Science.gov

Sample records for mycotoxins

  1. Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, J. W.; Klich, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. PMID:12857779

  2. Mycotoxin methodology.

    PubMed

    Scott, P M

    1995-01-01

    Sensitive, specific, accurate and precise methods of analysis are needed for enforcement of mycotoxin regulations, other monitoring programmes, and research studies. Rapid screening tests are useful for control at all stages of food and feed production. There is a wide choice of both quantitative and qualitative methods for the more well known mycotoxins. Those at present covered by method standardization organizations such as AOAC International are aflatoxins (including M1), Alternaria toxins, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Methodology for mycotoxins is selectively reviewed in this paper with emphasis on the procedures comprising the analytical method--sampling, extraction of naturally contaminated samples, clean-up, detection and determination, and confirmation. Also covered are automation, method comparison, and method assessment.

  3. Masked mycotoxins: A review

    PubMed Central

    Berthiller, Franz; Crews, Colin; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Saeger, Sarah De; Haesaert, Geert; Karlovsky, Petr; Oswald, Isabelle P; Seefelder, Walburga; Speijers, Gerrit; Stroka, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed remain present in the plant tissue but are currently neither routinely screened for in food nor regulated by legislation, thus they may be considered masked. Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusaric acid) are prone to metabolisation or binding by plants, but transformation of other mycotoxins by plants (ochratoxin A, patulin, destruxins) has also been described. Toxicological data are scarce, but several studies highlight the potential threat to consumer safety from these substances. In particular, the possible hydrolysis of masked mycotoxins back to their toxic parents during mammalian digestion raises concerns. Dedicated chapters of this article address plant metabolism as well as the occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food, analytical aspects for their determination, toxicology and their impact on stakeholders. PMID:23047235

  4. Masked mycotoxins: a review.

    PubMed

    Berthiller, Franz; Crews, Colin; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Saeger, Sarah De; Haesaert, Geert; Karlovsky, Petr; Oswald, Isabelle P; Seefelder, Walburga; Speijers, Gerrit; Stroka, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed remain present in the plant tissue but are currently neither routinely screened for in food nor regulated by legislation, thus they may be considered masked. Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusaric acid) are prone to metabolisation or binding by plants, but transformation of other mycotoxins by plants (ochratoxin A, patulin, destruxins) has also been described. Toxicological data are scarce, but several studies highlight the potential threat to consumer safety from these substances. In particular, the possible hydrolysis of masked mycotoxins back to their toxic parents during mammalian digestion raises concerns. Dedicated chapters of this article address plant metabolism as well as the occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food, analytical aspects for their determination, toxicology and their impact on stakeholders.

  5. Microbial detoxification of mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are fungal natural products that are toxic to vertebrate animals. Microbes have been identified that enzymatically convert aflatoxin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, patulin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin to less toxic products. Mycotoxin-degrading fungi and bacteria have been isolate...

  6. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2002-01-01

    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  7. Endocrine activity of mycotoxins and mycotoxin mixtures.

    PubMed

    Demaegdt, Heidi; Daminet, Britt; Evrard, Annick; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; Pussemier, Luc; Callebaut, Alfons; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Reporter gene assays incorporating nuclear receptors (estrogen, androgen, thyroid β and PPARγ2) have been implemented to assess the endocrine activity of 13 mycotoxins and their mixtures. As expected, zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β- zearalenol turned out to have the strongest estrogenic potency (EC50 8,7 10-10 ± 0,8; 3,1 10-11 ± 0,5 and 1,3 10-8 ± 0,3 M respectively). The metabolite of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol also had estrogenic activity (EC50 3,8 10-7 ± 1,1 M). Furthermore, most of the mycotoxins (and their mixtures) showed anti-androgenic effects (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol with potencies within one order of magnitude of that of the reference compound flutamide). In particular, deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol acted as antagonists for the PPARy2 receptor. When testing mixtures of mycotoxins on the same cell systems, we showed that most of the mixtures reacted as predicted by the concentration addition (CA) theory. Generally, the CA was within the 95% confidence interval of the observed ones, only minor deviations were detected. Although these reporter gene tests cannot be directly extrapolated in vivo, they can be the basis for further research. Especially the additive effects of ZEN and its metabolites are of importance and could have repercussions in vivo. PMID:27481073

  8. Endocrine activity of mycotoxins and mycotoxin mixtures.

    PubMed

    Demaegdt, Heidi; Daminet, Britt; Evrard, Annick; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; Pussemier, Luc; Callebaut, Alfons; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Reporter gene assays incorporating nuclear receptors (estrogen, androgen, thyroid β and PPARγ2) have been implemented to assess the endocrine activity of 13 mycotoxins and their mixtures. As expected, zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β- zearalenol turned out to have the strongest estrogenic potency (EC50 8,7 10-10 ± 0,8; 3,1 10-11 ± 0,5 and 1,3 10-8 ± 0,3 M respectively). The metabolite of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol also had estrogenic activity (EC50 3,8 10-7 ± 1,1 M). Furthermore, most of the mycotoxins (and their mixtures) showed anti-androgenic effects (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol with potencies within one order of magnitude of that of the reference compound flutamide). In particular, deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol acted as antagonists for the PPARy2 receptor. When testing mixtures of mycotoxins on the same cell systems, we showed that most of the mixtures reacted as predicted by the concentration addition (CA) theory. Generally, the CA was within the 95% confidence interval of the observed ones, only minor deviations were detected. Although these reporter gene tests cannot be directly extrapolated in vivo, they can be the basis for further research. Especially the additive effects of ZEN and its metabolites are of importance and could have repercussions in vivo.

  9. Risks of Mycotoxins from Mycoinsecticides to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiongbo; Li, Fuxia; Zhang, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    There are more than thirty mycotoxins produced by fungal entomopathogens. Totally, they belong to two classes, NRP and PK mycotoxins. Most of mycotoxins have not been paid sufficient attention yet. Generally, mycotoxins do not exist in mycoinsecticide and might not be released to environments unless entomogenous fungus proliferates and produces mycotoxins in host insects or probably in plants. Some mycotoxins, destruxins as an example, are decomposed in host insects before they, with the insect's cadavers together, are released to environments. Many species of fungal entomopathogens have the endophytic characteristics. But we do not know if fungal entomopathogens produce mycotoxins in plants and release them to environments. On the contrary, the same mycotoxins produced by phytopathogens such as Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. have been paid enough concerns. In conclusion, mycotoxins from mycoinsecticides have limited ways to enter environments. The risks of mycotoxins from mycoinsecticides contaminating foods are controllable. PMID:27144161

  10. Tremorgenic Mycotoxins from Aspergillus Caespitosus

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. W.; Cole, R. J.; Hein, H.; Kirksey, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Two tremorgenic mycotoxins were isolated from Aspergillus caespitosus, and identified as verruculogen and fumitremorgin B. They were produced at the rate of 172 and 325 mg per kg, respectively, on autoclaved cracked field corn. PMID:1155935

  11. Tremorgenic mycotoxins from Aspergillus caespitosus.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, H W; Cole, R J; Hein, H; Kirksey, J W

    1975-06-01

    Two tremorgenic mycotoxins were isolated from Aspergillus caespitosus, and identified as verruculogen and fumitremorgin B. They were produced at the rate of 172 and 325 mg per kg, respectively, on autoclaved cracked field corn. PMID:1155935

  12. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  13. Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Marin, S; Ramos, A J; Cano-Sancho, G; Sanchis, V

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards produced by certain fungi that can grow on a variety of crops. Consequently, their prevalence in plant raw materials may be relatively high. The concentration of mycotoxins in finished products is usually lower than in raw materials. In this review, occurrence and toxicology of the main mycotoxins are summarised. Furthermore, methodological approaches for exposure assessment are described. Existing exposure assessments, both through contamination and consumption data and biomarkers of exposure, for the main mycotoxins are also discussed.

  14. Multiplexed Biosensors for Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Maragos, Chris M

    2016-07-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect low-MW toxins produced by fungi (mycotoxins). The number of formats that have been investigated is impressive and is an indication of the importance attached to finding easy-to-use, accurate, and rapid methods for detecting these toxins in commodities and foods. This review explores the details of multiplexed biosensors based on many formats, including multiplexed immunoassays, suspension arrays, membrane-based devices (flow-through and immunochromatographic), and planar microarrays. Each assay format has its own strengths and areas that need improvement. Certain formats, such as multiplexed immunochromatographic devices, are well developed and relatively easy to use, and in some cases, commercial products are being sold. Others, such as the suspension arrays and microarrays, are laboratory-based assays that, although more complicated, are also more amenable to a larger scale of multiplexing. The diversity of such efforts and the multitude of formats under investigation suggest that multiple solutions will be found to satisfy the need for multiplexed toxin detection. PMID:27455928

  15. Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Groopman, John D; Pestka, James J

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi that colonize food crops. The most agriculturally important mycotoxins known today are aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer and have also been implicated in child growth impairment and acute toxicoses; fumonisins, which have been associated with esophageal cancer (EC) and neural tube defects (NTDs); deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes, which are immunotoxic and cause gastroenteritis; and ochratoxin A (OTA), which has been associated with renal diseases. This review describes the adverse human health impacts associated with these major groups of mycotoxins. First, we provide background on the fungi that produce these different mycotoxins and on the food crops commonly infected. Then, we describe each group of mycotoxins in greater detail, as well as the adverse effects associated with each mycotoxin and the populations worldwide at risk. We conclude with a brief discussion on estimations of global burden of disease caused by dietary mycotoxin exposure. PMID:24422587

  16. Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Groopman, John D; Pestka, James J

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi that colonize food crops. The most agriculturally important mycotoxins known today are aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer and have also been implicated in child growth impairment and acute toxicoses; fumonisins, which have been associated with esophageal cancer (EC) and neural tube defects (NTDs); deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes, which are immunotoxic and cause gastroenteritis; and ochratoxin A (OTA), which has been associated with renal diseases. This review describes the adverse human health impacts associated with these major groups of mycotoxins. First, we provide background on the fungi that produce these different mycotoxins and on the food crops commonly infected. Then, we describe each group of mycotoxins in greater detail, as well as the adverse effects associated with each mycotoxin and the populations worldwide at risk. We conclude with a brief discussion on estimations of global burden of disease caused by dietary mycotoxin exposure.

  17. Tremorgenic Mycotoxin from Penicillium paraherquei

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Takumi; Morooka, Nobuichi; Sawada, Yuzuru; Udagawa, Shun-Ichi

    1976-01-01

    A tremorgenic mycotoxin was isolated from Penicillium paraherquei Abe ex G. Smith and identified as verruculogen. It was produced at the rate of approximately 1 mg/g of the dried fungal mycelium cultured on peptone-enriched Czapek-Dox medium at 28°C. PMID:984820

  18. Tremorgenic mycotoxin from Penicillium paraherquei.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, T; Morooka, N; Sawada, Y; Udagawa, S I

    1976-09-01

    A tremorgenic mycotoxin was isolated from Penicillium paraherquei Abe ex G. Smith and identified as verruculogen. It was produced at the rate of approximately 1 mg/g of the dried fungal mycelium cultured on peptone-enriched Czapek-Dox medium at 28 degrees C. PMID:984820

  19. Proposal of a comprehensive definition of modified and other forms of mycotoxins including "masked" mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Marko, Doris; Dänicke, Sven; Mally, Angela; Berthiller, Franz; Klaffke, Horst; Lorenz, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    As the term "masked mycotoxins" encompasses only conjugated mycotoxins generated by plants and no other possible forms of mycotoxins and their modifications, we hereby propose for all these forms a systematic definition consisting of four hierarchic levels. The highest level differentiates the free and unmodified forms of mycotoxins from those being matrix-associated and from those being modified in their chemical structure. The following lower levels further differentiate, in particular, "modified mycotoxins" into "biologically modified" and "chemically modified" with all variations of metabolites of the former and dividing the latter into "thermally formed" and "non-thermally formed" ones. To harmonize future scientific wording and subsequent legislation, we suggest that the term "modified mycotoxins" should be used in the future and the term "masked mycotoxins" to be kept for the fraction of biologically modified mycotoxins that were conjugated by plants.

  20. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2008-2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2008 and mid-2009. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, alternaria toxins, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Developments in mycotoxin analysis c...

  1. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2010 - 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2010 and mid-2011. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Analytical methods for mycotoxins conti...

  2. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2009 - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2009 and mid-2010. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. New and improved methods for mycotoxins...

  3. Cytotoxicity of occupationally and environmentally relevant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Westphal, Götz; Mönnich, Angelika; Hinnendahl, Britta; Hallier, Ernst; Müller, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Mycotoxins can cause various toxic effects in humans. Acute and chronic respiratory diseases were reported after inhalation of organic dust containing toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins, respectively. To gain first insights into health effects from airborne exposure to these compounds, five toxigenic airborne moulds of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium collected at composting plants and eight reference mycotoxins were tested for cytotoxicity in four established cell lines as a surrogate of tissues known or suspected to be targets of toxic effects of mycotoxins. The known mycotoxins sterigmatocystin, fumagillin, verruculogen, penitrem A, and roquefortine C were detected in extracts of the moulds. All five extracts caused serious toxic effects in the cell lines. Sterigmatocystin caused a 80-fold higher toxicity in the A-549 lung cell line compared to Hep-G2 liver cells indicating a specific susceptibility of A-549 to this agent. Since only a minor part of the toxic effects of the extracts in A-549 cells and--to a lesser extent--in the other cell lines could be explained by contents of the identified mycotoxins, the presence of additional mycotoxins or other toxic principles is assumed in the mould extracts. However, the detected mycotoxins in the mould extracts and their distinctive cytotoxicity support the hypothesis that mycotoxins may be involved in the aetiology of lung diseases due to the inhalation of organic dust. PMID:15337583

  4. Foodborne mycotoxicoses, risk assessment and underestimated hazard of masked mycotoxins and joint mycotoxin effects or interaction.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2015-03-01

    The existing hazard of joint mycotoxin exposure of animals/humans and the significance of masked mycotoxins in foods or feeds and their respective contributions to the development of some food born mycotoxicoses is briefly reviewed. The importance of joint mycotoxin interaction in the complex etiology of some foodborn mycotoxicoses is covered in depth. The toxicity of low contamination levels of some combinations of mycotoxins ingested often by farm animals was carefully studied. The appropriate hygiene control and the necessary risk assessment in regard to mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds are briefly analyzed and some useful prophylactic measures and management of the risk of mycotoxin contamination, in addition to tolerable daily intakes are also described. A reference is also made to the most suitable methods of veterinary hygiene control in some practical situations in order to prevent mycotoxins contaminating commercial food commodities and endangering public health.

  5. CYCLODEXTRINS AS MODIFIERS OF MYCOTOXIN FLUORESCENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclodextrins, cyclic oligosaccharides composed of amylose subunits, are known to interact with mycotoxins, although the exact stoichiometry and mechanism of the interaction have not been reported. The interactions may be useful to analytical chemists by altering the properties of the mycotoxin of ...

  6. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers.

  7. Challenges in the analysis of multiple mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The problems associated with different groups or “families” of mycotoxins have been known for some time, and for many years certain groups of mycotoxins have been known to co-occur in commodities and foods. Until fairly recently commodities and foods were analyzed for individual toxins or groups of ...

  8. Limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat.

    PubMed

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David; Mylona, Kalliopi; Lambert, Ronald J W

    2010-05-01

    The quality of harvested wheat grain can deteriorate markedly during the post-harvest management stages. Biotic factors, such as grain type and ripeness, coupled with the prevailing abiotic factors, such as water content and temperature, and also preservative concentration will influence the safe storage life and the level of contamination with mycotoxins. These mycotoxins include deoxynivalenol (DON) produced pre-harvest and zearalenone (ZEA) produced post-harvest by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae, respectively, ochratoxin (OTA) produced by Penicillium verrucosum post-harvest in cool damp northern European climates, and perhaps T-2 and HT-2 toxins produced by Fusarium langsethiae. This review presents recent data on the relationship between dry matter losses caused by F. graminearum under different environmental regimes (water activities, temperatures) and the level of contamination with DON. This is important as poor post-harvest drying and storage management may exacerbate DON contamination already present pre-harvest. It is thus critical to relate the environmental factors in stored wheat grain during storage, especially of intergranular relative humidity (RH) and temperature, to safe storage periods without spoilage or risk from increased DON contamination. The growth/no growth and DON/no DON (F. graminearum) and OTA/no toxin production (P. verrucosum) have been used to build a model with a simple interface to link temperature and RH values to the potential risk level which may allow growth or toxin production. This paper also considers the use of modified atmospheres, preservatives and biocontrol to minimise DON and OTA in moist wheat grain. These approaches together with clear monitoring criteria and hygiene could contribute to better post-harvest management of stored temperate cereals and ensure that mycotoxin contamination is minimised during this key phase in the food/feed chain.

  9. Impedance spectroscopy of food mycotoxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Yaremyk, Roman Ya.; Kotsyumbas, Ihor Ya.; Kotsyumbas, Halyna I.

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical method of high-selective detection of mycotoxins in food and feed are considered. A method is based on optical registration the changes of conduct of the electric polarized bacterial agents in solution at the action of the external gradient electric fields. Measuring are conducted in integrated electrode-optical cuvette of the special construction, which provides the photometric analysis of forward motion of the objects registration in liquid solution under act of the enclosed electric field and simultaneous registration of kinetics of change of electrical impedance parameters solution and electrode system.

  10. The mycotoxin definition reconsidered towards fungal cyclic depsipeptides.

    PubMed

    Taevernier, Lien; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Vreese, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-04-01

    Currently, next to the major classes, cyclic depsipeptides beauvericin and enniatins are also positioned as mycotoxins. However, as there are hundreds more fungal cyclic depsipeptides already identified, should these not be considered as mycotoxins as well? The current status of the mycotoxin definition revealed a lack of consistency, leading to confusion about what compounds should be called mycotoxins. Because this is of pivotal importance in risk assessment prioritization, a clear and quantitatively expressed mycotoxin definition is proposed, based on data of widely accepted mycotoxins. Finally, this definition is applied to a set of fungal cyclic depsipeptides, revealing that some of these should indeed be considered as mycotoxins.

  11. [Mycotoxins in food: legislation and thresholds.].

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Marcotrigiano, Vincenzo; Pagliarone, Cosimo N; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Mycotoxins are chemical substances produced by fungal species belonging mostly to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium , and having a toxic effect on humans and farm animals. In recent years health authorities have dedicated much attention to food contamination by mycotoxins, especially with regards to aflatoxins, fumonisin, ocratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes e zearalenone. The current European legislation CE n. 1881/2006 and n. 1126/2007 establish the maximum levels of mycotoxins allowed in human food. Despite the existence of such legislation, regulations regarding certain products are not very clear (i.e. milk products). More interest should be paid to these food products in terms of regulations and testing.

  12. In vitro effects of tremorgenic mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Selala, M I; Laekeman, G M; Loenders, B; Musuku, A; Herman, A G; Schepens, P

    1991-01-01

    Paxilline was isolated from Penicillium paxilli (NRRL 6110). It was studied together with penitrem B and verruculogen in the electrically stimulated guinea pig ileum. All three mycotoxins enhanced the electrically induced twitch contractions, without influencing the contractions provoked by exogenous acetylcholine. The effect of the mycotoxins could be greatly diminished by hyoscine. The possible mechanism of action of these substances in this in vitro model is discussed. The electrically stimulated guinea pig ileum could be useful in the detection and estimation of the biological activity of tremorgenic mycotoxins. PMID:2045816

  13. Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Peraica, M.; Radić, B.; Lucić, A.; Pavlović, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mycotoxicoses are diseases caused by mycotoxins, i.e. secondary metabolites of moulds. Although they occur more frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate, favourable for the growth of moulds, they can also be found in temperate zones. Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion, but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. Mycotoxicoses often remain unrecognized by medical professionals, except when large numbers of people are involved. The present article reviews outbreaks of mycotoxicoses where the mycotoxic etiology of the disease is supported by mycotoxin analysis or identification of mycotoxin-producing fungi. Epidemiological, clinical and histological findings (when available) in outbreaks of mycotoxicoses resulting from exposure to aflatoxins, ergot, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, 3-nitropropionic acid, zearalenone and fumonisins are discussed. PMID:10534900

  14. Effect of processing on Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L S; Bullerman, L B

    1999-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a wide variety of fungal species that contaminate food or feed. Fumonisins (FUM), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are examples of common mycotoxins in grains that have been shown to affect human and/or animal health. Physical, chemical and biological methods have been used for decontaminating grains containing these toxins. Some treatments reduce the concentration of mycotoxins while others are ineffective. For example, removal of damaged grain by density segregation can reduce DON and ZEN concentrations in corn and wheat. In contrast, thermal processing is usually ineffective for reducing the FUM and ZEN content of foods. More work is needed to identify effective methods for detoxifying mycotoxin contaminated food.

  15. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage. PMID:23477199

  16. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here.

  17. Rapid Multiple Immunoenzyme Assay of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Urusov, Alexandr E.; Zherdev, Anatoly V.; Petrakova, Alina V.; Sadykhov, Elchin G.; Koroleva, Olga V.; Dzantiev, Boris B.

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and quantification of three mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, in the kinetic regime. The main requirement for the proposed kinetic protocol was to provide a rapid method that combined sensitivity and accuracy. The use of biotin with an extended spacer together with a streptavidin–polyperoxidase conjugate provided high signal levels, despite these interactions occurring under non-equilibrium conditions. Duration of the individual mycotoxin assays was 20 min, whereas the analysis of all three mycotoxins in parallel reached a maximum duration of 25 min. Recovery of at least 95% mycotoxins in water-organic extracts was shown. The developed assays were successfully validated using poultry processing products and corn samples spiked with known quantities of mycotoxins. The detection limits for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in these substances were 0.24, 1.2 and 3 ng/g, respectively. PMID:25633750

  18. Occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-12-01

    Mycotoxins have been identified as important toxins affecting animal species and humans ever since the discovery of aflatoxin B1 in 1960. Mycotoxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and are held responsible for economic loss as they decrease crop yield and quality of food. The presence of fungi and their mycotoxins are reported not only in food grains but also in medicinal herbs and processed foods. Since prevention is not always possible, detoxification of mycotoxins have been attempted using several means; however, only few have been accepted for practical use, e.g. ammonia in the corn industry. Organizations such as the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration and European Union have set regulations and safety limits of important mycotoxins, viz. aflatoxins, fusarium toxins, ochratoxin, patulin zearalenone, etc., to ensure the safety of the consumers. This review article is a brief and up-to-date account of the occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins for those interested in and considering research in this area.

  19. Action of tremorgenic mycotoxins on GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Gant, D B; Cole, R J; Valdes, J J; Eldefrawi, M E; Eldefrawi, A T

    1987-11-01

    The effects of four tremorgenic and one nontremorgenic mycotoxins were studied on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor binding and function in rat brain and on binding of a voltage-operated Cl- channel in Torpedo electric organ. None of the mycotoxins had significant effect on [3H]muscimol or [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the GABAA receptor. However, only the four tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibited GABA-induced 36Cl- influx and [35S] t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate [( 35S]TBPS) binding in rat brain membranes, while the nontremorgenic verruculotoxin had no effect. Inhibition of [35S]TBPS binding by paspalinine was non-competitive. This suggests that tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibit GABAA receptor function by binding close to the receptor's Cl- channel. On the voltage-operated Cl- channel, only high concentrations of verruculogen and verruculotoxin caused significant inhibition of the channel's binding of [35S]TBPS. The data suggest that the tremorgenic action of these mycotoxins may be due in part to their inhibition of GABAA receptor function. PMID:2444852

  20. Enhancement of mycotoxin fluorescence with cyclodextrins, and analytical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain of the mycotoxins are known to form host-guest complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs), cyclic oligosaccharides containing a relatively hydrophobic pore. The interactions between mycotoxins and CDs can alter the properties of the mycotoxin, namely the fluorescence, absorption, or chromatographic...

  1. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2011 and mid-2012. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. A section on mycotoxins in botanicals a...

  2. Biodegradation of Mycotoxins: Tales from Known and Unexplored Worlds.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Ilse; Audenaert, Kris; De Gelder, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins, secondary metabolites produced by fungi, may infer serious risks for animal and human health and lead to economic losses. Several approaches to reduce these mycotoxins have been investigated such as chemical removal, physical binding, or microbial degradation. This review focuses on the microbial degradation or transformation of mycotoxins, with specific attention to the actual detoxification mechanisms of the mother compound. Furthermore, based on the similarities in chemical structure between groups of mycotoxins and environmentally recalcitrant compounds, known biodegradation pathways and degrading organisms which hold promise for the degradation of mycotoxins are presented. PMID:27199907

  3. Biodegradation of Mycotoxins: Tales from Known and Unexplored Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutte, Ilse; Audenaert, Kris; De Gelder, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins, secondary metabolites produced by fungi, may infer serious risks for animal and human health and lead to economic losses. Several approaches to reduce these mycotoxins have been investigated such as chemical removal, physical binding, or microbial degradation. This review focuses on the microbial degradation or transformation of mycotoxins, with specific attention to the actual detoxification mechanisms of the mother compound. Furthermore, based on the similarities in chemical structure between groups of mycotoxins and environmentally recalcitrant compounds, known biodegradation pathways and degrading organisms which hold promise for the degradation of mycotoxins are presented. PMID:27199907

  4. Improving public health through mycotoxin control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a part of the World Health Organization, aims to sensitize the international community to the mycotoxin problem in a format which is accessible to a wide audience and is useful to decision-makers across a broad spectrum of disciplines i...

  5. Fungi and mycotoxins in silage: an overview.

    PubMed

    Alonso, V A; Pereyra, C M; Keller, L A M; Dalcero, A M; Rosa, C A R; Chiacchiera, S M; Cavaglieri, L R

    2013-09-01

    The present revision shows the early and current knowledge in the field of silage fungi and mycotoxins explaining the relevance of fungi and mycotoxins in silage. The problem does not end in animal disease or production losses as mycotoxins in feed can lead to the presence of their metabolic products in dairy products, which will be eventually affecting human health, mainly infants. Silage is green forage preserved by lactic fermentation under anaerobic conditions. This ecosystem maintains its quality and nutritional value depending on interactions among physical, chemical and biological agents. Forages used for ensilage are naturally in contact with yeasts and filamentous fungi, and the contamination often occurs in the field and can also occur during harvesting, transport, storage. Moreover, postharvest poor management can lead to a rapid spoilage. Studies on fungal contamination of dairy cattle feed have shown how corn silage influences the contamination degree of feed supplied to livestock. Increasing knowledge in this area will help elucidate the influence that this microbiota exerts on production and/or degradation of mycotoxins present in silage. Some of these fungi, although opportunist pathogens, are relevant epidemiologically and represent a high risk of contamination to farm workers who handle them improperly.

  6. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  7. Multiplexed biosensors for detection of mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As analytical methods have improved it has become apparent that mycotoxins exist in many forms within a commodity or food. For the established toxins there has been increased interest in the presence of metabolites that might also harbor toxicity. These include biosynthetic precursors as well as pro...

  8. Approaches to mycotoxin detection using biosensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of toxins of concern has continued to rise as emerging toxins have taken on new significance and as interest has increased in detecting metabolites of established toxins (including masked mycotoxins). Of course while the desire exists to monitor for more compounds, resources for such moni...

  9. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research.

  10. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research. PMID:24769018

  11. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, G R; Ledoux, D R; Naehrer, K; Berthiller, F; Applegate, T J; Grenier, B; Phillips, T D; Schatzmayr, G

    2015-06-01

    Extensive research over the last couple of decades has made it obvious that mycotoxins are commonly prevalent in majority of feed ingredients. A worldwide mycotoxin survey in 2013 revealed 81% of around 3,000 grain and feed samples analyzed had at least 1 mycotoxin, which was higher than the 10-year average (from 2004 to 2013) of 76% in a total of 25,944 samples. The considerable increase in the number of positive samples in 2013 may be due to the improvements in detection methods and their sensitivity. The recently developed liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry allows the inclusion of a high number of analytes and is the most selective, sensitive, and accurate of all the mycotoxin analytical methods. Mycotoxins can affect the animals either individually or additively in the presence of more than 1 mycotoxin, and may affect various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, liver, and immune system, essentially resulting in reduced productivity of the birds and mortality in extreme cases. While the use of mycotoxin binding agents has been a commonly used counteracting strategy, considering the great diversity in the chemical structures of mycotoxins, it is very obvious that there is no single method that can be used to deactivate mycotoxins in feed. Therefore, different strategies have to be combined in order to specifically target individual mycotoxins without impacting the quality of feed. Enzymatic or microbial detoxification, referred to as "biotransformation" or "biodetoxification," utilizes microorganisms or purified enzymes thereof to catabolize the entire mycotoxin or transform or cleave it to less or non-toxic compounds. However, the awareness on the prevalence of mycotoxins, available modern techniques to analyze them, the effects of mycotoxicoses, and the recent developments in the ways to safely eliminate the mycotoxins from the feed are very minimal among the producers. This symposium review paper comprehensively discusses the above

  12. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies1

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, G. R.; Ledoux, D. R.; Naehrer, K.; Berthiller, F.; Applegate, T. J.; Grenier, B.; Phillips, T. D.; Schatzmayr, G.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the last couple of decades has made it obvious that mycotoxins are commonly prevalent in majority of feed ingredients. A worldwide mycotoxin survey in 2013 revealed 81% of around 3,000 grain and feed samples analyzed had at least 1 mycotoxin, which was higher than the 10-year average (from 2004 to 2013) of 76% in a total of 25,944 samples. The considerable increase in the number of positive samples in 2013 may be due to the improvements in detection methods and their sensitivity. The recently developed liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry allows the inclusion of a high number of analytes and is the most selective, sensitive, and accurate of all the mycotoxin analytical methods. Mycotoxins can affect the animals either individually or additively in the presence of more than 1 mycotoxin, and may affect various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, liver, and immune system, essentially resulting in reduced productivity of the birds and mortality in extreme cases. While the use of mycotoxin binding agents has been a commonly used counteracting strategy, considering the great diversity in the chemical structures of mycotoxins, it is very obvious that there is no single method that can be used to deactivate mycotoxins in feed. Therefore, different strategies have to be combined in order to specifically target individual mycotoxins without impacting the quality of feed. Enzymatic or microbial detoxification, referred to as “biotransformation” or “biodetoxification,” utilizes microorganisms or purified enzymes thereof to catabolize the entire mycotoxin or transform or cleave it to less or non-toxic compounds. However, the awareness on the prevalence of mycotoxins, available modern techniques to analyze them, the effects of mycotoxicoses, and the recent developments in the ways to safely eliminate the mycotoxins from the feed are very minimal among the producers. This symposium review paper comprehensively discusses

  13. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Rašić, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins. PMID:24189375

  14. Effects of Mycotoxins on mucosal microbial infection and related pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Juil; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-30

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities and water-damaged indoor environments. Susceptibility to mucosal infectious diseases is closely associated with immune dysfunction caused by mycotoxin exposure in humans and other animals. Many mycotoxins suppress immune function by decreasing the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, impairing phagocytic function of macrophages, and suppressing cytokine production, but some induce hypersensitive responses in different dose regimes. The present review describes various mycotoxin responses to infectious pathogens that trigger mucosa-associated diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of humans and other animals. In particular, it focuses on the effects of mycotoxin exposure on invasion, pathogen clearance, the production of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the prognostic implications of interactions between infectious pathogens and mycotoxin exposure.

  15. Effects of Mycotoxins on Mucosal Microbial Infection and Related Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Juil; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities and water-damaged indoor environments. Susceptibility to mucosal infectious diseases is closely associated with immune dysfunction caused by mycotoxin exposure in humans and other animals. Many mycotoxins suppress immune function by decreasing the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, impairing phagocytic function of macrophages, and suppressing cytokine production, but some induce hypersensitive responses in different dose regimes. The present review describes various mycotoxin responses to infectious pathogens that trigger mucosa-associated diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of humans and other animals. In particular, it focuses on the effects of mycotoxin exposure on invasion, pathogen clearance, the production of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the prognostic implications of interactions between infectious pathogens and mycotoxin exposure. PMID:26529017

  16. Biological strategies to counteract the effects of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2009-09-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that if ingested can cause a variety of adverse effects on both humans and animals, ranging from allergic responses to death. Therefore, exposure to mycotoxins should be minimized. A variety of physical, chemical, and biological methods have been developed for decontamination and/or detoxification of mycotoxins from contaminated foods and feeds. This overview details the latest developments in the biological control of both fungal infection and mycotoxin formation and describes the detoxification of many of the most important mycotoxins by microorganisms. This review also addresses the potential for use of microorganisms as mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals, thereby reducing the potential deleterious effects of exposure to these toxins. PMID:19777908

  17. Mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, J A; Cuneah, O; Sulyok, M; Krska, R; Galon, N; Sharir, B; Shlosberg, A

    2013-01-01

    Silage is an important feed source for intensive dairy herds worldwide. Fungal growth and mycotoxin production before and during silage storage is a well-known phenomenon, resulting in reduced nutritional value and a possible risk factor for animal health. With this in mind, a survey was conducted to determine for the first time the occurrence of mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel. A total of 30 corn and wheat silage samples were collected from many sources and analysed using a multi-mycotoxin method based on LC-MS/MS. Most mycotoxins recorded in the present study have not been reported before in Israel. Overall, 23 mycotoxins were found in corn silage; while wheat silage showed a similar pattern of mycotoxin occurrence comprising 20 mycotoxins. The most common post-harvest mycotoxins produced by the Penicillium roqueforti complex were not found in any tested samples, indicative of high-quality preparation and use of silage. Moreover, none of the European Union-regulated mycotoxins--aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol and deoxynivalenol--were found above their limits of detection (LODs). The Alternaria mycotoxins--macrosporin, tentoxin and alternariol methyl ether--were highly prevalent in both corn and wheat silage (>80%), but at low concentrations. The most prominent (>80%) Fusarium mycotoxins in corn silage were fusaric acid, fumonisins, beauvericin, monilifomin, equisetin, zearalenone and enniatins, whereas in wheat silage only beauvericin, zearalenone and enniatins occurred in more than 80% of the samples. The high prevalence and concentration of fusaric acid (mean = 765 µg kg⁻¹) in Israeli corn silage indicates that this may be the toxin of highest potential concern to dairy cow performance. However, more data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in order to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Israeli silage.

  18. Mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, J A; Cuneah, O; Sulyok, M; Krska, R; Galon, N; Sharir, B; Shlosberg, A

    2013-01-01

    Silage is an important feed source for intensive dairy herds worldwide. Fungal growth and mycotoxin production before and during silage storage is a well-known phenomenon, resulting in reduced nutritional value and a possible risk factor for animal health. With this in mind, a survey was conducted to determine for the first time the occurrence of mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel. A total of 30 corn and wheat silage samples were collected from many sources and analysed using a multi-mycotoxin method based on LC-MS/MS. Most mycotoxins recorded in the present study have not been reported before in Israel. Overall, 23 mycotoxins were found in corn silage; while wheat silage showed a similar pattern of mycotoxin occurrence comprising 20 mycotoxins. The most common post-harvest mycotoxins produced by the Penicillium roqueforti complex were not found in any tested samples, indicative of high-quality preparation and use of silage. Moreover, none of the European Union-regulated mycotoxins--aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol and deoxynivalenol--were found above their limits of detection (LODs). The Alternaria mycotoxins--macrosporin, tentoxin and alternariol methyl ether--were highly prevalent in both corn and wheat silage (>80%), but at low concentrations. The most prominent (>80%) Fusarium mycotoxins in corn silage were fusaric acid, fumonisins, beauvericin, monilifomin, equisetin, zearalenone and enniatins, whereas in wheat silage only beauvericin, zearalenone and enniatins occurred in more than 80% of the samples. The high prevalence and concentration of fusaric acid (mean = 765 µg kg⁻¹) in Israeli corn silage indicates that this may be the toxin of highest potential concern to dairy cow performance. However, more data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in order to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Israeli silage. PMID:23789893

  19. Mycotoxins in Meat and Processed Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, Jean-Denis; Guerre, Philippe

    Mycotoxins are toxic substances elaborated by fungi. They constitute a heterogeneous group of secondary metabolites with diverse potent pharmacological and toxic effects in humans and animals. More than 300 secondary metabolites have been identified but around 30 are of real concern for human and animal health (for review, see Bennett & Klich, 2003). These molecules are produced during mould development on plants in the field or during storage period. They can be found as natural contaminants of many vegetal foods or feeds, mainly cereals, but also fruits, nuts, grains, forage as well as compound foods intended for human or animal consumption. Most important mycotoxins are produced by moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genus (Bhatnagar, Yu, & Ehrlich, 2002; Conkova, Laciakova, Kovac, & Seidel, 2003; Pitt, 2002). These molecules are usually classified depending on the fungal species that produce them (Table 4.1)

  20. Mycotoxins in two Spanish cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    López-Díaz, T M; Román-Blanco, C; García-Arias, M T; García-Fernández, M C; García-López, M L

    1996-07-01

    Samples of cheeses naturally contaminated with moulds (12 samples of mouldy Manchego cheese and 10 of a naturally ripened blue cheese) were analysed for the presence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins BI and MI, sterigmatocystin, patulin, penicillic acid and mycophenolic acid in Manchego cheese, and mycophenolic acid and roquefortine in blue cheese). In addition, 24 Penicillium and Aspergillus strains isolated from the samples were assessed for their mycotoxigenicity. Four of Manchego cheese samples were positive to mycophenolic acid and one sample of blue cheese contained roquefortine. The rest of mycotoxins investigated were not found. One Aspergillus strain isolated from Manchego cheese showed the ability to produce aflatoxin MI. The rest of strains from these samples being no producers. In contrast, 7 out of 9 Penicillium (P. roqueforti) strains isolated from blue cheese were able to produce roquefortine, with one strain also producing mycophenolic acid. PMID:8854191

  1. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential.

  2. Detection of mycotoxins in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Joseph H; Thrasher, Jack D; Straus, David C; Madison, Roberta A; Hooper, Dennis

    2013-04-11

    Over the past 20 years, exposure to mycotoxin producing mold has been recognized as a significant health risk. Scientific literature has demonstrated mycotoxins as possible causes of human disease in water-damaged buildings (WDB). This study was conducted to determine if selected mycotoxins could be identified in human urine from patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Patients (n = 112) with a prior diagnosis of CFS were evaluated for mold exposure and the presence of mycotoxins in their urine. Urine was tested for aflatoxins (AT), ochratoxin A (OTA) and macrocyclic trichothecenes (MT) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Urine specimens from 104 of 112 patients (93%) were positive for at least one mycotoxin (one in the equivocal range). Almost 30% of the cases had more than one mycotoxin present. OTA was the most prevalent mycotoxin detected (83%) with MT as the next most common (44%). Exposure histories indicated current and/or past exposure to WDB in over 90% of cases. Environmental testing was performed in the WDB from a subset of these patients. This testing revealed the presence of potentially mycotoxin producing mold species and mycotoxins in the environment of the WDB. Prior testing in a healthy control population with no history of exposure to a WDB or moldy environment (n = 55) by the same laboratory, utilizing the same methods, revealed no positive cases at the limits of detection.

  3. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential. PMID:26799355

  4. Oestrogenic mycotoxin exposures and precocious pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Massart, F; Saggese, G

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1970s, there has been a worldwide scientific discussion on the potential health consequences of human exposure to endocrine disrupters: many environmentally persistent compounds are oestrogen agonists and/or androgen antagonists. Thus, they can dysregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis potentially affecting human puberty timing. Zearalenone (ZEA) is a non-steroidal mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species on several grains. Despite its low acute toxicity and carcinogenicity, ZEA exhibits oestrogenic and anabolic properties in several animal species. ZEA food contamination is caused either by direct contamination of grains, fruits and their based-products or by 'carry-over' of mycotoxins in animal tissues, milk and eggs after intake of contaminated feedstuff. In addition, zeranol (alpha-ZAL), a resorcyl lactone derived from ZEA, has been widely used in the USA as a growth promoter to improve fattening rates in cattle. From 1978 to 1984, a great epidemic of premature thelarche and precocious puberty occurred in Puerto Rico. To explain this condition, it was suggested that dairy and meat products could be contaminated with anabolic oestrogens such as ZEA or alpha-ZAL. Subsequently, worldwide other groups have also reported causative associations between oestrogenic mycotoxins and development of early thelarche and/or precocious puberty in exposed children. In addition to animal data, epidemiological studies strongly support the hypothesis that human pubertal development may be induced by foetal/early or prepubertal exposure to oestrogenic compounds. Indeed, ZEA and its metabolites are able to adopt molecular conformation, which sufficiently resembles 17beta-oestradiol to allow it to bind to oestrogen receptors (ERs) in target cells exerting oestrogenic (agonist) actions. In this view, oestrogenic mycotoxins are suspected as triggering factor for precocious pubertal development at least in prepubertal exposed girls.

  5. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Begum, F; Samajpati, N

    2000-06-01

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10,416 micrograms/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  6. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  7. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2012 – 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2012 and mid-2013. It covers the major mycotoxins: aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. A wide range of analytical methods for...

  8. Biosensors for Mycotoxin Analysis: Recent Developments and Future Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toxicity and prevalence of mycotoxins in commodities and foods has necessitated the development of rapid methods in order to ensure the protection of human food and animal feed supplies. Testing for mycotoxins can be accomplished by many techniques that range from determinative tests in which t...

  9. An Overview on Mycotoxin Contamination of Foods in Africa

    PubMed Central

    DARWISH, Wageh Sobhy; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that contaminate various feedstuffs and agricultural crops. The contamination of food by mycotoxins can occur before production, during storage, processing, transportation or marketing of the food products. High temperature, moisture content and water activity are among the predisposing factors that facilitate the production of mycotoxins in food. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone are all considered the major mycotoxins produced in food and feedstuffs. In Africa, mycotoxin contamination is considered to be a major problem with implications that affect human and animal health and economy. Aflatoxin-related hepatic diseases are reported in many African countries. Ochratoxin and fumonisin toxicity in humans and animals is widespread in Africa. The available, updated information on the incidence of mycotoxin contamination, decontamination and its public health importance in Africa is lacking. The aim of this review is to highlight, update and discuss the available information on the incidence of mycotoxins in African countries. The public health implications and the recommended strategies for control of mycotoxins in food and agricultural crops are also discussed. PMID:24572628

  10. Mycotoxin Management Studies by USDA-"Ag Lab" in 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies again included several popcorn fields in 2008, in order to continue gathering data for modification of the previously developed management strategies for mycotoxins in field corn (the mycotoxin predictive computer program). Weather conditions were generally good for growing corn, but excess...

  11. Mycotoxin Management Studies by USDA-ARS, NCAUR in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies again included several popcorn fields in 2009 in order to continue gathering data for modification of the previously developed management strategies for mycotoxins in field corn (including the mycotoxin predictive computer program). Without an attempt for optimization, the field corn model ...

  12. Mycotoxin management studies by USDA crop bioprotection in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies included several popcorn fields in 2007 in order to continue testing previously developed management strategies for mycotoxins in field corn, on popcorn. Weather conditions were generally good for growing corn, but some moderate levels of mycotoxins were seen in some fields typically associ...

  13. Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, Frederick T.; Hope, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an “as needed” basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses. PMID:24517907

  14. Recent mycotoxin survey data and advanced mycotoxin detection techniques reported from China: a review.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Xing, Fuguo; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern over the last few decades in China, where the Ministry of Health has set maximum limits for mycotoxins in different agro-products. Overall survey data show that aflatoxin contamination in infant cereals, edible oils, raw milk, ginger and its related products are far below Chinese regulatory limits. The absence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in infant milk powders indicates a high standard of control. Aflatoxins in liquorice roots and lotus seeds have been reported for the first time. For deoxynivalenol, high levels were found in wheat grown in the Yangtze Delta region, which is more prone to rainfall, supporting Fusarium infection. The emerging mycotoxins beauvericins and enniatins have been reported in the medicinal herbs in China. Ochratoxin A in wine was below the European Union regulatory limits, but fumonisins in maize need to be monitored and future regulatory control considered. Overall from all the survey data analysed in this review, it can be concluded that 92% of the samples analysed had mycotoxin levels below the Chinese regulatory limits. In terms of detection techniques in recent years, immuno-based assays have been developed largely due to their excellent sensitivity and ease of use. Assays targeting multiple mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol have been reported using microarrays and suspension arrays targeting in particular maize, rice and peanuts. Aptamer-based assays against ochratoxin A and aflatoxins B1 and B2 have been developed involving fluorescence detection; and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors have been developed targeting wine, maize, wheat, wild rye, hay and peanut oil with high sensitivity (> 0.025 ng l(-1)). Commercialisation of these technologies is much needed for wider usage in the coming years. PMID:25604871

  15. Towards systems biology of mycotoxin regulation.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Rampitsch, Christof

    2013-04-01

    Systems biology is a scientific approach that integrates many scientific disciplines to develop a comprehensive understanding of biological phenomena, thus allowing the prediction and accurate simulation of complex biological behaviors. It may be presumptuous to write about toxin regulation at the level of systems biology, but the last decade of research is leading us closer than ever to this approach. Past research has delineated multiple levels of regulation in the pathways leading to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins. At the top of this hierarchy, the global or master transcriptional regulators perceive various environmental cues such as climatic conditions, the availability of nutrients, and the developmental stages of the organism. Information accumulated from various inputs is integrated through a complex web of signalling networks to generate the eventual outcome. This review will focus on adapting techniques such as chemical and other genetic tools available in the model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to disentangle the various biological networks involved in the biosynthesis of mycotoxins in the Fusarium spp.

  16. Recent advances in analytical methods for mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical methods are reviewed using the examples of aflatoxins and trichothecene mycotoxins. The most dramatic advances are seen as being those based on immunological principles utilized for aflatoxins to produce simple screening methods and for rapid specific clean-up. The possibilities of automation using immunoaffinity columns is described. In contrast for the trichothecenes immunological methods have not had the same general impact. Post-column derivatization using bromine or iodine to enhance fluorescence for HPLC detection of aflatoxins has become widely employed and there are similar possibilities for improved HPLC detection for trichothecenes using electrochemical or trichothecene-specific post-column reactions. There have been improvements in the use of more rapid and specific clean-up methods for trichothecenes, whilst HPLC and GC remain equally favoured for the end-determination. More sophisticated instrumental techniques such as mass spectrometry (LC/MS, MS/MS) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC/MS) have been demonstrated to have potential for application to mycotoxin analysis, but have not as yet made much general impact.

  17. Biosynthesis of sphinganine-analog mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Du, L; Zhu, X; Gerber, R; Huffman, J; Lou, L; Jorgenson, J; Yu, F; Zaleta-Rivera, K; Wang, Q

    2008-06-01

    Sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMT) are polyketide-derived natural products produced by a number of plant pathogenic fungi and are among the most economically important mycotoxins. The toxins are structurally similar to sphinganine, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of ceramides and sphingolipids, and competitive inhibitors for ceramide synthase. The inhibition of ceramide and sphingolipid biosynthesis is associated with several fatal diseases in domestic animals and esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans. SAMT contains a highly reduced, acyclic polyketide carbon backbone, which is assembled by a single module polyketide synthase. The biosynthesis of SAMT involves a unique polyketide chain-releasing mechanism, in which a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme catalyzes the termination, offloading and elongation of the polyketide chain. This leads to the introduction of a new carbon-carbon bond and an amino group to the polyketide chain. The mechanism is fundamentally different from the thioesterase/cyclase-catalyzed polyketide chain releasing found in bacterial and other fungal polyketide biosynthesis. Genetic data suggest that the ketosynthase domain of the polyketide synthase and the chain-releasing enzyme are important for controlling the final product structure. In addition, several post-polyketide modifications have to take place before SAMT become mature toxins.

  18. Molds, mycotoxins, and sick building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Straus, David C

    2009-01-01

    The following is a review of some of the work we have done since 2004 regarding the importance of molds and their mycotoxins in the phenomenon of sick building syndrome (SBS). In these studies we showed that the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins (MTM) of Stachybotrys chartarum (SC) are easily dissociated from the surface of the organism as it grows and could therefore be consequently spread in buildings as the fungus experiences additional water events. We then showed that SC and Penicillium chrysogenum (PC) colonies remain viable long after a water source has been removed, and the MTM produced by SC remain toxic over extended periods of time. We next showed that PC when inhaled, can release in vivo, a protease allergen that can cause a significant allergic inflammatory reaction in the lungs of mice. We then showed, in a laboratory study, that the MTM of SC can become airborne attached to spores or SC particulates smaller than spores. Following that study, we next showed that the same phenomenon actually occurred in SC infested buildings where people were complaining of health problems potentially associated with SBS. Finally, we were able to demonstrate the presence of MTM in the sera of individuals who had been exposed to SC in indoor environments. This last study was done with enough mold exposed individuals to allow for the statistical significance of SC exposure to be evaluated. PMID:19854820

  19. Emerging nanotechnology for detection of mycotoxins in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Jogee, Priti S; Ingle, Avinash P

    2015-01-01

    The term mycotoxin was coined for toxic metabolites secreted by some fungi in food, food products and feed. The most prominent mycotoxins include aflatoxins (AFs), deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin, fumonisin and patulin. Among these some are proved to be strong carcinogenic agents such as AFs B1 while others are under suspicion to have carcinogenic effects. Ingestion of such mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed pose to a threat, mycotoxicoses. Various conventional techniques are available for the detection of mycotoxins, but unfortunately as a consequence of their constraint, the development of new and rapid techniques is the need of the hour. The use of nanotechnology for the development of nanobiosensors would be the alternative sensitive methods for the rapid detection of mycotoxins. Implementation of nanomaterials in the fabrication of nanobiosensors and their use for the detection of the mycotoxins in food and feed is the centre of interest of this review. We have inventoried nanomaterials applied for weaving nanobiosensors, which includes carbon nanotubes, nanowires, nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods and nanofibers. In addition, we have extensively reviewed available nanobiosensors specific for different mycotoxins, their advantages and challenges.

  20. Framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert C; Ford, Randall M; Helander, Mary E; Marecki, Janusz; Natarajan, Ramesh; Ray, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    We propose a methodological framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food processing industry. Mycotoxin contamination is a well-known threat to public health that has economic significance for the food processing industry; it is imperative to address mycotoxin risks holistically, at all points in the procurement, processing, and distribution pipeline, by tracking the relevant data, adopting best practices, and providing suitable adaptive controls. The proposed framework includes (i) an information and data repository, (ii) a collaborative infrastructure with analysis and simulation tools, (iii) standardized testing and acceptance sampling procedures, and (iv) processes that link the risk assessments and testing results to the sourcing, production, and product release steps. The implementation of suitable acceptance sampling protocols for mycotoxin testing is considered in some detail.

  1. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  2. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2014-2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2014 and mid-2015. In tradition with previous articles of this series, analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, an...

  3. Mycotoxin detoxication of animal feed by different adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Huwig, A; Freimund, S; Käppeli, O; Dutler, H

    2001-06-20

    The contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins represents a worldwide problem for farmers. These toxins originate from molds whose growth on living and stored plants is almost unavoidable particularly under moist conditions. Mycotoxin-containing feed can cause serious diseases in farm animals resulting in suffering and even death and thus can cause substantial economic losses. The most applied method for protecting animals against mycotoxicosis is the utilization of adsorbents mixed with the feed which are supposed to bind the mycotoxins efficiently in the gastro-intestinal tract. Aluminosilicates are the preferred adsorbents, followed by activated charcoal and special polymers. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most important types of adsorbents and the respective mechanisms of adsorption. Data of the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of detoxication are given.

  4. [Application of predictive microbiology in fungi growth and mycotoxin production].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yu, Hongxia; Li, Fengqin

    2009-11-01

    Food spoilage and food poisoning caused by fungi is an important issue in the field of food safety. The linear regression equations and predictive models are developed through the study on the effect of environmental factors on fungi growth and mycotoxin production. This is easier to understand fungi activities. Predictive microbiology plays an important role in evaluation of food spoilage and food poisoning. The application of predictive modelling in fungi growth and mycotoxin production are reviewed.

  5. The role of Stachybotrys mycotoxins in building-related illness.

    PubMed

    Page, E H; Trout, D B

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been increased attention among both the public and health professionals regarding the potential role of mycotoxins, primarily from fungi of the genus Stachybotrys, as etiologic agents related to illness among persons exposed in the indoor (nonindustrial) environment. Recommendations for the remediation of buildings are being made based in part on reported health effects believed to be due to mycotoxins. A search of NIOSHTIC (a literature database maintained by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) and MEDLINE (from 1965 to present) for literature related to fungi, mycotoxins, and the indoor environment was conducted. References from relevant articles also were reviewed. This strategy yielded a total of 13 articles. Important issues concerning exposure assessment and case definitions are inadequately addressed in the literature reviewed, making it difficult to implicate mycotoxins as a cause of building-related illness. The literature review indicates that currently there is inadequate evidence supporting a causal relationship between symptoms or illness among building occupants and exposure to mycotoxins. Research involving the identification and isolation of specific fungal toxins in the environment and in humans is needed before a more definitive link between health outcomes and mycotoxins can be made.

  6. Exposure estimates to Fusarium mycotoxins through cereals intake.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Ruiz, María José; Font, Guillermina; Berrada, Houda

    2013-11-01

    Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in several commodities with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs mainly by contaminated food. The quantitation of mycotoxins in cereal-based food, highly consumed by different age population, is of concern. In this survey, 159 cereal-based samples classified as wheat, maize and rice-based, have been evaluated for the occurrence of patulin, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, HT-2, T-2 and zearalenone by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Intakes were calculated for average consumers among adults, children and infants and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI). Data obtained were used to estimate the potential exposure levels. 65.4% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 15.7% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxin. The dietary exposure to HT-2 and T-2 toxins was estimated as 0.010 and 0.086 μg kg(-1) bw d(-1), amounting to 10% and 86% of the TDI, for adults and infants respectively. These results back up the necessity to take a vigilant attitude in order to minimize human intake of mycotoxins.

  7. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago.

  8. Risk from inhaled mycotoxins in indoor office and residential environments.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Bruce J; Robbins, Coreen A; Swenson, Lonie J; Hardin, Bryan D

    2004-01-01

    Mycotoxins are known to produce veterinary and human diseases when consumed with contaminated foods. Mycotoxins have also been proposed to cause adverse human health effects after inhalation exposure to mold in indoor residential, school, and office environments. Epidemiologic evidence has been inadequate to establish a causal relationship between indoor mold and nonallergic, toxigenic health effects. In this article, the authors model a maximum possible dose of mycotoxins that could be inhaled in 24 h of continuous exposure to a high concentration of mold spores containing the maximum reported concentration of aflatoxins B1 and B2, satratoxins G and H, fumitremorgens B and C, verruculogen, and trichoverrols A and B. These calculated doses are compared to effects data for the same mycotoxins. None of the maximum doses modeled were sufficiently high to cause any adverse effect. The model illustrates the inefficiency of delivery of mycotoxins via inhalation of mold spores, and suggests that the lack of association between mold exposure and mycotoxicoses in indoor environments is due to a requirement for extremely high airborne spore levels and extended periods of exposure to elicit a response. This model is further evidence that human mycotoxicoses are implausible following inhalation exposure to mycotoxins in mold-contaminated home, school, or office environments. PMID:15162841

  9. [Occupational exposure to mycotoxins in various branches of industry].

    PubMed

    Soroka, Piotr M; Cyprowski, Marcin; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Mycotoxins are a quite numerous group of substances released as metabolites by molds, which badly affect human and animal health. Their impact on organisms resulting from alimentary exposure is well recognized, but the mechanisms by which they exert their health effects after inhalation exposure are still poorly investigated. The aim of this work was to review the literature concerning the outcomes of occupational exposure to mycotoxins present in the work environment. The author discusses the major mycotoxin classes, their chemical structure, some physicochemical properties and biological activity properties. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the impact of occupational exposure to molds present in the workplace air in various branches of industry. Problems of identifying the mechanism of health effects exerted due inhalation exposure to mycotoxins are also discussed. This review shows that there is lack of good hygiene standards and legislation regulating the presence of these compounds in the workplace air. These is due to insufficient number of analyses aimed at estimating short-term inhalation exposure to mycotoxins and lack of monitoring of long-term exposure and its health effects. The authors concludes that occupational exposure to mycotoxins and their role in the development of pathological changes in the respiratory system require further investigations. PMID:19143225

  10. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins effects on dairy cow health, performance and the efficacy of Anti-Mycotoxin Additive.

    PubMed

    Jovaišienė, J; Bakutis, B; Baliukonienė, V; Gerulis, G

    2016-01-01

    One hundred two samples of feeds made in Lithuania, which included maize silage, grass-legume silage, hay and ensiled crimped maize were investigated during 2008-2012 for contamination with some mycotoxins. The highest concentrations of mycotoxins determined were those of deoxynivalenol (DON)--471.0 μg/kg and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)--21.2 μg/kg in ryegrass silage from bales, and zearalenone (ZEA)--625.0 μg/kg in maize silage from trenches. The present study has been carried out based on these data because animal feeds contaminated with mycotoxins can cause reduced productivity of dairy cows and health disorders in the long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term exposure of toxic effects of a diet naturally contaminated with low concentrations of mycotoxins on milk composition and biochemical, hematological, immunological parameters of dairy cows and to determine the anti-mycotoxin effect of Mycofix Plus 3.E. Twenty eight clinically healthy, medium productive Lithuanian Red cows were selected. ZEA was a major contaminant found in the corn silage at concentration levels of up to 1000.0 μg/kg of dry matter. DON was the second major found in the hay at concentration levels of up to 600.0 μg/kg of dry matter. The highest concentration AFB1- 10.0 μg/kg was determined in ground barley. The Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (AMA) Mycofix Plus 3.E was given individually to 14 cows at a concentration of 40.0 g daily for 9 weeks. The present results indicate that feeds naturally contaminated with low concentration of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. in a diet of dairy cows can have a negative influence on somatic cell count, blood parameters and immunity. The addition of an Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (Mycofix Plus 3.E) to diet of dairy cows can prevent many of these effects.

  11. The use of cyclodextrins as modifiers of fluorescence in the detection of mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclodextrins (CDs), cyclic oligosaccharides composed of amylose subunits, are known to interact with mycotoxins. The interactions may be useful to analytical chemists by altering the properties of the mycotoxin of interest, namely the chromatographic properties, electrophoretic properties, fluores...

  12. Mycotoxin Determination in Foods Using Advanced Sensors Based on Antibodies or Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination threatens health and life of humans and animals throughout the food supply chains. Many of the mycotoxins have been proven to be carcinogens, teratogens and mutagens. The reliable and sensitive sensing methods are requested to monitor mycotoxin contamination. Advanced sensors based on antibodies or aptamers boast the advantages of high sensitivity and rapidity, and have been used in the mycotoxin sensing. These sensors are miniaturized, thereby lowering costs, and are applicable to high-throughput modes. In this work, the latest developments in sensing strategies for mycotoxin determination were critically discussed. Optical and electrochemical sensing modes were compared. The sensing methods for single mycotoxin or multiple mycotoxins in food samples were reviewed, along with the challenges and the future of antibody or aptamer-based sensors. This work might promote academic studies and industrial applications for mycotoxin sensing. PMID:27529281

  13. Food safety and increasing hazard of mycotoxin occurrence in foods and feeds.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2013-01-01

    The possible hazard of mycotoxin occurrence in foods and feeds and some food-borne mycotoxicoses is reviewed. Management of the risk of mycotoxin contamination using some useful preventive measures against mycotoxin contamination of foods/feeds during pre- and post-harvesting periods is considered. The physical and chemical methods of mycotoxin decontamination of foods/feeds are briefly described. The use of various feed additives as a method for prevention of the adverse effects of mycotoxins is reviewed. The processing of various foods and feeds is considered in a view to possible mycotoxin decontamination. The necessary hygiene control and risk assessment in regard to mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds in addition to some useful prophylactic measures are briefly described. A short reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in order to prevent a possible entering of some mycotoxins in commercial channels with a view to human health.

  14. A Genome-Wide Screen in Yeast to Identify Potential Targets of Trichothecene Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum infection contaminates wheat and barley grain with the potent trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Trichothecene mycotoxins are known to target cytosolic ribosomes and can cause cell death by permanently disruption translation. In addition to the inhibition of protein...

  15. Mycotoxin Determination in Foods Using Advanced Sensors Based on Antibodies or Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination threatens health and life of humans and animals throughout the food supply chains. Many of the mycotoxins have been proven to be carcinogens, teratogens and mutagens. The reliable and sensitive sensing methods are requested to monitor mycotoxin contamination. Advanced sensors based on antibodies or aptamers boast the advantages of high sensitivity and rapidity, and have been used in the mycotoxin sensing. These sensors are miniaturized, thereby lowering costs, and are applicable to high-throughput modes. In this work, the latest developments in sensing strategies for mycotoxin determination were critically discussed. Optical and electrochemical sensing modes were compared. The sensing methods for single mycotoxin or multiple mycotoxins in food samples were reviewed, along with the challenges and the future of antibody or aptamer-based sensors. This work might promote academic studies and industrial applications for mycotoxin sensing. PMID:27529281

  16. Fumonisins--mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Norred, W P

    1993-03-01

    Fumonisins are toxic metabolites of the fungus Fusarium moniliforme, which is a common contaminant of corn everywhere in the world. The fumonisins are carcinogenic in laboratory rats, and cause acute toxicity of domestic animals that mimics field cases of disease attributed to contamination of feed by F. moniliforme. These include both equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary edema. Fusarium moniliforme contamination of corn consumed by humans in certain areas of the world is associated with higher than average incidence of esophageal cancer, and fumonisins may be responsible. Analytical methods have been developed for fumonisins, but improvements are needed so that more accurate, less expensive, and more rapid assays of food and feedstuffs can be done. Fumonisins are structurally similar to sphingosine, and may exert their biological activity through their ability to block key enzymes (sphinganine- and sphingosine-N-acyltransferases) involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis. Much more research is needed to define the extent to which this mycotoxin adversely affects the food supply, and its involvement in animal and human diseases.

  17. Mycotoxin-Containing Diet Causes Oxidative Stress in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Yong-Yan; Xiong, Bo; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xu, Yin-Xue; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins which mainly consist of Aflatoxin (AF), Zearalenone (ZEN) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) are commonly found in many food commodities. Although each component has been shown to cause liver toxicity and oxidative stress in several species, there is no evidence regarding the effect of naturally contained multiple mycotoxins on tissue toxicity and oxidative stress in vivo. In the present study, mycotoxins-contaminated maize (AF 597 µg/kg, ZEN 729 µg/kg, DON 3.1 mg/kg maize) was incorporated into the diet at three different doses (0, 5 and 20%) to feed the mice, and blood and tissue samples were collected to examine the oxidative stress related indexes. The results showed that the indexes of liver, kidney and spleen were all increased and the liver and kidney morphologies changed in the mycotoxin-treated mice. Also, the treatment resulted in the elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the serum and liver, indicating the presence of the oxidative stress. Moreover, the decrease of catalase (CAT) activity in the serum, liver and kidney as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver and kidney tissue further confirmed the occurrence of oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data indicate that the naturally contained mycotoxins are toxic in vivo and able to induce the oxidant stress in the mouse. PMID:23555961

  18. Presence of mycotoxins in sorghum and intake estimation in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Souheib; Blesa, Jesús; Moltó, Juan Carlos; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Mañes, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Sorghum samples (n = 60) from Tunisian markets were analysed for the occurrence of 22 of both traditional and emerging mycotoxins. Samples were extracted with a QuEChERS-like method and mycotoxins were detected by LC-MS/MS. This method was validated and adequate analytical parameters were obtained. All samples had contamination with mycotoxins and several samples had higher contamination levels than European Union legislative limits (MLs). The most frequently found mycotoxins were ENB (100%), OTA (98%), ENA₁ (63%), ENB₁ (56%), BEA (48%), AFB1 (38%) and STG (33%). Mean contaminations were 30.7, 1.93, 33.2, 51.0, 15.4, 1.49 and 20.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. While two samples were contaminated with FB2 and FB3 at mean values of 16.2 and 45.9 µg kg(-1), respectively, one sample was contaminated with AFB2 and ZEA at levels of 0.82 and 45.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results were used to estimate the daily intake of mycotoxins through sorghum consumption with regard to normal consumers (low-risk population) and high consumers such as babies (high-risk consumers) who are facing an alarming situation.

  19. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products.

  20. Action of tremorgenic mycotoxins on GABA/sub A/ receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, D.B.; Cole, R.J.; Valdes, J.J.; Eldefrawi, M.E.; Eldefrawi, A.T.

    1987-11-09

    The effects of four tremorgenic and one nontremorgenic mycotoxins were studied on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA/sub A/) receptor binding and function in rat brain and on binding of a voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel in Torpedo electric organ. None of the mycotoxins had significant effect on (/sup 3/H)muscimol or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding to the GAMA/sup A/ receptor. However, only the four tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibited GABA-induced /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ influx and (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((/sup 35/S)TBPS) binding in rate brain membranes, while the nontremorgenic verruculotoxin had no effect. Inhibition of (/sup 35/S)TBPS binding by paspalinine was non-competitive. This suggests that tremorgenic mycotoxins inhibit GABA/sub A/ receptor function by binding close to the receptor's Cl/sup -/ channel. On the voltage-operated Cl/sup -/ channel, only high concentrations of verruculogen and verruculotoxin caused significant inhibition of the channel's binding of (/sup 35/S)TBPS. The data suggest that the tremorgenic action of these mycotoxins may be due in part to their inhibition of GABA/sub A/ receptor function. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  2. Influence of prebiotics, probiotics and protein ingredients on mycotoxin bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M; Manyes, L; Mañes, J; Meca, G

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of prebiotic compounds (cellulose and inulin), food ingredients (milk whey, β-lactoglobulin and calcium caseinate) and several probiotic microorganisms on the bioaccessibility of beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENs A, A1, B, B1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) present in wheat crispy bread produced with wheat flour previously fermented with F. tricinctum, F. culmorum and G. zeae. The bioaccessibility of mycotoxins was determined by a dynamic simulated gastrointestinal digestion system, imitating the human digestive physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Mycotoxins were determined in the simulated intestinal fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). EN bioaccessibility ranged from 15.1 to 30.6%, whereas the values evidenced for BEA ranged from 12 to 19%. DON showed bioaccessibility data ranging from 0.8 to 5.6% whereas for ZEA the data evidenced ranged from 26 to 44%. The bioaccessibility reduction evidenced using probiotic microorganisms for the mycotoxins studied ranged from 21 to 27.1% for ENs, from 29 to 39.7% for DON, from 41 to 57% for ZEA and from 6.6 to 10.5% for BEA. The addition of prebiotic and bioactive microorganisms decreased the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins, with a concentration-dependent behavior, thus being a potential strategy for reducing human exposure to these minor mycotoxins. PMID:25673154

  3. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. PMID:24594211

  4. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential.

    PubMed Central

    Palmgren, M S; Lee, L S

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct reservoirs of mycotoxins exist in fungal-infected cereal grains--the fungal spores and the spore-free mycelium-substrate matrix. Many fungal spores are of respirable size and the mycelium-substrate matrix can be pulverized to form particles of respirable size during routine handling of grain. In order to determine the contribution of each source to the level of mycotoxin contamination of dust, we developed techniques to harvest and separate mycelium-substrate matrices from spores of fungi. Conventional quantitative chromatographic analyses of separated materials indicated that aflatoxin from Aspergillus parasiticus, norsolorinic acid from a mutant of A. parasiticus, and secalonic acid D from Penicillium oxalicum were concentrated in the mycelium-substrate matrices and not in the spores. In contrast, spores of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus contained significant concentrations of aurasperone C and fumigaclavine C, respectively; only negligible amounts of the toxins were detected in the mycelium-substrate matrices of these two fungi. PMID:3709472

  5. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, M S; Lee, L S

    1986-04-01

    Two distinct reservoirs of mycotoxins exist in fungal-infected cereal grains--the fungal spores and the spore-free mycelium-substrate matrix. Many fungal spores are of respirable size and the mycelium-substrate matrix can be pulverized to form particles of respirable size during routine handling of grain. In order to determine the contribution of each source to the level of mycotoxin contamination of dust, we developed techniques to harvest and separate mycelium-substrate matrices from spores of fungi. Conventional quantitative chromatographic analyses of separated materials indicated that aflatoxin from Aspergillus parasiticus, norsolorinic acid from a mutant of A. parasiticus, and secalonic acid D from Penicillium oxalicum were concentrated in the mycelium-substrate matrices and not in the spores. In contrast, spores of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus contained significant concentrations of aurasperone C and fumigaclavine C, respectively; only negligible amounts of the toxins were detected in the mycelium-substrate matrices of these two fungi. PMID:3709472

  6. Effects of Cyclodextrins and Surfactants on the Fluorescence Detection of Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A broad range of approaches are applied to reduce mycotoxin contamination of agricultural commodities. These mycotoxins pose health risks to humans and animals, and negatively impact commodity values. The inherent fluorescence of several mycotoxins coupled with inclusion of complex interactions pr...

  7. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. 93.14 Section 93.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall...

  8. Current Status of Mycotoxin Analysis: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Gordon S

    2016-07-01

    It is over 50 years since the discovery of aflatoxins focused the attention of food safety specialists on fungal toxins in the feed and food supply. Since then, analysis of this important group of natural contaminants has advanced in parallel with general developments in analytical science, and current MS methods are capable of simultaneously analyzing hundreds of compounds, including mycotoxins, pesticides, and drugs. This profusion of data may advance our understanding of human exposure, yet constitutes an interpretive challenge to toxicologists and food safety regulators. Despite these advances in analytical science, the basic problem of the extreme heterogeneity of mycotoxin contamination, although now well understood, cannot be circumvented. The real health challenges posed by mycotoxin exposure occur in the developing world, especially among small-scale and subsistence farmers. Addressing these problems requires innovative approaches in which analytical science must also play a role in providing suitable out-of-laboratory analytical techniques. PMID:27455927

  9. Wild rice as fermentation substrate for mycotoxin production.

    PubMed Central

    Lindenfelser, L A; Ciegler, A; Hesseltine, C W

    1978-01-01

    Many cereal grains have been studied for their suitability as substrates for the fermentative production of mycotoxins. However, except for aflatoxin, wild rice has not been investigated. Hence, five mold cultures known to produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin-A, penicillic acid, patulin, vomitoxin, and zearalenone were grown on wild rice under varying conditions of moisture and temperature to determine whether this grain would serve as a suitable substrate for toxin production. Under appropriate fermentation conditions, good yields of ochratoxin-A and moderate amounts of patulin were obtained, but only small amounts of penicillic acid, vomitoxin, and zearalenone were elaborated. An extract from a sample of naturally molded wild rice contained 0.8 microgram of patulin per g of rice. The predominating mold was identified as Aspergillus clavatus. Under identical cultural conditions, this isolate and a known patulin-producing strain of A. clavatus yielded approximately equivalent amounts of the mycotoxin. PMID:623456

  10. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  11. The role of sampling in mycotoxin contamination: an holistic view.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; De Santis, B; Minardi, V; Debegnach, F; Brera, C

    2005-01-01

    The need to obtain a representative sample deserves particular consideration since a wrong sampling plan can greatly affect the reliability of the measured levels of mycotoxins. This can even result in legal disputes and barriers to trade. Reported here is an holistic view for an ideal sampling plan, which is based on two consecutive steps: (i) To establish 'why, where and when' sampling has to be performed by assessing the purpose, the appropriate time and the site for collecting the samples; (ii) To establish 'how' to draw samples by assessing practical ad hoc guidelines, considering that, for bulk goods in particular, mycotoxins are not at all homogeneously distributed in a lot. So far, step 1 is not yet covered by specific guidelines while for step 2, European regulations establish the procedures for the sampling of bulk and retail products potentially contaminated by mycotoxins.

  12. Monitoring program for mycotoxin contamination in Uruguayan food and feeds.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, M; Dawson, R; Costarrica, M L

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study for monitoring mycotoxin contamination in food and feeds was implemented by the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU) with the technical assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The scope of the study was to determine the potential hazard posed by priority food-contaminant and feed-contaminant combinations. The choice of foods and contaminants to be monitored was based on the importance of the food in the total diet, the economic importance of the product and the potential health risk posed by the specific combination. The principal commodities selected were wheat, barley and rice. Also included were com, soy, dairy products, feeds, dried fruits and legumes, oil seeds, cocoa beans and organ meats. Mycotoxins analyzed (TLC/densitometry) were aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol (DON) and ergot alkaloids. The survey results (1993-95) showed differences in both incidence and levels of mycotoxin content for the principal commodities. Of all food/feed categories analyzed, feed had the highest values for all mycotoxins. Samples containing DON in levels above 1000 ng/g were found in all groups. Ochratoxin A was not detected in any of the samples. Rice and soy beans were the categories with lowest aflatoxin incidence. Uruguayan regulatory limits for all toxins analyzed were exceeded for wheat, barley and rice in less than 3, 9 and 7% of samples, respectively. The data on actual mycotoxin levels in different foods will help identify sources of contaminations and areas where control measures should be improved, enable better risk assessment by proper estimation of mycotoxin intake, assist in the establishment of tolerances and adequate guidelines, aid in the implementation of a national program and provide economic benefits by improving grain quality.

  13. Regulations relating to mycotoxins in almonds in European context.

    PubMed

    Diella, Giusy; De Giglio, Osvalda; Vallone, Lisa; Iriti, Marcello; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi and having a toxic effect on humans and farm animals. In particular, almonds, a rich source of nutrients and phytochemicals, can be contaminated by aflatoxins, one of the most important mycotoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The reference regulations in this field are continuously improved and updated worldwide. This paper reports the current state of the European regulations on aflatoxins in almonds concerning the limits, and the procedures for performing official controls and for import.

  14. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Sundheim, Leif; Brodal, Guro; Hofgaard, Inger S.; Rafoss, Trond

    2013-01-01

    Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  15. Fumonisin B(1): a neurotoxic mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2012-12-01

    Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. moulds that contaminate crop, predominantly maize, all around the world. More than 15 types of fumonisins have been indentified so far, but FB(1) is the most abundant and toxicologically the most significant one. FB(1) has a wide range of toxic effects, depending on animal species. In horses FB(1) causes equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM), in pigs pulmonary oedema and in experimental rodents nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. In humans exposure to FB(1) is linked with higher incidence of primary liver cancer and oesophageal cancer, which are frequent in certain regions of the world (such as Transkei region in South Africa) where maize is staple food. The occurrence of neural tube defect in children in some countries of Central America (such as Mexico and Honduras) is connected with the consumption of FB(1)-contaminated maize-based food. However, possible involvement of FB(1) in the development of human diseases is not clear. Nevertheless, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified FB(1) as a possible carcinogen to humans (group 2B). FB(1) is a causative agent of ELEM, a brain disorder in equines, indicating that brain is a target organ of FB(1) toxicity. Several studies on experimental animals or on cell cultures of neural origin have established that FB(1) has a neurodegenerative potential, although the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is still vague. The aim of this article is to give an overview of available literature on FB(1) neurotoxicity and involved mechanisms, and to offer a new perspective for future studies.

  16. Current Status and Future Prospects for Aptamer-Based Mycotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Ruscito, Annamaria; Smith, McKenzie; Goudreau, Daniel N; DeRosa, Maria C

    2016-07-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides with the ability to bind tightly and selectively to a target analyte. High-affinity and specific aptamers for a variety of mycotoxins have been reported over the past decade. Increasingly, these molecular recognition elements are finding applications in biosensors and assays for the detection of mycotoxins in a variety of complex matrixes. This review article highlights the mycotoxin aptamers that are available for mycotoxin detection and the array of biosensing platforms into which they have been incorporated. Key advantages that aptamers have over analogous technology, and areas in which these advantages may be applied for the benefit of practical mycotoxin detection, are also discussed. PMID:27318356

  17. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F

    2013-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals.

  18. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins effects on dairy cow health, performance and the efficacy of Anti-Mycotoxin Additive.

    PubMed

    Jovaišienė, J; Bakutis, B; Baliukonienė, V; Gerulis, G

    2016-01-01

    One hundred two samples of feeds made in Lithuania, which included maize silage, grass-legume silage, hay and ensiled crimped maize were investigated during 2008-2012 for contamination with some mycotoxins. The highest concentrations of mycotoxins determined were those of deoxynivalenol (DON)--471.0 μg/kg and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)--21.2 μg/kg in ryegrass silage from bales, and zearalenone (ZEA)--625.0 μg/kg in maize silage from trenches. The present study has been carried out based on these data because animal feeds contaminated with mycotoxins can cause reduced productivity of dairy cows and health disorders in the long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term exposure of toxic effects of a diet naturally contaminated with low concentrations of mycotoxins on milk composition and biochemical, hematological, immunological parameters of dairy cows and to determine the anti-mycotoxin effect of Mycofix Plus 3.E. Twenty eight clinically healthy, medium productive Lithuanian Red cows were selected. ZEA was a major contaminant found in the corn silage at concentration levels of up to 1000.0 μg/kg of dry matter. DON was the second major found in the hay at concentration levels of up to 600.0 μg/kg of dry matter. The highest concentration AFB1- 10.0 μg/kg was determined in ground barley. The Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (AMA) Mycofix Plus 3.E was given individually to 14 cows at a concentration of 40.0 g daily for 9 weeks. The present results indicate that feeds naturally contaminated with low concentration of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. in a diet of dairy cows can have a negative influence on somatic cell count, blood parameters and immunity. The addition of an Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (Mycofix Plus 3.E) to diet of dairy cows can prevent many of these effects. PMID:27096791

  19. Identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research methods to identify and characterize genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthetic pathways have evolved considerably over the years. Before whole genome sequences were available (e.g. pre-genomics), work focused primarily on chemistry, biosynthetic mutant strains and molecular analysis of sing...

  20. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2013 – 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2013 and mid-2014. It continues in the format of the previous articles of this series, emphasising on analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxi...

  1. A Closer Look at Cyclodextrins in Mycotoxin Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclodextrins are a class of cyclic oligosaccharides with a variety of applications, including use as recognition components for low molecular weight molecules in methods of detection. These cyclomaltoses are of special interest in mycotoxin analysis for enhancing spectroscopic properties of severa...

  2. Model fungal systems for investigating food plant mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins, when metabolically activated by hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs), trigger genotoxicity in mammals through the formation of reactive aflatoxin-8,9-exo-epoxide. The resulting 8,9-dihydro-8-(N7-g...

  3. Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-06-15

    Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis.

  4. Incidence of Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins in Silage Maize

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Sonja; Wettstein, Felix E.; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Maize is frequently infected by the Fusarium species producing mycotoxins. Numerous investigations have focused on grain maize, but little is known about the Fusarium species in the entire plant used for silage. Furthermore, mycotoxins persist during the ensiling process and thus endanger feed safety. In the current study, we analyzed 20 Swiss silage maize samples from growers’ fields for the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. The species spectrum was analyzed morphologically and mycotoxins were measured by LC-MS/MS. A pre-harvest visual disease rating showed few disease symptoms. In contrast, the infection rate of two-thirds of the harvest samples ranged from 25 to 75% and twelve different Fusarium species were isolated. The prevailing species were F. sporotrichioides, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. No infection specificity for certain plant parts was observed. The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in each sample (ranging from 780 to 2990 µg kg−1). Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins. A generalized linear regression model containing the three cropping factors harvest date, pre-precrop and seed treatment was established, to explain DON contamination of silage maize. Based on these findings, we suggest a European-wide survey on silage maize. PMID:22069750

  5. Photolysis of Indole-Containing Mycotoxins to Fluorescent Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photochemical reaction of the non-fluorescent mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) to fluorescent products was recently reported. Because CPA contains an indole moiety, believed to contribute to the fluorescence, it was of interest to determine whether the effect might be more generally applicable to ...

  6. Adsorption of mycotoxins in beverages onto functionalized mesoporous silicas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, natural toxins produced by fungi, are a global concern as contaminates of agricultural commodities. Exposure to these toxins can be reduced by the use of binding materials. Templated mesoporous silicas are promising materials with favorable adsorptive properties for dyes, ions, and toxin...

  7. Applications of nanoporous cyclodextrin polymers to prevent exposure to mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a continued effort to maintain a safe food supply, new strategies and technologies are developed in order to reduce human and animal exposure to contaminants. Agricultural commodities are occasionally contaminated by certain species of fungi that produce mycotoxins at levels that are health risks...

  8. Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-06-15

    Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis. PMID:25660886

  9. Mycotoxins in corn distillers grains: a concern in ruminants?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main fungi that produce toxins during storage belong to three genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. It is not easy to correlate the presence of mycotoxins to that of molds when dealing with cattle diets. The same type of molds can produce different kind of toxins and different molds c...

  10. Mycotoxin management studies by USDA Crop Bioprotection in 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies included several popcorn fields in 2006 in order to continue testing previously developed management strategies for mycotoxins in field corn, on popcorn. Weather conditions that potentially promoted the formation of aflatoxin in corn were not as severe. The computer program predicted that ...

  11. Mycotoxin management studies by USDA "Ag Lab" in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies again included several popcorn fields in 2011. The research has been redirected to investigate hybrid based and environmental influences on gene expression directly and indirectly involved in resistance to mycotoxin production, so milk stage undamaged and damaged ears have been saved in t...

  12. Exposure assessment of mycotoxins in cow's milk in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Signorini, M L; Gaggiotti, M; Molineri, A; Chiericatti, C A; Zapata de Basílico, M L; Basílico, J C; Pisani, M

    2012-02-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to carry out the first quantitative risk exposure assessment of the mycotoxin level in cow's milk produced in Argentina. The prevalence and concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) were modeled at various stages through milk processes complying with Argentinean practices. Concentration of AFM1 (0.059ppb), DON (0.338ppb) and ZEA (0.125ppb) in dairy milk were estimated. The proportion of feed samples that exceeded the maximum level accepted by European regulations for AFB1, DON and ZEA were estimated at 25.07%, 0.0% and 8.9%, respectively. The percentage of milk samples that exceeded the maximum level accepted for AFB1 by the MERCOSUR (0.5ppb) and the European Union regulations (0.05ppb) were 0.81 and 32.65, respectively. The probability distribution of AFM1 concentration in milk was affected by the carry-over rate equations applied in the model. Mycotoxin levels in corn silage and concentrated feeds were the factors most correlated with mycotoxin concentrations in milk. Therefore, agricultural practices, crop management and feed production require prompt attention regarding mycotoxin issues.

  13. Mycotoxins biosynthesized by plant-derived Fusarium isolates.

    PubMed

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2012-12-01

    There is little information on secondary metabolites produced by Fusaria infecting crop plants other than cereals. Many members of Fusarium genus have the ability to colonise perennial crops with only scarce infection or disease symptoms or with no symptoms at all while still being detectable. Even in case of such asymptomatic infection, significant mycotoxin contamination of the plant tissues is possible. The aim of this study was to characterise the spectrum of Fusarium species isolates obtained from different plant hosts (like asparagus, garlic, pineapple, banana, rhubarb, peppers, rice, maize, wheat, and oncidium) and evaluate their ability to biosynthesize the most common mycotoxins in vitro. Among the F.proliferatum isolates, up to 57 % of them biosynthesized fumonisins at very high mass fractions, amounting to above 1000 μg g(-1), while other Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides, F. lactis, F. polyphialydicum, F. concentricum, F. temperatum, and F. fujikuroi formed fumonisins mostly at much lower level. Only F. ananatum and F. oxysporum did not produce these toxins. Co-occurrence of FBs with other mycotoxins [moniliformin (MON) and beauvericin (BEA)] was often observed and it was mainly F. proliferatum species that formed both mycotoxins (0.4 μg g(-1) to 41.1 μg g(-1) BEA and 0.1 μg g(-1) to 158.5 μg g(-1) MON).

  14. Human skin permeation of emerging mycotoxins (beauvericin and enniatins).

    PubMed

    Taevernier, Lien; Veryser, Lieselotte; Roche, Nathalie; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; Delesalle, Catherine; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Currently, dermal exposure data of cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins are completely absent. There is a lack of understanding about the local skin and systemic kinetics and effects, despite their widespread skin contact and intrinsic hazard. Therefore, we provide a quantitative characterisation of their dermal kinetics. The emerging mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) and beauvericin (BEA) were used as model compounds and their transdermal kinetics were quantitatively evaluated, using intact and damaged human skin in an in vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-MS analytics. We demonstrated that all investigated mycotoxins are able to penetrate through the skin. ENN B showed the highest permeation (kp,v=9.44 × 10(-6) cm/h), whereas BEA showed the lowest (kp,v=2.35 × 10(-6) cm/h) and the other ENNs ranging in between. Combining these values with experimentally determined solubility data, Jmax values ranging from 0.02 to 0.35 μg/(cm(2) h) for intact skin and from 0.07 to 1.11 μg/(cm(2) h) for damaged skin were obtained. These were used to determine the daily dermal exposure (DDE) in a worst-case scenario. On the other hand, DDE's for a typical occupational scenario were calculated based on real-life mycotoxin concentrations for the industrial exposure of food-related workers. In the latter case, for contact with intact human skin, DDE's up to 0.0870 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN A were calculated, whereas for impaired skin barrier this can even rise up to 0.3209 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN B1. This knowledge is needed for the risk assessment after skin exposure of contaminated food, feed, indoor surfaces and airborne particles with mycotoxins.

  15. Natural occurrence, analysis, and prevention of mycotoxins in fruits and their processed products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinyi; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Qu, Hongxia; Yang, Bao; Chen, Feng; Sivakumar, Dharini

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are small toxic chemical products formed as the secondary metabolites by fungi that readily contaminate foods with toxins in the field or after harvest. The presence of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and patulin, in fruits and their processed products is of high concern for human health due to their properties to induce severe acute and chronic toxicity at low-dose levels. Currently, a broad range of detection techniques used for practical analysis and detection of a wide spectrum of mycotoxins are available. Many analytical methods have been developed for the determination of each group of these mycotoxins in different food matrices, but new methods are still required to achieve higher sensitivity and address other challenges that are posed by these mycotoxins. Effective technologies are needed to reduce or even eliminate the presence of the mycotoxins in fruits and their processed products. Preventive measures aimed at the inhibition of mycotoxin formation in fruits and their processed products are the most effective approach. Detoxification of mycotoxins by different physical, chemical, and biological methods are less effective and sometimes restricted because of concerns of safety, possible losses in nutritional quality of the treated commodities and cost implications. This article reviewed the available information on the major mycotoxins found in foods and feeds, with an emphasis of fruits and their processed products, and the analytical methods used for their determination. Based on the current knowledge, the major strategies to prevent or even eliminate the presence of the mycotoxins in fruits and their processed products were proposed.

  16. Occurrence, prevention and remediation of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in silage: a review.

    PubMed

    Wambacq, Eva; Vanhoutte, Ilse; Audenaert, Kris; De Gelder, Leen; Haesaert, Geert

    2016-05-01

    Ruminants are considered to be less sensitive towards mycotoxins than monogastric animals because rumen microbiota have mycotoxin-detoxifying capacities. Therefore the effect of mycotoxins towards ruminants has been studied to a lesser extent compared with monogastric animals. Worldwide, a high proportion of the ruminant diet consists of silages made of forage crops (i.e. all parts of the crop above the stubble are harvested). In practice, silages are often contaminated with multiple mycotoxins. Exposure to a cocktail of mycotoxins can hamper animal production and have severe health consequences. In this article the different aspects associated with mycotoxin contamination of silage are reviewed 'from seed to feed'. An overview is given on the occurrence of toxigenic fungal species and their concomitant mycotoxins in forage crops before and after ensiling. The mycotoxin load of visually non-mouldy samples and mouldy hot spots within the same silo is also compared. Subsequently, this review delves into different problem-solving strategies. A logical first step is prevention of mould growth and mycotoxin production in the field, during harvest and during ensiling. If prevention should fail, several remediation strategies are available. These are listed, mainly focusing on the possibilities of microbial degradation of mycotoxins in vivo in silage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Occurrence, prevention and remediation of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in silage: a review.

    PubMed

    Wambacq, Eva; Vanhoutte, Ilse; Audenaert, Kris; De Gelder, Leen; Haesaert, Geert

    2016-05-01

    Ruminants are considered to be less sensitive towards mycotoxins than monogastric animals because rumen microbiota have mycotoxin-detoxifying capacities. Therefore the effect of mycotoxins towards ruminants has been studied to a lesser extent compared with monogastric animals. Worldwide, a high proportion of the ruminant diet consists of silages made of forage crops (i.e. all parts of the crop above the stubble are harvested). In practice, silages are often contaminated with multiple mycotoxins. Exposure to a cocktail of mycotoxins can hamper animal production and have severe health consequences. In this article the different aspects associated with mycotoxin contamination of silage are reviewed 'from seed to feed'. An overview is given on the occurrence of toxigenic fungal species and their concomitant mycotoxins in forage crops before and after ensiling. The mycotoxin load of visually non-mouldy samples and mouldy hot spots within the same silo is also compared. Subsequently, this review delves into different problem-solving strategies. A logical first step is prevention of mould growth and mycotoxin production in the field, during harvest and during ensiling. If prevention should fail, several remediation strategies are available. These are listed, mainly focusing on the possibilities of microbial degradation of mycotoxins in vivo in silage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26676761

  18. Evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin binders in animal feed on the analytical performance of standardised methods for the determination of mycotoxins in feed.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, A; Stroka, J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the use of substances that can suppress or reduce absorption, promote the excretion of mycotoxins or modify their mode of action in feed, so-called mycotoxin binders, has been officially allowed in the European Union as technological feed additives. The influence of the addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feed on the analytical performance of the official methods for the determination of mycotoxins was studied and the results are presented. Where possible standardised methods for analysis were applied. Samples of 20 commercial mycotoxin binders were collected from various companies. The following mycotoxins were included in the study: aflatoxin B₁, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B₁ and B₂, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A binder (or binders combined in a group) was mixed with feed material containing the mycotoxin, and the feed material was analysed. For data evaluation, the mean values were compared by Student's t-test (an independent two-sample t-test with unequal sample sizes and equal variance). The repeatability standard deviation of each method was used as an estimate of method variability. No significant differences (p = 0.05) in mycotoxin levels between binder-free material and the material containing different binders were found. Further, the possible effects of binder addition in combination with processing (pelletising) on the amount of aflatoxin B₁ determined in feed were studied. Three commercial mycotoxin binders containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) as the main component were used in these experiments. Feed samples with and without mycotoxin binders were pelletised with and without steam treatment. After pelletising, materials were analysed for AFB₁. Only the combination pelletising and a mixture of binders added at a total level of 1.2% had a significant effect (41% reduction) on the amount of AFB₁ determined.

  19. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention.

  20. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura E.; Prendergast, Andrew J.; Turner, Paul C.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention. PMID:26602301

  1. Mycotoxin Analysis Using Imprinted Materials Technology: Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Appell, Michael; Mueller, Anja

    2016-07-01

    Molecular imprinting technology is an attractive, cost-effective, and robust alternative to address the limitations of highly selective natural receptors, such as antibodies and aptamers. The field of molecular imprinting has seen a recent surge in growth, and several commercially available products are of great interest for sample cleanup to improve mycotoxin analysis. Current research trends are in specific applications of imprinting technology for small-molecule sensing and chromatographic cleanup procedures in new commodities. The choice of components and imprinting template are critical factors for mycotoxin recovery or detection optimization. Template mimics offer a means to reduce toxic exposure during polymer synthesis and address issues of leaching template from the imprinted polymer. Recent reports of molecularly imprinted polymers for aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, fusaric acid, citrinin, patulin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin are reviewed. PMID:27214609

  2. [Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in lichens of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2014-01-01

    Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples.

  3. Toxicity of mycotoxins for the rat pulmonary macrophage in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, W.G.; Gerberick, G.F.; Lewis, D.M.; Castranova, V.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in grains is well documented. Workers in grain handling occupations are commonly exposed to grain dust aerosols. Work in our laboratory has shown that T-2 toxin is highly toxic to rat alveolar macrophages in vitro, causing loss of viability, release of radiolabeled chromium, inhibition of macromolecular synthesis, inhibition of phagocytosis, and inhibition of macrophage activation. Similarly, patulin caused a significant release of radiolabeled chromium, decrease in ATP levels, significant inhibition of protein and RNA synthesis, and inhibition of phagocytosis. The data show that both T-2 toxin and patulin are highly toxic to rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. The data further suggest that the presence of these mycotoxins in airborne respirable dust might present a hazard to exposed workers.

  4. Mycotic keratitis: profile of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Naiker, S; Odhav, B

    2004-02-01

    In this study, Fusarium species isolated from 29 patients with mycotic keratitis were identified and tested for their ability to produce mycotoxins. Members of the F. solani species complex (Fs complex) were the predominant species isolated, followed by F. verticillioides, F. dimerum, members of the F. oxysporum species complex Fo complex), F. incarnatum, F. chlamydosporum and F. lateritium. Of these, 76% of the Fusarium isolates produced fusaric acid, moniliformin or fumonisin B1. Many of the fusaria isolated are common aetiological agents of mycotic keratitis infections. However, F. incarnatum, F. chlamydosporum and F. lateritium have previously not been found in this infection. These findings indicate that a greater variety of fusarial species are becoming associated with mycotic keratitis infections. This paper further demonstrates the mycotoxin-producing ability of these clinical isolates and assesses cellular cytotoxicity.

  5. [Mycotoxins as exposure parameters in bioaerosols of composting sites].

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Müller, T; Ostrowski, R; Schwalbe, R; Dott, W

    1999-01-01

    The potential to produce mycotoxins was investigated for freshly isolated strains of airborne fungi. The spectra of metabolites in conidial extracts and culture extracts were compared for some relevant species. Furthermore, their potential to produce mycotoxins on semi-natural media (compost extract agar) supplemented with sucrose, yeast extract, and carboxymethylcellulose in different combinations was investigated. In native bioaerosols in a compost facility (plant 2), tryptoquivaline, a compound with tremorgenic properties, and trypacidin, for which no toxic properties are described, were found. The highly toxic metabolites gliotoxin and verruculogen were not found in the bioaerosols, although they were produced by some strains in pure culture. An inventory of microbial metabolites in addition of fungal propagules has led to a more detailed identification of potential health hazards at the working place. In addition to the pathogenic and allergological relevance, airborne fungi are thus of toxicological concern. PMID:10803222

  6. Modified Fusarium mycotoxins unmasked: From occurrence in cereals to animal and human excretion.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Nathan; Devreese, Mathias; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-01

    Modified mycotoxins formed by plants, fungi and during some food processing steps may remain undetected by analytical methods, potentially causing underestimation of mycotoxin exposure and risk. Furthermore, due to altered physico-chemical characteristics of modified mycotoxins, these compounds might have different gastro-intestinal absorption compared to the unmodified forms, leading to altered modified mycotoxin plasma concentrations. Additionally, modified mycotoxins can be converted back into their corresponding unmodified forms by in vivo hydrolysis upon oral ingestion. This review aims to describe the current knowledge on the production, occurrence, toxicity and toxicokinetic properties of the modified Fusarium mycotoxins. The need for more occurrence data to correctly assess the risks associated with these modified mycotoxins is clearly indicated, including differences between commodities as well as geographical and climatological influences. Research on toxicity of these modified forms demonstrates the possibility of significant decreases as well as increases in the toxic effects of these compounds compared with those of the unmodified forms. Their toxicokinetics demonstrates that a decreased (increased) polarity of modified mycotoxins might cause enhanced (decreased) oral absorption. The possibility of in vivo hydrolysis, altered toxicity and their wide-spread occurrence makes modified mycotoxins a complex threat for which a risk assessment will require prospective multi-disciplinary efforts.

  7. Effect of mycotoxin-containing diets on epigenetic modifications of mouse oocytes by fluorescence microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Hou, Yan-Jun; Han, Jun; Liu, Hong-Lin; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-08-01

    Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin B1, zearalenone (ZEA), and deoxynivalenol (DON), are commonly found in many food commodities. Mycotoxins have been shown to increase DNA methylation levels in a human intestinal cell line. We previously showed that the developmental competence of oocytes was affected in mice that had been fed a mycotoxin-containing diet. In this study, we explored possible mechanisms of low mouse oocyte developmental competence after mycotoxin treatment in an epigenetic modification perspective. Mycotoxin-contaminated maize (DON at 3,875 μg/kg, ZEA at 1,897 μg/kg, and AF at 806 μg/kg) was included in diets at three different doses (mass percentage: 0, 15, and 30%) and fed to mice for 4 weeks. The fluorescence intensity analysis showed that the general DNA methylation levels increased in oocytes from high dose mycotoxin-fed mice. Mouse oocyte histone methylation was also altered. H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 level increased in oocytes from mycotoxin-fed mice, whereas H3K27me3 and H4K20me2 level decreased in oocytes from mycotoxin-fed mice. Thus, our results indicate that naturally occurring mycotoxins have effects on epigenetic modifications in mouse oocytes, which may be one of the reasons for reduced oocyte developmental competence. PMID:24810297

  8. A Dutch field survey on fungal infection and mycotoxin concentrations in maize.

    PubMed

    Van Asselt, E D; Azambuja, W; Moretti, A; Kastelein, P; De Rijk, T C; Stratakou, I; Van Der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that can cause adverse health effects. Due to climate change, temperatures are expected to rise and changes in rainfall patterns are foreseen. These developments may increase fungal occurrence and mycotoxin concentrations in maize. It is therefore useful to monitor mycotoxin levels in maize and record the accompanying agronomic factors and weather parameters. This paper describes a field survey in the Netherlands in which information on soil, cultivar, green manure, tillage as well as sowing, emergence, flowering and harvest dates of silage maize were collected from 148 growers. A small number of these growers (42 in total) were visited to collect maize samples revealing that 50% of the samples were contaminated with Fusarium species and mycotoxins were detected in 25% of the samples. The Fusarium species that was most commonly found was F. crookwellense followed by F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. sporotrichiodes and F. equiseti. In total 31 mycotoxins were analysed. The predominant mycotoxins present were (sum of 3 and 15)-acetyl-DON and nivalenol; other mycotoxins found were alternariol, beauvericin, deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, moniliformin and zearalenone. Nivalenol was present in concentrations up to 1670 µg kg⁻¹ and acetylated DON was usually present at higher concentrations than DON. Statistical analysis of the current data showed no correlation between mycotoxins present and agronomic factors recorded. Field studies as described in this paper are useful and need to be continued in the future in order to observe trends in mycotoxin occurrence.

  9. Influence of environmental parameters on mycotoxin production by Alternaria arborescens.

    PubMed

    Vaquera, Sandra; Patriarca, Andrea; Fernández Pinto, V

    2016-02-16

    Alternaria arborescens has been reported as a common fungal species invading tomatoes and is capable of producing several mycotoxins in infected plants, fruits and in agricultural commodities. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants of food. This species can produce these toxic metabolites together with AAL toxins (Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersicum toxins), which can act as inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water activity (aw, 0.995, 0.975, 0.950) and temperature (6, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) on mycotoxin production by A. arborescens on a synthetic tomato medium. The optimum production of AOH and AME occurred at 0.975 aw after 40 days of incubation at 30 °C. The maximum TeA accumulation was observed at 0.975 aw and 25 °C and at 0.950 aw and 30 °C. AAL TA was produced in higher quantities at 0.995 aw and 30 °C. At 6 °C no quantifiable levels of AOH or AME were detected, but significant amounts of TeA were produced at 0.975 aw. In general, high aw levels and high temperatures were favorable for mycotoxin production. The greatest accumulation of all four toxins occurred at 0.975 aw and 30 °C. The results obtained here could be extrapolated to evaluate the risk of tomato fruits and tomato products contamination caused by these toxins.

  10. Influence of environmental parameters on mycotoxin production by Alternaria arborescens.

    PubMed

    Vaquera, Sandra; Patriarca, Andrea; Fernández Pinto, V

    2016-02-16

    Alternaria arborescens has been reported as a common fungal species invading tomatoes and is capable of producing several mycotoxins in infected plants, fruits and in agricultural commodities. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants of food. This species can produce these toxic metabolites together with AAL toxins (Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersicum toxins), which can act as inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water activity (aw, 0.995, 0.975, 0.950) and temperature (6, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) on mycotoxin production by A. arborescens on a synthetic tomato medium. The optimum production of AOH and AME occurred at 0.975 aw after 40 days of incubation at 30 °C. The maximum TeA accumulation was observed at 0.975 aw and 25 °C and at 0.950 aw and 30 °C. AAL TA was produced in higher quantities at 0.995 aw and 30 °C. At 6 °C no quantifiable levels of AOH or AME were detected, but significant amounts of TeA were produced at 0.975 aw. In general, high aw levels and high temperatures were favorable for mycotoxin production. The greatest accumulation of all four toxins occurred at 0.975 aw and 30 °C. The results obtained here could be extrapolated to evaluate the risk of tomato fruits and tomato products contamination caused by these toxins. PMID:26708802

  11. Zeranol: doping offence or mycotoxin? A case-related study.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Fusshöller, Gregor; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Zeranol ((7R,11S)-7,15,17-trihydroxy-11-methyl-12-oxabicyclo[12.4.0]octadeca-1(14),15,17-trien-13-one, also referred to as 7α-zearalanol, Ralone®, Frideron®, Ralgro®, etc.) is a semi-synthetic estrogenic veterinary drug with growth-promoting properties. Its use regarding animal husbandry has been prohibited in the European Union since 1981 and, due to its anabolic effects, it is further recognized as a banned substance in sport. Numerous studies were conducted concerning the identification of the illicit application of zeranol to domestic livestock. These studies also considered the natural occurrence of zeranol as a metabolite of the mycotoxin zearalenone and the issue of differentiating both scenarios, i.e. illegal use or unintended contamination. Human sports drug testing authorities are facing comparable challenges since the deliberate misuse of the (for human application non-approved) drug should be discriminated from adverse analytical findings resulting from the biotransformation of the mycotoxin zearalenone possibly ingested with contaminated food. The active drug (zeranol), its major human metabolites (zearalanone, 7β-zearalanol) and the mycotoxin (zearalenone) plus its major and unique metabolic products (α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol) have been monitored in routine doping controls by means of validated gas chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-(MS/)MS) methods since 1996, and between 2005 and 2010 four samples providing suspicious signals were detected. In agreement with literature data, in vitro metabolism studies demonstrated the metabolic pathway from zearalenone towards zeranol (and common metabolites). In contrast, an administration study urine sample (collected after oral application of 20 mg of zeranol) yielded only ultra-trace amounts of zearalenone and its characteristic metabolites, which supported the assumption that a mycotoxin contamination caused the finding of zeranol in the doping control specimens rather than a misuse of the

  12. Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from Bananas

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

  13. Bottled water: analysis of mycotoxins by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mata, A T; Ferreira, J P; Oliveira, B R; Batoréu, M C; Barreto Crespo, M T; Pereira, V J; Bronze, M R

    2015-06-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in food samples has been widely studied as well as its impact in human health, however, information about its distribution in the environment is scarce. An analytical method comprising a solid phase extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis was implemented and validated for the trace analysis of mycotoxins in drinking bottled waters. Limits of quantification achieved for the method were between 0.2ngL(-1) for aflatoxins and ochratoxin, and 2.0ngL(-1) for fumonisins and neosolaniol. The method was applied to real samples. Aflatoxin B2 was the most frequently detected mycotoxin in water samples, with a maximum concentration of 0.48±0.05ngL(-1) followed by aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G1 and ochratoxin A. The genera Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium were the fungi more frequently detected. These results show that the consumption of these waters does not represent a toxicological risk for an adult.

  14. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joan W.; Inamdar, Arati A.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that “volatoxin” might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties. PMID:26402705

  15. Multi-mycotoxin contamination of couscous semolina commercialized in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zinedine, Abdellah; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Mañes, Jordi; Manyes, Lara

    2017-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin contamination of ninety-eight (98) couscous semolina samples collected from various areas in Morocco was investigated in this study. Samples were surveyed for the presence of 22 mycotoxins (four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, diacetoxiscyrpenol (DAS), three fumonisins, beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), four enniatins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins). Results showed that 96 out of 98 total couscous samples (98%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin. Enniatin B (ENB), Enniatin B1 (ENB1), Enniatin A1 (ENA1) and zearalenone (ZEA) have shown the highest incidences in contaminated samples. The dietary exposure was estimated to be 1.02, 0.57, 0.06, 0.57 and 0.3μg/kgbw/day for the sum of (DON+3-ADON+15-ADON), fumonisins (FB1+FB2+FB3), the sum of (T2+HT-2), NIV and ZEA, respectively. PMID:27507496

  16. Effects of macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins on the murine immune system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The macrocyclic trichothecenes are a unique group of toxins which have some antileukemic properties. In the first study, verrucarin A and roridin A were examined. Both mycotoxins were administered intraperitoneally at an equitoxic dose of 0.35 mg/kg to CD-1 mice. Lymphocyte proliferation was studied after animals were dosed with verrucarin A. After day 2, no differences in {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation were observed using concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). On day 4, DNA synthesis induced by Con A, PHA, and PWM increased significantly. On day 7, PHA stimulation increased above controls while Con A, PWM, and LPS responses were not significantly different. In contrast, roridin A decreased PHA stimulation only on day 7. In the second study the mycotoxins roritoxin B, myrotoxin B, roridin A, verrucarin A, 16-hydroxyverrucarin A, verrucarin J, baccharinoid B12, roridin D, roridin E, baccharinoid B4, and baccharinoid B5 were investigated. In the third study lymphocytes were cultured with each of the mycotoxins for 48 hr to assess their lethality.

  17. Critical practicalities in sampling for mycotoxins in feed.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The presence of mycotoxins, in particular aflatoxin B1 , can cause significant health problems as well as severe economic loss, and are therefore regulated with respect to maximum acceptable concentration for various feed- and foodstuffs. International regulatory authorities have recognized the importance of representative sampling, and sampling guidelines that only partly comply with the Theory of Sampling have been formulated. Practical guidance regarding sampling, including correct design and operation of sampling devices and explanations on how to develop sufficient sampling protocols are lacking in current guidelines. These are critical practicalities of main importance, especially when dealing with trace concentrations and/or concentrations that are irregularly distributed, as for mycotoxins. Heterogeneity characterization, which is necessary to be able develop valid sampling protocols or validation assessments of existing sampling operations, is currently not mentioned in the existing guidelines. This paper explains all critical practicalities with respect to sampling of mycotoxins for 1-D and 3-0 feed decision units. Correct design and use of sampling and mass reduction devices, as well as structural guidelines for correctly designing experimental heterogeneity characterizations are presented, allowing evaluation of sampling representativeness and determination of optimal number of increments per composite sample. Practical examples are given on how to extract information from variographic analysis and replication experiments, based on an extensive field trials performed to determine aflatoxin levels in various feed components.

  18. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Joan W; Inamdar, Arati A

    2015-09-22

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that "volatoxin" might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties.

  19. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Joan W; Inamdar, Arati A

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that "volatoxin" might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties. PMID:26402705

  20. Photoreaction of indole-containing mycotoxins to fluorescent products.

    PubMed

    Maragos, C M

    2009-06-01

    Photochemical reaction of the non-fluorescent mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) to fluorescent products was recently reported. Because CPA contains an indole moiety, believed to contribute to the fluorescence, it was of interest to determine whether the effect might be more generally applicable to indole-containing mycotoxins. Three indole-containing tremorgens (penitrem A, paxilline, verruculogen) that have not previously been reported to be fluorescent were rendered fluorescent by exposure to ultraviolet light in a photoreactor. Naturally fluorescent ergot alkaloids, which also contain an indole-moiety, exhibited a diminished response after exposure. This suggests that the phenomenon may be most useful for detection of indole-containing tremorgens that are non-fluorescent, rather than for the enhancement of materials that are already fluorescent, such as the ergot alkaloids. The extent to which fluorescence enhancement was seen was strongly influenced by the reaction environment, in particular the solvent used and whether cyclodextrins were present. In an HPLC format, placement of the photoreactor post-column allowed for the fluorescence detection of penitrem A, paxilline, and verruculogen. The ability to photoreact indole-containing tremorgens and detect them by fluorescence may open up new avenues for detection of these mycotoxins alone or in combination. PMID:23604981

  1. The current state of mycotoxin biomarker development in humans and animals and the potential for application to plant systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filamentous fungi that contaminate livestock feeds and human food supply often produce toxigenic secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins. Among the hundreds of known mycotoxins, aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone are considered the most commercially important. In...

  2. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    PubMed

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented.

  3. Measurement of trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat using a biolayer interferometry-based biosensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The fungi can infest a variety of important agricultural commodities including wheat, barley, maize, peanuts, and tree nuts. Certain of the mycotoxins are potential threats to animal and human health and, for this reason, extensive monitoring i...

  4. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  5. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of... Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.14 Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall...

  6. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of... Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.14 Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall...

  7. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, Luciano; Ottoboni, Matteo; Giromini, Carlotta; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Cheli, Federica

    2016-02-01

    Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge. PMID:26891326

  8. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts

    PubMed Central

    Pinotti, Luciano; Ottoboni, Matteo; Giromini, Carlotta; Dell’Orto, Vittorio; Cheli, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge. PMID:26891326

  9. Current situation of mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in animal feed--focus on Europe.

    PubMed

    Streit, Elisabeth; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Tassis, Panagiotis; Tzika, Eleni; Marin, Daniela; Taranu, Ionelia; Tabuc, Cristina; Nicolau, Anca; Aprodu, Iuliana; Puel, Olivier; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2012-10-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%-100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

  10. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices.

    PubMed

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. PMID:26473926

  11. Quorum quenchers and sensors as possible roles for mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites of fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The assumed role for mycotoxins is to act as defensive metabolites thus serving as protection for fungi from biotic antagonisms and as such do not interact with the daily metabolic requirements of the producing fungus. Preventive strategies are devoted to reducing the accumulation of mycotoxins bas...

  12. Metabolomic evaluation of conditions favoring mycotoxin production in isolates of Fusarium fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of Fusarium have the potential to produce secondary metabolites that have been identified as mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are often found in plants that serve as hosts for invasive fungi. Toxicity can serve as a mechanism for imparting virulence to invasive fungi, and can cause toxicity in...

  13. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices.

    PubMed

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-14

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms.

  14. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, Luciano; Ottoboni, Matteo; Giromini, Carlotta; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Cheli, Federica

    2016-02-15

    Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge.

  15. The Impact of Crop, Pest, and Agricultural Management Practices on Mycotoxin Contamination of Field Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by several fungal genera which occur in a wide variety of agricultural commodities worldwide. Health issues and economic losses due to mycotoxin contamination occur at all stages of the food and feed production process. Mycotoxigenic fungi...

  16. Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Elisabeth; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Tassis, Panagiotis; Tzika, Eleni; Marin, Daniela; Taranu, Ionelia; Tabuc, Cristina; Nicolau, Anca; Aprodu, Iuliana; Puel, Olivier; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations. PMID:23162698

  17. How do grass species, season and ensiling influence mycotoxin content in forage?

    PubMed

    Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Dolezal, Petr; Nedelnik, Jan; Kizek, Rene; Linduskova, Hana; Mejia, Jhonny Edison Alba; Nawrath, Adam

    2013-11-12

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that have harmful effects on mammals. The aim of this study was to assess the content of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material of selected forage grass species both during and at the end of the growing season. We further assessed mycotoxin content in subsequently produced first-cutting silages with respect to the species used in this study: Lolium perenne (cv. Kentaur), Festulolium pabulare (cv. Felina), Festulolium braunii (cv. Perseus), and mixtures of these species with Festuca rubra (cv. Gondolin) or Poa pratensis (Slezanka). The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were mainly detected in the fresh-cut grass material, while fumonisin and aflatoxin contents were below the detection limits. July and October were the most risky periods for mycotoxins to occur. During the cold temperatures in November and December, the occurrence of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material declined. Although June was a period with low incidence of mycotoxins in green silage, contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in silages from the first cutting exceeded by several times those determined in their biomass collected directly from the field. Moreover, we observed that use of preservatives or inoculants did not prevent mycotoxin production.

  18. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

    PubMed Central

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. PMID:26473926

  19. Comparative Toxicity of Mycotoxins to Navel Orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and Corn Earworm (Helicoverpa zea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins and ochratoxins, are widely distributed in nature and are frequently problematic crop contaminants that cause millions of dollars of annual losses in the United States. Insect infestations of crop plants significantly exacerbate mycotoxin contamination. Damage to a v...

  20. Mycoflora and Natural Incidence of Selected Mycotoxins in Rabbit and Chinchilla Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ludemann, Vanesa; Martino, Pablo Eduardo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that cause a toxic response when ingested by animals or man. Demand of natural fur, such as those from rabbit and chinchilla, produced under controlled conditions, has increased worldwide. The toxicogenic mycoflora contaminating feeds for these animals was enumerated and identified. Six of the major mycotoxins implicated in animal mycotoxicosis were detected and quantified. Moulds count ranged from <10 to 4.7 × 105 CFU g−1; 14% of the samples exceeded the limit that determines hygienic feed quality. More than twenty species belonging to the five most important mycotoxigenic mould genera were recovered. Among the analyzed mycotoxins, aflatoxins were recovered in 100% of the examined samples, deoxynivalenol in 95%, fumonisins in 100%, ochratoxin A in 98%, T2 toxin in 98%, and zearalenone in 100%. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins was observed in 100% of the samples analyzed. Exposure to multiple mycotoxins was thus demonstrated for these animals. PMID:22649328

  1. Molecular strategies for detection and quantification of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species: a review.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Jiang, Yueming; Chen, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium contamination is considered a major agricultural problem, which could not only significantly reduce yield and quality of agricultural products, but produce mycotoxins that are virulence factors responsible for many diseases of humans and farm animals. One strategy to identify toxigenic Fusarium species is the use of modern molecular methods, which include the analysis of DNA target regions for differentiation of the Fusarium species, particularly the mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction assays are used to determine the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the toxins in order to facilitate a qualitative and quantitative detection of Fusarium-producing mycotoxins. Also, it is worth mentioning that some factors that modulate the biosynthesis of mycotoxins are not only determined by their biosynthetic gene clusters, but also by environmental conditions. Therefore, all of the aforementioned factors which may affect the molecular diagnosis of mycotoxins will be reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  2. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  3. Molecular strategies for detection and quantification of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species: a review.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Jiang, Yueming; Chen, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium contamination is considered a major agricultural problem, which could not only significantly reduce yield and quality of agricultural products, but produce mycotoxins that are virulence factors responsible for many diseases of humans and farm animals. One strategy to identify toxigenic Fusarium species is the use of modern molecular methods, which include the analysis of DNA target regions for differentiation of the Fusarium species, particularly the mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction assays are used to determine the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the toxins in order to facilitate a qualitative and quantitative detection of Fusarium-producing mycotoxins. Also, it is worth mentioning that some factors that modulate the biosynthesis of mycotoxins are not only determined by their biosynthetic gene clusters, but also by environmental conditions. Therefore, all of the aforementioned factors which may affect the molecular diagnosis of mycotoxins will be reviewed and discussed in this paper. PMID:25255897

  4. Meta-analytical study of productive and nutritional interactions of mycotoxins in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Hauschild, L; Vale, M M; Lovatto, P A

    2012-09-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to study the association of mycotoxins with performance and organ weights in growing pigs. A total of 85 articles published between 1968 and 2010 were used, totaling 1012 treatments and 13 196 animals. The meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation and variance-covariance. The presence of mycotoxins in diets was seen to reduce the feed intake by 18% and the weight gain in 21% compared with the control group. Deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins were the mycotoxins with the greatest impact on the feed intake and growth of pigs, reducing by 26% and 16% in the feed intake and by 26% and 22% in the weight gain. The mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination in equations for estimating the effect of mycotoxins on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in younger animals. In addition, the residual analysis showed that the greater part of the variation in weight gain was explained by the variation in feed intake (87%). The protein and methionine levels in diets could influence the feed intake and the weight gain in challenged animals. The weight gain in challenged pigs showed a positive correlation with the methionine level in diets (0.68). The mycotoxin effect on growth was greater in males compared with the effect on females. The reduction in weight gain was of 15% in the female group and 19% in the male group. Mycotoxin presence in pig diets has interfered in the relative weight of the liver, the kidneys and the heart. Mycotoxins have an influence on performance and organ weight in pigs. However, the magnitude of the effects varies with the type and concentration of mycotoxin, sex and the animal age, as well as nutritional factors.

  5. Mycotoxin problem in Africa: current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wagacha, J M; Muthomi, J W

    2008-05-10

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins will cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The socio-economic status of majority of inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa predisposes them to consumption of mycotoxin contaminated products either directly or at various points in the food chain. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. A synergistic effect between mycotoxin exposure and some important diseases in the continent such as malaria, kwashiorkor and HIV/AIDS have been suggested. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. Even with the standards in place, the greatest recorded fatal mycotoxin-poisoning outbreak caused by contamination of maize with aflatoxins occurred in Africa in 2004. Pre-harvest practices; time of harvesting; handling of produce during harvesting; moisture levels at harvesting, transportation, marketing and processing; insect damage all contribute to mycotoxin contamination. Possible intervention strategies include good agricultural practices such as early harvesting, proper drying, sanitation, proper storage and insect management among others. Other possible interventions

  6. Mycotoxin problem in Africa: current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wagacha, J M; Muthomi, J W

    2008-05-10

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins will cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The socio-economic status of majority of inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa predisposes them to consumption of mycotoxin contaminated products either directly or at various points in the food chain. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. A synergistic effect between mycotoxin exposure and some important diseases in the continent such as malaria, kwashiorkor and HIV/AIDS have been suggested. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. Even with the standards in place, the greatest recorded fatal mycotoxin-poisoning outbreak caused by contamination of maize with aflatoxins occurred in Africa in 2004. Pre-harvest practices; time of harvesting; handling of produce during harvesting; moisture levels at harvesting, transportation, marketing and processing; insect damage all contribute to mycotoxin contamination. Possible intervention strategies include good agricultural practices such as early harvesting, proper drying, sanitation, proper storage and insect management among others. Other possible interventions

  7. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  8. Trichothecene mycotoxins in aerosolized conidia of Stachybotrys atra.

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, W G; Frazer, D G; Jarvis, B B; Simpson, J; Robinson, V A

    1987-01-01

    Stachybotrys atra is the etiologic agent of stachybotryotoxicosis, and this fungus and its trichothecene mycotoxins were recently implicated in an outbreak of unexplained illness in homes. S. atra was grown on sterile rice, autoclaved, dried, and then aerosolized by acoustic vibration. The distribution of particles (mass and number) was monitored on an aerodynamic particle sizer interfaced with a computer. Dust was collected on preweighed glass-fiber filters and extracted with 90% aqueous methanol. Extracts were tested for the ability to inhibit protein synthesis in rat alveolar macrophages, the ability to inhibit the proliferation of mouse thymocytes, and the presence of specific trichothecene mycotoxins. Virtually all of the particles were less than 15 micron in aerodynamic diameter, and the mass median diameter was 5 micron. Thus, most of the particles were respirable. Microscopic analysis of the generated dust revealed that ca. 85% of the dust particles were conidia of S. atra, another 6% were hyphal fragments, and the remainder of the particles were unidentifiable. Thus, greater than 90% of the particles were of fungal origin. The extracts strongly inhibited protein synthesis and thymocyte proliferation. Purified satratoxin H was also highly toxic in the same systems. Each of the individual filters contained satratoxin H (average, 9.5 ng/mg of dust). Satratoxin G and trichoverrols A and B were found in lesser amounts in some, but not all, of the filters. The limit of analysis is ca. 50 ng. These results establish that the conidia of S. atra contain trichothecene mycotoxins. In view of the potent toxicity of the trichothecenes, the inhalation of aerosols containing high concentrations of these conidia could be a potential hazard to health. PMID:3496850

  9. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, E; Thim, A-M; Gidlund, A; Brostedt, S; Nyberg, M; Olsen, M

    2009-04-01

    A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed on 99 rice samples taken from the Swedish retail market. The main objective was to study the mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with a high content of fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for their content of ochratoxin A (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (HPLC, RIDA(R)QUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological analysis). The majority of samples were sampled according to European Commission Regulation 401/2006. Subsamples were pooled and mixed before milling and both mould and mycotoxin analyses were performed on milled rice. The results showed that the majority of basmati rice (71%) and many jasmine rice samples (20%) contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B(1) (level of quantification = 0.1 microg aflatoxin kg(-1) rice). Two samples of jasmine rice and ten basmati rice samples contained levels over the regulated European maximum limits of 2 microg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B(1) or 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins. Aspergillus was the most common mould genus isolated, but also Penicillium, Eurotium, Wallemia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Trichotecium were found. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in 21% of the samples indicates that incorrect management of rice during production and storage implies a risk of mould growth and subsequent production of aflatoxin. Rough estimates showed that high rice consumers may have an intake of 2-3 ng aflatoxin kg(-1) bodyweight and day(-1) from rice alone. This survey shows that aflatoxin is a common contaminant in rice imported to Europe.

  10. Mycotoxins and mycoflora in animal feedstuffs in western Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, D; Mills, J T; Boycott, B R

    1983-01-01

    Feed samples associated with 51 cases of suspected or potential mycotoxicoses of farm animals in western Canada were examined during a three year study. Ochratoxin A was detected in four cases, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol in one, and sterigmatocystin in one. Samples examined for microflora associated with production of these mycotoxins contained Penicillium spp., Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium spp. and fungi of the Aspergillus glaucus group. Samples were analyzed for T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol only if Fusarium spp. were present. The first known incidence of suspected sterigmatocystin poisoning of poultry through feed ingestion has been encountered. PMID:6831303

  11. Mechanistic Insight into the Biosynthesis and Detoxification of Fumonisin Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Renaud, Justin B; McDowell, Tim; Sumarah, Mark W

    2016-09-16

    Fumonisins, notably FB1, FB2, FB3, and FB4, are economically important mycotoxins produced by a number Fusarium sp. that occur on corn, rice, and sorghum as well as by Aspergillus sp. on grapes. The fumonisin scaffold is comprised of a C18 polyketide backbone functionalized with two tricarballylic esters and an alanine derived amine. These functional groups contribute to fumonisin's ability to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis in animals, plants, and yeasts. We report for the first time the isolation and structure elucidation of two classes of nonaminated fumonisins (FPy and FLa) produced by Aspergillus welwitschiae. Using a Lemna minor (duckweed) bioassay, these new compounds were significantly less toxic in comparison to the fumonisin B mycotoxins, providing new insight into the mechanism of fumonisin toxicity. Time course fermentations monitoring the production of FB4, FPy4, and FLa4, as well as (13)C and (15)N stable isotope incorporation, suggest a novel postbiosynthetic oxidative deamination process for fumonisins. This pathway was further supported by a feeding study with FB1, a fumonisin not produced by Aspergillus sp., which resulted in its transformation to FPy1. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus have the ability to produce enzymes that could be used for fumonisin detoxification. PMID:27444057

  12. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    PubMed

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2014-05-16

    Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented.

  13. Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Amanda Juan; Jiao, Xiaolin; Hu, Yongjian; Lu, Xiaohong; Gao, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The multi-mycotoxin occurrence for internal and superficial fungi contamination were comprehensively assessed in medicinal seeds used as food or beverage. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and ITS gene blast, a total of 27 species belonging to 12 genera were identified from surface-sterilized seeds. Chaetomium globosporum was most predominant (23%), followed by Microascus trigonosporus (12%) and Alternaria alternata (9%). With respect to superficial mycobiota, thirty-four species belonging to 17 genera were detected. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium polonicum were predominant (12% and 15%, respectively). Medicinal seed samples and potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) using UPLC-MS/MS. Platycladi seeds were contaminated with AFB1 (52.0 µg/kg) and tangerine seed was contaminated with OTA (92.3 µg/kg). Subsequent analysis indicated that one A. flavus strain isolated from platycladi seed was able to synthesize AFB1 (102.0 µg/kg) and AFB2 (15.3 µg/kg). Two P. polonicum strains isolated from tangerine and lychee seeds were able to synthesize OTA (4.1 µg/kg and 14.8 µg/kg, respectively). These results identify potential sources of OTA and aflatoxins in medicinal seeds and allude to the need to establish permitted limits for these mycotoxins in these seeds that are commonly consumed by humans. PMID:26404373

  14. Dietary strategies to counteract the effects of mycotoxins: a review.

    PubMed

    Galvano, F; Piva, A; Ritieni, A; Galvano, G

    2001-01-01

    We reviewed various dietary strategies to contain the toxic effects of mycotoxins using antioxidant compounds (selenium, vitamins, provitamins), food components (phenolic compounds, coumarin, chlorophyll and its derivatives, fructose, aspartame), medicinal herbs and plant extracts, and mineral and biological binding agents (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, bentonites, zeolites, activated carbons, bacteria, and yeast). Available data are primarily from in vitro studies and mainly focus on aflatoxin B1, whereas much less information is available about other mycotoxins. Compounds with antioxidant properties are potentially very efficacious because of their ability to act as superoxide anion scavengers. Interesting results have been obtained by food components contained in coffee, strawberries, tea, pepper, grapes, turmeric, Fava tonka, garlic, cabbage, and onions. Additionally, some medicinal herbs and plant extracts could potentially provide protection against aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1. Activated carbons, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, and bacteria seem to effectively act as binders. We conclude that dietary strategies are the most promising approach to the problem, considering their limited or nil interference in the food production process. Nevertheless, a great research effort is necessary to verify the in vivo detoxification ability of the purposed agents, their mode of action, possible long-term drawbacks of these detoxification-decontamination procedures, and their economical and technical feasibility. PMID:11198434

  15. Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in Capsicum powder.

    PubMed

    Santos, L; Marín, S; Mateo, E M; Gil-Serna, J; Valle-Algarra, F M; Patiño, B; Ramos, A J

    2011-12-15

    This study aimed to: (1) determine the mycobiota of Capsicum powder samples, paying a special attention to the mycotoxigenic moulds; (2) evaluate the contamination levels of aflatoxins (AF), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), T2 and HT2 toxins in those samples. Thirty-two samples were obtained through the methods of sampling established by the European Union legislation. Aspergillus and Eurotium were the most frequently found genera. Aspergillus section Nigri had the higher relative frequency in the samples, A. niger aggregate being the most representative group of this section. Other potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium species were found, but in a lower frequency. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins was confirmed in the 32 Capsicum powder samples. All samples were contaminated with AF and OTA, 27% with ZEA (36% of chilli and 18% of paprika samples), 9% with DON (18% of chilli and 6% of paprika samples), 6% with T2 (18% of chilli samples) and none of the samples contained HT2. Although in the present study the most common genera found (Aspergillus and Eurotium) belong to storage moulds, some field fungi such as Fusarium spp. were also found, and their toxins were sometimes detected. This fact supports the hypothesis that mycotoxin contamination of Capsicum products may occur both in the field and/or during storage.

  16. U.S. perspective on mycotoxin regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Park, Douglas L; Troxell, Terry C

    2002-01-01

    Control programs set up by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for aflatoxin, an unavoidable natural contaminant produced by specific molds that invade a number of feedstuffs and basic foods, provide an example of forces that affect risk assessment and management strategies by a regulatory agency. More recently, on an international scale, efforts to establish international food standards for fumonisin, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and patulin, as well as for aflatoxin, demonstrate the complexity of developing regulations and/or standards designed to protect consumer health and ensure fair trade practices on a global scale. Current FDA regulations for aflatoxins address public health concerns for potential contamination in basic foods, residues in milk, and animal feeds for numerous commodities and applications. Regulatory limits, sampling and analytical procedures, decontamination and/or diversion to less risk uses for contaminated product are components of mycotoxin control programs. Current efforts by FDA to establish regulatory controls for deoxynivalenol, fumonisin, and patulin add further insight on the role that safety and risk assessment procedures play in the development of action levels and advisories for mycotoxins.

  17. Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Amanda Juan; Jiao, Xiaolin; Hu, Yongjian; Lu, Xiaohong; Gao, Weiwei

    2015-09-24

    The multi-mycotoxin occurrence for internal and superficial fungi contamination were comprehensively assessed in medicinal seeds used as food or beverage. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and ITS gene blast, a total of 27 species belonging to 12 genera were identified from surface-sterilized seeds. Chaetomium globosporum was most predominant (23%), followed by Microascus trigonosporus (12%) and Alternaria alternata (9%). With respect to superficial mycobiota, thirty-four species belonging to 17 genera were detected. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium polonicum were predominant (12% and 15%, respectively). Medicinal seed samples and potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) using UPLC-MS/MS. Platycladi seeds were contaminated with AFB1 (52.0 µg/kg) and tangerine seed was contaminated with OTA (92.3 µg/kg). Subsequent analysis indicated that one A. flavus strain isolated from platycladi seed was able to synthesize AFB1 (102.0 µg/kg) and AFB2 (15.3 µg/kg). Two P. polonicum strains isolated from tangerine and lychee seeds were able to synthesize OTA (4.1 µg/kg and 14.8 µg/kg, respectively). These results identify potential sources of OTA and aflatoxins in medicinal seeds and allude to the need to establish permitted limits for these mycotoxins in these seeds that are commonly consumed by humans.

  18. Aflatrem: a tremorgenic mycotoxin with acute neurotoxic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, J J; Cameron, J E; Cole, R J

    1985-01-01

    Tremorgenic mycotoxins induce neurologic symptoms ranging from mental confusion to tremors, seizures and death, and are apparently the only class of mycotoxins with significant central nervous system activity. Tremorgens have been implicated in a number of neurologic diseases of cattle collectively known as staggers syndromes, and pose significant agricultural and health problems for both cattle and humans. Although the effects of tremorgens are thought to result from transient perturbations of amino acid neurotransmitter release mechanisms, there is reason to believe that acute exposures to toxins with such synaptic effects may result in degeneration of neuronal fiber processes. To test this hypothesis, rats were given a single tremorgenic (3 mg/kg, IP) dose of aflatrem, and kinetics of amino acid neurotransmitter uptake was assessed in isolated hippocampal nerve terminals at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks after injection. Results indicate a decrease in the capacity of the GABA and glutamate uptake systems, which was interpreted as a loss of nerve terminals. The affinity constants suggest a decrease in release of these transmitters as well. In addition to its transient influence on transmitter release, a single low dose of aflatrem is able to induce degeneration of neuronal processes in hippocampal neurotransmitter systems and therefore represents a long-term health threat. PMID:2867895

  19. Neurobehavioral studies of tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and penitrem A.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, T J; Brodie, R E; Spaid, S L

    1978-01-01

    Verruculogen (V) and penitrem A (PA) represent a group of toxic secondary metabolites of mold contaminants of foodstuffs known as 'tremorgenic mycotoxins', which produce a unique neurotoxic syndrome characterized by sustained tremors, limb weakness, ataxia and convulsions. In the present study the intraperitoneal median tremogenic dose in mice for V was found to be 0.92 mg/kg and that for PA, 0.19 mg/kg. Behavioral and neurochemical parameters were assessed following acute exposure to varying neurotoxic and subneurotoxic doses of these mycotoxins. Measures of spontaneous motor activity (photoactometer) and exploratory reflex behaviors (open field) were markedly depressed by both V and PA. Notably, at dose levels of V or PA that were not accompanied by any overt signs of neurotoxicity, significant neuromotor depression was still observed. Acquisition of a conditioned avoidance shuttle response was disrupted, but only at a high neurotoxic dose level of V. Neurochemical analyses revealed no clear catecholaminergic or cholinergic involvement in the neurotoxic syndrome of eigher V or PA. PMID:643898

  20. Cell death induced by the Alternaria mycotoxin Alternariol.

    PubMed

    Bensassi, Fatma; Gallerne, Cindy; Sharaf El Dein, Ossama; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rabeh; Bacha, Hassen; Lemaire, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of most foods and feeds, and some are known to be detrimental to human health. It is thus worthwhile to understand how cells of the intestinal system, one of the primary targets of these toxins, respond to their toxic effects. In this study, human colon carcinoma cells were used to elucidate the cell death mode and the pathways triggered by Alternariol (AOH), the most important mycotoxin produced by Alternaria species, which are the most common mycoflora infecting small grain cereals worldwide. Treatment of cells with AOH resulted in a loss of cell viability by inducing apoptosis. AOH-induced apoptosis was mediated through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, characterized by a p53 activation, an opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), a downstream generation of O(2)(*-) and caspase 9 and 3 activation. Besides, deficiency of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax partially protected cells against AOH-induced mitochondrial alterations. In addition, experiments performed on purified mitochondria indicated that AOH does not directly target this organelle to induce cell death. Our results demonstrate for the first time that AOH-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

  1. Dietary strategies to counteract the effects of mycotoxins: a review.

    PubMed

    Galvano, F; Piva, A; Ritieni, A; Galvano, G

    2001-01-01

    We reviewed various dietary strategies to contain the toxic effects of mycotoxins using antioxidant compounds (selenium, vitamins, provitamins), food components (phenolic compounds, coumarin, chlorophyll and its derivatives, fructose, aspartame), medicinal herbs and plant extracts, and mineral and biological binding agents (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, bentonites, zeolites, activated carbons, bacteria, and yeast). Available data are primarily from in vitro studies and mainly focus on aflatoxin B1, whereas much less information is available about other mycotoxins. Compounds with antioxidant properties are potentially very efficacious because of their ability to act as superoxide anion scavengers. Interesting results have been obtained by food components contained in coffee, strawberries, tea, pepper, grapes, turmeric, Fava tonka, garlic, cabbage, and onions. Additionally, some medicinal herbs and plant extracts could potentially provide protection against aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1. Activated carbons, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, and bacteria seem to effectively act as binders. We conclude that dietary strategies are the most promising approach to the problem, considering their limited or nil interference in the food production process. Nevertheless, a great research effort is necessary to verify the in vivo detoxification ability of the purposed agents, their mode of action, possible long-term drawbacks of these detoxification-decontamination procedures, and their economical and technical feasibility.

  2. Overnutrition Determines LPS Regulation of Mycotoxin Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neurodegenerative diseases are now associated with obesity and diabetes and linked to the developing and developed world. Interests in healthy diets have escalated that may prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The global metabolic syndrome involves lipoprotein abnormalities and insulin resistance and is the major disorder for induction of neurological disease. The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on dyslipidemia and NAFLD indicate that the clearance and metabolism of fungal mycotoxins are linked to hypercholesterolemia and amyloid beta oligomers. LPS and mycotoxins are associated with membrane lipid disturbances with effects on cholesterol interacting proteins, lipoprotein metabolism, and membrane apo E/amyloid beta interactions relevant to hypercholesterolemia with close connections to neurological diseases. The influence of diet on mycotoxin metabolism has accelerated with the close association between mycotoxin contamination from agricultural products such as apple juice, grains, alcohol, and coffee. Cholesterol efflux in lipoproteins and membrane cholesterol are determined by LPS with involvement of mycotoxin on amyloid beta metabolism. Nutritional interventions such as diets low in fat/carbohydrate/cholesterol have become of interest with relevance to low absorption of lipophilic LPS and mycotoxin into lipoproteins with rapid metabolism of mycotoxin to the liver with the prevention of neurodegeneration. PMID:26690419

  3. Overnutrition Determines LPS Regulation of Mycotoxin Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neurodegenerative diseases are now associated with obesity and diabetes and linked to the developing and developed world. Interests in healthy diets have escalated that may prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The global metabolic syndrome involves lipoprotein abnormalities and insulin resistance and is the major disorder for induction of neurological disease. The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on dyslipidemia and NAFLD indicate that the clearance and metabolism of fungal mycotoxins are linked to hypercholesterolemia and amyloid beta oligomers. LPS and mycotoxins are associated with membrane lipid disturbances with effects on cholesterol interacting proteins, lipoprotein metabolism, and membrane apo E/amyloid beta interactions relevant to hypercholesterolemia with close connections to neurological diseases. The influence of diet on mycotoxin metabolism has accelerated with the close association between mycotoxin contamination from agricultural products such as apple juice, grains, alcohol, and coffee. Cholesterol efflux in lipoproteins and membrane cholesterol are determined by LPS with involvement of mycotoxin on amyloid beta metabolism. Nutritional interventions such as diets low in fat/carbohydrate/cholesterol have become of interest with relevance to low absorption of lipophilic LPS and mycotoxin into lipoproteins with rapid metabolism of mycotoxin to the liver with the prevention of neurodegeneration. PMID:26690419

  4. Biomonitoring of concurrent mycotoxin exposure among adults in Sweden through urinary multi-biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallin, S; Gambacorta, L; Kotova, N; Lemming, E Warensjö; Nälsén, C; Solfrizzo, M; Olsen, M

    2015-09-01

    Mycotoxin producing moulds may contaminate numerous agricultural commodities either before harvest or during storage. A varied diet consisting of different foods may therefore be contaminated with a range of mycotoxins. The aim of the present study was to study concurrent exposure to mycotoxins through urinary multi-biomarker analysis, as well as its possible associations with the diet. Urinary samples from 252 adults, participating in the Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten 2010-11, were collected together with a 4-day diet record. Concurrent mycotoxin exposure was studied using a multi-biomarker LC-MS/MS method. The results revealed that exposure to mycotoxins is common and concurrent exposure to more than one toxin was found in 69% of the study population. However, when comparing the number of toxins detected with the reported consumption data it was difficult to distinguish food patterns which would indicate an increased risk of exposure to many mycotoxins simultaneously. This is the first study to investigate concurrent mycotoxin exposure and urinary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), nivalenol (NIV), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1) among adults in Sweden.

  5. Mycotoxin reduction in Bt corn: potential economic, health, and regulatory impacts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia

    2006-06-01

    Genetically modified (GM) Bt corn, through the pest protection that it confers, has lower levels of mycotoxins: toxic and carcinogenic chemicals produced as secondary metabolites of fungi that colonize crops. In some cases, the reduction of mycotoxins afforded by Bt corn is significant enough to have an economic impact, both in terms of domestic markets and international trade. In less developed countries where certain mycotoxins are significant contaminants of food, Bt corn adoption, by virtue of its mycotoxin reduction, may even improve human and animal health. This paper describes an integrated assessment model that analyzes the economic and health impacts of two mycotoxins in corn: fumonisin and aflatoxin. It was found that excessively strict standards of these two mycotoxins could result in global trade losses in the hundreds of millions US dollars annually, with the US, China, and Argentina suffering the greatest losses. The paper then discusses the evidence for Bt corn's lower levels of contamination of fumonisin and aflatoxin, and estimates economic impacts in the United States. A total benefit of Bt corn's reduction of fumonisin and aflatoxin in the US was estimated at 23 million dollars annually. Finally, the paper examines the potential policy impacts of Bt corn's mycotoxin reduction, on nations that are making a decision on whether to allow commercialization of this genetically modified crop.

  6. Real and Perceived Risks for Mycotoxin Contamination in Foods and Feeds: Challenges for Food Safety Control

    PubMed Central

    Milićević, Dragan R.; Škrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health. PMID:22069600

  7. Strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feed: a review.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W; Var, Işil

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that have been associated with severe toxic effects to vertebrates produced by many important phytopathogenic and food spoilage fungi including Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Alternaria species. The contamination of foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. We reviewed various control strategies to prevent the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi as well as to inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis including pre-harvest (resistance varieties, field management and the use of biological and chemical agents), harvest management, and post-harvest (improving of drying and storage conditions, the use of natural and chemical agents, and irradiation) applications. While much work in this area has been performed on the most economically important mycotoxins, aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin A much less information is available on other mycotoxins such as trichothecenes, fumonisin B(1), zearalenone, citrinin, and patulin. In addition, physical, chemical, and biological detoxification methods used to prevent exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic effect of mycotoxins are discussed. Finally, dietary strategies, which are one of the most recent approaches to counteract the mycotoxin problem with special emphasis on in vivo and in vitro efficacy of several of binding agents (activated carbons, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, bentonite, zeolites, and lactic acid bacteria) have also been reviewed. PMID:17092826

  8. Natural functions of mycotoxins and control of their biosynthesis in fungi.

    PubMed

    Reverberi, Massimo; Ricelli, Alessandra; Zjalic, Slaven; Fabbri, Anna A; Fanelli, Corrado

    2010-07-01

    Mycotoxins are harmful secondary metabolites produced by a range of widespread fungi belonging in the main to Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. But why should fungi produce toxins? And how is the biosynthesis of these toxins regulated? Several separate factors are now known to be capable of modulating mycotoxin synthesis; however, in this study, focussing just on mycotoxins whose regulatory mechanisms have already been established, we introduce a further factor based on a novel consideration. Various different mycotoxin biosynthetic pathways appear to share a common factor in that they are all susceptible to the influence of reactive oxygen species. In fact, when a fungus receives an external stimulus, it reacts by activating, through a well-defined signal cascade, a profound change in its lifestyle. This change usually leads to the activation of global gene regulators and, in particular, of transcription factors which modulate mycotoxin gene cluster expression. Some mycotoxins have a clear-cut role both in generating a pathogenetic process, i.e. fumonisins and some trichothecenes, and in competing with other organisms, i.e. patulin. In other cases, such as aflatoxins, more than one role can be hypothesised. In this review, we suggest an "oxidative stress theory of mycotoxin biosynthesis" to explain the role and the regulation of some of the above mentioned toxins.

  9. Biomonitoring of concurrent mycotoxin exposure among adults in Sweden through urinary multi-biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallin, S; Gambacorta, L; Kotova, N; Lemming, E Warensjö; Nälsén, C; Solfrizzo, M; Olsen, M

    2015-09-01

    Mycotoxin producing moulds may contaminate numerous agricultural commodities either before harvest or during storage. A varied diet consisting of different foods may therefore be contaminated with a range of mycotoxins. The aim of the present study was to study concurrent exposure to mycotoxins through urinary multi-biomarker analysis, as well as its possible associations with the diet. Urinary samples from 252 adults, participating in the Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten 2010-11, were collected together with a 4-day diet record. Concurrent mycotoxin exposure was studied using a multi-biomarker LC-MS/MS method. The results revealed that exposure to mycotoxins is common and concurrent exposure to more than one toxin was found in 69% of the study population. However, when comparing the number of toxins detected with the reported consumption data it was difficult to distinguish food patterns which would indicate an increased risk of exposure to many mycotoxins simultaneously. This is the first study to investigate concurrent mycotoxin exposure and urinary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), nivalenol (NIV), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1) among adults in Sweden. PMID:26070503

  10. Grape Pomace, an Agricultural Byproduct Reducing Mycotoxin Absorption: In Vivo Assessment in Pig Using Urinary Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Gambacorta, Lucia; Pinton, Philippe; Avantaggiato, Giuseppina; Oswald, Isabelle P; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of four agricultural byproducts (ABPs) and two commercial binders (CBs) to reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of a mixture of mycotoxins was tested in piglets using urinary mycotoxin biomarkers as indicator of the absorbed mycotoxins. Twenty-eight piglets were administered a bolus contaminated with the mycotoxin mixture containing or not ABP or CB. Twenty-four hour urine was collected and analyzed for mycotoxin biomarkers by using a multiantibody immunoaffinity-based LC-MS/MS method. Each bolus contained 769 μg of fumonisin B1 (FB1), 275 μg of deoxynivalenol (DON), 29 μg of zearalenone (ZEN), 6.5 μg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and 6.6 μg of ochratoxin A (OTA) corresponding to 2.2, 0.8, 0.08, 0.02, and 0.02 μg/g in the daily diet, respectively. The percentage of ABP in each bolus was 50%, whereas for the two CBs the percentages were 5.2 and 17%, corresponding to 2.8, 0.3, and 0.9% in the daily diet, respectively. The reduction of mycotoxin absorption was up to 69 and 54% for ABPs and CBs, respectively. White grape pomace of Malvasia was the most effective material as it reduced significantly (p < 0.05) urinary mycotoxin biomarker of AFB1 (67%) and ZEN (69%), whereas reductions statistically not significant were observed for FB1 (57%), DON (40%), and OTA (27%). This study demonstrates that grape pomace reduces the gastrointestinal absorption of mycotoxins. This agricultural byproduct can be considered an alternative to commercial products and used in the feed industries as an effective, cheap, and natural binder for multiple mycotoxins. PMID:27509142

  11. Advances in Biosensors, Chemosensors and Assays for the Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xialu; Guo, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The contaminations of Fusarium mycotoxins in grains and related products, and the exposure in human body are considerable concerns in food safety and human health worldwide. The common Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For this reason, simple, fast and sensitive analytical techniques are particularly important for the screening and determination of Fusarium mycotoxins. In this review, we outlined the related advances in biosensors, chemosensors and assays based on the classical and novel recognition elements such as antibodies, aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers. Application to food/feed commodities, limit and time of detection were also discussed. PMID:27231937

  12. Chronic Illness Associated with Mold and Mycotoxins: Is Naso-Sinus Fungal Biofilm the Culprit?

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Joseph H.; Thrasher, Jack D.; Hooper, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that patients who develop chronic illness after prior exposure to water damaged buildings (WDB) and mold have the presence of mycotoxins, which can be detected in the urine. We hypothesized that the mold may be harbored internally and continue to release and/or produce mycotoxins which contribute to ongoing chronic illness. The sinuses are the most likely candidate as a site for the internal mold and mycotoxin production. In this paper, we review the literature supporting this concept. PMID:24368325

  13. Lipoic acid as a potential first agent for protection from mycotoxins and treatment of mycotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sherry A

    2003-08-01

    Mycotoxins--toxic substances produced by fungi or molds--are ubiquitous in the environment and are capable of damaging multiple biochemical mechanisms, resulting in a variety of human symptoms referred to collectively as "mycotoxicosis." In fact, mycotoxins mimic multiple xenobiotics, not only with respect to their ultimate damage, but also in their routes of detoxification. This suggests potential therapeutic options for the challenging treatment of mycotoxicosis. In this brief review, the author examines the use of lipoic acid as an example of an inexpensive and available nutrient that has been shown to protect against, or reverse, the adverse health effects of mycotoxins. PMID:15259433

  14. Advanced hyphenated chromatographic-mass spectrometry in mycotoxin determination: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric techniques are essential for advanced research in food safety and environmental monitoring. These fields are important for securing the health of humans and animals, and for ensuring environmental security. Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi, are major contaminants of agricultural products, food and feed, biological samples, and the environment as a whole. Mycotoxins can cause cancers, nephritic and hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, and immune and neurological disorders. Mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can provoke trade conflicts, resulting in massive economic losses. Risk assessment of mycotoxin contamination for humans and animals generally depends on clear identification and reliable quantitation in diversified matrices. Pioneering work on mycotoxin quantitation using mass spectrometry (MS) was performed in the early 1970s. Now, unambiguous confirmation and quantitation of mycotoxins can be readily achieved with a variety hyphenated techniques that combine chromatographic separation with MS, including liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC). With the advent of atmospheric pressure ionization, LC-MS has become a routine technique. Recently, the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in the same sample has drawn an increasing amount of attention. Thus, modern analyses must be able to detect and quantitate multiple mycotoxins in a single run. Improvements in tandem MS techniques have been made to achieve this purpose. This review describes the advanced research that has been done regarding mycotoxin determination using hyphenated chromatographic-MS techniques, but is not a full-circle survey of all the literature published on this topic. The present work provides an overview of the various hyphenated chromatographic-MS-based strategies that have been applied to mycotoxin analysis, with a focus on recent developments. The use of chromatographic-MS to measure levels of mycotoxins, including

  15. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F

    2015-08-12

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  16. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  17. Overall internal exposure to mycotoxins and their occurrence in occupational and residential settings--An overview.

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Gareis, M; Völkel, W; Gottschalk, C

    2016-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of various fungal species that can contaminate food and feed, as well as indoor environments. Numerous studies have summarized the adverse health effects of mycotoxins and described severe intoxications of humans and animals. The major health concerns are caused via the alimentary route which unambiguously is the main source for human internal exposure; however, the relevance of other pathways under environmental and occupational conditions should also be considered. Thus firstly, this review aims in summarizing literature data on potentially inhalable mycotoxins occurring in dusts or air in residences and in working environments. Secondly, it gives an overview of the overall internal body burden of mycotoxins in humans in an attempt to characterize total human exposure. These data are also discussed in relation to the current toxicologically based values used for risk assessment.

  18. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  19. Multi-Toxic Endpoints of the Foodborne Mycotoxins in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhendong; Xue, Kathy S; Sun, Xiulan; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-12-02

    Aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), T-2 toxin (T-2), and zearalenone (ZEA) are the major foodborne mycotoxins of public health concerns. In the present study, the multiple toxic endpoints of these naturally-occurring mycotoxins were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans model for their lethality, toxic effects on growth and reproduction, as well as influence on lifespan. We found that the lethality endpoint was more sensitive for T-2 toxicity with the EC50 at 1.38 mg/L, the growth endpoint was relatively sensitive for AFB₁ toxic effects, and the reproduction endpoint was more sensitive for toxicities of AFB₁, FB₁, and ZEA. Moreover, the lifespan endpoint was sensitive to toxic effects of all five tested mycotoxins. Data obtained from this study may serve as an important contribution to knowledge on assessment of mycotoxin toxic effects, especially for assessing developmental and reproductive toxic effects, using the C. elegans model.

  20. Dietary mycotoxins, co-exposure, and carcinogenesis in humans: Short review.

    PubMed

    De Ruyck, Karl; De Boevre, Marthe; Huybrechts, Inge; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, affect global agriculture so prolifically that they are virtually ubiquitous at some concentration in the average human diet. Studies of in vitro and in vivo toxicity are discussed, leading to investigations of co-exposed mycotoxins, as well as carcinogenic effects. Some of the most common and toxicologically significant mycotoxins, such as the aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, patulin, zearalenone, and some ergot alkaloids are outlined. The wide variety of pathogenic mechanisms these compounds employ are shown capable of inducing a complex set of interactions. Of particular note are potential synergisms between mycotoxins with regard to carcinogenic attributable risk, indicating an important field for future study.

  1. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    PubMed

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains.

  2. Mycotoxins in fungal contaminated samples of animal feed from western Canada, 1982-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, D; Mills, J T; Marquardt, R R; Frohlich, A A

    1997-01-01

    Feed samples from 94 cases involving fungal contamination and suspected mycotoxicosis of farm animals in western Canada were examined during 1982-1994 to assess the incidence of mycotoxins. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, and the fungal estrogen zearalenone. Samples infected with Fusarium fungi were additionally assayed for nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-x, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxins were found in 21 feed samples from 17 cases (18% of the reported cases), generally at levels far below those needed to induce symptoms under laboratory conditions. HT-2 toxin and other type-A trichothecenes were detected in 5 samples, deoxynivalenol and other type-B trichothecenes in 13, ochratoxin A in 5, and citrinin in 2. In 9 cases, symptoms observed in the animals were consistent with the known effects of the mycotoxin(s) found in the particular feed samples. PMID:9008801

  3. Multi-Toxic Endpoints of the Foodborne Mycotoxins in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhendong; Xue, Kathy S.; Sun, Xiulan; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1), T-2 toxin (T-2), and zearalenone (ZEA) are the major foodborne mycotoxins of public health concerns. In the present study, the multiple toxic endpoints of these naturally-occurring mycotoxins were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans model for their lethality, toxic effects on growth and reproduction, as well as influence on lifespan. We found that the lethality endpoint was more sensitive for T-2 toxicity with the EC50 at 1.38 mg/L, the growth endpoint was relatively sensitive for AFB1 toxic effects, and the reproduction endpoint was more sensitive for toxicities of AFB1, FB1, and ZEA. Moreover, the lifespan endpoint was sensitive to toxic effects of all five tested mycotoxins. Data obtained from this study may serve as an important contribution to knowledge on assessment of mycotoxin toxic effects, especially for assessing developmental and reproductive toxic effects, using the C. elegans model. PMID:26633509

  4. [Nitrogen-containing mycotoxins of fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species infesting grain and its products].

    PubMed

    Reshetilova, T A; Vinokurova, N G; L'vova, L S

    1993-01-01

    The review summarizes the literature data on distribution of nitrogen-containing mycotoxins (alkaloids) among Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi infesting grain and products of grain processing. Particular attention in given to clavins (ergotalkaloids) and tremorgens (roquefortine, verruculogen, penitrems). PMID:8295871

  5. Evaluation of Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, Enniatins, Fusaproliferin and Moniliformin in Domestic Rice in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Firouzeh; Sulyok, Michael; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) (A, A1, B, B1), Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was evaluated by a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) technique in 65 domestic rice samples produced in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces in Iran. The results showed that 46% of the samples were contaminated with at least one of the emerging mycotoxins. BEA was the most prevalent mycotoxin, which was found in 26 out of 65 rice samples at the concentrations up to 0.47 µg/Kg. Enniatin A1 which was the only member of ENNs was detected in the samples, occurred in 7.7% of samples with an average level of 0.06 μg/Kg. No detectable level of Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was found. This is the first report concerning the contamination of Iranian domestic rice samples with the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:25901158

  6. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hamed K; Yoshizawa, Takumi; Shier, W Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to both plants and mammals. Simple trichothecenes, including type A (e.g., T-2 toxin) and type B (e.g., deoxynivalenol), are generally less toxic than macrocyclic trichothecenes. We sought to determine if simple trichothecenes are a potential source of candidates for development as bioherbicides, which require high phytotoxicity and low mammalian toxicity. We examined 28 simple trichothecenes in vitro for phytotoxicity using a small aquatic plant, Lemna pausicostata, and for mammalian toxicity using four cultured mammalian cell lines. Several structure-activity relationships were identified, including the following two, which may be relevant to bioherbicide development: peracetylation of type B trichothecenes and de-epoxidation of type A trichothecenes both substantially reduced mammalian toxicity with little effect on phytotoxicity. It was concluded that simple trichothecenes possessing strong phytotoxicity and minimal mammalian toxicity in vitro can be identified. PMID:23933195

  7. Citrinin mycotoxin recognition and removal by naked magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Moritz, Denise Esteves; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Baratella, Davide; Terzo, Milo; Jakubec, Petr; Malina, Ondřej; Čépe, Klára; de Aragao, Glaucia Maria Falcao; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-07-15

    Citrinin is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which can be synthesized by Monascus mold during the fermentation process in foods. Monascus, generally described as red mold, is a red-pigmented filamentous fungus attracting a great interest for the production of natural dyes and cholesterol-lowering statins. We individuated a specie of Monascus producing high amount of natural dyes. However, this high pigmentation was correlated with the production of citrinin. Peculiar magnetic nanoparticles, synthesized in-house and called "Surface Active Maghemite Nanoparticles" (SAMNs), are proposed as an efficient and reliable mean for citrinin removal from Monascus treated foods. The nanomaterial efficiency for citrinin binding was proved on Monascus suspensions, and SAMN@citrinin complex was characterized by Mӧssbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements, showing that SAMNs resulted structurally and magnetically well conserved after citrinin binding. SAMNs are excellent and stable magnetic nano-carrier for toxin removal, which can be applied in food industry.

  8. Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mycotoxin producing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals in fields worldwide. Although F. graminearum is highly investigated by means of molecular genetics, detailed studies about hyphal development during initial infection stages are rare. In addition, the role of mycotoxins during initial infection stages of FHB is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the infection strategy of the fungus on different floral organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under real time conditions by constitutive expression of the dsRed reporter gene in a TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Additionally, trichothecene induction during infection was visualised with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) coupled TRI5 promoter. A tissue specific infection pattern and TRI5 induction were tested by using different floral organs of wheat. Through combination of bioimaging and electron microscopy infection structures were identified and characterised. In addition, the role of trichothecene production for initial infection was elucidated by a ΔTRI5-GFP reporter strain. Results The present investigation demonstrates the formation of foot structures and compound appressoria by F. graminearum. All infection structures developed from epiphytic runner hyphae. Compound appressoria including lobate appressoria and infection cushions were observed on inoculated caryopses, paleas, lemmas, and glumes of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. A specific trichothecene induction in infection structures was demonstrated by different imaging techniques. Interestingly, a ΔTRI5-GFP mutant formed the same infection structures and exhibited a similar symptom development compared to the wild type and the TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Conclusions The different specialised infection structures of F. graminearum on wheat florets, as described in this study, indicate that the penetration strategy of this fungus is far more complex than postulated to

  9. Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins and fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins contaminating a large fraction of the world's food, including maize, cereals, groundnuts and tree nuts. The toxins frequently co-occur in maize. Where these commodities are dietary staples, for example, in parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the contamination translates to high-level chronic exposure. This is particularly true in subsistence farming communities where regulations to control exposure are either non-existent or practically unenforceable. Aflatoxins are hepatocarcinogenic in humans, particularly in conjunction with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and cause aflatoxicosis in episodic poisoning outbreaks. In animals, these toxins also impair growth and are immunosuppressive; the latter effects are of increasing interest in human populations. FB have been reported to induce liver and kidney tumours in rodents and are classified as Group 2B ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’, with ecological studies implying a possible link to increased oesophageal cancer. Recent studies also suggest that the FB may cause neural tube defects in some maize-consuming populations. There is a plausible mechanism for this effect via a disruption of ceramide synthase and sphingolipid biosynthesis. Notwithstanding the need for a better evidence-base on mycotoxins and human health, supported by better biomarkers of exposure and effect in epidemiological studies, the existing data are sufficient to prioritize exposure reduction in vulnerable populations. For both toxins, there are a number of practical primary and secondary prevention strategies which could be beneficial if the political will and financial investment can be applied to what remains a largely and rather shamefully ignored global health issue. PMID:19875698

  10. Mycotoxins: diffuse and point source contributions of natural contaminants of emerging concern to streams.

    PubMed

    Kolpin, Dana W; Schenzel, Judith; Meyer, Michael T; Phillips, Patrick J; Hubbard, Laura E; Scott, Tia-Marie; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of mycotoxins in streams, 116 water samples from 32 streams and three wastewater treatment plant effluents were collected in 2010 providing the broadest investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of mycotoxins in streams conducted in the United States to date. Out of the 33 target mycotoxins measured, nine were detected at least once during this study. The detections of mycotoxins were nearly ubiquitous during this study even though the basin size spanned four orders of magnitude. At least one mycotoxin was detected in 94% of the 116 samples collected. Deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (77%), followed by nivalenol (59%), beauvericin (43%), zearalenone (26%), β-zearalenol (20%), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (16%), α-zearalenol (10%), diacetoxyscirpenol (5%), and verrucarin A (1%). In addition, one or more of the three known estrogenic compounds (i.e. zearalenone, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) were detected in 43% of the samples, with maximum concentrations substantially higher than observed in previous research. While concentrations were generally low (i.e. < 50 ng/L) during this study, concentrations exceeding 1,000 ng/L were measured during spring snowmelt conditions in agricultural settings and in wastewater treatment plant effluent. Results of this study suggest that both diffuse (e.g. release from infected plants and manure applications from exposed livestock) and point (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and food processing plants) sources are important environmental pathways for mycotoxin transport to streams. The ecotoxicological impacts from the long-term, low-level exposures to mycotoxins alone or in combination with complex chemical mixtures are unknown.

  11. Mycotoxins: diffuse and point source contributions of natural contaminants of emerging concern to streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Schenzel, Judith; Meyer, Michael T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mycotoxins in streams, 116 water samples from 32 streams and three wastewater treatment plant effluents were collected in 2010 providing the broadest investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of mycotoxins in streams conducted in the United States to date. Out of the 33 target mycotoxins measured, nine were detected at least once during this study. The detections of mycotoxins were nearly ubiquitous during this study even though the basin size spanned four orders of magnitude. At least one mycotoxin was detected in 94% of the 116 samples collected. Deoxynivalenol was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (77%), followed by nivalenol (59%), beauvericin (43%), zearalenone (26%), β-zearalenol (20%), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (16%), α-zearalenol (10%), diacetoxyscirpenol (5%), and verrucarin A (1%). In addition, one or more of the three known estrogenic compounds (i.e. zearalenone, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) were detected in 43% of the samples, with maximum concentrations substantially higher than observed in previous research. While concentrations were generally low (i.e. < 50 ng/L) during this study, concentrations exceeding 1000 ng/L were measured during spring snowmelt conditions in agricultural settings and in wastewater treatment plant effluent. Results of this study suggest that both diffuse (e.g. release from infected plants and manure applications from exposed livestock) and point (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and food processing plants) sources are important environmental pathways for mycotoxin transport to streams. The ecotoxicological impacts from the long-term, low-level exposures to mycotoxins alone or in combination with complex chemical mixtures are unknown

  12. Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities in relation to climate in North West Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Der Fels-Klerx, H J; Klemsdal, S; Hietaniemi, V; Lindblad, M; Ioannou-Kakouri, E; Van Asselt, E D

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities for feed and food production in North Western Europe during the last two decades, including trends over time and co-occurrence between toxins, and to assess possible effects of climate on the presence of mycotoxins. For these aims, analytical results related to mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities, collected in the course of national monitoring programmes in Finland, Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands during a 20-year period, were gathered. Historical observational weather data, including daily relative humidity, rainfall and temperature, were obtained from each of these four countries. In total 6382 records, referring to individual sample results for mycotoxin concentrations (one or more toxins) in cereal grains were available. Most records referred to wheat, barley, maize and oats. The most frequently analysed mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and zearalenone. Deoxynivalenol had the highest overall incidence of 46%, and was mainly found in wheat, maize and oats. Mycotoxins that showed co-occurrence were: deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in oats; deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize and wheat; and T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in oats. The presence of both deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in wheat increased with higher temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall during cultivation, but the presence of nivalenol was negatively associated with most of these climatic factors. The same holds for both nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in oats. This implies that climatic conditions that are conducive for one toxin may have a decreasing effect on the other. The presence of HT-2 toxin in oats showed a slight decreasing trends over time, but significant trends for other toxins showed an increasing presence during the last two decades. It is therefore useful to continue monitoring of mycotoxins. Obtained results can be

  13. Modulation of Intestinal Functions Following Mycotoxin Ingestion: Meta-Analysis of Published Experiments in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Bertrand; Applegate, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used. PMID:23430606

  14. Metabolism of modified mycotoxins studied through in vitro and in vivo models: an overview.

    PubMed

    Boevre, Marthe De; Graniczkowska, Kinga; Saeger, Sarah De

    2015-02-17

    Mycotoxins are toxic, secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They occur in a wide variety of food and feed commodities, and are of major public health concern because they are the most hazardous of all food and feed contaminants in terms of chronic toxicity. In the past decades, it has become clear that in mycotoxin-contaminated commodities, many structurally related compounds generated by plant metabolism, fungi or food processing coexist with their free mycotoxins, defined as modified mycotoxins. These modified xenobiotics might endanger animal and human health as they are possibly hydrolysed into their free toxins in the digestive tract of mammals, and may consequently contribute to an unexpected high toxicity. As modified toxins represent an emerging issue, it is not a surprise that for most toxicological tests data are scarce to non-existent. Therefore, there is a need to elucidate the disposition and kinetics of both free and modified mycotoxins in mammals to correctly interpret occurrence data and biomonitoring results. This review emphasizes the current knowledge on the metabolism of modified mycotoxins using in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:25542142

  15. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models.

  16. Occurrence of pre- and post-harvest mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in Danish maize silage.

    PubMed

    Storm, Ida M L Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-07-31

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects.

  17. Metabolism of modified mycotoxins studied through in vitro and in vivo models: an overview.

    PubMed

    Boevre, Marthe De; Graniczkowska, Kinga; Saeger, Sarah De

    2015-02-17

    Mycotoxins are toxic, secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They occur in a wide variety of food and feed commodities, and are of major public health concern because they are the most hazardous of all food and feed contaminants in terms of chronic toxicity. In the past decades, it has become clear that in mycotoxin-contaminated commodities, many structurally related compounds generated by plant metabolism, fungi or food processing coexist with their free mycotoxins, defined as modified mycotoxins. These modified xenobiotics might endanger animal and human health as they are possibly hydrolysed into their free toxins in the digestive tract of mammals, and may consequently contribute to an unexpected high toxicity. As modified toxins represent an emerging issue, it is not a surprise that for most toxicological tests data are scarce to non-existent. Therefore, there is a need to elucidate the disposition and kinetics of both free and modified mycotoxins in mammals to correctly interpret occurrence data and biomonitoring results. This review emphasizes the current knowledge on the metabolism of modified mycotoxins using in vitro and in vivo models.

  18. Analysis of mycotoxins in coffee and risk assessment in Spanish adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    García-Moraleja, A; Font, G; Mañes, J; Ferrer, E

    2015-12-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungal secondary metabolism that cause toxicological effects. Coffee is a highly popular beverage that is susceptible to contamination by mycotoxigenic fungi. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of the following 21 mycotoxins in coffee using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS-IT): aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2; ochratoxin A; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; neosolaniol; T-2 and HT-2 toxin; sterigmatocystin; enniatin A, A1, B, and B1; beauvericin; and fumonisin B1 and B2. We aimed to determine differences by coffee process (coffee maker, electrical machine, soluble and traditional Turkish process) and to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) and risk assessment of mycotoxins from coffee consumption using deterministic approach at various scenarios of food consumption in Spanish adolescents and adults. The results demonstrate that all studied mycotoxins were detected in samples with mean concentrations ranging from 0.69 µg/kg to 282.89 µg/kg. Eleven percent of samples did not show contamination with legislated mycotoxins. Only 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, fumonisin B1, and ochratoxin A exhibited significant differences between methods of coffee brewing. The results show that coffee intake does not represent a potential risk for consumers with respect to individual mycotoxin contamination.

  19. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350

  20. Analysis of mycotoxins in coffee and risk assessment in Spanish adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    García-Moraleja, A; Font, G; Mañes, J; Ferrer, E

    2015-12-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungal secondary metabolism that cause toxicological effects. Coffee is a highly popular beverage that is susceptible to contamination by mycotoxigenic fungi. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of the following 21 mycotoxins in coffee using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS-IT): aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2; ochratoxin A; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; neosolaniol; T-2 and HT-2 toxin; sterigmatocystin; enniatin A, A1, B, and B1; beauvericin; and fumonisin B1 and B2. We aimed to determine differences by coffee process (coffee maker, electrical machine, soluble and traditional Turkish process) and to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) and risk assessment of mycotoxins from coffee consumption using deterministic approach at various scenarios of food consumption in Spanish adolescents and adults. The results demonstrate that all studied mycotoxins were detected in samples with mean concentrations ranging from 0.69 µg/kg to 282.89 µg/kg. Eleven percent of samples did not show contamination with legislated mycotoxins. Only 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, fumonisin B1, and ochratoxin A exhibited significant differences between methods of coffee brewing. The results show that coffee intake does not represent a potential risk for consumers with respect to individual mycotoxin contamination. PMID:26514696

  1. Perspectives for geographically oriented management of fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal supply chain.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Booij, C J H

    2010-06-01

    This article provides an overview of available systems for management of Fusarium mycotoxins in the cereal grain supply chain, with an emphasis on the use of predictive mathematical modeling. From the state of the art, it proposes future developments in modeling and management and their challenges. Mycotoxin contamination in cereal grain-based feed and food products is currently managed and controlled by good agricultural practices, good manufacturing practices, hazard analysis critical control points, and by checking and more recently by notification systems and predictive mathematical models. Most of the predictive models for Fusarium mycotoxins in cereal grains focus on deoxynivalenol in wheat and aim to help growers make decisions about the application of fungicides during cultivation. Future developments in managing Fusarium mycotoxins should include the linkage between predictive mathematical models and geographical information systems, resulting into region-specific predictions for mycotoxin occurrence. The envisioned geographically oriented decision support system may incorporate various underlying models for specific users' demands and regions and various related databases to feed the particular models with (geographically oriented) input data. Depending on the user requirements, the system selects the best fitting model and available input information. Future research areas include organizing data management in the cereal grain supply chain, developing predictive models for other stakeholders (taking into account the period up to harvest), other Fusarium mycotoxins, and cereal grain types, and understanding the underlying effects of the regional component in the models. PMID:20537276

  2. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils.

  3. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. PMID:27542495

  4. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented.

  5. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marie-Caroline; Madec, Stéphanie; Coton, Emmanuel; Hymery, Nolwenn

    2016-01-01

    Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity. PMID:27023609

  6. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marie-Caroline; Madec, Stéphanie; Coton, Emmanuel; Hymery, Nolwenn

    2016-04-01

    Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity. PMID:27023609

  7. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, F S; Lyman, G J

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is on-going that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical techniques, the sampling methodologies applied to the shipments must also keep pace to ensure that the uncertainties attached to the sampling procedures do not overwhelm the analytical uncertainties. There is a need to understand and quantify sampling uncertainties under varying conditions of contamination. The analysis required is statistical and is challenging as the nature of the distribution of contaminants within a shipment is not well understood; very limited data exist. Limited work has been undertaken to quantify the variability of the contaminant concentrations in the flow of grain coming from a ship and the impact that this has on the variance of sampling. Relatively recent work by Paoletti et al. in 2006 [Paoletti C, Heissenberger A, Mazzara M, Larcher S, Grazioli E, Corbisier P, Hess N, Berben G, Lübeck PS, De Loose M, et al. 2006. Kernel lot distribution assessment (KeLDA): a study on the distribution of GMO in large soybean shipments. Eur Food Res Tech. 224:129-139] provides some insight into the variation in GMO concentrations in soybeans on cargo out-turn. Paoletti et al. analysed the data using correlogram analysis with the objective of quantifying the sampling uncertainty (variance) that attaches to the final cargo analysis, but this is only one possible means of quantifying sampling uncertainty. It is possible that in many cases the levels of contamination passing the sampler on out-loading are essentially random, negating the value of variographic quantitation of

  8. Quantitative estimation of sampling uncertainties for mycotoxins in cereal shipments.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, F S; Lyman, G J

    2012-01-01

    Many countries receive shipments of bulk cereals from primary producers. There is a volume of work that is on-going that seeks to arrive at appropriate standards for the quality of the shipments and the means to assess the shipments as they are out-loaded. Of concern are mycotoxin and heavy metal levels, pesticide and herbicide residue levels, and contamination by genetically modified organisms (GMOs). As the ability to quantify these contaminants improves through improved analytical techniques, the sampling methodologies applied to the shipments must also keep pace to ensure that the uncertainties attached to the sampling procedures do not overwhelm the analytical uncertainties. There is a need to understand and quantify sampling uncertainties under varying conditions of contamination. The analysis required is statistical and is challenging as the nature of the distribution of contaminants within a shipment is not well understood; very limited data exist. Limited work has been undertaken to quantify the variability of the contaminant concentrations in the flow of grain coming from a ship and the impact that this has on the variance of sampling. Relatively recent work by Paoletti et al. in 2006 [Paoletti C, Heissenberger A, Mazzara M, Larcher S, Grazioli E, Corbisier P, Hess N, Berben G, Lübeck PS, De Loose M, et al. 2006. Kernel lot distribution assessment (KeLDA): a study on the distribution of GMO in large soybean shipments. Eur Food Res Tech. 224:129-139] provides some insight into the variation in GMO concentrations in soybeans on cargo out-turn. Paoletti et al. analysed the data using correlogram analysis with the objective of quantifying the sampling uncertainty (variance) that attaches to the final cargo analysis, but this is only one possible means of quantifying sampling uncertainty. It is possible that in many cases the levels of contamination passing the sampler on out-loading are essentially random, negating the value of variographic quantitation of

  9. Multiclass mycotoxin analysis in food, environmental and biological matrices with chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    Mold metabolites that can elicit deleterious effects on other organisms are classified as mycotoxins. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs mostly through the intake of contaminated agricultural products or residues due to carry over or metabolite products in foods of animal origin such as milk and eggs, but can also occur by dermal contact and inhalation. Mycotoxins contained in moldy foods, but also in damp interiors, can cause diseases in humans and animals. Nephropathy, various types of cancer, alimentary toxic aleukia, hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, and immune and neurological disorders are the most common diseases that can be related to mycotoxicosis. The absence or presence of mold infestation and its propagation are seldom correlated with mycotoxin presence. Mycotoxins must be determined directly, and suitable analytical methods are necessary. Hundreds of mycotoxins have been recognized, but only for a few of them, and in a restricted number of utilities, a maximum acceptable level has been regulated by law. However, mycotoxins seldom develop alone; more often various types and/or classes form in the same substrate. The co-occurrence might render the individual mycotoxin tolerance dose irrelevant, and therefore the mere presence of multiple mycotoxins should be considered a risk factor. The advantage of chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) is that many compounds can be determined and confirmed in one analysis. This review illustrates the state-of-the-art of mycotoxin MS-based analytical methods for multiclass, multianalyte determination in all the matrices in which they appear. A chapter is devoted to the history of the long-standing coexistence and interaction among humans, domestic animals and mycotoxicosis, and the history of the discovery of mycotoxins. Quality assurance, although this topic relates to analytical chemistry in general, has been also examined for mycotoxin analysis as a preliminary to the systematic literature excursus

  10. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on hematology and immunology of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Woodward, B

    2005-11-01

    Feeding grains naturally-contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins has been shown to alter the metabolism and performance of turkeys. The objectives of the current experiment were to examine the effects of feeding turkeys with grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on their hematology and immunological indices (including functions), and the possible protective effect of feeding a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal-based starter (0 to 3 wk), grower (4 to 6 wk), developer (7 to 9 wk), and finisher (10 to 12 wk) diets formulated with uncontaminated grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains with 0.2% GMA. The chronic consumption of Fusarium mycotoxins caused minor and transient changes in hematocrit (0.33 L/L) and hemoglobin (10(6) g/L) concentrations as well as in blood basophil (0.13 x 10(9)/L) and monocyte counts (3.42 x 10(9)/L) compared with controls. Supplementation of the contaminated diet with GMA prevented these effects on blood cell counts. Biliary IgA concentrations were significantly increased (4.45-fold) when birds were fed contaminated grains compared with controls, but serum IgA concentrations were not affected. Contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, which is a CD8+ T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response, was decreased (48%) by feed-borne mycotoxins compared with the control. By contrast, the primary and secondary antibody response to sheep red blood cells, a CD4+ T-cell-mediated response, was not affected. It was concluded that chronic consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins exerts only minor adverse effects on the hematology and some immunological indices of turkeys. Consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins may, however, increase the susceptibility of turkeys to infectious agents against which CD8+ T cells play a major role in defense.

  11. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt. PMID:27405171

  12. Concentration of mycotoxins and chemical composition of corn silage: a farm survey using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Novinski, C O; Junges, D; Almeida, R; de Souza, C M

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated the chemical composition and mycotoxin incidence in corn silage from 5 Brazilian dairy-producing regions: Castro, in central-eastern Paraná State (n=32); Toledo, in southwestern Paraná (n=20); southeastern Goiás (n=14); southern Minas Gerais (n=23); and western Santa Catarina (n=20). On each dairy farm, an infrared thermography camera was used to identify 3 sampling sites that exhibited the highest temperature, a moderate temperature, and the lowest temperature on the silo face, and 1 sample was collected from each site. The chemical composition and concentrations of mycotoxins were evaluated, including the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; zearalenone; ochratoxin A; deoxynivalenol; and fumonisins B1 and B2. The corn silage showed a highly variable chemical composition, containing, on average, 7.1±1.1%, 52.5±5.4%, and 65.2±3.6% crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients, respectively. Mycotoxins were found in more than 91% of the samples, with zearalenone being the most prevalent (72.8%). All samples from the Castro region contained zearalenone at a high average concentration (334±374µg/kg), even in well-preserved silage. The incidence of aflatoxin B1 was low (0.92%). Silage temperature and the presence of mycotoxins were not correlated; similarly, differences were not observed in the concentration or incidence of mycotoxins across silage locations with different temperatures. Infrared thermography is an accurate tool for identifying heat sites, but temperature cannot be used to predict the chemical composition or the incidence of mycotoxins that have been analyzed, within the silage. The pre-harvest phase of the ensiling process is most likely the main source of mycotoxins in silage.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt.

  14. Metabolism of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Veronika; Woechtl, Bettina; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz

    2014-08-17

    Plants can metabolize the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) by forming the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (D3G). D3G might be cleaved during digestion, thus increasing the total DON burden of an individual. Due to a lack of in vivo data, D3G has not been included in the various regulatory limits established for DON so far. The aim of our study was to contribute to the risk assessment of D3G by determination of its metabolism in pigs. Four piglets received water, D3G (116 μg/kg b.w.) and the equimolar amount of DON (75 μg/kg b.w.) by gavage on day 1, 5 and 9 of the experiment, respectively. Additionally, 15.5 μg D3G/kg b.w. were administered intravenously on day 13. Urine and feces were collected for 24 h and analyzed for DON, D3G, deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcA), deoxynivalenol-15-GlcA (DON-15-GlcA) and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) by UHPLC-MS/MS. After oral application of DON and D3G, in total 84.8±9.7% and 40.3±8.5% of the given dose were detected in urine, respectively. The majority of orally administered D3G was excreted in form of DON, DON-15-GlcA, DOM-1 and DON-3-GlcA, while urinary D3G accounted for only 2.6±1.4%. In feces, just trace amounts of metabolites were found. Intravenously administered D3G was almost exclusively excreted in unmetabolized form via urine. Data indicate that D3G is nearly completely hydrolyzed in the intestinal tract of pigs, while the toxin seems to be rather stable after systemic absorption. Compared to DON, the oral bioavailability of D3G and its metabolites seems to be reduced by a factor of up to 2, approximately.

  15. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  16. Diversity of Fusarium species and mycotoxins contaminating pineapple.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-08-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is an important perennial crop in tropical and subtropical areas. It may be infected by various Fusarium species, contaminating the plant material with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate Fusarium species variability among the genotypes isolated from pineapple fruits displaying fungal infection symptoms and to evaluate their mycotoxigenic abilities. Forty-four isolates of ten Fusarium species were obtained from pineapple fruit samples: F. ananatum, F. concentricum, F. fujikuroi, F. guttiforme, F. incarnatum, F. oxysporum, F. polyphialidicum, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Fumonisins B1-B3, beauvericin (BEA) and moniliformin (MON) contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in pineapple fruit tissue. Fumonisins are likely the most dangerous metabolites present in fruit samples (the maximum FB1 content was 250 μg g(-1) in pineapple skin and 20 μg ml(-1) in juice fraction). In both fractions, BEA and MON were of minor significance. FUM1 and FUM8 genes were identified in F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Cyclic peptide synthase gene (esyn1 homologue) from the BEA biosynthetic pathway was identified in 40 isolates of eight species. Based on the gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, none of the isolates tested were found to be able to produce trichothecenes or zearalenone.

  17. Molds and mycotoxin content of cereals in southeastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Tabuc, C; Marin, D; Guerre, P; Sesan, T; Bailly, J D

    2009-03-01

    Fungal species and toxin contamination were determined in 110 cereal samples (54 maize, 35 wheat, and 21 barley) collected in the southeastern part of Romania from 2002 to 2004. The most frequent fungal contaminants belonged to Aspergillus and Fusarium, and maize was the most contaminated cereal. The main toxigenic species identified were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium graminearum, and Fusarium culmorum in all cereals and Fusarium verticillioides in maize. The presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins, and ochratoxin A was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More than 90% of the samples were contaminated with at least one toxin. Around 30% of maize samples were contaminated with AFB1, and in 20% of these samples the level of toxin exceeded that allowed by European Union regulations. In 48 and 42% of samples, levels of DON and ZEA, respectively, exceeded those allowed by the European Union. Neither fumonisins nor ochratoxin A were found in samples from any year or cereal. These results indicate that cereals produced in Romania have a particular pattern of mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination because DON and ZEA in addition to AFB1 were found.

  18. Exposure Assessment of the Tehran Population (Iran) to Zearalenone Mycotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxin is a potent estrogenic metabolite. It is the primary toxin causing infertility, abortion or other breeding problems. A HPLC method was validated for ZEA in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. A certified reference material (CRM) from FAPAS (UK) was analyzed. A survey of ZEA was performed on the 72 samples of rice, bread, puffed corn snack and wheat flour collected from Tehran retail market. The average recovery and coefficient of variation in different foods ranged 92.7-107.1 and 4.9-13.8%, respectively. The amount of ZEA in corn CRM was in the acceptable range of FAPAS. The limit of quantification was 3 ng/g for rice, bread and wheat flour and 2.7 ng/g for puffed corn snack. The retention time of zearalenone was 2.6 min. All samples had contamination level lower than the maximum tolerated level of ZEA in foods in Iran. The mean intake of ZEA from all samples was much lower than the tolerable daily intake estimated by JECFA. This is the first survey on ZEA contamination in bread and rice in Iran as well as the first study on exposure assessment of Tehran population to ZEA. PMID:24250447

  19. RNA-Seq Analysis Implicates Detoxification Pathways in Ovine Mycotoxin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinbi; Pan, Zengxiang; Moloney, Stephanie; Sheppard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxin induced hepatoxocity has been linked to oxidative stress, resulting from either an increase in levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) above normal levels and/or the suppression of antioxidant protective pathways. However, few detailed molecular studies of mycotoxicoses in animals have been carried out. This study use current RNA-seq based approaches to investigate the effects of mycotoxin exposure in a ruminant model. Having first assembled a de novo reference transcriptome, we use RNA-Seq technology to define in vivo hepatic gene expression changes resulting from mycotoxin exposure in relationship to pathological effect. As expected, characteristic oxidative stress related gene expression is markedly different in animals exhibiting poorer outcomes. However, expression of multiple genes critical for detoxification, particularly members of the cytochrome P450 gene family, was significantly higher in animals exhibiting mycotoxin tolerance (‘resistance’). Further, we present novel evidence for the amplification of Wnt signalling pathway activity in ‘resistant’ animals, resulting from the marked suppression of multiple key Wnt inhibitor genes. Notably, ‘resistance’ may be determined primarily by the ability of an individual to detoxify secondary metabolites generated by the metabolism of mycotoxins and the potentiation of Wnt signalling may be pivotal to achieving a favourable outcome upon challenge. PMID:24936865

  20. Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Human Breast Milk: Current State and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Braun, Dominik; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Turner, Paul C; Degen, Gisela H; Marko, Doris

    2016-07-18

    Human breast milk is considered as the best and ideal form of nutrition for infants. However, food contaminants such as mycotoxins, which may be transferred from maternal blood to milk, are poorly described. Mycotoxins are a major group of natural toxins frequently detected in foods. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art in the monitoring of mycotoxins in human breast milk, i.e., knowledge on occurrence, metabolism, and analytical assays utilized for their quantification. We highlight that most of the data captured to date have not been verified with the precision now capable utilizing LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS approaches. One concern is that some studies may overestimate individual measures, and most cannot capture the patterns and levels of mycotoxin mixtures. We propose accurate assessment as a priority, especially for aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol as well as their major metabolites. However, also so-called emerging toxins such as citrinin, the enniatins, beauvericin, aurofusarin, or Alternaria toxins should be considered to evaluate their potential relevance. Key requirements for analytical quality assurance are identified and discussed to guide future developments in this area. Moreover, research needs including investigations of lactational transfer rates, the role of human metabolism for bioactivation or detoxification, and an evaluation of potential combinatory effects of different mycotoxins are pointed out. It is hoped that LC-MS based multianalyte methods will enable more accurate, rapid and affordable human biomonitoring approaches that support informed decisions for maternal and infant health. PMID:27300310

  1. Food chain mycotoxin exposure, gut health, and impaired growth: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura E; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Prendergast, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Childhood stunting is an important and intractable public health problem that underlies ~20% of deaths among children aged <5 y in developing countries. Environmental enteropathy (EE), a subclinical condition of the small intestine characterized by reduced absorptive capacity and increased intestinal permeability, is almost universal among children in developing countries and may mediate stunting. However, the etiology of EE is poorly understood. Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi that frequently contaminate the staple foods of children living in developing countries. We review evidence from human and animal studies that exposure to mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin (FUM), and deoxynivaenol (DON), may impair child growth. Although these toxins have distinct actions, they all mediate intestinal damage through: 1) inhibition of protein synthesis (AF, DON); 2) an increase in systemic proinflammatory cytokines (DON); and 3) inhibition of ceramide synthase (FUM). The intestinal pathology that arises from mycotoxin exposure is very similar to that of EE. We propose that future studies should address the role of mycotoxins in the pathogenesis of EE and evaluate interventions to limit mycotoxin exposure and reduce childhood stunting.

  2. Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Dietary Supplements: Hidden Health Risk for Consumers.

    PubMed

    Veprikova, Zdenka; Zachariasova, Milena; Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Alena; Fenclova, Marie; Slavikova, Petra; Vaclavikova, Marta; Mastovska, Katerina; Hengst, Daniel; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-07-29

    Mycotoxin contamination of dietary supplements represents a possible risk for human health, especially in the case of products intended for people suffering from certain health conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this problem based on analyses of a wide set of herbal-based dietary supplements intended for various purposes: (i) treatment of liver diseases (milk thistle); (ii) reduction of menopause effects (red clover, flax seed, and soy); and (iii) preparations for general health support (green barley, nettle, goji berries, yucca, etc.) The analytical method including 57 mycotoxins was based on a QuEChERS-like (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) approach and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The main mycotoxins determined were Fusarium trichothecenes, zearalenone and enniatins, and Alternaria mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of enniatins, HT-2/T-2 toxins, and Alternaria toxins was observed in many cases. The highest mycotoxin concentrations were found in milk thistle-based supplements (up to 37 mg/kg in the sum). PMID:26168136

  3. Exposure assessment to mycotoxins in gluten-free diet for celiac patients.

    PubMed

    Brera, C; Debegnach, F; De Santis, B; Di Ianni, S; Gregori, E; Neuhold, S; Valitutti, F

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary metabolites produced by certain strains of filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, which attack crops in the field, and grow on foods also during storage under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity. Foods mainly contributing to the intake of mycotoxins with diet are cereals, maize being the most risky commodity due to the potential co-occurrence of more than one mycotoxin, this can be of particular concern especially for vulnerable group of population such as celiac patients that show increased maize-based products consumption. In this study the exposure of celiac patients to fumonisins (FBs) and zearalenone (ZON) has been assessed. The higher exposures, for all the matrices and for both the selected mycotoxins, were for children age group. The lower and upper bound exposure ranged between 348-582 ng/kg bw/day for FBs and 22-83 ng/kg bw/day for ZON; these values result well below the TDI for the selected mycotoxins, representing the 17-29% and 9-33% of the TDI set for FBs and ZON, respectively. Even considering the worst scenario the exposure values reported for children were lower, namely 1385 ng/kg bw/day for FBs and 237 ng/kg bw/day for ZON, than the corresponding toxicological thresholds. PMID:24694905

  4. Analysis of mycotoxins in food and feed: certification of DON in wheat and maize.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide there are either statutory limits or in some instances advisory guidelines for the maximum levels of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. These limits which have been agreed for the protection of human health and as standards for trade are often set at surprisingly low levels in view of both the problems of sampling and the abundant evidence of the difficulties of mycotoxin analysis, particularly so when approaching the limits of detection. Improved methodology for mycotoxins and improvements in performance even of expert laboratories have, however, been achieved through intercomparison exercises organised by the EC Measurement and Testing programme (formerly BCR). On a wider scale, participation in proficiency testing through schemes such as the UK Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) have indicated that between 10 and 40% of laboratories experience difficulties in obtaining satisfactory results in monitoring mycotoxins. Reference materials provide an important means of checking method performance. BCR has made a unique contribution in the production and certification of maize and wheat reference materials naturally contaminated with the Fusarium mycotoxin 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), which has now been available for purchase for some 2 years.

  5. Sensitive detection of multiple mycotoxins by SPRi with gold nanoparticles as signal amplification tags.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weihua; Chen, Hongming; Zhang, Huanhuan; He, Guangli; Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yang; Li, Chang Ming

    2014-10-01

    Detection of multiple toxic mycotoxins is of importance in food quality control. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an advanced tool for simultaneously multiple detections with accuracy; however, it suffers from limited sensitivity due to the instrumental constraint and small sizes of mycotoxins with only one epitope for an insensitive competitive immunoassay. In this work a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-enhanced SPRi chip is designed to sensitively detect multiple mycotoxins using a competitive immunoassay format. The sensing surface is constructed by uniformly attaching dense mycotoxin antigens on poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate] (POEGMA-co-GMA) brush modified SPRi gold chip. After competitive binding in a sample solution containing respective monoclonal antibodies, secondary antibody-conjugated AuNPs are employed to bind with the captured monoclonal antibodies for further amplification of the SPRi signal. Highly specific and sensitive simultaneous detection is achieved for three typical mycotoxins including Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEN) with low detection limits of 8, 30 and 15 pg mL(-1) and dynamic ranges covering three orders of magnitude. PMID:24992296

  6. Mycotoxin Detection in Human Samples from Patients Exposed to Environmental Molds

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Dennis G.; Bolton, Vincent E.; Guilford, Frederick T.; Straus, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if selected mycotoxins (trichothecenes, aflatoxins, and ochratoxins) could be extracted and identified in human tissue and body fluids from patients exposed to toxin producing molds in their environment. Human urine and methanol extracted tissues and sputum were examined. Trichothecenes were tested using competitive ELISA techniques. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and ochratoxin A were tested by using immunoaffinity columns and fluorometry. Test sensitivity and specificity were determined. Levels of detection for the various mycotoxins varied from 0.2 ppb for trichothecenes, 1.0 ppb for aflatoxins, and 2.0 ppb for ochratoxins. Trichothecene levels varied in urine, sputum, and tissue biopsies (lung, liver, brain) from undetectable (<0.2 ppb) to levels up to 18 ppb. Aflatoxin levels from the same types of tissues varied from 1.0 to 5.0 ppb. Ochratoxins isolated in the same type of tissues varied from 2.0 ppb to > 10.0 ppb. Negative control patients had no detectable mycotoxins in their tissues or fluids. These data show that mycotoxins can be detected in body fluids and human tissue from patients exposed to mycotoxin producing molds in the environment, and demonstrate which human tissues or fluids are the most likely to yield positive results. PMID:19468319

  7. Sensitive detection of multiple mycotoxins by SPRi with gold nanoparticles as signal amplification tags.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weihua; Chen, Hongming; Zhang, Huanhuan; He, Guangli; Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yang; Li, Chang Ming

    2014-10-01

    Detection of multiple toxic mycotoxins is of importance in food quality control. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an advanced tool for simultaneously multiple detections with accuracy; however, it suffers from limited sensitivity due to the instrumental constraint and small sizes of mycotoxins with only one epitope for an insensitive competitive immunoassay. In this work a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-enhanced SPRi chip is designed to sensitively detect multiple mycotoxins using a competitive immunoassay format. The sensing surface is constructed by uniformly attaching dense mycotoxin antigens on poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate] (POEGMA-co-GMA) brush modified SPRi gold chip. After competitive binding in a sample solution containing respective monoclonal antibodies, secondary antibody-conjugated AuNPs are employed to bind with the captured monoclonal antibodies for further amplification of the SPRi signal. Highly specific and sensitive simultaneous detection is achieved for three typical mycotoxins including Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEN) with low detection limits of 8, 30 and 15 pg mL(-1) and dynamic ranges covering three orders of magnitude.

  8. Transcriptome analyses to understand effects of the Fusarium deoxynivalenol and nivalenol mycotoxins on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungwook; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Youn, Kihoon; Kim, Sunyoung; Jung, Boknam; Lee, Jungkwan; Seo, Young-Su

    2014-12-20

    Fusarium spp. cause many diseases in farming systems and can produce diverse mycotoxins that can easily impact humans and animals through the ingestion of food and feed. Among these mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are considered the most important hazards because they can rapidly diffuse into cells and block eukaryotic ribosomes, leading to inhibition of the translation system. Conversely, the effects of DON and NIV mycotoxins on bacteria remain unclear. We employed RNA-seq technology to obtain information regarding the biological responses of bacteria and putative bacterial mechanisms of resistance to DON and NIV mycotoxins. Most differentially expressed genes down-regulated in response to these mycotoxins were commonly involved in phenylalanine metabolism, glyoxylate cycle, and cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase systems. In addition, we generated an overall network of 1028 up-regulated genes to identify core genes under DON and NIV conditions. The results of our study provide a snapshot view of the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 under DON and NIV conditions. Furthermore, the information provided herein will be useful for development of methods to detect DON and NIV.

  9. Exposure assessment to mycotoxins in gluten-free diet for celiac patients.

    PubMed

    Brera, C; Debegnach, F; De Santis, B; Di Ianni, S; Gregori, E; Neuhold, S; Valitutti, F

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary metabolites produced by certain strains of filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, which attack crops in the field, and grow on foods also during storage under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity. Foods mainly contributing to the intake of mycotoxins with diet are cereals, maize being the most risky commodity due to the potential co-occurrence of more than one mycotoxin, this can be of particular concern especially for vulnerable group of population such as celiac patients that show increased maize-based products consumption. In this study the exposure of celiac patients to fumonisins (FBs) and zearalenone (ZON) has been assessed. The higher exposures, for all the matrices and for both the selected mycotoxins, were for children age group. The lower and upper bound exposure ranged between 348-582 ng/kg bw/day for FBs and 22-83 ng/kg bw/day for ZON; these values result well below the TDI for the selected mycotoxins, representing the 17-29% and 9-33% of the TDI set for FBs and ZON, respectively. Even considering the worst scenario the exposure values reported for children were lower, namely 1385 ng/kg bw/day for FBs and 237 ng/kg bw/day for ZON, than the corresponding toxicological thresholds.

  10. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in Italian cereal and cereal products from organic farming.

    PubMed

    Juan, Cristina; Ritieni, Alberto; Mañes, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the occurrence of eighteen mycotoxins, nine trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), three zearalenones (zearalenone, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol), and six emergent mycotoxins, beauvericin and five enniatins (A, A1, B, B1 and B4), was monitored in different Italian organic cereals and cereal products by using a liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method. A total of 93 organic cereal samples (wheat, barley, rye and oat) were collected from Italy. Limits of quantification ranged from 5 to 15 μg/kg. 80% of analyzed samples contained mycotoxins. The occurrence was 33%, 6.5%, 2%, 27%, 7%, 10% and 43% for deoxynivalenol, HT-2, T-2, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin and enniatins, respectively. The major mycotoxin found was enniatin B4; it was detected in 40% of all analyzed samples and its levels ranged from 5.7 to 284.2 μg/kg. Risk assessment was evaluated by EDI calculations which were lower than TDI for all legislated Fusarium mycotoxins.

  11. Survey of 11 mycotoxins in wheat flour in Hebei province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Lu, Yang; Wang, Liying; Chang, Fengqi; Yang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 11 mycotoxins in 348 wheat flour samples marketed in Hebei province of China were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, was carried out. The selected mycotoxins consisted of four aflatoxins (AFs: AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and seven Fusarium toxins, i.e. deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, Fusarenon-X and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside. Results indicated that most of the wheat samples analysed were contaminated with mycotoxins. Wheat was most susceptible to DON (91.4% contamination), with a mean level of 240 μg kg(-1). On average the probable daily intake (PDI, expressed as µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) of mycotoxins was within the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI, 2.0 µg kg(-1) of body weight day(-1)) as set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Nevertheless, exposure assessment revealed that the maximum PDI of mycotoxins was 4.06 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), which was twice the PMTDI value. Thus, consistent monitoring is recommended, as to keep the contamination level under control.

  12. Determination of mycotoxins in pomegranate fruits and juices using a QuEChERS-based method.

    PubMed

    Myresiotis, Charalampos K; Testempasis, Stefanos; Vryzas, Zisis; Karaoglanidis, George S; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-09-01

    A rapid and accurate analytical method for the determination of three Alternaria mycotoxins (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tentoxin) in pomegranate samples (fruits and juices) was developed and validated. The overall average recoveries ranged for 82.0-109.4% and the relative standard deviations were from 1.2% to 10.9%. The optimized and validated method was applied to detect the presence of the target mycotoxins in real samples (fruits and juices) purchased from Greek markets. Mycotoxins were not found in any of the analyzed samples. Also, artificially inoculated pomegranate fruits with six different Alternaria alternata species complex isolates, known to produce the target mycotoxins on pure cultures, were analyzed and alternariol concentrations found ranged from 0.3 to 50.5 μg/g, alternariol monomethyl ether from 0.5 to 32.3 μg/g, while tentoxin was not detected. The developed analytical method can be used for the routine monitoring of the major Alternaria mycotoxins in pomegranates.

  13. Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Dietary Supplements: Hidden Health Risk for Consumers.

    PubMed

    Veprikova, Zdenka; Zachariasova, Milena; Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Alena; Fenclova, Marie; Slavikova, Petra; Vaclavikova, Marta; Mastovska, Katerina; Hengst, Daniel; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-07-29

    Mycotoxin contamination of dietary supplements represents a possible risk for human health, especially in the case of products intended for people suffering from certain health conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this problem based on analyses of a wide set of herbal-based dietary supplements intended for various purposes: (i) treatment of liver diseases (milk thistle); (ii) reduction of menopause effects (red clover, flax seed, and soy); and (iii) preparations for general health support (green barley, nettle, goji berries, yucca, etc.) The analytical method including 57 mycotoxins was based on a QuEChERS-like (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) approach and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The main mycotoxins determined were Fusarium trichothecenes, zearalenone and enniatins, and Alternaria mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of enniatins, HT-2/T-2 toxins, and Alternaria toxins was observed in many cases. The highest mycotoxin concentrations were found in milk thistle-based supplements (up to 37 mg/kg in the sum).

  14. Fungal and mycotoxin contamination of coffee beans in Benguet province, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Culliao, Audrey Glenn L; Barcelo, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Coffee remains an important agricultural product in Benguet province, Philippines, but is highly susceptible to fungal and mycotoxin contamination in various stages of growth and processing and in different local climates. In this study, pre- and post-harvest coffee bean samples from temperate and warm farming areas were assessed for their fungal and mycotoxin contaminants. One hundred eighty-five fungal isolates belonging to six genera were isolated representing 88.1% of mycotoxigenic fungi. The predominant species belonged to the genus Aspergillus, which are known producers of mycotoxins. Coffee beans from the post-harvest temperate group were found to have the highest percentage mycotoxigenic contamination of 98.4%, suggesting that the risk for fungal contamination is high after drying. Determination of the mycotoxins indicated 28.6% contamination. Ochratoxin A was found to be highest in dried whole cherries which contained 97.3 μg kg(-1), whilst sterigmatocystin was also highest in dried whole cherries at 193.7 μg kg(-1). These results indicate that there are risks of fungal and mycotoxin contamination of Benguet coffee at the post-harvest stage. PMID:25534333

  15. [Filamentous fungi and mycotoxins as potential occupational risk factors among farmers harvesting various crops].

    PubMed

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Perkowski, Juliusz; Kostecki, Marian; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Kiecana, Irena

    2003-01-01

    The studies to determine the level of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins were carried out in samples of grain and grain dust during threshing of cereals by a combine harvester. High concentration of fungi was noted in grain and grain dust samples, it ranged from 5.0 to 520.0 cfu/g.10(3) and from 275.0 to 2825.0 cfu/g.10(3), respectively Allergizing and toxigenic fungi of Alternaria, Geotrichum, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium species were observed in the study samples of grain and grain dust. In the samples of wheat grain, mycotoxins were also noted: moniliformin (MON), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA); their concentrations ranged from 0.025 to 0.088 microgram/g; 0.015-0.068 microgram/g; and from 0.0004 to 0.0008 microgram/g, respectively. The level of mycotoxins in the grain dust samples was within the range of 0.025-0.149 microgram/g-MON; 0.015-0.215 microgram/g-DON; 0.015-0.360 microgram/g-NIV; and 0.0004-0.0012 microgram/g-OTA. A significant correlation was observed between the occurrence of fungi of Fusarium species and the concentration of pathologic mycotoxins. The results confirm a considerable occupational risk among farmers engaged in grain threshing due to inhalation of pathogenic species of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins.

  16. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Hametner, Christian; Ward, Todd J; Dong, Yanhong; Schöfbeck, Denise; McCormick, Susan; Broz, Karen; Stückler, Romana; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Kistler, H Corby; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, which produced none of the known trichothecene mycotoxins despite causing normal disease symptoms. In rice cultures, a new trichothecene mycotoxin (named NX-2) was characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements identified NX-2 as 3α-acetoxy-7α,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene. Compared with the well-known 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), it lacks the keto group at C-8 and hence is a type A trichothecene. Wheat ears inoculated with the isolated strains revealed a 10-fold higher contamination with its deacetylated form, named NX-3, (up to 540 mg kg(-1) ) compared with NX-2. The toxicities of the novel mycotoxins were evaluated utilizing two in vitro translation assays and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NX-3 inhibits protein biosynthesis to almost the same extent as the prominent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, while NX-2 is far less toxic, similar to 3-ADON. Genetic analysis revealed a different TRI1 allele in the N-isolates, which was verified to be responsible for the difference in hydroxylation at C-8. PMID:25403493

  17. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Palencia, Edwin R.; Hinton, Dorothy M.; Bacon, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  18. Simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins in broiler feeds using a liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    KONGKAPAN, Jutamart; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya; ISARIYODOM, Supaporn; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that are typically present in grain and feed ingredients used for animal feeds. An analytical method using LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed to quantify nine mycotoxins, consisting of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in broiler feeds. In total, 100 samples of broiler feeds were collected from poultry farms in Central Thailand. The survey found that AFB1 and ZEA were the most prevalent mycotoxins in the feed samples at percentages of 93% and 63%, respectively. The limit of detections (LODs) of investigated mycotoxins was 0.20–0.78 ng/g. AFB2, DON, AFG1, NIV and T-2 toxin were also detectable at low contamination levels with percentages of 20%, 9%, 7%, 5% and 1%, respectively, whereas OTA and AFG2 were not detected in any of the feed samples. These results suggest that there is a very low level of risk of the exposure to mycotoxins in feeds obtained from broiler farms in Central Thailand. PMID:26477362

  19. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Edwin R; Hinton, Dorothy M; Bacon, Charles W

    2010-04-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards.

  20. Fusarium species and fusarium mycotoxins in cereals from West Romania: preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Alexa, E; Pop, G; Sumalan, R-M; Radulov, I; Poiana, M; Tulcan, C

    2011-01-01

    Fungal contamination of plant products is an important risk factor for health, because of the high mycotoxin potential deriving from these contaminations with multiple effects: hepatic toxicity, teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. The contamination of cereals with mycotoxins has been a serious problem in Balkan communities. Several studies implicated mycotoxins, in endemic kidney disease geographically limited to Balkan region (Balkan endemic nephropathy). The trichothecenes are of particular concern because they are ubiquitous found in wheat, corn and barley throughout the world. Fumonisins have been isolated from certain Fusarium species of which FB1, FB2 and FB3 are the major ones produced in naturally contaminated foods.These mycotoxins are produced on cereal grains infected by Fusarium while being grown in-the-field. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of the Fusarium species in cereals from West side of Romania and to determinate the concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisine (F1+F2). Identification of Fusarium species was done using the total number of fungal species determination method. The level of mycotoxins was determined with the immune-enzymatic method ELISA. 27 cereal samples from rural households in three counties in West Romania were analysed.

  1. Transcriptome analyses to understand effects of the Fusarium deoxynivalenol and nivalenol mycotoxins on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungwook; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Youn, Kihoon; Kim, Sunyoung; Jung, Boknam; Lee, Jungkwan; Seo, Young-Su

    2014-12-20

    Fusarium spp. cause many diseases in farming systems and can produce diverse mycotoxins that can easily impact humans and animals through the ingestion of food and feed. Among these mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are considered the most important hazards because they can rapidly diffuse into cells and block eukaryotic ribosomes, leading to inhibition of the translation system. Conversely, the effects of DON and NIV mycotoxins on bacteria remain unclear. We employed RNA-seq technology to obtain information regarding the biological responses of bacteria and putative bacterial mechanisms of resistance to DON and NIV mycotoxins. Most differentially expressed genes down-regulated in response to these mycotoxins were commonly involved in phenylalanine metabolism, glyoxylate cycle, and cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase systems. In addition, we generated an overall network of 1028 up-regulated genes to identify core genes under DON and NIV conditions. The results of our study provide a snapshot view of the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 under DON and NIV conditions. Furthermore, the information provided herein will be useful for development of methods to detect DON and NIV. PMID:25456064

  2. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  3. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, L; Font, G; Manyes, L

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the information regarding the in vivo studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade. The most common studies are classified as subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, acute toxicity, toxicokinetic studies and teratogenicity in order of importance. The most used animals in in vivo studies are pigs, rats, chickens and mice. Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, nivalenol and T-2 toxin are the most studied fusarotoxins. Studies with combinations of mycotoxins are also frequent, deoxynivalenol generally being one of them. The predominant route of administration is oral, administered mostly in the form of naturally contaminated feed. Other administration routes also used are intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous. In vivo research on Fusarium mycotoxins has increased since 2010 highlighting the need for such studies in the field of food and feed safety. PMID:25680507

  4. Natural occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and fish from aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Josefa; Font, Guillermina; Mañes, Jordi; Ferrer, Emilia

    2014-12-24

    A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of enniatins (ENs) and beauvericin (BEA) in fish feed and fish tissues by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with linear ion trap (LC-MS/MS-LIT) was developed. Results showed that the developed method is precise and sensitive. The presence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins, ENs and BEA, was determined in samples of aquaculture fish and feed for farmed fish, showing that all feed samples analyzed were contaminated with mycotoxins, with 100% coexistence. In aquacultured fish samples, the highest incidence was found in edible muscle and liver. As for the exposure assessment calculated, it was found that average consumer intake was lower than tolerable daily intake (TDI) values for other Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:25432004

  5. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites. PMID:23606046

  6. An alternative system for mycotoxin detection based on amorphous silicon sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, D.; de Cesare, G.; De Rossi, P.; Fanelli, C.; Nascetti, A.; Ricelli, A.; Scipinotti, R.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we investigate, for the first time, the performances of a system based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon photosensors for the detection of Ochratoxin A. The sensor is a n-type/intrinsic/p-type amorphous silicon stacked structure deposited on a glass substrate. The mycotoxin is deposited on a thin layer chromatographic plate and aligned with the sensor. An ultraviolet radiation excites the ochratoxin A, whose fluorescence produces a photocurrent in the sensor. The photocurrent value is proportional to the deposited mycotoxin quantity. An excellent linearity of the detector response over more than two orders of magnitude of ochratoxin A amount is observed. The minimum detected mycotoxin quantity is equal to 0.1ng, suggesting that the presented detection system could be a good candidate to perform rapid and analytical ochratoxin A analysis in different kind of samples.

  7. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins and their dietary intake through beer consumption by the European population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Fattore, Margherita; Albrizio, Stefania; Berrada, Houda; Mañes, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    Since cereals are raw materials for production of beer and beer-based drinks, the occurrence mycotoxins in 154 beer samples was topic of investigation in this study. The analyses were conducted using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination. The analytical method showed recoveries for vast majority of analytes ranged from 70% to 110%, relative standard deviations lower than 15% and limits of detection from 0.05 to 8 μg/L. A significant incidence of HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were found in 9.1% and 59.7% of total samples, respectively. The exposure of European population to mycotoxins through beer consumption was assessed. No toxicological concern was associated to mycotoxins exposure for average beer consumers. Despite that, for heavy beer drinkers, the contribution of this commodity to the daily intake is not negligible, approaching or even exceeding the safety levels.

  8. Fusarium mycotoxins: effects on reproductive function in domestic animals--a review.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; Spicer, Leon J; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-10-01

    On a global scale, cereal grains and animal feed may be contaminated with trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin, zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisins, the major mycotoxins of Fusarium fungi. Of these mycotoxins, ZEA is unequivocally implicated in reproductive disorders of swine and other domestic animals. Experiments in vivo and in vitro indicate that ZEA and its metabolites exert estrogenic effects resulting in functional and morphological alterations in reproductive organs. Recently, the potential of trichothecenes and fumonisins to cause reproductive disorders in domestic animals has been investigated. The present review summarizes the toxicological data on the effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on ovarian function, testicular function, placenta and fetus, and puberty/sexual maturity of domestic animals. The results of in vivo animal studies and in vitro tests are reported and discussed.

  9. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, L; Font, G; Manyes, L

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the information regarding the in vivo studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade. The most common studies are classified as subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, acute toxicity, toxicokinetic studies and teratogenicity in order of importance. The most used animals in in vivo studies are pigs, rats, chickens and mice. Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, nivalenol and T-2 toxin are the most studied fusarotoxins. Studies with combinations of mycotoxins are also frequent, deoxynivalenol generally being one of them. The predominant route of administration is oral, administered mostly in the form of naturally contaminated feed. Other administration routes also used are intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous. In vivo research on Fusarium mycotoxins has increased since 2010 highlighting the need for such studies in the field of food and feed safety.

  10. Natural occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and fish from aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Josefa; Font, Guillermina; Mañes, Jordi; Ferrer, Emilia

    2014-12-24

    A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of enniatins (ENs) and beauvericin (BEA) in fish feed and fish tissues by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with linear ion trap (LC-MS/MS-LIT) was developed. Results showed that the developed method is precise and sensitive. The presence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins, ENs and BEA, was determined in samples of aquaculture fish and feed for farmed fish, showing that all feed samples analyzed were contaminated with mycotoxins, with 100% coexistence. In aquacultured fish samples, the highest incidence was found in edible muscle and liver. As for the exposure assessment calculated, it was found that average consumer intake was lower than tolerable daily intake (TDI) values for other Fusarium mycotoxins.

  11. Risk analysis of main mycotoxins occurring in food for children: An overview.

    PubMed

    Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Manyes, Lara; Meca, Giuseppe; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi contaminating the food chain that are toxic to animals and humans. Children up to 12 years old are recognized as a potentially vulnerable subgroup with respect to consumption of these contaminants. Apart from having a higher exposure per kg body weight, they have a different physiology from that of adults. Therefore they may be more sensitive to neurotoxic, endocrine and immunological effects. For these reasons, a specific and up-to-date risk analysis for this category is of great interest. In this review, an accurate analysis of the main mycotoxins occurring in food intended for children (deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin and fumonisins) is presented. In particular, known mechanisms of toxicity and levels of exposure and bioaccessibility in children are shown. In addition, recent discoveries about the strategies of mycotoxins managing are discussed.

  12. Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jieyin; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-10-15

    Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms. PMID:22967766

  13. A novel biosensor for the detection of zearalenone family mycotoxins in milk.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Anna-Liisa; Kivistö, Anniina T; Leskinen, Piia I; Karp, Matti T

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a method for detecting estrogenic mycotoxin residues in milk was developed utilizing bioluminescent whole-cell biosensors. Milk products of various compositions were spiked with the estrogenic mycotoxins zearalenone and its metabolites zearalanone, alpha-zearalanol, beta-zearalanol, alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol. The estrogenic response was detected by a whole-cell biosensor based on a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that in the presence of an estrogenic compound produces firefly luciferase-enzyme and further light emission within a system provided with D-luciferin substrate. The results show that the yeast sensor reacts to mycotoxins with typical sigmoidal response at nanomolar concentrations. The response differs in different milk products with regard to the fat content of the milk. Due to short assay time of less than 3h and automation the approach can be used as a bioavailability and activity screening method prior to more detailed chemical analysis.

  14. Production of tremorgenic mycotoxins by isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus from sawmills in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Land, C J; Lundström, H; Werner, S

    1993-11-01

    One hundred and six strains of A. fumigatus were isolated from 21 sawmills in Sweden, and 73 of these strains were examined for production of fumitremorgen B and verruculogen (tremorgenic mycotoxins) on YES-medium using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Twenty-three strains (32%) were tremorgen producers and 50 strains (68%) were non-producers. Tremorgenic mycotoxins were detected in conidia of seven A. fumigatus strains. The amount of toxin varied between 0.6-8.0 microgram/10(8) conidia (mean value 2.3 micrograms/10(8) conidia, equivalent with 0.18%). No production of the mycotoxin gliotoxin was detected in 6 strains of A. fumigatus. No tremorgens were detected during mould growth on wood substrates, in spite of the use of different wood species (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris: Norway spruce, Picea abies and birch, Betula spp.), dried versus non-dried wood, bark (pine), leached wood, and wood after various sterilization methods. PMID:8008045

  15. Simple screening method for molds producing intracellular mycotoxins in pure cultures.

    PubMed

    Filtenborg, O; Frisvad, J C; Svendsen, J A

    1983-02-01

    A simple screening method for molds producing the intracellular mycotoxins brevianamide A, citreoviridin, cyclopiazonic acid, luteoskyrin, penitrem A, roquefortine C, sterigmatocystin, verruculogen, viomellein, and xanthomegnin was developed. After removing an agar plug from the mold culture, the mycelium on the plug is wetted with a drop of methanol-chloroform (1:2). By this treatment the intracellular mycotoxins are extracted within seconds and transferred directly to a thin-layer chromatography plate by immediately placing the plug on the plate while the mycelium is still wet. After removal of the plug, known thin-layer chromatographic procedures are carried out. The substrate (Czapek yeast autolysate agar) and growth conditions (25 degrees C for 7 days) used by Penicillium taxonomists proved suitable for the production of the mycotoxins investigated when 60 known toxigenic isolates and 865 cultures isolated from foods and feedstuffs were tested with this screening method. PMID:6338829

  16. Simple screening method for molds producing intracellular mycotoxins in pure cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Filtenborg, O; Frisvad, J C; Svendsen, J A

    1983-01-01

    A simple screening method for molds producing the intracellular mycotoxins brevianamide A, citreoviridin, cyclopiazonic acid, luteoskyrin, penitrem A, roquefortine C, sterigmatocystin, verruculogen, viomellein, and xanthomegnin was developed. After removing an agar plug from the mold culture, the mycelium on the plug is wetted with a drop of methanol-chloroform (1:2). By this treatment the intracellular mycotoxins are extracted within seconds and transferred directly to a thin-layer chromatography plate by immediately placing the plug on the plate while the mycelium is still wet. After removal of the plug, known thin-layer chromatographic procedures are carried out. The substrate (Czapek yeast autolysate agar) and growth conditions (25 degrees C for 7 days) used by Penicillium taxonomists proved suitable for the production of the mycotoxins investigated when 60 known toxigenic isolates and 865 cultures isolated from foods and feedstuffs were tested with this screening method. PMID:6338829

  17. [Natural contamination with mycotoxins in forage maize and green coffee in Nayarit State (Mexico)].

    PubMed

    Robledo, M de L; Marin, S; Ramos, A J

    2001-09-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in forage maize (zearalenone, fumonisin B1, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol) and green coffee (ochratoxin A) from Nayarit State (Mexico) has been studied. All maize samples analyzed showed fumonisin B1 contamination, with an average concentration of 2,541 microg/kg. Fifteen percent of the samples contained zearalenone, with an average concentration of 1,610 microg/kg. Only one sample showed T-2 toxin contamination (7 microg/kg), and no diacetoxyscirpenol was detected. Sixty-seven per cent of green coffee samples were contaminated with ochratoxin A, with an average concentration of 30.1 microg/kg. This is the first study about mycotoxins developed in Nayarit and it has shown that mycotoxin contamination is a real problem in both foodstuffs studied.

  18. Blood-brain barrier transport kinetics of the cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins beauvericin and enniatins.

    PubMed

    Taevernier, Lien; Bracke, Nathalie; Veryser, Lieselotte; Wynendaele, Evelien; Gevaert, Bert; Peremans, Kathelijne; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-09-01

    The cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins beauvericin and enniatins are capable of reaching the systemic circulation through various routes of exposure and are hence capable of exerting central nervous system (CNS) effects, if they are able to pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which was the main objective of this study. Quantification of the mycotoxins was performed using an in-house developed and validated bio-analytical UHPLC-MS/MS method. Prior to the BBB experiments, the metabolic stability of the mycotoxins was evaluated in vitro in mouse serum and brain homogenate. The BBB permeation kinetics of beauvericin and enniatins were studied using an in vivo mice model, applying multiple time regression for studying the blood-to-brain influx. Additionally, capillary depletion was applied to obtain the fraction of the peptides really entering the brain parenchyma and the fraction loosely adhered to the brain capillary wall. Finally, also the brain-to-blood efflux transport kinetics was studied. Metabolic stability data indicated that the investigated mycotoxins were stable during the duration of the in vivo study. The brain influx study showed that beauvericin and enniatins are able to cross the blood-brain barrier in mice: using the Gjedde-Patlak biphasic model, it was shown that all investigated mycotoxins exert a high initial influx rate into the brain (K1 ranging from 11 to 53μL/(g×min)), rapidly reaching a plateau. After penetration, the mycotoxins reached the brain parenchyma (95%) with only a limited amount residing in the capillaries (5%). Negligible efflux (<0.005min(-1)) from the brain was observed in the 15min post-intracerebroventricular injection. PMID:27349679

  19. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Sensitive Mycotoxin Risk Assessment Model (MYCORAM)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Hester-Mari; Lombard, Martani J.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Danster-Christians, Natasha; Gelderblom, Wentzel C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The differential risk of exposure to fumonisin (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxins to the South African population, residing in the nine Provinces was assessed during a cross-sectional grain consumer survey. The relative per capita maize intake (g/day) was stratified by gender, ethnicity, and Province and the probable daily intake (PDI) for each mycotoxin (ng/kg body weight/day) calculated utilizing SPECIAL and SUPER dry milled maize fractions representing different exposure scenarios. Men consumed on an average more maize (173 g/day) than women (142 g/day) whereas the black African ethnic group had the highest intake (279 g/day) followed by the Colored group (169 g/day) with the Asian/Indian and White groups consuming lower quantities of 101 and 80 g/day, respectively. The estimated mean PDIs for the various subgroups and Provinces, utilizing the different dry milled maize fractions, were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for each mycotoxin. A distinct and more sensitive mycotoxin risk assessment model (MYCORAM) for exposure, stratified by Province and ethnicity were developed utilizing specific maize intake increments (g/kg body weight/day) that provides information on the percentage of the population exposed above the PMTDI for each mycotoxin. Evaluation of the MYCORAM utilizing commercial and experimentally derived SPECIAL milling fractions, containing predefined mycotoxins levels, predicts the percentage of maize consumers exposed above the respective PMTDI. Safety modeling using the MYCORAM could also predict a maximum tolerated level adequate to safeguard all South African maize consumers including the most vulnerable groups. PMID:24980263

  1. Protein translation inhibition by Stachybotrys chartarum conidia with and without the mycotoxin containing polysaccharide matrix.

    PubMed

    Karunasena, Enusha; Cooley, J Danny; Straus, Douglas; Straus, David C

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies have correlated the presence of Stachybotrys chartarum in structures with SBS. S. chartarum produces mycotoxins that are thought to produce some of the symptoms reported in sick-building syndrome (SBS). The conidia (spores) produced by Stachybotrys species are not commonly found in the air of buildings that have been found to contain significant interior growth of this organism. This could be due in part to the large size of the Stachybotrys spores, or the organism growing in hidden areas such as wall cavities. However, individuals in buildings with significant Stachybotrys growth frequently display symptoms that may be attributed to exposure to the organism's mycotoxins. In addition, Stachybotrys colonies produce a "slime" or polysaccharide (carbohydrate) matrix that coats the hyphae and the spores. The intent of this project was to determine whether the carbohydrate matrix and the mycotoxins embedded in it could be removed from the spores by repeated washings with either aqueous or organic solvents. The results demonstrated that the process of spore washing removed compounds that were toxic in a protein translation assay as compared to spores that were washed with an organic solution, however a correlation between carbohydrate removal during the washing process and the removal of mycotoxins from the spore surface was not observed. These data demonstrated that mycotoxins are not likely to be found exclusively in the carbohydrate matrix of the spores. Therefore, mycotoxin removal from the spore surface can occur without significant loss of polysaccharide. We also showed that toxic substances may be removed from the spore surface with an aqueous solution. These results suggest that satratoxins are soluble in aqueous solutions without being bound to water-soluble moieties, such as the carbohydrate slime matrix. PMID:15487326

  2. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  3. Assessment of mycotoxin risk on corn in the Philippines under current and future climate change conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvacion, Arnold R; Pangga, Ireneo B; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the risk of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and fumonisins) contamination on corn in the Philippines under current and projected climate change conditions using fuzzy logic methodology based on the published range of temperature and rainfall conditions that favor mycotoxin development. Based on the analysis, projected climatic change will reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination in the country due to increased rainfall. In the case of fumonisin contamination, most parts of the country are at a very high risk both under current conditions and the projected climate change conditions. PMID:26351797

  4. Influence of Agronomic and Climatic Factors on Fusarium Infestation and Mycotoxin Contamination of Cereals in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Bernhoft, A.; Torp, M.; Clasen, P.-E.; Løes, A.-K.; Kristoffersen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002–2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10–30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly – mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal

  5. Post-harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David

    2007-10-20

    Contamination of cereal commodities by moulds and mycotoxins results in dry matter, quality, and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. Most grain is harvested, dried and then stored on farm or in silos for medium/long term storage. Cereal quality is influenced by a range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors. In the so-called stored grain ecosystem, factors include grain and contaminant mould respiration, insect pests, rodents and the key environmental factors of temperature, water availability and intergranular gas composition, and preservatives which are added to conserve moist grain for animal feed. Thus knowledge of the key critical control points during harvesting, drying and storage stages in the cereal production chain are essential in developing effective prevention strategies post-harvest. Studies show that very small amounts of dry matter loss due to mould activity can be tolerated. With <0.5% dry matter loss visible moulding, mycotoxin contamination and downgrading of lots can occur. The key mycotoxigenic moulds in partially dried grain are Penicillium verrucosum (ochratoxin) in damp cool climates of Northern Europe, and Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxin) and some Fusarium species (fumonisins, trichothecenes) on temperate and tropical cereals. Studies on the ecology of these species has resulted in modelling of germination, growth and mycotoxin minima and prediction of fungal contamination levels which may lead to mycotoxin contamination above the tolerable legislative limits (e.g. for ochratoxin). The effect of modified atmospheres and fumigation with sulphur dioxide and ammonia have been attempted to try and control mould spoilage in storage. Elevated CO2 of >75% are required to ensure that growth of mycotoxigenic moulds does not occur in partially dried grain. Sometimes, preservatives based on aliphatic acids have been used to prevent spoilage and mycotoxin contamination of stored

  6. Rapid screening of wheat bran contaminated by deoxynivalenol mycotoxin using Raman spectroscopy: a preliminary experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; De Girolamo, A.; Lippolis, V.; Pascale, M.

    2016-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently occurring in cereals and derived products, and regulated in many countries. Raman spectroscopy performed using optical fibers, with excitation at 1064 nm and a dispersive detection scheme, was utilized to analyze wheat bran samples naturally contaminated with DON. A multivariate processing of the spectroscopic data allowed to distinguish two classes of contamination, with DON below and above 400 μg/kg, respectively. Only one highly contaminated sample was misclassified. This preliminary result demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a useful analytical tool for the non-destructive and rapid analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  7. Influence of agronomic and climatic factors on Fusarium infestation and mycotoxin contamination of cereals in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bernhoft, A; Torp, M; Clasen, P-E; Løes, A-K; Kristoffersen, A B

    2012-01-01

    A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002-2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10-30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly--mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal farmers have

  8. [Distribution of Mycotoxins and Usnic Acid in the Thalli of Epigenous Lichens].

    PubMed

    Kononenko, G P; Burkin, A A

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of mycotoxins anc unic acid in the thallus of epigenous fruticose lichens Alectoria ochroleuca; several species of the genera Cladonia, Cotraria, and Flavocetraria; foliose lichens Nephroma arcticum; and six species of the genus Peltigera were studied by mnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mycotoxin content was lower in the top or apical parts of the thalli than in the basal parts and in dead areas. Differences in the distribution of usnic acid were insignificant in the majority of species, but in Cladonia stellaris and N. arcticum lichens the content of this metabolite in the upper and pc ripheral areas was higher than in the basal parts.

  9. Assessment of mycotoxin risk on corn in the Philippines under current and future climate change conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvacion, Arnold R; Pangga, Ireneo B; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the risk of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and fumonisins) contamination on corn in the Philippines under current and projected climate change conditions using fuzzy logic methodology based on the published range of temperature and rainfall conditions that favor mycotoxin development. Based on the analysis, projected climatic change will reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination in the country due to increased rainfall. In the case of fumonisin contamination, most parts of the country are at a very high risk both under current conditions and the projected climate change conditions.

  10. New analytical techniques for mycotoxins in complex organic matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Bicking, M.K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Air samples are collected for analysis from the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. The high level of airborne fungi within the processing area is of concern due to the possible presence of toxic mycotoxins, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. An analytical method has been developed to determine the concentration of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the air of the plant which produces Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). After extraction with methanol, some components in the matrix are precipitated by dissolving the samples in 30% acetonitrile/chloroform. An aliquot of this solution is injected onto a Styragel column where the sample components undergo simultaneous size exclusion and reverse phase partitioning. The Styragel column appears to have a useable lifetime of more than six months. After elution from Styragel, the sample is diverted to a second column containing Florisil which has been modified with oxalic acid and deactivated with water. Aflatoxins are eluted with 5% water/acetone. After removal of this solvent, the sample is dissolved in 150 ..mu..L of a spotting solvent and the entire sample applied to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate using a unique sample applicator developed here. The aflatoxins on the TLC plate are analyzed by laser fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 pg is possible for aflatoxin standards using a nitrogen laser as the excitation source. Sample concentrations are determined by comparing with an internal standard, a specially synthesized aflatoxin derivative. In two separate RDF samples, aflatoxin B1 was found at levels of 6.5 and 17.0 ppB. In a separate study, the spore pigment in Aspergillus flavus was isolated. The mass spectrum indicates a molecular weight in excess of 700. Only aliphatic hydrocarbons have been identified in the mass spectrum of products from a permanganate oxidation.

  11. Diversity of Mycotoxin-Producing Black Aspergilli in Canadian Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tianyu F; Renaud, Justin B; McDowell, Tim; Seifert, Keith A; Yeung, Ken K-C; Sumarah, Mark W

    2016-02-24

    Several Aspergillus species produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and/or fumonisins on wine and table grapes. The relevant species and their mycotoxins have been investigated in a number of wine-producing regions around the world; however, similar data have not been reported for Canadian vineyards. A multiyear survey of black Aspergilli in Niagara, ON, vineyards was conducted to determine the diversity of species present and to assess the risk of OTA and fumonisin contamination of wine grapes from this region. From 2012 to 2014, 253 black Aspergilli were isolated from soil samples and the fruits of 10 varieties of grapes. The isolates were identified by DNA sequencing: Aspergillus welwitschiae (43%), Aspergillus uvarum (32%), Aspergillus brasiliensis (11%), Aspergillus tubingensis (9%), and Aspergillus niger (4%). Aspergillus carbonarius, the primary OTA producer on grapes in other parts of the world, was isolated only once, and this is the first report for it in Canada. All 10 A. niger strains produced fumonisins, but, in contrast, only 26% of the 109 A. welwitschiae isolates were producers, and no strains of either species produced OTA. Grape samples were analyzed for OTA and fumonisins from sites where strains with mycotoxigenic potential were isolated. Fumonisin B2 (FB2) was detected in 7 of 22 (32%) of these grape samples in the 1-15 ppb range, but no OTA was detected. Additionally, the recently reported nonaminated fumonisins were detected in 3 of 22 grape samples. These results suggest that fumonisin-producing Aspergilli can occur in Ontario vineyards but, at present, the risk of contamination of grapes appears low. The risk of OTA contamination in Niagara wine is also low because of the low prevalence of A. carbonarius. PMID:26837797

  12. Metabolism of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Veronika; Schwartz, Heidi; Krska, Rudolf; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Ritzmann, Mathias; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz

    2012-09-18

    Deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (D3G), a plant metabolite of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), might be hydrolyzed in the digestive tract of mammals, thus contributing to the total dietary DON exposure of individuals. Yet, D3G has not been considered in regulatory limits set for DON for foodstuffs due to the lack of in vivo data. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether D3G is reactivated in vivo by investigation of its metabolism in rats. Six Sprague-Dawley rats received water, DON (2.0 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) and the equimolar amount of D3G (3.1 mg/kg b.w.) by gavage on day 1, 8 and 15, respectively. Urine and feces were collected for 48 h and analyzed for D3G, DON, deoxynivalenol-glucuronide (DON-GlcA) and de-epoxy deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) by a validated LC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) based biomarker method. After administration of D3G, only 3.7±0.7% of the given dose were found in urine in the form of analyzed analytes, compared to 14.9±5.0% after administration of DON, and only 0.3±0.1% were detected in the form of urinary D3G. The majority of administered D3G was recovered as DON and DOM-1 in feces. These results suggest that D3G is little bioavailable, hydrolyzed to DON during digestion, and partially converted to DOM-1 and DON-GlcA prior to excretion. Our data indicate that D3G is of considerably lower toxicological relevance than DON, at least in rats.

  13. Diversity of Mycotoxin-Producing Black Aspergilli in Canadian Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tianyu F; Renaud, Justin B; McDowell, Tim; Seifert, Keith A; Yeung, Ken K-C; Sumarah, Mark W

    2016-02-24

    Several Aspergillus species produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and/or fumonisins on wine and table grapes. The relevant species and their mycotoxins have been investigated in a number of wine-producing regions around the world; however, similar data have not been reported for Canadian vineyards. A multiyear survey of black Aspergilli in Niagara, ON, vineyards was conducted to determine the diversity of species present and to assess the risk of OTA and fumonisin contamination of wine grapes from this region. From 2012 to 2014, 253 black Aspergilli were isolated from soil samples and the fruits of 10 varieties of grapes. The isolates were identified by DNA sequencing: Aspergillus welwitschiae (43%), Aspergillus uvarum (32%), Aspergillus brasiliensis (11%), Aspergillus tubingensis (9%), and Aspergillus niger (4%). Aspergillus carbonarius, the primary OTA producer on grapes in other parts of the world, was isolated only once, and this is the first report for it in Canada. All 10 A. niger strains produced fumonisins, but, in contrast, only 26% of the 109 A. welwitschiae isolates were producers, and no strains of either species produced OTA. Grape samples were analyzed for OTA and fumonisins from sites where strains with mycotoxigenic potential were isolated. Fumonisin B2 (FB2) was detected in 7 of 22 (32%) of these grape samples in the 1-15 ppb range, but no OTA was detected. Additionally, the recently reported nonaminated fumonisins were detected in 3 of 22 grape samples. These results suggest that fumonisin-producing Aspergilli can occur in Ontario vineyards but, at present, the risk of contamination of grapes appears low. The risk of OTA contamination in Niagara wine is also low because of the low prevalence of A. carbonarius.

  14. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456), exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows. PMID:27447670

  15. Evaluation of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human breast milk using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Josep; León, Nuria; Sáez, Carmen; Martins, Claudia P B; Godula, Michal; Yusà, Vicent; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel; Soler, Carla

    2014-04-11

    Humans can be exposed to mycotoxins through the food chain. Mycotoxins are mainly found as contaminants in food and could be subsequently excreted via biological fluids such as urine or human breast milk in native or metabolised form. Since breast milk is usually supposed as the only food for new-borns, the occurrence of mycotoxins in thirty-five human milk samples was evaluated by a newly developed method based on QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-HRMS detection. The method described here allows the detection of target mycotoxins in order to determine the quality of this initial feeding. The method has been fully validated, with recoveries ranging from 64% to 93% and relative standard deviations (RSD, %) being lower than 20%. Using the method described, non-metabolised mycotoxins such as ZEA, NEO, NIV, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and metabolites, such as ZEA metabolites, HT-2, DOM and T-2 triol were detected in human milk samples. Results obtained help to estimate the exposure of mothers and infants to mycotoxins. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work describing the simultaneous detection, quantification and screening of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human mature milk.

  16. Evaluation of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human breast milk using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Josep; León, Nuria; Sáez, Carmen; Martins, Claudia P B; Godula, Michal; Yusà, Vicent; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel; Soler, Carla

    2014-04-11

    Humans can be exposed to mycotoxins through the food chain. Mycotoxins are mainly found as contaminants in food and could be subsequently excreted via biological fluids such as urine or human breast milk in native or metabolised form. Since breast milk is usually supposed as the only food for new-borns, the occurrence of mycotoxins in thirty-five human milk samples was evaluated by a newly developed method based on QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-HRMS detection. The method described here allows the detection of target mycotoxins in order to determine the quality of this initial feeding. The method has been fully validated, with recoveries ranging from 64% to 93% and relative standard deviations (RSD, %) being lower than 20%. Using the method described, non-metabolised mycotoxins such as ZEA, NEO, NIV, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and metabolites, such as ZEA metabolites, HT-2, DOM and T-2 triol were detected in human milk samples. Results obtained help to estimate the exposure of mothers and infants to mycotoxins. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work describing the simultaneous detection, quantification and screening of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human mature milk. PMID:24745736

  17. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Duringer, Jennifer; Fombonne, Eric; Craig, Morrie

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20%) samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322), gender (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.456), exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.367), or to other medications (Fisher's exact test; p = 1.00). While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers) and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows. PMID:27447670

  18. Relationship between mycoparasites lifestyles and biocontrol behaviors against Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Hwa; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Global food security research is seeking eco-friendly solutions to control mycotoxins in grain infected by fungi (molds). In particular, mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. outbreak is a chronic threat for cereal grain production, human, and animal health. In this review paper, we discuss up-to-date biological control strategies in applying mycoparasites as biological control agents (BCA) to prevent plant diseases in crops and mycotoxins in grain, food, and feed. The aim is to increase food safety and to minimize economic losses due to the reduced grain yield and quality. However, recent papers indicate that the study of the BCA specialists with biotrophic lifestyle lags behind our understanding of the BCA generalists with necrotrophic lifestyle. We examine critical behavioral traits of the two BCA groups of mycoparasites. The goal is to highlight their major characteristics in the context of future research towards an efficient biocontrol strategy against mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. The emphasis is put on biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum, and F. culmorum causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals and their mycotoxins. PMID:27121573

  19. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  20. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  1. Spice oils for the control of co-occurring mycotoxin-producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Juglal, S; Govinden, R; Odhav, B

    2002-04-01

    The effect of nine different oils was evaluated on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme. The experimental design to examine the inhibition of mycotoxins involved the incorporation of each of seven oils into broth and patty cultures. The fungal mycotoxin was identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Clove oil (eugenol) was the most inhibitory to the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, followed by cinnamon (cinnamic aldehyde), oregano (thymol and carvacol) and mace oils (myristin). Neem and eucalyptus oil (cineole) did not affect fungal growth. The feasibility of implementing the results of this study to control mycotoxin toxicity was examined by costoring whole and ground cloves with mycotoxin-infected grain. Addition of both whole and ground cloves markedly reduced the aflatoxin contamination of the grain. These results clearly suggest that commonly occurring mycotoxigenic fungi can be controlled with clove oil (eugenol), thus spice oil successfully inhibited the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, regulated the production of fumonisins. and prevented the formation of aflatoxins. The social implication of this finding is that rural communities can prevent the formation of fungal toxins in contaminated grain by simple measures. PMID:11952220

  2. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for rapid, accurate, and sensitive determination of mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins in foods are commonly based on chromatographic techniques (GC, HPLC or LC-MS). Although these methods permit a sensitive and accurate determination of the analyte, they require skilled personnel and are time-consuming, expensive, and unsuitable ...

  3. Occurrence of mycotoxins in spelt and common wheat grain and their products.

    PubMed

    Mankevičienė, Audronė; Jablonskytė-Raščė, Danutė; Maikštėnienė, Stanislava

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming does not allow the use of conventional mineral fertilizers and crop protection products. As a result, in our experiments we chose to grow different species of cereals and to see how cereal species affect mycotoxin accumulation. This study describes the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and T-2/HT-2 toxin in a survey of spelt and common wheat and their bran as well as flour. The analysis was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The concentrations of DON, ZEA and T-2/HT-2 in Triticum spelta and T. aestivum were influenced by species, cereal type and year interaction. The highest concentrations of these mycotoxins were found in spelt grain with glumes, in spelt glumes and in spring wheat. These results show significantly higher concentrations of Fusarium toxins in glumes than in dehulled grain, which indicates the possible protective effect of spelt wheat glumes. The lowest DON, ZEA and T-2/HT-2 concentrations were determined in spelt grain without glumes. The research shows that it is potentially risky to produce bran from grain in which mycotoxin concentrations are below limits by European Union Regulation No. 1881/2006, since the concentration of mycotoxins in bran can be several times higher than that in grain. As a result, although bran is a dietary product characterised by good digestive properties, it can become a harmful product that can cause unpredictable health damage.

  4. Spectrofluorimetric study of the interaction of the mycotoxin citrinin with gold nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrinin is a nephrotoxic secondary metabolite produced by certain fungal species from the Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus genera. Citrinin producing species occasionally contaminate grains, and may pose food safety risks. Analysis of this mycotoxin is frequently carried out by liquid chromat...

  5. Toward Harmonization of Performance Criteria for Mycotoxin Screening Methods: The EU Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Veronica M T

    2016-07-01

    Screening methods are defined as methods that are used to detect the presence of a substance or class of substances at the level of interest. These methods must have the capability of high sample throughput when being used to screen large numbers of samples for potential noncompliant results. Before using a screening method for practical applications, its fitness for the intended purpose needs to be demonstrated. This is normally achieved by conducting a validation study, comparing method performance against predefined criteria. Official guidelines recently established by the European Union for the evaluation of fitness-for-purpose performance parameters of screening methods to be used for the detection of mycotoxins in foods are presented and discussed herein. Practical applications of this evaluation scheme for single- and interlaboratory validation studies, as well as relevant information on screening method performances are reviewed, with emphasis on the impact of mycotoxin contamination in real samples on the fitness-for-purpose of the screening test. Lastly, validation follow-up is discussed in terms of extension of the scope of the method (increasing the range of application in terms of mycotoxin/matrix combinations), method implementation and verification, and evaluation of the method's applicability to modified mycotoxins. PMID:27455932

  6. Infrared spectroscopy detection of fungal infections and mycotoxins for food safety concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, which are toxins produced by fungi, can pose great danger to human health with their acute and chronic effects when contaminated foods (grains, fruits, meat, or milk) are ingested. Fungal infections in food crops are extremely common and many developed countries have set standards to mon...

  7. Capillary electrophoresis of the mycotoxin zearalenone using cyclodextrin-enhanced fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain of the cyclodextrins are capable of significantly enhancing the native fluorescence of the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN). Twenty-two cyclodextrins (CDs) were screened for their ability to enhance the fluorescence of ZEN in a capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-...

  8. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers. PMID:26687343

  9. Current and changing perspectives on mycotoxins and their potential health risks worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are ubiquitous contaminants of cereals and other commodities. Interventions at the agricultural, commodity processing, or food preparation stages of the “field to plate” sequence have significantly contributed to reducing human exposures. However, establishment of tolerable intakes and re...

  10. A wheat ABC transporter contributes to both grain formation and mycotoxin tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi which acts as a disease virulence factor, aiding fungal pathogenesis of cereals spikelets and spread of the economically important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Previously, a fragment of a wheat ABC transporter gene was shown to be...

  11. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for rapid, accurate and sensitive determination of mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a type of homogeneous assay. For low molecular weight antigens, such as mycotoxins, it is based on the competition between an unlabeled antigen and its fluorescent-labeled derivative (tracer) for an antigen-specific antibody. The antigen content is det...

  12. Mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in poultry feed for food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Franchi, María Luisa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb). Forty-four out of 49 samples (90%) were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb) and OTA (median 5 ppb). Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50 ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb). Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  13. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb). Forty-four out of 49 samples (90%) were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb) and OTA (median 5 ppb). Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50 ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb). Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety. PMID:25126610

  14. Environmental effects on resistance gene expression in milk stage popcorn kernels and associations with mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like other forms of maize, popcorn is subject to increased levels of contamination by a variety of different mycotoxins under stress conditions, although levels generally are less than dent maize under comparable stress. Gene array analysis was used to determine expression differences of disease res...

  15. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as...

  16. Fate of Free and Conjugated Mycotoxins within the Production of Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Dzuman, Zbynek; Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Vaclavikova, Marta; Tomaniova, Monika; Veprikova, Zdenka; Slavikova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-06-22

    Contamination of feed with mycotoxins represents a serious worldwide problem concerning animal health and related economic losses. The present paper provides comprehensive knowledge about the fate of mycotoxins during the production of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The study was carried out using naturally infected maize material in five repetitions. For mycotoxin analysis, a QuEChERS-like ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") isolation approach and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used. A significant increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its glycosylated form, DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc), was observed during the first part of fermentation, when hydrolytic enzymes were added. After yeast addition, the total DON content rapidly decreased. An opposite trend was observed for fumonisin B1 (FB1), in which yeast addition contributed to increase of its content. Further considerable change in mycotoxin content occurred during the drying step, in which approximately two-thirds of the original content was lost. PMID:27244266

  17. Influence of harvesting and drying techniques on microflora and mycotoxin contamination of figs.

    PubMed

    Ozay, G; Aran, N; Pala, M

    1995-01-01

    Mould growth and mycotoxin (aflatoxins and ochratoxin A) formation were examined in the 1993 dried figs crop. The relationships between mould/mycotoxin contamination and orchard conditions, different harvesting techniques, harvesting time and intactness of fruits were investigated. The fruits were examined during drying and effects of different pretreatments, sun drying and solar drying on the mould and mycotoxin contamination in figs were also studied. Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) were not present in the firm or shrivelled ripe figs. Among the samples examined during drying, only one of the 32 samples was found to be aflatoxin positive. Ochratoxin A was not detected in any of the samples analysed. The moisture content, aw and pH values of full ripe and shrivelled fruits were suitable for mould growth and mycotoxin formation while these parameters in pretreated and dried fruits were found to be too low to allow such outcome. It was observed that harvesting the fruit by hand-treating with different solutions and application of solar drying were effective in reducing contamination level. PMID:7783781

  18. Comparative toxicity of mycotoxins to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea).

    PubMed

    Niu, Guodong; Siegel, Joel; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2009-08-01

    Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins and ochratoxins, are widely distributed in nature and are frequently problematic crop contaminants that cause millions of dollars of annual losses in the United States. Insect infestations of crop plants significantly exacerbate mycotoxin contamination. Damage to a variety of nut species by Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm, NOW) is associated with infection by Aspergillus species and concomitant production of aflatoxins and ochratoxins. Resistance to aflatoxins in this lepidopteran is compared here with the levels of resistance in Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm, CEW), another lepidopteran that routinely encounters aflatoxins in its diet, albeit at lower levels. Measured as the developmental delay caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), it is apparent that the LC(50) (defined as the concentration preventing 50% of newly hatched larvae from entering the 2nd instar within 48 h) for AFB1 is 100 times greater for A. transitella than for H. zea. Similarly, A. transitella 1st instars display substantially higher tolerance to ochratoxin A, another mycotoxin contaminant produced by Aspergillus species, than do H. zea. Our studies indicate that A. transitella, although a hostplant generalist, may well be highly specialized for mycotoxin detoxification.

  19. Mycotoxins in the environment: I. Production and emission from an agricultural test field.

    PubMed

    Schenzel, Judith; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are naturally produced by fungi which infest and contaminate agricultural crops and commodities (e.g., small grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, and organic soil material). Although these compounds have extensively been studied in food and feed, only little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, we investigated over nearly two years the occurrence of various mycotoxins in a field cropped with winter wheat of the variety Levis, which was artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp., as well as their emission via drainage water. Mycotoxins were regularly quantified in whole wheat plants (0.1-133 mg/kg(dry weight), for deoxynivalenol), and drainage water samples (0.8 ng/L to 1.14 μg/L, for deoxynivalenol). From the mycotoxins quantified in wheat (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, beauvericin, and zearalenone), only the more hydrophilic ones or those prevailing at high concentrations were detected in drainage water. Of the total amounts produced in wheat plants (min: 2.3; max: 292 g/ha/y), 0.5-354 mg/ha/y, i.e. 0.002-0.12%, were emitted via drainage water. Hence, these compounds add to the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic micropollutants particularly in small rural water bodies, receiving mainly runoff from agricultural areas. PMID:23145781

  20. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxin production by phenolic extract from Spirulina sp.

    PubMed

    Pagnussatt, Fernanda Arnhold; Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros; Garda-Buffon, Jaqueline; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a fungal species complex pathogenic occurring worldwide, mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. The availability of efficient control measures that are less harmful to both the environment and the consumers is urgent. For such, phenolic acids (PAs) from natural sources are known to reduce fungal contaminations. This work aimed to identify the PAs present in a culture extract of Spirulina algae (strain LEB-18) and evaluate its effect on mycelial growth rate, glucosamine level, amylase activity and mycotoxin production by four strains of two lineages of F. graminearum. Results showed that amendment of potato dextrose media with LEB-18 extract (3% w/v), which was mainly composed by gallic acid, greatly reduced radial growth of fungal colonies compared to media containing a single PA and the control. Also, average reductions of 40% and 62% in the glucosamine levels and the amylase activity were observed. In general, the LEB-18 extract and the PAs reduced mycotoxin concentration, with an average reduction of 68% for the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. PMID:24485311

  1. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxin production by phenolic extract from Spirulina sp.

    PubMed

    Pagnussatt, Fernanda Arnhold; Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros; Garda-Buffon, Jaqueline; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a fungal species complex pathogenic occurring worldwide, mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. The availability of efficient control measures that are less harmful to both the environment and the consumers is urgent. For such, phenolic acids (PAs) from natural sources are known to reduce fungal contaminations. This work aimed to identify the PAs present in a culture extract of Spirulina algae (strain LEB-18) and evaluate its effect on mycelial growth rate, glucosamine level, amylase activity and mycotoxin production by four strains of two lineages of F. graminearum. Results showed that amendment of potato dextrose media with LEB-18 extract (3% w/v), which was mainly composed by gallic acid, greatly reduced radial growth of fungal colonies compared to media containing a single PA and the control. Also, average reductions of 40% and 62% in the glucosamine levels and the amylase activity were observed. In general, the LEB-18 extract and the PAs reduced mycotoxin concentration, with an average reduction of 68% for the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol.

  2. Field Incidence of Mycotoxins in Commercial Popcorn and Potential Environmental Influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect ear damage and mycotoxin levels were monitored in several commercial popcorn fields in Central Illinois over a four-year period. Aflatoxin was rare, but fumonisin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were commonly encountered each year and occurred at mean levels in fields up to 1.7 ppm (sample max 2.77...

  3. A lipid transfer protein increases the glutathione content and enhances Arabidopsis resistance to a trichothecene mycotoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite cons...

  4. Modelling mycotoxin formation by Fusarium graminearum in maize in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, E D; Booij, C J H; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2012-01-01

    The predominant species in maize in temperate climates is Fusarium graminearum, which produces the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. Projected climate change is expected to affect Fusarium incidence and thus the occurrence of these mycotoxins. Predictive models may be helpful in determining trends in the levels of these mycotoxins with expected changing climatic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a model describing fungal infection and subsequent growth as well as the formation of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize in The Netherlands. For this purpose, a published Italian model was used as a starting point. This model is a mixed empiric-mechanistic model that describes fungal infection during silking (based on wind speed and rainfall) and subsequent germination, growth and toxin formation (depending on temperature and water availability). Model input uses weather parameters and crop management factors, such as maize hybrid, sowing date, flowering period and harvest date. Model parameter values were obtained by fitting these parameters to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone measurements in Dutch maize, using national mycotoxin data from the years 2002-2007. The results showed that the adapted model is capable of describing the trend in average deoxynivalenol and zearalenone levels over these years. Validation with external data is needed to verify model outcomes. It is expected that the current model can be used to estimate the effect of projected climate change on trends in deoxynivalenol and zearalenone levels in the coming years.

  5. Mycotoxins in the environment: I. Production and emission from an agricultural test field.

    PubMed

    Schenzel, Judith; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are naturally produced by fungi which infest and contaminate agricultural crops and commodities (e.g., small grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, and organic soil material). Although these compounds have extensively been studied in food and feed, only little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, we investigated over nearly two years the occurrence of various mycotoxins in a field cropped with winter wheat of the variety Levis, which was artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp., as well as their emission via drainage water. Mycotoxins were regularly quantified in whole wheat plants (0.1-133 mg/kg(dry weight), for deoxynivalenol), and drainage water samples (0.8 ng/L to 1.14 μg/L, for deoxynivalenol). From the mycotoxins quantified in wheat (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, beauvericin, and zearalenone), only the more hydrophilic ones or those prevailing at high concentrations were detected in drainage water. Of the total amounts produced in wheat plants (min: 2.3; max: 292 g/ha/y), 0.5-354 mg/ha/y, i.e. 0.002-0.12%, were emitted via drainage water. Hence, these compounds add to the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic micropollutants particularly in small rural water bodies, receiving mainly runoff from agricultural areas.

  6. Fumonisin mycotoxin contamination of corn-based foods consumed by potentially pregnant women in Southern California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Fumonisins are Fusarium mold mycotoxins that contaminate corn and corn food products and interfere with animal folic acid metabolism. Consumption of fumonisin-contaminated staple foods is associated with increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). We evaluated a sample of locally availa...

  7. Monitoring and determination of fungi and mycotoxins in stored Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Baquião, Arianne Costa; De Oliveira, Maitê M M; Reis, Tatiana A; Zorzete, Patrícia; Atayde, Danielle D; Corrêa, Benedito

    2013-08-01

    Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is an important commodity from the Brazilian Amazon, and approximately 37,000 tons (3.36 × 10⁷ kg) of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs, with subsequent production of mycotoxins. In this context, the objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the presence of fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) in 110 stored samples of cultivated Brazil nut (55 samples of nuts and 55 samples of shells) collected monthly for 11 months in Itacoatiara, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The samples were inoculated in duplicate onto Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus agar and potato dextrose agar for the detection of fungi, and the presence of mycotoxins was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The most prevalent fungi in nuts and shells were Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. A polyphasic approach was used for identification of Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid were not detected in any of the samples analyzed. The low water activity of the substrate was a determinant factor for the presence of fungi and the absence of aflatoxin in Brazil nut samples. The high frequency of isolation of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains, mainly A. flavus, and their persistence during storage increase the chances of aflatoxin production on these substrates and indicates the need for good management practices to prevent mycotoxin contamination in Brazil nuts.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of individual and combined mycotoxins in the THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Solhaug, A; Karlsøen, L M; Holme, J A; Kristoffersen, A B; Eriksen, G S

    2016-10-01

    Mycotoxins commonly contaminate food and may pose a risk for disease in humans and animals. As they frequently co-occur, mixed exposures often take place. Monocyte function, including differentiation into active macrophages, is a central part of the immune response. Here we studied effects of naturally co-occurring mycotoxins in grain on monocyte function, and effects of individual and combined exposure on the differentiation process from monocytes into macrophages. The THP-1 cell line was used as a model system. The mycotoxins 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (AOD), alternariol (AOH), enniatin B (ENNB), deoxynivalenol (DON), sterigmatocystin (ST) and zearalenone (ZEA) differently affected cell viability in THP-1 monocytes, with DON as the most potent. AOH, ZEA and DON inhibited differentiation from monocytes into macrophages. Using this differentiation model, combined exposure of AOH, ZEA and DON were mainly found to be additive. However, the combination AOH+ZEA had somewhat synergistic effect at lower concentrations. Furthermore, alterations in macrophage functionality were found, as single exposure of AOH and ZEA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced TNF-α secretion, while DON increased this response. Overall, the mycotoxins affected monocyte viability and differentiation into macrophages differently. Combined exposures affected the differentiation process mainly additively. PMID:27453131

  9. Masked mycotoxins: An emerging issue that makes renegotiable what is ordinary.

    PubMed

    Dellafiora, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2016-12-15

    The masked mycotoxins issue is of increasing relevance in the field of food safety. Although under discussion, regulations are still to be set due to the lack of proper toxicological data. In this communication, we discuss the unmet needs to support regulatory bodies in the decision making on this class of compounds. PMID:27451214

  10. Fusarium species from nepalese rice and production of mycotoxins and gibberellic acid by selected species.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, A E; Manandhar, H K; Plattner, R D; Manandhar, G G; Poling, S M; Maragos, C M

    2000-03-01

    Infection of cereal grains with Fusarium species can cause contamination with mycotoxins that affect human and animal health. To determine the potential for mycotoxin contamination, we isolated Fusarium species from samples of rice seeds that were collected in 1997 on farms in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya. The predominant Fusarium species in surface-disinfested seeds with husks were species of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex, including G. fujikuroi mating population A (anamorph, Fusarium verticillioides), G. fujikuroi mating population C (anamorph, Fusarium fujikuroi), and G. fujikuroi mating population D (anamorph, Fusarium proliferatum). The widespread occurrence of mating population D suggests that its role in the complex symptoms of bakanae disease of rice may be significant. Other common species were Gibberella zeae (anamorph, Fusarium graminearum) and Fusarium semitectum, with Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium anguioides, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium equiseti, and Fusarium oxysporum occasionally present. Strains of mating population C produced beauvericin, moniliformin, and gibberellic acid, but little or no fumonisin, whereas strains of mating population D produced beauvericin, fumonisin, and, usually, moniliformin, but no gibberellic acid. Some strains of G. zeae produced the 8-ketotrichothecene nivalenol, whereas others produced deoxynivalenol. Despite the occurrence of fumonisin-producing strains of mating population D, and of 8-ketotrichothecene-producing strains of G. zeae, Nepalese rice showed no detectable contamination with these mycotoxins. Effective traditional practices for grain drying and storage may prevent contamination of Nepalese rice with Fusarium mycotoxins.

  11. Fungal mycoflora and mycotoxins in Korean polished rice destined for humans.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Won; Choi, Sang-Youn; Hwang, Han-Joon; Kim, Young-Bae

    2005-09-15

    Rice samples collected from the Republic of Korea were analyzed for fungal mycoflora and mycotoxins: fumonisins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. The potential of the fungi to produce each mycotoxin was also examined, so that the fungal isolates associated with mycotoxins occurring in rice could be verified. Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus candidus were the most prevalent species infecting the samples, while Fusarium proliferatum was found as the dominant Fusarium species. Ochratoxin A was the most commonly detected mycotoxin analyzed in the present study; moreover, its level in some samples was above the EU tolerable limit (3 ng/g). According to rice culture experiments, it was revealed that in Korea, fumonisins detected in rice were due to F. proliferatum infection, whereas the occurrence of ochratoxin A was caused by Penicillium verrucosum, though there were no symptoms of disease in rice found in any sample. Furthermore, there appears to be an uneven geographical distribution of P. verrucosum as well as ochratoxin A in that most of them are found in the rice samples produced in the northern region of Korea.

  12. Comparative genomics reveals multiple causes of variation in mycotoxin production among Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collectively, species of Fusarium produce a structurally diverse array of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites (SMs), but individual species contribute to only a fraction of this diversity. To elucidate causes of variation in SM production among species, we are examining the distribution and e...

  13. Production of the Tremorgenic Mycotoxins Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin B by Penicillium piscarium Westling.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R T; Latch, G C

    1977-03-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgin B were isolated from Penicillium piscarium Westling. The coexistence of these tremorgens in culture has previously been reported for one other unrelated fungal species, Aspergillus caespitosus Raper and Thom, and lends further support to the suggestion that the tremorgens have a common biosynthetic origin. PMID:16345234

  14. Production of the Tremorgenic Mycotoxins Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin B by Penicillium piscarium Westling

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R. T.; Latch, G. C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgin B were isolated from Penicillium piscarium Westling. The coexistence of these tremorgens in culture has previously been reported for one other unrelated fungal species, Aspergillus caespitosus Raper and Thom, and lends further support to the suggestion that the tremorgens have a common biosynthetic origin. PMID:16345234

  15. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  16. An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Cigić, Irena Kralj; Prosen, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological conditions has led to widespread screening of foods and feeds potentially polluted with them. Maximum permissible levels in different matrices have also been established for some toxins. As these are quite low, analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins have to be both sensitive and specific. In addition, an appropriate sample preparation and pre-concentration method is needed to isolate analytes from rather complicated samples. In this article, an overview of methods for analysis and sample preparation published in the last ten years is given for the most often encountered mycotoxins in different samples, mainly in food. Special emphasis is on liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection, while in the field of sample preparation various solid-phase extraction approaches are discussed. However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given. Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples). Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results. PMID:19333436

  17. Convergent and divergent evolution of the trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agricultural production and food/feed safety worldwide. Previous analyses indicate that during early evolution of the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex (FIESC), the tri...

  18. Current and state-of-the-art approaches for detecting mycotoxins in commodities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tools that have been applied to detection of mycotoxins in commodities are numerous and powerful. These include everything from simple to use diagnostic test strips to complex, instrument intensive, methods such as ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). This wi...

  19. Genotoxicity and inactivation of catechol metabolites of the mycotoxin zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Hildebrand, Andreas A; Müller, Elisabeth; Pfeiffer, Erika; Metzler, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a highly estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. The adverse effects of ZEN and its reductive metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) are often compared to those of 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1). These endogenous steroidal estrogens are associated with an increased risk for cancer, which may be mediated by two mechanisms, i.e. (1) hormonal activity and (2) genotoxic effects after cytochrome P450-catalyzed metabolic activation to catechols. Like E1 and E2, ZEN and α-ZEL exhibit marked estrogenicity and also undergo aromatic hydroxylation to catechol metabolites. The subsequent methylation of catechols by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is generally considered as a detoxifying pathway. Imbalances between the activation and inactivation reactions can lead to the formation of reactive semiquinones and quinones, which can alkylate DNA or produce reactive oxygen species by redox cycling. In the present study, the genotoxicity of the catechol metabolites of ZEN, α-ZEL, E1 and E2 was determined in a cell-free system by measuring 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine using a LC-DAD-MS(2) method. Each of the individual catechols of ZEN, α-ZEL, E1 and E2 induced oxidative DNA damage in calf thymus DNA. The ranking order of the DNA damaging activity was 15-hydroxy-ZEN/α-ZEL ≈ 2/4-hydroxy-E1/E2 > 13-hydroxy-ZEN/α-ZEL. When hepatic microsomes from different species were incubated with ZEN, the rat had the highest activity for catechol formation, followed by human, mouse, pig and steer. The amount of catechol metabolites correlated directly with the amount of oxidative damage in calf thymus DNA. The ranking order for the rate of methylation by human hepatic COMT was 2-hydroxy-E1/E2 > 4-hydroxy-E1/E2 > 13/15-hydroxy-ZEN/α-ZEL. Thus, the catechol metabolites of the mycoestrogen ZEN and its reductive metabolite α-ZEL exhibit a DNA-damaging potential comparable to that of the catechol metabolites of E1 and E2, but are much poorer substrates for

  20. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4-86, 196-1326 and 36-374 µg·kg(-1) range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some "emerging mycotoxins" (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of samples

  1. Human biomonitoring of multiple mycotoxins in the Belgian population: Results of the BIOMYCO study.

    PubMed

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are important food contaminants responsible for health effects such as cancer, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or immunosuppression. The assessment of mycotoxin exposure is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, the direct measurement of biomarkers of exposure in biological fluids has been proposed as a suitable alternative to perform an accurate mycotoxin exposure assessment at individual level. For this reason, the BIOMYCO study was designed to assess mycotoxin exposure in Belgian adults and children using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Morning urine was gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a standardised study protocol, whereby 155 children (3-12 years old) and 239 adults (19-65 years old) were selected based on random cluster sampling. These urine samples were analysed for the presence of 33 potential biomarkers with focus on aflatoxins, citrinin (CIT), fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone and their metabolites using two validated LC-MS/MS methods. Nine out of the 33 analysed mycotoxins were detected whereby deoxynivalenol (DON), OTA, CIT and their metabolites were the most frequently detected. Deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide was the main urinary DON biomarker and was found in all urine samples in the ng/mL range. Furthermore deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide was quantified in 91% of the urine samples collected from children and in 77% of the samples collected from adults. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 70% and 37% of the samples of children and adults respectively. For the first time deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-glucuronide was detected in children's urine (17%). In the samples collected by adults, the prevalence was 22%. Whereas all these mycotoxins contaminated the urine samples in the ng/mL range, CIT and OTA were present in much lower concentrations (pg/mL). OTA contaminated 51

  2. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize imported into the UK, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, K A; Patel, S

    2009-03-01

    This study examined a total of 82 consignments of French and Argentinean raw maize as received at maize mills in the UK between 2004 and 2007. Samples were analysed for deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), other trichothecenes, zearalenone (ZON), and fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3) (FB(1), FB(2), and FB(3)) using fully validated analytical methods with limits of quantification of 10 microg kg(-1) for DON, NIV, and each fumonisin mycotoxin and 3 microg kg(-1) for ZON. All samples except two containing fumonisins met the European Commission statutory maximum permissible levels for DON, ZON, and FB(1) + FB(2) as operating in 2007. The maximum concentrations found for DON, NIV, ZON, and FB(1) + FB(2) were 444, 496, 165 and 5002 microg kg(-1), respectively. Fumonisins were detected in almost every sample with 65% of Argentinean maize containing more than 1000 microg kg(-1) of FB(1) + FB(2). In contrast, ZON was not detectable in almost 50% of consignments. During this period there was a distinct difference in mycotoxin concentrations between harvests and geographic origin. Flint maize from Argentina usually contained lower concentrations of DON and related trichothecenes and higher levels of fumonisins than maize from France, although concentrations of fumonisins up to 2000 microg kg(-1) or greater occurred in samples from both regions. The incidence and concentrations of fumonisins were similar to those in a similar previous survey, while zearalenone concentrations were lower. The distribution of mycotoxins in multi-hold ships was also investigated showing that fumonisins were much more evenly distributed than DON, thus indicating their general level in the ship as a whole. The effect of cleaning regimes was found to be very variable, especially for DON, ranging from no removal of mycotoxins to greater than 50% in some instances, but was not related to concentration. Evidence here suggests that while cleaning is essential for removing foreign bodies before milling

  3. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (< 1%) of liver cancer cases when compared with 1222 liver cancer cases per year in Hong Kong. The percentage contributions of the estimated 95th percentile dietary exposures (lower and upper bound) to the health-based guidance values of individual mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population. PMID:27144988

  4. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in Iowa streams: An examination of underinvestigated compounds in agricultural basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Hoerger, Corinne C.; Meyer, Michael T.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides the first broad-scale investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in streams in the United States. Fifteen stream sites across Iowa were sampled five times throughout the 2008 growing season to capture a range of climatic and crop-growth conditions. Basin size upstream from sampling sites ranged from 7 km2 to >836,000 km2 Atrazine (herbicide) also was measured in all samples as a frame-of-reference agriculturally derived contaminant. Target compounds were frequently detected in stream samples: atrazine (100%), formononetin (80%), equol (45%), deoxynivalenol (43%), daidzein (32%), biochanin A (23%), zearalenone (13%), and genistein (11%). The nearly ubiquitous detection of formononetin (isoflavone) suggests a widespread agricultural source, as one would expect with the intense row crop and livestock production present across Iowa. Conversely, the less spatially widespread detections of deoxynivalenol (mycotoxin) suggest a more variable source due to the required combination of proper host and proper temperature and moisture conditions necessary to promote Fusarium spp. infections. Although atrazine concentrations commonly exceeded 100 ng L-1 (42/75 measurements), only deoxynivalenol (6/56 measurements) had concentrations that occasionally exceeded this level. Temporal patterns in concentrations varied substantially between atrazine, formononetin, and deoxynivalenol, as one would expect for contaminants with different source inputs and processes of formation and degradation. The greatest phytoestrogen and mycotoxin concentrations were observed during spring snowmelt conditions. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins were detected at all sampling sites regardless of basin size. The ecotoxicological effects from long-term, low-level exposures to phytoestrogens and mycotoxins or complex chemicals mixtures including these compounds that commonly take place in surface water are poorly understood and have yet to be

  5. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in Iowa streams: An examination of underinvestigated compounds in agricultural basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Hoerger, C.C.; Meyer, M.T.; Wettstein, F.E.; Hubbard, L.E.; Bucheli, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides the first broad-scale investigation on the spatial and temporal occurrence of phytoestrogens and mycotoxins in streams in the United States. Fifteen stream sites across Iowa were sampled five times throughout the 2008 growing season to capture a range of climatic and crop-growth conditions. Basin size upstream from sampling sites ranged from 7 km2 to >836,000 km2. Atrazine (herbicide) also was measured in all samples as a frame-ofreference agriculturally derived contaminant. Target compounds were frequently detected in stream samples: atrazine (100%), formononetin (80%), equol (45%), deoxynivalenol (43%), daidzein (32%), biochanin A (23%), zearalenone (13%), and genistein (11%). Th e nearly ubiquitous detection of formononetin (isoflavone) suggests a widespread agricultural source, as one would expect with the intense row crop and livestock production present across Iowa. Conversely, the less spatially widespread detections of deoxynivalenol (mycotoxin) suggest a more variable source due to the required combination of proper host and proper temperature and moisture conditions necessary to promote Fusarium spp. infections. Although atrazine concentrations commonly exceeded 100 ng L-1 (42/75 measurements), only deoxynivalenol (6/56 measurements) had concentrations that occasionally exceeded this level. Temporal patterns in concentrations varied substantially between atrazine, formononetin, and deoxynivalenol, as one would expect for contaminants with different source inputs and processes of formation and degradation. The greatest phytoestrogen and mycotoxin concentrations were observed during spring snowmelt conditions. Phytoestrogens and mycotoxins were detected at all sampling sites regardless of basin size. The ecotoxicological effects from long-term, low-level exposures to phytoestrogens and mycotoxins or complex chemicals mixtures including these compounds that commonly take place in surface water are poorly understood and have yet to be

  6. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section.

  7. LC-MS/MS-based multibiomarker approaches for the assessment of human exposure to mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that frequently contaminate food and feed worldwide, and hence represent a major hazard for food and feed safety. To estimate human exposure arising from contaminated food, so-called biomarker approaches have been developed as a complementary biomonitoring tool besides traditional food analysis. The first methods based on radioimmunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as well as on liquid chromatography were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s for the carcinogenic aflatoxins and in the last two decades further tailor-made methods for some major mycotoxins have been published. Since 2010, there has been a clear trend towards the development and application of multianalyte methods based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for assessment of mycotoxin exposure made possible by the increased sensitivity and selectivity of modern mass spectrometry instrumentation and sophisticated sample cleanup approaches. With use of these advanced methods, traces of mycotoxins and relevant breakdown and conjugation products can be quantified simultaneously in human urine as so-called biomarkers and can be used to precisely describe the real exposure, toxicokinetics, and bioavailability of the toxins present. In this article, a short overview and comparison of published multibiomarker methods focusing on the determination of mycotoxins and relevant excretion products in human urine is presented. Special attention is paid to the main challenges when analyzing these toxic food contaminants in urine, i.e., very low analyte concentrations, appropriate sample preparation, matrix effects, and a lack of authentic, NMR-confirmed calibrants and reference materials. Finally, the progress in human exposure assessment studies facilitated by these analytical methods is described and an outlook on probable developments and possibilities is presented.

  8. UFLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of multiple mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiaoyang; Kong, Weijun; Liu, Qiutao; Hu, Yichen; Yang, Meihua

    2016-05-01

    A robust, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS/MS) was optimized and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of eleven mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu, based on one-step extraction without any further clean-up. Separation and quantification were performed in both positive and negative modes under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a single run with zearalanone (ZAN) as internal standard. The chromatographic conditions and MS/MS parameters were carefully optimized. Matrix-matched calibration was recommended to reduce matrix effects and improve accuracy, showing good linearity within wide concentration ranges. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were lower than 50 μg kg(-1), while limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.1-20 μg kg(-1). The accuracy of the developed method was validated for recoveries, ranging from 85% to 115% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤14.87% at low level, from 75% to 119% with RSD ≤ 14.43% at medium level and from 61% to 120% with RSD ≤ 13.18% at high level, respectively. Finally, the developed multi-mycotoxin method was applied for screening of these mycotoxins in 24 commercial samples. Only aflatoxin B2 and zearalenone were found in 2 samples. This is the first report on the application of UFLC-ESI(+/-)-MS/MS for multi-class mycotoxins in A. catechu. The developed method with many advantages of simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity is a proposed candidate for large-scale detection and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in other complex matrixes.

  9. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section. PMID:25266165

  10. Determination of Penicillium mycotoxins in foods and feeds using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rundberget, Thomas; Wilkins, Alistair L

    2002-07-26

    New LC-MS (full scan) and LC-MS-MS (selected ion reaction monitoring) methods for the simultaneous determination of mycophenolic acid, griseofulvin, roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin B, verruculogen and penitrem A, and other Penicillium derived mycotoxins in food and feed samples are described. The methodologies involve sample extraction with acetonitrile-water, defatting with hexane and quantification using LC-MS with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation or LC-MS-MS. Detector responses, for each of the methods and mycotoxins, were found to be linear over the range 10-1000 ng of mycotoxin/g of extracted food mixture material. The mean recoveries (n = 3 to 6) of the mycotoxins from spiked food mixture samples determined using MS and MS-MS detection were 87-116 and 91-112%, respectively, for mycophenolic acid, 104-109 and 91-112%, respectively, for griseofulvin, 70-85 and 75-110%, respectively, for roquefortine C, 94-109 and 81-116%, respectively, for chaetoglobosin B, 110-115 and 90-106%, respectively, for verruculogen and 78-97 and 99-108%, respectively, for penitrem A. RSDs varied from 5.6% at the 1000 ng/g level to 23.1% at the 10 ng/g level. The limits of detection for the mycotoxins using MS and MS-MS were 70 and 10 ng/g, respectively, for mycophenolic acid, 10 and 5 ng/g, respectivley, for griseofulvin, 50 and 20 ng/g, respectively, for roquefortine C, 25 and 20 ng/g, respectively, for chaetoglobosin B, 25 and 20 ng/g, respectively, for verruculogen and 10 and 5 ng/g, respectively, for penitrem A. PMID:12198847

  11. Occurrence of mycotoxins in refrigerated pizza dough and risk assessment of exposure for the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan Manuel; Saladino, Federica; Mañes, Jordi; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Meca, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The first objective of this research was to study the presence of mycotoxins in 60 samples of refrigerated pizza dough, by extraction with methanol and determination by liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of these mycotoxins, among the Spanish population, was calculated and the health risk assessment was performed, comparing the EDIs data with the tolerable daily intake values (TDIs). The mycotoxins detected in the analyzed samples were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin (ENB), enniatin B1 (ENB1) and BEA (beauvericin) with average concentration of the positive samples of 4.09 μg/kg, 0.50 μg/kg, 0.79 μg/kg, 77.78 μg/kg, 14.96 μg/kg, 4.54 μg/kg, 3.37 μg/kg, 1.69 μg/kg and 22.39 μg/kg, respectively. The presence of ZEA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1 was detected in 100% of the samples, AFB2 in 32%, AFB1 in 23%, ENA in 8% and BEA in 3%. Twelve percent of the samples contaminated with AFB1 and 12% of the doughs contaminated with ZEA exceeded the EU legislated maximum limits. The dietary intakes were estimated considering three different age groups of population, and the EDIs calculated for the mycotoxins detected in the samples were all below the established TDI.

  12. Perspective on Advancing FDA Regulatory Monitoring for Mycotoxins in Foods using Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (Review).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Trucksess, Mary W

    2016-07-01

    The presence of mycotoxins (such as aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and patulin) is routinely monitored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure that their concentrations in food are below the levels requiring regulatory action or advisories. To improve the efficiency of mycotoxin analysis, the researchers at the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition have been evaluating modern LC-MS technologies. Consequently, a variety of LC-tandem MS and LC-high-resolution MS methods have been developed, which simultaneously identify and quantitate multiple mycotoxins in foods and feeds. Although matrix effects (matrix-induced ion suppression or enhancement) associated with LC-MS-based mycotoxin analysis remain, this review discusses methods for managing these effects and proposes practical solutions for the future implementation of LC-MS-based multimycotoxin analysis. PMID:27330044

  13. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  14. Determination of moulds and mycotoxins in dry dog and cat food using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Błajet-Kosicka, A; Kosicki, R; Twarużek, M; Grajewski, J

    2014-01-01

    In this study moulds and 12 mycotoxins in dry pet food samples (25 for dogs and 24 for cats) were determined. Primary moulds identified were Aspergillus, Mucor and Penicillium, found in 55% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone (ZEN) were detected in all samples with mean respective concentrations being 97.3 and 38.3 µg kg(-1) in cat food and 114 and 20.1 µg kg(-1) in dog food. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were present in 88% and 84% of the samples, respectively. Two samples contained fumonisins, with a maximum concentration of 108 µg kg(-1). Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 8% and 45% of the samples, respectively. The measured mould and mycotoxin levels were consistent with results obtained by other studies. However, potential exposure to relatively high concentrations of an oestrogen mycotoxin as is ZEN, especially when in combination with other mycotoxins, needs attention.

  15. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species. PMID:25754010

  16. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species.

  17. Preliminary study to assess mycotoxin concentrations in whole corn in the California feed supply.

    PubMed

    Krout-Greenberg, N D; Puschner, B; Davidson, M G; Depeters, E J

    2013-04-01

    Mycotoxins are naturally occurring environmental contaminants recognized worldwide in a variety of food and feed products. Produced as secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi, mycotoxins can have acute and chronic effects. Differing seasonal weather patterns and harvesting and storage conditions put corn grain at high risk for mycotoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure posed to California livestock from whole corn. Random samples (n=50) of whole corn were collected and analyzed for 6 different mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin), and zearalenone. The samples represented a cross section of the corn entering California from various corn-growing states (n=43) as well as additional samples from California-grown corn (n=7). The experiment was a randomized sampling design. Over the course of a 6-mo period, 16 trains in California (100-110 railcars) and 5 California grain elevators were randomly sampled. Aflatoxins were detected in 14 samples, with 1 sample containing a concentration of 41.3 μg/kg (as-is basis), which was above the action level of 20 μg/kg for corn fed to dairy cattle. The average concentration of aflatoxins for the 13 samples below the regulatory action level was 8.69 μg/kg (range 4.67 to 13.82 μg/kg). Deoxynivalenol was found in 15 samples and averaged 553 μg/kg (range 340 to 1,072 μg/kg), which was below the federal advisory level of 5,000 μg/kg for grain fed to dairy cattle. Fumonisins were found in 38 samples and averaged 1,687 μg/kg (range 435 to 4,843 μg/kg), which was below the federal guidance level of 30,000 μg/kg in corn for dairy cattle. Ochratoxins, T-2 toxins, and zearalenone were not detected in any samples of whole corn. Fumonisins were the most prevalent mycotoxins found.

  18. 6-Plex microsphere immunoassay with imaging planar array detection for mycotoxins in barley.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeroen; Cardall, Alice; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2014-08-21

    Mycotoxins are produced by fungi as secondary metabolites. They often multi-contaminate food and feed commodities posing a health risk to humans and animals. A fast and easy to apply multiplex screening of these commodities could be useful to detect multi-contamination. For this, we developed a semi-quantitative 6-plex immunoassay using a suspension array of paramagnetic colour-coded microspheres combined with imaging planar array detection for the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T2-toxin, HT-2 toxin and fumonisin B1. Mycotoxin specific monoclonal antibodies were coupled to different sets of microspheres and mycotoxins conjugated to the fluorescent protein R-phycoerythrin served as reporter molecules. Competition between free mycotoxins in the sample and mixed reporter molecules for antibody binding sites on mixed microspheres created a multiplex direct inhibition immunoassay. The reagents were selected for no or low cross-interactions between the assays and cross-reactions with metabolites and possible masked forms were determined. A within-laboratory validation was carried out using blank and spiked barley samples. Furthermore, the 6-plex was used to screen available barley, and malted barley, reference materials. The validation showed very high inter and intra-day precision for all samples with a maximum relative standard deviation value of 10%. The screening assay allows easy and rapid multiplex detection of the target mycotoxins in barley according to EU legislation. With a cut off factor of 50%, based on the EU maximum levels, we were able to screen at 2 μg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B1, 2.5 μg kg(-1) for ochratoxin A, 625 μg kg(-1) for deoxynivalenol, 50 μg kg(-1) for zearalenone, 1000 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1 and 25 μg kg(-1) for T-2 toxin. Thanks to the transportable planar array system, the developed 6-plex has potential for future on-site testing. Future implementation of this method as a pre-screening tool, prior to

  19. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of

  20. Effectiveness of hand sorting, flotation/washing, dehulling and combinations thereof on the decontamination of mycotoxin-contaminated white maize.

    PubMed

    Matumba, Limbikani; Van Poucke, Christof; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Jacobs, Bart; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the major staple foods of Sub-Saharan Africa and is consumed as whole or dehulled grain. In this region, where the environmental conditions favour fungal growth and mycotoxin production, the majority of the population are subsistence consumers who, unfortunately, have little or no access to mycotoxin testing of their food. In an attempt to develop feasible reduction strategies in dietary mycotoxin exposure of the population, a three-factorial design experiment was conducted to examine and compare the efficacy of hand sorting, flotation, dehulling and combinations thereof in removing naturally occurring aflatoxins, fumonisins, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and alternariol in shelled white maize. Regression analysis was used to determine the significant (p < 0.05) process variables on the removal of mycotoxins from the maize. Results from this experiment indicated that hand sorting had the greatest effect on mycotoxin removal, while flotation yielded the least effect. In particular hand sorting left < 6% of aflatoxin B1 and < 5% of fumonisin B1. Based on these results, hand sorting of maize grains is being recommended as a last line of defence against mycotoxin exposure among subsistence consumers.

  1. Application of single immunoaffinity clean-up for simultaneous determination of regulated mycotoxins in cereals and nuts.

    PubMed

    Vaclavikova, Marta; MacMahon, Shaun; Zhang, Kai; Begley, Timothy H

    2013-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive analytical strategy for the simultaneous determination of twelve mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, zearalenon, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2 toxins) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The method was validated for peanuts, barley and maize-breakfast cereals; selected as they represent the matrices most often contaminated by mycotoxins. The method is designed for fast and reliable analyses of mycotoxins in regulatory, industrial and private laboratories. Multi-target immunoaffinity columns containing antibodies for all mycotoxins studied herein were used for sample clean-up. Method optimization was predominantly focused on the simplification of extraction and clean-up procedure recommended by column producers. This newly developed and simplified procedure decreased both the sample preparation time and the solvent volumes used for their processing. The analysis of all regulated mycotoxins was conducted by a newly developed UHPLC-MS/MS method with a sample run time of only ten minutes. The method trueness was tested with analytical spikes and certified reference materials, with recoveries ranging from 71% to 112% for all of the examined mycotoxins.

  2. Penetration of ( sup 3 H)T-2 mycotoxin through abraded and intact skin and methods to decontaminate ( sup 3 H)T-2 mycotoxin from abrasions

    SciTech Connect

    Solberg, V.B.; Broski, F.H.; Dinterman, R.E.; George, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    T-2 mycotoxin is a toxic metabolite of various fungi of the Fusarium species. T-2 is found naturally in moldy grain and concentrations as high as 2 ppm have been found in moldy corn. T-2 purportedly has been used as a biological warfare agent in Southeast Asia and Iran, causing human deaths and has been implicated in dermal diseases in grain handling workers. Radiolabeled T-2 has been shown to penetrate excised animal and human skin in liquid vehicles and while adsorbed onto corn dust. In experimental animals studies, (3H)T-2 penetration through skin caused symptoms ranging from erythema and skin lesions to death.

  3. Comparative studies on the detection of mycotoxins in barley using enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Geßler, R

    1997-03-01

    Barley samples (n = 128) from Central Canada (Manitoba) of the 1993 and 1994 crop years were analysed using enzyme immunoassays for the detection of the mycotoxins deoxy-nivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and zearalenone. For this study enzyme immunoassays, which were developed at the Lehrstuhl für Hygiene und Technologie der Milch as well as a commercial testkit (Ridascreen® DON, specific for deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives) were used. In addition, some samples were analysed by using a combination of HPLC and enzyme immunoassay (immunochromatography). Results obtained by the enzyme immunoassays for these samples were compared with other analytical data on mycotoxin contamination (analysed by GC/MS) and with the mycological conditions, respectively.

  4. Mechanisms of mycotoxin-induced neurotoxicity through oxidative stress-associated pathways.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kunio; Uetsuka, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Among many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, macrocyclic trichothecenes, fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and ochratochin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce neurotoxicity in rodent models. T-2 toxin induces neuronal cell apoptosis in the fetal and adult brain. Macrocyclic trichothecenes bring about neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammation in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. FB(1) induces neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex, concurrent with disruption of de novo ceramide synthesis. OTA causes acute depletion of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, accompanying evidence of neuronal cell apoptosis in the substantia nigra, striatum and hippocampus. This paper reviews the mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-associated pathways. PMID:21954354

  5. Mycotoxin Detection Plays “Cops and Robbers”: Cyclodextrin Chemosensors as Specialized Police?

    PubMed Central

    Cozzini, Pietro; Ingletto, Gianluigi; Singh, Ratna; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2008-01-01

    As in a cops and robbers play we discover new mycotoxins and metabolites everyday and we are forced to develop new molecules quickly as chemo- or biosensors or to modify existing molecules able to recognize these new hazardous compounds. This will result in an enormous cost saving to agro-food industry through the prevention and reduction of product recalls and reduced treatment costs. Here we present a brief review of the rapid methods used to detect mycotoxins, considering usefulness and limits. Then we propose a new fast, efficient and cheap methodology, based on a combination of computer chemistry aided design and fluorescence, that can help to drive synthesis in a more efficient way. PMID:19330087

  6. Fungicides effectively used for growth inhibition of several fungi could induce mycotoxin biosynthesis in toxigenic species.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Geisen, R

    2013-09-16

    Seven different commercial fungicides (Aliette, Rovral, Cantus, Ortiva, Luna Experience, Fenomenal and Mancozeb) were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of the fungal species Penicillium nordicum, Penicillium verrucosum, Verticillium dahliae and Cladosporium sp. In case of the mycotoxigenic strains P. nordicum and P. verrucosum, the biosynthesis of the mycotoxins ochratoxin and citrinin was determined. Interestingly individual fungicides were only able to inhibit the growth of the analyzed fungi to some extent. In case of P. verrucosum the fungicide "Rovral", an iprodion belonging to the substance class of imidazoles, led to a decrease in the growth rate but to a strong induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis as has been described earlier for the strobilurins. Consequently before using a given fungicide to protect crops and enhance storage life, the applicability of this chemical compound should be tested not only for its ability to inhibit fungal growth but also for its effect on level of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:24036489

  7. Fungicides effectively used for growth inhibition of several fungi could induce mycotoxin biosynthesis in toxigenic species.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Geisen, R

    2013-09-16

    Seven different commercial fungicides (Aliette, Rovral, Cantus, Ortiva, Luna Experience, Fenomenal and Mancozeb) were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of the fungal species Penicillium nordicum, Penicillium verrucosum, Verticillium dahliae and Cladosporium sp. In case of the mycotoxigenic strains P. nordicum and P. verrucosum, the biosynthesis of the mycotoxins ochratoxin and citrinin was determined. Interestingly individual fungicides were only able to inhibit the growth of the analyzed fungi to some extent. In case of P. verrucosum the fungicide "Rovral", an iprodion belonging to the substance class of imidazoles, led to a decrease in the growth rate but to a strong induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis as has been described earlier for the strobilurins. Consequently before using a given fungicide to protect crops and enhance storage life, the applicability of this chemical compound should be tested not only for its ability to inhibit fungal growth but also for its effect on level of secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

  8. Identification and quantification of fungi and mycotoxins from Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Haas, Doris; Pfeifer, Bettina; Reiterich, Christoph; Partenheimer, Regina; Reck, Bernhard; Buzina, Walter

    2013-09-01

    Pu-erh tea originates from the province of Yunnan in south-western China. As this tea is produced by so called Aspergillus post-fermentation the question arises which molds and mycotoxins may be found in this tea. In total 36 samples of Pu-erh tea were investigated for their content of filamentous fungi and the mycotoxins aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, and ochratoxin A. Fungi were isolated from all samples in a concentration of 1.0×10(1) to 2.6×10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/g tea, all together 19 fungal genera and 31 species were identified. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus acidus and Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Zygomycetes and Penicillium species. Aflatoxins and fumonisins were not found in the samples investigated, ochratoxin A was detected in 4 of 36 teas (11.1%).

  9. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-Induced Neurotoxicity through Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kunio; Uetsuka, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Among many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, macrocyclic trichothecenes, fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratochin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce neurotoxicity in rodent models. T-2 toxin induces neuronal cell apoptosis in the fetal and adult brain. Macrocyclic trichothecenes bring about neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammation in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. FB1 induces neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex, concurrent with disruption of de novo ceramide synthesis. OTA causes acute depletion of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, accompanying evidence of neuronal cell apoptosis in the substantia nigra, striatum and hippocampus. This paper reviews the mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-associated pathways. PMID:21954354

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  11. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  12. The mycoflora and some mycotoxins found in acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbodi, T A; Nwude, N; Aliu, Y O; Ikediobi, C O

    1986-04-01

    Mouldy acha (Digitaria exilis) samples were collected at three different periods of the year from some local government areas of Plateau State and were screened for their mycoflora and for seven mycotoxins. Phoma sorghina was the most common contaminant during the cold dry harmattan period (November-February) and during the humid and wet period (June-October). This was followed by Fusarium moniliforme and then by Aspergillus spp. During the hot and dry period (March-May), Aspergillus spp. were the most prevalent fungi, followed by Fusarium spp. and Phoma sorghina in that order. Zearalenone was the most prevalent mycotoxin in mouldy acha samples collected during the cold and dry period, while aflatoxins were the most prevalent in samples collected during the hot and dry period. Zearalenone was only detected in one of the samples collected during the hot, humid and wet period.

  13. In vitro metabolism of t-2 mycotoxin 1,2. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.L.; Pace, J.G.; O'Brien, J.C.

    1986-11-10

    In vitro metabolism of T-2 mycotoxin (T-2) was studied in Vero cells, rat spleen lymphocytes, chicken embryo heart cells, rat small intestinal segments, and rat liver hepatocytes. The method used was thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of (3H)T-2 and its metabolic products, followed by radioactive scanning of the plates. Vero cells, lymphocytes, and heart cells metabolized 5 to 35% of the T-2 to HT-2 mycotoxin (HT-2) after 24-hr exposure. No other metabolites were detected with these three cell systems. Rat intestinal segments, everted onto pipets, converted T-2 into three metabolites migrating in the range between T-2 tetraol and HT-2 on the TLC plates. Hepatocytes metabolized T-2 most rapidly, as indicated by complete disappearance of the parent compound within 4 hr. In addition to the T-2 peak, four predominant peaks appeared on the plates, one of them, increasing with time at the origin, was predominantly composed of glucuronide conjugates.

  14. Ecological Networks in Stored Grain: Key Postharvest Nodes for Emerging Pests, Pathogens, and Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Nopsa, John F.; Daglish, Gregory J.; Hagstrum, David W.; Leslie, John F.; Phillips, Thomas W.; Scoglio, Caterina; Thomas-Sharma, Sara; Walter, Gimme H.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is at peak quality soon after harvest. Subsequently, diverse biota use wheat as a resource in storage, including insects and mycotoxin-producing fungi. Transportation networks for stored grain are crucial to food security and provide a model system for an analysis of the population structure, evolution, and dispersal of biota in networks. We evaluated the structure of rail networks for grain transport in the United States and Eastern Australia to identify the shortest paths for the anthropogenic dispersal of pests and mycotoxins, as well as the major sources, sinks, and bridges for movement. We found important differences in the risk profile in these two countries and identified priority control points for sampling, detection, and management. An understanding of these key locations and roles within the network is a new type of basic research result in postharvest science and will provide insights for the integrated pest management of high-risk subpopulations, such as pesticide-resistant insect pests. PMID:26955074

  15. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M.E.; Silva, J.; González, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances. PMID:24031582

  16. Effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on levels of serotonin, melatonin, and 5-hydroxytryptophan in pineal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rimando, A M; Porter, J K

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of melatonin (MEL) in pineal cell cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed its concentration was increased by fusaric acid (FA), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species and associated with toxic duck and ostrich feeds. Subsequent cell culture studies demonstrated the precursors of MEL, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) and serotonin (5HT), were also affected by FA as well as other Fusarium mycotoxins. Herein we describe a technique for the analysis of 5HTP and 5HT in pineal cell cultures using HPLC with electrochemical detection (EC), and report on the effects of FA alone and in combination with fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) on the levels of these MEL precursors.

  17. Mycotoxins of Aspergillus fumigatus in pure culture and in native bioaerosols from compost facilities.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Müller, T; Ostrowski, R; Dott, W

    1999-04-01

    Exposure to secondary metabolites of airborne fungi in waste handling facilities is discussed in regard to potential toxic impacts on human health. The relevance of mycotoxins has been intensely studied in connection with contamination of food and feed. Toxic secondary metabolites are expected to be present in airborne spores, but exposure to mycotoxins in bioaerosols has not been studied sufficiently. Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most frequent species in the air of compost plants. A wide range of secondary metabolites was found in pure cultures of freshly isolated strains of A. fumigatus. Tryptoquivaline, a compound with tremorgenic properties, and trypacidin, for which no toxic properties are described, were found in native bioaerosols in a compost facility. The highly toxic metabolites gliotoxin and verruculogen were not found in the bioaerosols. PMID:10101846

  18. A comparative study of sheep and pigs given the tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and penitrem A.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D W; Penny, R H; Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-09-01

    The moulds Penicillium simplicissimum and P crustosum and the tremorgenic mycotoxins, verruculogen and penitrem A, isolated from them, were given to sheep and pigs to compare their potencies. Pigs were generally less susceptible and in both species penitrem A was less potent than verruculogen. Five-month-old lambs seemed more susceptible to mycelium containing verruculogen than were 15-month-old sheep given a similar oral dose relative to bodyweight. Repeated daily dosing of lambs and sheep for five days with P simplicissimum failed to enhance the effect, indicating that verruculogen toxicity was not cumulative. Long and short acting barbiturate anaesthesia blocked the effects of lethal doses of tremorgens. Sedation with diazepam diminished, but did not block, mycotoxin-induced tremors suggesting that there was no specific action of this anticonvulsant sedative on tremorgens. PMID:7146626

  19. Fungi and Mycotoxins from Pre- and Poststorage Brewer's Grain Intended for Bovine Intensive Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Keller, L. A. M.; Pereyra, C. M.; Cavaglieri, L. R.; Dalcero, A. M.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the mycobiota and natural levels of mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and deoxynivalenol (DON) present in brewers grains pre- and poststored intended for bovine intensive rearing. Poststored (80%) samples had counts higher than 1 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU/g). Cladosporium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated at high frequencies. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent isolated species. Prestored (70%) and poststored (100%) samples showed AFB1 levels over the recommended limits (20 μg/Kg), and OTA levels were below the recommended limits (50 μg/Kg) while pre- and poststored samples did not show FB1 and DON natural contamination levels. The presence of mycotoxins in this substrate indicates the existence of contamination. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination. PMID:23762582

  20. New mycotoxins from marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinya; He, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Bao, Jie; Qi, Shuhua

    2013-03-01

    Nine mycotoxins including six aspergillic acid group toxins, aluminiumneoaspergillin (1), zirconiumneoaspergillin (2), aspergilliamide (3), ferrineoaspergillin (5), flavacol (6), neoaspergillic acid (7), and three ochratoxins, ochratoxin A n-butyl ester (4), ochratoxin A (8), ochratoxin A methyl ester (9), were isolated from the fermentation broth of marine gorgonian derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Four of them (1-4) were new mycotoxins, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. The bio-toxicity of compounds 1-9 were determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 2.59-205.67 μM. This was the first report about zirconium complex obtained from nature and ochratoxins isolated from marine environment.

  1. Fumonisins and Alternaria alternata lycopersici toxins: sphinganine analog mycotoxins induce apoptosis in monkey kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W; Jones, C; Ciacci-Zanella, J; Holt, T; Gilchrist, D G; Dickman, M B

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme toxins (fumonisins) and Alternaria alternata lycopersici (AAL) toxins are members of a new class of sphinganine analog mycotoxins that occur widely in the food chain. These mycotoxins represent a serious threat to human and animal health, inducing both cell death and neoplastic events in mammals. The mechanisms by which this family of chemical congeners induce changes in cell homeostasis were investigated in African green monkey kidney cells (CV-1) by assessing the appearance of apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and putative components of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis. Structurally, these mycotoxins resemble the sphingoid bases, sphingosine and sphinganine, that are reported to play critical roles in cell communication and signal transduction. The addition of fumonisin B1 or AAL toxin, TA, to CV-1 cells induced the stereotypical hallmarks of apoptosis, including the formation of DNA ladders, compaction of nuclear DNA, and the subsequent appearance of apoptotic bodies. Neither mycotoxin induced cell death, DNA ladders, or apoptotic bodies in CV-1 cells expressing simian virus 40 large T antigen (COS-7) at toxin concentrations that readily killed CV-1 cells. Fumonisin B1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in CV-1 cells but not in COS-7 cells. AAL toxin TA did not arrest cell cycle progression in either cell line. The induction of apoptosis combined with the widespread presence of these compounds in food crops and animal feed identifies a previously unrecognized health risk to humans and livestock. These molecules also represent a new class of natural toxicants that can be used as model compounds to further characterize the molecular and biochemical pathways leading to apoptosis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8622958

  2. Environmental Mold and Mycotoxin Exposures Elicit Specific Cytokine and Chemokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum Lichtenstein, Jamie H.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Gavin, Igor M.; Donaghey, Thomas C.; Molina, Ramon M.; Thompson, Khristy J.; Chi, Chih-Lin; Gillis, Bruce S.; Brain, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Molds can cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. We sought to use isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to understand changes in cytokine and chemokine levels in response to mold and mycotoxin exposures and to link these levels with respiratory symptoms in humans. We did this by utilizing an ex vivo assay approach to differentiate mold-exposed patients and unexposed controls. While circulating plasma chemokine and cytokine levels from these two groups might be similar, we hypothesized that by challenging their isolated white blood cells with mold or mold extracts, we would see a differential chemokine and cytokine release. Methods and Findings Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from blood from 33 patients with a history of mold exposures and from 17 controls. Cultured PBMCs were incubated with the most prominent Stachybotrys chartarum mycotoxin, satratoxin G, or with aqueous mold extract, ionomycin, or media, each with or without PMA. Additional PBMCs were exposed to spores of Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum. After 18 hours, cytokines and chemokines released into the culture medium were measured by multiplex assay. Clinical histories, physical examinations and pulmonary function tests were also conducted. After ex vivo PBMC exposures to molds or mycotoxins, the chemokine and cytokine profiles from patients with a history of mold exposure were significantly different from those of unexposed controls. In contrast, biomarker profiles from cells exposed to media alone showed no difference between the patients and controls. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that chronic mold exposures induced changes in inflammatory and immune system responses to specific mold and mycotoxin challenges. These responses can differentiate mold-exposed patients from unexposed controls. This strategy may be a powerful approach to document immune system responsiveness to molds and other inflammation

  3. Effects of feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Korosteleva, S N; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J

    2009-04-01

    A previous study in dairy cows showed some effect of feed contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity. A subsequent experiment investigated the effect of feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins on some immune functions in more detail. A total mixed ration (TMR) containing a blend of feedstuffs naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins was fed for 63 d to 12 mid-lactation Holstein cows with an average milk production of 36 kg/d in a completely randomized design with repeated measures including 1) control TMR and 2) contaminated TMR. Wheat, corn, hay, and corn silage were the contaminated feedstuffs. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant and was found in TMR at 3.5 mg/kg of dry matter. The parameters measured were 1) performance: body weight, body condition score, dry matter intake, milk production, composition and somatic cell count; 2) health: blood serum chemistry, hematology, coagulation profile, and rumen fluid ammonia levels; 3) immune function: total serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), specific antibody response to ovalbumin, and neutrophil phagocytosis. Dry matter intake, body weight, milk production, and milk composition were not affected by diet. Neutrophil phagocytosis was depressed throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet. Serum sodium concentrations and osmolality were significantly elevated throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet. Primary antibody response to ovalbumin immunization was higher in cows fed the contaminated diet compared with controls. It was concluded that feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can affect metabolic parameters and immune function of dairy cows.

  4. Effects of feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins on the performance, metabolism, and immunity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Korosteleva, S N; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J

    2007-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins on the performance, metabolism, and immunity of dairy cattle. A total mixed ration (TMR) containing a blend of feedstuffs naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins was fed for 56 d to 18 midlactation Holstein cows (average milk production, 33 kg/d) in a completely randomized design with repeated measures that included 3 treatments: 1) a control diet, 2) a contaminated diet, and 3) a contaminated diet + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Wheat, corn, and hay were the contaminated feedstuffs used in the study. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant and was found in the TMR at levels of up to 3.6 microg/g of dry matter. Body weight, body condition score, dry matter intake, net energy balance, milk production, milk composition, somatic cell count, blood serum chemistry, hematology, serum Ig concentrations, and coagulation profile were measured. Dry matter intake and body weight, as well as milk production, milk composition, and SCC, were not affected by diet. Total serum protein and globulin levels increased significantly in cows fed the contaminated TMR compared with cows fed the control diet at 42 d, whereas the albumin:globulin ratio decreased. Serum urea concentrations were significantly elevated throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet compared with those fed the control diet. Serum IgA concentrations decreased significantly in cows fed the contaminated TMR at 36 d of feeding. Feeding GMA prevented these effects. Serum sodium concentration and osmolality levels were increased throughout the experiment in all cows fed the contaminated diets. We concluded that feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can affect the metabolic parameters and immunity of dairy cows and that GMA can prevent some of these effects.

  5. Effect of plastic mulching on mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome abundance in soil samples from asparagus crops.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, K; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Diehl, D; Ziegler, J; Geisen, R; Schaumann, G E

    2015-11-01

    Plastic mulching (PM) is widely used in modern agriculture because of its advantageous effects on soil temperature and water conservation, factors which strongly influence the microbiology of the soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PM on mycotoxin occurrence in relation with mycobiome abundance/diversity and soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from green (GA) and white asparagus (WA) crops, the last under PM. Both crops were cultivated in a ridge-furrow-ridge system without irrigation. Samples were analyzed for mycotoxin occurrence via liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Total colony-forming unit was indicative of mycobiome abundance, and analysis of mycobiome diversity was performed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. PM avoided the drop of soil temperature in winter and allowed higher soil temperature in early spring compared to non-covered soil. Moreover, the use of PM provided controlled conditions for water content in soil. This was enough to generate a dissimilar mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome diversity/abundance in covered and non-covered soil. Mycotoxin soil contamination was confirmed for deoxynivalenol (DON), range LOD to 32.1 ng/g (LOD = 1.1 ng/g). The DON values were higher under PM (average 16.9 ± 10.1 ng/g) than in non-covered soil (9.1 ± 7.9 ng/g); however, this difference was not statically significant (p = 0.09). Mycobiome analysis showed a fungal compartment up to fivefold higher in soil under PM compared to GA. The diversity of the mycobiome varied between crops and also along the soil column, with an important dominance of Fusarium species at the root zone in covered soils.

  6. Effect of plastic mulching on mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome abundance in soil samples from asparagus crops.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, K; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Diehl, D; Ziegler, J; Geisen, R; Schaumann, G E

    2015-11-01

    Plastic mulching (PM) is widely used in modern agriculture because of its advantageous effects on soil temperature and water conservation, factors which strongly influence the microbiology of the soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PM on mycotoxin occurrence in relation with mycobiome abundance/diversity and soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from green (GA) and white asparagus (WA) crops, the last under PM. Both crops were cultivated in a ridge-furrow-ridge system without irrigation. Samples were analyzed for mycotoxin occurrence via liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Total colony-forming unit was indicative of mycobiome abundance, and analysis of mycobiome diversity was performed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. PM avoided the drop of soil temperature in winter and allowed higher soil temperature in early spring compared to non-covered soil. Moreover, the use of PM provided controlled conditions for water content in soil. This was enough to generate a dissimilar mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome diversity/abundance in covered and non-covered soil. Mycotoxin soil contamination was confirmed for deoxynivalenol (DON), range LOD to 32.1 ng/g (LOD = 1.1 ng/g). The DON values were higher under PM (average 16.9 ± 10.1 ng/g) than in non-covered soil (9.1 ± 7.9 ng/g); however, this difference was not statically significant (p = 0.09). Mycobiome analysis showed a fungal compartment up to fivefold higher in soil under PM compared to GA. The diversity of the mycobiome varied between crops and also along the soil column, with an important dominance of Fusarium species at the root zone in covered soils. PMID:26412448

  7. Effect of dietary honey on intestinal microflora and toxicity of mycotoxins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ezz El-Arab, Aly M; Girgis, Shenouda M; Hegazy, Eman M; Abd El-Khalek, Azzat B

    2006-01-01

    Background Bee honey is a functional food which has a unique composition, antimicrobial properties and bifidogenic effect. In order to assess whether honey can inhibit the toxic effect of mycotoxins, the present study was undertaken. Methods Production of biomass and toxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus were followed in media without and with honey. Although aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. were administrated to male Swiss albino mice up to 1 μg and 10 ng/kg body weight/day respectively. The experimental animals were fed diets without our with 10% honey for two months. The changes in colonic probiotic bacteria, determintal colon enzyme glucuronidases, and genotoxicity were followed. Results Addition of 32% in its media increased the biomass of A parasiticus, while the biomass of A. ochraceus decreased and Ochratoxin A. was not produced. When the honey was added at the ratio of 32 and 48% in the medium. No relationship was found between mycelium weight and production of mycotoxins. Oral administration of aflatoxins (mixture of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and Ochratoxin A. induced structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and germ cells of male mice, whereas, honey treatment reduced the genotoxicity of mycotoxins. Also both toxins induced histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Feeding on diet supplemented with honey improved the histopathological changes in case of aflatoxin group, but not in the case of ochratoxin A. group (except of kidney in two cases). No significant differences were found in the activity of colon β-glucuronidase between group fed diet with or without honey. On the other hand, the colon bifido bacteria and lactobacilli counts were increased markedly in group receiving diet supplemented with honey. Conclusion Substituting sugars with honey in processed food can inhibit the harmful and genotoxic effects of mycotoxins, and improve the gut microflora. PMID:16533410

  8. Expert study to select indicators of the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards.

    PubMed

    Kandhai, M C; Booij, C J H; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the most important indicators for different chain stages (growth, transport and storage, and processing) and their relative importance. After three e-mailing rounds, the experts reached consensus on the most important indicators for each of the three stages: wheat growth, transport and storage, and processing. For wheat growth, these indicators include: relative humidity/rainfall, crop rotation, temperature, tillage practice, water activity of the kernels, and crop variety/cultivar. For the transport and storage stage, they include water activity in the kernels, relative humidity, ventilation, temperature, storage capacity, and logistics. For wheat processing, indicators include quality data, fraction of the cereal used, water activity in the kernels, quality management and traceability systems, and carryover of contamination. The indicators selected in this study can be used in an identification system for the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards in wheat supply chains. Such a system can be used by risk managers within governmental (related) organizations and/or the food and feed industry in order to react proactively to the occurrence of these emerging mycotoxins. PMID:20846166

  9. Development of immune-affinity 96 spots monolith array for multiple mycotoxins detection in food samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xia, Li-Ru; Zhao, Yong-Fu; Wang, He-Ye

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel highly sensitive chemiluminescence immune-affinity 96 spots monolith array was developed to detect deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in corn samples. Firstly, the monolith array was prepared through on suit UV-initiated copolymerization using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as functional monomer and polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) as the porogen. Subsequently, the four mycotoxins immune-affinity monolith array was prepared by immobilization of DON, ZEN, T-2, and FB1 antibody. The mole ratio of PEGDA/GMA, UV exposure time, and the volume ratio of PEG 200/PEGDA were optimized to improve the performances of the immune-affinity monolith array. For the mycotoxins immune-affinity monolith array based on chemiluminescence detection, the limit of detection was 0.0036ng/mL (DON), 0.0048ng/mL (ZEN), 0.0039ng/mL (T-2), and 0.0017ng/mL (FB1), respectively. The linear response in the range of 0.01-0.1ng/mL (R(2)=0.98). The results showed that the proposed four mycotoxins immune-affinity monolith array was a stable, accurate, and highly sensitive method to determine levels of DON, ZEN, T-2, and FB1 in real samples. PMID:27423670

  10. Anomericity of T-2 toxin-glucoside: masked mycotoxin in cereal crops.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Susan P; Kato, Takayuki; Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall-Asta, Chiara; Crich, David; Price, Neil P J; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-01-21

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food safety concern because they are not detectable by standard approaches and may be converted back to the parent toxin during digestion or food processing. The work reported here addresses four aspects of T-2 toxin-glucosides: phytotoxicity, stability after ingestion, antibody detection, and the anomericity of the naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside found in cereal plants. T-2 toxin-β-glucoside was chemically synthesized and compared to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with Blastobotrys muscicola cultures and the T-2 toxin-glucoside found in naturally contaminated oats and wheat. The anomeric forms were separated chromatographically and differ in both NMR and mass spectrometry. Both anomers were significantly degraded to T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin under conditions that mimic human digestion, but with different kinetics and metabolic end products. The naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside from plants was found to be identical to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with B. muscicola. An antibody test for the detection of T-2 toxin was not effective for the detection of T-2 toxin-α-glucoside. This anomer was produced in sufficient quantity to assess its animal toxicity.

  11. Recent developments in stable isotope dilution assays in mycotoxin analysis with special regard to Alternaria toxins.

    PubMed

    Asam, Stefan; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) are becoming ever commoner in mycotoxin analysis, and the number of synthesized or commercially available isotopically labelled compounds has greatly increased in the 7 years since our last review dealing with this topic. Thus, this review is conceived as an update for new applications or improvements of SIDAs for compounds discussed earlier, but the main focus is on newly introduced labelled substances and the development of SIDAs for, for example, fusarin C, moniliformin or the enniatins. Mycotoxin research has concentrated on the emerging group of Alternaria toxins in recent years, and a series of SIDAs have been developed, including ones for tenuazonic acid, alternariol, altertoxins and tentoxin that are discussed in detail in this review. Information about synthetic routes, isotopic purity and mass-spectrometric characterization of labelled compounds is given, as well as about the development and validation of SIDAs and their application to foods, feeds or biological samples. As the number of commercially available labelled standards is increasing continuously, a general tendency for the use of analytical methods based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry capable of identifying a series of mycotoxins simultaneously ("multimethods") and using one or more labelled internal standards can be observed. An overview of these applications is given, thus demonstrating that SIDAs are increasingly being used in routine analysis.

  12. Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan.

  13. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure. PMID:16019841

  14. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples. PMID:26556374

  15. Advantages and drawbacks of immunoaffinity columns in analysis of mycotoxins in food.

    PubMed

    Castegnaro, Marcel; Tozlovanu, Marianna; Wild, Christopher; Molinié, Anne; Sylla, Abdoulay; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2006-05-01

    A number of countries are setting legislations on mycotoxins. In order to reduce dispute between importing and exporting countries, the analytical data should be as comparable as possible, especially when levels are close to the regulatory limits. The present trend in the analysis of mycotoxins is to use immunoaffinity column (IAC) as a clean-up and enrichment technique, and Association of Official Analytical Chemists and European Union have validated methods which address a few food commodities. This study describes our experience using both conventional and IAC approaches in the analysis of three mycotoxins. Aflatoxins (AFs): Aflatoxin G1 has been detected by liquid-liquid partitioning methods with HPLC detection as false-positive in some maize. On IACs, this compound behaves as an AF, lowering the amount of the AFs trapped. The problem was solved using either TLC or HPLC with detection in the Kobra cell. Depending on the additives to food during the processing and cooking, the AFs might appear as an opened ring not recognised by the antibody. Fumonisins (FB): Compounds interfering with the FB's antibodies were also observed while analysing breakfast cereals leading to underestimation of FB. Ochratoxin A (OTA): Depending on the food composition and extraction techniques, OTA is underestimated with IAC in some breakfast cereals and coffee. These data strengthen the necessity to validate methods using IAC for each complex matrix.

  16. Development and certification of a reference material for Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Köppen, Robert; Bremser, Wolfram; Rasenko, Tatjana; Koch, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by several species of Fusarium fungi. These mycotoxins are often found together in a large variety of cereal-based foods, which are regulated by maximum content levels of DON and ZEN. To date, suitable certified reference materials (CRM) intended for quality control purposes are lacking for these Fusarium mycotoxins. In order to overcome this lack, the first CRM for the determination of DON, NIV and ZEN in naturally contaminated wheat flour (ERM®-BC600) was developed in the framework of a European Reference Materials (ERM®) project. This article describes and discusses the whole process of ERM®-BC600 development, including material preparation, homogeneity and stability studies, and an interlaboratory comparison study for certification. A total of 21 selected expert laboratories from different European countries with documented expertise in the field of mycotoxin analysis took part in the certification study using various gas and liquid chromatographic methods. The certified values and their corresponding expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were assigned in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35 and are as follows: 102 ± 11 μg kg(-1) for DON, 1000 ± 130 μg kg(-1) for NIV and 90 ± 8 μg kg(-1) for ZEN.

  17. Mycobiota and mycotoxins in Brazil nut samples from different states of the Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Reis, T A; Oliveira, T D; Baquião, A C; Gonçalves, S S; Zorzete, P; Corrêa, B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) in Brazil nut samples collected in different states of the Brazilian Amazon region: Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará. A total of 200 husk samples and 200 almond samples were inoculated onto Aspergillus flavus-parasiticus agar for the detection of fungi. Mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mycobiota comprised the following fungi, in decreasing order of frequency: almonds - Phialemonium spp. (54%), Penicillium spp. (16%), Fusarium spp. (13%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), and Aspergillus spp. (4%), husks - Phialemonium spp. (62%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), Penicillium spp. (10%), Fusarium spp. (9%), and Aspergillus spp. A polyphasic approach was used for identification of Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 22 (11%) of the 200 almond samples, with 21 samples presenting aflatoxin B(1) levels above 8μg/kg, the limit established by the European Commission for Brazil nuts for further processing. Nineteen (9.5%) of the 200 husk samples contained aflatoxins, but at levels lower than those seen in almonds. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was detected in 44 (22%) almond samples, with levels ranging from 98.65 to 161.2μg/kg. Aspergillus nomius and A. flavus were the most frequent Aspergillus species. The presence of fungi does not necessarily imply mycotoxin contamination, but almonds of the Brazil nut seem to be a good substrate for fungal growth. PMID:23072689

  18. Development of immune-affinity 96 spots monolith array for multiple mycotoxins detection in food samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xia, Li-Ru; Zhao, Yong-Fu; Wang, He-Ye

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel highly sensitive chemiluminescence immune-affinity 96 spots monolith array was developed to detect deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in corn samples. Firstly, the monolith array was prepared through on suit UV-initiated copolymerization using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as functional monomer and polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) as the porogen. Subsequently, the four mycotoxins immune-affinity monolith array was prepared by immobilization of DON, ZEN, T-2, and FB1 antibody. The mole ratio of PEGDA/GMA, UV exposure time, and the volume ratio of PEG 200/PEGDA were optimized to improve the performances of the immune-affinity monolith array. For the mycotoxins immune-affinity monolith array based on chemiluminescence detection, the limit of detection was 0.0036ng/mL (DON), 0.0048ng/mL (ZEN), 0.0039ng/mL (T-2), and 0.0017ng/mL (FB1), respectively. The linear response in the range of 0.01-0.1ng/mL (R(2)=0.98). The results showed that the proposed four mycotoxins immune-affinity monolith array was a stable, accurate, and highly sensitive method to determine levels of DON, ZEN, T-2, and FB1 in real samples.

  19. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David

    2010-05-01

    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  20. Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-11-05

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

  1. Conjugation of the mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in tobacco suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Andreas A; Kohn, Beate N; Pfeiffer, Erika; Wefers, Daniel; Metzler, Manfred; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-05-20

    The mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether (AME) carry three and two phenolic hydroxyl groups, respectively, which makes them candidates for the formation of conjugated metabolites in plants. Such conjugates may escape routine methods of analysis and have therefore been termed masked or, more recently, modified mycotoxins. We report now that AOH and AME are extensively conjugated in suspension cultures of tobacco BY-2 cells. Five conjugates of AOH were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy as β-D-glucopyranosides (attached in AOH 3- or 9-position) as well as their 6'-malonyl derivatives, and as a gentiobiose conjugate. For AME, conjugation resulted in the d-glucopyranoside (mostly attached in the AME 3-position) and its 6'- and 4'-malonyl derivatives. Pronounced differences were noted for the quantitative pattern of AOH and AME conjugates as well as for their phytotoxicity. Our in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that masked mycotoxins of AOH and AME can be formed in plant cells.

  2. Screening and confirmatory methods for the analysis of macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins by CE with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Téllez, Helena; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel; Chicharro, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    A simple analytical scheme for the screening and quantification of zearalenone and its metabolites, alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol, is reported. Extracts from maize flour samples were collected by supercritical fluid extraction and afterwards, they were analyzed by CE with amperometric detection. This scheme allowed a rapid and reliable identification of contaminated flour samples according to the reference value established for zearalenone by directive 2005/38/EC (200 microg/kg). The sample screening method was carried out by CZE using 25 mM borate separation buffer at pH 9.2 and 25.0 kV as separation voltage, monitoring the amperometric signal at +700 mV with a carbon paste electrode. In this way, total amount of mycotoxins was determined and samples were processed in 4 min with a detection limit of 12 microg/L, enough to discriminate between positive (more than 200 microg/L total mycotoxins) and negative samples (less than 200 microg/L total mycotoxins). Positive samples were then subjected to CZE separation and quantification of each analyte was done with 50 mM borate running buffer modified with 30% methanol at pH 9.7 and 17.5 kV as separation voltage. Under these conditions, separation was achieved in 15 min with detection limits from 20 to 35 microg/L for each analyte.

  3. Keeping the mycotoxins out: experience gathered by an international food company.

    PubMed

    Pittet, A

    1995-01-01

    As early as the mid-1960s the analysis of aflatoxins became an important part of Nestlé's quality control programme, especially since the Company's products include a wide variety of milk- and cereal-based foods intended for infants and children. At that time, dealing with this problem was hampered by the lack of simple and reliable analytical methods, the absence of legal provisions in many countries, the widely different origin of the raw materials, and the fact that sources of contamination were often beyond the Company's control. However, over the years substantial progress has been made, mainly by setting up an inspection system including suitable methods of analysis that allow compliance with raw material specifications to be checked at source. In spite of the fact that the problem of aflatoxins in milk, cereals, and oilseeds has now been largely tackled, it is increasingly necessary to step up our mycotoxin surveillance programme. Indeed, several other mycotoxins have now become a matter of concern, as witnessed by the recent fumonisin scare. Moreover, increasingly severe legislations put a heavy burden on the analysts responsible for the inspection of the raw materials, especially in European countries. This article presents the Company's considerable efforts over a period of almost 30 years in trying to keep the mycotoxins out, or at least to limit their concentrations to the lowest possible levels. PMID:7582630

  4. Advantages and drawbacks of immunoaffinity columns in analysis of mycotoxins in food.

    PubMed

    Castegnaro, Marcel; Tozlovanu, Marianna; Wild, Christopher; Molinié, Anne; Sylla, Abdoulay; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2006-05-01

    A number of countries are setting legislations on mycotoxins. In order to reduce dispute between importing and exporting countries, the analytical data should be as comparable as possible, especially when levels are close to the regulatory limits. The present trend in the analysis of mycotoxins is to use immunoaffinity column (IAC) as a clean-up and enrichment technique, and Association of Official Analytical Chemists and European Union have validated methods which address a few food commodities. This study describes our experience using both conventional and IAC approaches in the analysis of three mycotoxins. Aflatoxins (AFs): Aflatoxin G1 has been detected by liquid-liquid partitioning methods with HPLC detection as false-positive in some maize. On IACs, this compound behaves as an AF, lowering the amount of the AFs trapped. The problem was solved using either TLC or HPLC with detection in the Kobra cell. Depending on the additives to food during the processing and cooking, the AFs might appear as an opened ring not recognised by the antibody. Fumonisins (FB): Compounds interfering with the FB's antibodies were also observed while analysing breakfast cereals leading to underestimation of FB. Ochratoxin A (OTA): Depending on the food composition and extraction techniques, OTA is underestimated with IAC in some breakfast cereals and coffee. These data strengthen the necessity to validate methods using IAC for each complex matrix. PMID:16671060

  5. Mycobiota and mycotoxins in Brazil nut samples from different states of the Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Reis, T A; Oliveira, T D; Baquião, A C; Gonçalves, S S; Zorzete, P; Corrêa, B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) in Brazil nut samples collected in different states of the Brazilian Amazon region: Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará. A total of 200 husk samples and 200 almond samples were inoculated onto Aspergillus flavus-parasiticus agar for the detection of fungi. Mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mycobiota comprised the following fungi, in decreasing order of frequency: almonds - Phialemonium spp. (54%), Penicillium spp. (16%), Fusarium spp. (13%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), and Aspergillus spp. (4%), husks - Phialemonium spp. (62%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), Penicillium spp. (10%), Fusarium spp. (9%), and Aspergillus spp. A polyphasic approach was used for identification of Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 22 (11%) of the 200 almond samples, with 21 samples presenting aflatoxin B(1) levels above 8μg/kg, the limit established by the European Commission for Brazil nuts for further processing. Nineteen (9.5%) of the 200 husk samples contained aflatoxins, but at levels lower than those seen in almonds. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was detected in 44 (22%) almond samples, with levels ranging from 98.65 to 161.2μg/kg. Aspergillus nomius and A. flavus were the most frequent Aspergillus species. The presence of fungi does not necessarily imply mycotoxin contamination, but almonds of the Brazil nut seem to be a good substrate for fungal growth.

  6. Multi-mycotoxin screening reveals separate occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin a in Asian rice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Wei; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Layne, Jeff; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2015-04-01

    The determination of important regulated mycotoxins in rice has been reported previously but not in the individual matrix of white, brown, red, and basmati rice with respect to the matrix effect, recovery, and stability. A total of 190 Asian rices were examined for regulated mycotoxin contamination by the LC-ESI-MS/MS method. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in the matrix effect was observed for fumonisins. Methanol improved the limits of detection (LOD) for HT-2 from 50 μg/kg to 2.3 μg/kg by promoting ionization efficiency of the ammonium-adduct. LOD and limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 18 μg/kg and 0.2-31 μg/kg, respectively. All analytes degraded by more than 50% on storage, except fumonisins. Acetic acid (1%) provided significant improvement (p < 0.05) in recovery for all analytes in selected white rice from Thailand and China. Mean recovery ranged from 70 to 120%. RSD values were lower than 15% for all analytes. Five AFB1 and single OTA positive samples were detected. No correlation between mycotoxin contamination and rice species (r = 0) exists.

  7. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure.

  8. Mycotoxins in the environment: II. Occurrence and origin in Swiss river waters.

    PubMed

    Schenzel, Judith; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Thirty-three different mycotoxins were surveyed over nearly two years in a typical Swiss wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as well as in Swiss midland rivers. Out of these, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and beauvericin (BEA), were detected. DON was quantified in all WWTP effluent grab samples with a maximum concentration of 73.4 ng/L, while the lowest concentration was observed for BEA with 1.3 ng/L. NIV was detected in about 37%, the other three compounds in 9-36% of the weekly or fortnightly integrated flow proportional river water samples. Concentrations were river discharge dependent, with higher numbers in smaller rivers, but mostly in the very low ng/L-range, with a maximum of 24.1, and 19.0 ng/L for NIV and DON, respectively. While NIV and DON prevailed in summer and autumn, BEA occurred mostly during winter. Summer and autumn seasonal load fractions were, however, not correlating with other river basin parameters indicative of the probably most obvious seasonal input source, that is, Fusarium graminearum infected wheat crop areas. Nevertheless, together with WWTP effluents, these two sources largely explained the loads of mycotoxins quantified in river waters. The ecotoxicological relevance of mycotoxins as newly identified aquatic micropollutants has yet to be assessed. PMID:23148526

  9. Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan. PMID:25209636

  10. Effect of chlorine dioxide gas on fungi and mycotoxins associated with sick building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S C; Wu, C; Andriychuk, L A; Martin, J M; Brasel, T L; Jumper, C A; Straus, D C

    2005-09-01

    The growth of indoor molds and their resulting products (e.g., spores and mycotoxins) can present health hazards for human beings. The efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a fumigation treatment for inactivating sick building syndrome-related fungi and their mycotoxins was evaluated. Filter papers (15 per organism) featuring growth of Stachybotrys chartarum, Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Cladosporium cladosporioides were placed in gas chambers containing chlorine dioxide gas at either 500 or 1,000 ppm for 24 h. C. globosum was exposed to the gas both as colonies and as ascospores without asci and perithecia. After treatment, all organisms were tested for colony growth using an agar plating technique. Colonies of S. chartarum were also tested for toxicity using a yeast toxicity assay with a high specificity for trichothecene mycotoxins. Results showed that chlorine dioxide gas at both concentrations completely inactivated all organisms except for C. globosum colonies which were inactivated an average of 89%. More than 99% of ascospores of C. globosum were nonculturable. For all ascospore counts, mean test readings were lower than the controls (P < 0.001), indicating that some ascospores may also have been destroyed. Colonies of S. chartarum were still toxic after treatment. These data show that chlorine dioxide gas can be effective to a degree as a fumigant for the inactivation of certain fungal colonies, that the perithecia of C. globosum can play a slightly protective role for the ascospores and that S. chartarum, while affected by the fumigation treatment, still remains toxic. PMID:16151130

  11. Environmental effects on resistance gene expression in milk stage popcorn kernels and associations with mycotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2015-05-01

    Like other forms of maize, popcorn is subject to increased levels of contamination by a variety of different mycotoxins under stress conditions, although levels generally are less than dent maize under comparable stress. Gene array analysis was used to determine expression differences of disease resistance-associated genes in milk stage kernels from commercial popcorn fields over 3 years. Relatively lower expression of resistance gene types was noted in years with higher temperatures and lower rainfall, which was consistent with prior results for many previously identified resistance response-associated genes. The lower rates of expression occurred for genes such as chitinases, protease inhibitors, and peroxidases; enzymes involved in the synthesis of cell wall barriers and secondary metabolites; and regulatory proteins. However, expression of several specific resistance genes previously associated with mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin in dent maize, was not affected. Insect damage altered the spectrum of resistance gene expression differences compared to undamaged ears. Correlation analyses showed expression differences of some previously reported resistance genes that were highly associated with mycotoxin levels and included glucanases, protease inhibitors, peroxidases, and thionins. PMID:25512225

  12. Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-11-01

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples. PMID:26556374

  13. Anomericity of T-2 Toxin-glucoside: Masked Mycotoxin in Cereal Crops

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food safety concern because they are not detectable by standard approaches and may be converted back to the parent toxin during digestion or food processing. The work reported here addresses four aspects of T-2 toxin-glucosides: phytotoxicity, stability after ingestion, antibody detection, and the anomericity of the naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside found in cereal plants. T-2 toxin-β-glucoside was chemically synthesized and compared to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with Blastobotrys muscicola cultures and the T-2 toxin-glucoside found in naturally contaminated oats and wheat. The anomeric forms were separated chromatographically and differ in both NMR and mass spectrometry. Both anomers were significantly degraded to T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin under conditions that mimic human digestion, but with different kinetics and metabolic end products. The naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside from plants was found to be identical to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with B. muscicola. An antibody test for the detection of T-2 toxin was not effective for the detection of T-2 toxin-α-glucoside. This anomer was produced in sufficient quantity to assess its animal toxicity. PMID:25520274

  14. The compositional mosaic of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed products in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Adriaan; Audenaert, Kris; De Boevre, Marthe; Landschoot, Sofie; Bekaert, Boris; Munaut, Françoise; Eeckhout, Mia; Höfte, Monica; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert

    2014-07-01

    Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin and physiology of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) related mycotoxins and the correlations within their ranks. Two hundred and thirty-seven samples were analyzed from diverse cereal matrices, representing the most important stages of the cereal food and feed chain in Belgium. Food, feed and non-processed field samples were investigated, with a strong emphasis on whole-grain food products. Two approaches were pursued to estimate the full scope of FHB and its repercussions: UPLC-MS/MS was applied to detect twelve different mycotoxins, and Q-PCR was used to measure the presence of ten Fusarium species. We found that different matrices have different characteristic contamination profiles, and extensive correlation studies identified certain mycotoxins for future assessment (e.g. moniliformin produced by the Fusarium avenaceum/Fusarium tricinctum species group). The investigated harvest year of 2012 yielded many non-processed field materials containing elevated levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), while even in a so-called DON-year less prevalent toxins such as T-2 and HT-2 might be considered problematic due to their consistent co-occurrence with related mycotoxins. Our data illustrate complex interactions between the many Fusarium species that are responsible for FHB and their mycotoxins. Correlation studies demonstrate that consistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins is not to be neglected, and pinpoint issues for future surveillance and legislation.

  15. Simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-01

    This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.

  16. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: the toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic.

    PubMed

    Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Gauthier, Thierry; Abrami, Roberta; Abiola, François A; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. DON is often present with other type B trichothecenes such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX). Although the cytotoxicity of individual mycotoxins has been widely studied, data on the toxicity of mycotoxin mixtures are limited. The aim of this study was to assess interactions caused by co-exposure to Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells. Proliferating Caco-2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of Type B trichothecenes, alone or in binary or ternary mixtures. The MTT test and neutral red uptake, respectively linked to mitochondrial and lysosomal functions, were used to measure intestinal epithelial cytotoxicity. The five tested mycotoxins had a dose-dependent effect on proliferating enterocytes and could be classified in increasing order of toxicity: 3-ADON<15-ADON≈DONmycotoxin combinations were synergistic; however DON-NIV-FX mixture showed antagonism. At higher concentrations (cytotoxic effect around 50%), the combinations had an additive or nearly additive effect. These results indicate that the simultaneous presence of low doses of mycotoxins in food commodities and diet may be more toxic than predicted from the mycotoxins alone. Considering the frequent co-occurrence of trichothecenes in the diet and the concentrations of toxins to which consumers are exposed, this synergy should be taken into account.

  17. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: The toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic

    SciTech Connect

    Alassane-Kpembi, Imourana; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Gauthier, Thierry; Abrami, Roberta; Abiola, François A.; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Puel, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. DON is often present with other type B trichothecenes such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX). Although the cytotoxicity of individual mycotoxins has been widely studied, data on the toxicity of mycotoxin mixtures are limited. The aim of this study was to assess interactions caused by co-exposure to Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells. Proliferating Caco-2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of Type B trichothecenes, alone or in binary or ternary mixtures. The MTT test and neutral red uptake, respectively linked to mitochondrial and lysosomal functions, were used to measure intestinal epithelial cytotoxicity. The five tested mycotoxins had a dose-dependent effect on proliferating enterocytes and could be classified in increasing order of toxicity: 3-ADON < 15-ADON ≈ DON < NIV ≪ FX. Binary or ternary mixtures also showed a dose-dependent effect. At low concentrations (cytotoxic effect between 10 and 30–40%), mycotoxin combinations were synergistic; however DON–NIV–FX mixture showed antagonism. At higher concentrations (cytotoxic effect around 50%), the combinations had an additive or nearly additive effect. These results indicate that the simultaneous presence of low doses of mycotoxins in food commodities and diet may be more toxic than predicted from the mycotoxins alone. Considering the frequent co-occurrence of trichothecenes in the diet and the concentrations of toxins to which consumers are exposed, this synergy should be taken into account. - Highlights: • We assessed the individual and combined cytotoxicity of five trichothecenes. • The tested concentrations correspond to the French consumer exposure levels. • The type of interaction in combined cytotoxicity varied with the effect level. • Low doses of Type B trichothecenes induced synergistic

  18. Toxigenic Fusarium spp. as determinants of trichothecene mycotoxins in settled grain dust.

    PubMed

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Eduard, Wijnand

    2006-12-01

    Trichothecenes are immunosuppressive mycotoxins produced mainly by Fusarium spp. and often are detected as natural contaminants of grain and other agricultural products. Exposure to trichothecenes through inhalation during grain work may represent possible health risks for grain farmers. We aimed, therefore, to investigate the level of Fusarium spp. and trichothecenes in settled grain dust collected during work on 92 Norwegian farms. Mycotoxins were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, whereas the Fusarium spp. were identified and quantified both by species-specific semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by cultivation. All potential trichothecene-producing molds in the grain dust were quantified using a PCR assay specific for tri5, the gene coding for trichodiene synthase that catalyzes the first step in the trichothecene biosynthesis. We performed correlation analysis between mold-DNA and mycotoxins to assess whether the PCR-detected DNA could be used as indicators of the mycotoxins. The methodological problem of detecting small amounts of airborne mycotoxins during grain work may then be avoided. Whereas the trichothecene-producing Fusarium species in grain dust could not be identified or quantified to a sufficient extent by cultivation, all investigated Fusarium spp. could be specifically detected by PCR and quantified from the DNA agarose gel band intensities. Furthermore, we observed a strong correlation between the trichothecenes HT-2 toxin (HT-2) or T-2 toxin (T-2) and DNA specific for tri5 (r = 0.68 for HT-2 and r = 0.50 for T-2; p < 0.001), F. langsethiae (r = 0.77 for HT-2 and r = 0.59 for T-2; p < 0.001), or F. poae (r = 0.41 for HT-2 and r = 0.35 for T-2; p < 0.001). However, only a moderate correlation was observed between the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and the combination of its producers, F. culmorum and F. graminearum (r = 0.24, p = 0.02), and no significant correlation was observed between DON and tri5. PCR

  19. The use of immunoaffinity columns connected in tandem for selective and cost-effective mycotoxin clean-up prior to multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis in food matrices.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Joyce; Donnelly, Carol; Leeman, David; Marley, Elaine

    2015-06-26

    This paper describes the use of two immunoaffinity columns (IACs) coupled in tandem, providing selective clean-up, based on targeted mycotoxins known to co-occur in specific matrices. An IAC for aflatoxins+ochratoxin A+fumonisins (AOF) was combined with an IAC for deoxynivalenol+zearalenone+T-2/HT-2 toxins (DZT); an IAC for ochratoxin A (O) was combined with a DZT column; and an aflatoxin+ochratoxin (AO) column was combined with a DZT column. By combining pairs of columns it was demonstrated that specific clean-up can be achieved as required for different matrices. Samples of rye flour, maize, breakfast cereal and wholemeal bread were analysed for mycotoxins regulated in the EU, by spiking at levels close to EU limits for adult and infant foods. After IAC clean-up extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS with quantification using multiple reaction monitoring. Recoveries were found to be in range from 60 to 108%, RSDs below 10% depending on the matrix and mycotoxin combination and LOQs ranged from 0.1n g/g for aflatoxin B1 to 13.0 ng/g for deoxynivalenol. Surplus cereal proficiency test materials (FAPAS(®)) were also analysed with found levels of mycotoxins falling within the satisfactory range of concentrations (Z score ≤ ± 2), demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed multi-mycotoxin IAC methods. PMID:25990350

  20. Mycotoxin food and feed regulation and the specific case of ochratoxin A: a review of the worldwide status.

    PubMed

    Duarte, S C; Lino, C M; Pena, A

    2010-10-01

    Mycotoxins are naturally occurring contaminants whose presence in food- and feedstuffs cannot be completely avoided. The safety and economic impact arising from the commercialization of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed supply chain is considerable and acknowledged. To protect consumers from mycotoxin-derived health risks, many countries have adopted regulations or guidelines to limit exposure. Similar to regulation for other mycotoxins, the regulatory status of ochratoxin A (OTA) lacks consensus. Although this was one of the first fungal toxins to be subjected to compliance control due to its toxic properties, the conflict between the prime objective of consumer health safeguard and the economic interests of producers and traders remains. One of the key challenges facing policymakers is to balance these conflicting demands and reach consensual regulatory actions or limits. The noteworthy transboundary implications are recognized, both in the case of absence as the unsubstantiated tightening of regulatory limits. This paper scrutinizes the rationales and implications of mycotoxin regulation, with special attention devoted to OTA. In view of the ongoing debate concerning this complex issue, a review of the arguments and suggested strategies proposed by different parties is also made. The specific case of OTA regulation in food and feed is updated and analysed at a European Union and global level. PMID:20658402

  1. Development of a GC-MS/MS strategy to determine 15 mycotoxins and metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Moltó, Juan Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda

    2014-10-01

    The widespread mycotoxins contamination of food commodities has made the monitoring of their levels essential. To overcome the disadvantages of the indirect approach by food analysis, detection of mycotoxin as biomarkers in urine provides a useful and specific data for exposure assessment to these food contaminants. In this work, a sensitive, rapid and accurate method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry procedure to determine 15 mycotoxins and metabolites in human urine was optimized and validated taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 401/2006/EC. A salting-out assisted acetonitrile-based extraction was used for sample preparation. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 72-109%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 10% and 13%, respectively for all mycotoxins at 50, 100 and 200 µg/L spiking levels. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.25 to 8 µg/L. Matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibration was used for quantitation. The proposed procedure was applied to 10 urine samples collected from children. Mycotoxins were quantified in 30% of samples.

  2. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children.

  3. Mycotoxin occurrence in feed and feed raw materials worldwide: long-term analysis with special focus on Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Streit, Elisabeth; Naehrer, Karin; Rodrigues, Inês; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2013-09-01

    During an 8-year period, 17 316 samples of feed and feed raw materials from all over the world were analysed for contamination with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. Overall, 72% of the samples tested positive for at least one mycotoxin and 38% were found to be co-contaminated. Mycotoxin concentrations were generally low and the majority of the samples were compliant with the most stringent EU guidance values or maximum levels for mycotoxins in feed. However, in their present state these regulations do not address co-contamination and associated risks. Long-term trends are difficult to establish as strong yearly variations were observed regarding mycotoxin prevalence and contamination levels. In some cases unusual weather conditions can be linked with high observed mycotoxin loads. An exception to this rule is South-East Asia, where a steady increase of aflatoxin prevalence has been observed. The percentage of aflatoxin-positive samples in this region rose from 32% in 2005 to 71% in 2011.

  4. Development of a multiple immunoaffinity column for simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in feeds using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Rui; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Min

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive and specific immunoaffinity column to clean up and isolate multiple mycotoxins was developed along with a rapid one-step sample preparation procedure for ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, and T-2 toxin were coupled to microbeads for mycotoxin purification. We optimized a homogenization and extraction procedure as well as column loading and elution conditions to maximize recoveries from complex feed matrices. This method allowed rapid, simple, and simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in feeds with a single chromatographic run. Detection limits for these toxins ranged from 0.006 to 0.12 ng mL(-1), and quantitation limits ranged from 0.06 to 0.75 ng mL(-1). Concentration curves were linear from 0.12 to 40 μg kg(-1) with correlation coefficients of R (2) > 0.99. Intra-assay and inter-assay comparisons indicated excellent repeatability and reproducibility of the multiple immunoaffinity columns. As a proof of principle, 80 feed samples were tested and several contained multiple mycotoxins. This method is sensitive, rapid, and durable enough for multiple mycotoxin determinations that fulfill European Union and Chinese testing criteria. PMID:27225172

  5. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of F usarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Elisabeth; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Hametner, Christian; Ward, Todd J.; Dong, Yanhong; Schöfbeck, Denise; McCormick, Susan; Broz, Karen; Stückler, Romana; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Kistler, H. Corby; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitous filamentous fungus F usarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F . graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, which produced none of the known trichothecene mycotoxins despite causing normal disease symptoms. In rice cultures, a new trichothecene mycotoxin (named NX‐2) was characterized by liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements identified NX‐2 as 3α‐acetoxy‐7α,15‐dihydroxy‐12,13‐epoxytrichothec‐9‐ene. Compared with the well‐known 3‐acetyl‐deoxynivalenol (3‐ADON), it lacks the keto group at C‐8 and hence is a type A trichothecene. Wheat ears inoculated with the isolated strains revealed a 10‐fold higher contamination with its deacetylated form, named NX‐3, (up to 540 mg kg−1) compared with NX‐2. The toxicities of the novel mycotoxins were evaluated utilizing two in vitro translation assays and the alga C hlamydomonas reinhardtii. NX‐3 inhibits protein biosynthesis to almost the same extent as the prominent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, while NX‐2 is far less toxic, similar to 3‐ADON. Genetic analysis revealed a different TRI 1 allele in the N‐isolates, which was verified to be responsible for the difference in hydroxylation at C‐8. PMID:25403493

  6. SOLVENT COMPARISON IN THE ISOLATION, SOLUBILIZATION, AND TOXICITY OF STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM SPORE TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXINS IN AN ESTABLISHED IN VITRO LUMINESCENCE PROTEIN TRANSLATION INHIBITION ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well known that non-viable mold contaminants such as macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins of Stachybotrys chartarum are highly toxinigenic to humans. However, there is no agreed upon method of recovering native mycotoxin. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitativ...

  7. MONITORING MYCOTOXIN PRODUCTION AT THE GENETIC LEVEL ON VARIOUS GROWTH SUBSTRATES USING QUANTITATIVE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION?EXPERIMENT DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a method of analyzing the production of mycotoxins at the genetic level by monitoring the intracellular levels of messenger RNA (mRNA). Initial work will focus on threshing out the mycotoxin gene clusters in Stachybotrys chartarum followed by analysis of toxin...

  8. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to coccidiosis when fed subclinical doses of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins – special emphasis on the immunological response and the mycotoxin interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these ...

  9. Correlation of Mycotoxin Fumonisin B2 Production and Presence of the Fumonisin Biosynthetic Gene fum8 in Aspergillus niger from Grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins associated with cancer and several other serious diseases in humans and animals. Production of the mycotoxins has been reported for over two decades in Fusarium species, but has been reported only recently in strains of Aspergillus niger. In addition, a homologue of the f...

  10. Potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-wei; Liu, Hong-yi; Zhang, Hai-bin; Cao, Ming-chang; Sun, Yong; Wu, Wen-da; Lu, Chang-hu

    2016-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China. Collected in the reserve's core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contamination incidences vary among different zones and the mycotoxins levels of different food samples also presented disparity. Average mycotoxin concentration from rice grain was greater than that from other food types. Among mycotoxin-positive samples, 59.3% were simultaneously contaminated with more than one toxin. This study demonstrated for the first time that red-crowned cranes were exposed to mycotoxins in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and suggested that artificial wetlands could not be considered good habitats for the birds in this reserve, especially rice fields.

  11. Potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-wei; Liu, Hong-yi; Zhang, Hai-bin; Cao, Ming-chang; Sun, Yong; Wu, Wen-da; Lu, Chang-hu

    2016-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China. Collected in the reserve's core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contamination incidences vary among different zones and the mycotoxins levels of different food samples also presented disparity. Average mycotoxin concentration from rice grain was greater than that from other food types. Among mycotoxin-positive samples, 59.3% were simultaneously contaminated with more than one toxin. This study demonstrated for the first time that red-crowned cranes were exposed to mycotoxins in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and suggested that artificial wetlands could not be considered good habitats for the birds in this reserve, especially rice fields. PMID:26834016

  12. Potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da-wei; Liu, Hong-yi; Zhang, Hai-bin; Cao, Ming-chang; Sun, Yong; Wu, Wen-da; Lu, Chang-hu

    2016-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China. Collected in the reserve’s core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contamination incidences vary among different zones and the mycotoxins levels of different food samples also presented disparity. Average mycotoxin concentration from rice grain was greater than that from other food types. Among mycotoxin-positive samples, 59.3% were simultaneously contaminated with more than one toxin. This study demonstrated for the first time that red-crowned cranes were exposed to mycotoxins in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and suggested that artificial wetlands could not be considered good habitats for the birds in this reserve, especially rice fields. PMID:26834016

  13. Implications of Bt traits on mycotoxin contamination in maize: Overview and recent experimental results in southern United States.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hamed K; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Weaver, Mark A; Shier, W Thomas; Bruns, H Arnold; Bellaloui, Nacer; Accinelli, Cesare; Abel, Craig A

    2013-12-01

    Mycotoxin contamination levels in maize kernels are controlled by a complex set of factors including insect pressure, fungal inoculum potential, and environmental conditions that are difficult to predict. Methods are becoming available to control mycotoxin-producing fungi in preharvest crops, including Bt expression, biocontrol, and host plant resistance. Initial reports in the United States and other countries have associated Bt expression with reduced fumonisin, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone contamination and, to a lesser extent, reduced aflatoxin contamination in harvested maize kernels. However, subsequent field results have been inconsistent, confirming that fumonisin contamination can be reduced by Bt expression, but the effect on aflatoxin is, at present, inconclusive. New maize hybrids have been introduced with increased spectra of insect control and higher levels of Bt expression that may provide important tools for mycotoxin reduction and increased yield due to reduced insect feeding, particularly if used together with biocontrol and host plant resistance.

  14. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS). For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax

  15. Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight species and Fusarium mycotoxins in winter wheat in the Netherlands in 2009.

    PubMed

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Rijk, T C; Booij, C J H; Goedhart, P W; Boers, E A M; Zhao, C; Waalwijk, C; Mol, H G J; van der Lee, T A J

    2012-01-01

    Most recent information on the occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight species and related mycotoxins in wheat grown in the Netherlands dates from 2001. This aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and levels of Fusarium Head Blight species and Fusarium mycotoxins, as well as their possible relationships, in winter wheat cultivated in the Netherlands in 2009. Samples were collected from individual fields of 88 commercial wheat growers. Samples were collected at harvest from 86 fields, and 2 weeks before the expected harvest date from 21 fields. In all, 128 samples, the levels of each of seven Fusarium Head Blight species and of 12 related mycotoxins were quantified. The results showed that F. graminearum was the most frequently observed species at harvest, followed by F. avenaceum and M. nivale. In the pre-harvest samples, only F. graminearum and M. nivale were relevant. The highest incidence and concentrations of mycotoxins were found for deoxynivalenol, followed by zearalenone and beauvericin, both pre-harvest and at harvest. Other toxins frequently found--for the first time in the Netherlands--included T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and moniliformin. The levels of deoxynivalenol were positively related to F. graminearum levels, as well as to zearalenone levels. Other relationships could not be established. The current approach taken in collecting wheat samples and quantifying the presence of Fusarium Head Blight species and related mycotoxins is an efficient method to obtain insight into the occurrence of these species and toxins in wheat grown under natural environmental conditions. It is recommended that this survey be repeated for several years to establish inter-annual variability in both species composition and mycotoxin occurrence.

  16. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, metabolism, hematology, and immunocompetence of ducklings.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Sefton, A E; Downey, R; Woodward, B

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance, metabolism, hematology, and immune competence of ducklings. Four hundred sixty-four 1-d-old White Pekin male ducklings were fed starter (0 to 2 wk), grower (3 to 4 wk), and finisher (5 to 6 wk) diets formulated with uncontaminated grains, a low level of contaminated grains, a high level of contaminated grains, or the higher level of contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent. Body weight gains, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were not affected by diet. However, consumption of contaminated grains decreased plasma calcium concentrations after 2 wk and plasma uric acid concentrations at the 4-wk assessment point. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit decreased when ducks were fed contaminated grains for 4 or 6 wk, respectively. In contrast, total numbers of white blood cells and lymphocytes increased transiently in birds fed contaminated grains for 4 wk. The antibody response to sheep red blood cells (CD4+ T cell dependent) and the cell-mediated response to phytohemagglutinin-P (also CD4+ T cell dependent) were not affected by diet, but consumption of contaminated grains for 6 wk decreased the duration of peak cell-mediated response to dinitrochlorobenzene (CD8+ T cell dependent) assessed in a skin test. Feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, even at levels widely regarded as high, exerted only minor adverse effects on plasma chemistry and hematology of ducklings, and production parameters were unaffected in this avian species. Mycotoxin-contaminated feeds may, however, render these animals susceptible to infectious agents such as viruses against which the CD8+ T cell provides necessary defence. Glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent was not effective in preventing alterations caused by Fusarium mycotoxins.

  17. Canine aflatoxicosis outbreak in South Africa (2011): a possible multi-mycotoxins aetiology.

    PubMed

    Mulunda, Mwanza; Ndou, Rendani V; Dzoma, Blessing; Nyirenda, Mathew; Bakunzi, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed 60 dog food samples obtained from commercial outlets following the 2011 aflatoxicosis outbreak in South Africa. Results obtained from the selected dog food samples revealed that 87% of samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs) (mainly AFB1 and AFB2). Amongst these samples, 45 (75%) were above the 20 parts per billion (ppb) set by most countries and 10 ppb regulated by the Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act (Act No. 36 of 1947) for South Africa. In addition to AFs, other mycotoxins were also detected in the same samples with fumonisins (FBs) (mainly FB1 and FB2) contaminating 98% of samples with 49 (81.81) above the tolerable limit of 1000 ppb in feedstuff set up by the Federal Drug Agency (FDA) (USA). The FBs mean obtained was 1556 ppb (Table 1) with contamination varying between 5.2 and 4653.8 ppb. Ochratoxin A (OTA) was detected in 41 (68%) of the analysed samples, with a mean value of 13.7 ppb. Amongst these samples, 15 (25%) were above the 20 ppb highest limit set by the Codex Alimentarius standard. Zearalenone (ZEA) was detected in 96% of samples, with a mean value of 354.1 ppb. Thirty-three samples (55%) were above the regulated level 1000 ppb tolerable limit. The recoveries were up to ten times the tolerable daily limits of the FDA and EU. The correlation between mycotoxin findings and clinical signs reported on patients presented for aflatoxicosis led to the conclusion that the outbreak was associated with the presence of other mycotoxins found simultaneously in the analysed samples by additive or synergistic effects.

  18. Tailoring molecularly imprinted polymer beads for alternariol recognition and analysis by a screening with mycotoxin surrogates.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hany, Rahma A G; Urraca, Javier L; Descalzo, Ana B; Gómez-Arribas, Lidia N; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Orellana, Guillermo

    2015-12-18

    Molecularly imprinted porous polymer microspheres have been prepared for selective binding of alternariol (AOH), a phenolic mycotoxin produced by Alternaria fungi. In order to lead the synthesis of recognition materials, four original AOH surrogates have been designed, prepared and characterized. They bear different number of phenol groups in various positions and different degree of O-methylation on the dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one skeleton. A comprehensive library of mixtures of basic, acidic or neutral monomers, with divinylbenzene or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linkers, were polymerized at a small scale in the presence of the four molecular mimics of the toxin molecule. This polymer screening has allowed selection of the optimal composition of the microbeads (N-(2-aminoethyl)methacrylamide, EAMA, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate). The latter are able to bind AOH in water-acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) with an affinity constant of 109±10mM(-1) and a total number of binding sites of 35±2μmolg(-1), being alternariol monomethylether the only competitor species. Moreover, (1)H NMR titrations have unveiled a 1:2 surrogate-to-EAMA stoichiometry, the exact interaction sites and a binding constant of 1.5×10(4)M(-2). A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been optimized for selective isolation of the mycotoxin from aqueous samples upon a discriminating wash with 3mL of acetonitrile/water (20:80, v/v) followed by determination by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method has been applied, in combination to ultrasound-assisted extraction, to the analysis of AOH in tomato samples fortified with the mycotoxin at five concentration levels (33-110μgkg(-1)), with recoveries in the range of 81-103% (RSD n=6). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first imprinted material capable of molecularly recognizing this widespread food contaminant. PMID:26632518

  19. Effects of feedborne fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Girish, C K; MacDonald, E J; Scheinin, M; Smith, T K

    2008-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a poly-meric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Forty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based diets up to wk 6, formulated with control grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant, and the concentrations were 2.2 and 3.3 mg/kg of feed during starter and grower phases, respectively. Concentrations of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites were measured in discrete regions of the brain including the pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and metabolites analyzed included norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The concentration of 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT-ratio were significantly decreased in pons after feeding contaminated grains. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. In the pons, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) was observed between the concentration of 5-HT and BW gain after feeding contaminated diets. The feeding of contaminated diet had no significant effects on the concentrations of neurotransmitters and metabolites in hypothalamus and cortex. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely altered the pons serotonergic system of turkeys. Supplementation with GMA partially inhibited these effects.

  20. Tailoring molecularly imprinted polymer beads for alternariol recognition and analysis by a screening with mycotoxin surrogates.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hany, Rahma A G; Urraca, Javier L; Descalzo, Ana B; Gómez-Arribas, Lidia N; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Orellana, Guillermo

    2015-12-18

    Molecularly imprinted porous polymer microspheres have been prepared for selective binding of alternariol (AOH), a phenolic mycotoxin produced by Alternaria fungi. In order to lead the synthesis of recognition materials, four original AOH surrogates have been designed, prepared and characterized. They bear different number of phenol groups in various positions and different degree of O-methylation on the dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one skeleton. A comprehensive library of mixtures of basic, acidic or neutral monomers, with divinylbenzene or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linkers, were polymerized at a small scale in the presence of the four molecular mimics of the toxin molecule. This polymer screening has allowed selection of the optimal composition of the microbeads (N-(2-aminoethyl)methacrylamide, EAMA, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate). The latter are able to bind AOH in water-acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) with an affinity constant of 109±10mM(-1) and a total number of binding sites of 35±2μmolg(-1), being alternariol monomethylether the only competitor species. Moreover, (1)H NMR titrations have unveiled a 1:2 surrogate-to-EAMA stoichiometry, the exact interaction sites and a binding constant of 1.5×10(4)M(-2). A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been optimized for selective isolation of the mycotoxin from aqueous samples upon a discriminating wash with 3mL of acetonitrile/water (20:80, v/v) followed by determination by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method has been applied, in combination to ultrasound-assisted extraction, to the analysis of AOH in tomato samples fortified with the mycotoxin at five concentration levels (33-110μgkg(-1)), with recoveries in the range of 81-103% (RSD n=6). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first imprinted material capable of molecularly recognizing this widespread food contaminant.

  1. Distribution of disease symptoms and mycotoxins in maize ears infected by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Ellner, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Red ear rot an important disease of maize cultivated in Europe is caused by toxigenic Fusarium species like Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. To get detailed information on the time course of the infection process leading to the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize ears, a field study was conducted over 2 years with two maize varieties, which were inoculated with F. culmorum or F. graminearum isolates at the stage of female flowering. Every fortnight after inoculation, infection and contamination progress in the ears was followed by visually evaluating disease signs and analysing Fusarium toxin concentrations in the infected ear tissues. In principle, infection and mycotoxin distribution were similar in respect of pathogens, varieties, and years. External infection symptoms showing some small pale or brown-marbled kernels with dark brown pedicels were mainly seen at the ear tip, whereas internal infection symptoms on the rachis were much more pronounced and spread in the upper half showing greyish brownish or pink discoloration of the pith. Well correlated with disease symptoms, a top-down gradient from high to low toxin levels within the ear with considerably higher concentrations in the rachis compared with the kernels was observed. It is suggested that both Fusarium pathogens primarily infect the rachis from the tip toward the bottom, whereas the kernels are subsequently infected via the rachillae connected to the rachis. A special focus on the pronounced disease symptoms visible in the rachis may be an approach to improve the evaluation of maize-genotype susceptibility against red ear rot pathogens. It has to be underlined that the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in the rachis greatly accelerated 6 weeks after inoculation; therefore, highest contamination risk is indicated for feedstuffs containing large amounts of rachis (e.g., corn cob mix), especially when cut late in growing season.

  2. Bacterial Diversity and Mycotoxin Reduction During Maize Fermentation (Steeping) for Ogi Production

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Chiamaka A.; Ezekiel, Chibundu N.; Nwangburuka, Cyril C.; Sulyok, Michael; Ezeamagu, Cajethan O.; Adeleke, Rasheed A.; Dike, Stanley K.; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial diversity and community structure of two maize varieties (white and yellow) during fermentation/steeping for ogi production, and the influence of spontaneous fermentation on mycotoxin reduction in the gruel were studied. A total of 142 bacterial isolates obtained at 24–96 h intervals were preliminarily identified by conventional microbiological methods while 60 selected isolates were clustered into 39 OTUs consisting of 15 species, 10 genera, and 3 phyla by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Lactic acid bacteria constituted about 63% of all isolated bacteria and the genus Pediococcus dominated (white maize = 84.8%; yellow maize = 74.4%). Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus paraplantarum were found at all steeping intervals of white and yellow maize, respectively, while P. claussenii was present only at the climax stage of steeping white maize. In both maize varieties, P. pentosaceus was found at 24–72 h. Mycotoxin concentrations (μg/kg) in the unsteeped grains were: white maize (aflatoxin B1 = 0.60; citrinin = 85.8; cyclopiazonic acid = 23.5; fumonisins (B1/B2/B3) = 68.4–483; zearalenone = 3.3) and yellow maize (aflatoxins (B1/B2/M1) = 22.7–513; citrinin = 16,800; cyclopiazonic acid = 247; fumonisins (B1/B2/B3) = 252–1,586; zearalenone = 205). Mycotoxins in both maize varieties were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced across steeping periods. This study reports for the first time: (a) the association of L. paraplantarum, P. acidilactici, and P. claussenii with ogi production from maize, (b) citrinin occurrence in Nigerian maize and ogi, and (c) aflatoxin M1, citrinin and cyclopiazonic acid degradation/loss due to fermentation in traditional cereal-based fermented food. PMID:26697001

  3. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days. PMID:23409841

  4. Distribution of disease symptoms and mycotoxins in maize ears infected by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Ellner, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Red ear rot an important disease of maize cultivated in Europe is caused by toxigenic Fusarium species like Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. To get detailed information on the time course of the infection process leading to the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize ears, a field study was conducted over 2 years with two maize varieties, which were inoculated with F. culmorum or F. graminearum isolates at the stage of female flowering. Every fortnight after inoculation, infection and contamination progress in the ears was followed by visually evaluating disease signs and analysing Fusarium toxin concentrations in the infected ear tissues. In principle, infection and mycotoxin distribution were similar in respect of pathogens, varieties, and years. External infection symptoms showing some small pale or brown-marbled kernels with dark brown pedicels were mainly seen at the ear tip, whereas internal infection symptoms on the rachis were much more pronounced and spread in the upper half showing greyish brownish or pink discoloration of the pith. Well correlated with disease symptoms, a top-down gradient from high to low toxin levels within the ear with considerably higher concentrations in the rachis compared with the kernels was observed. It is suggested that both Fusarium pathogens primarily infect the rachis from the tip toward the bottom, whereas the kernels are subsequently infected via the rachillae connected to the rachis. A special focus on the pronounced disease symptoms visible in the rachis may be an approach to improve the evaluation of maize-genotype susceptibility against red ear rot pathogens. It has to be underlined that the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in the rachis greatly accelerated 6 weeks after inoculation; therefore, highest contamination risk is indicated for feedstuffs containing large amounts of rachis (e.g., corn cob mix), especially when cut late in growing season. PMID:25904523

  5. Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed ingredients and complete feeds obtained from the Beijing region of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for the control of mycotoxin contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds for swine. Methods A total of 55 feed ingredients, including 14 corn, 13 wheat bran, 11 soybean meal and 17 dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as well as 76 complete swine feeds including 7 creep feeds, 14 starter feeds, 14 grower feeds, 18 grower-finisher feeds, 10 gestating sow feeds, and 13 lactating sow feeds were randomly collected from 15 swine farms located in the Beijing region of China from July to August 2011. Immunoaffinity clean-up, using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in combination with UV or Fluorescence Detection, was used for quantitative analysis of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in the ingredients and complete feeds. Results DON and ZEA were the most prevalent mycotoxins found. DON was detected at percentages of 93, 92, 54, 100 and 97% with a mean level of 1.01, 0.44, 0.05, 1.36 and 0.65 ppm in the samples of corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, DDGS and complete feeds, respectively. The detected percentages of ZEA were 100, 100, 54, 100 and 100 with mean levels of 109.1, 14.9, 9.2, 882.7 and 58.9 ppb in the same samples. In the wheat bran and soybean meal samples, the content of all four mycotoxins were below the maximum limits set by Chinese regulations while the percentage of samples that exceeded regulatory limits were 7, 57 and 7% for corn, and 7, 14 and 3% for the complete feeds for AFB1, DON and OTA respectively. DDGS showed the most serious mycotoxin contamination and the percentage of samples that exceeded regulatory limits were 6, 88 and 41%, for AFB1, DON and ZEA, respectively. Conclusions This paper is the first to present data on the natural occurrence of AFB1, DON, ZEA and OTA in ingredients and complete feeds obtained from swine farms in China’s Beijing region. The data shows that feed ingredients and

  6. Genetic diversity and mycotoxin production of Fusarium lactis species complex isolates from sweet pepper.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Kris; Monbaliu, Sofie; Munaut, Françoise; Heungens, Kurt; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Hove, François

    2012-02-01

    An internal fruit rot disease of sweet peppers was first detected in Belgium in 2003. Research conducted mostly in Canada indicates that this disease is primarily caused by Fusarium lactis Pirotta. Ninety-eight Fusarium isolates obtained from diseased sweet peppers from Belgium, as well as from other countries (Canada, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) were identified by sequencing the translation elongation factor 1α (EF). Of these 98 isolates, 13 were identified as F. oxysporum Schltdl., nine as F. proliferatum (Matsush.) Nirenberg and two belonged to clade 3 of the F. solani species complex. Of the 74 remaining isolates, the EF sequence showed 97% to 98% similarity to F. lactis. Of these isolates, the β-tubulin (TUB), calmodulin (CAM) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes were also sequenced. Analysis of the combined sequences revealed that the 74 isolates share nine combined sequences that correspond to nine multilocus sequence types (STs), while the F. lactis neotype strain and one other strain, both isolated from figs, form a separate ST. Together, these 10 STs represent a monophyletic F. lactis species complex (FLASC). An unusually high level of genetic diversity was observed between (groups of) these STs. Two of them (ST5 and ST6) fulfilled the criteria for species recognition based on genealogical exclusivity and together represent a new monophyletic species lineage (FLASC-1). The seven other STs, together with the F. lactis neotype ST, form a paraphyletic species lineage in the African clade of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC). From each of the 10 STs, the mycotoxin production was assessed using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method. Out of the 27 analyzed mycotoxins, beauvericin and fumonisins were detected in sweet pepper tissue and in maize kernels. The 10 STs clearly differed in the amount of mycotoxin produced, but there was only limited congruence between the production

  7. Mycotoxins in foods in Lower Saxony (Germany): results of official control analyses performed in 2009.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Lilli; Reinhardt, Katja

    2011-05-01

    In this presentation, the mycotoxin levels-as analysed by the analytical centre for mycotoxin surveillance of the state food laboratory (LAVES Braunschweig)-for approximately 500 food samples are reported. The samples were collected in the year 2009 at retail in the German federal state of Lower Saxony. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A were analysed in dried fruits, spices, cereals and tree nuts. Ochratoxin A was detected in all samples of dried vine fruits, at levels up to 8.1 μg/kg. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A were also found in nutmeg and curry powder: the maximum regulatory levels for aflatoxins were exceeded in 25% of the nutmeg samples. Nearly all samples of basmati rice contained aflatoxins, although at levels below the maximum regulatory level in all but one sample. Aflatoxins were also detected in about 50% of hazelnut samples, in 20% of the samples the maximum levels was exceeded (maximum 23.2 μg/kg). In contrast, aflatoxin contents in pistachios were surprisingly low. Fusarium toxins were analysed in cereals and cereal products such as flour, bread, and pasta. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was the predominant toxin found in these samples: DON was found in about 40% of the samples, although the maximum levels were not exceeded (max. 418 μg/kg). Fumonisins (FBs) and zearalenone (ZEA) were specifically analysed in maize products (snacks, flour and oil). Most of these samples (80%) were positive, but at levels not exceeding the maximum levels. Maximum levels were 98 μg/kg (ZEA) and 577 μg/kg (sum of FB1 and FB2). Ergot alkaloids (six major alkaloids) were analysed in rye flour, and approximately 50% were positive. The highest concentration of ergot alkaloids was 1,063 μg/kg; the predominant alkaloids were ergotamine and ergocristine. In conclusion, the results indicate that continuous and efficient control measures for mycotoxins in a wide range of critical foods are necessary to ensure compliance with maximum levels. Although the mycotoxin levels in the vast

  8. Detection and quantitation of t-2 mycotoxin in rat organs by radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hewetson, J.F.; Pace, J.G.; Beheler, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A standard radioimmunoassay was compared with radiochromatography for the ability to detect unlabeled T-2 mycotoxin in organs from exposed animals. When 10% of HT-2, the only known metabolite that cross-reacts with T-2, was included and expressed as T-2 equivalents in the radiochromatographic detection, correlation between toxin detection in liver, spleen, and kidney by the 2 techniques was r = 0.98. An unknown metabolite was detected in heart extract by radiochromatography. Inclusion of this material in the T-2 equivalents detected by radiochromatography indicated a near-perfect correlation among all 4 tissues.

  9. Mycotoxin-induced disease in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Thomas, N.J.; Dein, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, an epizootic in cranes at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA, caused illness in 80% of 300 captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and death of 15 of these cranes. Gross pathology findings were inconclusive and consisted of dehydration, atrophy of fat, renal insufficiency, and small spleens. Extensive testing resulted in isolation of Fusarium sp. mold from constituents of the grain-based diet. Low levels of two mycotoxins, T2 (1-2 ppm) and deoxynivalenol (0.4 ppm), were isolated from the pelleted feed.

  10. Genetic diversity and mycotoxin production of Fusarium lactis species complex isolates from sweet pepper.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Kris; Monbaliu, Sofie; Munaut, Françoise; Heungens, Kurt; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Hove, François

    2012-02-01

    An internal fruit rot disease of sweet peppers was first detected in Belgium in 2003. Research conducted mostly in Canada indicates that this disease is primarily caused by Fusarium lactis Pirotta. Ninety-eight Fusarium isolates obtained from diseased sweet peppers from Belgium, as well as from other countries (Canada, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) were identified by sequencing the translation elongation factor 1α (EF). Of these 98 isolates, 13 were identified as F. oxysporum Schltdl., nine as F. proliferatum (Matsush.) Nirenberg and two belonged to clade 3 of the F. solani species complex. Of the 74 remaining isolates, the EF sequence showed 97% to 98% similarity to F. lactis. Of these isolates, the β-tubulin (TUB), calmodulin (CAM) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes were also sequenced. Analysis of the combined sequences revealed that the 74 isolates share nine combined sequences that correspond to nine multilocus sequence types (STs), while the F. lactis neotype strain and one other strain, both isolated from figs, form a separate ST. Together, these 10 STs represent a monophyletic F. lactis species complex (FLASC). An unusually high level of genetic diversity was observed between (groups of) these STs. Two of them (ST5 and ST6) fulfilled the criteria for species recognition based on genealogical exclusivity and together represent a new monophyletic species lineage (FLASC-1). The seven other STs, together with the F. lactis neotype ST, form a paraphyletic species lineage in the African clade of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC). From each of the 10 STs, the mycotoxin production was assessed using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method. Out of the 27 analyzed mycotoxins, beauvericin and fumonisins were detected in sweet pepper tissue and in maize kernels. The 10 STs clearly differed in the amount of mycotoxin produced, but there was only limited congruence between the production

  11. An intermediary role for the tremorgenic mycotoxin TR-2 in the biosynthesis of verruculogen.

    PubMed

    Willingale, J; Perera, K P; Mantle, P G

    1983-09-15

    14C-Labelled compound TR-2, a tremorgenic mycotoxin, was administered to Penicillium raistrickii in submerged fermentation. Half of the added radiolabel was taken up by the fungus during the 60 h incubation period and the secondary metabolites subsequently isolated, principally verruculogen but also fumitremorgin B, were found to be radiolabelled. The efficiency of biosynthetic incorporation of TR-2 into verruculogen within the mycelium was at least 35%, demonstrating for the first time an intermediary role for TR-2. Fumitremorgin B was also TR-2-derived but may not be an important intermediate in verruculogen biosynthesis. PMID:6626168

  12. An intermediary role for the tremorgenic mycotoxin TR-2 in the biosynthesis of verruculogen.

    PubMed Central

    Willingale, J; Perera, K P; Mantle, P G

    1983-01-01

    14C-Labelled compound TR-2, a tremorgenic mycotoxin, was administered to Penicillium raistrickii in submerged fermentation. Half of the added radiolabel was taken up by the fungus during the 60 h incubation period and the secondary metabolites subsequently isolated, principally verruculogen but also fumitremorgin B, were found to be radiolabelled. The efficiency of biosynthetic incorporation of TR-2 into verruculogen within the mycelium was at least 35%, demonstrating for the first time an intermediary role for TR-2. Fumitremorgin B was also TR-2-derived but may not be an important intermediate in verruculogen biosynthesis. PMID:6626168

  13. On the masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-glucoside. Does the mask truly hide?

    PubMed

    Dellafiora, Luca; Perotti, Alessio; Galaverna, Gianni; Buschini, Annamaria; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    In the matter of foodborne mycotoxins, beside a number of regulated compounds, regulations are totally missing for phase-II plant metabolites--the toxicological knowledge of which is still in its infancy. Currently, zearalenone-14-glucoside is in the pipeline and its toxicological role is under a glowing scientific debate. In our work it clearly showed high toxicological concerns as it is prone to conversion to well-known toxic compounds (i.e. zearalenone and both zearalenol isomers) when exposed to breast cancer cells culture. The need of future risk assessment studies has been pointed out accordingly. PMID:26792714

  14. Presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin in alcoholic drinks from southern European countries: wine and beer.

    PubMed

    Bellver Soto, Julia; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Ruiz, María-José; Juan-García, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The main filamentous fungi producers of mycotoxins are Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Fusarium spp. Their effect can provoke a broad range of toxic properties including carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, as well as reproductive and developmental toxicities. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the risk assessment of OTA in alcoholic drinks (beer and wine) by compiling the results obtained from studies and reviews related to the presence of OTA in these two drinks from southern European countries in the period 2005-2013 and comparing those results with the legislation available in the European Union.

  15. A Fungal Symbiont of Plant-Roots Modulates Mycotoxin Gene Expression in the Pathogen Fusarium sambucinum

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Youssef; McCormick, Susan; Hijri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium trichothecenes are fungal toxins that cause disease on infected plants and, more importantly, health problems for humans and animals that consume infected fruits or vegetables. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling mycotoxin production by fungal pathogens. In this study, we isolated and characterized sixteen Fusarium strains from naturally infected potato plants in the field. Pathogenicity tests were carried out in the greenhouse to evaluate the virulence of the strains on potato plants as well as their trichothecene production capacity, and the most aggressive strain was selected for further studies. This strain, identified as F. sambucinum, was used to determine if trichothecene gene expression was affected by the symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus irregulare. AMF form symbioses with plant roots, in particular by improving their mineral nutrient uptake and protecting plants against soil-borne pathogens. We found that that G. irregulare significantly inhibits F. sambucinum growth. We also found, using RT-PCR assays to assess the relative expression of trichothecene genes, that in the presence of the AMF G. irregulare, F. sambucinum genes TRI5 and TRI6 were up-regulated, while TRI4, TRI13 and TRI101 were down-regulated. We conclude that AMF can modulate mycotoxin gene expression by a plant fungal pathogen. This previously undescribed effect may be an important mechanism for biological control and has fascinating implications for advancing our knowledge of plant-microbe interactions and controlling plant pathogens. PMID:21455305

  16. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health.

  17. Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish-derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers.

    PubMed

    Geiger, M; Guitton, Y; Vansteelandt, M; Kerzaon, I; Blanchet, E; Robiou du Pont, T; Frisvad, J C; Hess, P; Pouchus, Y F; Grovel, O

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the putative toxigenic risk associated with the presence of fungal strains in shellfish-farming areas, Penicillium strains were isolated from bivalve molluscs and from the surrounding environment, and the influence of the sample origin on the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated. Extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillia exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the others. Ten of these strains were grown on various media including a medium based on mussel extract (Mytilus edulis), mussel flesh-based medium (MES), to study the influence of the mussel flesh on the production of cytotoxic compounds. The MES host-derived medium was created substituting the yeast extract of YES medium by an aqueous extract of mussel tissues, with other constituent identical to YES medium. When shellfish-derived strains of fungi were grown on MES medium, extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than on the YES medium for some of the strains. HPLC-UV/DAD-MS/MS dereplication of extracts from Penicillium marinum and P. restrictum strains grown on MES medium showed the enhancement of the production of some cytotoxic compounds. The mycotoxin patulin was detected in some P. antarcticum extracts, and its presence seemed to be related to their cytotoxicity. Thus, the enhancement of the toxicity of extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillium strains grown on a host-derived medium, and the production of metabolites such as patulin suggests that a survey of mycotoxins in edible shellfish should be considered.

  18. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in forage maize during crop growth in Japan: case study.

    PubMed

    Uegaki, R; Tohno, M; Yamamura, K; Tsukiboshi, T; Uozumi, S

    2015-02-01

    We investigated concentrations of mycotoxins during the growth of four cultivars of forage maize (Zea mays L.) in Nasushiobara, Tochigi prefecture, and their distribution in ears of maize grown in Morioka, Iwate prefecture, Japan. In experiment 1, we measured concentrations of naturally occurring fumonisin, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone at progressive crop growth stages. Concentrations of fumonisin in stems+leaves remained very low or not detectable, but those in ears became detectable at 40 days after heading and increased rapidly after 50 days after heading (DAH) (fumonisin B1+B2<3260 μg/kg; mean value at 50-74 days after heading). Concentrations varied widely within cultivars on the same day. Concentrations of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in stems+leaves and in ears were low or not detectable throughout the experiment. In experiment 2, we collected three ears of each cultivar at the late yellow-ripe stage that showed extreme symptoms of Fusarium ear rot. Concentrations of fumonisin were extremely high in the upper half of ears in all cultivars (fumonisin B1+B2 18,000-25,900 μg/kg) but low in the lower half and bracts. Concentrations of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were extremely low or not detectable. These results show that fumonisin concentrations in ears increased rapidly after 50 DAH, they were extremely high in ears of all cultivars with symptoms of Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin was the most common contaminant. These results will help reduce mycotoxin contamination. PMID:25208749

  19. Application of plant derived compounds to control fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in foods.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Patriarca, Andrea

    2013-08-16

    Food decay by spoilage fungi causes considerable economic losses and constitutes a health risk for consumers due to the potential for fungi to produce mycotoxins. The indiscriminate use of synthetic antifungals has led to the development of resistant strains which has necessitated utilization of higher concentrations, with the consequent increase in toxic residues in food products. Numerous studies have demonstrated that plant extracts contain diverse bioactive components that can control mould growth. The metabolites produced by plants are a promising alternative because plants generate a wide variety of compounds, either as part of their development or in response to stress or pathogen attack. The aim of this article is to summarize the results from the literature on in vitro and in vivo experiments regarding the effects of plant-derived products for controlling fungal growth. Data from research work on the mode of action of these metabolites inside the fungal cell and the influence of abiotic external factors such as pH and temperature are also covered in the present review. Furthermore, an analysis on how the stress factor derived from the presence of plant extracts and essential oils affects secondary metabolism of the fungus, specifically mycotoxin synthesis, is developed. Finally, the effectiveness of using plant-derived compounds in combination with other natural antimicrobials and its application in food using novel technologies is discussed.

  20. Arginine acts as an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of several mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Touhami, Najim; Buhl, Katharina; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Geisen, Rolf

    2016-10-17

    It is well known that the type and the availability of nitrogen have a great influence on the biosynthesis of certain mycotoxins. Here it is shown that some amino acids have no influence, some others strongly support and a third group inhibits the biosynthesis of ochratoxin (OTA) by Penicillium nordicum even in a complex medium, such as PDA. Arginine (Arg) is one of the strong OTA inhibiting amino acids. It was shown that Arg not only inhibits OTA in Penicillium but also citrinin (CIT) biosynthesis in Penicillium verrucosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium citrinum and alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) biosynthesis in Alternaria alternata. The minimal inhibitory concentration of Arg differs depending on the mycotoxin and the species analysed. However, the OTA biosynthesis by P. verrucosum and P. nordicum was most sensitive. Growth, on the other hand, was much less affected by Arg. Urea, a metabolite of Arg catabolism, shows a similar inhibitory activity. In wheat medium containing 50mM Arg almost no OTA was produced by Penicillium, in contrast to plain wheat medium. PMID:27400452

  1. Mycoflora and mycotoxins natural occurrence in corn from entre rios province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Am, P; LE, B; Sl, R; Hhl, G

    2001-03-01

    Corn samples were collected in 1999 from three departments of Entre Réos province, Argentina, and were surveyed for mould contamination and natural occurrence ofFusarium mycotoxins, ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.Fusarium verticillioides was the most prevalent fungal species recorded at all departments. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A were not found in any samples. Only one of the 52 corn samples analysed was contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (17 μg/kg). Fumonisin B1 was found in 58 % of samples (range of positive samples: 47- 3,347 μg/kg), fumonisin B2 in 33.0 % (range of positive samples: 23-537 μg/kg) and fumonisin B3 in 25.0 % (range of positive samples: 24-287 μg/kg) of them. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn from Entre Ríos province, Argentina. Levels of fumonisins were lower than detected in other Argentinian provinces. PMID:23605614

  2. Mycoflora and mycotoxins natural occurrence in corn from entre rios province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Am, P; LE, B; Sl, R; Hhl, G

    2001-03-01

    Corn samples were collected in 1999 from three departments of Entre Réos province, Argentina, and were surveyed for mould contamination and natural occurrence ofFusarium mycotoxins, ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.Fusarium verticillioides was the most prevalent fungal species recorded at all departments. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A were not found in any samples. Only one of the 52 corn samples analysed was contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (17 μg/kg). Fumonisin B1 was found in 58 % of samples (range of positive samples: 47- 3,347 μg/kg), fumonisin B2 in 33.0 % (range of positive samples: 23-537 μg/kg) and fumonisin B3 in 25.0 % (range of positive samples: 24-287 μg/kg) of them. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn from Entre Ríos province, Argentina. Levels of fumonisins were lower than detected in other Argentinian provinces. PMID:23605615

  3. Assessment of genotoxic potential of two mycotoxins in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Uysal, Handan; Kızılet, Halit

    2015-03-01

    Mycotoxins, the toxic products of molds, exposure causes serious adverse health problems in human, animals, and crops. Determining the potential genotoxic effects of these substances is, therefore, of great importance. We have evaluated the genotoxic toxicity of two trichothecenes--diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and T-2 toxin--using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. The SMART is based on the principle that the loss of heterozygosis of recessive markers located on the left arm of chromosome 3--multiple wing hairs (mwh) at the map position 0.3 and flare-3 (flr3) at the map position 38.8--may occur through various mechanisms such as mitotic recombination, mutation, deletion, half-translocation, chromosome loss, and nondisjunction. Both the mycotoxins were administered to third instar larvae (72 ± 4 h old) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 μM. Based on our results, DAS and T-2 toxins does not exert genotoxic effects up to a concentration of 40 μM.

  4. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in forage maize during crop growth in Japan: case study.

    PubMed

    Uegaki, R; Tohno, M; Yamamura, K; Tsukiboshi, T; Uozumi, S

    2015-02-01

    We investigated concentrations of mycotoxins during the growth of four cultivars of forage maize (Zea mays L.) in Nasushiobara, Tochigi prefecture, and their distribution in ears of maize grown in Morioka, Iwate prefecture, Japan. In experiment 1, we measured concentrations of naturally occurring fumonisin, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone at progressive crop growth stages. Concentrations of fumonisin in stems+leaves remained very low or not detectable, but those in ears became detectable at 40 days after heading and increased rapidly after 50 days after heading (DAH) (fumonisin B1+B2<3260 μg/kg; mean value at 50-74 days after heading). Concentrations varied widely within cultivars on the same day. Concentrations of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in stems+leaves and in ears were low or not detectable throughout the experiment. In experiment 2, we collected three ears of each cultivar at the late yellow-ripe stage that showed extreme symptoms of Fusarium ear rot. Concentrations of fumonisin were extremely high in the upper half of ears in all cultivars (fumonisin B1+B2 18,000-25,900 μg/kg) but low in the lower half and bracts. Concentrations of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were extremely low or not detectable. These results show that fumonisin concentrations in ears increased rapidly after 50 DAH, they were extremely high in ears of all cultivars with symptoms of Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin was the most common contaminant. These results will help reduce mycotoxin contamination.

  5. Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: An update (2009-2014).

    PubMed

    Turner, Nicholas W; Bramhmbhatt, Heli; Szabo-Vezse, Monika; Poma, Alessandro; Coker, Raymond; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2015-12-11

    Mycotoxins are a problematic and toxic group of small organic molecules that are produced as secondary metabolites by several fungal species that colonise crops. They lead to contamination at both the field and postharvest stages of food production with a considerable range of foodstuffs affected, from coffee and cereals, to dried fruit and spices. With wide ranging structural diversity of mycotoxins, severe toxic effects caused by these molecules and their high chemical stability the requirement for robust and effective detection methods is clear. This paper builds on our previous review and summarises the most recent advances in this field, in the years 2009-2014 inclusive. This review summarises traditional methods such as chromatographic and immunochemical techniques, as well as newer approaches such as biosensors, and optical techniques which are becoming more prevalent. A section on sampling and sample treatment has been prepared to highlight the importance of this step in the analytical methods. We close with a look at emerging technologies that will bring effective and rapid analysis out of the laboratory and into the field.

  6. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  7. Comparison of the efficiency control of mycotoxins by some optical immune biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyshyk, N. F.; Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    It was compared the efficiency of patulin control at the application of such optical biosensors which were based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and nano-porous silicon (sNPS). In last case the intensity of the immune reaction was registered by measuring level of chemiluminescence (ChL) or photocurrent of nPS. The sensitivity of this mycotoxin determination by first type of immune biosensor was 0.05-10 mg/L Approximately the same sensitivity as well as the overall time analysis were demonstrated by the immune biosensor based on the nPS too. Nevertheless, the last type of biosensor was simpler in technical aspect and the cost of analysis was cheapest. That is why, it was recommend the nPS based immune biosensor for wide screening application and SPR one for some additional control or verification of preliminary obtained results. In this article a special attention was given to condition of sample preparation for analysis, in particular, micotoxin extraction from potao and some juices. Moreover, it was compared the efficiency of the above mentioned immune biosensors with such traditional approach of mycotoxin determination as the ELISA-method. In the result of investigation and discussion of obtained data it was concluded that both type of the immune biosensors are able to fulfill modern practice demand in respect sensitivity, rapidity, simplicity and cheapness of analysis.

  8. Porcine/Chicken or Human Nephropathy as the Result of Joint Mycotoxins Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.; Denev, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was made of the literature concerning the occurrence and incidence of mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs and chicks in different countries. Various etiological factors contributing to the development of the disease were considered. The main nephrotoxic fungi as well as the specific conditions for their growth and toxins production were briefly described. A survey was made about the most frequent nephrotoxic fungal contaminants in various feedstuffs from plant origin. In addition, their natural quantities and importance for development of mycotoxic porcine/chick nephropathy (MPN/MCN) are also explored. In addition, a survey was made of the feedstuffs representing the most favorable environment for nephrotoxic fungal growth as well as the most favorable storehouse conditions for this fungal growth were shortly described. The significance of some underestimated fungal species, which can provoke kidney damage, was studied. The importance of joint mycotoxin interaction and newly identified fungal metabolites in the complex etiology of mycotoxic nephropathy ranged in some countries is deeply investigated. The toxicity of the low contamination levels of some combinations of mycotoxins often administered by pigs and chicks in the practice was carefully studied. PMID:24008340

  9. Postharvest and stored corn in Brazil: mycoflora interaction, abiotic factors and mycotoxin occurrence.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, C R; Corrêa, B; Gambale, W; Paula, C R; Chacon-Reche, N O; Meirelles, M C

    1995-01-01

    The mycoflora of 130 samples of postharvest and stored corn was analysed throughout one year. The sample originated from Riberirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The influences of abiotic factors (moisture content, relative humidity, temperature, rainfall) and mycotoxin occurrence were also verified. The isolation of the fungi was performed with Potato Dextrose Agar. Fungi were identified by using standard techniques. The determination of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1) was carried out by thin-layer chromatography. The Fusarium spp. was the most dominant fungi (83.8%) followed by Penicillium spp. (55.3%), Aspergillus spp. (40.7%) and 11 other filamentous fungi. All of these were isolated from grains with moisture contents of 12.3-17.8%, an average temperature of 18.4-24.1 degrees C, a relative humidity between 64.0 and 97.5% and rainfall of up to 337 mm. With regard to the number of colony forming units (cfu), Fusarium spp. was the main contaminant, varying from 545 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(3). The Simple linear correlation analysis showed significant positive correlation of the Fusarium genus with moisture content of grains, and a significant negative correlation in relation to the minimum and medium temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity. The linear correlation of the Penicillium and Aspergillus genera with the abiotic factors was not significant. In the samples analysed only one contained aflatoxin B1.

  10. Zearalenone in the Intestinal Tissues of Immature Gilts Exposed per os to Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Kostecki, Marian; Dąbrowski, Michał; Obremski, Kazimierz; Goliński, Piotr; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone and its metabolites, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, demonstrate estradiol-like activity and disrupt physiological functions in animals. This article evaluates the carryover of zearalenone and its selected metabolites from the digesta to intestinal walls (along the entire intestines) in pre-pubertal gilts exposed to low doses of zearalenone over long periods of time. The term “carryover” describes the transfer of mycotoxins from feed to edible tissues, and it was used to assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure for consumers. The experimental gilts with body weight of up to 25 kg were per os administered zearalenone at a daily dose of 40 μg/kg BW (Group E, n = 18) or placebo (Group C, n = 21) over a period of 42 days. In the first weeks of exposure, the highest values of the carryover factor were noted in the duodenum and the jejunum. In animals receiving pure zearalenone, the presence of metabolites was not determined in intestinal tissues. In the last three weeks of the experiment, very high values of the carryover factor were observed in the duodenum and the descending colon. The results of the study indicate that in animals exposed to subclinical doses of zearalenone, the carryover factor could be determined by the distribution and expression of estrogen receptor beta. PMID:26295259

  11. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins and health risk assessment in the second French total diet study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Fremy, Jean-Marc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2013-02-01

    Mycotoxins are produced in plants by micro-fungi species, and naturally contaminated the food chain. In the second French total diet study (TDS), mycotoxins were analyzed in 577 food samples collected in mainland France to be representative of the population diet and prepared ((as consumed)). Highest mean concentrations were found in wheat and cereal-based products (bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, pastries, pizzas and savoury pastries…). Exposure of adult and child populations was assessed by combining national consumption data with analytical results, using lowerbound (LB) and upperbound (UB) assumptions for left-censorship management. Individual exposures were compared with available health-based guidance values (HBGV). Only the exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives was found to significantly exceed the HBGV in LB in adults (0.5% [0.1; 0.8]) and children (5% [4; 6]). HBGV was exceeded in UB only for T-2 and HT-2 toxins by, respectively, 0.2% [0.02; 0.05] and 4% [3; 5] of adults, and 11% [9; 12] and 35% [32; 37] of children. Although the exposures assessed were generally lower than the previous French TDS, the results indicated a health concern for trichothecenes and a need to reduce dietary exposure as well as analytical limits. PMID:23137957

  12. A fungal symbiont of plant-roots modulates mycotoxin gene expression in the pathogen Fusarium sambucinum.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Youssef; McCormick, Susan; Hijri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium trichothecenes are fungal toxins that cause disease on infected plants and, more importantly, health problems for humans and animals that consume infected fruits or vegetables. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling mycotoxin production by fungal pathogens. In this study, we isolated and characterized sixteen Fusarium strains from naturally infected potato plants in the field. Pathogenicity tests were carried out in the greenhouse to evaluate the virulence of the strains on potato plants as well as their trichothecene production capacity, and the most aggressive strain was selected for further studies. This strain, identified as F. sambucinum, was used to determine if trichothecene gene expression was affected by the symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus irregulare. AMF form symbioses with plant roots, in particular by improving their mineral nutrient uptake and protecting plants against soil-borne pathogens. We found that that G. irregulare significantly inhibits F. sambucinum growth. We also found, using RT-PCR assays to assess the relative expression of trichothecene genes, that in the presence of the AMF G. irregulare, F. sambucinum genes TRI5 and TRI6 were up-regulated, while TRI4, TRI13 and TRI101 were down-regulated. We conclude that AMF can modulate mycotoxin gene expression by a plant fungal pathogen. This previously undescribed effect may be an important mechanism for biological control and has fascinating implications for advancing our knowledge of plant-microbe interactions and controlling plant pathogens.

  13. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  14. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.

  15. Sensitive QD@SiO2-based immunoassay for triplex determination of cereal-borne mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, Natalia V; Foubert, Astrid; Gordienko, Anna; Tessier, Mickael D; Aubert, Tangi; Drijvers, Emile; Goryacheva, Irina; Hens, Zeger; De Saeger, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    A sensitive tool for simultaneous quantitative determination of three analytes in one single well of a microtiter plate is shown for the first time. The developed technique is based on use of colloidal quantum dot enrobed into a silica shell (QD@SiO2) derivatives as a highly responsive label. Silica-coated quantum dots were prepared and subsequently modified via the co-hydrolysis with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and various organosilane reagents. Different surface modification schemes were compared in terms of applicability of the obtained particles for the multiplex immunoassay, e.g. stability and simplicity of their conjugation with biomolecules. As model system a multiplex immunosorbent assay for screening of three mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1) in cereal-based products was realized via a co-immobilization of three different specific antibodies (anti- deoxynivalenol, anti-zearalenone and anti-aflatoxin B1) in one single well of a microtiter plate. Mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by labelling their conjugates with QD@SiO2 emitting in different parts of the visible spectrum. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination were 6.1 and 5.3, 5.4 and 4.1, and 2.6 and 1.9µgkg(-1) for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1 in maize and wheat, respectively. As confirmatory method, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used. PMID:27591588

  16. Occurrence of mycotoxins in livestock feeds and feed stuffs of Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Sarathchandra, G; Muralimanohar, B

    2013-07-01

    The livestock feed and feed ingredients were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, citrinin, penicillic Acid, T2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone. The samples were collected from different livestock farmers/farms of Tamil Nadu. Mycotoxins were determined in all the samples. The present study clearly indicates high occurrence of citrinin highly predominant followed by Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in feedstuffs and feeds. Aflatoxins B1, citrinin, ochratoxin A were the most common mycotoxins observed. The aflatoxin B1 levels ranged between 50 to 80 microg kg(-1), ochratoxin A levels ranged between 20 to 160 microg kg(-1), Citrinin levels ranged between 20 to 350 microg kg(-1), penicillic acid levels ranged between 20 to 30 microg kg(-1), T2 Toxin levels ranged between 75 to 450 microg kg(-1) and zearalenone levels ranged between 150 to 1000 microg kg(-1) respectively. The results of the study warrant the need for sustained monitoring of these commodities periodically and evolve policies which discourage the marketing of toxin contaminated feeds as existing in the developed countries.

  17. Tremorgenic mycotoxins from Aspergillus fumigatus as a possible occupational health problem in sawmills.

    PubMed Central

    Land, C J; Hult, K; Fuchs, R; Hagelberg, S; Lundström, H

    1987-01-01

    Wood-trimmers' disease, generally called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, which affects workers in sawmills, is thought to be caused by fungal diaspores. The importance of Aspergillus fumigatus on the surface of wood dried in kilns is accentuated by its ability to produce tremorgenic mycotoxins. Eight strains of A. fumigatus from five different sawmills were isolated and cultivated on liquid media, and one of the strains was also cultivated on wood blocks. Extracts were prepared, and the tremorgenic reactions were induced by oral administration of extracts to rats. Extracts of the strain grown in liquid medium and on wood blocks induced very strong tremorgenic reactions when administered orally to rats. Four other strains induced mild tremorgenic reactions. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed two tremorgenic mycotoxins, verruculogen and fumitremorgen C, in the five toxic strains. One nontoxic strain produced detectable levels of verruculogen. These results, coupled with the known resemblance of the acutely toxic phase of wood-trimmers' disease to the symptoms produced by these tremorgens, imply that wood-trimmers' disease and similar occupational diseases are, at least in part, mycotoxicoses. PMID:3555338

  18. Tremorgenic mycotoxins from Aspergillus fumigatus as a possible occupational health problem in sawmills.

    PubMed

    Land, C J; Hult, K; Fuchs, R; Hagelberg, S; Lundström, H

    1987-04-01

    Wood-trimmers' disease, generally called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, which affects workers in sawmills, is thought to be caused by fungal diaspores. The importance of Aspergillus fumigatus on the surface of wood dried in kilns is accentuated by its ability to produce tremorgenic mycotoxins. Eight strains of A. fumigatus from five different sawmills were isolated and cultivated on liquid media, and one of the strains was also cultivated on wood blocks. Extracts were prepared, and the tremorgenic reactions were induced by oral administration of extracts to rats. Extracts of the strain grown in liquid medium and on wood blocks induced very strong tremorgenic reactions when administered orally to rats. Four other strains induced mild tremorgenic reactions. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed two tremorgenic mycotoxins, verruculogen and fumitremorgen C, in the five toxic strains. One nontoxic strain produced detectable levels of verruculogen. These results, coupled with the known resemblance of the acutely toxic phase of wood-trimmers' disease to the symptoms produced by these tremorgens, imply that wood-trimmers' disease and similar occupational diseases are, at least in part, mycotoxicoses. PMID:3555338

  19. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  20. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950–2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823