworm contain fibroin L-chain linked with scFv as a fusion protein. After dissolving the cocoons in lithium bromide, the silk solution was dialyzed, concentrated, freeze-dried, and crushed into powder. Immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that the scFv domain retains its specific binding activity to the target molecule after multiple processing steps. These results strongly suggest the promise of scFv-conjugated silk fibroin as an alternative affinity reagent, which can be manufactured using transgenic silkworm technology at lower cost than traditional affinity carriers. PMID:22496833

  14. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Automotive Exteriors, LLC, working out of Troy, Michigan. The workers provided office, engineering and sales... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  15. Expression of recombinant human anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Yao, N; Ai, L; Dong, Y Y; Liu, X M; Wang, D Z; Wang, N; Li, X W; Wang, F W; Li, Xk; Li, H Y; Jiang, C

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α scFv-Fc was expressed in TKO mutant Arabidopsis thaliana seeds using plant-specific codons. Immunoblotting using a human IgG1 antibody detected the expression of anti-TNF-α proteins in plants. Results from qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the time of harvest significantly affected the protein yield and quality. Our results indicate that the Phaseolus vulgaris β-phaseolin promoter directed anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc expression in A. thaliana seeds, with a maximum yield obtained at 20-days of development. Although the yield of anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc protein was not very high, accumulation of recombinant proteins in seeds is an attractive and simple method that can be used to purify biologically active anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc. PMID:27420937

  16. Anatomical, physiological and experimental factors affecting the bioavailability of sc administered large biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous route of administration is highly desirable for protein therapeutics. It improves patient compliance and quality of life1,2, while reducing healthcare cost2. Recent evidence also suggests that sc administration of protein therapeutics can increase tolerability to some treatments such as intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) by administering it subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy SCIG), which will reduce fluctuation in plasma drug concentration3. Furthermore, sc administration may reduce the risk of systemic infections associated with iv infusion1,2. This route, however, has its challenges especially for large multi-domain proteins. Poor bioavailability and poor scalability from preclinical models are often cited. This commentary will discuss barriers to sc absorption as well as physiological and experimental factors that could affect pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered large protein therapeutics in preclinical models. A mechanistic pharmacokinetic model is proposed as a potential tool to address the issue of scalability of sc pharmacokinetic from preclinical models to humans PMID:25411114

  17. Estimate of the influence of thermophysical parameter deviations on SC thermal regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Yu. V.; Rassamakin, B. M.; Taranova, T. A.; Khoroshylov, V. S.

    The necessity of accurate information on actual values of thermophysical properties for the SC with passive thermal control system is substantiated. On the basis of the telemetry information from the temperature sensors of the AUOS-SM-KF SC, the degradation of black enamel AK-512 is analyzed using inverse-scattering method as well as effective thermal conductivity of honeycomb panel and embedded heat-pipes is evaluated.

  18. SC35 promotes sustainable stress-induced alternative splicing of neuronal acetylcholinesterase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Meshorer, E; Bryk, B; Toiber, D; Cohen, J; Podoly, E; Dori, A; Soreq, H

    2005-11-01

    Long-lasting alternative splicing of neuronal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) pre-mRNA occurs during neuronal development and following stress, altering synaptic properties. To explore the corresponding molecular events, we sought to identify mRNAs encoding for abundant splicing factors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following stress. Here we show elevated levels of the splicing factor SC35 in stressed as compared with naïve mice. In cotransfections of COS-1 and HEK293 cells with an AChE minigene allowing 3' splice variations, SC35 facilitated a shift from the primary AChE-S to the stress-induced AChE-R variant, while ASF/SF2 caused the opposite effect. Transfection with chimeric constructs comprising of SC35 and ASF/SF2 RRM/RS domains identified the SC35 RRM as responsible for AChE mRNA's alternative splicing. In poststress PFC neurons, increased SC35 mRNA and protein levels coincided with selective increase in AChE-R mRNA. In the developing mouse embryo, cortical progenitor cells in the ventricular zone displayed transient SC35 elevation concomitant with dominance of AChE-R over AChE-S mRNA. Finally, transgenic mice overexpressing human AChE-R, but not those overexpressing AChE-S, showed significant elevation in neuronal SC35 levels, suggesting a reciprocal reinforcement process. Together, these findings point to an interactive relationship of SC35 with cholinergic signals in the long-lasting consequences of stress on nervous system plasticity and development.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Haemophilus parasuis Serotype 11 Strain SC1401

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ke; Jin, Jin; Wen, Xintian; He, Lvqin; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, a normal Gram-negative bacterium, may cause Glässer’s disease and pneumonia in pigs. This study aims to identify the genes related to natural competence of the serotype 11 strain SC1401, which frequently shows competence and high pathogenicity. SC1401 shows many differences from strains without natural competence within the molecular basis. We performed complete genome sequencing together with restriction modification system analysis to lay the foundation for later study. PMID:27445368

  20. Original Research: Use of hydroxyurea and phlebotomy in pediatric patients with hemoglobin SC disease

    PubMed Central

    Summarell, Carly C Ginter

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is an excellent therapeutic agent for the pharmacological induction of HbF in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, all completed clinical trials of hydroxyurea have excluded patients with hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease. HbSC differs significantly in pathophysiology from HbSS, as HbC does not sickle, but instead causes cellular dehydration which potentiates sickling of HbS. Many severely affected HbSC patients have been placed on hydroxyurea on a case by case basis, but there are no large scale prospective data on safety or efficacy of hydroxyurea in this subset of patients with SCD. Here, we report a case series of 14 pediatric patients with HbSC treated to maximum tolerated dose (MTD) with hydroxyurea. Those who failed to show clinical improvement after at least six months at MTD were offered phlebotomy in addition to hydroxyurea. Five out of 11 patients with HbSC who achieved MTD failed to demonstrate clinical improvement on hydroxyurea. Of the four placed on dual hydroxyurea and phlebotomy therapy, all showed at least partial clinical improvement. Percent dense red blood cells (%DRBC) were measured via an ADVIA hematology analyzer. A marked rise in percent dense cells preceded clinical complications in three patients. Dual therapy with hydroxyurea and phlebotomy may be an effective approach to patients with HbSC that do not experience improvement with hydroxyurea alone. Monitoring of %DRBC may predict adverse events and aid in assessing hydroxyurea compliance. Large scale clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea and hydroxyurea with phlebotomy in patients with HbSC disease. PMID:26993671

  1. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  2. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  3. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  4. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  5. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  6. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware

  7. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    PubMed

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates.

  8. Evolution of magnetoelectric properties of Sc-diluted TbMnO3.

    PubMed

    Cuartero, V; Blasco, J; García, J; Stankiewicz, J; Subías, G; Rodriguez-Velamazán, J A; Ritter, C

    2013-05-15

    The magnetoelectric properties of the TbMn(1-x)Sc(x)O3 series have been studied at low temperatures by means of heat capacity, magnetic measurements and impedance spectroscopy. TbMnO3 exhibits as expected three transitions upon lowering the temperature corresponding to the magnetic ordering of the two sublattices (Mn and Tb) and the ferroelectric transition. Ferroelectricity disappears with Sc dilution for x > 0.1 because the non-collinear magnetic arrangement is destroyed. The dilution of Mn with a non-magnetic ion is also detrimental to the magnetic ordering of both Mn and Tb sublattices. The system evolves to a magnetic glassy state for the intermediate compositions. Formal TbScO3 shows Sc-deficiency and long range magnetic ordering of Tb(3+) moments in the ab-plane brought by the direct interaction between Tb(3+) ions. This ordering is different from the one found in TbMnO3 due to the lack of magnetic coupling between Tb- and Mn-sublattices. A small substitution of Sc by Mn in TbScO3 destroys the Tb ordering giving rise to a magnetic glass behaviour. This effect is ascribed to the partial polarization of Tb sublattice by the paramagnetic Mn which competes with the direct Tb-Tb exchange. PMID:23604245

  9. Antagonistic factors control the unproductive splicing of SC35 terminal intron

    PubMed Central

    Dreumont, Natacha; Hardy, Sara; Behm-Ansmant, Isabelle; Kister, Liliane; Branlant, Christiane; Stévenin, James; Bourgeois, Cyril F.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing is regulated in part by variations in the relative concentrations of a variety of factors, including serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins. The SR protein SC35 self-regulates its expression by stimulating unproductive splicing events in the 3′ untranslated region of its own pre-mRNA. Using various minigene constructs containing the terminal retained intron and flanking exons, we identified in the highly conserved last exon a number of exonic splicing enhancer elements responding specifically to SC35, and showed an inverse correlation between affinity of SC35 and enhancer strength. The enhancer region, which is included in a long stem loop, also contains repressor elements, and is recognized by other RNA-binding proteins, notably hnRNP H protein and TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43). Finally, in vitro and in cellulo experiments indicated that hnRNP H and TDP-43 antagonize the binding of SC35 to the terminal exon and specifically repress the use of SC35 terminal 3′ splice site. Our study provides new information about the molecular mechanisms of SC35-mediated splicing activation. It also highlights the existence of a complex network of self- and cross-regulatory mechanisms between splicing regulators, which controls their homeostasis and offers many ways of modulating their concentration in response to the cellular environment. PMID:19965769

  10. Study on the Photorefractive Properties of Sc, in Co-Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaopeng; Xu, Shiwen; Xu, Yuheng; Wang, Rui

    The Sc:In:LiNbO3 crystals co-doped with 0.5 mol% Sc2O3 and 0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mol% In2O3 were grown by the Czochralski method. The structure of the crystals was measured by infrared spectra. The mechanism of the shift of OH- absorption peak was investigated. The photo-damage resistance ability of Sc:In:LiNbO3 crystals was observed by the straightly observing transmission facula distortion method. The Sc:In:LiNbO3 waveguide substrates were fabricated by the proton exchange technique using benzoic acid as the proton source. The photo-damage thresholds of these y-cut waveguide substrates were measured by the m-line method. The results measured by the two methods above all show that the photo-damage resistance ability of Sc:In:LiNbO3 crystals increases two orders of magnitude in comparison with that of pure LiNbO3 crystals. The mechanism of the enhancement of the photo-damage resistance ability of Sc:In:LiNbO3 crystals is discussed by Li-vacancy model.

  11. Refolded scFv Antibody Fragment against Myoglobin Shows Rapid Reaction Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Wan; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Park, Sung-Goo; Lee, Myung Kyu; Paek, Se-Hwan; Woo, Eui-Jeon

    2014-01-01

    Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage of in vivo immunization. We produced a recombinant scFv fragment for the premature antibody from Escherichia coli using refolding technology. The scFv gene was constructed by connection of the VH–VL sequence with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The scFv fragment without the pelB leader sequence was expressed at a high level, but the solubility was extremely low. A high concentration of 8 M urea was used for denaturation. The dilution refolding process in the presence of arginine and the redox reagents GSH and GSSH successfully produced a soluble scFv protein. The resultant refolded scFv protein showed association and dissociation values of 9.32 × 10−4 M−1·s−1 and 6.29 × 10−3 s−1, respectively, with an affinity value exceeding 107 M−1 (kon/koff), maintaining the original rapid reaction kinetics of the premature antibody. The refolded scFv could provide a platform for protein engineering for the clinical application for diagnosis of heart disease and the development of a continuous biosensor. PMID:25530617

  12. Unraveling the Sc(3+) Hydration Geometry: The Strange Case of the Far-Coordinated Water Molecule.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Valentina; D'Angelo, Paola

    2016-07-01

    The hydration structure and dynamics of Sc(3+) in aqueous solution have been investigated using a combined approach based on quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. An effective Sc-water two-body potential has been generated from QM calculations and then used in the MD simulation of Sc(3+) in water, and the reliability of the entire procedure has been assessed by comparing the theoretical structural results with the EXAFS experimental data. The outstanding outcome of this work is that the Sc(3+) ion forms a well-defined capped square antiprism (SAP) complex in aqueous solution, where the eight water molecules closest to the ion are located at the vertexes of a SAP polyhedron, while the ninth water molecule occupying the capping position is unusually found at a very long distance from the ion. This far-coordinated water molecule possesses a degree of structure comparable with the other first shell molecules surrounding the ion at much shorter distances, and its presence gave us the unique opportunity to easily identify the geometry of the Sc(3+) coordination polyhedron. Despite very strong ion-water interactions, the Sc(3+) hydration shell is very labile, as the far-coordinated ligand allows first shell water molecules to easily exchange their positions both inside the solvation shell and with the rest of the solvent molecules. PMID:27300102

  13. Past and Future: NSF PAARE at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    We review our progress to date and the path forward under the NSF program 'Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)'. Our project 'A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)' was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort and in August 2014 we received a second award (POCA II) to continue for another three years. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. We present our recent publications which include educational courseware in cosmology, a study of long-period variables using Kepler and spectroscopic variability of peculiar stars. Our graduate student successes include support for two females who have completed their Ph.Ds. in astronomy plus two additional students from underrepresented groups who have received their M.S. degrees in astronomy but are continuing their doctoral work in related fields. At SC State we have graduated 3 physics majors with the astronomy option with five more in the pipeline and review the challenges and obstacles faced along the way. We discuss our strategic plan for POCA II, which is based on lessons learned under POCA and moves us forward to the follow-on period when our efforts will be sustained by other resources.Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  14. State of the art of multicell SC cavities and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel

    2002-08-01

    Superconducting cavity technology has made major progresses in the last decade with the introduction of high purity niobium on an industrial scale and, at the same time, by an improved understanding of the limiting processes in cavity performance, such as multipacting, field emission loading and thermal break-down. Multicell niobium cavities for beta = 1 particle acceleration, e.g. for the TESLA project, are routinely exceeding gradients of Eacc = 20 MV/m after the application of surface preparation techniques such as buffered chemical polishing or electropolishing, high pressure ultrapure water rinsing, UHV heat treatment and clean room assembly. The successes of the technology for beta = 1 accelerators has triggered a whole set of possible future applications for beta < 1 particle acceleration such as spallation neutron sources (SNS, ESS), transmutation of nuclear waste (TRASCO, ASH) or rare isotopes (RIA). The most advanced of these projects is SNS now under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper will review the technical solutions adopted to advance SRF technology and their impact on cavity performance, based on the SNS prototyping efforts. 2K at these high gradients are no longer out of reach. For the accelerator builder the challenge remains to come up with a good and reasonable design, which takes into account the status of the technology and does not over-estimate the achievable cavity performances in a large assembly such as, e.g., a multi-cavity cryo-module. In the following the criteria for multi-cell sc cavity design are reviewed and it is attempted to give a snapshot of the present status of multi-cell cavity performances.

  15. The Properties of Globular Cluster ESO452-SC11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, A. S. M.; Phelps, R. L.; Briley, M. M.; Friel, E. D.

    2005-12-01

    The globular cluster ESO452-SC11 has been observed using Johnson V and Cousin I filters and PSF photometry has been performed. The resulting color-magnitude diagrams were compared to theoretical isochrones to derive the cluster's age, overall chemical composition, and distance modulus. These isochrone models include those published by Girardi et al., Bergbusch & VandenBerg with BVRI color-Teff relations as described by VandenBerg & Clem, and Demarque et al. (known as the Yale isochrones). From the Yale isochrones, it is estimated that the cluster has an age 9-11 Gyr, a metallicity [Fe/H] between -1.4 and -1.0 dex, and a distance modulus (m-M)V =16.10-16.31 mag resulting in a heliocentric distance of 7.3-7.5 kpc. Using the Bergbusch & VandenBerg models, it is estimated that the cluster has an age of 11-13 Gyr, with an iron-to hydrogen ratio between -1.3 and -0.8 dex, a distance modulus (m-M)V =15.87-16.12 mag, and a heliocentric distance between 7.0-7.2 kpc. The Girardi isochrone models yield a derived age of 13-16 Gyr, metallicity between -1.3 and -0.4 dex, distance modulus (m-M)V =15.59-16.19 mag, and heliocentric distance between 6.6-7.1 kpc. The derived parameters from these models are consistent for metallicity [Fe/H] between -1.3 and -1.0 dex, reddening E(V-I) =0.70 - 0.76, and (m-M)V =16.10 - 16.12 mag. A.C. would like to acknowledge the HACU National Internship program for supporting the data analysis portion of this research.

  16. LiNbO3-Type Oxide (Tl(1-x)Sc(x))ScO3: High-Pressure Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Electronic Properties.

    PubMed

    Belik, Alexei A; Yi, Wei; Kumagai, Yu; Katsuya, Yoshio; Tanaka, Masahiko; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2016-02-15

    We investigate the synthesis of a thallium scandate, TlScO3, under high-pressure (6-7.7 GPa) and high-temperature (1373-1773 K) conditions. At 6 GPa, a LiNbO3-type phase appears in a narrow temperature range and in mixtures with other phases. At 7.7 GPa and 1673 K, a new LiNbO3-type oxide is found with a composition of (Tl(1-x)Sc(x))ScO3 and x ≈ 0.26 as determined by structural analysis from X-ray powder diffraction data. It crystallizes in space group R3c (No. 161) with lattice parameters of a = 5.50283(7) Å and c = 14.4606(2) Å. It is stable at least up to 800 K at ambient pressure. The point-charge model gives an electric polarization of 60 μC/cm(2). First-principles calculations show that centrosymmetric ilmenite-type and polar LiNbO3-type structures of stoichiometric TlScO3 have almost the same lowest energy, and the next stable structure is a GdFeO3-type perovskite structure. PMID:26840839

  17. The germanides ScTGe (T = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, Au) - Structure and 45Sc solid state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heying, Birgit; Haverkamp, Sandra; Rodewald, Ute Ch; Eckert, Hellmut; Peter, Sebastian C.; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The germanides ScTGe (T = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, Au) were obtained in X-ray pure form by arc-melting of the elements. The structures of the members with T = Co, Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, and Pt were refined on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The germanides with T = Cu, Ru, Pd, Ag crystallize with the hexagonal ZrNiAl type structure, space group P 6 bar 2m and those with T = Co, Ni, Rh, Ir, Pt adopt the orthorhombic TiNiSi type. ScAuGe is isotypic with NdPtSb. All germanides exhibit single scandium sites. A simple systematization of the structure type according to the valence electron concentration is not possible. The 45Sc solid state NMR parameters (Knight shifts and nuclear electric quadrupole coupling constants) of those members crystallizing in the TiNiSi structure show systematic trends as a function of valence electron concentration number. Furthermore, within each T-group the Knight shift decreases with increasing atomic number; this correlation also includes previously published results on the isotypic silicide family. The 45Sc quadrupolar interaction tensor components are generally well-reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code.

  18. SU-E-T-293: Simplifying Assumption for Determining Sc and Sp

    SciTech Connect

    King, R; Cheung, A; Anderson, R; Thompson, G; Fletcher, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Scp(mlc,jaw) is a two-dimensional function of collimator field size and effective field size. Conventionally, Scp(mlc,jaw) is treated as separable into components Sc(jaw) and Sp(mlc). Scp(mlc=jaw) is measured in phantom and Sc(jaw) is measured in air with Sp=Scp/Sc. Ideally, Sc and Sp would be able to predict measured values of Scp(mlc,jaw) for all combinations of mlc and jaw. However, ideal Sc and Sp functions do not exist and a measured two-dimensional Scp dataset cannot be decomposed into a unique pair of one-dimensional functions.If the output functions Sc(jaw) and Sp(mlc) were equal to each other and thus each equal to Scp(mlc=jaw){sup 0.5}, this condition would lead to a simpler measurement process by eliminating the need for in-air measurements. Without the distorting effect of the buildup-cap, small-field measurement would be limited only by the dimensions of the detector and would thus be improved by this simplification of the output functions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate an assumption that Sc=Sp. Methods: For a 6 MV x-ray beam, Sc and Sp were determined both by the conventional method and as Scp(mlc=jaw){sup 0.5}. Square field benchmark values of Scp(mlc,jaw) were then measured across the range from 2×2 to 29×29. Both Sc and Sp functions were then evaluated as to their ability to predict these measurements. Results: Both methods produced qualitatively similar results with <4% error for all cases and >3% error in 1 case. The conventional method produced 2 cases with >2% error, while the squareroot method produced only 1 such case. Conclusion: Though it would need to be validated for any specific beam to which it might be applied, under the conditions studied, the simplifying assumption that Sc = Sp is justified.

  19. Production and characterization of a single-chain variable fragment linked alkaline phosphatase fusion protein for detection of O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides in a one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein for detection of O, O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was produced and characterized. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning VL and VH genes from a hybridoma cell secreting monoclonal antibody with broad-s...

  20. Metabolic Syndrome and Importance of Associated Variables in Children and Adolescents in Guabiruba - SC, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosini, Nilton; Moura, Solange A. Z. Oppermann; Rosini, Rodrigo Diegoli; Machado, Marcos José; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk factors that characterize metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be present in childhood and adolescence, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Objective Evaluate the prevalence of MetS and the importance of its associated variables, including insulin resistance (IR), in children and adolescents in the city of Guabiruba-SC, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1011 students (6-14 years, 52.4% girls, 58.5% children). Blood samples were collected for measurement of biochemical parameters by routine laboratory methods. IR was estimated by the HOMA-IR index, and weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were determined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between risk variables and MetS. Results The prevalence of MetS, IR, overweight and obesity in the cohort were 14%, 8.5%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Among students with MetS, 27% had IR, 33% were overweight, 45.5% were obese and 22% were eutrophic. IR was more common in overweight (48%) and obese (41%) students when compared with eutrophic individuals (11%; p = 0.034). The variables with greatest influence on the development of MetS were obesity (OR = 32.7), overweight (OR = 6.1), IR (OR = 4.4; p ≤ 0.0001 for all) and age (OR = 1.15; p = 0.014). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents evaluated in this study. Students who were obese, overweight or insulin resistant had higher chances of developing the syndrome. PMID:25993484

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of two antimicrobial peptides: Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor and crustin from the brown mud crab, Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Afsal, V V; Antony, Swapna P; Sathyan, Naveen; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    AMPs are evolutional weapons, widely used by animals and plants in their innate immune system to fend off invading microbes. The present study reports characterization of a new ALF isoform (Sc-ALF; HQ638024) and the first crustin (Sc-crustin; HQ638025) from the mud crab, Scylla serrata. The full-length cDNA of Sc-ALF consisted of 477 bp with an ORF of 123 amino acids and a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. Sc-ALF had a predicted molecular weight (MW) of 11.17 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.95. Two highly conserved cysteine residues and putative LPS binding domain were observed in Sc-ALF. Comparison of amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining tree indicated that Sc-ALF shared maximum similarity with ALF of S. paramamosain. Peptide model of Sc-ALF created using SWISS-MODEL server was found to consist of two α-helices crowded against a four-strand β-sheet. The full-length cDNA of Sc-crustin consisted of 433 base pairs with an ORF of 111 amino acids and a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. Comparison of amino acid sequences with a neighbor-joining tree revealed that Sc-crustin shared high identity with other known crustins characterized from S. paramamosain, P. trituberculatus, H. araneus, C. maenas and F. chinensis. A whey-acidic-protein domain could be detected at the C-terminus with the characteristic four disulfide core. Sc-crustin had a predicted MW of 10.24 kDa and a pI of 8.76. Peptide model of Sc-crustin created using SWISS-MODEL server indicated a random coiled structure that is with two possible β-sheets but no helices. PMID:24371546

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of two antimicrobial peptides: Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor and crustin from the brown mud crab, Scylla serrata

    PubMed Central

    Afsal, V.V.; Antony, Swapna P.; Sathyan, Naveen; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    AMPs are evolutional weapons, widely used by animals and plants in their innate immune system to fend off invading microbes. The present study reports characterization of a new ALF isoform (Sc-ALF; HQ638024) and the first crustin (Sc-crustin; HQ638025) from the mud crab, Scylla serrata. The full-length cDNA of Sc-ALF consisted of 477 bp with an ORF of 123 amino acids and a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. Sc-ALF had a predicted molecular weight (MW) of 11.17 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.95. Two highly conserved cysteine residues and putative LPS binding domain were observed in Sc-ALF. Comparison of amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining tree indicated that Sc-ALF shared maximum similarity with ALF of S. paramamosain. Peptide model of Sc-ALF created using SWISS-MODEL server was found to consist of two α-helices crowded against a four-strand β-sheet. The full-length cDNA of Sc-crustin consisted of 433 base pairs with an ORF of 111 amino acids and a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. Comparison of amino acid sequences with a neighbor-joining tree revealed that Sc-crustin shared high identity with other known crustins characterized from S. paramamosain, P. trituberculatus, H. araneus, C. maenas and F. chinensis. A whey-acidic-protein domain could be detected at the C-terminus with the characteristic four disulfide core. Sc-crustin had a predicted MW of 10.24 kDa and a pI of 8.76. Peptide model of Sc-crustin created using SWISS-MODEL server indicated a random coiled structure that is with two possible β-sheets but no helices. PMID:24371546

  3. Vibrational structure of endohedral fullerene Sc3N@C78 (D3h'): evidence for a strong coupling between the Sc3N cluster and C78 cage.

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Popov, Alexey; Dunsch, Lothar

    2006-08-11

    The vibrational structure of the endohedral cluster fullerene Sc(3)N@C(78) is studied by FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and DFT-based quantum chemical calculations. Remarkably good agreement between experimental and calculated spectra is achieved and a full assignment of the Sc(3)N-based vibrational modes is given. Significant differences in the vibrational structure of the endohedral cluster fullerene Sc(3)N@C(78) and the empty, charged C(78) (6-): 5 (D(3h)') are rationalized by the strong coupling between the Sc(3)N cluster and the fullerene cage. This coupling has its origin in a significant overlap of the Sc(3)N and C(78) molecular orbitals, and causes atomic-charge and bond-length redistributions compared to the neutral C(78) and the C(78) (6-) anion. An ionic model is not sufficient to describe the electronic, geometric and vibrational structure of the Sc(3)N@C(78) nitride cluster fullerene.

  4. Imaging Mantle Discontinuities Beneath North America Using ScS Reverberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, K. A.; Schmerr, N. C.; Courtier, A. M.; Lekic, V.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities are rapid changes in velocity and density over depth that arise from mechanisms such as changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. Seismic imaging of discontinuities complements information provided by seismic tomography and is important for understanding the dynamics and the structure of the mantle. For example, imaging variations in the depth and sharpness of discontinuities can trace underlying variations in temperature and composition in the mantle. We use ScSScS precursors and ScS postcursors (ScS reverberations) to map the depth and sharpness of upper- and mid- mantle discontinuities beneath North America. To observe the reverberations, we collected broadband data recordings of earthquakes with depth > 300 km, source moment magnitude ≥ 5.5, and location < 60 degrees of EarthScope USArray stations. Two primary source regions met our qualifications: earthquakes from the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America, and earthquakes from the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. Our dataset consists of ~15 deep focus earthquakes that have well defined ScS and ScSScS arrivals. We use array processing to generate vespagrams for detecting the ScS reverberations. Seismic energy falling at the appropriate slowness and travel time for reflections from upper- and mid- mantle discontinuities is migrated to depth. We use the resulting ScS reverberation derived reflectivity profiles to obtain estimates for discontinuity depth and impedance contrast in the regions falling between the source and array. We can use this information to image parts of the mantle under North America. Preliminary results indicate presence of multiple discontinuities in the upper mantle, including the 410 km discontinuity, a complex 660 km discontinuity, and intermittent mid-mantle discontinuities at 800-900 km depth.

  5. SC-46275: a potent and highly selective agonist at the EP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Savage, M A; Moummi, C; Karabatsos, P J; Lanthorn, T H

    1993-12-01

    The agonist properties of SC-46275 have been investigated in EP receptor subtype-specific smooth muscle assays. In the isolated guinea pig vas deferens (GPVD), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), via the EP3 receptor, potently inhibited electrically induced contractions with an EC50 of 5.4 +/- 1.1 nM. Sulprostone and misoprostol were both potent relaxers of the GPVD yielding EC50s of 1.6 +/- 0.4 nM and 4.3 +/- 0.9 nM, respectively, while butaprost (10,000 nM) was inactive. SC-46275 was by far the most potent agonist in the GPVD exhibiting an EC50 of 0.04 +/- 0.02 nM. PGE2, via the EP1 receptor, stimulates contractions in the longitudinal muscle layer of the guinea pig ileum (GPIL) with an EC50 of 74.4 +/- 10.6 nM. SC-46275 was extremely weak in this preparation, generating only 33% of the maximal PGE2 effect at 30,000 nM. The circular muscle layer of guinea pig ileum (GPIC) is responsive to inhibition of electrically stimulated contractions by PGE2 (EC50 = 179.6 +/- 20.8 nM) via the EP2 receptor. SC-46275 (up to 10,000 nM) was completely inactive in this preparation. We conclude from these findings that SC-46275 is a very potent and highly selective EP3 receptor agonist. SC-46275 should prove to be an extremely valuable tool in probing the physiological significance of EP3 receptors. The high potency of SC-46275 at the EP3 receptor may account for its antisecretory and cytoprotective actions, while its lack of activity at the EP1 or EP2 sites may explain its very weak diarrheagenic potential.

  6. Evaluation of the difficulty of crystallization of organic compounds using the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Daiki; Ida, Yasuo; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the case of solvent selection, supersolubility is an index for improving crystallization behavior. However, supersolubility is affected by kinetic factors such as the cooling rate. An index for suitable solvent selection is needed. The supersaturation ratio (S) is one of the operation design indices of controlling crystallization behavior such as supersolubility. The S at 298 K (S298) of the pharmaceutical compounds theophylline, noscapine, clotrimazole, indomethacin, carbamazepine, naproxene and tolbutamide were measured in ethanol using a polythermal method. If the compound had a large lnS298, the cooling rate strongly affected the temperature of the cloud point in the cooling crystallization method. In order to estimate the crystallization behavior without the cooling rate effect, the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc) was proposed. Sc at 298 K (Sc298) was calculated from dissolution/cloud points at 0 K/min extrapolated from that of several heating/cooling rates to remove the kinetic effects on S. The lnSc298 values of theophylline, noscapine and clotrimazole were estimated in acetonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. The lnSc298 value of clotrimazole was the largest in all solvents. The results showed that lnSc298 was a simple index which could be used to evaluate the crystallization behavior resulting from the interaction between the solvent and the compound. In conclusion, the proposed lnSc298 should be useful for comparing the difficulty of crystallization which indicates how we should obtain desired crystals within a certain finite time period for development API in the manufacturing field without considering the effect of the heating/cooling rate.

  7. Solid solubility, phase transitions, thermal expansion, and compressibility in Sc{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}F{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Morelock, Cody R.; Gallington, Leighanne C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.

    2015-02-15

    With the goal of thermal expansion control, the synthesis and properties of Sc{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}F{sub 3} were investigated. The solubility limit of AlF{sub 3} in ScF{sub 3} at ∼1340 K is ∼50%. Solid solutions (x≤0.50) were characterized by synchrotron powder diffraction at ambient pressure between 100 and 900 K and at pressures <0.414 GPa while heating from 298 to 523 K. A phase transition from cubic to rhombohedral is observed. The transition temperature increases smoothly with Al{sup 3+} content, approaching 500 K at the solid solubility limit, and also upon compression at fixed Al{sup 3+} content. The slope of the pressure–temperature phase boundary is ∼0.5 K MPa{sup −1}, which is steep relative to that for most symmetry-lowering phase transitions in perovskites. The volume coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) for the rhombohedral phase is strongly positive, but the cubic-phase CTE varies from negative (x<0.15) to near-zero (x=0.15) to positive (x>0.20) between ∼600 and 800 K. The cubic solid solutions elastically stiffen on heating, while Al{sup 3+} substitution causes softening at a given temperature. - Graphical abstract: The cubic-phase coefficient of thermal expansion for Sc{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}F{sub 3}(solubility limit ∼50% at ∼1340 K) becomes more positive with increased Al{sup 3+} substitution, but the average isothermal bulk modulus decreases (elastic softening). - Highlights: • The solubility limit of AlF{sub 3} in ScF{sub 3} at ∼1340 K is ∼50%. • The phase transition temperature of Sc{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}F{sub 3} increases smoothly with x. • The cubic-phase volume CTE varies from negative to positive with increasing x. • The cubic solid solutions elastically stiffen on heating. • Al{sup 3+} substitution causes softening at a given temperature.

  8. Interatomic bonding and mechanical properties of trialuminides: an ab initio study for Al(3)(Sc,Ti,V) (abstract only).

    PubMed

    Jahnatek, Michal

    2008-02-13

    On the basis of ab initio density-functional calculations we have analyzed the character of the interatomic bonding in the intermetallic compounds Al(3)(Sc,Ti,V) with the D0(22) and L1(2) structures. In all structures we found an enhanced charge density along the Al-transition-metal (TM) bonds, a characteristic feature of covalent bonding. The series Al3Sc-Al3V corresponds to gradual d-band filling which leads to a gradual increase of bond strength and covalent bond formation. For this series, the tensile anisotropy in the elastic limit has been investigated and a trend towards an increased anisotropy of the elastic constants and Young modulus has been observed. Additionally we performed a study of the response of trialuminides to uniaxial tensile deformation along the [110] direction. This direction is known to be the weak direction for face-centered cubic (fcc) materials under tensile strain, and it is generally accepted that their deformation path is characterized by a 'flip strain' instability which restores the fcc structure after full relaxation by interchanging the [110] and [100] directions. The structures of trialuminides have a close structural relationship with fcc metals. We found that L1(2)-type trialuminides respond to tension along the [110] direction differently to fcc metals, and the 'flip strain' mechanism is not active here. Their deformation path is strongly affected by TM-TM interaction acting along the [001] direction. In contrast, the D0(22)-type trialuminides react in the same way as the fcc metals and regenerate with the same 'flip strain' mechanism.

  9. Human monoclonal ScFv that inhibits cellular entry and metalloprotease activity of tetanus neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sookrung, Nitat; Kulkeaw, Kasem; Seesuay, Watee; Kongngoen, Thida; Chongsa-nguan, Manas; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2010-03-01

    Tetanus is a deadly disease of warm blooded animals and humans caused by an exotoxin called tetanospasmin or tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by anaerobic bacterium named Clostridium tetani TeNT is an A-B toxin; each molecule consists of a heavy chain (HC) containing cellular receptor binding domain and a light chain (LC) with zinc metalloprotease activity. TeNT produced in the infected tissue by the bacteria grown under anaerobic condition binds to ganglioside receptors of peripheral nerve, and endocytosed. The A subunit exits from the endosome and undergoes a retrograde transport via the nerve axon to the spinal cord. This highly toxic enzyme specifically cleaves one of the nerve cell SNARE proteins, i.e., synaptobrevin, resulting in inhibition of the release of neurotransmitters (glycine and GABA) from inhibitory interneuron causing spastic paralysis, the characteristic of tetanus. Current treatment mainstay of human tetanus is by passively administering anti-tetanus toxin produced from animals immunized with adjuvanted tetanus toxoid (TT). There are several obstacles in production and use of the animal derived therapeutic antibody especially the allergic reaction and serum sickness induced by the host immune response to the foreign protein. The animal antibody, mainly IgG, blocks nerve cell entry of the TeNT but does not neutralize the TeNT protease activity per se and cannot reverse the tetanus symptoms. In this study, fully human single chain antibody fragments (HuScFv) were produced from a human antibody phage display library. TT was used as antigen in a single round phage bio-panning to select phage clones that display TT bound-HuScFv from the library. HuScFv from 4 selected huscfv-phagemid transformed E. coli clones inhibited binding of the native TeNT to retinoic acid pulsed human neuroblastoma cells when used at the molecular TeNT:HuScFv ratio of 1:100. HuScFv from one of the 4 clones also inhibited the TeNT mediated cleavage of recombinant

  10. Fast conversion of scFv to Fab antibodies using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sanmark, Hanna; Huovinen, Tuomas; Matikka, Tero; Pettersson, Tiina; Lahti, Maria; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2015-11-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries are widely used for developing novel bioaffinity reagents, although Fab or IgG molecules are the preferred antibody formats in many final applications. Therefore, rapid conversion methods for combining multiple DNA fragments are needed to attach constant domains to the scFv derived variable domains. In this study we describe a fast and easy cloning method for the conversion of single framework scFv fragments to Fab fragments using type IIS restriction enzymes. All cloning steps excluding plating of the Fab transformants can be done in 96 well plates and the procedure can be completed in one working day. The concept was tested by converting 69 scFv clones into Fab format on 96 well plates, which resulted in 93% success rate. The method is particularly useful as a high-throughput tool for the conversion of the chosen scFv clones into Fab molecules in order to analyze them as early as possible, as the conversion can significantly affect the binding properties of the chosen clones.

  11. Thermal conductivity of (Zr,W)N/ScN metal/semiconductor multilayers and superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rawat, Vijay; Sands, Timothy D.; Koh, Yee Kan; Cahill, David G.

    2009-01-15

    The cross-plane thermal conductivities of metal/semiconductor multilayers and epitaxial superlattices have been measured as a function of period by time-domain thermoreflectance at room temperature. (001)-oriented ZrN (metal)/ScN (semiconductor) multilayers and (Zr,W)N/ScN epitaxial superlattices with the rocksalt crystal structure were grown on (001)MgO substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering. A distinct minimum in thermal conductivity at a period of {approx}6 nm is observed for ZrN/ScN multilayers. The minimum thermal conductivity of 5.25 W/m K is a factor of {approx}2.7 smaller than the mean of the thermal conductivities (including only the lattice contributions) of the values measured for films of the constituent materials, and approximately equal to the lattice component of the thermal conductivity of a Zr{sub 0.65}Sc{sub 0.35}N alloy film ({approx}5 W/m K). Alloying the ZrN layers with WN{sub x} reduces the lattice mismatch, yielding epitaxial (Zr,W)N/ScN superlattices. The addition of WN{sub x} also reduces the thermal conductivity to {approx}2 W/m K, a value that is sufficiently low to suggest promise for these materials as solid-state thermionic generators.

  12. Hardness and microstructural variation of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Sumiha; Strodahs, Ansis; Saghi, Zineb; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Burdet, Pierre; Hata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Midgley, Paul A; Kaneko, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Variations of Vickers hardness were observed in Al-Mg-Mn alloy and Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy at different ageing times, ranging from a peak value of 81.2 HV at 54 ks down to 67.4 HV at 360 ks, below the initial hardness value, 71.8 HV at 0 ks for the case of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy. Microstructures of samples at each ageing stage were examined carefully by transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions. The presence of different types, densities, and sizes of particles were observed dispersed spherical Al3Sc1-xZrx and also block-shaped Al3Sc precipitates growing along <100>Al with facets {100} and {110} of the precipitates. TEM analysis both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions, performed on various samples, confirmed the direct correlation between the hardness and the density of Al3Sc.

  13. Spinal Cord Infarction in Hemoglobin SC Disease as an Amusement Park Accident.

    PubMed

    Eid, Ryan; Raj, Ashok; Farber, Darren; Puri, Vinay; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an increasingly recognized cause of SCI after events that put strain on the axial skeleton, such as many amusement park rides. Although radiologic criteria for FCE have been proposed, FCE remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of SCI in a patient with HbSC and the first case of FCE after an amusement park accident. This case report highlights that HbSC may confound the differential diagnosis of SCI and aims to document an association with FCE in pediatric patients. PMID:27485695

  14. Spinal Cord Infarction in Hemoglobin SC Disease as an Amusement Park Accident.

    PubMed

    Eid, Ryan; Raj, Ashok; Farber, Darren; Puri, Vinay; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an increasingly recognized cause of SCI after events that put strain on the axial skeleton, such as many amusement park rides. Although radiologic criteria for FCE have been proposed, FCE remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of SCI in a patient with HbSC and the first case of FCE after an amusement park accident. This case report highlights that HbSC may confound the differential diagnosis of SCI and aims to document an association with FCE in pediatric patients.

  15. Hardness and microstructural variation of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Sumiha; Strodahs, Ansis; Saghi, Zineb; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Burdet, Pierre; Hata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Midgley, Paul A; Kaneko, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Variations of Vickers hardness were observed in Al-Mg-Mn alloy and Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy at different ageing times, ranging from a peak value of 81.2 HV at 54 ks down to 67.4 HV at 360 ks, below the initial hardness value, 71.8 HV at 0 ks for the case of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy. Microstructures of samples at each ageing stage were examined carefully by transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions. The presence of different types, densities, and sizes of particles were observed dispersed spherical Al3Sc1-xZrx and also block-shaped Al3Sc precipitates growing along <100>Al with facets {100} and {110} of the precipitates. TEM analysis both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions, performed on various samples, confirmed the direct correlation between the hardness and the density of Al3Sc. PMID:26748212

  16. Multi-channeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) based microfluidic device for explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Davis, Jasmine; Adams, André A; Anderson, George P; Liu, Jinny L; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2015-11-01

    The development of explosives detection technologies has increased significantly over the years as environmental and national security agencies implement tighter pollution control measures and methods for improving homeland security. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), known primarily as a component in munitions, has been targeted for both its toxicity and carcinogenic properties that if present at high concentrations can be a detriment to both humans, marine and plant ecosystems. Enabling end users with environmental detection and monitoring systems capable of providing real-time, qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of these toxic compounds would be extremely beneficial. Reported herein is the development of a multi-channeled microfluidic device immobilized with single chain fragment variable (scFv) recombinant proteins specific for the explosive, TNT. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays performed under constant flow demonstrated trace level sensitivity and specificity for TNT. The utility of three multi-channeled devices immobilized with either (1) scFv recombinant protein, (2) biotinylated-scFv (bt-scFv) and (3) monoclonal anti-TNT (whole IgG molecule) were investigated and compared. Fluorescence dose response curves, crossreactivity measurements and limits of detection (LOD) for TNT were determined. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays for TNT in natural seawater demonstrated detection limits at sub-parts-per-billion levels (0.5 ppb) utilizing the microfluidic device with immobilized bt-scFv. PMID:26452845

  17. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafari, M. E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu; Gleiter, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Itou, M.; Peng, G.; Fang, Y. N.; Feng, T.; Hahn, H.; Kamali, S. E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu

    2015-09-28

    An amorphous alloy Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co.

  18. Multi-channeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) based microfluidic device for explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Davis, Jasmine; Adams, André A; Anderson, George P; Liu, Jinny L; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2015-11-01

    The development of explosives detection technologies has increased significantly over the years as environmental and national security agencies implement tighter pollution control measures and methods for improving homeland security. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), known primarily as a component in munitions, has been targeted for both its toxicity and carcinogenic properties that if present at high concentrations can be a detriment to both humans, marine and plant ecosystems. Enabling end users with environmental detection and monitoring systems capable of providing real-time, qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of these toxic compounds would be extremely beneficial. Reported herein is the development of a multi-channeled microfluidic device immobilized with single chain fragment variable (scFv) recombinant proteins specific for the explosive, TNT. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays performed under constant flow demonstrated trace level sensitivity and specificity for TNT. The utility of three multi-channeled devices immobilized with either (1) scFv recombinant protein, (2) biotinylated-scFv (bt-scFv) and (3) monoclonal anti-TNT (whole IgG molecule) were investigated and compared. Fluorescence dose response curves, crossreactivity measurements and limits of detection (LOD) for TNT were determined. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays for TNT in natural seawater demonstrated detection limits at sub-parts-per-billion levels (0.5 ppb) utilizing the microfluidic device with immobilized bt-scFv.

  19. Isolation of anti-T cell receptor scFv mutants by yeast surface display.

    PubMed

    Kieke, M C; Cho, B K; Boder, E T; Kranz, D M; Wittrup, K D

    1997-11-01

    Yeast surface display and sorting by flow cytometry have been used to isolate mutants of an scFv that is specific for the Vbeta8 region of the T cell receptor. Selection was based on equilibrium binding by two fluorescently labeled probes, a soluble Vbeta8 domain and an antibody to the c-myc epitope tag present at the carboxy-terminus of the scFv. The mutants that were selected in this screen included a scFv with threefold increased affinity for the Vbeta8 and scFv clones that were bound with reduced affinities by the anti-c-myc antibody. The latter finding indicates that the yeast display system may be used to map conformational epitopes, which cannot be revealed by standard peptide screens. Equilibrium antigen binding constants were estimated within the surface display format, allowing screening of isolated mutants without necessitating subcloning and soluble expression. Only a relatively small library of yeast cells (3 x 10[5]) displaying randomly mutagenized scFv was screened to identify these mutants, indicating that this system will provide a powerful tool for engineering the binding properties of eucaryotic secreted and cell surface proteins.

  20. Density functional study of CO adsorption on Sc(n) (n=2-13) clusters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangfen; Wang, Jinlan; Lu, Yiming; Yang, Mingli

    2008-06-14

    The adsorption properties of a single CO molecule on Sc(n) (n=2-13) clusters are studied by means of a density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation. Two adsorption patterns are identified. Pattern a (n=3, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 12), CO binds to hollow site while Pattern b (n=5, 7, 9, 10, and 13), CO binds to bridge site accompanied by significantly lengthening of the Sc-Sc bond. The adsorption energy exhibits clear size-dependent variation and odd-even oscillation for n<10 and reach the peak at n=5, 7, and 9, implying their high chemical reactivity. Similar variations are noted in C-O bond length, vibrational frequency, and charge transferred between CO and the clusters. This can be understood in light of the adsorption pattern, the atomic motif, and the relative stability of the bare Sc clusters. Compared with the free Sc clusters, the magnetic nature remains upon adsorption except n=2, 4, 12, and 13. Particularly, the moments of n=13 reduce significantly from 19 to 5 micro(B), implying the adsorption plays an attenuation influence on the magnetism of the cluster.

  1. SC-228 Inclusion of DAA Warning Alert for TCAS Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This white paper summarizes NASA research results that have informed Special Committee 228 (SC-228) discussions and decisions regarding the inclusion of a warning-level alert within the detect and avoid (DAA) alerting structure for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). For UAS, the removal of the pilot from onboard the aircraft has eliminated the ability of the ground-based pilot in command (PIC) to use out-the-window visual information to make judgments about a potential threat of a loss of well clear with another aircraft. As a result, the DAA traffic display will be the primary source of information that the PIC can use to execute the three primary well clear functions: 1) detect a potential loss of well clear, 2) determine a resolution maneuver, and 3) upload that maneuver to the aircraft via the ground control station (GCS). In addition, pilots are required to coordinate with air traffic control (ATC) prior to maneuvering off of their approved flight plan. In determining an appropriate resolution maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear, the PIC must decide both when and how to maneuver, and both the timeliness and the accuracy (i.e., correctness) of the maneuver are critical to reducing the likelihood and/or severity of a loss of well clear. Alerting information is one of three critical components of the DAA display, along with traffic information elements (e.g., relative heading, speed and altitude) and maneuver guidance. Alerting information and maneuver guidance, in particular, have been found to have a significant impact, both statistically and practically, on pilots' ability to avoid and minimize the severity of losses of well clear While all three display components are key to pilots performing the traffic avoidance task of remaining well clear, in general, alerting information provides crucial information about when a resolution maneuver is required while maneuver guidance assists the pilot in determining how best to maneuver. A fundamental task of the DAA

  2. beta decay and isomeric properties of neutron-rich Ca and Sc isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, H. L.; Mantica, P. F.; Berryman, J. S.; Stoker, J. B.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kay, B. P.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Broda, R.; Cieplicka, N.; Fornal, B.; Grinyer, G. F.; Minamisono, K.; Hoteling, N.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.

    2010-07-15

    The isomeric and beta-decay properties of neutron-rich {sup 53-57}Sc and {sup 53,54}Ca nuclei near neutron number N=32 are reported, and the low-energy level schemes of {sup 53,54,56}Sc and {sup 53-57}Ti are presented. The low-energy level structures of the {sub 21}Sc isotopes are discussed in terms of the coupling of the valence 1f{sub 7/2} proton to states in the corresponding {sub 20}Ca cores. Implications with respect to the robustness of the N=32 subshell closure are discussed, as well as the repercussions for a possible N=34 subshell closure.

  3. Bandgap in Al{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}N

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Ruopeng; Evans, Sarah R.; Gall, Daniel

    2013-03-18

    Aluminum scandium nitride (Al{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}N) layers deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering on sapphire 0001 substrates at 850 Degree-Sign C are epitaxial single-crystals for x {<=} 0.20. Their in-plane lattice constant increases linearly (3.111 + 0.744x A) while the out-of-plane constant remains at 4.989 {+-} 0.005 A. Optical absorption indicates a band gap of 6.15-9.32x eV and a linearly increasing density of defect states within the gap. The average bond angle decreases linearly with x, suggesting a trend towards the metastable hexagonal-ScN structure. However, an anomalous decrease at x = 0.20 indicates a structural instability which ultimately leads to phase separated rock-salt ScN grains for x > 0.4.

  4. Electronic structure of cubic ScF3 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, D.; Žguns, P.; Piskunov, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Purans, J.

    2016-07-01

    The ground state properties of cubic scandium trifluoride (ScF3) perovskite were studied using first-principles calculations. The electronic structure of ScF3 was determined by linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) and plane wave projector augmented-wave (PAW) methods using modified hybrid exchange-correlation functionals within the density functional theory (DFT). The comprehensive comparison of the results obtained by two methods is presented. Both methods allowed us to reproduce the lattice constant found experimentally in ScF3 at low temperatures and to predict its electronic structure in good agreement with known experimental valence-band photoelectron and F 1s x-ray absorption spectra.

  5. The OGLE-II event sc5_2859: a classical nova outburst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, C.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gould, A.; Smith, M. C.; Wagner, R. M.; Albert, J. N.; Andersen, J.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, É.; Bareyre, P.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Blanc, G.; Charlot, X.; Coutures, C.; Ferlet, R.; Fouqué, P.; Goldman, B.; Graff, D.; Gros, M.; Haissinski, J.; Hamadache, C.; de Kat, J.; Leguillou, L.; Lesquoy, É.; Loup, C.; Magneville, C.; Marquette, J. B.; Maurice, É.; Maury, A.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perdereau, O.; Prévot, L.; Rahal, Y. R.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tisserand, P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Vigroux, L.; Zylberajch, S.

    2006-04-01

    Context: .The OGLE-II event sc5_2859 was previously identified as the third longest microlensing event ever observed. Aims: .Additional photometric observations from the EROS (Expérience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres) survey and spectroscopic observations of the candidate star are used to test the microlensing hypothesis. Methods: .The combined OGLE and EROS data provide a high quality coverage of the light curve. The colour of the sc5_2859 event is seen to change with time. A spectrum taken in 2003 exhibits a strong Hα emission line. Results: .The additionnal data show that the OGLE-II sc5_2859 event is actually a classical nova outburst.

  6. Microstructural evolution in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys during short-time homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; He, Chun-nian; Li, Gen; Meng, Xin; Shi, Chun-sheng; Zhao, Nai-qin

    2015-05-01

    Microstructural evolution in a new kind of aluminum (Al) alloy with the chemical composition of Al-8.82Zn-2.08Mg-0.80Cu-0.31Sc-0.3Zr was investigated. It is found that the secondary phase MgZn2 is completely dissolved into the matrix during a short homogenization treatment (470°C, 1 h), while the primary phase Al3(Sc,Zr) remains stable. This is due to Sc and Zr additions into the Al alloy, high Zn/Mg mass ratio, and low Cu content. The experimental findings fit well with the results calculated by the homogenization diffusion kinetics equation. The alloy shows an excellent mechanical performance after the short homogenization process followed by hot-extrusion and T6 treatment. Consequently, a good combination of low energy consumption and favorable mechanical properties is obtained.

  7. Pressure Induced Structural Phase Transition of ScC and YC: A FP-LAPW Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Pooja; Pagare, G.; Chouhan, S. S.; Sanyal, S. P.; Rajagopalan, M.

    2011-07-01

    The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method has been used to investigate systematically the structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic NaCl-type ScC and YC. We predict a B1 to B2 structural phase transition at 127.8 and 80.4 GPa for ScC and YC, respectively and the structural parameters such as lattice constant, bulk modulus are reported. The band structures and density of states at ambient as well as at high pressure are computed. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the structural phase transition of ScC and YC, for which no experimental work has been reported so far.

  8. Dislocation Core Structure and Peierls Stress of B2-Based AlSc in {110} Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. R.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhang, T.; Tian, Y. X.; Yan, Z. X.; Zhu, H. Z.

    2016-10-01

    The core structure and Peierls stress of <100>, <110>, and <111> dislocations in {110} plane of B2-based AlSc (B2-AlSc) have been investigated using improved dislocation equations combined with the generalized stacking fault (GSF) energy. The truncated approximation method is utilized to construct the dissociated and undissociated dislocations in AlSc, then the effects of dislocation angles on the elastic strain energy and misfit energy are presented. Specifically, with increasing dislocation angle, the misfit energy, elastic strain energy, and total energy, and their corresponding stresses, decrease on the <100>{110} and <110>{110} slip systems. However, for <111>{110} dislocation, all energies and corresponding stresses exhibit the relationship 0° > 54.7° > 35.3° > 90°. The misfit energy is always smaller than the elastic strain energy, even by one or two orders of magnitude, and their phases are always opposite.

  9. Biodistribution of the Radiolabeled Anti III {beta}-Tubulin scFv Fragment in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinova, Veronika; Svecova, H.; Chaloupkova, H.; Kranda, K.; Fiser, M.

    2007-11-26

    For studies of new potential radiopharmaceutical such as radiolabeled compound, the biodistribution exoeriments are essential to describe behavior of the substance in organism. The specific binding of the scFv fragment of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 to the C-end of the class III {beta}-tubulin makes this substance useful as a potential diagnostics for in vivo neurodegenerative diseases determination. To examine this hypothesis, scFv was radio-labeled with {sup 125}I and {sup 123}I, and its biochemical properties were studied. The in vivo bio-distribution confirmed the expected elimination behavior of the radio-labeled scFv TU-20 in mice. The bi-exponential model for two-phase clearance to determine short phase half-life t{sub 1/2{alpha}} and long phase half-life t{sub 1/2{beta}} values was used to evaluate the experimental data.

  10. Electronic shell structures of Russian-doll-style Sc 4C 2@C 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhifan; Kah, Cherno B.; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2011-04-01

    We have studied the electronic properties of a 'Russian-doll'-style endohedral fullerene Sc 4C 2@C 80 based on first-principles density-functional calculations coupled with many-body GW correction. Our calculation results yield a GW rectified gap of 1.8 eV for the 'Russian doll' structured Sc 4C 2@C 80, in very good conformity with experimental observed value of 1.6 eV. The calculated electronic characteristics of the Russian-doll fullerene reveal distinct shell structures, which are embellished in the GW approach. The analysis of vibrational frequency demonstrates profound hybridizations associated with the interactions between the Sc 4C 2 core and C 80 shell.

  11. Enhanced hardness in epitaxial TiAlScN alloy thin films and rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Bivas; Lawrence, Samantha K.; Bahr, David F.; Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Birch, Jens; Sands, Timothy D.

    2014-10-13

    High hardness TiAlN alloys for wear-resistant coatings exhibit limited lifetimes at elevated temperatures due to a cubic-AlN to hexagonal-AlN phase transformation that leads to decreasing hardness. We enhance the hardness (up to 46 GPa) and maximum operating temperature (up to 1050 °C) of TiAlN-based coatings by alloying with scandium nitride to form both an epitaxial TiAlScN alloy film and epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices on MgO substrates. The superlattice hardness increases with decreasing period thickness, which is understood by the Orowan bowing mechanism of the confined layer slip model. These results make them worthy of additional research for industrial coating applications.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of the Social and Scientific Impact of the UAEM-ININ M.Sc. and D.Sc. Graduate Programme in Medical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsoura, Eleni; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Torres-Garcia, Eugenio; Camacho-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Hardy-Perez, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1994, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) started in Mexico a teaching and training programme (Diplomado) in Radiotherapy Medical Physics. Based on this experience, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) launched two years later, the first Graduate Programme in Science (M.Sc. and D.Sc.), specialised in Medical Physics in Mexico. A preliminary analysis of the social and scientific impact of the UAEM-ININ Programme is presented in this work based on the achievements attained, regarding the number of graduated Medical Physicists, their geographic and academic origin, their current professional activities and the number of scientific publications produced as a result of the thesis, as well as their citations.

  13. Conversion of scFv peptide-binding specificity for crystal chaperone development

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Jennifer C.; Culver, Jeffrey A.; Drury, Jason E.; Motani, Rakesh S.; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2012-02-07

    In spite of advances in protein expression and purification over the last decade, many proteins remain recalcitrant to structure determination by X-ray crystallography. One emerging tactic to obtain high-quality protein crystals for structure determination, particularly in the case of membrane proteins, involves co-crystallization with a protein-specific antibody fragment. Here, we report the development of new recombinant single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) capable of binding a specific epitope that can be introduced into internal loops of client proteins. The previously crystallized hexa-histidine-specific 3D5 scFv antibody was modified in the complementary determining region and by random mutagenesis, in conjunction with phage display, to yield scFvs with new biochemical characteristics and binding specificity. Selected variants include those specific for the hexa-histidine peptide with increased expression, solubility (up to 16.6 mg/ml) and sub-micromolar affinity, and those with new specificity for the EE hexa-peptide (EYMPME) and nanomolar affinity. Complexes of one such chaperone with model proteins harboring either an internal or a terminal EE tag were isolated by gel filtration. The 3.1 {angstrom} resolution structure of this chaperone reveals a binding surface complementary to the EE peptide and a {approx}52 {angstrom} channel in the crystal lattice. Notably, in spite of 85% sequence identity, and nearly identical crystallization conditions, the engineered scFv crystallizes in a different space group than the parent 3D5 scFv, and utilizes two new crystal contacts. These engineered scFvs represent a new class of chaperones that may eliminate the need for de novo identification of candidate chaperones from large antibody libraries.

  14. Electronic structure of Sc C[sub 60]. An ab initio theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Odom, G.K.; Scuseria, G.E. )

    1994-08-11

    We have studied the electronic structure of Sc C[sub 60] at the self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock (SCF-HF) level of theory employing a double-zeta (DZ) basis set. Binding energies have also been calculated employing a hybrid of HF and density functional theory (herein denoted as HF-BLYP). Several electronic states in C[sub 50] and C[sub 30] symmetry were considered. A double-minimum configuration is found for the open-shell [sup 4]A[sub 2] electronic ground state in C[sub 50] symmetry. The lowest energy minimum has Sc located 1.175 [angstrom] away from the center of the cage, approaching a C[sub 60] pentagon along a C[sub 5] axis. Bonding between the Sc atom and the cage occurs by donation of the 4s electrons to the lowest unoccupied orbital of C[sub 60] and by 3d electron interaction with the antibonding orbital associated with the five double bonds radiating from the pentagon closest to Sc ([approximately] 2.5 [angstrom]). The other local minimum has Sc located at the center of the cage and is predicted to be 1.2 eV higher in energy at the highest level of theory employed in this work (DZ/HF-BLYP). The energy barrier for moving Sc from the center of the cage to the lowest energy position is predicted to be 0.1 eV at the same level of theory. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. High-level expression of a phage display-derived scFv in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Leonardo M; Lee, Frank; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd; Batt, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Numerous techniques are available for investigating protein-ligand interactions. The phage display technique is one such method routinely used to identify antibody-antigen interactions and has the benefit of being easily adaptable to high-throughput screening platforms. Once identified, antigen-binding domains on fragment antibodies or single-chain fragment antibodies (scFv) can be expressed and purified for further studies. In this chapter, we describe a method for high-level expression of a phage display-derived scFv in Pichia pastoris. The phage display-derived antibody A33scFv recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein (designated A33) expressed in colon cancer that serves as a target antigen for radioimmunoimaging and/or immunotherapy of human colon cancer. The expression and purification of A33scFv was optimized for the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. P. pastoris with a Mut(S) phenotype was selected to express A33scFv under regulation of the methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter. Here we describe a large-scale fed-batch fermentation process with an efficient online closed-loop methanol control for the production of the recombinant protein. Purification of A33scFv from clarified culture medium was done using a two-step chromatographic procedure using anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, resulting in a final product with more than 90% purity. This chapter provides protocols that can be used as a base for process development of recombinant protein expression in P. pastoris and purification of these proteins for use in further functionality studies and in diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  16. A Mutated Anti-CA19-9 scFv-Fc for Positron Emission Tomography of Human Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Rochefort, Matthew M.; Girgis, Mark D.; Knowles, Scott M.; Ankeny, Jacob S.; Salazar, Felix; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intact antibodies have a long serum persistence resulting in high background signal that inhibits their direct translation as imaging agents. Engineering of antibody fragments through the introduction of mutations in the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region can dramatically reduce serum persistence. We sought to develop a Fc-mutated, anti-CA19-9 antibody fragment (anti-CA 19-9 scFv-Fc H310A) to provide micropositron emission tomography (microPET) imaging of pancreatic cancer xenografts. Procedures The anti-CA19-9 scFv-Fc H310A was successfully expressed and purified. Biochemical characterization included size exclusion chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, and flow cytometry. The antibody fragment was labeled with iodine-124 (124I) and injected into mice containing human pancreatic cancer xenografts. MicroPET/CT images were then obtained. Blood, organ, and tumor radioactivity was measured and expressed as the percent of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g). Results Biochemical characterization was consistent with the creation of a 105 kD dimer containing a human Fc region. Flow cytometry demonstrated antigen-specific binding, and cell-based ELISA further established a dissociation constant (KD) of 10.7 nM. 124I-labeled scFv-Fc H310A localized to the antigen-positive tumor xenografts as detected by microPET. Objective confirmation of targeting was demonstrated by higher %ID/g in the antigen-positive tumor compared to the blood, antigen-negative tumor, and liver. Conclusions We successfully engineered and produced an anti-CA19-9 scFv-Fc H310A antibody fragment that retains similar affinity when compared to the parental intact murine antibody. Additionally, our engineered and mutated fragment exhibited antigen-specific microPET imaging of both subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts at early time points secondary to decreased serum half-life. PMID:24691872

  17. On the electron affinities of the Ca, Sc, Ti and Y atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    For the Ca, Sc, Ti, and Y atoms calculations are performed for the ground states of the neutrals and the ground and several low-lying excited states of the negative ions. Overall, the computed electron affinities are in good accord with experiment. The calculations show the rapid stabilization of the 3d orbital relative to the 4p as the nuclear charge increases. The 3F0 and 3D0 terms are found to be close in energy in Sc(-) and in Y(-). This confirms earlier speculation that some of the peaks in the photodetachment spectra of Y(-) originate from the bound excited 3F0 term of Y(-).

  18. Hot Deformation Of Si(3)N(4) Doped With Sc(2)O(3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheong, Deock-Soo; Sanders, William A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes preparation, microstructural properties, and high-temperature deformation behavior of Si(3)N(4) doped with Sc(2)O(3). Powders of Si(3)N(4) with small additions of Sc(2)O(3) sintered under nitrogen overpressures to full density; expensive hot pressing or hot isostatic pressing not necessary to attain full density. Test of bars indicate high strengths at high temperatures and excellent time-dependent strength properties. Useful for fabrication of hot-section components of automotive gas-turbine engines.

  19. On the electron affinities of the Ca, Sc, Ti and Y atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    For the Ca, Sc, Ti and Y atoms calculations are performed for the ground states of the neutrals and the ground and several low-lying excited states of the negative ions. Overall the computed electron affinities are in good accord with experiment. The calculations show the rapid stabilization of the 3d orbital relative to the 4p as the nuclear charge increases. The 3F(0) and 3D(0) terms are found to be close in energy in Sc(-) and in Y(-). This confirms earlier speculation that some of the peaks in the photodetachment spectra of Y(-) originate from the bound excited 3F(0) term of Y(-).

  20. Electronic structure of ScN determined using optical spectroscopy, photoemission, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, D.; Sta''dele, M.; Ja''rrendahl, K.; Petrov, I.; Desjardins, P.; Haasch, R. T.; Lee, T.-Y.; Greene, J. E.

    2001-03-15

    Experimental and ab initio computational methods are employed to conclusively show that ScN is a semiconductor rather than a semimetal; i.e., there is a gap between the N 2p and the Sc 3d bands. Previous experimental investigators reported, in agreement with band structure calculations showing a band overlap of 0.2 eV, that ScN is a semimetal while others concluded that it is a semiconductor with a band gap larger than 2 eV. We have grown high quality, single crystalline ScN layers on MgO(001) and on TiN(001) buffer layers on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition. ScN optical properties were determined by transmission, reflection, and spectroscopic ellipsometry while in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet valence band photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the density of states (DOS) below the Fermi level. The measured DOS exhibits peaks at 3.8 and 5.2 eV stemming from the N 2p bands and at 15.3 eV due to the N 2s bands. The imaginary part of the measured dielectric function {epsilon}{sub 2} consists of two primary features due to direct X- and {Gamma}-point transitions at photon energies of 2.7 and 3.8 eV, respectively. For comparison, the ScN band structure was calculated using an ab initio Kohn--Sham approach which treats the exchange interactions exactly within density-functional theory. Calculated DOS and the complex dielectric function are in good agreement with our ScN valence-band photoelectron spectra and measured optical properties, respectively. We conclude, combining experimental and computational results, that ScN is a semiconductor with an indirect {Gamma}--X bandgap of 1.3{+-}0.3eV and a direct X-point gap of 2.4{+-}0.3eV.

  1. Synergistic Antivascular and Antitumor Efficacy with Combined Cediranib and SC6889 in Intracranial Mouse Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Merryl R.; Kukino, Ayaka; Tran, Huong; Schabel, Matthias C.; Springer, Charles S.; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Woltjer, Randall L.; Pike, Martin M.

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis remains extremely poor for malignant glioma. Targeted therapeutic approaches, including single agent anti-angiogenic and proteasome inhibition strategies, have not resulted in sustained anti-glioma clinical efficacy. We tested the anti-glioma efficacy of the anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cediranib and the novel proteasome inhibitor SC68896, in combination and as single agents. To assess anti-angiogenic effects and evaluate efficacy we employed 4C8 intracranial mouse glioma and a dual-bolus perfusion MRI approach to measure Ktrans, relative cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBF, rCBV), and relative mean transit time (rMTT) in combination with anatomical MRI measurements of tumor growth. While single agent cediranib or SC68896 treatment did not alter tumor growth or survival, combined cediranib/SC68896 significantly delayed tumor growth and increased median survival by 2-fold, compared to untreated. This was accompanied by substantially increased tumor necrosis in the cediranib/SC68896 group (p<0.01), not observed with single agent treatments. Mean vessel density was significantly lower, and mean vessel lumen area was significantly higher, for the combined cediranib/SC68896 group versus untreated. Consistent with our previous findings, cediranib alone did not significantly alter mean tumor rCBF, rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. In contrast, SC68896 reduced rCBF in comparison to untreated, but without concomitant reductions in rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. Importantly, combined cediranib/SC68896 substantially reduced rCBF, rCBV. rMTT, and Ktrans. A novel analysis of Ktrans/rCBV suggests that changes in Ktrans with time and/or treatment are related to altered total vascular surface area. The data suggest that combined cediranib/SC68896 induced potent anti-angiogenic effects, resulting in increased vascular efficiency and reduced extravasation, consistent with a process of vascular normalization. The study represents the first demonstration that the

  2. Single-crystal structure determination of Zr 50Sc 12O 118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurst, K.; Schweda, E.; Bevan, D. J. M.; Mohyla, J.; Wallwork, K. S.; Hofmann, M.

    2003-11-01

    Colorless plates of Zr 50Sc 12O 118 have been produced by firing zirconia with scandia at temperatures above 1000 °C and cooling slowly. The resulting crystals were heavily twinned. The unit cell is rhombohedral with space group R 3¯ and lattice constants a=1981.70(5) and c=1805.59(6) pm. The structure is fluorite-related anion-deficient. Within the cell there are 18 vacancies on oxygen positions. A further neutron time of flight study revealed an almost statistical distribution of Zr and Sc on the cation positions.

  3. Population of positive-parity states in {sup 53}Sc through one-proton knockout.

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, S.; Gade, A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cook, J. M.; Deacon, A. N.; Dinca, D.-C.; Freeman, S. J.; Glasmacher, T.; Hansen, P. G.; Kay, B. P.; Mantica, P. F.; Mueller, W. F.; Terry, J. R.; Tostevin, J. A.; Zhu, S.; Physics; Michigan State Univ.; Univ. of Manchester; Univ. of Surrey

    2010-02-01

    The one-proton knockout reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 54}Ti,{sup 53}Sc+{gamma})X at 72 MeV/nucleon has been measured. The location of the first 3/2{sup -} state at 2110(3) keV was confirmed, and new {gamma}-ray transitions were observed at 1111(2), 1273(2), 1539(4), and 2495(5) keV. Large spectroscopic strength to excited states in {sup 53}Sc was found and attributed to the knockout of sd-shell protons.

  4. Population of positive-parity states in {sup 53}Sc through one-proton knockout

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, S.; Gade, A.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Glasmacher, T.; Hansen, P. G.; Terry, J. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Zhu, S.; Bazin, D.; Mueller, W. F.; Deacon, A. N.; Freeman, S. J.; Kay, B. P.; Mantica, P. F.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2010-02-15

    The one-proton knockout reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 54}Ti,{sup 53}Sc+{gamma})X at 72 MeV/nucleon has been measured. The location of the first 3/2{sup -} state at 2110(3) keV was confirmed, and new {gamma}-ray transitions were observed at 1111(2), 1273(2), 1539(4), and 2495(5) keV. Large spectroscopic strength to excited states in {sup 53}Sc was found and attributed to the knockout of sd-shell protons.

  5. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  6. Synergistic Antivascular and Antitumor Efficacy with Combined Cediranib and SC6889 in Intracranial Mouse Glioma.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Merryl R; Kukino, Ayaka; Tran, Huong; Schabel, Matthias C; Springer, Charles S; Gillespie, G Yancey; Grafe, Marjorie R; Woltjer, Randall L; Pike, Martin M

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis remains extremely poor for malignant glioma. Targeted therapeutic approaches, including single agent anti-angiogenic and proteasome inhibition strategies, have not resulted in sustained anti-glioma clinical efficacy. We tested the anti-glioma efficacy of the anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cediranib and the novel proteasome inhibitor SC68896, in combination and as single agents. To assess anti-angiogenic effects and evaluate efficacy we employed 4C8 intracranial mouse glioma and a dual-bolus perfusion MRI approach to measure Ktrans, relative cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBF, rCBV), and relative mean transit time (rMTT) in combination with anatomical MRI measurements of tumor growth. While single agent cediranib or SC68896 treatment did not alter tumor growth or survival, combined cediranib/SC68896 significantly delayed tumor growth and increased median survival by 2-fold, compared to untreated. This was accompanied by substantially increased tumor necrosis in the cediranib/SC68896 group (p<0.01), not observed with single agent treatments. Mean vessel density was significantly lower, and mean vessel lumen area was significantly higher, for the combined cediranib/SC68896 group versus untreated. Consistent with our previous findings, cediranib alone did not significantly alter mean tumor rCBF, rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. In contrast, SC68896 reduced rCBF in comparison to untreated, but without concomitant reductions in rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. Importantly, combined cediranib/SC68896 substantially reduced rCBF, rCBV. rMTT, and Ktrans. A novel analysis of Ktrans/rCBV suggests that changes in Ktrans with time and/or treatment are related to altered total vascular surface area. The data suggest that combined cediranib/SC68896 induced potent anti-angiogenic effects, resulting in increased vascular efficiency and reduced extravasation, consistent with a process of vascular normalization. The study represents the first demonstration that the

  7. Structure of singly terminated DyScO3 (110) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kleibeuker, Josee; Kuiper, Bouwe; Harkema, S.; Blank, Dave H. A.; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus; Tinnemans, P.; Vlieg, E.; Rossen, P. B.; Siemons, Wolter; Portale, G.; Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Ramesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the polar surface of singly terminated DyScO{sub 3} (110) crystals by reflective high-energy electron diffraction, surface x-ray diffraction and angle-resolved mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions. These techniques show that the surfaces are (1 x 1) reconstructed, which points to the absence of ordered cation vacancies at the surface. The best surfaces were obtained after a selective chemical wet etch. We suggest that for ScO{sub 2} terminated surfaces, adsorbates, or oxygen vacancies are most likely to occur in order to overcome the polarity difference between stoichiometric bulk crystal and vacuum.

  8. Magnesium regulation of the beta-receptor-adenylate cyclase complex. II. Sc3+ as a Mg2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Maguire, M E

    1982-09-01

    Sc3+ bears the same relationship to Mg2+ as La3+ to Ca2+, a similar ionic radius but increased charge. Therefore, the possibility was investigated that Sc3+ would be a Mg2+ antagonist at Mg2+ sites on the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of the murine S49 lymphoma cell. Sc3+ is consistently much more potent than La3+ in inhibiting adenylate cyclase regardless of the mode of activation. IC50 values for Sc3+ of 10-30 microM were observed, whereas those for La3+ were about 300 microM. However, Sc3+ does not block the ability of Mg2+ to increase beta-receptor affinity for agonist nor alter agonist affinity by itself. Furthermore, Sc3+ is a weak inhibitor of the beta-receptor-mediated inhibition of Mg2+ influx. In cyc- S49 membranes, in which the catalytic subunit of cyclase cannot interact with the nucleotide-coupling protein(s), Sc3+ is as potent as in wild-type S49 membranes and again more potent than La3+. Substrate kinetics show that Sc3+, like Mg2+, modulates adenylate cyclase activity by affecting the Vmax without altering the Km for substrate. The data suggest that Sc3+ is a specific antagonist of Mg2+ at the Mg2+ site on the catalytic subunit and support the suggestion that there are two distinct sites for Mg2+ with different functions, one site on the coupling protein(s) and one on the catalytic subunit. It was also found that an apparent complex of Sc3+ and F-, ScF4-, is a potent inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, with an IC50 of 3 microM. PMID:6292689

  9. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling. PMID:25821419

  10. In the presence of fluoride, free Sc³⁺ is not a good predictor of Sc bioaccumulation by two unicellular algae: possible role of fluoro-complexes.

    PubMed

    Crémazy, Anne; Campbell, Peter G C; Fortin, Claude

    2014-08-19

    We investigated the effect of fluoride complexation on scandium accumulation by two unicellular algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This trivalent metal was selected for its chemical similarities with aluminum and for its convenient radioisotope (Sc-46), which can be used as a tracer in short-term bioaccumulation studies. Scandium surface-bound concentrations (Sc(ads)) and uptake fluxes (J(int)) were estimated in the two algae over short-term (<1 h) exposures at pH 5 and in the presence of 0 to 40 μM F(-). Although the computed proportion of dissolved Sc(3+) dropped from 20% to 0.01% over this [F(-)] range, Sc(ads) and J(int) values for both algae decreased only slightly, suggesting a participation of Sc fluoro-complexes in both processes. Surface adsorption and uptake of fluoride complexes with aluminum have been reported in the literature. These observations are not taken into account by current models for trace metal bioaccumulation (e.g., the biotic ligand model). Results from a previous study, where the effects of pH on Sc uptake were investigated, suggested that Sc hydroxo-complexes were internalized by C. reinhardtii. There is thus growing evidence that the free ion concentration may not be adequate to predict the accumulation of Sc (and potentially of other trivalent metals) in aquatic organisms.

  11. Sc2@C3v(8)-C82 vs. Sc2C2@C3v(8)-C82: drastic effect of C2 capture on the redox properties of scandium metallofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroki; Lu, Xing; Iiduka, Yuko; Mizorogi, Naomi; Slanina, Zdenek; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2012-01-30

    We describe the first example of scandium dimetallofullerenes, Sc(2)@C(3v)(8)-C(82), which has the same cage as the previously assigned scandium carbide cluster fullerene Sc(2)C(2)@C(3v)(8)-C(82) but they exhibit distinctly different electronic configurations and electronic behaviours, confirming the drastic influence of the internal C(2) unit.

  12. Experimental study of the incorporation of Li, Sc, Al and other trace elements into olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Kevin J.; Wood, Bernard J.

    2010-04-01

    We performed a series of synthesis experiments at 1 atm pressure to investigate the substitution mechanisms of 1+ and 3+ ions into olivine. Forsterite crystals were grown from bulk compositions that contained the element of interest (e.g. Li) and different amounts of additional single trace elements. By working at constant (major element) liquid composition and temperature we eliminated all compositional effects other than those due to the trace elements. Mineral-melt pairs were then analysed to determine the compositional-dependence of the partition coefficient ( D), which corresponds to {[element]}/{[element]}, and where [element] refers to weight concentration of the element in the respective phase. We find that Li forms a stable coupled substitution with Sc and, at above ˜500 ppm Sc in the crystal, Li + and Sc 3+ ions form an ordered neutral complex ([LiSc]). This complex dissociates at lower trace element concentrations and a second, concentration-independent, mechanism begins to dominate. This second solution mechanism is most likely 2Li + ⇔ Mg 2+ where one of the Li atoms is in an interstitial position in the crystal lattice. Natural olivines show Li contents slightly greater than Sc (on an atomic basis), indicating that both substitution mechanisms are significant. Unlike Sc, Al does not appear to form a stable complex with Li in the olivine structure. Sodium is highly incompatible in olivine with DNaFo-melt of ˜0.00015-0.03. Olivine-liquid partitioning of Na + is independent of Sc 3+ or Al 3+ concentration. This indicates that the coupled substitution of Na + with any 3+ ions is unlikely. Instead, the relevant substitution mechanism appears to be 2Na + ⇔ Mg 2+. Although independent of 3+ ion concentration, DNaFo-melt is inversely correlated with the Li concentration of both melts and crystals, implying that Na competes (unsuccessfully) with Li to replace Mg in the olivine structure. Aluminium is highly incompatible in forsterite DAlFo-melt=0.006±0

  13. Study of synergistic effect of Sc and C co-doping on the enhancement of visible light photo-catalytic activity of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Lei, Juying; Iqbal, Waheed; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    Scandium and carbon co-doped TiO2 catalyst was prepared through a simple sol-gel synthesis method by using scandium nitrate as scandium dopant precursor, glucose as carbon precursor and tetrabutyl orthotitanate as titanium precursor and calcined them at 450 °C for 3 h. The characterizations of the prepared samples were accomplished through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The X-ray diffraction results of the samples showed the decrease in the crystal size of the sample with the subsequent increase in the specific surface area as shown by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy displayed the blue shift in the absorption together with the photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed the decrease in the recombination of electrons and holes by the addition of the scandium and then after the certain optimum value, the further increase of the scandium further increased the recombination of electrons and holes. The photo-catalytic activity of the samples was investigated with the help of photo-catalytic degradation of Acid orange 7 under visible light irradiation. The degradation of Acid orange 7 was highly increased for the Sc and C co-doped samples compared to the single C doped sample. And the sample 0.2 Sc/C-TiO2 had the maximum increase. The enhanced photo-catalytic performance was due the decrease of the crystal size, increase of the surface area, increase in the surface hydroxyl groups, and increase of the lifetime of the electrons and holes because of the synergistic effect of the Sc and C co-doping in TiO2.

  14. Intracellular scFvs against the viral E6 oncoprotein provoke apoptosis in human papillomavirus-positive cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, Magali; Boulade-Ladame, Charlotte; Mailly, Laurent; Weiss, Etienne; Orfanoudakis, Georges; Deryckere, Francois . E-mail: francois.deryckere@esbs.u-strasbg.fr

    2007-09-21

    The E6 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (16E6) is involved in the tumorigenesis of human cervical cells by targeting numerous cellular proteins. We have designed a strategy for neutralizing 16E6 based on the intracellular expression of single-chain Fv antibodies (scFvs) specific to 16E6. Recombinant adenovirus vectors were constructed to allow expression of two 16E6-binding scFvs and one 16E6-non-binding scFv in HPV16-positive and -negative cells. Expression of the scFvs provoked two types of effects: (i) inhibition of proliferation of all cell lines tested, this aspecific toxicity being likely due to the aggregation of unfolded scFvs; and (ii) apoptosis observed only in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines after expression of 16E6-binding scFvs, this specific effect being proportional to the intracellular solubility of the scFvs. These data demonstrate the feasibility of intracellular immunization with anti-16E6 scFvs and highlight the importance of the solubility of the intracellular antibodies.

  15. On the Structural and Luminescent Properties of the ScTa(1-x)Nb(x)O(4) System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brixner, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Diagrams and tables supplement textual information regarding the structure of ScNbo-4 and its observed and calculated d-values; excitation and emission spectra and cell constants for the ScTa(1-x)NB(x)O(4) system. (CS)

  16. Successful engineering of a highly potent single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) bispecific antibody to target disialoganglioside (GD2) positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; Santich, Brian H; Xu, Hong; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Huse, Morgan; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2016-06-01

    Engineering potent bispecific antibodies from single-chain variable fragments (scFv) remains difficult due to the inherent instability and insufficient binding of scFv's compared to their parental immunoglobulin format. Previously, we described a scFv-based bispecific antibody (scBA) against disialoganglioside (GD2) based on the anti-GD2 murine 5F11-scFv and the anti-CD3 huOKT3-scFv (5F11-scBA). In this study, we substituted the 5F11-scFv with the higher affinity (13-fold) hu3F8-scFv to form hu3F8-scBA. With this modification, hu3F8-scBA redirected T cells to kill GD2(+) cancer cell lines with up to 5,000-fold higher potency (femtomolar EC50) compared with 5F11-scBA (picomolar EC50) in cytotoxicity assays, even against target cells with low GD2 densities. Furthermore, hu3F8-scBA induced stronger T-cell activation than 5F11-scBA, as measured by Ca(2+) flux and cytokine release. Additionally, in vivo, hu3F8-scBA suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mice survival much more effectively than 5F11-scBA, in both neuroblastoma and melanoma xenograft models. We conclude that the functional properties of scBA's can be increased substantially by relatively modest increases in antigen affinity.

  17. Successful engineering of a highly potent single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) bispecific antibody to target disialoganglioside (GD2) positive tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming; Santich, Brian H.; Xu, Hong; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Huse, Morgan; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Engineering potent bispecific antibodies from single-chain variable fragments (scFv) remains difficult due to the inherent instability and insufficient binding of scFv's compared to their parental immunoglobulin format. Previously, we described a scFv-based bispecific antibody (scBA) against disialoganglioside (GD2) based on the anti-GD2 murine 5F11-scFv and the anti-CD3 huOKT3-scFv (5F11-scBA). In this study, we substituted the 5F11-scFv with the higher affinity (13-fold) hu3F8-scFv to form hu3F8-scBA. With this modification, hu3F8-scBA redirected T cells to kill GD2(+) cancer cell lines with up to 5,000-fold higher potency (femtomolar EC50) compared with 5F11-scBA (picomolar EC50) in cytotoxicity assays, even against target cells with low GD2 densities. Furthermore, hu3F8-scBA induced stronger T-cell activation than 5F11-scBA, as measured by Ca2+ flux and cytokine release. Additionally, in vivo, hu3F8-scBA suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mice survival much more effectively than 5F11-scBA, in both neuroblastoma and melanoma xenograft models. We conclude that the functional properties of scBA's can be increased substantially by relatively modest increases in antigen affinity. PMID:27471647

  18. Expression of functional single-chain variable domain fragment antibody (scFv) against mycotoxin zearalenone in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2008-10-01

    A synthetic gene coding for single-chain variable domain fragment antibody against mycotoxin zearalenone (scFv-ZEN) has been designed, constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The native scFv-ZEN sequence was optimized to Pichia preference codon usage. The expression level of codon-optimized scFv-ZEN was slightly higher than that of native scFv-ZEN, and its maximum yield reached 328 mg total protein/l in flask culture. The binding activities of two selected clones to ZEN using surface plasmon resonance analysis were comparable or better than that of monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate the potential of soluble scFv-ZEN for developing a rapid and affordable immunoassay for detection of ZEN in food and feedstuff. PMID:18575809

  19. Spontaneous emission from ScF in a supersonic mixing flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, D. R.; Cool, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of the two reactions: Sc + F2 yields ScF(asterisk) + F and Y + Cl2 yields YCl(asterisk) + Cl. Experiments were designed for studying the reactions under the relatively high pressure conditions (5-20 torr) appropriate for chemical laser operation. A shock tube was used to provide a short duration flow through a supersonic nozzle array. Shock wave heating is used to dissociate the ScCl3 or YCl3 at temperatures of about 6000 K, before the gases are accelerated and expanded through the supersonic nozzle array. The expanded primary flow is then mixed with a secondary flow of F2 introduced through slots at the trailing edge of each nozzle blade. Graphs show the temporal behavior of the visible spontaneous emission over the range from 3000 to 9000 A for a typical test condition, a microdensitometer tracing of the visible emission over the range from 4000 to 7000 A, and the spontaneous emission from ScF(asterisk) obtained by computer image processing of intensity data.

  20. Atomic structure and phason modes of the Sc-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tsunetomo; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Euchner, Holger; Pay Gómez, Cesar; Bosak, Alexei; Fertey, Pierre; de Boissieu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    The detailed atomic structure of the binary icosahedral (i) ScZn7.33 quasicrystal has been investigated by means of high-resolution synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and absolute scale measurements of diffuse scattering. The average atomic structure has been solved using the measured Bragg intensity data based on a six-dimensional model that is isostructural to the i-YbCd5.7 one. The structure is described with a quasiperiodic packing of large Tsai-type rhombic triacontahedron clusters and double Friauf polyhedra (DFP), both resulting from a close-packing of a large (Sc) and a small (Zn) atom. The difference in chemical composition between i-ScZn7.33 and i-YbCd5.7 was found to lie in the icosahedron shell and the DFP where in i-ScZn7.33 chemical disorder occurs on the large atom sites, which induces a significant distortion to the structure units. The intensity in reciprocal space displays a substantial amount of diffuse scattering with anisotropic distribution, located around the strong Bragg peaks, that can be fully interpreted as resulting from phason fluctuations, with a ratio of the phason elastic constants K 2/K 1 = -0.53, i.e. close to a threefold instability limit. This induces a relatively large perpendicular (or phason) Debye-Waller factor, which explains the vanishing of 'high-Q perp' reflections. PMID:27437112

  1. Iterative Suboptimal Maximum Likelihood Receiver for Nonlinearly Distorted SC-FDMA Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, Juraj; Deumal, Marc; Bergada, Pau; Drotár, Peter; Kocur, Dušan; Galajda, Pavol

    2011-11-01

    Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) is the modulation scheme being employed in the uplink of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and will also be employed in the upcoming fourth generation (4G) system LTE Advanced. The main advantage of using SC-FDMA in the uplink in opposite to the traditional orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDM) is its lower sensitivity to nonlinear amplification. Nevertheless, the strict requirements of 4G systems suggest that techniques to reduce sensitivity even further should be introduced. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of nonlinearities in SC-FDMA and present an iterative receiver scheme to reduce the error probability of SC-FDMA systems undergoing nonlinear amplification. The technique consists in successive estimation and compensation of both the nonlinear distortion and the non-constant attenuation and rotation introduced by the transmitter high power amplifier (HPA). Simulation results expressed by the bit error rate (BER), the error vector magnitude (EVM) and the total degradation (TD) show that the proposed iterative receiver provides a significant performance improvement.

  2. 76 FR 35086 - Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, SC; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, SC; Notice of Appointment of Receiver... as sole Receiver for Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, South Carolina, (OTS No. 18016) on June...

  3. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... status of the BOEMRE and its activities. There will be a presentation on Alternative Energy Programs... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation...

  4. Insilico analysis of three different tag polypeptides with dual roles in scFv antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mozafar; Nejatollahi, Foroogh; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Zarei, Neda

    2016-08-01

    Single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies are composed of variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) domains that are joined by a polypeptide linker. Typically, [(Gly4Ser) n] sequence is used as a linker to retain the integrity of the antigen-binding domain. Due to its low immunogenicity, this sequence cannot be used as a tag for scFv detection and purification. Several evidences have shown that the addition of an N or C-terminal tag for scFv detection and purification will result in the decreased expression and binding capacity of this antibody fragment. In this study, we substituted the traditional linker (GGGGS) with His-tag, C-myc or E-tag sequences through molecular modeling. Stability and integrity of all models were assessed by molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Based on MD simulation analysis, the model containing E-tag sequence as a linker indicated more stability compared to other molecules. The results suggest that E-tag not only can be substituted for the traditional linker, also eliminates the necessity of using additional tag for scFv detection and purification. PMID:27113782

  5. DOE Award # DE-SC0008085 Close-Out Report for UIUC Portion of Grant

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Kristina Anderson; DeLucia, Evan H

    2014-11-20

    This is the final technical report for the University of Illinois (UIUC) portion of grant # SC0008085 (CARBON DYNAMICS OF FOREST RECOVERY UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE: FORCINGS, FEEDBACKS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EARTH SYSTEM MODELING), which closed June 14, 2014. The grant remains active at the Smithsonian.

  6. 77 FR 15258 - Special Local Regulations; Patriot Challenge Kayak Race, Ashley River, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Challenge Kayak Race, Ashley River, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 79571). We received no... available in the docket, are part of docket USCG-2011-1095 and are available online by going to http://www.regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2011-1095 in the ``Keyword'' box, and then clicking ``Search.'' This...

  7. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  8. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  9. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  10. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  11. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  12. Thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance of HfN/ScN superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Schroeder, Jeremy; Koh, Yeekan

    2015-03-01

    Metal/semiconductor superlattices are known for their potential application as thermionic devices. Understanding thermal properties of such superlattices is essential for the design of new material structures and devices. Here, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of HfN/ScN metal/semiconductor superlattices using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR). HfN/ScN superlattices with different period thickness (2nm to 24 nm) were grown on MgO substrate using reactive magnetron sputtering. We found that the minimum thermal conductivity is 4.3 W/m K when the period thickness is 6 nm. By changing the ratio of layer thickness of HfN and ScN (1:4 to 4:1), we studied the contributions electrons and phonons to the thermal conductivity of superlattices. Use a simple thermal resistance calculation, we extract the interfacial thermal conductance between HfN and ScN. The interfacial thermal conductance is 1.8 GW/m2 K, which is 3 times higher than that of AlN/GaN.

  13. 77 FR 51475 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier in... life and property on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Myrtle Beach, SC... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of...

  14. 77 FR 59451 - Pickens Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pickens County, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pickens Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pickens County, SC Pickens...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 8.5 miles of rail line between approximate milepost 0.0 (at... exemption procedure is appropriate, citing Union Pacific Railroad Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Ada...

  15. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  16. Facile Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed generation and successive aromatization of isobenzofuran from o-dicarbonylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Yuta; Kida, Tatsuya; Ureshino, Tomonari

    2011-08-01

    Isobenzofuran can be prepared from o-phthalaldehyde using hydrosilane. The formed isobenzofuran is trapped by an alkene via a Diels-Alder reaction. Further dehydration proceeds to furnish the conjugated aromatic compound. This multistep reaction was promoted by catalytic amounts of Sc(OTf)(3).

  17. 40 CFR 1066.835 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... major modifications affecting the solar simulation. Determine uniformity by measuring radiant energy... exhaust emissions while simulating an urban trip on a hot summer day. The provisions of 40 CFR part 86 and 40 CFR part 600 waive SC03 testing for some vehicles; in those cases, calculate SFTP...

  18. 76 FR 62439 - Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Complex, GA and SC; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... through a Federal Register notice on May 19, 2008 (73 FR 28838). Please see that notice for more about the... on September 15, 2010 (75 FR 56133). We received comments from State and Federal government agencies... Fish and Wildlife Service Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Complex, GA and SC; Final...

  19. Atomic structure and phason modes of the Sc-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tsunetomo; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Euchner, Holger; Pay Gómez, Cesar; Bosak, Alexei; Fertey, Pierre; de Boissieu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    The detailed atomic structure of the binary icosahedral (i) ScZn7.33 quasicrystal has been investigated by means of high-resolution synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and absolute scale measurements of diffuse scattering. The average atomic structure has been solved using the measured Bragg intensity data based on a six-dimensional model that is isostructural to the i-YbCd5.7 one. The structure is described with a quasiperiodic packing of large Tsai-type rhombic triacontahedron clusters and double Friauf polyhedra (DFP), both resulting from a close-packing of a large (Sc) and a small (Zn) atom. The difference in chemical composition between i-ScZn7.33 and i-YbCd5.7 was found to lie in the icosahedron shell and the DFP where in i-ScZn7.33 chemical disorder occurs on the large atom sites, which induces a significant distortion to the structure units. The intensity in reciprocal space displays a substantial amount of diffuse scattering with anisotropic distribution, located around the strong Bragg peaks, that can be fully interpreted as resulting from phason fluctuations, with a ratio of the phason elastic constants K 2/K 1 = -0.53, i.e. close to a threefold instability limit. This induces a relatively large perpendicular (or phason) Debye-Waller factor, which explains the vanishing of 'high-Q perp' reflections.

  20. Evaluating school obesity-related policies using surveillance tools: lessons from the ScOPE study.

    PubMed

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben F; Kubik, Martha Y; Coulter, Sara; Davey, Cynthia S; MacLehose, Richard; Rode, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The evidence evaluating the association between school obestiy prevention policies and student weight is mixed. The lack of consistent findings may result, in part, from limited evaluation approaches. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the use of surveillance data to address methodological gaps and opportunities in the school policy evaluation literature using lessons from the School Obesity-Related Policy Evaluation (ScOPE) study. The ScOPE study uses a repeated, cross-sectional study design to evaluate the association between school food and activity policies in Minnesota and behavioral and weight status of youth attending those schools. Three surveillance tools are used to accomplish study goals: Minnesota School Health Profiles (2002-2012), Minnesota Student Survey (2001-2013), and National Center for Educational Statistics. The ScOPE study takes two broad steps. First, we assemble policy data across multiple years and monitor changes over time in school characteristics and the survey instrument(s), establish external validity, and describe trends and patterns in the distribution of policies. Second, we link policy data to student data on health behaviors and weight status, assess nonresponse bias, and identify cohorts of schools. To illustrate the potential for program evaluators, the process, challenges encountered, and solutions used in the ScOPE study are presented.

  1. 75 FR 30063 - Johns Manville, Engineered Products Division, Spartanburg, SC; Notice of Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Johns Manville, Engineered Products Division, Spartanburg, SC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated May 2, 2010, a petitioner requested...

  2. Final Report for Research supported by US DoE grant DE-SC0006721

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2014-08-27

    A final report is presented on research carried out by Alain J. Brizard (Principal Investigator) with funding provided by the U.S. DoE grant No. DE-SC0006721 during the period of 08/01/2011 to 07/31/2014.

  3. Stability of PrP**Sc from cattle inoculated with different BSE strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases are a class of transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, caused by an infectious protein, that afflict humans and other mammals. The infectious agent is a host encoded protein known as PrP that has adopted a misfolded conformation termed PrP**Sc. The diseases have been shown to manife...

  4. 78 FR 19100 - Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor; Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... populations of less than 50,000. The Coast Guard certifies under 5 U.S.C. 605(b) that this rule will not have... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor; Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  5. 77 FR 19934 - Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... their fields, and governmental jurisdictions with populations of less than 50,000. The Coast Guard... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  6. 76 FR 18389 - Safety Zones; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... fields, and governmental jurisdictions with populations of less than 50,000. The Coast Guard certifies... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  7. Diagnostic Implications of Markedly Elevated MMPI Sc Scale Scores for Nonhospitalized Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Kunce, Joseph T.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the personal adjustment of counseling center clients (N=60) whose highest Sc scale score on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was over 70. Results supported a continued need to delineate more precisely the significance of elevated MMPI scores for nonpsychiatric populations. (LLL)

  8. Fermilab's SC Accelerator Magnet Program for Future U.S. HEP Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, Michael; Zlobin, Alexander; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The invention of SC accelerator magnets in the 1970s opened wide the possibilities for advancing the energy frontier of particle accelerators, while limiting the machine circumference and reducing their energy consumption. The successful development of SC accelerator magnets based on NbTi superconductor have made possible a proton-antiproton collider (Tevatron) at Fermilab, an electron-proton collider (HERA) at DESY, a relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL and recently a proton-proton collider (LHC) at CERN. Further technological innovations and inventions are required as the US HEP looks forward towards the post-LHC energy or/and intensity frontiers. A strong, goal oriented national SC accelerator magnet program must take on this challenge to provide a strong base for the future of HEP in the U.S. The results and experience obtained by Fermilab during the past 30 years will allow us to play a leadership role in the SC accelerator magnet development in the U.S., in particular, focusing on magnets for a Muon Collider/Neutrino Factory [1]-[2]. In this paper, we summarize the required Muon Collider magnet needs and challenges, summarize the technology advances in the Fermilab accelerator magnet development over the past few years, and present and discuss our vision and long-term plans for these Fermilab-supported accelerator initiatives.

  9. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  10. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  11. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  12. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  13. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  14. 33 CFR 110.72c - Lake Murray, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72c Lake Murray, S.C. (a) The area beginning at the 125 foot pier of the Columbia Sailing Club, approximately latitude 34°03′51″ N., longitude 81°13′37″...

  15. 33 CFR 110.72c - Lake Murray, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72c Lake Murray, S.C. (a) The area beginning at the 125 foot pier of the Columbia Sailing Club, approximately latitude 34°03′51″ N., longitude 81°13′37″...

  16. 75 FR 8651 - Foreign-Trade Zone 21-Charleston, SC, Application for Subzone, Luigi Bormioli Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 21--Charleston, SC, Application for Subzone, Luigi Bormioli... Board) by the South Carolina State Ports Authority, grantee of FTZ 21, requesting...

  17. PGRP-SC2 promotes gut immune homeostasis to limit commensal dysbiosis and extend lifespan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Linlin; Karpac, Jason; Tran, Susan L; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-01-16

    Interactions between commensals and the host impact the metabolic and immune status of metazoans. Their deregulation is associated with age-related pathologies like chronic inflammation and cancer, especially in barrier epithelia. Maintaining a healthy commensal population by preserving innate immune homeostasis in such epithelia thus promises to promote health and longevity. Here, we show that, in the aging intestine of Drosophila, chronic activation of the transcription factor Foxo reduces expression of peptidoglycan recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2), a negative regulator of IMD/Relish innate immune signaling, and homolog of the anti-inflammatory molecules PGLYRP1-4. This repression causes deregulation of Rel/NFkB activity, resulting in commensal dysbiosis, stem cell hyperproliferation, and epithelial dysplasia. Restoring PGRP-SC2 expression in enterocytes of the intestinal epithelium, in turn, prevents dysbiosis, promotes tissue homeostasis, and extends lifespan. Our results highlight the importance of commensal control for lifespan of metazoans and identify SC-class PGRPs as longevity-promoting factors.

  18. Electronic Bands of ScC in the Region 620 - 720 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chiao-Wei; Merer, Anthony; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2016-06-01

    ScC molecules have been observed by laser-induced fluorescence, following the reaction of laser-ablated scandium metal with acetylene under supersonic jet-cooled conditions. Rotational analyses have been carried out for about 40 bands of Sc{}12C and Sc{}13C in the region 14000 - 16000 cm-1. Two lower states are found, with Ω = 3/2 and 5/2, indicating that the ground state is ^4Π_i or ^2Δ. As yet we cannot distinguish between these alternatives, but note that the ground state of the isoelectronic YC molecule is ^4Π_i. The ground state bond length in ScC is 1.95{}_5 Å, and the vibrational frequency is 712 cm-1. At least eight electronic transitions occur in the region studied, the majority obeying the selection rule ΔΩ = +1. Rotational perturbations are widespread, consistent with a high density of excited electronic states. B. Simard, P.A. Hackett and W.J. Balfour, Chem. Phys. Lett., 230, 103 (1994).

  19. Superposition of quantum and classical rotational motions in Sc2C2@C84 fullerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, K. H.; Verberck, B.; Hulman, M.; Kuzmany, H.; Krause, M.

    2007-02-01

    The superposition of the quantum rotational motion (tunneling) of the encapsulated Sc2C2 complex with the classical rotational motion of the surrounding C84 molecule in a powder crystal of Sc2C2@C84 fullerite is investigated by theory. Since the quantum rotor is dragged along by the C84 molecule, any detection method which couples to the quantum rotor (in casu the C2 bond of the Sc2C2 complex) also probes the thermally excited classical motion (uniaxial rotational diffusion and stochastic meroaxial jumps) of the surrounding fullerene. The dynamic rotation-rotation response functions in frequency space are obtained as convolutions of quantum and classical dynamic correlation functions. The corresponding Raman scattering laws are derived, and the overall shape of the spectra and the width of the resonance lines are studied as functions of temperature. The results of the theory are confronted with experimental low-frequency Raman spectra on powder crystals of Sc2C2@C84 [M. Krause et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137403 (2004)]. The agreement of theory with experiment is very satisfactory in a broad temperature range.

  20. FOODWEB MODELING FOR PCBS IN THE TWELVEMILE CREEK ARM OF LAKE HARTWELL, GA/SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is conducting a series of studies on the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, SC, to examine the pollution of the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell by PCBs that were released from the site until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB c...

  1. FINAL REPORT. DOE Grant Award Number DE-SC0004062

    SciTech Connect

    Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-07-15

    With the support of the DOE-OFES Early Career Award and the Tufts startup support the PI has developed experimental and analytical expertise on the electromechanical characterization of Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) and High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for high magnetic field applications. These superconducting wires and cables are used in fusion and high-energy physics magnet applications. In a short period of time, the PI has built a laboratory and research group with unique capabilities that include both experimental and numerical modeling effort to improve the design and performance of superconducting cables and magnets. All the projects in the PI’s laboratory explore the fundamental electromechanical behavior of superconductors but the types of materials, geometries and operating conditions are chosen to be directly relevant to real machines, in particular fusion machines like ITER.

  2. Effect of the Pb(2+) lone electron pair in the structure and properties of the double perovskites Pb2Sc(Ti0.5Te0.5)O6 and Pb2Sc(Sc0.33Te0.66)O6: relaxor state due to intrinsic partial disorder.

    PubMed

    Larrégola, S A; Alonso, J A; Algueró, M; Jiménez, R; Suard, E; Porcher, F; Pedregosa, J C

    2010-06-01

    We describe the preparation, the crystal structure refined from neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data, and study of the permittivity of two related double perovskites, Pb2Sc(Ti0.5Te0.5)O6 and Pb2Sc(Sc0.33Te0.66)O6. These compounds were synthesized by standard ceramic procedures; Rietveld refinements from room temperature NPD data show that the crystal structures are well defined in a cubic unit cell (space group Fm3m) with double parameter, a = 2a0 ≈ 8 Å. They contain a completely ordered array of ScO6 and (B,Te)O6 (B = Sc, Ti) octahedra sharing corners; the PbO12 polyhedra present an off-center displacement of the lead atoms along the [1 1 1] directions, due to the electrostatic repulsion between the Pb(2+) 6 s electron lone-pair and the Pb-O bonds of the cuboctahedron. Both compounds present a low temperature, highly dispersive maximum in permittivity, the position of which follows the Vogel-Fulcher relation with freezing temperatures of 156 and 99 K for Pb2Sc(Ti0.5Te0.5)O6 and Pb2Sc(Sc0.33Te0.66)O6, respectively, exhibiting a typical phenomenology of relaxors.

  3. A Global Record of Surface Earth Oxygenation from Sedimentary V/Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, C. B.; Schoene, B.; Johnston, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the simplest methods to investigate changes in oxidation potential in geologic environments is to examine a pair of otherwise similar elements with dramatically different redox chemistry. The first-row transition metals Sc and V represent one such pair, with generally similar mass, radius, and ionization energies up to the trivalent redox state. However, as a d3 transition metal, Sc is limited to a maximum oxidation state of 3+, while d5 vanadium may be further oxidized to form tetravalent and pentavalent ions. Due to the greater incompatibility of pentavalent (relative to trivalent) metal cations in silicate melts, V/Sc ratio has been applied to the silicate rock record as a tracer of magma redox - indicating roughly constant mantle oxygen fugacity over Earth history1,2. As a result, the solid earth represents a boundary condition with constant V/Sc observed over geologic time1. However, oxidation state also affects the weathering, solubility, and coordination behaviour of V and Sc, resulting in a potential redox signal in the sedimentary V/Sc record. We apply the weighted bootstrap resampling approach of [2] to a geochemical dataset of ~87,000 sedimentary whole-rock analyses from the EarthChem portal3. The resulting trends reveal a 4 Gyr record of V/Sc redox chemistry, with the great oxidation event represented as an upward step ca. 2.5 Ga, and Phanerozoic variation suggestive of low oxygen in the early Paleozoic, increasing to twin maxima circa 270 Ma and 130 Ma, remarkably similar to that predicted by the COPSE model4, and broadly congruent with the Phanerozoic biochar record5. Li, Z.-X. A. & Lee, C.-T. A. EPSL 228, 483-493 (2004). Keller, C. B. & Schoene, B. Nature 485, 490-493 (2012). EarthChem Bergman, N. M. Am. J. Science 304, 397-437 (2004). Glasspool, I. J. & Scott, A. C. Nat. Geosci. 3, 627-630 (2010).

  4. In vivo imaging of prostate cancer using an anti-PSMA scFv fragment as a probe

    PubMed Central

    Mazzocco, Claire; Fracasso, Giulio; Germain-Genevois, Coralie; Dugot-Senant, Nathalie; Figini, Mariangela; Colombatti, Marco; Grenier, Nicolas; Couillaud, Franck

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate a fluorescent-labeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) of the anti-PSMA antibody as a specific probe for the detection of prostate cancer by in vivo fluorescence imaging. An orthotopic model of prostate cancer was generated by injecting LNCaP cells into the prostate lobe. ScFvD2B, a high affinity anti-PSMA antibody fragment, was labeled using a near-infrared fluorophore to generate a specific imaging probe (X770-scFvD2B). PSMA-unrelated scFv-X770 was used as a control. Probes were injected intravenously into mice with prostate tumors and fluorescence was monitored in vivo by fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). In vitro assays showed that X770-scFvD2B specifically bound to PSMA and was internalized in PSMA-expressing LNCaP cells. After intravenous injection, X770-scFvD2B was detected in vivo by FMT in the prostate region. On excised prostates the scFv probe co-localized with the cancer cells and was found in PSMA-expressing cells. The PSMA-unrelated scFv used as a control did not label the prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that scFvD2B is a high affinity contrast agent for in vivo detection of PSMA-expressing cells in the prostate. NIR-labeled scFvD2B could thus be further developed as a clinical probe for imaging-guided targeted biopsies. PMID:26996325

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 47: Monte Carlo Simulation of Scp, Sc and Sp

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2014-08-15

    The in-water output ratio (Scp), in-air output ratio (Sc), and phantom scattering factor (Sp) are important parameters for radiotherapy dose calculation. Experimentally, Scp is obtained by measuring the dose rate ratio in water phantom, and Sc the water Kerma rate ratio in air. There is no method that allows direct measurement of Sp. Monte Carlo (MC) method has been used to simulate Scp and Sc in literatures, similar to experimental setup, but no MC direct simulation of Sp available yet to the best of our knowledge. We propose in this report a method of performing direct MC simulation of Sp. Starting from the definition, we derived that Sp of a clinical photon beam can be approximated by the ratio of the dose rates contributed from the primary beam for a given field size to the reference field size. Since only the primary beam is used, any Linac head scattering should be excluded from the simulation, which can be realized by using the incident electron as a scoring parameter for MU. We performed MC simulations for Scp, Sc and Sp. Scp matches well with golden beam data. Sp obtained by the proposed method agrees well with what is obtained using the traditional method, Sp=Scp/Sc. Since the smaller the field size, the more the primary beam dominates, our Sp simulation method is accurate for small field. By analyzing the calculated data, we found that this method can be used with no problem for large fields. The difference it introduced is clinically insignificant.

  6. Phage display of human antibodies from a patient suffering from coeliac disease and selection of isotype-specific scFv against gliadin

    PubMed Central

    Rhyner, Claudio; Weichel, Michael; Hübner, Philipp; Achatz, Gernot; Blaser, Kurt; Crameri, Reto

    2003-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD), a gastrointestinal illness characterized by intestinal malabsorption, results from gluten intolerance accompanied with immunological responses towards gliadin, an ethanol-soluble protein fraction of wheat and other cereals. The role of gliadin in eliciting immune responses in CD is still partly unclear; however, the occurrence of anti-gliadin in the sera of patients suffering from CD correlates well with clinical symptoms. In this work we report the construction of isotype-specific, phage-displayed scFv libraries from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a patient with CD and from a healthy control individual. VH and VL chains were amplified by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) using a set of oligonucleotides recognizing all human variable gene families. The three scFv libraries (IgA, IgG and IgM) were selectively enriched for gliadin-binding phage. After four rounds of affinity selection, polyclonal enrichment of gliadin-binding phage was observed in all libraries from the CD patient but in none from the healthy donor. Phagemid particles generated from single clones were demonstrated to be gliadin-specific, as shown by strongly positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and BiaCore signals. The VH and VL chains from samples of these monoclonal isotype-specific phage were sequenced to identify the most common variable regions used by the immune system to elicit antibody responses against gliadin. PMID:14511241

  7. Novel endohedral derivatives of Sc3N C2n (n = 34, 40) and unique tether controlled bis-functionalization of fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceron Hernandez, Maira Raquel

    Since the discovery of fullerenes in 1985, their exohedral functionalization has been necessary to increase their solubility and explore their properties and potential applications in materials science and medicinal chemistry. This thesis provides a short overview of the importance of electronic, size and shape complementarity in determining the structures of specific endohedral fullerene compounds. This is followed by a description of a new method for the separation of scandium nitride endohedral fullerenes Sc3N C2n (n = 34, 39 and 40), and their monofunctionalization. We also present the regioselective synthesis of easily isolable bis-derivatives of C60, C70, and M3N Ih-C80 (M = Sc, Lu) using 1,3-dipolar, addition/elimination (Bingel reaction) and diazo cycloadditions. The following sections are composed of a brief introduction and a pre-peer reviewed version of the published article, each section follows its own nomenclature and numerical order. The experimental section in each section includes methods, synthesis and characterization of the most relevant compounds.

  8. Complement C3 gene: Expression characterization and innate immune response in razor clam Sinonovacula constricta.

    PubMed

    Peng, Maoxiao; Niu, Donghong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Zhiyi; Li, Jiale

    2016-08-01

    Complement component 3 (C3) is central to the complement system, playing an important role in immune defense, immune regulation and immune pathology. Several C3 genes have been characterized in invertebrates but very few in shellfish. The C3 gene was identified from the razor clam Sinonovacula constricta, referred to here as Sc-C3. It was found to be highly homologous with the C3 gene of Ruditapes decussatus. All eight model motifs of the C3 gene were found to be included in the thiolester bond and the C345C region. Sc-C3 was widely expressed in all healthy tissues with expression being highest in hemolymph. A significant difference in expression was revealed at the umbo larvae development stage. The expression of Sc-C3 was highly regulated in the hemolymph and liver, with a distinct response pattern being noted after a challenge with Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus. It is therefore suggested that a complicated and unique response pathway may be present in S. constricta. Further, serum of S. constricta containing Sc-C3 was extracted. This was activated by LPS or bacterium for verification for function. The more obvious immune function of Sc-C3 was described as an effective membrane rupture in hemocyte cells of rabbit, V. parahemolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum. Thus, Sc-C3 plays an essential role in the immune defense of S. constricta. PMID:27231190

  9. scVEGF Microbubble Ultrasound Contrast Agents: A Novel Probe for Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Christopher R., Anderson; Joshua J., Rychak; Marina, Backer; Joseph, Backer; Klaus, Ley; Alexander L., Klibanov

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel microbubble (MB) ultrasound contrast agent covalently coupled to a recombinant single-chain vascular endothelial growth factor construct (scVEGF) through uniform site-specific conjugation for ultrasound imaging of tumor angiogenesis. Methods Ligand conjugation to maleimide-bearing MB by thioether bonding was first validated with a fluorophore (BODIPY-cystine), and covalently bound dye was detected by fluorometry and flow cytometry. MBs were subsequently site-specifically conjugated to cysteine-containing Cys-tag in scVEGF, and bound scVEGF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Targeted adhesion of scVEGF-MB was investigated with in vitro parallel plate flow chamber assays with recombinant murine VEGFR-2 substrates and human VEGFR-2-expressing porcine endothelial cells (PAE/KDR). A wall-less ultrasound flow phantom, with flow channels coated with immobilized VEGFR-2, was used to detect adhesion of scVEGF-MB with contrast ultrasound imaging. A murine model of colon adenocarcinoma was used to assess retention of scVEGF-MB with contrast ultrasound imaging during tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Results Proof-of-principle of ligand conjugation to maleimide-bearing MB was demonstrated with a BODIPY-cysteine fluorophore. Conjugation of BODIPY to MB saturated at 10-fold molar excess BODIPY relative to maleimide groups on MB surfaces. MB reacted with scVEGF and led to the conjugation of 1.2 × 105 molecules scVEGF per MB. Functional adhesion of sc-VEGF-MB was shown in parallel plate flow chamber assays. At a shear stress of 1.0 dynes/cm2, scVEGF-MB exhibited 5-fold higher adhesion to both recombinant VEGFR-2 substrates and VEGFR-2-expressing endothelial cells compared with nontargeted control MB. Additionally, scVEGF-MB targeted to immobilized VEGFR-2 in an ultrasound flow phantom showed an 8-fold increase in mean acoustic signal relative to casein-coated control channels. In an in vivo model of tumor angiogenesis, scVEGF MB showed

  10. L-Arginine ethylester enhances in vitro amplification of PrP(Sc) in macaques with atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and enables presymptomatic detection of PrP(Sc) in the bodily fluids.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Y; Ono, F; Shimozaki, N; Shibata, H

    2016-02-12

    Protease-resistant, misfolded isoforms (PrP(Sc)) of a normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva, are expected to be useful diagnostic markers of prion diseases, and nonhuman primate models are suited for performing valid diagnostic tests for human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We developed an effective amplification method for PrP(Sc) derived from macaques infected with the atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) prion by using mouse brain homogenate as a substrate in the presence of polyanions and L-arginine ethylester. This method was highly sensitive and detected PrP(Sc) in infected brain homogenate diluted up to 10(10) by sequential amplification. This method in combination with PrP(Sc) precipitation by sodium phosphotungstic acid is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, urine, and plasma of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the L-BSE prion. Furthermore, PrP(Sc) was detectable in the saliva or urine samples as well as CSF samples obtained at the preclinical phases of the disease. Thus, our novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of bodily fluid leakage of PrP(Sc) in nonhuman primate models. PMID:26802462

  11. L-Arginine ethylester enhances in vitro amplification of PrP(Sc) in macaques with atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and enables presymptomatic detection of PrP(Sc) in the bodily fluids.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Y; Ono, F; Shimozaki, N; Shibata, H

    2016-02-12

    Protease-resistant, misfolded isoforms (PrP(Sc)) of a normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva, are expected to be useful diagnostic markers of prion diseases, and nonhuman primate models are suited for performing valid diagnostic tests for human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We developed an effective amplification method for PrP(Sc) derived from macaques infected with the atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) prion by using mouse brain homogenate as a substrate in the presence of polyanions and L-arginine ethylester. This method was highly sensitive and detected PrP(Sc) in infected brain homogenate diluted up to 10(10) by sequential amplification. This method in combination with PrP(Sc) precipitation by sodium phosphotungstic acid is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, urine, and plasma of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the L-BSE prion. Furthermore, PrP(Sc) was detectable in the saliva or urine samples as well as CSF samples obtained at the preclinical phases of the disease. Thus, our novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of bodily fluid leakage of PrP(Sc) in nonhuman primate models.

  12. Genetic and serological analysis of the immunogenic 67-kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7.

    PubMed

    Frey, J; Cheng, X; Monnerat, M P; Abdo, E M; Krawinkler, M; Bölske, G; Nicolet, J

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding a lipoprotein of 67 kDa, named P67, was cloned from Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 strain PG50 and expressed in Escherichia coli K12. Analysis of the amino acid sequence derived from the DNA sequence of the P67 gene revealed a typical prokaryotic signal peptidase II membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site and a transmembrane structure domain in the leader sequence at the amino-terminal end of the protein. Protein P67 showed 91% identical amino acid residues to the lipoprotein P72 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (SC) and 53% identical amino acid residues to a peptide of an unassigned gene on the genome of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum. Antibodies made against recombinant P67 reacted with a 67-kDa protein in all Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 strains tested and also, to some extent, with P72 of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. The gene encoding P67 was present in all strains of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 analysed, but not in other Mycoplasma sp. of the "mycoides cluster" and not in the phylogenetically related Mycoplasma putrefaciens. PCR and restriction fragment analysis revealed that the gene of P67 is conserved in all strains of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7. A specific PCR reaction based on the P67 gene sequence enabled rapid identification of strains belonging to Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7.

  13. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from mycoplasmas by direct solid-phase DNA sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, B; Johansson, K E; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    Automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used for determination of partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of mycoplasmas. The sequence information was used to establish phylogenetic relationships of 11 different mycoplasmas whose 16S rRNA sequences had not been determined earlier. A biotinylated fragment corresponding to positions 344 to 939 in the Escherichia coli sequence was generated by PCR. The PCR product was immobilized onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and direct sequencing was performed in both directions. One previously unclassified avian mycoplasma was found to belong to the Mycoplasma lipophilum cluster of the hominis group. Microheterogeneities were discovered in the rRNA operons of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC type), confirming the existence of two different rRNA operons. The 16S rRNA sequence of M. mycoides subsp. capri was identical to that of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (type SC), except that no microheterogeneities were revealed. Furthermore, automated solid-phase DNA sequencing was used to identify a mycoplasmal contamination of a cell culture as Mycoplasma hyorhinis, which proved to be very difficult by conventional methods. The results suggest that the direct solid-phase DNA sequencing procedure is a powerful tool for identification of mycoplasmas and is also useful in taxonomic studies. Images PMID:7521158

  14. 41 CFR 102-38.370 - What does a holding agency do with property which cannot be sold by its SC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency do with property which cannot be sold by its SC? 102-38.370 Section 102-38.370 Public Contracts... § 102-38.370 What does a holding agency do with property which cannot be sold by its SC? All reasonable efforts must be afforded the SC to sell the property. If the property remains unsold after the time...

  15. 41 CFR 102-38.365 - Is a holding agency required to report property in “scrap” condition to its selected SC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required to report property in âscrapâ condition to its selected SC? 102-38.365 Section 102-38.365 Public... selected SC? No. Property which has no value except for its basic material content (scrap material) may be... agency should consult the SC(s) selected by the holding agency as to the feasibility of selling the...

  16. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity. PMID:26456362

  17. Synthesis and crystal chemistry of microporous titanates Kx(Ti,M)8O16 where M=Sc-Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Larson, Amber M.; Hodges, Brenna C.; Zavalij, Peter; Gaskell, Karen J.; Piccoli, Philip M.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.

    2014-12-01

    Through salt-flux methods, single crystals of eight novel hollandite-type titanates have been grown with the stoichiometry Kx(Ti8-yMy)8O16 for x=y≈1.5 where M3+=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe, and for x/2=y≈0.75 where M2+=Co and Ni. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction reveals phase pure crystals with tetragonal space group I4/m. These titanates are microporous oxides with 1-dimensional channels where the non-framework cation, K, resides. In addition to diffraction, spectroscopic methods were used to characterize the chemical composition of both the bulk and surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy affords the oxidation states of the substituted transition metals M on the surface and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy the metal ratios, including that of potassium, for an overall accurate description of the chemical composition of both the bulk and surface. Magnetization versus temperature measurements indicate that all phases are Curie paramagnets with effective magnetic moments consistent with the d-electron count given by combined X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis techniques.

  18. Isolation of soluble scFv antibody fragments specific for small biomarker molecule, L-Carnitine, using phage display.

    PubMed

    Abou El-Magd, Rabab M; Vozza, Nicolas F; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wishart, David S

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of single chain antibody fragment (scFv) clones from naïve Tomlinson I+J phage display libraries that specifically bind a small biomarker molecule, L-Carnitine, was performed using iterative affinity selection procedures. L-Carnitine has been described as a conditionally essential nutrient for humans. Abnormally high concentrations of L-Carnitine in urine are related to many health disorders including diabetes mellitus type 2 and lung cancer. ELISA-based affinity characterization results indicate that selectants preferentially bind to L-Carnitine in the presence of key bioselecting component materials and closely related L-Carnitine derivatives. In addition, the affinity results were confirmed using biophysical fluorescence quenching for tyrosine residues in the V segment. Small-scale production of the soluble fragment yielded 1.3mg/L using immunopure-immobilized protein A affinity column. Circular Dichroism data revealed that the antibody fragment (Ab) represents a folded protein that mainly consists of β-sheets. These novel antibody fragments may find utility as molecular affinity interface receptors in various electrochemical biosensor platforms to provide specific L-Carnitine binding capability with potential applications in metabolomic devices for companion diagnostics and personalized medicine applications. It may also be used in any other biomedical application where detection of the L-Carnitine level is important. PMID:26608419

  19. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is enthalpically favored, but entropically hindered. Simulated adsorption isotherms show that a water monolayer will form even at the low water concentrations of water-saturated scCO2. Carbonation reactions readily occur at electron-rich terminal Oxygen sites adjacent to cation vacancies that readily form in the presence of a water monolayer. These results point to a carbonation mechanism that does not require prior carbonic acid formation in the bulk liquid. This work also highlights the modern capabilities of theoretical methods to address structure and reactivity at interfaces of high chemical complexity.

  20. [Construction of anti-B7-H4-scFv library and screening and identification of anti-B7-H4-scFv].

    PubMed

    Shao, Luanluan; Xu, Chaochao; Ji, Hongshuai; Mao, Weiping; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Yanyan

    2016-09-01

    Objective To construct the ribosome display library of anti-B7-H4 extracellular domain, and select the antibody with high specificity. Methods The cDNA of B7-H4 extracellular domain was amplified from A549 cells by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). To express ectodomains of B7-H4, the sequence of B7-H4 gene, which encodes the B7-H4 extracellular domains, was inserted into plasmid pET-28a(+). The purified recombinant protein of B7-H4 extracellular domain was used to immunize BALB/c mice. The total RNA was extracted from the spleen of BALB/c mice which had been immunized with B7-H4 recombinant protein. The genes of VH, Vκ and VH/Vκ were amplified separately by RT-PCR and splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR). The gene of VH/ Vκ was ligated into pUM19-T vector and the ligated sample was transformed into competent E.coli DH5α. The resulting plasmid was isolated and then subjected to sequencing to verify the gene sequence. TNT(R)T7 Quick for PCR DNA kit was used to translate and screen the anti-B7-H4-scFv in vitro from the ribosome display library. Western blotting and an indirect ELISA were performed to detect the specificity of anti-B7-H4-scFv. Results The right sequences of VH, Vκ and VH/Vκ were acquired, which were 439, 680 and 1098 bp in length, respectively. The analysis of specificity demonstrated that the anti-B7-H4-scFv screened from the ribosome display library had a high specific combining ability with B7-H4. Conclusion The experiment has successively constructed the ribosome display library of anti-B7-H4 extracellular domain, and selected the anti-B7-H4-scFv which has a high specific binding ability with recombinant protein of B7-H4 extracelluar domain. PMID:27609584

  1. A drought severity climatology for the Carpathian Region using Sc-PDSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antofie, Tiberiu; Naumann, Gustavo; Spinoni, Jonathan; Weynants, Melanie; Szalai, Sandor; Szentimrey, Tamas; Bihari, Zita; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Monthly grids of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (Sc-PDSI) have been calculated for the period 1961-2010 for the Carpathian Region (17˚-27˚E, 44˚-50˚N) with a spatial resolution of 0.1˚x 0.1˚. Using the Sc-PDSI and the assumptions of the Palmer Drought Model (PDM), the approximated precipitation required for drought termination (achieved when the Sc-PDSI turns back above -0.5) and amelioration (achieved when the Sc-PDSI value turns back above -2.0) are computed for periods of 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. The Sc-PDSI is based on a modified version of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), first introduced by Palmer (1965) with the intent to measure the cumulative departure (related to local normal conditions) of moisture supply and demand. Due to its empirically derived climatic characteristic (K) and duration factors - limited to U.S. climatic conditions - Wells et al. (2004) improved it and transformed the PDSI into the Sc-PDSI, which is more appropriate for spatial comparisons in different climatic regions. The Sc-PDSI is based on the supply-and-demand concept of a complex water budget system based on precipitation and temperature records and also on the soil characteristics at any location. The inputs used in this study are the Available Water Capacity of the soil (AWC) derived from the soil texture (European Soil Database of JRC) with a spatial resolution of 0.1˚x0.1˚, Potential Evapo-Transpiration (PET), and 6 hydrological parameters of the soil water balance: recharge, runoff, loss, and their potential values (used in the calculation of Palmer's constants to define the normal climate for the specific location, i.e. the so called CAFEC). PET has been computed using the 0.1˚x 0.1˚ gridded monthly precipitation and mean temperature for 1961-2010 provided by the CARPATCLIM project in the framework of the construction of a Climate Atlas for the Carpathian Region. The Sc-PDSI focuses on the monthly anomalies of the soil moisture, thus it

  2. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0% ∼ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  3. Validity evaluation of Sc x Al1‑x N material constants based on SAW characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Yamazaki, Kenta; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed at examining the validity of material constants reported for use in surface acoustic wave (SAW) device simulations. First, based on the full set of material constants calculated by first principle, bulk acoustic wave velocities are calculated for Sc x Al1‑x N and compared with published experimental results. Then, the effects of the Sc x Al1‑x N material constants with different Sc content on acoustic characteristics are calculated and the influence of shear vibrations on SAW characteristics are recognized. Then, a series of SAW devices are fabricated on Sc x Al1‑x N film/Si substrate structure with various Cu and ScAlN thicknesses h Cu and h ScAlN, respectively, and measured variations of phase velocity V and effective electromechanical coupling factor K\\text{e}2 with these parameters are compared with the calculation. The fairly well-agreed results indicate a reliable set of Sc x Al1‑x N material constants for SAW device simulations.

  4. Production of in vivo biotinylated scFv specific to almond (Prunus dulcis) proteins by recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Silvia; Alcocer, Marcos; Madrid, Raquel; García, Aina; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2016-06-10

    The methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris has demonstrated its suitability for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. As an eukaryotic organism P. pastoris presents a series of advantages at expression and processing of heterologous proteins when compared with Escherichia coli. In this work, P. pastoris has been used to express a scFv from a human synthetic library previously shown to bind almond proteins. In order to facilitate purification and post processing manipulations, the scFv was engineered with a C-terminal tag and biotinylated in vivo. After purification, biotinylated scFv were bound to avidin conjugated with HRP producing a multimeric scFv. The multimeric scFv showed to maintain their ability to recognize almond protein when assayed in ELISA, reaching a LOD of 470mgkg(-1). This study describes an easy method to produce large quantities of in vivo biotinylated scFv in P. pastoris. By substituting the enzyme or fluorochromes linked to avidin, it will be possible to generate a diverse number of multimeric scFv as probes to suit different analytical platforms in the detection of almond in food products. PMID:27085890

  5. Production of in vivo biotinylated scFv specific to almond (Prunus dulcis) proteins by recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Silvia; Alcocer, Marcos; Madrid, Raquel; García, Aina; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2016-06-10

    The methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris has demonstrated its suitability for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. As an eukaryotic organism P. pastoris presents a series of advantages at expression and processing of heterologous proteins when compared with Escherichia coli. In this work, P. pastoris has been used to express a scFv from a human synthetic library previously shown to bind almond proteins. In order to facilitate purification and post processing manipulations, the scFv was engineered with a C-terminal tag and biotinylated in vivo. After purification, biotinylated scFv were bound to avidin conjugated with HRP producing a multimeric scFv. The multimeric scFv showed to maintain their ability to recognize almond protein when assayed in ELISA, reaching a LOD of 470mgkg(-1). This study describes an easy method to produce large quantities of in vivo biotinylated scFv in P. pastoris. By substituting the enzyme or fluorochromes linked to avidin, it will be possible to generate a diverse number of multimeric scFv as probes to suit different analytical platforms in the detection of almond in food products.

  6. Expression and Purification of the scFv from Hybridoma Cells Secreting a Monoclonal Antibody Against S Protein of PEDV

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qinghe; Guo, Donghua; Feng, Li

    2013-01-01

    The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) were amplified by RT-PCR from the hybridoma 6E6, which secretes the monoclonal antibody against PEDV S protein. The VL and VH amplicons were combined using SOE-PCR by a 12 amino acid flexible linker (SSGGGGSGGGGS), which produced the scFv gene (named scFv/6E6). After sequence analysis, the scFv/6E6 gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1 with a GST-tag. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was successfully expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli by IPTG induction. Moreover, the recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was purified from the inclusion body form by the gel-cutting measure followed by electroelution and dialysis. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein reported here will provide some basis for further antiviral drug research based on the scFv molecule. PMID:23600505

  7. PKC-Theta is a Novel SC35 Splicing Factor Regulator in Response to T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    McCuaig, Robert Duncan; Dunn, Jennifer; Li, Jasmine; Masch, Antonia; Knaute, Tobias; Schutkowski, Mike; Zerweck, Johannes; Rao, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of nuclear pre-mRNA is essential for generating protein diversity and regulating gene expression. While many immunologically relevant genes undergo alternative splicing, the role of regulated splicing in T cell immune responses is largely unexplored, and the signaling pathways and splicing factors that regulate alternative splicing in T cells are poorly defined. Here, we show using a combination of Jurkat T cells, human primary T cells, and ex vivo naïve and effector virus-specific T cells isolated after influenza A virus infection that SC35 phosphorylation is induced in response to stimulatory signals. We show that SC35 colocalizes with RNA polymerase II in activated T cells and spatially overlaps with H3K27ac and H3K4me3, which mark transcriptionally active genes. Interestingly, SC35 remains coupled to the active histone marks in the absence of continuing stimulatory signals. We show for the first time that nuclear PKC-θ co-exists with SC35 in the context of the chromatin template and is a key regulator of SC35 in T cells, directly phosphorylating SC35 peptide residues at RNA recognition motif and RS domains. Collectively, our findings suggest that nuclear PKC-θ is a novel regulator of the key splicing factor SC35 in T cells. PMID:26594212

  8. Structure, phase transition, and controllable thermal expansion behaviors of Sc(2-x)Fe(x)Mo₃O₁₂.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meimei; Liu, Xinzhi; Chen, Dongfeng; Huang, Qingzhen; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yuntao

    2014-09-01

    The crystal structures, phase transition, and thermal expansion behaviors of solid solutions of Sc(2-x)Fe(x)Mo3O12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) have been examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). At room temperature, samples crystallize in a single orthorhombic structure for the compositions of x < 0.6 and monoclinic for x ≥ 0.6, respectively. DSC results indicate that the phase transition temperature from monoclinic to orthorhombic structure is enhanced by increasing the Fe(3+) content. High-temperature XRD and NPD results show that Sc(1.3)Fe(0.7)Mo3O12 exhibits near zero thermal expansion, and the volumetric coefficients of thermal expansion derived from XRD and NPD are 0.28 × 10(-6) °C(-1) (250-800 °C) and 0.65 × 10(-6) °C(-1) (227-427 °C), respectively. NPD results of Sc2Mo3O12 (x = 0) and Sc(1.3)Fe(0.7)Mo3O12 (x = 0.7) indicate that Fe substitution for Sc induces reduction of the mean Sc(Fe)-Mo nonbond distance and the different thermal variations of Sc(Fe)-O5-Mo2 and Sc(Fe)-O3-Mo2 bond angles. The correlation between the displacements of oxygen atoms and the variation of unit cell parameters was investigated in detail for Sc2Mo3O12. PMID:25140828

  9. Generation of a Single Chain Antibody Variable Fragment (scFv) to Sense Selectively RhoB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chinestra, Patrick; Olichon, Aurélien; Medale-Giamarchi, Claire; Lajoie-Mazenc, Isabelle; Gence, Rémi; Inard, Cyril; Ligat, Laetitia; Faye, Jean-Charles; Favre, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Determining the cellular level of activated form of RhoGTPases is of key importance to understand their regulatory functions in cell physiopathology. We previously reported scFvC1, that selectively bind to the GTP-bound form of RhoA, RhoB and RhoC. In this present study we generate, by molecular evolution, a new phage library to isolate scFvs displaying high affinity and selectivity to RhoA and RhoB. Using phage display affinity maturation against the GTP-locked mutant RhoAL63, we isolated scFvs against RhoA active conformation that display Kd values at the nanomolar range, which corresponded to an increase of affinity of three orders of magnitude compared to scFvC1. Although a majority of these evolved scFvs remained selective towards the active conformation of RhoA, RhoB and RhoC, we identified some scFvs that bind to RhoA and RhoC but not to RhoB activated form. Alternatively, we performed a substractive panning towards RhoB, and isolated the scFvE3 exhibiting a 10 times higher affinity for RhoB than RhoA activated forms. We showed the peculiar ability of scFvE3 to detect RhoB but not RhoA GTP-bound form in cell extracts overexpressing Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor XPLN as well as in EGF stimulated HeLa cells. Our results demonstrated the ability of scFvs to distinguish RhoB from RhoA GTP-bound form and provide new selective tools to analyze the cell biology of RhoB GTPase regulation. PMID:25365345

  10. 44Sc: An Attractive Isotope for Peptide-Based PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression of integrin αvβ3 has been linked to tumor aggressiveness and metastasis in several cancer types. Because of its high affinity, peptides containing the arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) motif have been proven valuable vectors for noninvasive imaging of integrin αvβ3 expression and for targeted radionuclide therapy. In this study, we aim to develop a 44Sc-labeled RGD-based peptide for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin αvβ3 expression in a preclinical cancer model. High quality 44Sc (t1/2, 3.97 h; β+ branching ratio, 94.3%) was produced inexpensively in a cyclotron, via proton irradiation of natural Ca metal targets, and separated by extraction chromatography. A dimeric cyclic-RGD peptide, (cRGD)2, was conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and radiolabeled with 44Sc in high yield (>90%) and specific activity (7.4 MBq/nmol). Serial PET imaging of mice bearing U87MG tumor xenografts showed elevated 44Sc-DOTA-(cRGD)2 uptake in the tumor tissue of 3.93 ± 1.19, 3.07 ± 1.17, and 3.00 ± 1.25 %ID/g at 0.5, 2, and 4 h postinjection, respectively (n = 3), which were validated by ex vivo biodistribution experiments. The integrin αvβ3 specificity of the tracer was corroborated, both in vitro and in vivo, by competitive cell binding and receptor blocking assays. These results parallel previously reported studies showing similar tumor targeting and pharmacokinetic profiles for dimeric cRGD peptides labeled with 64Cu or 68Ga. Our findings, together with the advantageous radionuclidic properties of 44Sc, capitalize on the relevance of this isotope as an attractive alternative isotope to more established radiometals for small molecule-based PET imaging, and as imaging surrogate of 47Sc in theranostic applications. PMID:25054618

  11. Hydroxyurea decreases hospitalizations in pediatric patients with Hb SC and Hb SB+ thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D; Patel, Rakeshkumar J; Palabindela, Prasannalaxmi; Bemrich-Stolz, Christina J; Howard, Thomas H; Hilliard, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Patients with hemoglobin SC (Hb SC) and hemoglobin SB+ (Hb SB+) thalassemia suffer from frequent hospitalizations yet strong evidence of a clinical benefit of hydroxyurea (HU) in this population is lacking. Patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain crisis are offered HU at our institution based on small cohort data and anecdotal benefit. This study identifies outcomes from a large cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU for 2 years. Materials and methods A retrospective review was conducted of 32 patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU. We reviewed the number, and reasons for hospitalization in the 2 years prior to, and 2 years post-HU treatment as well as laboratory changes from baseline, over 1 year. Results Patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia started on HU for frequent pain, had a significant reduction in hospitalizations over 2 years as compared to the 2 years prior to HU initiation (mean total hospitalizations/year: pre-HU: 1.6 vs post-HU 0.4 hospitalizations, P<0.001; mean pain hospitalizations/year: pre-HU 1.5 vs post-HU 0.3 hospitalizations, P<0.001). Patients demonstrated hematologic changes including an increase in percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF) pre–post HU (4.5% to 7.7%, P=0.002), mean corpuscular volume (74 to 86 fL, P<0,0001), and decrease in absolute neutrophil count (5.0 to 3.2×109/L, P=0.007). Patients with higher doses of HU demonstrated the greatest reduction in hospitalizations but this was unrelated to absolute neutrophil count. Conclusion This cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia provides additional support for using HU in patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain. A large randomized multicenter trial of HU to reduce pain admissions should be conducted to confirm these data and provide much needed evidence based recommendations for this population. PMID:26719735

  12. The metallofullerene field-induced single-ion magnet HoSc2 N@C80.

    PubMed

    Dreiser, Jan; Westerström, Rasmus; Zhang, Yang; Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar; Krämer, Karl; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio; Greber, Thomas

    2014-10-13

    The low-temperature magnetic properties of the endohedral metallofullerene HoSc2 N@C80 have been studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements reveal that this molecule exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization in a small applied field with timescales in the order of milliseconds. The equilibrium magnetic properties of HoSc2 N@C80 indicate strong magnetic anisotropy. The large differences in magnetization relaxation times between the present compound and the previously investigated DySc2 N@C80 are discussed. PMID:25164532

  13. Tunable charge-transport properties of I(h)-C80 endohedral metallofullerenes: investigation of La2@C80, Sc3N@C80, and Sc3C2@C80.

    PubMed

    Sato, Satoru; Seki, Shu; Luo, Guangfu; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Lu, Jing; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2012-07-18

    Fullerene crystals or films have drawn much interest because they are good candidates for use in the construction of electronic devices. The results of theoretical calculations revealed that the conductivity properties of I(h)-C(80) endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) vary depending on the encapsulated metal species. We experimentally investigated the solid-state structures and charge-carrier mobilities of I(h)-C(80) EMFs La(2)@C(80), Sc(3)N@C(80), and Sc(3)C(2)@C(80). The thin film of Sc(3)C(2)@C(80) exhibits a high electron mobility μ = 0.13 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) under normal temperature and atmospheric pressure, as determined using flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements. This electron mobility is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mobility of La(2)@C(80) or Sc(3)N@C(80).

  14. The role of surface oxidation on the degradation behavior of biodegradable Mg-RE (Gd, Y, Sc) alloys for resorbable implants.

    PubMed

    Brar, Harpreet S; Berglund, Ida S; Allen, Josephine B; Manuel, Michele V

    2014-07-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys have the potential to replace currently used implants for fixation, thereby eliminating the need for removal surgeries. To achieve a controllable degradation rate, surface oxidation has been proposed as an avenue to reduce the initial degradation. This study aims to investigate the oxidation behavior of binary Mg-rare earth alloys and the effect on biodegradation. Cast Mg-3X alloys (X=Gd, Y, Sc) were prepared and then oxidized in pure oxygen. The oxidation rate was evaluated using TGA and the oxides were further investigated and characterized using SEM, AES and XPS. The effect of oxidation on the degradation rate was investigated by immersion testing in Hanks' solution. The thermodynamics and oxidation kinetics of the alloys are discussed in regard to the obtained results, and it was concluded that the experimental results are in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. PMID:24857509

  15. The role of surface oxidation on the degradation behavior of biodegradable Mg-RE (Gd, Y, Sc) alloys for resorbable implants.

    PubMed

    Brar, Harpreet S; Berglund, Ida S; Allen, Josephine B; Manuel, Michele V

    2014-07-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys have the potential to replace currently used implants for fixation, thereby eliminating the need for removal surgeries. To achieve a controllable degradation rate, surface oxidation has been proposed as an avenue to reduce the initial degradation. This study aims to investigate the oxidation behavior of binary Mg-rare earth alloys and the effect on biodegradation. Cast Mg-3X alloys (X=Gd, Y, Sc) were prepared and then oxidized in pure oxygen. The oxidation rate was evaluated using TGA and the oxides were further investigated and characterized using SEM, AES and XPS. The effect of oxidation on the degradation rate was investigated by immersion testing in Hanks' solution. The thermodynamics and oxidation kinetics of the alloys are discussed in regard to the obtained results, and it was concluded that the experimental results are in agreement with thermodynamic predictions.

  16. Unoccupied electronic resonances of Sc adsorbed on W(001) by k-resolved inverse photoemission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamouri, A.; Krainsky, I. L.; Petukhov, A. G.; Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Segall, B.

    1995-01-01

    Scandium adsorbed on the (001) face of tungsten has been studied using Auger-electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, k-resolved inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, work-function measurements, and relativistic-electronic-structure calculations. We find that the work function of W(001) does not decrease monotonically as a function of scandium adsorption but reaches a minimum value of Phi = 3.25 eV at 50% coverage. For a complete monolayer, an order 1 X 1 Sc overlayer is formed. Inverse photoemission in the isochromat mode was used to map the unoccupied energy levels of this overlayer along the bar-Gamma(bar-Mu) symmetry direction of the surface Brillouin zone. Local-density-functional calculations using the muffin-tin orbital method were performed for a 1 X 1 Sc overlayer on W and are compared with the experimental two-dimensional band structure.

  17. In situ TEM investigation of microstructural behavior of superplastic Al–Mg–Sc alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dám, Karel; Lejček, Pavel; Michalcová, Alena

    2013-02-15

    Dynamic changes in microstructure of the superplastic ultrafine-grained Al–3Mg–0.2Sc (wt.%) alloy refined by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). were observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy at temperatures up to 300 °C (annealing and tensile deformation) in order to simulate the initial stages of superplastic testing. It was found that the microstructure changes significantly during the preheating before the superplastic deformation, which was accompanied by decreased microhardness. During the deformation at 300 °C, high dislocation activity as well as motion of low-angle grain boundaries was observed while high-angle grain boundaries did not move due to the presence of scandium in the alloy. - Highlights: ► We performed in situ TEM annealing and straining on superplastic Al–Mg–Sc alloy. ► We simulated the conditions of early stages of superplastic testing. ► Significant changes in microstructure occur during preheating before deformation.

  18. Acute Splenic Sequestration Crisis in a 70-Year-Old Patient With Hemoglobin SC Disease

    PubMed Central

    Squiers, John J.; Edwards, Anthony G.; Parra, Alberto; Hofmann, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old African American female with a past medical history significant for chronic bilateral shoulder pain and reported sickle cell trait presented with acute-onset bilateral thoracolumbar pain radiating to her left arm. Two days after admission, Hematology was consulted for severely worsening microcytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the patient’s peripheral blood smear from admission revealed no cell sickling, spherocytes, or schistocytes. Some targeting was noted. A Coombs test was negative. The patient was eventually transferred to the medical intensive care unit in respiratory distress. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed a diagnosis of hemoglobin SC disease. A diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration crisis complicated by acute chest syndrome was crystallized, and red blood cell exchange transfusion was performed. Further research is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiology behind acute splenic sequestration crisis, and the role of splenectomy to treat hemoglobin SC disease patients should be better defined. PMID:27047980

  19. Understanding the reactivity of endohedral metallofullerenes: C78 versus Sc3N@C78.

    PubMed

    Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Solà, Miquel; Fernández, Israel

    2015-04-01

    The physical factors behind the reduced Diels-Alder reactivity of the Sc3N@C78 metallofullerene as compared with free C78 have been investigated in detail by means of computational tools. To this end, the reactions between 1,3-butadiene and free C78 and endohedral Sc3N@C78 have been analysed in terms of regioselectivity and reactivity by using the activation strain model of reactivity in combination with the energy decomposition analysis method. Additional factors such as the molecular orbital overlap or the aromaticity of the corresponding transition states have been also explored. Our results indicate that the lower reactivity of the metallofullerene finds its origin mainly in the less stabilizing interaction between the deformed reactants along the reaction coordinate induced by the triscandium nitride moiety.

  20. Which Is The Best Sandwich Compound? Hexaphenylbenzene Substituted By Sandwich Compounds Bearing Sc, Cr, and Fe.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Estrella; Martínez, Ana; Rios, Citlalli; Salcedo, Roberto

    2015-11-25

    The electronic properties of nine different hexaarylbenzene molecules substituted by sandwich compounds have been studied by applying density functional theory. Different structures and the particular electron donor power of these systems have been considered in order to analyze their oxidant capacity, using bis(ciclopentadienyl) scandium, ferrocene, and bis(benzene)chromium as sandwich compounds. Both monometallic and bimetallic combinations are investigated. According to the ionization energies and electron affinities, compounds with Cr are nucleophiles and represent the best electron donors, whereas compounds with Sc are electrophiles and represent the best electron acceptors. The worse electron donor or acceptor is hexakis(4-ferrocenyl phenyl) benzene. This is very significant, as it implies that the very well-known electronic properties of hexakis(4-ferrocenyl phenyl) benzene can be improved by substituting with other metals, such as Sc and Cr. This suggests several possible applications for these compounds. PMID:26528582