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Sample records for myocardial scar extent

  1. Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI before coronary artery bypass surgery: impact of myocardial scar extent on bypass flow.

    PubMed

    Hunold, Peter; Massoudy, Parwis; Boehm, Claudia; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai; Knipp, Stephan; Eggebrecht, Holger; Thielmann, Matthias; Erbel, Raimund; Jakob, Heinz; Barkhausen, Jörg

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to relate the extent of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiac MRI to intraoperative graft flow in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Thirty-three CAD patients underwent LGE MRI before surgery using an inversion-recovery GRE sequence (turboFLASH). Intraoperative graft flow in Doppler ultrasonography was compared with the scar extent in each coronary vessel territory. One hundred and fourteen grafts were established supplying 86 of the 99 vessel territories. A significant negative correlation was found between scar extent and graft flow (r = -0.4, p < 0.0001). Flow in grafts to territories with no or small subendocardial scar was significantly higher than in grafts to territories with broad nontransmural or transmural scar (75 +/- 39 vs. 38 +/- 26 cc min(-1); p < 0.0001). In summary, the extent of myocardial scar as defined by contrast-enhanced MRI predicts coronary bypass graft flow. Beyond the probability of functional recovery, preoperative MRI might add value to surgery planning by predicting midterm bypass graft patency.

  2. Global and regional longitudinal strain assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography identifies early myocardial dysfunction and transmural extent of myocardial scar in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction and relatively preserved LV function.

    PubMed

    Cimino, S; Canali, E; Petronilli, V; Cicogna, F; De Luca, L; Francone, M; Sardella, G; Iacoboni, C; Agati, L

    2013-08-01

    Global and regional longitudinal strain (GLS-RLS) assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) are considered reliable indexes of left-ventricular (LV) function and myocardial viability in chronic ischaemic patients when compared with delayed-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (DE-CMR). In the present study, we tested whether GLS and RLS could also identify early myocardial dysfunction and transmural extent of myocardial scar in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and relatively preserved LV function. Twenty STEMI patients with LVEF ≥40%, treated with PPCI within 6 h from symptoms onset, underwent DE-CMR and 2D-echocardiography for 2D-STE analysis 6 ± 2 days after STEMI. Wall motion score index (WMSI) and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated by both methods. Infarct size and transmural extent of necrosis were assessed by CMR. GLS and RLS were obtained by 2D-STE. Mean GLS of the study population was -14 ± 3.3, showing a significant correlation with both LVEF and WMSI, by CMR (r = -0.86, P = 0.001, and r = 0.80, P = 0.001, respectively) and time-to-PCI (r = 0.66, P = 0.038). A weaker correlation was found between GLS and LVEF and WMSI assessed by 2D-echo (r = -0.65, P = 0.001, and r = 0.53, P = 0.013, respectively). RLS was significantly lower in DE-segments when compared with normal myocardium (P < 0.0001). A cut-off value of RLS of -12.3% by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified DE-segments (sensitivity 82%, specificity 78%), whereas a cut-off value of -11.5% identified transmural extent of DE (sensitivity 75%, specificity 78%). Our findings indicate that RLS and GLS evaluation provides an accurate assessment of global myocardial function and of the presence of segments with transmural extent of necrosis, with several potential clinical implications.

  3. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, WJ; Clarke, SA; Quinn, TA; Holmes, JW

    2016-01-01

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following an MI, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470

  4. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure.

    PubMed

    Richardson, William J; Clarke, Samantha A; Quinn, T Alexander; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2015-09-20

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure, and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following a myocardial infarction, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Myocardial Scar Detection by Standard CT Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Jeevarethinam, Anand; Venuraju, Shreenidhi; Mehta, Vishal Shahil; Atwal, Satvir; Raval, Usha; Rakhit, Roby; Davar, Joseph; Lahiri, Avijit

    2014-01-01

    We have described a myocardial infarct scar identified by a standard dual source CT coronary angiography (CTCA). We were able to detect the scar during the routine coronary assessment without contrast late enhancement and without additional radiation exposure. It is therefore feasible to assess chronic scar using a standard CTCA technique.

  6. Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging of chronic myocardial infarct scar.

    PubMed

    Horáček, B Milan; Wang, Linwei; Dawoud, Fady; Xu, Jingjia; Sapp, John L

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) scar constitutes a substrate for ventricular tachycardia (VT), and an accurate delineation of infarct scar may help to identify reentrant circuits and thus facilitate catheter ablation. One of the recent advancements in characterization of a VT substrate is its volumetric delineation within the ventricular wall by noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging. This paper compares, in four specific cases, epicardial and volumetric inverse solutions, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with late gadolinium enhancement as a gold standard. For patients with chronic MI, who presented at Glasgow Western Infirmary, delayed-enhancement MRI and 120-lead body surface potential mapping (BSPM) data were acquired and 4 selected cases were later made available to a wider community as part of the 2007 PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge. These data were used to perform patient-specific inverse solutions for epicardial electrograms and morphology-based criteria were applied to delineate infarct scar on the epicardial surface. Later, the Rochester group analyzed the same data by means of a novel inverse solution for reconstructing intramural transmembrane potentials, to delineate infarct scar in three dimensions. Comparison of the performance of three specific inverse-solution algorithms is presented here, using scores based on the 17-segment ventricular division scheme recommended by the American Heart Association. The noninvasive methods delineating infarct scar as three-dimensional (3D) intramural distribution of transmembrane action potentials outperform estimates providing scar delineation on the epicardial surface in all scores used for comparison. In particular, the extent of infarct scar (its percentage mass relative to the total ventricular mass) is rendered more accurately by the 3D estimate. Moreover, the volumetric rendition of scar border provides better clues to potential targets for catheter ablation. Electrocardiographic inverse

  7. Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging of chronic myocardial infarct scar§

    PubMed Central

    Horáček, B. Milan; Wang, Linwei; Dawoud, Fady; Xu, Jingjia; Sapp, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction (MI) scar constitutes a substrate for ventricular tachycardia (VT), and an accurate delineation of infarct scar may help to identify reentrant circuits and thus facilitate catheter ablation. One of the recent advancements in characterization of a VT substrate is its volumetric delineation within the ventricular wall by noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging. This paper compares, in four specific cases, epicardial and volumetric inverse solutions, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with late gadolinium enhancement as a gold standard. Methods For patients with chronic MI, who presented at Glasgow Western Infirmary, delayed-enhancement MRI and 120-lead body surface potential mapping (BSPM) data were acquired and 4 selected cases were later made available to a wider community as part of the 2007 PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge. These data were used to perform patient-specific inverse solutions for epicardial electrograms and morphology-based criteria were applied to delineate infarct scar on the epicardial surface. Later, the Rochester group analyzed the same data by means of a novel inverse solution for reconstructing intramural transmembrane potentials, to delineate infarct scar in three dimensions. Comparison of the performance of three specific inverse-solution algorithms is presented here, using scores based on the 17-segment ventricular division scheme recommended by the American Heart Association. Results The noninvasive methods delineating infarct scar as three-dimensional (3D) intramural distribution of transmembrane action potentials outperform estimates providing scar delineation on the epicardial surface in all scores used for comparison. In particular, the extent of infarct scar (its percentage mass relative to the total ventricular mass) is rendered more accurately by the 3D estimate. Moreover, the volumetric rendition of scar border provides better clues to potential targets for catheter ablation

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Myocardial Scar in a US Cohort.

    PubMed

    Turkbey, Evrim B; Nacif, Marcelo S; Guo, Mengye; McClelland, Robyn L; Teixeira, Patricia B R P; Bild, Diane E; Barr, R Graham; Shea, Steven; Post, Wendy; Burke, Gregory; Budoff, Matthew J; Folsom, Aaron R; Liu, Chia-Ying; Lima, João A; Bluemke, David A

    2015-11-10

    Myocardial scarring leads to cardiac dysfunction and poor prognosis. The prevalence of and factors associated with unrecognized myocardial infarction and scar have not been previously defined using contemporary methods in a multiethnic US population. To determine prevalence of and factors associated with myocardial scar in middle- and older-aged individuals in the United States. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study is a population-based cohort in the United States. Participants were aged 45 through 84 years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline in 2000-2002. In the 10th year examination (2010-2012), 1840 participants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with gadolinium to detect myocardial scar. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were measured at baseline and year 10. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for myocardial scar. Cardiovascular risk factors, CAC scores, left ventricle size and function, and carotid intima-media thickness. Myocardial scar detected by CMR imaging. Of 1840 participants (mean [SD] age, 68 [9] years, 52% men), 146 (7.9%) had myocardial scars, of which 114 (78%) were undetected by electrocardiogram or by clinical adjudication. In adjusted models, age, male sex, body mass index, hypertension, and current smoking at baseline were associated with myocardial scar at year 10. The OR per 8.9-year increment was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.36-1.91; P < .001); for men vs women: OR, 5.76 (95% CI, 3.61-9.17; P < .001); per 4.8-SD body mass index: OR, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.09-1.61, P = .005); for hypertension: OR, 1.61 (95% CI, 1.12-2.30; P = .009); and for current vs never smokers: 2.00 (95% CI, 1.22-3.28; P = .006). Age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted CAC scores at baseline were also associated with myocardial scar at year 10. Compared with a CAC score of 0, the OR for scores from 1 through 99 was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.5-3.9); from

  9. High sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Konno, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Kenshi; Fujino, Noboru; Nagata, Yoji; Hodatsu, Akihiko; Masuta, Eiichi; Sakata, Kenji; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial scarring can be assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and by endomyocardial biopsy. However, accuracy of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens remains unknown in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart reflects microscopic myocardial scarring in the small biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Twenty-one consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who were examined both by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by endomyocardial biopsy were retrospectively studied. The right interventricular septum was the target site for endomyocardial biopsy in all patients. Late gadolinium enhancement in the ventricular septum had an excellent sensitivity (100%) with a low specificity (40%) for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. The sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart remained 100% with a specificity of 27% for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. Quantitative assessments of fibrosis revealed that the extent of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart was the only independent variable related to the microscopic collagen fraction in biopsied specimens (β  =  0.59, 95% confident interval: 0.15 - 1.0, p  =  0.012). Although there was a compromise in the specificity, the sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement was excellent for prediction of microscopic myocardial scarring in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Moreover, the severity of late gadolinium enhancement was independently associated with the quantitative collagen fraction in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These findings indicate that late gadolinium enhancement can reflect both the presence and the extent of microscopic myocardial scarring in the small biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  10. High Sensitivity of Late Gadolinium Enhancement for Predicting Microscopic Myocardial Scarring in Biopsied Specimens in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Kenshi; Fujino, Noboru; Nagata, Yoji; Hodatsu, Akihiko; Masuta, Eiichi; Sakata, Kenji; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocardial scarring can be assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and by endomyocardial biopsy. However, accuracy of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens remains unknown in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart reflects microscopic myocardial scarring in the small biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results Twenty-one consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who were examined both by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by endomyocardial biopsy were retrospectively studied. The right interventricular septum was the target site for endomyocardial biopsy in all patients. Late gadolinium enhancement in the ventricular septum had an excellent sensitivity (100%) with a low specificity (40%) for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. The sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart remained 100% with a specificity of 27% for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. Quantitative assessments of fibrosis revealed that the extent of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart was the only independent variable related to the microscopic collagen fraction in biopsied specimens (β  =  0.59, 95% confident interval: 0.15 – 1.0, p  =  0.012). Conclusions Although there was a compromise in the specificity, the sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement was excellent for prediction of microscopic myocardial scarring in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Moreover, the severity of late gadolinium enhancement was independently associated with the quantitative collagen fraction in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These findings indicate that late gadolinium enhancement can reflect both the presence and the extent of microscopic myocardial scarring in the small biopsied specimens in

  11. Different contribution of extent of myocardial injury to left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in early reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate the influence of the extent of myocardial injury on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in patients after reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Thirty-eight reperfused AMI patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging after percutaneous coronary revascularization. The extent of myocardial edema and scarring were assessed by T2 weighted imaging and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging, respectively. Within a day of CMR, echocardiography was done. Using 2D speckle tracking analysis, LV longitudinal, circumferential strain, and twist were measured. Results Extent of LGE were significantly correlated with LV systolic functional indices such as ejection fraction (r = -0.57, p < 0.001), regional wall motion score index (r = 0.52, p = 0.001), and global longitudinal strain (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). The diastolic functional indices significantly correlated with age (r = -0.64, p < 0.001), LV twist (r = -0.39, p = 0.02), average non-infarcted myocardial circumferential strain (r = -0.52, p = 0.001), and LV end-diastolic wall stress index (r = -0.47, p = 0.003 with e’) but not or weakly with extent of LGE. In multivariate analysis, age and non-infarcted myocardial circumferential strain independently correlated with diastolic functional indices rather than extent of injury. Conclusions In patients with timely reperfused AMI, not only extent of myocardial injury but also age and non-infarcted myocardial function were more significantly related to LV chamber diastolic function. PMID:24512272

  12. Differences in quantitative assessment of myocardial scar and gray zone by LGE-CMR imaging using established gray zone protocols.

    PubMed

    Mesubi, Olurotimi; Ego-Osuala, Kelechi; Jeudy, Jean; Purtilo, James; Synowski, Stephen; Abutaleb, Ameer; Niekoop, Michelle; Abdulghani, Mohammed; Asoglu, Ramazan; See, Vincent; Saliaris, Anastasios; Shorofsky, Stephen; Dickfeld, Timm

    2015-02-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging is the gold standard for myocardial scar evaluation. Heterogeneous areas of scar ('gray zone'), may serve as arrhythmogenic substrate. Various gray zone protocols have been correlated to clinical outcomes and ventricular tachycardia channels. This study assessed the quantitative differences in gray zone and scar core sizes as defined by previously validated signal intensity (SI) threshold algorithms. High quality LGE-CMR images performed in 41 cardiomyopathy patients [ischemic (33) or non-ischemic (8)] were analyzed using previously validated SI threshold methods [Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), n-standard deviation (NSD) and modified-FWHM]. Myocardial scar was defined as scar core and gray zone using SI thresholds based on these methods. Scar core, gray zone and total scar sizes were then computed and compared among these models. The median gray zone mass was 2-3 times larger with FWHM (15 g, IQR: 8-26 g) compared to NSD or modified-FWHM (5 g, IQR: 3-9 g; and 8 g. IQR: 6-12 g respectively, p < 0.001). Conversely, infarct core mass was 2.3 times larger with NSD (30 g, IQR: 17-53 g) versus FWHM and modified-FWHM (13 g, IQR: 7-23 g, p < 0.001). The gray zone extent (percentage of total scar that was gray zone) also varied significantly among the three methods, 51 % (IQR: 42-61 %), 17 % (IQR: 11-21 %) versus 38 % (IQR: 33-43 %) for FWHM, NSD and modified-FWHM respectively (p < 0.001). Considerable variability exists among the current methods for MRI defined gray zone and scar core. Infarct core and total myocardial scar mass also differ using these methods. Further evaluation of the most accurate quantification method is needed.

  13. Speckle-Tracking Layer-Specific Analysis of Myocardial Deformation and Evaluation of Scar Transmurality in Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Tarascio, Michela; Leo, Laura Anna; Klersy, Catherine; Murzilli, Romina; Moccetti, Tiziano; Faletra, Francesco Fulvio

    2017-07-01

    Identification of the extent of scar transmurality in chronic ischemic heart disease is important because it correlates with viability. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether layer-specific two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography allows distinction of scar presence and transmurality. A total of 70 subjects, 49 with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy and 21 healthy subjects, underwent two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance. Scar extent was determined as the relative amount of hyperenhancement using late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in an 18-segment model (0% hyperenhancement = normal; 1%-50% = subendocardial scar; 51%-100% = transmural scar). In the same 18-segment model, peak systolic circumferential strain and longitudinal strain were calculated separately for the endocardial and epicardial layers as well as the full-wall myocardial thickness. All strain parameters showed cutoff values (area under the curve > 0.69) that allowed the discrimination of normal versus scar segments but not of transmural versus subendocardial scars. This was true for all strain parameters analyzed, without differences in efficacy between longitudinal and circumferential strain and subendocardial, subepicardial, and full-wall-thickness strain values. Circumferential and longitudinal strain in normal segments showed transmural and basoapical gradients (greatest values at the subendocardial layer and apex). In segments with scar, transmural gradient was maintained, whereas basoapical gradient was lost because the reduction of strain values in the presence of the scar was greater at the apex. The two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic values distinguish scar presence but not transmurality; thus, they are not useful predictors of scar segment viability. It remains unclear why there is a greater strain value reduction in the presence of a scar at the apical

  14. Left ventricular volume during supine exercise: importance of myocardial scar in patients with coronary heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.L.; Scharf, J.; Ahnve, S.; Gilpin, E.

    1987-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that exercise-induced ischemia produces an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume; however, all of these studies have included patients with previous myocardial infarction. To test whether the end-diastolic volume response to exercise is related to the extent of myocardial scar, the results of gated radionuclide supine exercise tests performed on 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 men aged 35 to 65 years (mean +/- SD 52 +/- 5) with documented coronary heart disease. The extent of myocardial ischemia and scar formation was assessed by stress electrocardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Patients were classified into three groups on the basis of left ventricular end-diastolic volume response at peak exercise: group 1 (n = 72) had an increase of end-diastolic volume greater than 10%, group 2 (n = 41) had a change in end-diastolic volume less than 10% and group 3 (n = 17) had a decrease in end-diastolic volume greater than 10% (n = 17). At rest there was no significant difference among groups in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, end-diastolic (EDVrest) or end-systolic volumes or ejection fraction (p greater than 0.05); however, at peak exercise the end-systolic volume response was significantly greater for group 1 (p less than 0.002).

  15. Quantitative evaluation of ischemic myocardial scar tissue by unenhanced T1 mapping using 3.0 Tesla MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Okur, Aylin; Kantarcı, Mecit; Kızrak, Yeşim; Yıldız, Sema; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Karaca, Leyla; Oğul, Hayri; Sevimli, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to use a noninvasive method for quantifying T1 values of chronic myocardial infarction scar by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and determine its diagnostic performance. We performed cardiac MRI on 29 consecutive patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) on 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. An unenhanced T1 mapping technique was used to calculate T1 relaxation time of myocardial scar tissue, and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. Chronic scar tissue was identified by delayed contrast-enhancement (DE) MRI and T2-weighted images. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were calculated for T1 mapping using DE images as the gold standard. Four hundred and forty-two segments were analyzed in 26 patients. While myocardial chronic scar was demonstrated in 45 segments on DE images, T1 mapping MRI showed a chronic scar area in 54 segments. T1 relaxation time was higher in chronic scar tissue, compared with remote areas (1314±98 ms vs. 1099±90 ms, P < 0.001). Therefore, increased T1 values were shown in areas of myocardium colocalized with areas of DE and normal signal on T2-weighted images. There was a significant correlation between T1 mapping and DE images in evaluation of myocardial wall injury extent (P < 0.05). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy as 95.5%, 97%, and 96%, respectively. The results of the present study reveal that T1 mapping MRI combined with T2-weighted images might be a feasible imaging modality for detecting chronic myocardial infarction scar tissue.

  16. Structural Composition of Myocardial Infarction Scar in Middle-aged Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bogatyryov, Yevgen; Tomanek, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether the structural composition of the scar in middle-aged post–myocardial infraction (MI) rats is affected by the biological sex of the animals. A large MI was induced in 12-month-old male (M-MI) and female (F-MI) Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after the MI, rats with transmural infarctions, greater than 50% of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, were evaluated. The extent of LV remodeling and fractional volumes of fibrillar collagen (FC), myofibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (SM) cells, and surviving cardiac myocytes (CM) in the scars were compared between the two sexes. The left ventricle of post-MI male and female rats underwent a similar degree of remodeling as evidenced by the analogous scar thinning ratio (0.46 ± 0.02 vs. 0.42 ± 0.05) and infarct expansion index (1.06 ± 0.07 vs. 1.12 ± 0.08), respectively. Most important, the contents of major structural components of the scar revealed no evident difference between M-MI and F-MI rats (interstitial FC, 80.74 ± 2.08 vs. 82.57 ± 4.53; myofibroblasts, 9.59 ± 1.68 vs.9.56 ± 1.15; vascular SM cells, 2.27 ± 0.51 vs. 3.38 ± 0.47; and surviving CM, 3.26 ± 0.39 vs. 3.05 ± 0.38, respectively). Our data are the first to demonstrate that biological sex does not influence the structural composition of a mature scar in middle-aged post-MI rats. PMID:23867842

  17. Echocardiography as a Screening Test for Myocardial Scarring in Children with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nield, Lynne; Dragulescu, Andreea; Benson, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is burdened with morbidity and mortality including tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. These complications are attributed in part to the formation of proarrhythmic scars in the myocardium. The presence of extensive LGE is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in HCM. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) is the standard for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial scars. However, echocardiography represents an attractive screening tool for myocardial scarring. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of echocardiography to detect myocardial scars to the standard of cMRI-LGE. Methods. The cMRI studies and echocardiograms from 56 consecutive children with HCM were independently evaluated for the presence of cMRI-LGE and echocardiographic evidence of scarring by expert readers. Results. Echocardiography had a high sensitivity (93%) and negative predictive value (94%) in comparison to LGE. The false positive rate was high, leading to a low specificity (37%) and a low positive predictive value (35%). Conclusions. Given the poor specificity and positive predictive value, echocardiography is not a suitable screening test for the presence of myocardial scarring in children with HCM. However, children without echocardiographic evidence of myocardial scarring may not need to undergo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to “rule in” LGE. PMID:27974896

  18. Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ...

  19. The number of unrecognized myocardial infarction scars detected at DE-MRI increases during a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Themudo, Raquel; Johansson, Lars; Ebeling-Barbier, Charlotte; Lind, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Bjerner, Tomas

    2017-02-01

    In an elderly population, the prevalence of unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) scars found via late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was more frequent than expected. This study investigated whether UMI scars detected with LGE-CMR at age 70 would be detectable at age 75 and whether the scar size changed over time. From 248 participants that underwent LGE-CMR at age 70, 185 subjects underwent a follow-up scan at age 75. A myocardial infarction (MI) scar was defined as late enhancement involving the subendocardium. In the 185 subjects that underwent follow-up, 42 subjects had a UMI scar at age 70 and 61 subjects had a UMI scar at age 75. Thirty-seven (88 %) of the 42 UMI scars seen at age 70 were seen in the same myocardial segment at age 75. The size of UMI scars did not differ between age 70 and 75. The prevalence of UMI scars detected at LGE-CMR increases with age. During a 5-year follow-up, 88 % (37/42) of the UMI scars were visible in the same myocardial segment, reassuring that UMI scars are a consistent finding. The size of UMI scars detected during LGE-CMR did not change over time. • UMI scars detected by LGE-CMR are frequent in elderly. • The prevalence of UMI scars detected with LGE-CMR increases with age. • UMI scar size does not change over time.

  20. Infiltrated cardiac lipids impair myofibroblast-induced healing of the myocardial scar post-myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Casani, Laura; Juan-Babot, Oriol; Guerra, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2012-10-01

    Lipids have been detected in the ischemic myocardium of patients' post-myocardial infarction (MI). However, their effect on the cardiac healing process remains unknown. We investigated whether intramyocardial lipids affect the signaling pathways involved in the fibrotic reparative response impairing cardiac healing post-MI. Pigs, fed either a high-cholesterol diet (HC) or a regular-chow (NC), were subjected to experimentally-induced acute MI (90 min mid-LAD balloon occlusion) and then, upon reperfusion (R), maintained for 21 days with the same diet regime (HC/R(+) and NC/R(+), respectively). A group of hypercholesterolemic animals were sacrificed after ischemia without reperfusion (HC/R(-)). Cardiac tissue was obtained for molecular/cellular/histological analysis. Infarct size and echocardiography were assessed. At the time of acute MI, hypercholesterolemic animals showed a higher incidence of ventricular dysrhythmias. At sacrifice, intramyocardial lipids were absent in HC/R(-). HC/R(+) showed higher lipid content (ApoB, cholesteryl-ester and triglycerides) and lower expression/activity of the TGFβ/TβRII/Smad2/3 pathway (involved in scar reparative fibrosis) than NC/R(+) in the forming scar. Collagen synthesis was accordingly reduced in the scar of HC/R(+). Infarct size was 44% larger in HC/R(+) which had higher apoptosis and lower Akt/eNOS activity in the jeopardized myocardium. Systolic function was similarly deteriorated post-MI in all animals whereas no changes were detected in diastolic-related parameters. No changes were detected in systolic parameters 21 days post-MI in NC/R(+) animals. In contrast, both systolic- and diastolic-related parameters were further deteriorated in HC/R(+) animals. Intramyocardial lipid accumulation impairs TGFβ/TβRII/Smad2/3 signaling altering the fibrotic reparative process of the scar resulting in larger infarcts and cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and distribution of regional scar in dysfunctional myocardial segments in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The segmental relationship between cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) peak circumferential strain (Ecc) and myocardial scar has not been well characterized in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and it is unknown whether echocardiography accurately measures Ecc in DMD. We assessed segmental Ecc and scar using CMR with myocardial tissue tagging and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in patients with DMD, then compared CMR with echocardiographic velocity vector imaging (VVI) for regional Ecc based on independent observer assessments. Results Participants enrolled (n = 16; age 8-23) had median left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction of 0.52 (range 0.28-0.69), and 156 basal and mid-cavity myocardial segments from the 13 patients completing the LGE protocol were analyzed for strain and scar. Segmental CMR Ecc in the most negative quartile (quartile 4) ruled out scar in that segment, but scar was present in 46% of segments in the least negative (most dysfunctional) Ecc quartile 1, 33% of Ecc quartile 2 segments, and 15% of Ecc quartile 3 segments. Overall scar prevalence in inferior, inferolateral, and anterolateral segments was eight times higher than in inferoseptal, anteroseptal, and anterior segments (p < 0.001). This increased proportion of scar in lateral versus septal segments was consistent across CMR Ecc quartiles (quartile 1: 76% versus 11%, p = 0.001; quartile 2: 65% versus 9%, p < 0.001; quartile 3: 38% versus 0%, p < 0.001). Echocardiographic analysis could be performed in 12 of 14 patients with CMR exams and had to be limited to mid-cavity slices. Echo segmental Ecc in the most negative quartile made scar by CMR in that segment highly unlikely, but the correlation in segmental Ecc between CMR and echo was limited (r = 0.27; p = 0.02). Conclusions The relationship between scar and Ecc in DMD is complex. Among myocardial segments with depressed Ecc, scar prevalence was much higher in inferior, inferolateral, and anterolateral segments

  2. Prevalence of and factors associated with myocardial scar in a U.S. Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Evrim B.; Nacif, Marcelo S.; Guo, Mengye; McClelland, Robyn L.; Teixeira, Patricia BRP; Bild, Diane E.; Barr, R. Graham; Shea, Steven; Post, Wendy; Burke, Gregory; Budoff, Matthew; Folsom, Aaron R.; Liu, Chia-Ying; Lima, João A; Bluemke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Myocardial scarring leads to cardiac dysfunction and poor prognosis. The prevalence of and factors associated with unrecognized myocardial infarction and scar have not been previously defined using current methods in a multi-ethnic US population. Objective To determine prevalence of and factors associated with myocardial scar in middle and older aged individuals in the United States (U.S). Design, Setting, and Participants Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a population based cohort in the U.S. MESA participants were 45-84 years old and free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline in 2000-2002. In the 10th year examination of MESA (2010-2012), 1840 participants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with gadolinium to detect myocardial scar. CVD risk factors and coronary artery calcium scores were measured at baseline and year 10. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for myocardial scar. Exposures Cardiovascular risk factors, coronary artery calcium, left ventricle size and function, carotid intima media thickness Main Outcome Measure Myocardial scar detected by CMR. Results Of 1840 participants (mean age 68±9 yrs, 52% male), 146 had myocardial scars (7.9%). Most myocardial scars (114/146, 78%) were undetected by electrocardiogram or by clinical adjudication. In adjusted models, age, male gender, body mass index, hypertension, and current smoking at baseline were associated with myocardial scar at year 10 [OR (95% CI): 1.6 (1.4, 1.9) per 8.9 years, p<0.001; 5.8 (3.6, 9.2) men vs. women, p<0.001; 1.3 (1.1, 1.6) per 4.8 kg/m2, p=0.005, 1.6 (1.1, 2.3) for hypertension present, p=0.009; 2.0 (1.2, 3.3) current vs. never smokers, p=0.006, respectively]. Age, gender and ethnicity adjusted CAC score at baseline was also associated with myocardial scar at year 10 [CAC categories of 1-99, 100-399 and ≥ 400 vs. CAC =0: OR (95% CI): 2.4 (1.5, 3.9), 3.0 (1.7, 5.1), 3.3 (1.7, 6.1), respectively

  3. Computational Representations of Myocardial Infarct Scars and Implications for Arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Adam J.; Bishop, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based computational modeling is becoming an increasingly used clinical tool to provide insight into the mechanisms of reentrant arrhythmias. In the context of ischemic heart disease, faithful representation of the electrophysiological properties of the infarct region within models is essential, due to the scars known for arrhythmic properties. Here, we review the different computational representations of the infarcted region, summarizing the experimental measurements upon which they are based. We then focus on the two most common representations of the scar core (complete insulator or electrically passive tissue) and perform simulations of electrical propagation around idealized infarct geometries. Our simulations highlight significant differences in action potential duration and focal effective refractory period (ERP) around the scar, driven by differences in electrotonic loading, depending on the choice of scar representation. Finally, a novel mechanism for arrhythmia induction, following a focal ectopic beat, is demonstrated, which relies on localized gradients in ERP directly caused by the electrotonic sink effects of the neighboring passive scar. PMID:27486348

  4. Myocardial scar predicts monomorphic ventricular tachycardia but not polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Piers, Sebastiaan R D; Everaerts, Kimberly; van der Geest, Rob J; Hazebroek, Mark R; Siebelink, Hans-Marc; Pison, Laurent A F G; Schalij, Martin J; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M; Heymans, Stephane; Zeppenfeld, Katja

    2015-10-01

    The relation between myocardial scar and different types of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of myocardial scar, assessed by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR), on the occurrence and type of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with NIDCM. Consecutive patients with NIDCM who underwent LGE-CMR and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation at either of 2 centers were included. LGE was defined by signal intensity ≥35% of maximal signal intensity, subdivided into core and border zones (≥50% and 35%-50% of maximal signal intensity, respectively), and categorized according to location (basal or nonbasal) and transmurality. ICD recordings and electrocardiograms were reviewed to determine the occurrence and type of ventricular arrhythmia during follow-up. Of 87 patients (age 56 ± 13 y, 62% male, left ventricular ejection fraction 29% ± 12%), 55 (63%) had LGE (median 6.3 g, interquartile range 0.0-13.8 g). During a median follow-up of 45 months, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred in 18 patients (21%) and polymorphic VT/ventricular fibrillation (VF) in 10 (11%). LGE predicted monomorphic VT (log-rank, P < .001), but not polymorphic VT/VF (log-rank, P = .40). The optimal cutoff value for the extent of LGE to predict monomorphic VT was 7.2 g (area under curve 0.84). Features associated with monomorphic VT were core extent, basal location, and area with 51%-75% LGE transmurality. Myocardial scar assessed by LGE-CMR predicts monomorphic VT, but not polymorphic VT/VF, in NIDCM. The risk for monomorphic VT is particularly high when LGE shows a basal transmural distribution and a mass ≥7.2 g. Importantly, patients without LGE on CMR remain at risk for potentially fatal polymorphic VT/VF. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional measurements based on feature tracking of cine magnetic resonance images identify left ventricular segments with myocardial scar

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to perform a feature tracking analysis on cine magnetic resonance (MR) images to elucidate if functional measurements of the motion of the left ventricular wall may detect scar defined with gadolinium enhanced MR. Myocardial contraction can be measured in terms of the velocity, displacement and local deformation (strain) of a particular myocardial segment. Contraction of the myocardial wall will be reduced in the presence of scar and as a consequence of reduced myocardial blood flow. Methods Thirty patients (3 women and 27 men) were selected based on the presence or absence of extensive scar in the anteroseptal area of the left ventricle. The patients were investigated in stable clinical condition, 4-8 weeks post ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Seventeen had a scar area >75% in at least one anteroseptal segment (scar) and thirteen had scar area <1% (non-scar). Velocity, displacement and strain were calculated in the longitudinal direction, tangential to the endocardial outline, and in the radial direction, perpendicular to the tangent. Results In the scar patients, segments with scar showed lower functional measurements than remote segments. Radial measurements of velocity, displacement and strain performed better in terms of receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC) than the corresponding longitudinal measurements. The best area-under-curve was for radial strain, 0.89, where a cut-off value of 38.8% had 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity for the detection of a segment with scar area >50%. As a percentage of the mean, intraobserver variability was 16-14-26% for radial measurements of displacement-velocity-strain and corresponding interobserver variability was 13-12-18%. Conclusion Feature tracking analysis of cine-MR displays velocity, displacement and strain in the radial and longitudinal direction and may be used for the detection of transmural scar. The accuracy and

  6. Comparison of Electrocardiography Markers and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography for Assessment of Left Ventricular Myocardial Scar Burden in Patients With Previous Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Nestaas, Eirik; Shih, Jhih-Yuan; Smedsrud, Marit K; Gjesdal, Ola; Hopp, Einar; Haugaa, Kristina H; Edvardsen, Thor

    2017-05-01

    Myocardial scar burden is an important prognostic factor after myocardial infarction. This cohort study compared assessment of left ventricle scar burden between pathological Q waves on electrocardiography (ECG), Selvester multiparametric ECG scoring system for scar burden, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) by speckle-tracking echocardiography 6 months after myocardial infarction. The scar burden was defined by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance as fraction of total left ventricle tissue. ECG measures were presence of pathologic Q waves and Selvester scores. GLS was the average of peak strain from 16 left ventricle segments. In 34 patients aged 58 ± 10 years (mean ± SD), the scar burden was 19% (9, 26) (median [quartiles]) and 79% had scar burden >5%. Patients with scar burden >5% more frequently had pathologic Q waves (63% vs 14%) and had worse Selvester scores (5 [3, 7] vs 0 [0, 1]) and worse GLS (-16.6 ± 2.4% vs -19.9 ± 1.1%). Pathologic Q waves, Selvester scores, ejection fraction, and GLS related to scar burden in univariable analyses. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting scar burden >5% was 63% and 86% (pathologic Q waves), 89% and 86% (Selvester score), 81% and 86% (ejection fraction), 89% and 86% (GLS), and 96% and 71% (combination of Q waves, Selvester score, and GLS). In conclusion, Selvester score and GLS related to scars 6 months after myocardial infarction, and pathologic Q waves were only weakly associated with scar and GLS was associated with scar independently of ECG markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupled agent-based and finite-element models for predicting scar structure following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rouillard, Andrew D; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2014-08-01

    Following myocardial infarction, damaged muscle is gradually replaced by collagenous scar tissue. The structural and mechanical properties of the scar are critical determinants of heart function, as well as the risk of serious post-infarction complications such as infarct rupture, infarct expansion, and progression to dilated heart failure. A number of therapeutic approaches currently under development aim to alter infarct mechanics in order to reduce complications, such as implantation of mechanical restraint devices, polymer injection, and peri-infarct pacing. Because mechanical stimuli regulate scar remodeling, the long-term consequences of therapies that alter infarct mechanics must be carefully considered. Computational models have the potential to greatly improve our ability to understand and predict how such therapies alter heart structure, mechanics, and function over time. Toward this end, we developed a straightforward method for coupling an agent-based model of scar formation to a finite-element model of tissue mechanics, creating a multi-scale model that captures the dynamic interplay between mechanical loading, scar deformation, and scar material properties. The agent-based component of the coupled model predicts how fibroblasts integrate local chemical, structural, and mechanical cues as they deposit and remodel collagen, while the finite-element component predicts local mechanics at any time point given the current collagen fiber structure and applied loads. We used the coupled model to explore the balance between increasing stiffness due to collagen deposition and increasing wall stress due to infarct thinning and left ventricular dilation during the normal time course of healing in myocardial infarcts, as well as the negative feedback between strain anisotropy and the structural anisotropy it promotes in healing scar. The coupled model reproduced the observed evolution of both collagen fiber structure and regional deformation following coronary

  8. Integration of myocardial scar identified by preoperative delayed contrast-enhanced MRI into a high-resolution mapping system for planning and guidance of VT ablation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Suzuki, A.; Wang, S.; Pottinger, N.; Arter, J.; Netzer, A.; Parker, K.; Viker, K.; Packer, D. L.

    2017-03-01

    Myocardial scarring creates a substrate for reentrant circuits which can lead to ventricular tachycardia. In ventricular catheter ablation therapy, regions of myocardial scarring are targeted to interrupt arrhythmic electrical pathways. Low voltage regions are a surrogate for myocardial scar and are identified by generating an electro anatomic map at the start of the procedure. Recent efforts have focussed on integration of preoperative scar information generated from delayed contrast-enhanced MR imaging to augment intraprocedural information. In this work, we describe an initial feasibility study of integration of a preoperative MRI derived scar maps into a high-resolution mapping system to improve planning and guidance of VT ablation procedures.

  9. Multielectrode contact mapping to assess scar modification in post-myocardial infarction ventricular tachycardia patients.

    PubMed

    Della Bella, Paolo; Bisceglia, Caterina; Tung, Roderick

    2012-08-01

    Substrate-based approaches for ablation of unmappable ventricular tachycardia (VT) are strictly dependent on high-density mapping of the scar. Ultra-high-density mapping with multielectrode catheters facilitates an accurate and faster definition of sites critical for re-entry, due to the possibility of simultaneous recordings of local potential from different pairs of electrodes. Multipolar catheters can be advanced to map the endocardial or the epicardial surface. A strong correlation between the scar area determined by electroanatomical mapping and the histopathological scar size has been demonstrated. A double-transeptal technique allows for an accurate definition of target sites. The complex scar architecture has been investigated by ultra-high-density mapping, let the identification of islets of heterogeneity where electrograms adjacent to the preserved myocardium have an higher incidence of late potentials. Pacing manoeuvres can easily be performed from any pair of electrode, to demonstrate the involvement of late potentials into the VT circuit. This strategy allows for a clear-cut validation of late potential abolishment, and may offer advantages to shorten procedural and fluoroscopy times. Large series are necessary to definitively assess the potential role of multielectrode mapping as a guide for the substrate ablation approach in post-myocardial infarction VT patients.

  10. Morphologic and functional effects of piroxicam on myocardial scar formation after coronary occlusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, H; Alker, K J; Schoen, F J; Kloner, R A

    1984-02-01

    To determine whether piroxicam, a widely used, long-acting anti-inflammatory agent, causes scar thinning after acute myocardial infarction (MI), MI was produced in 16 anesthetized, open-chest dogs by ligation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. The dogs were randomized into 2 groups and treated in a blinded fashion, 8 with piroxicam, 1 mg/kg i.v. at 15 minutes and at 3 hours after ligation (Group 1) and 8 with saline solution (Group 2). Two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed 7 days and 6 weeks after ligation. At 6 weeks, the dogs were killed and the hearts examined. Scar thickness was 7.1 +/- 0.3 mm in control dogs and 5.2 +/- 0.4 mm in piroxicam-treated dogs (p less than 0.01). The ratio of scar thickness to noninfarcted wall thickness was 0.87 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) in the control group, and was significantly lower (0.62 +/- 0.04) in the piroxicam-treated group (p less than 0.001). Regional function, expressed as the percent change in the area of the left ventricular cavity (% delta A) from short-axis 2-dimensional echocardiograms, was 42 +/- 3% 7 days after occlusion in the control group and was not significantly different in the treated group (34 +/- 5%). At the end of 6 weeks % delta A had improved in the piroxicam-treated group to 44 +/- 3% (p less than 0.05 compared with the value after 7 days), and was similar to % delta A of the control group at 6 weeks (43 +/- 3%). Thus, clinical doses of piroxicam administered early after MI caused moderate scar thinning, which was not associated with impairment of regional left ventricular function 6 weeks later.

  11. Meltwater channel scars and the extent of Mid-Pleistocene glaciation in central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Ben

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution digital topographic data permit morphological analyses of glacial processes in detail that was previously infeasible. High-level glaciofluvial erosional scars in central Pennsylvania, identified and delimited using LiDAR data, define the approximate ice depth during a pre-Wisconsin advance, > 770,000 BP, on a landscape unaffected by Wisconsin glaciation. Distinctive scars on the prows of anticlinal ridges at 175-350 m above the valley floor locate the levels of subice meltwater channels. A two-component planar GIS model of the ice surface is derived using these features and intersected with a digital model of contemporary topography to create a glacial limit map. The map is compared to published maps, demonstrating the limits of conventional sediment-based mapping. Additional distinctive meltwater features that were cut during deglaciation are modeled in a similar fashion.

  12. Effect of Scar Compaction on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Anisotropic Reinforcement Following Myocardial Infarction in the Dog.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Samantha A; Goodman, Norman C; Ailawadi, Gorav; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac restraint devices have been used following myocardial infarction (MI) to limit left ventricular (LV) dilation, although isotropic restraints have not been shown to improve post-MI LV function. We have previously shown that anisotropic reinforcement of acute infarcts dramatically improves LV function. This study examined the effects of chronic, anisotropic infarct restraint on LV function and remodeling. Hemodynamics, infarct scar structure, and LV volumes were measured in 28 infarcted dogs (14 reinforced, 14 control). Longitudinal restraint reduced 48-h LV volumes, but no differences in LV volume, function, or infarct scar structure were observed after 8 weeks of healing. All scars underwent substantial compaction during healing; we hypothesize that compaction negated the effects of restraint therapy by mechanically unloading the restraint device. Our results lend support to the concept of adjustable restraint devices and suggest that scar compaction may explain some of the variability in published studies of local infarct restraint.

  13. Evidence of myocardial scarring and microvascular obstruction on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a series of patients presenting with myocardial infarction without obstructed coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Jeannine A J M; van Es, Jan; von Birgelen, Clemens; Op den Akker, Jeroen W; Wagenaar, Lodewijk J

    2014-08-01

    Patients with acute chest pain, electrocardiographic ST-elevation and significant elevation of cardiac troponin but without obstructive coronary artery disease represent a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can elucidate underlying alternative causes of troponin elevation including detection of (minor) myocardial infarction (MI) by identifying myocardial scarring as delayed enhancement. Of 77 patients, who were admitted between March 2009 and December 2012 with electrocardiographic (ECG) and biochemical evidence of acute MI without obstructive coronary artery disease, 45 patients underwent CMR that showed in 11/77 (14%) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), compatible with myocardial scarring. We analyzed clinical, echocardiographic, and CMR data of these patients. Elevated troponin I levels were observed in all patients (median 1.3 ng/l, IQR 0.44-187) with median peak creatinine phosphokinase of 485 U/l (IQR 234-618). Echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities were detected in 8/11 (73%) patients; in 75% of these segments, ECG abnormalities were observed in corresponding leads. CMR detected LGE in the inferior (4/11), the inferolateral (5/11), the inferoseptal (2/11), the anterior (3/11), apical (3/11) and in the lateral segments (2/11). In addition, in all but two patients, these segments matched ECG abnormalities in corresponding leads. CMR identified microvascular obstruction in 4/11 (36%) patients. Patients with clinical, ECG, and biochemical signs of acute MI but unobstructed coronary arteries may have CMR-detectable myocardial scars. Information on myocardial scarring may help to make the diagnosis and draw therapeutic consequences. This case series underlines the value of contrast-enhanced CMR for myocardial tissue characterization.

  14. Acute Myocardial Infarct Size Is Related to Periodontitis Extent and Severity

    PubMed Central

    Marfil-Álvarez, R.; Mesa, F.; Arrebola-Moreno, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, J.A.; Magán-Fernández, A.; O’Valle, F.; Galindo-Moreno, P.; Catena, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has been associated with 40% of deaths in high-income countries and 28% in lower-income countries. The relationship between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction is well documented, but it has not been established whether the extent and severity of periodontitis influence the infarct size. This cross-sectional and analytic study was designed to investigate the association of chronic periodontitis extent and severity with acute myocardial infarct size as indicated by serum cardiac troponin I and myoglobin levels. Sociodemographic, periodontal, cardiologic, and hematologic variables were gathered in 112 consecutive patients with myocardial infarction. The extent (Arbes Index) and severity (Periodontal Inflammatory Severity Index) of the chronic periodontitis were significantly associated with troponin I levels after controlling for sociodemographic and clinical confounders (change in R2 = .041, p < .02, and R2 = .031, p = .04). However, only the extent index accounted for levels of myoglobin (change in R2 = .030, p < .05), total leukocytes (change in R2 = .041 p < .02), and neutrophils (change in R2 = .059, p < .01). Mediated regression analysis showed that leukocytes and neutrophils may underlie these observed relationships of chronic periodontitis with troponin I and myoglobin. To our knowledge, this study contributes the first research data demonstrating that the extent and severity of periodontitis is positively associated with acute myocardial infarct size as measured by serum troponin I and myoglobin levels. PMID:25139359

  15. Prognostic Implication of the QRS Axis and its Association with Myocardial Scarring in Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Soon; Cha, Myung-jin; Choi, Eue-Keun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Left bundle branch block (LBBB) with left axis deviation (LAD) has a worse prognosis than LBBB with a normal axis, and myocardial dysfunction has been suggested as a cause of left axis deviation. This study investigated the prognostic significance of the QRS axis in patients with LBBB and analyzed its relationship with the amount of myocardial scarring. Subjects and Methods A total of 829 patients were diagnosed with LBBB at Seoul National University Hospital from October 2004 to June 2014. Of these, 314 who were asymptomatic and had no previous history of cardiac disease were included in the present study. Myocardial scarring was calculated using the Selvester QRS scoring system, and LAD was defined as a QRS axis between -180° and -30°. Results Of the total patients, 91 (29%) had LAD, and patients were followed for a median of 30 months. During follow-up, two patients were hospitalized for de novo heart failure, four had pacemaker implants, and 10 died. There was a significant inverse correlation between myocardial scar score and the QRS axis (r=-0.356, p<0.001). Patients with concomitant LAD had a higher rate of major cardiac adverse events compared with patients with a normal axis (5.5% vs. 1.3%, log-rank p=0.010); the prognostic value was attenuated in multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 4.117; 95% confidence interval 0.955-17.743; p=0.058). Conclusion Concomitant LAD is an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with LBBB and may be associated with greater myocardial scarring. PMID:28382083

  16. Subacute and Chronic Left Ventricular Myocardial Scar: Accuracy of Texture Analysis on Nonenhanced Cine MR Images.

    PubMed

    Baessler, Bettina; Mannil, Manoj; Oebel, Sabrina; Maintz, David; Alkadhi, Hatem; Manka, Robert

    2017-08-23

    Purpose To test whether texture analysis (TA) allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic myocardial infarction (MI) on noncontrast material-enhanced cine cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 120 patients who underwent cardiac MR imaging and showed large transmural (volume of enhancement on late gadolinium enhancement [LGE] images >20%, n = 72) or small (enhanced volume ≤20%, n = 48) subacute or chronic ischemic scars were included. Sixty patients with normal cardiac MR imaging findings served as control subjects. Regions of interest for TA encompassing the left ventricle were drawn by two blinded, independent readers on cine images in end systole by using a freely available software package. Stepwise dimension reduction and texture feature selection based on reproducibility, machine learning, and correlation analyses were performed for selecting features, enabling the diagnosis of MI on nonenhanced cine MR images by using LGE imaging as the standard of reference. Results Five independent texture features allowed for differentiation between ischemic scar and normal myocardium on cine MR images in both subgroups: Teta1, Perc.01, Variance, WavEnHH.s-3, and S(5,5)SumEntrp (in patients with large MI: all P values < .001; in patients with small MI: Teta1 and Perc.01, P < .001; Variance, P = .026; WavEnHH.s-3, P = .007; S[5,5]SumEntrp, P = .045). Multiple logistic regression models revealed that combining the features Teta1 and Perc.01 resulted in the highest accuracy for diagnosing large and small MI on cine MR images, with an area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion This proof-of-concept study indicates that TA of nonenhanced cine MR images allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic MI with high accuracy. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Paced QRS duration and myocardial scar amount: predictors of long-term outcome of right ventricular apical pacing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Cha, Myung-Jin; Cho, Youngjin; Oh, Il-Young; Choi, Eue-Keun; Oh, Seil

    2016-07-01

    Long-term right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) is reportedly associated with heart failure (HF) development. However, the predictors of pacing-induced HF (PHF) remained unclear. We retrospectively enrolled 234 patients without structural heart disease who underwent a permanent pacemaker implantation with RVAP between 1982 and 2004. RVAP-induced HF was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction decrease >5 % with HF symptom without other HF development etiology. The QRS duration of a paced beat (pQRSd) and myocardial scar score were analyzed from each patient's 12-lead ECG. During a mean 15.6 years (range 3.3-30.0 years), 48 patients (20.5 %) patients developed RVAP-induced HF. The PHF group patients had a longer pQRSd (192.4 ± 13.5 vs. 175.7 ± 14.7 ms in non-PHF patients, p < 0.001) and a higher myocardial scar score (5.2 ± 1.9 vs. 2.7 ± 1.9, respectively p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, old age at implantation [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95 % confidential interval (CI) 1.22-2.16, p = 0.001], a longer pQRSd (HR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.15-2.05, p = 0.003), a higher myocardial scar score (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.03-1.49, p = 0.037), and a higher percentage of ventricular pacing (HR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.01-1.49, p = 0.010) were independent predictors of PHF. Based on the results of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the pQRSd cutoff was 185 ms (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 66.7 %, specificity 76.3 %) and myocardial scar score cutoff value was 4 (AUC 0.81, sensitivity 81.3 %, specificity 66.1 %). The pQRSd was positively correlated with scar score (r = 0.70, p < 0.001). pQRSd ≥185 ms and/or myocardial scar score ≥4 might be independent long-term prognostic markers of PHF.

  18. Speckle-tracking echocardiography correctly identifies segmental left ventricular dysfunction induced by scarring in a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Popović, Zoran B; Benejam, Carlos; Bian, Jing; Mal, Niladri; Drinko, Jeannie; Lee, Kwangdeok; Forudi, Farhad; Reeg, Rachel; Greenberg, Neil L; Thomas, James D; Penn, Marc S

    2007-06-01

    Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) uses a two-dimensional echocardiographic image to estimate two orthogonal strain components. The aim of this study was to assess sensitivity of circumferential (S(circ)) and radial (S(rad)) strains to infarct-induced left ventricular (LV) remodeling and scarring of the LV in a rat. To assess the relationship among S(circ), S(rad), and scar size, two-dimensional echocardiographic LV short-axis images (12 MHz transducer, Vivid 7 echo machine) were collected in 34 Lewis rats 4 to 10 wk after ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Percent segmental fibrosis was assessed from histological LV cross sections stained by Masson trichrome. Ten normal rats served as echocardiographic controls. S(circ) and S(rad) were assessed by STE. Histological data showed consistent scarring of anterior and lateral segments with variable extension to posterior and inferior segments. Both S(circ) and S(rad) significantly decreased after myocardial infarction (P<0.0001 for both). As anticipated, S(circ) and S(rad) were lowest in the infarcted segments. Multiple linear regression showed that segmental S(circ) were similarly dependent on segmental fibrosis and end-systolic diameter (P<0.0001 for both), whereas segmental S(rad) measurements were more dependent on end-systolic diameter (P<0.0001) than on percent fibrosis (P<0.002). STE correctly identifies segmental LV dysfunction induced by scarring that follows myocardial infarction in rats.

  19. Evaluation of the use of unipolar voltage amplitudes for detection of myocardial scar assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Mafi-Rad, Masih; Conte, Giulio; Zeemering, Stef; Regoli, François; Caputo, Maria Luce; van Stipdonk, Antonius M. W.; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C. A. M.; Suerder, Daniel; Moccetti, Tiziano; Krause, Rolf; Prinzen, Frits W.; Vernooy, Kevin; Auricchio, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Background Validation of voltage-based scar delineation has been limited to small populations using mainly endocardial measurements. The aim of this study is to compare unipolar voltage amplitudes (UnipV) with scar on delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (DE-CMR). Methods Heart failure patients who underwent DE-CMR and electro-anatomic mapping were included. Thirty-three endocardial mapped patients and 27 epicardial mapped patients were investigated. UnipV were computed peak-to-peak. Electrograms were matched with scar extent of the corresponding DE-CMR segment using a 16-segment/slice model. Non-scar was defined as 0% scar, while scar was defined as 1–100% scar extent. Results UnipVs were moderately lower in scar than in non-scar (endocardial 7.1 [4.6–10.6] vs. 10.3 [7.4–14.2] mV; epicardial 6.7 [3.6–10.5] vs. 7.8 [4.2–12.3] mV; both p<0.001). The correlation between UnipV and scar extent was moderate for endocardial (R = -0.33, p<0.001), and poor for epicardial measurements (R = -0.07, p<0.001). Endocardial UnipV predicted segments with >25%, >50% and >75% scar extent with AUCs of 0.72, 0.73 and 0.76, respectively, while epicardial UnipV were poor scar predictors, independent of scar burden (AUC = 0.47–0.56). UnipV in non-scar varied widely between patients (p<0.001) and were lower in scar compared to non-scar in only 9/22 (41%) endocardial mapped patients and 4/19 (21%) epicardial mapped patients with scar. Conclusion UnipV are slightly lower in scar compared to non-scar. However, significant UnipV differences between and within patients and large overlap between non-scar and scar limits the reliability of accurate scar assessment, especially in epicardial measurements and in segments with less than 75% scar extent. PMID:28678875

  20. Myocardial Scar Identified by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Predict Left Ventricular Functional Improvement after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Han-Song; Tang, Yue; Pan, Shi-Wei; Zhao, Shi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that viable myocardium predicts recovery of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after revascularization. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of myocardial scar assessed by late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR) on functional recovery in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods From November 2009 to September 2012, 63 patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) referred for first-time isolated CABG were prospectively enrolled, 52 were included in final analysis. LV functional parameters and scar tissue were assessed by LGE-CMR at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Patency of grafts was evaluated by computed tomography angiography (CTA) 6 months post-CABG. Predictors for global functional recovery were analyzed. Results The baseline LVEF was 32.7±9.2%, which improved to 41.6±11.0% 6 months later and 32/52 patients improved LVEF by ≥5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant negative predictor for global functional recovery was the number of scar segments (Odds ratio 2.864, 95% Confidence Interval 1.172–6.996, p = 0.021). Receiver-Operator-Characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that ≤4 scar segments predicted global functional recovery with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.0% and 87.5%, respectively (AUC = 0.91, p<0.001). Comparison of ROC curves also indicated that scar tissue was superior to viable myocardium in predicting cardiac functional recovery (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings indicated that scar tissue on LGE-CMR is an independent negative predictor of cardiac functional recovery in patients with impaired LV function undergoing CABG. These observations may be helpful for clinicians and cardiovascular surgeons to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from surgical revascularization. PMID:24358136

  1. Exercise attenuates inflammation and limits scar thinning after myocardial infarction in mice.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Sarah-Lena; Müller, Andreas; Wagner, Michael; Devaux, Yvan; Böhm, Michael; Wagner, Daniel R; Maack, Christoph

    2015-07-15

    Although exercise mediates beneficial effects in patients after myocardial infarction (MI), the underlying mechanisms as well as the question of whether an early start of exercise after MI is safe or even beneficial are incompletely resolved. The present study analyzed the effects of exercise before and reinitiated early after MI on cardiac remodeling and function. Male C57BL/6N mice were housed sedentary or with the opportunity to voluntarily exercise for 6 wk before MI induction (ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery) or sham operation. After a 5-day exercise-free phase after MI, mice were allowed to reexercise for another 4 wk. Exercise before MI induced adaptive hypertrophy with moderate increases in heart weight, cardiomyocyte diameter, and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, but without fibrosis. In sedentary mice, MI induced eccentric LV hypertrophy with massive fibrosis but maintained systolic LV function. While in exercised mice gross LV end-diastolic volumes and systolic function did not differ from sedentary mice after MI, LV collagen content and thinning of the infarcted area were reduced. This was associated with ameliorated activation of inflammation, mediated by TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as reduced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9. In contrast, no differences in the activation patterns of various MAPKs or adenosine receptor expressions were observed 5 wk after MI in sedentary or exercised mice. In conclusion, continuous exercise training before and with an early reonset after MI ameliorates adverse LV remodeling by attenuating inflammation, fibrosis, and scar thinning. Therefore, an early reonset of exercise after MI can be encouraged. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. High-sensitivity troponin T predicts infarct scar characteristics and adverse left ventricular function by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging early after reperfused acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan L; Phan, Justin A K; Hee, Leia; Moses, Daniel A; Otton, James; Terreblanche, Owen D; Xiong, Jessica; Premawardhana, Upul; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Juergens, Craig P; Dimitri, Hany R; French, John K; Richards, David A B; Thomas, Liza

    2015-10-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is the current standard for evaluation of myocardial infarct scar size and characteristics. Because post-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) troponin levels correlate with clinical outcomes, we sought to determine the sampling period for high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) that would best predict CMRI-measured infarct scar characteristics and left ventricular (LV) function. Among 201 patients with first presentation with STEMI who were prospectively recruited, we measured serial hs-TnT levels at admission, peak, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after STEMI. Indexed LV volumes, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct scar characteristics (scar size, scar heterogeneity, myocardial salvage index, and microvascular obstruction) were evaluated by CMRI at a median of 4 days post-STEMI. Peak and serial hs-TnT levels correlated positively with early indexed LV volumes and infarct scar characteristics, and negatively correlated with myocardial salvage index and LVEF. Both 48- and 72-hour hs-TnT levels similarly predicted "large" total infarct scar size (odds ratios [ORs] 3.08 and 3.53, both P < .001), myocardial salvage index (ORs 1.68 and 2.30, both P < .001), and LVEF <40% (ORs 2.16 and 2.17, both P < .001) on univariate analyses. On multivariate analyses, 48- and 72-hour hs-TnT levels independently predicted large infarct scar size (ORs 2.05 and 2.31, both P < .001), reduced myocardial salvage index (OR 1.39 [P = .031] and OR 1.55 [P = .009]), and LVEF <40% (OR 1.47 [P = .018] and OR 1.43 [P = .026]). All measured hs-TnT levels had a modest association and similar capacity to predict microvascular obstruction. Levels of hs-TnT at 48 and 72 hours, measured during the "plateau phase" post-STEMI, predicted infarct scar size, poor myocardial salvage, and LVEF. These levels also correlated with scar heterogeneity and microvascular obstruction post-STEMI. Since ascertaining peak levels after

  3. A detailed guide for quantification of myocardial scar with the Selvester QRS score in the presence of electrocardiogram confounders.

    PubMed

    Loring, Zak; Chelliah, Sreetharan; Selvester, Ronald H; Wagner, Galen; Strauss, David G

    2011-01-01

    The Selvester QRS score translates subtle changes in ventricular depolarization measured by the electrocardiogram into information about myocardial scar location and size. This estimated scar has been shown to have a high degree of correlation with autopsy-measured myocardial infarct size. In addition, multiple studies have demonstrated the value of the QRS score in post-myocardial infarct patients to provide prognostic information. Recent studies have demonstrated that increasing QRS score is predictive of increased implantable defibrillator shocks for ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation as well as decreased response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Although QRS scoring has never achieved widespread clinical use, increased interest in patient selection and risk-stratification techniques for implantable defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy has led to renewed interest in QRS scoring and its potential to identify which patients will benefit from device therapy. The QRS score criteria were updated in 2009 to expand their use to a broader population by accounting for the different ventricular depolarization sequences in patients with bundle-branch/fascicular blocks or ventricular hypertrophy. However, these changes also introduced additional complexity and nuance to the scoring procedure. This article provides detailed instructions and examples on how to apply the QRS score criteria in the presence of confounding conduction types to facilitate understanding and enable development and application of automated QRS scoring. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Scar revision

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Wakure, Abhijeet

    2013-01-01

    Most surgical patients end up with a scar and most of these would want at least some improvement in the appearance of the scar. Using sound techniques for wound closure surgeons can, to a certain extent, prevent suboptimal scars. This article reviews the principles of prevention and treatment of suboptimal scars. Surgical techniques of scar revision, i.e., Z plasty, W plasty, and geometrical broken line closure are described. Post-operative care and other adjuvant therapies of scars are described. A short description of dermabrasion and lasers for management of scars is given. It is hoped that this review helps the surgeon to formulate a comprehensive plan for management of scars of these patients. PMID:24516292

  5. Reduced scar maturation and contractility lead to exaggerated left ventricular dilation after myocardial infarction in mice lacking AMPKα1.

    PubMed

    Noppe, Gauthier; Dufeys, Cécile; Buchlin, Patricia; Marquet, Nicolas; Castanares-Zapatero, Diego; Balteau, Magali; Hermida, Nerea; Bouzin, Caroline; Esfahani, Hrag; Viollet, Benoit; Bertrand, Luc; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Beauloye, Christophe; Horman, Sandrine

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are crucial in left ventricular (LV) healing and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). They are typically activated into myofibroblasts that express alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) microfilaments and contribute to the formation of contractile and mature collagen scars that minimize the adverse dilatation of infarcted areas. CF predominantly express the α1 catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα1), while AMPKα2 is the major catalytic isoform in cardiomyocytes. AMPKα2 is known to protect the heart by preserving the energy charge of cardiac myocytes during injury, but whether AMPKα1 interferes with maladaptative heart responses remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPKα1 in modulating LV dilatation and CF fibrosis during post-MI remodeling. AMPKα1 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The absence of AMPKα1 was associated with increased CF proliferation in infarcted areas, while expression of the myodifferentiation marker α-SMA was decreased. Faulty maturation of myofibroblasts might derive from severe down-regulation of the non-canonical transforming growth factor-beta1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (TGF-β1/p38 MAPK) pathway in KO infarcts. In addition, lysyl oxidase (LOX) protein expression was dramatically reduced in the scar of KO hearts. Although infarct size was similar in AMPK-KO and WT hearts subjected to MI, these changes resulted in compromised scar contractility, defective scar collagen maturation, and exacerbated adverse remodeling, as indicated by increased LV diastolic dimension 30days after MI. Our data genetically demonstrate the centrality of AMPKα1 in post-MI scar formation and highlight the specificity of this catalytic isoform in cardiac fibroblast/myofibroblast biology.

  6. Impact of unrecognized myocardial scar detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging on event-free survival in patients presenting with signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond Y; Chan, Anna K; Brown, Kenneth A; Chan, Carmen W; Reynolds, H Glenn; Tsang, Sui; Davis, Roger B

    2006-06-13

    Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can determine the extent of myocardial scar from infarction (MI). However, the prognostic significance of unrecognized myocardial scar by CMR in patients without a history of MI is unknown. One hundred ninety-five patients without a known prior MI underwent CMR for assessment of left ventricular (LV) function and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). We assessed the prognostic value of LGE and other CMR variables beyond the strongest clinical predictors and built the best overall models for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and cardiac mortality. During a median follow-up of 16 months, 31 patients (18%) experienced MACE, including 17 deaths. LGE demonstrated the strongest unadjusted associations with MACE and cardiac mortality (hazard ratios of 8.29 and 10.9, respectively; both P<0.0001). Patients in the lowest tertile of LGE-involved myocardium (mean LV mass, 1.4%) experienced a >7-fold increased risk for MACE. By multivariable analyses, LGE was independently associated with MACE beyond the clinical model (P<0.0001) or the clinical model combined with angiographically significant coronary stenosis (P=0.0007), LV ejection fraction (P=0.001), LV end-systolic volume index (P=0.0006), or segmental WMA (P=0.002). LGE remained the strongest predictor selected in the best overall models for MACE and cardiac mortality. Among patients with a clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease but without a history of MI, LGE involving a small amount of myocardium carries a high cardiac risk. In addition, LGE provides incremental prognostic value to MACE and cardiac mortality beyond common clinical, angiographic, and functional predictors.

  7. Automated quantification of the spatial extent of perfusion defects and viability on myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Micari, Antonio; Sklenar, Jiri; Belcik, Todd A; Kaul, Sanjiv; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2006-04-01

    The spatial extent of hypoperfusion or viability is important in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that computerized pixel intensity threshold analysis (PITA) could be used for the automated analysis of perfusion defect size during myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). For calibration studies, MCE was performed in 6 dogs undergoing ischemia and reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by PITA, which automatically calculates the percentage of pixels within the myocardium that fail to exceed a predetermined threshold of maximum contrast enhancement. A threshold of 10% of maximum yielded infarct sizes that most closely correlated with those determined by histologic staining. For clinical validation, MCE was performed in 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for measurement of risk area; and within 5 days and at 4 weeks after PCI to determine infarct size. The defect size by PITA with a 10% threshold value closely correlated with those measured by expert reader planimetry on background-subtracted color-coded image sets (r = 0.95, P < .001). We conclude that automated analysis of perfusion defect size on MCE is possible by PITA. This technique may be useful for rapid and objective analysis of the extent of ischemia and viability, and for clinical experimentation where accurate and sequential analysis of perfusion defect size is imperative.

  8. Scar Detection by Pulse-Cancellation Echocardiography: Validation by CMR in Patients With Recent STEMI.

    PubMed

    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Bianconcini, Michele; Marziliano, Nicola; Parrini, Iris; Conte, Maria Rosa; Siniscalchi, Carmine; Faden, Giacomo; Faggiano, Pompilio; Pigazzani, Filippo; Grassi, Francesca; Albertini, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to assess an echocardiographic approach (scar imaging echocardiography with ultrasound multipulse scheme [eSCAR]), based on existing multipulse ultrasound scheme, as a marker of myocardial scar in humans, compared with cardiac magnetic resonance assessing late gadolinium enhancement (CMR-LGE). The detection of myocardial scar impacts patient prognosis and management in coronary artery disease and other types of cardiac disease. The clinical experience with echocardiography suggests that the reflected ultrasound signal is often significantly enhanced in infarcted myocardial segments. Twenty patients with a recent ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (cases) and 15 patients with absent CMR-LGE (negative controls) were imaged with both the eSCAR pulse-cancellation echocardiography and CMR-LGE to assess their potential association. Scar was detectable at CMR-LGE in 19 of 20 STEMI patients (91%), whereas all (100%) demonstrated eSCAR at echocardiography. In the 19 STEMI patients in whom CMR-LGE was detected, regional matching between eSCAR and CMR-LGE was total, although the segmental extent of detected scar was not always superimposable, particularly in the most apical segments, a region in which eSCAR demonstrated undersensitivity for the true extent of scar. A 2-dimensional multipulse echocardiography allows detection of myocardial scar, reliably matching the presence and site of CMR-LGE at 30 days after STEMI, or its absence in negative controls. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutrophil accumulation in experimental myocardial infarcts: relation with extent of injury and effect of reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chatelain, P.; Latour, J.G.; Tran, D.; de Lorgeril, M.; Dupras, G.; Bourassa, M.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of reperfusion on the myocardial accumulation of neutrophils and their role in the extent of injury were investigated in a canine preparation with a 3 hr coronary occlusion followed by 21 hr of reperfusion. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was permanently occluded in group 1 and reperfused after 3 hr in four others (groups 2 to 5). All but group 5 received lidocaine (1 mg/min over 8 hr). A critical stenosis was produced and left in place at reperfusion only in group 2. In groups 1 and 2, /sup 111/In-labeled autologous neutrophils were injected at the time of coronary occlusion. Group 4 animals were rendered leukopenic 2 hr before the coronary ligature and throughout the experiment by injection of an antineutrophil rabbit serum. Quantification of the radioactivity by digitized scintigraphy of the heart slices revealed an 80% increase in neutrophil accumulation in the infarct region after reperfusion (group 2) as compared with permanent occlusion (group 1). Gamma counting of myocardial tissue samples showed that the neutrophil accumulation ratio in the subendocardial central zone of the infarct was increased five times by reperfusion, whereas no difference was evident in the subepicardium. Infarct size and myocardial area at risk were not statistically different among the five groups. However LAD flow in the leukopenic group (group 4) was significantly higher 30 min after reperfusion (40.0 +/- 5 ml/min) when compared with the preocclusion value (21.7 +/- 4 ml/min). In contrast, in a parallel experiment without leukopenia (group 3), LAD flow after reperfusion did not differ from the preocclusion value.

  10. Assessment of left ventricular myocardial scar in infiltrative and non-ischemic cardiac diseases by free breathing three dimensional phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) TurboFLASH.

    PubMed

    Kino, Aya; Keeling, Aoife N; Farrelly, Cormac T; Sheehan, John J; Davarpanah, Amir H; Weele, Peter J; Zuehldorff, Sven; Carr, James C

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a navigator gated free breathing 3D Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery (PSIR) TurboFLASH to an established 2D PSIR TurboFLASH method for detecting myocardial late gadolinium hyperenhanced lesions caused by infiltrative and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Under an IRB approved protocol; patients with suspected non-ischemic infiltrative myocardial heart disease were examined on a 1.5T MR scanner for late enhancement after the administration of gadolinium using a segmented 2D PSIR TurboFLASH sequence followed by a navigator-gated 3D PSIR TurboFLASH sequence. Two independent readers analyzed image quality using a four point Likert scale for qualitative analysis (0 = poor, non diagnostic; 1 = fair, diagnostic may be impaired; 2 = good, some artifacts but not interfering in diagnostics, 3 = excellent, no artifacts) and also reported presence or absence of scar. Detected scars were classified based on area and location and also compared quantitatively in volume. Twenty-seven patients were scanned using both protocols. Image quality score did not differ significantly (p = 0.358, Wilcoxon signed rank test) for both technique. Scars were detected in 24 patients. Larger numbers of hyperenhanced scars were detected with 3D PSIR (200) compared to 2D PSIR (167) and scar volume were significant larger in 3D PSIR (p = 0.004). The mean scar volume over all cases was 49.95 cm(3) for 2D PSIR and 70.02 cm(3) for 3D PSIR. The navigator gated free breathing 3D PSIR approach is a suitable method for detecting myocardial late gadolinium hyperenhanced lesions caused by non-ischemic cardiomyopathy due to its complete isotropic coverage of the left ventricle, improving detection of scar lesions compared to 2D PSIR imaging.

  11. Noninvasive Assessment of an Engineered Bioactive Graft in Myocardial Infarction: Impact on Cardiac Function and Scar Healing

    PubMed Central

    Bragós, Ramon; Soler‐Botija, Carolina; Díaz‐Güemes, Idoia; Prat‐Vidal, Cristina; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Sánchez‐Margallo, Francisco M.; Llucià‐Valldeperas, Aida; Bogónez‐Franco, Paco; Perea‐Gil, Isaac; Roura, Santiago; Bayes‐Genis, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac tissue engineering, which combines cells and biomaterials, is promising for limiting the sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed myocardial function and scar evolution after implanting an engineered bioactive impedance graft (EBIG) in a swine MI model. The EBIG comprises a scaffold of decellularized human pericardium, green fluorescent protein‐labeled porcine adipose tissue‐derived progenitor cells (pATPCs), and a customized‐design electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) monitoring system. Cardiac function was evaluated noninvasively by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Scar healing was evaluated by using the EIS system within the implanted graft. Additionally, infarct size, fibrosis, and inflammation were explored by histopathology. Upon sacrifice 1 month after the intervention, MRI detected a significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (7.5% ± 4.9% vs. 1.4% ± 3.7%; p = .038) and stroke volume (11.5 ± 5.9 ml vs. 3 ± 4.5 ml; p = .019) in EBIG‐treated animals. Noninvasive EIS data analysis showed differences in both impedance magnitude ratio (−0.02 ± 0.04 per day vs. −0.48 ± 0.07 per day; p = .002) and phase angle slope (−0.18° ± 0.24° per day vs. −3.52° ± 0.84° per day; p = .004) in EBIG compared with control animals. Moreover, in EBIG‐treated animals, the infarct size was 48% smaller (3.4% ± 0.6% vs. 6.5% ± 1%; p = .015), less inflammation was found by means of CD25+ lymphocytes (0.65 ± 0.12 vs. 1.26 ± 0.2; p = .006), and a lower collagen I/III ratio was detected (0.49 ± 0.06 vs. 1.66 ± 0.5; p = .019). An EBIG composed of acellular pericardium refilled with pATPCs significantly reduced infarct size and improved cardiac function in a preclinical model of MI. Noninvasive EIS monitoring was useful for tracking differential scar healing in EBIG‐treated animals, which was confirmed by less inflammation and altered collagen deposit. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:647

  12. Troponin elevation after percutaneous coronary intervention directly represents the extent of irreversible myocardial injury: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Selvanayagam, Joseph B; Porto, Italo; Channon, Keith; Petersen, Steffen E; Francis, Jane M; Neubauer, Stefan; Banning, Adrian P

    2005-03-01

    Although troponin elevation after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common, uncertainties remain about the mechanisms of its release and its relationship to the volume of myocardial tissue loss. Delayed-enhancement MRI of the heart has been shown to reliably quantify areas of irreversible myocardial injury. To investigate the quantitative relationship between irreversible injury and cardiac troponin release, we studied the incidence and extent of new irreversible injury in patients undergoing PCI and correlated it to postprocedural changes in cardiac troponin I. Fifty patients undergoing PCI were studied with preprocedural and postprocedural (24 hours) delayed-enhancement MRI for assessment of new irreversible myocardial injury. Cardiac troponin I measurements were obtained before PCI and 24 hours after PCI. Of these 50 patients, 24 underwent a further third MRI scan at a median of 8 months after the procedure. Mean patient age was 64+/-12 years. After the procedure, 14 patients (28%) had evidence of new myocardial hyperenhancement, with a mean mass of 6.0+/-5.8 g, or 5.0+/-4.8% of total left ventricular mass. All of these patients had raised troponin I levels (range 1.0 to 9.4 mug/L). Thirty-four patients (68%) had no elevated troponin I and no evidence of new myocardial necrosis on MRI. There was a strong correlation between the rise in troponin I measurements at 24 hours and mean mass of new myocardial hyperenhancement, both early (r=0.84; P<0.001) and late (r=0.71; P<0.001) after PCI, although there was a trend for a reduction in the size of PCI-induced myocardial injury in the late follow-up scan (P=0.07). In the setting of PCI, patients demonstrating postprocedural elevation in troponin I have evidence of new irreversible myocardial injury on delayed-enhancement MRI. The magnitude of this injury correlates directly with the extent of troponin elevation.

  13. Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion as predictors of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ladenheim, M.L.; Pollock, B.H.; Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.S.; Staniloff, H.M.; Forrester, J.S.; Diamond, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    The ability of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion on thallium scintigraphy to predict coronary events was assessed in 1,689 patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease but without prior myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 74 patients had a coronary event in the year after testing (12 cardiac deaths, 20 nonfatal infarctions and 42 referrals for bypass surgery more than 60 days after testing). Stepwise logistic regression identified only three independent predictors: the number of myocardial regions with reversible hypoperfusion (an index of the extent of hypoperfusion), the maximal magnitude of hypoperfusion (an index of the severity of hypoperfusion) and the achieved heart rate (an index of exercise performance). Both extent and severity were exponentially correlated with event rate (r greater than 0.97 and p less than 0.01 for each), whereas achieved heart rate was linearly correlated with event rate (r = 0.79 and p less than 0.05). On the basis of these data, a prognostic model was defined that employs extent and severity as stress-dependent orthogonal variables. Using this model, the predicted coronary event rate ranged over two orders of magnitude--from a low of 0.4% in patients able to exercise adequately without developing severe and extensive hypoperfusion at a low heart rate (less than 85% of their maximal predicted heart rate). Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion, therefore, are important independent variables of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

  14. Myocardial scar imaging by standard single-energy and dual-energy late enhancement CT: Comparison with pathology and electroanatomic map in an experimental chronic infarct porcine model.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quynh A; Thai, Wai-Ee; Wai, Bryan; Cordaro, Kevin; Cheng, Teresa; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Xiong, Guanglei; Cheung, Jim W; Altman, Robert; Min, James K; Singh, Jagmeet P; Barrett, Conor D; Danik, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial scar is a substrate for ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Late enhancement CT imaging can detect scar, but it remains unclear whether newer late enhancement dual-energy (LE-DECT) acquisition has benefit over standard single-energy late enhancement (LE-CT). We aim to compare late enhancement CT using newer LE-DECT acquisition and single-energy LE-CT acquisitions with pathology and electroanatomic map (EAM) in an experimental chronic myocardial infarction (MI) porcine study. In 8 pigs with chronic myocardial infarction (59 ± 5 kg), we performed dual-source CT, EAM, and pathology. For CT imaging, we performed 3 acquisitions at 10 minutes after contrast administration: LE-CT 80 kV, LE-CT 100 kV, and LE-DECT with 2 postprocessing software settings. Of the sequences, LE-CT 100 kV provided the best contrast-to-noise ratio (all P ≤ .03) and correlation to pathology for scar (ρ = 0.88). LE-DECT overestimated scar (both P = .02), whereas LE-CT images did not (both P = .08). On a segment basis (n = 136), all CT sequences had high specificity (87%-93%) and modest sensitivity (50%-67%), with LE-CT 100 kV having the highest specificity of 93% for scar detection compared to pathology and agreement with EAM (κ = 0.69). Standard single-energy LE-CT, particularly 100 kV, matched better to pathology and EAM than dual-energy LE-DECT for scar detection. Larger human trials as well as more technical studies that optimize varying different energies with newer hardware and software are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An ECG Index of Myocardial Scar Enhances Prediction of Defibrillator Shocks: An Analysis of the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT)

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, David G.; Poole, Jeanne E.; Wagner, Galen S.; Selvester, Ronald H.; Miller, Julie M.; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; McNulty, Steven E.; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.; Bardy, Gust H.; Wu, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Only a minority of patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for the primary prevention of sudden death receive appropriate shocks, yet almost as many are subjected to inappropriate shocks and device complications. Identifying and quantifying myocardial scar, which forms the substrate for ventricular tachyarrhythmias, may improve risk-stratification. Objective To determine if the absence of myocardial scar detected by novel 12-lead ECG Selvester QRS-scoring criteria identifies patients with low risk for appropriate ICD shocks. Methods We applied QRS-scoring to 797 patients from the ICD arm of the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial. Patients were followed for a median of 45.5 months for ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation treated by the ICD or sudden tachyarrhythmic death (combined group referred to as VT/VF). Results Increasing QRS-score scar size predicted higher rates of VT/VF. Patients with no scar (QRS-score=0) represented a particularly low-risk cohort with 48% fewer VT/VF events than the rest of the population (absolute difference 11%; hazard ratio 0.52, 95% CI=0.31–0.88). QRS-score scar absence vs. presence remained a significant prognostic factor after controlling for 10 clinically-relevant variables. Combining QRS-score (scar absence vs. presence) with ejection fraction (≥25% vs. <25%) distinguished low-, middle-, and high-risk subgroups with 73% fewer VT/VF events in the low- vs. high-risk group (absolute difference 22%; hazard ratio=0.27, 95% CI=0.12–0.62). Conclusions Patients with no scar by QRS-scoring have significantly fewer VT/VF events. This inexpensive 12-lead ECG tool provides unique, incremental prognostic information and should be considered in risk-stratifying algorithms for selecting patients for ICDs. PMID:20884379

  16. Assessment of circumferential endocardial extent of myocardial edema and infarction in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Ota, Shingo; Tanimoto, Takashi; Hirata, Kumiko; Orii, Makoto; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Kitabata, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    T2 weighted (T2W) images on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) visualizes myocardial edema, which reflects the myocardial area at risk (AAR) in reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) demonstrates myocardial infarction. LGE images cover the whole left ventricle, but T2W images are obtained from a few slices of the left ventricle due to the long sequence time, so the quantification of AAR of the entire left ventricle is difficult. We hypothesize that we can quantify AAR with only LGE images if there is a strong correlation between the circumferential endocardial extent of myocardial edema and infarction. Thirty patients with first AMI were enrolled. All patients underwent successfully reperfusion therapy and CMR was performed within the first week after the event. We measured the circumferential extent of edema and infarction on short-axis views (T2 angle and LGE angle), respectively. A total of 82 short-axis slices showed transmural edema on T2W images. Corresponding LGE images were analyzed for the circumferential extent of infarction. The median [interquartile range] of T2 angle and DE angle were 147° [116°-219°] and 134° [104°-200°] in patients with LAD culprit lesion, 91° [87°-101°] and 85° [80°-90°] in LCX, and 110° [94°-123°] and 104° [89°-118°] in RCA, respectively. T2 angle was well correlated with LGE angle (r = 0.99, P < 0.01). There is a strong correlation between the circumferential extent of edema and infarction in reperfused AMI. Thus, T2 weighted imaging can be skipped to quantify the amount of AAR.

  17. Extent of utilization of the Frank-Starling mechanism in conscious dogs. [preload effects on myocardial regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, D. H.; Vatner, S. F.; Heyndrickx, G. R.; Braunwald, E.

    1978-01-01

    The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-dimension relationships in conscious dogs were studied; the ventricle was stressed to its limit in terms of myocardial preload in order to assess the extent of use of the Frank-Starling mechanism under these conditions. The preload was increased through volume loading with saline infusions, the provocation of global myocardial ischemia by constriction of the left main coronary artery, and infusion of methoxamine. While left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased substantially in the reclining conscious animals, the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter did not increase, suggesting a minimum role for the Frank-Starling mechanism in this case.

  18. Extent of utilization of the Frank-Starling mechanism in conscious dogs. [preload effects on myocardial regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, D. H.; Vatner, S. F.; Heyndrickx, G. R.; Braunwald, E.

    1978-01-01

    The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-dimension relationships in conscious dogs were studied; the ventricle was stressed to its limit in terms of myocardial preload in order to assess the extent of use of the Frank-Starling mechanism under these conditions. The preload was increased through volume loading with saline infusions, the provocation of global myocardial ischemia by constriction of the left main coronary artery, and infusion of methoxamine. While left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased substantially in the reclining conscious animals, the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter did not increase, suggesting a minimum role for the Frank-Starling mechanism in this case.

  19. Ischemic event characteristics determine the extent of myocardial stunning in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Wouters, P F; Van de Velde, M; Van Aken, H; Flameng, W

    1996-01-01

    Both the severity and duration of postischemic myocardial dysfunction ("stunned" myocardium) are unpredictable and may vary considerably between subjects that underwent apparently similar ischemic insults. To explain this heterogeneous response of the heart to ischemia and reperfusion, we investigated the determinants of stunning in conscious dogs. Twenty-five dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of global and regional myocardial performance (wall thickening) and myocardial perfusion (coloured microspheres). A hydraulic occluder was positioned around the LAD coronary artery. Conscious dogs were subjected to acute coronary artery occlusions of predetermined duration (2, 5 and 10 min), followed by complete reperfusion. Multiple regression analysis identified the following variables as determinants of postischemic contractile recovery: 1) the duration of ischemia (p < 0.01),2) the amount of collateral perfusion (p = 0.01) and 3) left ventricular end-diastolic pressure during ischemia (p < 0.01). Neither the severity of regional dyskinesia during ischemia nor indices of global systolic hemodynamic performance correlated with the rate of recovery. Our data confirm that myocardial stunning relates primarily to the intensity of preceding ischemia. Variations in the preexisting level of collateral perfusion may result in markedly different recovery profiles. Except for LV end-diastolic pressure during ischemia, indices of global and regional cardiac performance fail to predict the severity of postischemic contractile failure.

  20. The incidence, pattern, and prognostic value of left ventricular myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement in patients with atrial fibrillation .

    PubMed

    Neilan, Tomas G; Shah, Ravi V; Abbasi, Siddique A; Farhad, Hoshang; Groarke, John D; Dodson, John A; Coelho-Filho, Otavio; McMullan, Ciaran J; Heydari, Bobak; Michaud, Gregory F; John, Roy M; van der Geest, Rob; Steigner, Michael L; Blankstein, Ron; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y

    2013-12-10

    This study sought to identify the frequency, pattern, and prognostic significance of left ventricular (LV) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). There are limited data on the presence, pattern, and prognostic significance of LV myocardial fibrosis in patients with AF. LGE during cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a marker for myocardial fibrosis. A group of 664 consecutive patients without known prior myocardial infarction who were referred for radiofrequency ablation of AF were studied. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was requested to assess pulmonary venous anatomy. Overall, 73% were men, with a mean age of 56 years and a mean LV ejection fraction of 56 ± 10%. LV LGE was found in 88 patients (13%). The endpoint was all-cause mortality, and in this cohort, 68 deaths were observed over a median follow-up period of 42 months. On univariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.08; chi-square likelihood ratio [LRχ(2)]: 15.2; p = 0.0001), diabetes (HR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.41 to 4.09; LRχ(2): 10.3; p = 0.001), a history of heart failure (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.09 to 2.91; LRχ(2): 5.37; p = 0.02), left atrial dimension (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.08; LRχ(2): 6.47; p = 0.01), presence of LGE (HR: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.08 to 8.36; LRχ(2): 28.8; p < 0.0001), and LGE extent (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.21; LRχ(2): 35.6; p < 0.0001) provided the strongest associations with mortality. The mortality rate was 8.1% per patient-year in patients with LGE compared with 2.3% patients without LGE. In the best overall multivariate model for mortality, age and the extent of LGE were independent predictors of mortality. Indeed, each 1% increase in the extent of LGE was associated with a 15% increased risk for death. In patients with AF, LV LGE is a frequent finding and is a powerful predictor of mortality. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Right and left ventricular function and myocardial scarring in adult patients with sickle cell disease: a comprehensive magnetic resonance assessment of hepatic and myocardial iron overload

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with Sickle cell disease (SCD) who receive regular transfusions are at risk for developing cardiac toxicity from iron overload. The aim of this study was to assess right and left cardiac volumes and function, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and iron deposits in patients with SCD using CMR, correlating these values with transfusion burden, ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Methods Thirty patients with SCD older than 20 years of age were studied in a 1.5 T scanner and compared to age- and sex-matched normal controls. Patients underwent analysis of biventricular volumes and function, LGE and T2* assessment of the liver and heart. Results When compared to controls, patients with SCD presented higher left ventricular (LV) volumes with decreased ejection fraction (EF) with an increase in stroke volume (SV) and LV hypertrophy. The right ventricle (RV) also presented with a decreased EF and hypertrophy, with an increased end-systolic volume. Although twenty-six patients had increased liver iron concentrations (median liver iron concentration value was 11.83 ± 9.66 mg/g), only one patient demonstrated an abnormal heart T2* < 20 msec. Only four patients (13%) LGE, with only one patient with an ischemic pattern. Conclusions Abnormal heart iron levels and myocardial scars are not a common finding in SCD despite increased liver iron overload. The significantly different ventricular function seen in SCD compared to normal suggests the changes in RV and LV function may not be due to the anemia alone. Future studies are necessary to confirm this association. PMID:24050721

  2. Directional Influences of Ventricular Activation on Myocardial Scar Characterization: Voltage Mapping With Multiple Wavefronts During Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation.

    PubMed

    Tung, Roderick; Josephson, Mark E; Bradfield, Jason S; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2016-08-01

    The effects of varying the wavefront of activation on ventricular scar characterization has not been systematically assessed. Patients referred for ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia underwent voltage maps during a minimum of 2 wavefronts of activation. The bipolar and unipolar low-voltage areas were compared, and direct electrogram analysis was performed in regions where discrepancies were seen. Concordance between wavefronts was measured by calculating percentage of overlap between maps. Sixty endocardial voltage maps (360±147 points) were performed in 29 patients during 2 distinct wavefronts, with 3 wavefronts in 7 patients. With median bipolar and unipolar low-voltage areas of 37 and 116 cm(2), respectively, 22% and 14% variability in median scar area was observed with a different activation wavefront. Concordance between wavefronts was lower in patients with mixed scar compared to those with dense scar (52% [interquartile range, 29%-70%] versus 84% [interquartile range, 71%-87%]), with septal scars exhibiting the lowest concordance [(27% (interquartile range, 21%-56%)]. Among 16 critical sites for ventricular tachycardia, 3 (18%) were in a discordant region of scar, with one of the wavefronts showing voltage >1.5 mV. Significant differences in bipolar and unipolar low-voltage characterization of scar were observed with different ventricular activation wavefronts, particularly in septal locations and in patients without dense scar. In patients with a paucity of dense, low-voltage regions identified during substrate mapping, an alternate activation wavefront may increase the sensitivity to detect arrhythmogenic substrate and critical sites for ventricular tachycardia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Interactive visualization for scar transmurality in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiml, Sabrina; Toth, Daniel; Panayiotou, Maria; Fahn, Bernhard; Karim, Rashed; Behar, Jonathan M.; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S.; Brost, Alexander; Mountney, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure is a serious disease affecting about 23 million people worldwide. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is used to treat patients suffering from symptomatic heart failure. However, 30% to 50% of patients have limited clinical benefit. One of the main causes is suboptimal placement of the left ventricular lead. Pacing in areas of myocardial scar correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore precise knowledge of the individual patient's scar characteristics is critical for delivering tailored treatments capable of improving response rates. Current research methods for scar assessment either map information to an alternative non-anatomical coordinate system or they use the image coordinate system but lose critical information about scar extent and scar distribution. This paper proposes two interactive methods for visualizing relevant scar information. A 2-D slice based approach with a scar mask overlaid on a 16 segment heart model and a 3-D layered mesh visualization which allows physicians to scroll through layers of scar from endocardium to epicardium. These complementary methods enable physicians to evaluate scar location and transmurality during planning and guidance. Six physicians evaluated the proposed system by identifying target regions for lead placement. With the proposed method more target regions could be identified.

  4. Extent of Carotid Sinus Regulation of the Myocardial Contractile State in Conscious Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Stephen F.; Higgins, Charles B.; Franklin, Dean; Braunwald, Eugene

    1972-01-01

    The effects of bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCO) and carotid sinus nerve stimulation (CSNS) on left ventricular (LV) pressure (P), diameter (D), velocity of contraction (V), rate of change of pressure (dP/dt), and cardiac output were studied in conscious dogs instrumented with ultrasonic diameter gauges, miniature pressure gauges, and aortic electromagnetic flow transducers. The effects of BCO and CSNS were also studied after automatic blockade and were compared to similar alterations in pressure produced by norepinephrine, methoxamine, and nitroglycerin. When heart rate was maintained constant with atrial stimulation, BCO had little effect on ventricular contractility, increasing isolength systolic pressure (LV Piso) by 36% while isolength velocity of myocardial shortening (Viso) decreased by 12% and (dP/dt)/P fell by 8%. These effects could be explained largely by vasoconstriction, since elevating systolic pressure with methoxamine produced similar results, while norepinephrine increased Viso by 36% and (dP/dt)/P by 56%. CSNS produced directionally opposite results from BCO; it decreased Piso by 15%, Viso increased by 11%, while (dP/dt)/P remained almost constant. These effects may be explained largely by vasodilatation since reducing systolic pressure to the same level with nitroglycerin produced similar results. When peripheral vasoconstriction was minimized by phenoxybenzamine pretreatment. BCO produced a slight positive inotropic effect (Piso increased by 8%, Viso by 4%, and (dp/dt)/P by 10%), while CSNS produced a slight negative inotropic effect (Piso decreased by 3%, Viso decreased by 5%, and (dP/dt)/P by 7%). Thus, in the normal, healthy, conscious dog, the carotid sinuses exert relatively little control of the inotropic state of the left ventricle; moreover, this small inotropic action is masked by the more powerful effects on peripheral resistance. Images PMID:4622571

  5. Impact of nonischemic scar features on local ventricular electrograms and scar-related ventricular tachycardia circuits in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Miller, Christopher F; Hansford, Rozann; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Zviman, Menekhem M; Marine, Joseph E; Spragg, David; Cheng, Alan; Tandri, Harikrishna; Sinha, Sunil; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Bluemke, David A; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Berger, Ronald D; Halperin, Henry R; Calkins, Hugh; Nazarian, Saman

    2013-12-01

    The association of local electrogram features with scar morphology and distribution in nonischemic cardiomyopathy has not been investigated. We aimed to quantify the association of scar on late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance with local electrograms and ventricular tachycardia circuit sites in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Fifteen patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy underwent late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance before ventricular tachycardia ablation. The transmural extent and intramural types (endocardial, midwall, epicardial, patchy, transmural) of scar were measured in late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance short-axis planes. Electroanatomic map points were registered to late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance images. Myocardial wall thickness, scar transmurality, and intramural scar types were independently associated with electrogram amplitude, duration, and deflections in linear mixed-effects multivariable models, clustered by patient. Fractionated and isolated potentials were more likely to be observed in regions with higher scar transmurality (P<0.0001 by ANOVA) and in regions with patchy scar (versus endocardial, midwall, epicardial scar; P<0.05 by ANOVA). Most ventricular tachycardia circuit sites were located in scar with >25% scar transmurality. Electrogram features are associated with scar morphology and distribution in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Previous knowledge of electrogram image associations may optimize procedural strategies including the decision to obtain epicardial access.

  6. New Insight into Scar-related Ventricular Tachycardia Circuits in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Fat Deposition after Myocardial Infarction on Computed Tomography: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Calkins, Hugh; Miller, Christopher F.; Zviman, Menekhem M.; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Arai, Tomio; Sawabe, Motoji; Terashima, Masashiro; Marine, Joseph E.; Berger, Ronald D.; Nazarian, Saman; Zimmerman, Stefan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial fat deposition (FAT-DEP) has been frequently observed in regions of chronic myocardial infarction in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). The role of FAT-DEP within scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuits has not been investigated. Objective This pilot study aimed to assess the impact of myocardial FAT-DEP on local electrograms and VT circuits in patients with ICM. Methods Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) was performed in 22 patients with ischemic VT. Electroanatomic map (EAM) points were registered to corresponding CE-CT images. Myocardial FAT-DEP were identified and characterized using a post-processing image overlay that highlighted areas below 0 Hounsfield units (HU). The mean attenuation of local myocardial regions corresponding to sampled electrograms was measured on short axis images. The associations of mean attenuation with bipolar and unipolar amplitudes, left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and VT circuit sites were investigated. Results Of 1801 EAM points, 519 (28.8%) were located in regions with FAT-DEP. Significant differences were observed in mean intensity (23.2±35.6 vs. 81.7±21.9 HU, P<0.001), bipolar (0.75±0.83 vs 2.9±2.4 mV, P<0.001) and unipolar (3.1±1.7 vs. 7.4±4.3 mV, P<0.001) amplitudes and LV wall thickness (5.2±1.7 vs. 8.2±2.5 mm, P<0.001) between regions with and without FAT-DEP. Lower HU was strongly associated with lower bipolar and unipolar amplitude (P<0.0001, respectively). Importantly, FAT-DEP was associated with critical VT circuit sites with fractionated or isolated potentials. Conclusions FAT-DEP was associated with electrogram features and VT circuit sites. Further work will be needed to determine whether FAT-DEP plays a causal role in the generation of ischemic scar-related VT circuits. PMID:25814415

  7. New insight into scar-related ventricular tachycardia circuits in ischemic cardiomyopathy: Fat deposition after myocardial infarction on computed tomography--A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Calkins, Hugh; Miller, Christopher F; Zviman, Menekhem M; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Arai, Tomio; Sawabe, Motoji; Terashima, Masashiro; Marine, Joseph E; Berger, Ronald D; Nazarian, Saman; Zimmerman, Stefan L

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial fat deposition (FAT-DEP) has been frequently observed in regions of chronic myocardial infarction in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The role of FAT-DEP within scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuits has not been investigated. This pilot study aimed to assess the impact of myocardial FAT-DEP on local electrograms and VT circuits in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed in 22 patients with ischemic VT. Electroanatomic map points were registered to the corresponding contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. Myocardial FAT-DEP was identified and characterized using a postprocessing image overlay that highlighted areas below 0 Hounsfield units (HU). The mean attenuation of local myocardial regions corresponding to sampled electrograms was measured on short-axis images. The associations of mean attenuation with bipolar and unipolar amplitudes, left ventricular wall thickness, and VT circuit sites were investigated. Of 1801 electroanatomic map points, 519 (28.8%) were located in regions with FAT-DEP. Significant differences were observed in mean intensity (23.2 ± 35.6 HU vs 81.7 ± 21.9 HU; P < .001), bipolar (0.75 ± 0.83 mV vs 2.9 ± 2.4 mV; P < .001) and unipolar (3.1 ± 1.7 mV vs 7.4 ± 4.3 mV; P < .001) amplitudes, and left ventricular wall thickness (5.2 ± 1.7 mm vs 8.2 ± 2.5 mm; P < .001) between regions with and without FAT-DEP. Lower HU was strongly associated with lower bipolar and unipolar amplitudes (P < .0001, respectively). Importantly, FAT-DEP was associated with critical VT circuit sites with fractionated or isolated potentials. FAT-DEP was associated with electrogram characteristics and VT circuit sites. Further work will be needed to determine whether FAT-DEP plays a causal role in the generation of ischemic scar-related VT circuits. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acne Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ...

  9. Relationships between the lung-heart ratio assessed from post-exercise thallium-201 myocardial tomograms, myocardial ischemia and the extent of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ilmer, B.; Reijs, A.E.; Reiber, J.H.; Bakker, W.; Fioretti, P. )

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of thallium (Tl)-201 in the lungs has been proposed as a measure of left ventricular dysfunction. In this study we were interested in pursuing two goals: (1) to assess possible relationships between the post-exercise Tl-201 lung-heart (LH)-ratio determined from the anterior view during SPECT-acquisition, myocardial ischemia and the extent of coronary artery disease; and (2) to explore the effects of coronary revascularisation procedures on the LH-ratio. The study group consisted of 145 patients with early and late postexercise Tl-201 tomograms, including 32 PTCA-patients with pre- and post-PTCA studies and 20 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with corresponding pre- and post-CABG studies. Ischemia was defined as evoked angina during the exercise test in combination with greater than or equal to 1 mm horizontal or downsloping ST-depression on the ECG. The severity of coronary obstructions was assessed from coronary angiograms with a PC-based digital caliper technique; a stenosis was defined to be significant when its severity exceeded 50% diameter stenosis. The LH-ratio was defined by the ratio of the mean pulmonary counts and the mean myocardial counts assessed from corresponding regions of interest (ROI's) positioned over the left lung and the heart, respectively in the anterior view of a tomographic data acquisition procedure. Our results made clear that the LH-ratio was not significantly different between patients with and without ischemia during exercise, and between patients with single vs. multiple vessel disease.

  10. QRS Fragmentation Patterns Representing Myocardial Scar Need to Be Separated from Benign Normal Variants: Hypotheses and Proposal for Morphology based Classification.

    PubMed

    Haukilahti, M Anette E; Eranti, Antti; Kenttä, Tuomas; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a fragmented QRS complex (fQRS) in two contiguous leads of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been shown to be an indicator of myocardial scar in multiple different populations of cardiac patients. QRS fragmentation is also a predictor of adverse prognosis in acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, and ischemic cardiomyopathy and a prognostic tool in structural heart diseases. An increased risk of sudden cardiac death associated with fQRS has been documented in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, fQRS is also frequently observed in apparently healthy subjects. Thus, a more detailed classification of different QRS fragmentations is needed to identify the pathological fragmentation patterns and refine the role of fQRS as a risk marker of adverse cardiac events and sudden cardiac death. In most studies fQRS has been defined by the presence of an additional R wave (R'), or notching in the nadir of the S wave, or the presence of >1 R' in two contiguous leads corresponding to a major coronary territory. However, this approach does not discriminate between minor and major fragmentations and the location of the fQRS is also neglected. In addition to this, the method is susceptible to large interobserver variability. We suppose that some fQRS subtypes result from conduction delays in the His-Purkinje system, which is a benign finding and thus can weaken the prognostic values of fQRS. The classification of fQRSs to subtypes with unambiguous definitions is needed to overcome the interobserver variability related issues and to separate fQRSs caused by myocardial scarring from benign normal variants. In this paper, we review the anatomic correlates of fQRS and the current knowledge of prognostic significance of fQRS. We also propose a detailed fQRS classification for research purposes which can later be simplified after the truly pathological morphologies have been identified. The research

  11. QRS Fragmentation Patterns Representing Myocardial Scar Need to Be Separated from Benign Normal Variants: Hypotheses and Proposal for Morphology based Classification

    PubMed Central

    Haukilahti, M. Anette E.; Eranti, Antti; Kenttä, Tuomas; Huikuri, Heikki V.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a fragmented QRS complex (fQRS) in two contiguous leads of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been shown to be an indicator of myocardial scar in multiple different populations of cardiac patients. QRS fragmentation is also a predictor of adverse prognosis in acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, and ischemic cardiomyopathy and a prognostic tool in structural heart diseases. An increased risk of sudden cardiac death associated with fQRS has been documented in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, fQRS is also frequently observed in apparently healthy subjects. Thus, a more detailed classification of different QRS fragmentations is needed to identify the pathological fragmentation patterns and refine the role of fQRS as a risk marker of adverse cardiac events and sudden cardiac death. In most studies fQRS has been defined by the presence of an additional R wave (R′), or notching in the nadir of the S wave, or the presence of >1 R′ in two contiguous leads corresponding to a major coronary territory. However, this approach does not discriminate between minor and major fragmentations and the location of the fQRS is also neglected. In addition to this, the method is susceptible to large interobserver variability. We suppose that some fQRS subtypes result from conduction delays in the His-Purkinje system, which is a benign finding and thus can weaken the prognostic values of fQRS. The classification of fQRSs to subtypes with unambiguous definitions is needed to overcome the interobserver variability related issues and to separate fQRSs caused by myocardial scarring from benign normal variants. In this paper, we review the anatomic correlates of fQRS and the current knowledge of prognostic significance of fQRS. We also propose a detailed fQRS classification for research purposes which can later be simplified after the truly pathological morphologies have been identified. The research

  12. CARDIAC MRI SCAR PATTERNS DIFFER BY GENDER IN AN IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR AND CARDIAC RESYNCHRONIZATION COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Loring, Zak; Strauss, David G.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Weiss, Robert G.; Wu, Katherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent meta-analyses suggest that the effectiveness of cardiac devices may differ between genders. Compared to men, women may not benefit as much from implantable defibrillators (ICDs), yet benefit more from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Myocardial scar burden is associated with increased incidence of appropriate ICD shocks but decreased response to CRT and may explain gender differences in device benefit. Objective To test the hypothesis that the extent of myocardial scar is less in women than men. Methods In 235 patients referred for primary prevention ICDs who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we compared scar size by gender. Analyses were performed for all patients (ICD cohort) and those receiving biventricular pacemakers (CRT subgroup). Results In the ICD cohort, women (vs. men) had a higher prevalence of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM, 64% vs. 39%, p<0.001) which accounted for a smaller overall scar burden (0.5% vs 13%, p<0.01). Likewise, in the CRT subgroup, the higher prevalence of NICM in women (83% vs. 46%, p=0.01) also contributed to a smaller scar size (0 vs 13%, p<0.01). Women also had significantly less scarring of the inferolateral LV wall. Conclusions In a cohort of patients undergoing clinically indicated ICD and CRT, women had less myocardial scar than men. This difference was primarily driven by a higher prevalence of NICM in women. These findings may have important implications for the future study of gender disparities in ICD and CRT outcomes. PMID:23313802

  13. Radial dyssynchrony assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in relation to left ventricular function, myocardial scarring and QRS duration in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intuitively, cardiac dyssynchrony is the inevitable result of myocardial injury. We hypothezised that radial dyssynchrony reflects left ventricular remodeling, myocardial scarring, QRS duration and impaired LV function and that, accordingly, it is detectable in all patients with heart failure. Methods 225 patients with heart failure, grouped according to QRS duration of <120 ms (A, n = 75), between 120-149 ms (B, n = 75) or ≥150 ms (C, n = 75), and 50 healthy controls underwent assessment of radial dyssynchrony using the cardiovascular magnetic resonance tissue synchronization index (CMR-TSI = SD of time to peak inward endocardial motion in up to 60 myocardial segments). Results Compared to 50 healthy controls (21.8 ± 6.3 ms [mean ± SD]), CMR-TSI was higher in A (74.8 ± 34.6 ms), B (92.4 ± 39.5 ms) and C (104.6 ± 45.6 ms) (all p < 0.0001). Adopting a cut-off CMR-TSI of 34.4 ms (21.8 plus 2xSD for controls) for the definition of dyssynchrony, it was present in 91% in A, 95% in B and 99% in C. Amongst patients in NYHA class III or IV, with a LVEF<35% and a QRS>120 ms, 99% had dyssynchrony. Amongst those with a QRS<120 ms, 91% had dyssynchrony. Across the study sample, CMR-TSI was related positively to left ventricular volumes (p < 0.0001) and inversely to LVEF (CMR-TSI = 178.3 e (-0.033 LVEF) ms, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Radial dyssynchrony is almost universal in patients with heart failure. This vies against the notion that a lack of response to CRT is related to a lack of dyssynchrony. PMID:19930713

  14. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging derived quantification of myocardial ischemia and scar improves risk stratification and patient management in stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Buckert, Dominik; Cieslik, Maciej; Tibi, Raid; Radermacher, Michael; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of myocardial ischemia and necrosis might ameliorate prognostic models and lead to improved patient management. However, no standardized consensus on how to assess and quantify these parameters has been established. The aim of this study was to quantify these variables by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and to establish possible incremental implications in cardiovascular risk prediction. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for adenosine perfusion CMR was performed. Myocardial ischemia and necrosis were assessed and quantified using an algorithm based on standard first-pass perfusion imaging and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The combined primary endpoint was defined as cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. 845 consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. During the median follow-up of 3.64 [1.03; 10.46] years, 61 primary endpoints occurred. Patients with primary endpoint showed larger extent of ischemia (10.7 ± 12.25% vs. 3.73 ± 8.29%, p < 0.0001) and LGE (21.09 ± 15.11% vs. 17.73 ± 10.72%, p < 0.0001). A risk prediction model containing the extent of ischemia and LGE proved to be superior in comparison to all other models (χ² increase: from 39.678 to 56.676, integrated discrimination index: 0.3851, p = 0.0033, net reclassification index: 0.11516, p = 0.0071). The ben-eficial effect of revascularization tended to be higher in patients with greater extents of ischemia, though statistical significance was not reached. Quantification of myocardial ischemia and LGE was shown to significantly improve existing risk prediction models and might thus lead to an improvement in patient management.

  15. Myocardial Scar Imaging by Standard Single-Energy and Dual-Energy Late Enhancement Computed Tomography: Comparison to Pathology and Electroanatomical Map in an Experimental Chronic Infarct Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Quynh A.; Thai, Wai-ee; Wai, Bryan; Cordaro, Kevin; Cheng, Teresa; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Xiong, Guanglei; Cheung, Jim W.; Altman, Robert; Min, James K.; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Barrett, Conor D.; Danik, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial scar is a substrate for ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Late enhancement computed tomography (CT) imaging can detect scar, but it remains unclear whether newer late enhancement dual-energy (LE-DECT) acquisition has benefit over standard single-energy late enhancement (LE-CT). Objective We aim to compare late enhancement CT using newer LE-DECT acquisition and single-energy LE-CT acquisitions to pathology and electroanatomical map (EAM) in an experimental chronic myocardial infarction (MI) porcine study. Methods In 8 chronic MI pigs (59±5 kg), we performed dual-source CT, EAM, and pathology. For CT imaging, we performed 3 acquisitions at 10 minutes post-contrast: LE-CT 80 kV, LE-CT 100 kV, and LE-DECT with two post-processing software settings. Results Of the sequences, LE-CT 100 kV provided the best contrast-to-noise ratio (all p≤0.03) and correlation to pathology for scar (ρ=0.88). While LE-DECT overestimated scar (both p=0.02), LE-CT images did not (both p=0.08). On a segment basis (n=136), all CT sequences had high specificity (87–93%) and modest sensitivity (50–67%), with LE-CT 100 kV having the highest specificity of 93% for scar detection compared to pathology and agreement with EAM (κ 0.69). Conclusions Standard single-energy LE-CT, particularly 100kV, matched better to pathology and EAM than dual-energy LE-DECT for scar detection. Larger human trials as well as more technical-based studies that optimize varying different energies with newer hardware and software are warranted. PMID:25977115

  16. Relationship of ventricular arrhythmias to the angiographically and scintigraphically estimated extent of ventricular damage late after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Huikuri, H.V.; Korhonen, U.R.; Linnaluoto, M.K.; Takkunen, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    In order to study the quantitative relationship of ventricular arrhythmias to myocardial damage and ischemia, 61 patients with a previous myocardial infarction (at least 6 months previously) were studied by 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, cardiac catheterization, and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Thirty-five patients (57%) had no ectopic beats or only infrequent, unifocal ones and 26 patients (43%) had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Left ventricular function was lower in the latter, but the number of diseased vessels did not differ in the two groups. The reduction of thallium activity in the infarct area was more marked in patients with complex arrhythmias. Multiple thallium defects were not more common in arrhythmia patients, however. These data support the view that complex ventricular arrhythmias are more closely related to the severity of ventricular damage than the presence of myocardial ischemia remote to the area of previous infarction.

  17. Scar tissue and microvolt T-wave alternans.

    PubMed

    Kraaier, Karin; Olimulder, Marlon A G M; Galjee, Michel A; van Dessel, Pascal F H M; van der Palen, Job; Wilde, Arthur A M; Scholten, Marcoen F

    2014-04-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) is an electrocardiographic marker for predicting sudden cardiac death. In this study, we aimed to study the relation between MTWA and scar assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Sixty-eight patients with positive or negative MTWA and analysable CMR examination were included. Using CMR and the delayed enhancement technique, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), volumes, wall motion and scar characteristics were assessed. Overall, positive MTWA (n = 40) was related to male gender (p = 0.04), lower LVEF (p = 0.04) and increased left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (p < 0.01). After multivariate analysis, male gender (p = 0.01) and lower LVEF remained significant (p = 0.02). Scar characteristics (presence, transmurality, and scar score) were not related to MTWA (all p > 0.5). In the patients with ICM (n = 40) scar was detected in 38. Positive MTWA (n = 18) was related to higher LVEDV (p = 0.05). In patients with DCM (n = 28), scar was detected in 11. Trends were found between positive MTWA (n = 15) and male gender (p = 0.10), lower LVEF (p = 0.10), and higher LVEDV (p = 0.09). In both subgroups, the presence, transmurality or extent of scar was not related to MTWA (all p > 0.45). In this small study, neither in patients with ICM or DCM a relation was found between the occurrence of MTWA and the presence, transmurality or extent of myocardial scar. Overall there was a significant relation between heart failure remodeling parameters and positive MTWA.

  18. Role of collateral blood flow in the apparent disparity between the extent of abnormal wall thickening and perfusion defect size during acute myocardial infarction and demand ischemia.

    PubMed

    Leong-Poi, Howard; Coggins, Matthew P; Sklenar, Jiri; Jayaweera, Ananda R; Wang, Xin-Qun; Kaul, Sanjiv

    2005-02-15

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the apparent disparity between the circumferential extent of abnormal wall thickening (WT) and that of infarct size (IS) at rest or size of ischemic zone (IZ) during demand ischemia (DI) is principally due to the effects of collateral blood flow (CollBF). A disparity has been reported between the circumferential extent of abnormal WT and that of IS at rest or IZ size during DI. Wall thickening and CollBF were measured in 18 dogs: at 6 h after coronary occlusion (Group 1, n = 6), and during 40 microg x kg x min(-1) of dobutamine in the presence of either one-vessel (Group 2, n = 6) or two-vessel stenosis (Group 3, n = 6). The apparent overestimation of the IS by the circumferential extent of abnormal WT was due to intermediate levels of CollBF in border zones within the risk area that had escaped necrosis. Although reduced, WT in these regions was commensurate with the level of flow. Similarly, during DI, regions within the IZ exhibiting the worst WT in Group 2 and 3 dogs were those not supplied by CollBF. The regions supplied by CollBF had intermediate WT, which was also commensurate with the level of flow. Only in two Group 3 dogs was tethering seen in small, normally perfused regions that were interspersed between two large IZ. Excluding these few tethered regions, data from different myocardial regions (infarcted, ischemic, CollBF dependent, and normal) were described by a single relation: y = 57(1 - e([-0.72(x - 0.06)])) (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Myocardial regions at the margins of ischemic territories contribute to the apparent disparity between the circumferential extent of abnormal WT and IS or IZ during DI. In most circumstances, these regions are supplied by collaterals and their WT is commensurate with the degree of myocardial blood flow. The apparent disparity between the circumferential extent of WT and ischemia is rarely due to myocardial tethering, which is seen only in some instances of multi

  19. Systolic and diastolic myocardial mechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and their link to the extent of hypertrophy, replacement fibrosis and interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nucifora, Gaetano; Muser, Daniele; Gianfagna, Pasquale; Morocutti, Giorgio; Proclemer, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the relations between myocardial mechanics and the extent of hypertrophy and fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Forty-five consecutive patients with HCM and 15 subjects without structural heart disease were included. Cardiac magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging was performed to evaluate biventricular function, LV mass index and presence/extent of LGE, expression of replacement fibrosis. Myocardial T1 relaxation, a surrogate of interstitial fibrosis, was measured from Look-Locker sequence. Feature-tracking analysis was applied to LV basal, mid and apical short-axis images to assess systolic and diastolic global LV circumferential strain (CS) and strain rate (CSr). Peak systolic CS and CSr were significantly higher among HCM patients as compared to control subjects (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively). The ratio of peak CSr during early filling to peak systolic CSr was significantly lower among HCM patients (p = 0.002). At multivariate linear regression analysis, LV mass index (p < 0.001) and %LV LGE (p = 0.011) were significantly and independently related to peak systolic CS; LV mass index (p < 0.001) and %LV LGE (p = 0.023) were significantly and independently related to peak systolic CSr; %LV LGE (p = 0.021) and T1 ratio (p = 0.006) were significantly and independently related to the ratio of peak CSr during early filling to peak systolic CSr. LV systolic mechanics are enhanced and LV diastolic mechanics are impaired in HCM. Extent of hypertrophy and replacement fibrosis influence the LV systolic mechanics while extent of replacement fibrosis and interstitial fibrosis influence the LV diastolic mechanics.

  20. Current therapeutic approach to acne scars.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence and incidence of acne scarring is different. Lasting for years, acne can cause both physical and psychological scarring. Scarring frequently results from severe inflammatory nodulocystic acne but may also result from more superficial inflamed lesions or from self-manipulation. There are two general types of acne scars: hypertrophic (keloid) scars, and atrophic (icepick, rolling and boxcar) scars. The management of acne scarring includes various types of resurfacing (chemical peels, lasers, lights, cryotherapy), use of dermal fillers, and surgical methods such as dermabrasion, subcision or punch excision. Individual scar characteristics, including color, texture and morphology, determine the treatment choice. Combining treatment methods may provide additional improvement compared with one method alone. It should be noted that none of the currently available treatments can achieve complete resolution of the scar. The best method of preventing or limiting scarring is to treat acne early enough to minimize the extent and duration of inflammation.

  1. Scar revision

    MedlinePlus

    ... corrects skin changes (disfigurement) caused by an injury, wound, poor healing, or previous surgery. Description Scar tissue forms as ... stiffening of the joint, you may need physical therapy after surgery. Apply sunscreen to keep sunlight from permanently ... Keloid revision; Hypertrophic scar revision; ...

  2. Short-term fasting reduces the extent of myocardial infarction and incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias in rats.

    PubMed

    Snorek, M; Hodyc, D; Sedivý, V; Durišová, J; Skoumalová, A; Wilhelm, J; Neckář, J; Kolář, F; Herget, J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three-day fasting on cardiac ischemic tolerance was investigated in adult male Wistar rats. Anesthetized open-chest animals (pentobarbitone 60 mg/kg, i.p.) were subjected to 20-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 3-h reperfusion for infarct size determination. Ventricular arrhythmias were monitored during ischemia and at the beginning (3 min) of reperfusion. Myocardial concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were measured to assess mitochondrial redox state. Short-term fasting limited the infarct size (48.5+/-3.3 % of the area at risk) compared to controls (74.3+/-2.2 %) and reduced the total number of premature ventricular complexes (12.5+/-5.8) compared to controls (194.9+/-21.9) as well as the duration of ventricular tachycardia (0.6+/-0.4 s vs. 18.8+/-2.5 s) occurring at early reperfusion. Additionally, fasting increased the concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate and beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio (87.8+/-27.0) compared to controls (7.9+/-1.7), reflecting altered mitochondrial redox state. It is concluded that three-day fasting effectively protected rat hearts against major endpoints of acute I/R injury. Further studies are needed to find out whether these beneficial effects can be linked to altered mitochondrial redox state resulting from increased ketogenesis.

  3. Influence of the extent of coronary atherosclerotic disease on ST-segment changes induced by ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Francisco J; Vives-Borrás, Miquel; Solé-González, Eduard; García-Picart, Joan; Arzamendi, Dabit; Cinca, Juan

    2014-03-01

    The accuracy of the admission electrocardiogram (ECG) in predicting the site of acute coronary artery occlusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease is not well known. This study aimed to assess whether the presence of multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) modifies the artery-related ST-segment changes in patients with acute coronary artery occlusion. We reviewed the admission ECG, clinical records, and coronary angiography of 289 patients with STEMI caused by acute occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD; n = 140), right (n = 118), or left circumflex (LCx; n = 31) coronary arteries. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary reperfusion during the first 12 hours. The magnitude and distribution of artery-related ST-segment patterns were comparable in patients with single (n = 149) and multivessel (n = 140) CAD. Occlusion of proximal (n = 55) or mid-distal (n = 85) LAD artery induced ST-segment elevation in leads V1 to V5, but only the proximal occlusion induced reciprocal ST-segment depression in leads II, III, and aVF (p <0.001). Proximal and mid-distal occlusion of right (n = 45 and 73, respectively) or LCx (n = 15 and 16) coronary artery always induced ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF and reciprocal ST-segment depression in leads V2 and V3. ST-segment elevation in lead V6 >0.1 mV predicted LCx artery occlusion. In conclusion, patients with STEMI with single or multivessel CAD have concordant artery-related ST-segment patterns on the admission ECG; in both groups, reciprocal ST-segment depression in LAD artery occlusion predicts a large infarct. Subendocardial ischemia at a distance is not a requisite for the genesis of reciprocal ST-segment changes.

  4. Extent of Coronary and Myocardial Disease and Benefit from Surgical Revascularization in Patients with Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Panza, Julio A.; Velazquez, Eric J.; She, Lilin; Smith, Peter K.; Nicolau, José C.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Gradinac, Sinisa; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Jasinski, Marek; Hill, James A.; Szwed, Hanna; Larbalestier, Robert; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Jones, Robert H.; Lee, Kerry L.; Rouleau, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have higher operative risk with CABG. However, those whose early risk is surpassed by subsequent survival benefit have not been identified. Objective To examine the impact of anatomic variables associated with poor prognosis on the effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods All 1,212 patients in the STICH surgical revascularization trial were included. Patients had coronary artery disease (CAD), ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%, and were randomized to CABG plus medical therapy or optimal medical therapy alone (OMT). This study focused on 3 prognostic factors: presence of 3-vessel CAD; EF below the median (27%); and end-systolic volume index (ESVI) above the median (79 ml/m2). Patients were categorized as having 0–1 or 2–3 of these factors. Results Patients with 2–3 prognostic factors (n= 636) had reduced mortality with CABG, as compared to OMT (HR=0.71, 95% CI=0.56–0.89; p=0.004); CABG had no such effect in patients with 0–1 factors (HR=1.08, 95% CI=0.81–1.44; p=0.591). There was a significant interaction between the number of factors and the effect of CABG on mortality (p=0.022). Although 30-day risk with CABG was higher, a net beneficial effect of CABG over OMT was observed at >2years in patients with 2–3 factors (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.37–0.75; p#x0003C;0.001), but not in those with 0–1 factors (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.59–1.31; p=0.535). Conclusions Patients with more advanced ischemic cardiomyopathy receive greater benefit from CABG. This supports the indication for surgical revascularization in patients with more extensive CAD and worse myocardial dysfunction and remodeling. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595) PMID:25104523

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the myocardium at risk in acute reperfused myocardial infarction: comparison of T2-weighted imaging versus the circumferential endocardial extent of late gadolinium enhancement with transmural projection.

    PubMed

    Ubachs, Joey F A; Engblom, Henrik; Erlinge, David; Jovinge, Stefan; Hedström, Erik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2010-03-29

    In the situation of acute coronary occlusion, the myocardium supplied by the occluded vessel is subject to ischemia and is referred to as the myocardium at risk (MaR). Single photon emission computed tomography has previously been used for quantitative assessment of the MaR. It is, however, associated with considerable logistic challenges for employment in clinical routine. Recently, T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been introduced as a new method for assessing MaR several days after the acute event. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the endocardial extent of infarction as assessed by late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) CMR can also be used to quantify the MaR. Hence, we sought to assess the ability of endocardial extent of infarction by LGE CMR to predict MaR as compared to T2-weighted imaging. Thirty-seven patients with early reperfused first-time ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction underwent CMR imaging within the first week after percutaneous coronary intervention. The ability of endocardial extent of infarction by LGE CMR to assess MaR was evaluated using T2-weighted imaging as the reference method. MaR determined with T2-weighted imaging (34 +/- 10%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the MaR determined with endocardial extent of infarction (23 +/- 12%). There was a weak correlation between the two methods (r2 = 0.17, p = 0.002) with a bias of -11 +/- 12%. Myocardial salvage determined with T2-weighted imaging (58 +/- 22%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to myocardial salvage determined with endocardial extent of infarction (45 +/- 23%). No MaR could be determined by endocardial extent of infarction in two patients with aborted myocardial infarction. This study demonstrated that the endocardial extent of infarction as assessed by LGE CMR underestimates MaR in comparison to T2-weighted imaging, especially in patients with early reperfusion and aborted myocardial infarction.

  6. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... scar tissue. The appearance of the scar can range from nearly invisible to very obvious and disfiguring. ... treated first with injection of medications to reduce size. If this is not satisfactory, the scars can ...

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the myocardium at risk in acute reperfused myocardial infarction: comparison of T2-weighted imaging versus the circumferential endocardial extent of late gadolinium enhancement with transmural projection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the situation of acute coronary occlusion, the myocardium supplied by the occluded vessel is subject to ischemia and is referred to as the myocardium at risk (MaR). Single photon emission computed tomography has previously been used for quantitative assessment of the MaR. It is, however, associated with considerable logistic challenges for employment in clinical routine. Recently, T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been introduced as a new method for assessing MaR several days after the acute event. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the endocardial extent of infarction as assessed by late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) CMR can also be used to quantify the MaR. Hence, we sought to assess the ability of endocardial extent of infarction by LGE CMR to predict MaR as compared to T2-weighted imaging. Methods Thirty-seven patients with early reperfused first-time ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction underwent CMR imaging within the first week after percutaneous coronary intervention. The ability of endocardial extent of infarction by LGE CMR to assess MaR was evaluated using T2-weighted imaging as the reference method. Results MaR determined with T2-weighted imaging (34 ± 10%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the MaR determined with endocardial extent of infarction (23 ± 12%). There was a weak correlation between the two methods (r2 = 0.17, p = 0.002) with a bias of -11 ± 12%. Myocardial salvage determined with T2-weighted imaging (58 ± 22%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to myocardial salvage determined with endocardial extent of infarction (45 ± 23%). No MaR could be determined by endocardial extent of infarction in two patients with aborted myocardial infarction. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the endocardial extent of infarction as assessed by LGE CMR underestimates MaR in comparison to T2-weighted imaging, especially in patients with early reperfusion and aborted myocardial

  8. Ventricular premature beats on Holter monitoring in patients admitted with chest pain, in whom acute myocardial infarction is not confirmed. The prognostic value and relationship to scars or ischemia on thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, J.K.; Sorensen, J.N.; Kromann-Andersen, B.; Kjeldgaard, K.M.; Christoffersen, K.; van Duijvendijk, K.; Reiber, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Ambulatory 24-h Holter monitoring was carried out in 198 patients who had been admitted because of suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to chest pain, but in whom AMI was not confirmed. During a follow-up period of 12-24 months (median 14 months) 16 cardiac events (i.e., nonfatal AMI or cardiac death) occurred. Ventricular premature beats (VPBs) were found in 65.2% of the patients, complex VPBs in 28.8%. Pairs of VPBs which were seen in 10.0% of the patients were the only important type of VPBs significantly related to an impaired prognosis. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed in 144 of the patients. VPBs were significantly related to scar formation (i.e., to permanent defects, but not to ischemia, specifically, to transient defects). It is concluded that ventricular arrhythmias in this patient category indicate presence of chronic ischemic heart disease, and that pairs of VPBs seem to identify patients at risk for cardiac events.

  9. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment When ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving facial ...

  10. Myocardial viability.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Y; Kloner, R A

    1996-01-01

    Left ventricular function is a major predictor of outcome in patients with coronary artery disease. Acute ischemia, postischemic dysfunction (stunning), myocardial hibernation, or a combination of these 3 are among the reversible forms of myocardial dysfunction. In myocardial stunning, dysfunction occurs despite normal myocardial perfusion, and function recovers spontaneously over time. In acute ischemia and hibernation, there is regional hypoperfusion. Function improves only after revascularization. Evidence of myocardial viability usually relies on the demonstration of uptake of various metabolic tracers, such as thallium (thallous chloride TI 201) or fludeoxyglucose F 18, by dysfunctional myocardium or by the demonstration of contractile reserve in a dysfunctional region. This can be shown as an augmentation of function during the infusion of various sympathomimetic agents. The response of ventricular segments to increasing doses of dobutamine may indicate the underlying mechanism of dysfunction. Stunned segments that have normal perfusion show dose-dependent augmentation of function. If perfusion is reduced as in hibernating myocardium, however, a biphasic response usually occurs: function improves at low doses of dobutamine, whereas higher doses may induce ischemia and, hence, dysfunction. But in patients with severely impaired perfusion, even low doses may cause ischemia. Myocardial regions with subendocardial infarction or diffuse scarring may also have augmented contractility during catecholamine infusion due to stimulation of the subepicardial layers. In these cases, augmentation of function after revascularization is not expected. Because the underlying mechanism, prognosis, and therapy may differ among these conditions, it is crucial to differentiate among dysfunctional myocardial segments that are nonviable and have no potential to regain function, hibernating or ischemic segments in which recovery of function occurs only after revascularization, and

  11. Effectiveness of Autologous Fat Grafting in Adherent Scars: Results Obtained by a Comprehensive Scar Evaluation Protocol.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E H; Brouwer, Katrien M; van Trier, Antoine J M; Groot, Marloes L; Middelkoop, Esther; van Zuijlen, Paul P M

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, patients normally survive severe traumas such as burn injuries and necrotizing fasciitis. Large skin defects can be closed but the scars remain. Scars may become adherent to underlying structures when the subcutical fat layer is damaged. Autologous fat grafting provides the possibility of reconstructing a functional sliding layer underneath the scar. Autologous fat grafting is becoming increasingly popular for scar treatment, although large studies using validated evaluation tools are lacking. The authors therefore objectified the effectiveness of single-treatment autologous fat grafting on scar pliability using validated scar measurement tools. Forty patients with adherent scars receiving single-treatment autologous fat grafting were measured preoperatively and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome parameter was scar pliability, measured using the Cutometer. Scar quality was also evaluated by the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale and the DSM II ColorMeter. To prevent selection bias, measurements were performed following a standardized algorithm. The Cutometer parameters elasticity and maximal extension improved 22.5 percent (p < 0.001) and 15.6 percent (p = 0.001), respectively. Total Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores improved from 3.6 to 2.9 on the observer scale, and from 5.1 to 3.8 on the patient scale (both p < 0.001). Color differences between the scar and normal skin remained unaltered. For the first time, the effect of autologous fat grafting on functional scar parameters was ascertained using a comprehensive scar evaluation protocol. The improved scar pliability supports the authors' hypothesis that the function of the subcutis can be restored to a certain extent by single-treatment autologous fat grafting. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Dabigatran attenuates thrombin generation to a lesser extent than warfarin: could this explain their differential effects on intracranial hemorrhage and myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Dale, Brian; Eikelboom, John W; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Young, Ed; Paikin, Jeremy S; Coppens, Michiel; Whitlock, Richard P; Connolly, Stuart J; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S; Hirsh, Jack

    2013-02-01

    Compared with warfarin, dabigatran is associated with less intracranial hemorrhage, but an increased risk of myocardial infarction. To explore these phenomena, we compared their effects on thrombin generation. Thrombin generation in plasma from 10 patients taking therapeutic doses of warfarin (mean INR 2.6) was compared with that in plasma containing 250 ng/mL dabigatran. Although lag times were similar when thrombin generation was induced by recalcification or with a range of tissue factor concentrations, there was a greater reduction in peak thrombin generation and endogenous thrombin potential in plasma from warfarin-treated patients than in dabigatran-containing plasma. Similar results were obtained when thrombin generation was determined in plasma samples from 18 warfarin or 36 dabigatran treated patients entered into the RE-LY trial. Warfarin suppresses thrombin generation more efficiently than dabigatran. Greater suppression of normal hemostatic mechanisms in the brain and pathological thrombosis at sites of atherosclerotic plaque disruption may explain the higher rate of intracranial bleeding and lower rate of myocardial infarction with warfarin compared with dabigatran.

  13. Effects of biglycan deficiency on myocardial infarct structure and mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Patrick H.; Hunt, Darlene L.; Jones, Ying; Harwood, Fred; Amiel, David; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been shown to interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen and may influence fibrillogenesis. We hypothesized that biglycan contributes to post-myocardial infarction (MI) scar development and that the absence of biglycan would result in altered scar structure and mechanics. Anterior MI was induced in biglycan hemizygous null and wild-type mice by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. The initial extent of ischemic injury was similar in the two groups, as was the infarct size after 30 days, although there was some tendency toward reduced expansion in the biglycan-null. Electron microscopy revealed that collagen fibrils had a smaller average diameter and a narrower range in the biglycan-null scar, as well as appearing more densely packed. In vivo strain analysis showed that biglycan-null scars were stiffer than the wild-type. Remote LV collagen concentration tended to be reduced in biglycan-null hearts, but the difference was not statistically significant. Null-expression of biglycan may alter collagen fibril ultrastructure, and thereby influence scar mechanics and remodeling. PMID:18524244

  14. Acne scar subcision.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Bs; Nandini, As

    2010-05-01

    Subcision is a simple and safe office surgery procedure for treatment of depressed acne scars. It can easily be combined with other treatments such as laser, dermaroller and scar revisions for maximum efficacy.

  15. Acne Scar Subcision

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, BS; Nandini, AS

    2010-01-01

    Subcision is a simple and safe office surgery procedure for treatment of depressed acne scars. It can easily be combined with other treatments such as laser, dermaroller and scar revisions for maximum efficacy. PMID:21031076

  16. Scar contractures, hypertrophic scars, and keloids.

    PubMed

    Brissett, A E; Sherris, D A

    2001-11-01

    A scar contracture is the result of a contractile wound-healing process occurring in a scar that has already been reepithelialized and adequately healed. Keloids and hypertrophic scars (HTSs) are fibrous tissue outgrowths that result from a derailment in the normal wound-healing process. The exact incidence of keloids and HTSs remains unknown. Beyond the common belief that trauma is the initiating event of keloid and hypertrophic scar formation, the remainder of the process remains uncertain. A combination of biochemical factors, skin tension, endocrinologic factors, and genetic factors are the likely culprits. Treatment begins by educating the patient about the etiology of the scarring process. All treatment protocols are individualized, but the standard approach to keloids and HTSs begins with corticosteroid injection followed by surgical excision, pressure dressings, and long-term follow-up.

  17. California Burn Scars

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Burn Scars Across Southern California     ... California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these ... and Nov 18, 2003 Images:  California Burn Scars location:  United States region:  ...

  18. Zero-Flow Pressure Measured Immediately After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Provides the Best Invasive Index for Predicting the Extent of Myocardial Infarction at 6 Months: An OxAMI Study (Oxford Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Patel, Niket; Petraco, Ricardo; Dall'Armellina, Erica; Kassimis, George; De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Dawkins, Sam; Lee, Regent; Prendergast, Bernard D; Choudhury, Robin P; Forfar, John C; Channon, Keith M; Davies, Justin; Banning, Adrian P; Kharbanda, Rajesh K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define which measure of microvascular best predicts the extent of left ventricular (LV) infarction. Microvascular injury after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is an important determinant of outcome. Several invasive measures of the microcirculation at primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) have been described. One such measure is zero-flow pressure (Pzf), the calculated pressure at which coronary flow would cease. In 34 STEMI patients, Pzf, hyperemic microvascular resistance (hMR), and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) were derived using thermodilution flow/pressure and Doppler flow/pressure wire assessment of the infarct-related artery following PPCI. The extent of infarction was determined by blinded late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance at 6 months post-PPCI. Infarction of ≥24% total LV mass was used as a categorical cutoff in receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Pzf was superior to both hMR and IMR for predicting ≥24% infarction area under the curve: 0.94 for Pzf versus 0.74 for hMR (p = 0.04) and 0.54 for IMR (p = 0.003). Pzf ≥42 mm Hg was the optimal cutoff value, offering 100% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Patients with Pzf ≥42 mm Hg also had a lower salvage index (61.3 ± 8.1 vs. 44.4 ± 16.8, p = 0.006) and 6-month ejection fraction (62.4 ± 3.6 vs. 49.9 ± 9.6, p = 0.002). In addition, there were significant direct relationships between Pzf and troponin area under the curve (rho = 0.55, p = 0.002), final infarct mass (rho = 0.75, p < 0.0001), percentage of LV infarction and percent transmurality of infarction (rho = 0.77 and 0.74, respectively, p < 0.0001), and inverse relationships with myocardial salvage index (rho = -0.53, p = 0.01) and 6-month ejection fraction (rho = -0.73, p = 0.0001). Pzf measured at the time of PPCI is a better predictor of the extent of myocardial infarction than hMR or IMR. Pzf may provide

  19. Association of aortic valve calcification to the presence, extent, and composition of coronary artery plaque burden: from the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) trial.

    PubMed

    Mahabadi, Amir A; Bamberg, Fabian; Toepker, Michael; Schlett, Christopher L; Rogers, Ian S; Nagurney, John T; Brady, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Truong, Quynh A

    2009-10-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery calcification. We sought to determine whether AVC is associated with the presence and extent of overall plaque burden, as well as to plaque composition (calcified, mixed, and noncalcified). We examined 357 subjects (mean age 53 +/- 12 years, 61% male) who underwent contrast-enhanced electrocardiogram-gated 64-slice multidetector computed tomography from the ROMICAT trial for the assessment of presence and extent of coronary plaque burden according to the 17-coronary segment model and presence of AVC. Patients with AVC (n = 37, 10%) were more likely than those without AVC (n = 320, 90%) to have coexisting presence of any coronary plaque (89% vs 46%, P < .001) and had a greater extent of coronary plaque burden (6.4 vs 1.8 segments, P < .001). Those with AVC had >3-fold increase odds of having any plaque (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.6, P = .047) and an increase of 2.5 segments of plaque (P < .001) as compared to those without AVC. When stratified by plaque composition, AVC was associated most with calcified plaque (OR 5.2, P = .004), then mixed plaque (OR 3.2, P = .02), but not with noncalcified plaque (P = .96). Aortic valve calcification is associated with the presence and greater extent of coronary artery plaque burden and may be part of the later stages of the atherosclerosis process, as its relation is strongest with calcified plaque, less with mixed plaque, and nonsignificant with noncalcified plaque. If AVC is present, consideration for aggressive medical therapy may be warranted.

  20. Post-burn scars and scar contractures

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Arun; Shrivastava, Prabhat

    2010-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity from burns have diminished tremendously over the last six to seven decades. However, these do not truly reflect whether the victim could go back to society as a useful person or not and lead a normal life because of the inevitable post-burn scars, contractures and other deformities which collectively have aesthetic and functional considerations. This article gives an overview of the post-burn scars and scar contractures, especially their prevention, minimisation and principles of management. PMID:21321660

  1. Forensic analysis of rockfall scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vilder, Saskia J.; Rosser, Nick J.; Brain, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    We characterise and analyse the detachment (scar) surfaces of rockfalls to understand the mechanisms that underpin their failure. Rockfall scars are variously weathered and comprised of both discontinuity release surfaces and surfaces indicative of fracturing through zones of previously intact rock, known as rock bridges. The presence of rock bridges and pre-existing discontinuities is challenging to quantify due to the difficulty in determining discontinuity persistence below the surface of a rock slope. Rock bridges form an important control in holding blocks onto rockslopes, with their frequency, extent and location commonly modelled from the surface exposure of daylighting discontinuities. We explore an alternative approach to assessing their role, by characterising failure scars. We analyse a database of multiple rockfall scar surfaces detailing the areal extent, shape, and location of broken rock bridges and weathered surfaces. Terrestrial laser scanning and gigapixel imagery were combined to record the detailed texture and surface morphology. From this, scar surfaces were mapped via automated classification based on RGB pixel values. Our analysis of the resulting data from scars on the North Yorkshire coast (UK) indicates a wide variation in both weathering and rock bridge properties, controlled by lithology and associated rock mass structure. Importantly, the proportion of rock bridges in a rockfall failure surface does not increase with failure size. Rather larger failures display fracturing through multiple rock bridges, and in contrast smaller failures fracture occurs only through a single critical rock bridge. This holds implications for how failure mechanisms change with rockfall size and shape. Additionally, the location of rock bridges with respect to the geometry of an incipient rockfall is shown to determine failure mode. Weathering can occur both along discontinuity surfaces and previously broken rock bridges, indicating the sequential stages of

  2. [Mastopexy with minimal scar].

    PubMed

    Tepavicharova-Romanska, P; Romanski, R K

    2004-01-01

    The image of the breast as a symbol of femininity plays an essential role in the way a woman looks at herself and contributes to her personal and social development. Fashion nowadays uncovers rather than covers a woman's body, and long scars resulting from mammaplasty are less accepted now than they were in the past, more so because the scar quality is unforeseeable. The main concern of mastopexy is to limit the scars, creating a nice breast shape. Ideally scarring is confined to the periareolar circle.

  3. [Physical therapy for scars].

    PubMed

    Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.

  4. Improving posttraumatic facial scars.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Shaye, David A; Hilger, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Posttraumatic soft-tissue injuries of the face are often the most lasting sequelae of facial trauma. The disfigurement of posttraumatic scarring lies in both their physical deformity and psychosocial ramifications. This review outlines a variety of techniques to improve facial scars and limit their lasting effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Laser scar revision.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Jason R; Alster, Tina S

    2002-01-01

    A variety of lasers can be used to treat scars and striae effectively. It is of paramount importance that the type of scar be properly classified on initial examination so that the most appropriate method of treatment can be chosen. Classification also allows the laser surgeon to discuss with the patient the anticipated response to treatment. The 585-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the most appropriate system for treating hypertrophic scars, keloids, erythematous scars, and striae. The PDL carries a low risk of side effects and complications when operated at appropriate treatment parameters and time intervals. Atrophic scars are best treated with ablative CO2 and Er:YAG lasers; however, proliferative keloids and hypertrophic scars should not be vaporized because of the high risk of scar recurrence or progression. The appropriate choice and use of lasers can significantly improve most scars. As research in laser-skin interaction continues, further refinements in laser technology coupled with the addition of alternate treatment procedures will allow improved clinical efficacy and predictability.

  6. Laser Scar Management Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ohshiro, Toshio; Sasaki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Scars are common and cause functional problems and psychological morbidity. Recent advances in optical technologies have produced various laser systems capable of revising the appearance of scars from various etiologies to optimize their appearance. Methods: Laser treatment can commence as early as the time of the initial injury and as late as several years after the injury. Several optical technologies are currently available and combined laser/light treatments are required for treatment of scars. Since 2006, we have set up a scar management department in our clinic and more than 2000 patients have been treated by our combined laser irradiation techniques. Herein, we review several available light technologies for treatment of surgical, traumatic, and inflammatory scars, and discuss our combined laser treatment of scars, based upon our clinical experience. Results and Conclusions: Because scars have a variety of potential aetiologies and take a number of forms, no single approach can consistenty provide good scar treatment and management. The combination of laser and devices is essential, the choice of wavelength and approach being dictated by each patient as an individual. PMID:24511202

  7. Mechanobiology of scarring.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Rei

    2011-09-01

    The mechanophysiological conditions of injured skin greatly influence the degree of scar formation, scar contracture, and abnormal scar progression/generation (e.g., keloids and hypertrophic scars). It is important that scar mechanobiology be understood from the perspective of the extracellular matrix and extracellular fluid, in order to analyze mechanotransduction pathways and develop new strategies for scar prevention and treatment. Mechanical forces such as stretching tension, shear force, scratch, compression, hydrostatic pressure, and osmotic pressure can be perceived by two types of skin receptors. These include cellular mechanoreceptors/mechanosensors, such as cytoskeleton (e.g., actin filaments), cell adhesion molecules (e.g., integrin), and mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels (e.g., Ca(2+) channel), and sensory nerve fibers (e.g., MS nociceptors) that produce the somatic sensation of mechanical force. Mechanical stimuli are received by MS nociceptors and signals are transmitted to the dorsal root ganglia that contain neuronal cell bodies in the afferent spinal nerves. Neuropeptides are thereby released from the peripheral terminals of the primary afferent sensory neurons in the skin, modulating scarring via skin and immune cell functions (e.g., cell proliferation, cytokine production, antigen presentation, sensory neurotransmission, mast cell degradation, vasodilation, and increased vascular permeability under physiological or pathophysiological conditions). Mechanoreceptor or MS nociceptor inhibition and mechanical force reduction should propel the development of novel methods for scar prevention and treatment. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  8. Atrophic Acne Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scarring is an unfortunate and frequent complication of acne, resulting in significant psychological distress for patients. Fortunately, numerous treatment options exist for acne scarring. Objectives: To extensively review the literature on treatment options for atrophic acne scarring. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the following topics: dermabrasion, subcision, punch techniques, chemical peels, tissue augmentation, and lasers. Results: The literature supports the use of various treatment modalities; superior results may be achieved when multiple modalities are combined for a multi-step approach to scarring. Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of various treatment devices for acne scarring is well established, but there is a paucity of split-face trials comparing modalities. PMID:25610524

  9. Laser scar revision: A review.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Khalil A; Mahoney, Danielle L; McCartney, Melissa J

    2011-04-01

    Surgery, burns, wounds, and inflammatory processes can lead to the development of a variety of different scars. Scars are categorized as hypertrophic, keloid, atrophic and acne scars. Different treatments are utilized for each scar type. The evolution of scar treatment has led to the advancement of lasers for the improvement of all scar types. Non-ablative lasers such as the pulsed dye laser have been shown to be effective in the treatment of hypertrophic and erythematous scars. Ablative lasers, the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and erbium:YAG (Er:YAG), were some of the first lasers that were proven to be effective in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Further developments in laser technology have led to non-ablative and ablative fractional devices that improve scar appearance and are better tolerated than ablative CO(2) and Er:YAG. This article will review scars and the laser options for scar revision.

  10. Probability mapping of scarred myocardium using texture and intensity features in CMR images

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The myocardium exhibits heterogeneous nature due to scarring after Myocardial Infarction (MI). In Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging, Late Gadolinium (LG) contrast agent enhances the intensity of scarred area in the myocardium. Methods In this paper, we propose a probability mapping technique using Texture and Intensity features to describe heterogeneous nature of the scarred myocardium in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images after Myocardial Infarction (MI). Scarred tissue and non-scarred tissue are represented with high and low probabilities, respectively. Intermediate values possibly indicate areas where the scarred and healthy tissues are interwoven. The probability map of scarred myocardium is calculated by using a probability function based on Bayes rule. Any set of features can be used in the probability function. Results In the present study, we demonstrate the use of two different types of features. One is based on the mean intensity of pixel and the other on underlying texture information of the scarred and non-scarred myocardium. Examples of probability maps computed using the mean intensity of pixel and the underlying texture information are presented. We hypothesize that the probability mapping of myocardium offers alternate visualization, possibly showing the details with physiological significance difficult to detect visually in the original CMR image. Conclusion The probability mapping obtained from the two features provides a way to define different cardiac segments which offer a way to identify areas in the myocardium of diagnostic importance (like core and border areas in scarred myocardium). PMID:24053280

  11. [Unusual breast scars].

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Divaris, M; Guilbert, F

    1999-12-01

    The authors report the case of an unusual form of skin tattoo, discovered on the breasts of a young woman, corresponding to several scars forming a symbolic image, performed deliberately with a burning object. This form of mutilation is called "branding". Imported from England, it is developing in France as a result of fashion, but its followers could one day regret the permanent scars left by this deep burn.

  12. Burn scar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yuan; Feng, Chung-Ho; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow Shuh; Yang, Jui-Yung

    2010-11-01

    Since Jean-Nicolas Marjolin reported carcinoma arising in post-traumatic scars in 1828, the term 'Marjolin ulcer' has been applied to malignant changes in burn scars. Although many papers have been published already in this field, there are few reports from Oriental people. From 1989 to 2008, there were 11 cases noted as burn scar carcinoma in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Ten were reported as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the one was verrucous carcinoma. Most of the cases occurred in the extremities (10/11). Ten cases underwent an operation initially with wide excision and skin graft or local flap for coverage. Forefoot amputation was performed in one patient. One patient received above-knee amputation and adjuvant therapy because recurrent verrucous carcinoma occurred 2 years later. One patient suffered from a new lesion 8 years later and another case had inguinal lymph node metastasis 8 months later. Five patients were lost to follow-up and six cases were tumor-free during the follow-up period. Most scar malignancies are SCC while other cell types are rarer. The casual association between burn injuries and a later risk of basal cell carcinoma is questionable. Owing to poor prognosis in advanced scar cancer, the best treatment for scar carcinoma is to prevent the scar from developing repeated ulceration by performing aggressive initial burn wound care: early grafting by surgeons and daily scar care with regular follow-up for patients. This may be why a lower incidence has been noted in recent years.

  13. Evaluation of left ventricular scar identification from contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for guidance of ventricular catheter ablation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Lehmann, H. I.; Johnson, S. B.; Packer, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    Patients with ventricular arrhythmias typically exhibit myocardial scarring, which is believed to be an important anatomic substrate for reentrant circuits, thereby making these regions a key target in catheter ablation therapy. In ablation therapy, a catheter is guided into the left ventricle and radiofrequency energy is delivered into the tissue to interrupt arrhythmic electrical pathways. Low bipolar voltage regions are typically localized during the procedure through point-by-point construction of an electroanatomic map by sampling the endocardial surface with the ablation catheter and are used as a surrogate for myocardial scar. This process is time consuming, requires significant skill, and has the potential to miss low voltage sites. This has led to efforts to quantify myocardial scar preoperatively using delayed, contrast-enhanced MRI. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of left ventricular scar identification from delayed contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for guidance of catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. Myocardial infarcts were created in three canines followed by a delayed, contrast enhanced MRI scan and electroanatomic mapping. The left ventricle and myocardial scar is segmented from preoperative MRI images and sampled points from the procedural electroanatomical map are registered to the segmented endocardial surface. Sampled points with low bipolar voltage points visually align with the segmented scar regions. This work demonstrates the potential utility of using preoperative delayed, enhanced MRI to identify myocardial scarring for guidance of ventricular catheter ablation therapy.

  14. The role of scar origin in shaping men's body image.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Anne; Mayer-Eckhard, Lennart; White, Andrew J; Alpers, Georg W

    2015-03-01

    Men generally have a more positive body image than women. However, the extent to which scars negatively influence men's body image is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to assess body image in men with and without scars while taking scar origin into account (nonsuicidal self-harming injuries [NSSI] vs. accidents or surgery). One hundred and nine men (n = 19 with NSSI) and 185 women (n = 96 with NSSI) filled in multidimensional body image questionnaires. Results indicate that on most clinical subscales women had a significantly more negative body image compared with men. However, within a subsample whose scars resulted from NSSI, gender differences vanished. Among men, scar origin was significantly associated with negative body image after partialling out scar characteristics, age, and borderline symptomatology. The visibility of scars was not associated with more severe body image disturbances. The results of our study indicate that self-inflicted scars adversely affect body image. Although women generally reported having a more negative body image, disturbances in body image should not be neglected among men, especially in those who have self-inflicted scars.

  15. Inflammation drives renal scarring in experimental pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Birong; Haridas, Babitha; Jackson, Ashley R; Cortado, Hanna; Mayne, Nicholas; Kohnken, Rebecca; Bolon, Brad; McHugh, Kirk M; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Spencer, John David; Ching, Christina B; Hains, David S; Justice, Sheryl S; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Becknell, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Acquired renal scarring occurs in a subset of patients following febrile urinary tract infections and is associated with hypertension, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease. Limited knowledge of histopathology, immune cell recruitment, and gene expression changes during pyelonephritis restricts the development of therapies to limit renal scarring. Here, we address this knowledge gap using immunocompetent mice with vesicoureteral reflux. Transurethral inoculation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in C3H/HeOuJ mice leads to renal mucosal injury, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and cortical fibrosis. The extent of fibrosis correlates most significantly with inflammation at 7 and 28 days postinfection. The recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages to infected kidneys is proportional to renal bacterial burden. Transcriptome analysis reveals molecular signatures associated with renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, immune cell chemotaxis, and leukocyte activation. This murine model recapitulates the cardinal histopathological features observed in humans with acquired renal scarring following pyelonephritis. The integration of histopathology, quantification of cellular immune influx, and unbiased transcriptional profiling begins to define potential mechanisms of tissue injury during pyelonephritis in the context of an intact immune response. The clear relationship between inflammatory cell recruitment and fibrosis supports the hypothesis that acquired renal scarring arises as a consequence of excessive host inflammation and suggests that immunomodulatory therapies should be investigated to reduce renal scarring in patients with pyelonephritis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Scar Imaging for Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Stratification in Patients with Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chattranukulchai, Pairoj

    2015-01-01

    In patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), risk stratification for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and selection of patients who would benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators remains challenging. We aim to discuss the evidence of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived myocardial scar for the prediction of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in NICM. From the 15 studies analyzed, with a total of 2747 patients, the average prevalence of myocardial scar was 41%. In patients with myocardial scar, the risk for adverse cardiac events was more than 3-fold higher, and risk for arrhythmic events 5-fold higher, as compared to patients without scar. Based on the available observational, single center studies, CMR scar assessment may be a promising new tool for SCD risk stratification, which merits further investigation. PMID:26175568

  17. Scar dechanneling: new method for scar-related left ventricular tachycardia substrate ablation.

    PubMed

    Berruezo, Antonio; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Andreu, David; Penela, Diego; Herczku, Csaba; Evertz, Reinder; Cipolletta, Laura; Acosta, Juan; Borràs, Roger; Arbelo, Elena; Tolosana, Jose María; Brugada, Josep; Mont, Lluis

    2015-04-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) substrate ablation usually requires extensive ablation. Scar dechanneling technique may limit the extent of ablation needed. The study included 101 consecutive patients with left ventricular scar-related VT (75 ischemic patients; left ventricular ejection fraction, 36 ± 13%). Procedural end point was the elimination of all identified conducting channels (CCs) by ablation at the CC entrance followed by abolition of residual inducible VTs. By itself, scar dechanneling rendered noninducibility in 54.5% of patients; ablation of residual inducible VT increased noninducibility to 78.2%. Patients needing only scar dechanneling had a shorter procedure (213 ± 64 versus 244 ± 71 minutes; P = 0.027), fewer radiofrequency applications (19 ± 11% versus 27 ± 18%; P = 0.01), and external cardioversion/defibrillation shocks (20% versus 65.2%; P < 0.001). At 2 years, patients needing scar dechanneling alone had better event-free survival (80% versus 62%) and lower mortality (5% versus 11%). Incomplete CC-electrogram elimination was the only independent predictor (hazard ratio, 2.54 [1.06-6.10]) for the primary end point. Higher end point-free survival rates were observed in patients noninducible after scar dechanneling (log-rank P = 0.013) and those with complete CC-electrogram elimination (log-rank P = 0.013). The complications rate was 6.9%, with no deaths. Scar dechanneling alone results in low recurrence and mortality rates in more than half of patients despite the limited ablation extent required. Residual inducible VT ablation improves acute results, but patients who require it have worse outcomes. Recurrences are mainly related to incomplete CC-electrogram elimination. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can Acne ... eliminar las cicatrices del acné? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  19. Surgical Scar Revision: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092

  20. Scar revision - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100098.htm Scar revision - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  1. Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest

    Treesearch

    Calvin A. Farris; Christopher H. Baisan; Donald A. Falk; Stephen R. Yool; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2010-01-01

    Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire...

  2. [Scars, physiology, classification and assessment].

    PubMed

    Roques, Claude

    2013-01-01

    A skin scar is the sign of tissue repair following damage to the skin. Once formed, it follows a process of maturation which, after several months, results in a mature scar. This can be pathological with functional and/or aesthetic consequences. It is important to assess the scar as it matures in order to adapt the treatment to its evolution.

  3. A Practical Algorithm for Improving Localization and Quantification of Left Ventricular Scar.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Brian; Cates, Joshua; Morris, Alan; Kholmovski, Eugene; Au, Alexander; Ranjan, Ravi; Akoum, Nazem; McGann, Chris; Wilson, Brent; Marrouche, Nassir; Han, Frederick T; MacLeod, Rob S

    2014-09-07

    Current approaches to classification of left ventricular scar rely on manual segmentation of myocardial borders and manual classification of scar tissue. In this paper, we propose an novel, semi-automatic approach to segment the left ventricular wall and classify scar tissue using a combination of modern image processing techniques. We obtained high-resolution magnetic resonance angiograms (MRA) and late-gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) in 14 patients who had ventricular scar from a prior myocardial infarction. We applied (1) a level set-based segmentation approach using a combination of the MRA and LGE-MRI to segment the myocardium and then (2) an automated signal intensity algorithm (Otsu thresholding) to identify ventricular scar tissue. We compared results from both steps to those of expert observers. The LVgeometry using the semi-automated segmentation method had a mean overlap of 94% with the manual segmentations. The scar volumes obtained with the Otsu method correlated with the expert observer scar volumes (Dice comparison coefficient of 0.85± 0.11). This proof of concept segmentation pipeline provides a more objective method for identifying scar in the left ventricle than manual approaches.

  4. Lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling after infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Y; Akishima-Fukasawa, Y; Ito, K; Akasaka, Y; Tanaka, M; Shimokawa, R; Kimura-Matsumoto, M; Morita, H; Sato, S; Kamata, I; Ishii, T

    2007-01-01

    Ishikawa Y, Akishima-Fukasawa Y, Ito K, Akasaka Y, Tanaka M, Shimokawa R, Kimura-Matsumoto M, Morita H, Sato S, Kamata I & Ishii T (2007) Histopathology51, 345–353 Lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling after infarction Aims The lymphatic system is involved in fluid homeostasis of the cardiac interstitium, but lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling has not previously been examined histopathologically. The aim was to investigate by D2-40 immunohistochemistry the sequential changes in lymphatic distribution in the process of myocardial remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results Myocardial tissues in various phases of healing after MI were obtained from 40 autopsied hearts. D2-40+ lymphatic vessel density (LD) and CD34+ blood vessel density (BD) in the lesion were determined. BD decreased with advance of myocardial necrosis, subsequently increased at the early stage of granulation and thereafter decreased with the progression of scar formation. In contrast, lymphatic vessels were not detected in lesions with coagulation necrosis, and newly formed lymphatics first appeared in the early stages of granulation. A subsequent increase in LD was demonstrated in the late stages of granulation, and lymphatics remained up to the scar phase. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C was consistently expressed in viable cardiomyocytes around the lesion in all of these stages. Conclusion In myocardial remodelling after MI, lymphangiogenesis lags behind blood vessel angiogenesis; newly formed lymphatics may be involved mainly in the maturation of fibrosis and scar formation through the drainage of excessive proteins and fluid. PMID:17727476

  5. Interventions for acne scars.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hay, Rania; Shalaby, Khalid; Zaher, Hesham; Hafez, Vanessa; Chi, Ching-Chi; Dimitri, Sandra; Nabhan, Ashraf F; Layton, Alison M

    2016-04-03

    Acne scarring is a frequent complication of acne and resulting scars may negatively impact on an affected person's psychosocial and physical well-being. Although a wide range of interventions have been proposed, there is a lack of high-quality evidence on treatments for acne scars to better inform patients and their healthcare providers about the most effective and safe methods of managing this condition. This review aimed to examine treatments for atrophic and hypertrophic acne scars, but we have concentrated on facial atrophic scarring. To assess the effects of interventions for treating acne scars. We searched the following databases up to November 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 10), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), and LILACS (from 1982). We also searched five trials registers, and checked the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews for further references to randomised controlled trials. We include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which allocated participants (whether split-face or parallel arms) to any active intervention (or a combination) for treating acne scars. We excluded studies dealing only or mostly with keloid scars. Three review authors independently extracted data from each of the studies included in this review and evaluated the risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by discussion and arbitration supported by a method expert as required. Our primary outcomes were participant-reported scar improvement and any adverse effects serious enough to cause participants to withdraw from the study. We included 24 trials with 789 adult participants aged 18 years or older. Twenty trials enrolled men and women, three trials enrolled only women and one trial enrolled only men. We judged eight studies to be at low risk of bias for both sequence generation and allocation concealment. With regard to blinding we judged

  6. Emerging Therapies for Scar Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Block, Lisa; Gosain, Ankush; King, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: There are ∼12 million traumatic lacerations treated in the United States emergency rooms each year, 250 million surgical incisions created worldwide every year, and 11 million burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment worldwide. In the United States, over $20 billion dollars per year are spent on the treatment and management of scars. Recent Advances: Investigations into the management of scar therapies over the last decade have advanced our understanding related to the care of cutaneous scars. Scar treatment methods are presented including topical, intralesional, and mechanical therapies in addition to cryotherapy, radiotherapy, and laser therapy. Critical Issues: Current treatment options for scars have significant limitations. This review presents the current and emerging therapies available for scar management and the scientific evidence for scar management is discussed. Future Directions: Based upon our new understanding of scar formation, innovative scar therapies are being developed. Additional research on the basic science of scar formation will lead to additional advances and novel therapies for the treatment of cutaneous scars. PMID:26487979

  7. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117

  8. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment.

    PubMed

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Farina Júnior, Jayme Adriano

    2014-08-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin.

  9. Management of scar contractures, hypertrophic scars, and keloids.

    PubMed

    Sherris, D A; Larrabee, W F; Murakami, C S

    1995-10-01

    Aberrant fibrous tissue formation after surgery or trauma still presents a challenge to surgeons. Current research hopes to identify the characteristics of the population of fibroblasts that lead to hypertrophic or keloid scar formation. Surgical procedures and laser therapy followed by intralesional steroid treatments still are the foundation of treatment; but new modalities are being applied. The pathogenesis and management of hypertrophic scars, keloids, and scar contractures are discussed in this article.

  10. Acne Scar Treatment: A Multimodality Approach Tailored to Scar Type.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Larsen, Lisa A; Fabi, Sabrina G; McGraw, Timothy; Taylor, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Acne scarring can be classified into atrophic icepick, boxcar, and rolling scars in addition to keloidal and hypertrophic scars. Additionally, these scars can be erythematous, hyperpigmented, and/or hypopigmented. Each scar type has a different structural cause warranting a customized approach. Many cosmetic options exist to address these changes individually, but little literature exists about the safety and efficacy of combining such procedures and devices. A Medline search was performed on combination treatments because it relates to facial acne scarring, and results are summarized. Practical applications for these combinations of procedures are also discussed. Studies examining the efficacy and safety of ablative, nonablative, fractionated, and nonfractionated lasers, dermabrasion, chemical peels, needling, subcision, radiofrequency, stem cell therapy, fat transplantation, platelet-rich plasma, and hyaluronic acid dermal fillers for acne scars were found. The authors review their experience in combining these techniques. Review of the literature revealed multiple single options for facial acne scarring treatment with minimal evidence in the literature found on the safety and efficacy of combining such procedures and devices. The authors' experience is that combining acne scar treatment techniques can be performed safely and synergistically with optimal patient outcomes.

  11. Lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling after infarction.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Y; Akishima-Fukasawa, Y; Ito, K; Akasaka, Y; Tanaka, M; Shimokawa, R; Kimura-Matsumoto, M; Morita, H; Sato, S; Kamata, I; Ishii, T

    2007-09-01

    The lymphatic system is involved in fluid homeostasis of the cardiac interstitium, but lymphangiogenesis in myocardial remodelling has not previously been examined histopathologically. The aim was to investigate by D2-40 immunohistochemistry the sequential changes in lymphatic distribution in the process of myocardial remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial tissues in various phases of healing after MI were obtained from 40 autopsied hearts. D2-40+ lymphatic vessel density (LD) and CD34+ blood vessel density (BD) in the lesion were determined. BD decreased with advance of myocardial necrosis, subsequently increased at the early stage of granulation and thereafter decreased with the progression of scar formation. In contrast, lymphatic vessels were not detected in lesions with coagulation necrosis, and newly formed lymphatics first appeared in the early stages of granulation. A subsequent increase in LD was demonstrated in the late stages of granulation, and lymphatics remained up to the scar phase. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C was consistently expressed in viable cardiomyocytes around the lesion in all of these stages. In myocardial remodelling after MI, lymphangiogenesis lags behind blood vessel angiogenesis; newly formed lymphatics may be involved mainly in the maturation of fibrosis and scar formation through the drainage of excessive proteins and fluid.

  12. Prognostic Implications of Left Ventricular Scar Determined by Late Gadolinium Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Suksaranjit, Promporn; McGann, Christopher J; Akoum, Nazem; Biskupiak, Joseph; Stoddard, Gregory J; Kholmovski, Eugene G; Navaravong, Leenhapong; Rassa, Allen; Bieging, Erik; Chang, Lowell; Haider, Imran; Marrouche, Nassir F; Wilson, Brent D

    2016-10-01

    Left ventricular (LV) scar identified by late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is associated with adverse outcomes in coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathies. We sought to determine the prognostic significance of LV-LGE in atrial fibrillation (AF). We studied 778 consecutive patients referred for radiofrequency ablation of AF who underwent CMR. Patients with coronary artery disease, previous myocardial infarction, or hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy were excluded. The end points of interest were major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. Of the 754 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 60% were men with an average age of 64 years. Most (87%) had a normal LV ejection fraction of ≥55%. LV-LGE was found in 46 patients (6%). There were 32 MACCE over the mean follow-up period of 55 months. The MACCE rate was higher for patients with LV-LGE (13.0% vs 3.7%; p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc score (hazard ratio [HR] 1.36, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.76), the presence of LV-LGE (HR 3.21, 95% CI 1.31 to 7.88), and the LV-LGE extent (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.78) were independent predictors of MACCE. In addition, the presence of LV-LGE was an independent predictor for ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (HR 3.61, 95% CI 1.18 to 11.01) after adjusting for CHA2DS2-VASc score. In conclusion, the presence and extent of LV scar identified by LGE-CMR were independent predictors of MACCE in patients with AF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Update on Postsurgical Scar Management

    PubMed Central

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chamata, Edward; Cox, Joshua; Dickey, Ryan M.; Lee, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative scar appearance is often a significant concern among patients, with many seeking advice from their surgeons regarding scar minimization. Numerous products are available that claim to decrease postoperative scar formation and improve wound healing. These products attempt to create an ideal environment for wound healing by targeting the three phases of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. With that said, preoperative interventions, such as lifestyle modifications and optimization of medical comorbidities, and intraoperative interventions, such as adherence to meticulous operative techniques, are equally important for ideal scarring. In this article, the authors review the available options in postoperative scar management, addressing the benefits of multimodal perioperative intervention. Although numerous treatments exist, no single modality has been proven superior over others. Therefore, each patient should receive a personalized treatment regimen to optimize scar management. PMID:27478420

  14. Cutaneous Scar Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management. PMID:26909210

  15. Longitudinal burn scar quantification.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; de Oliveira, Ana; LaSalle, Leo; Perrault, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative studies of the clinical recovery of burn scars are currently lacking. Previous reports validate the objective, precise, diagnostic capabilities of high-frequency ultrasound to measure thickness, the Cutometer(®) to measure pliability and the Mexameter(®) to measure erythema and pigmentation of scars. Thus, we prospectively quantified clinical characteristics of patient-matched, after burn hypertrophic scar (HSc), donor site scar (D) and normal skin (N) using these instruments. One investigator measured 3 sites (HSc, D, N) in 46 burn survivors at 3, 6, and 12 months after-burn. A mixed model regression analysis, adjusting p-values for multiplicity of testing, was used to compare means among sites and time points. Participants were 41.2±13.5 years old, 87% males, predominantly Caucasian, with an average of 19.5% body surface area burned. HSc thickness decreased significantly between 3 and 6, 6 and 12, and 3 and 12 months (all p<0.0001), but remained thicker than D and N skin (all p<0.0001). Pliability differed significantly between HSc, D and N sites at all time points (all p<0.0001), with HSc and D increasing between 3 and 12 months (p<0.05) but not reaching normal. HSc and D sites were significantly more erythematous than normal skin (p<0.05) at 3 and 6 months but D sites approached normal by 12 months. The only time points at which pigmentation significantly differed were the HSc and D sites at 6 months. Thickness, pliability, erythema and pigmentation of N skin remained similar over the 12 months. We found that post-burn HSc thickness, pliability and erythema differed significantly from D and N skin at 3, 6, and 12 months and does not return to normal by 12 months after-injury; however, significant improvements towards normal can be expected. Donor sites are redder than normal skin at 3 and 6 months but can be expected to return to normal by 12 months. Although the color of HSc and D sites change markedly with time these color changes are

  16. Dune Avalanche Scars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    05 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, low albedo (dark) sand dunes in Kaiser Crater near 47.2oS, 340.4oW. The dunes are--ever so slowly--moving east to west (right to left) as sand avalanches down the steeper, slip face slopes of each. Avalanching sand in the Kaiser dune field has left deep scars on these slopes, suggesting that the sand is not loose but is instead weakly cemented. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  17. Periorbital Scar Correction.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Christopher B; Moe, Kristen S

    2017-02-01

    Periorbital scarring with eyelid retraction can have serious visual effects and can lead to loss of vision or even loss of the eye. Understanding of eyelid anatomy and the delicate balance of its structural supports is critical for the identification of the eyelid disorder responsible for the cicatrix and helps to guide treatment. The 2-finger test and lateral distraction of the lid can also be of significant help in proper diagnosis of the underlying disorder. Proper reconstruction with respect to the anterior and posterior lamellae helps to ensure a favorable outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of Irreversible Electroporation Protocols for In-vivo Myocardial Decellularization

    PubMed Central

    Zager, Yaniv; Kain, David; Landa, Natalie; Leor, Jonathan; Maor, Elad

    2016-01-01

    Background Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a non-thermal cell ablation approach that induces selective damage to cell membranes only. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate and optimize its use for in-vivo myocardial decellularization. Methods Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare myocardial damage of seven different IRE protocols with anterior myocardial infarction damage. An in-vivo open thoracotomy model was used, with two-needle electrodes in the anterior ventricular wall. IRE protocols included different combinations of pulse lengths (70 vs. 100 μseconds), frequency (1, 2, 4 Hz), and number (10 vs. 20 pulses), as well as voltage intensity (50, 250 and 500 Volts). All animals underwent baseline echocardiographic evaluation. Degree of myocardial ablation was determined using repeated echocardiography measurements (days 7 and 28) as well as histologic and morphometric analysis at 28 days. Results All animals survived 28 days of follow-up. Compared with 50V and 250V, electroporation with 500V was associated with significantly increased myocardial scar and reduction in ejection fraction (67.4%±4% at baseline vs. 34.6%±20% at 28 days; p <0.01). Also, compared with pulse duration of 70 μsec, pulses of 100 μsec were associated with markedly reduced left ventricular function and markedly increased relative scar area ratio (28%±9% vs. 16%±3%, p = 0.02). Decreasing electroporation pulse frequency (1Hz vs. 2Hz, 2Hz vs. 4Hz) was associated with a significant increase in myocardial damage. Electroporation protocols with a greater number of pulses (20 vs. 10) correlated with more profound tissue damage (p<0.05). When compared with myocardial infarction damage, electroporation demonstrated a considerable likeness regarding the extent of the inflammatory process, but with relatively higher levels of extra-cellular preservation. Conclusions IRE has a graded effect on the myocardium. The extent of ablation can be controlled by changing pulse

  19. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  20. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  1. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  2. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  3. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  4. New innovations in scar management.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, A D; Chait, L A; Stals, R; Stals, P J

    2000-01-01

    As current aesthetic surgical techniques become more standardized and results more predictable, a fine scar may be the demarcating line between acceptable and unacceptable aesthetic results. With this in mind, a scar management program has been adopted based on the modalities of wound support, hydration, and hastened maturity, all factors gleaned from scientific evidence published over the past 25 years. Tension on a scar in one axis will result in a stretched scar, probably initiated by neutrophils and their neutral proteases [18,26]. Tension on a scar from many directions or intermittently will result in a hypertrophic scar, possibly initiated by lymphocytes but definitely related to a prolongation of the inflammatory process, with increased fibroblast activity and overabundant extracellular matrix secretion [24,26]. The common initiating factor is the tension on the scar, and the critical element needed to counteract this tension is scar support. Clinical experience has shown us that the most reliable way to support a scar is by using microporous tape. Hydration is a second beneficial influence on scar control and is the basis of the use of silicone sheeting and gel [7,29,36]. Alpha Centella cream has two main components. The first is an extract from the plant Bulbine frutescens. This increases hydration under the tape by leaving a layer of fatty vesicles of glycoprotein on the skin surface. This also has antibacterial properties. The second component is the principal terpenoids extracted from the Centella asiatica plant. These include asiatic acid, madecassic acid, and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica has been documented to aid wound healing in a large number of scientific reports [5,12,21,22,33,34,40]. The most beneficial effect appears to be the stimulation of maturation of the scar by the production of type I collagen [4,19] and the resulting decrease in the inflammatory reaction and myofibroblast production. Thus these components have been incorporated into

  5. How reliable is myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Willerson, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphic techniques available presently allow a sensitive and relatively specific diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction when they are used correctly, although every technique has definite limitations. Small myocardial infarcts (less than 3 gm.) may be missed, and there are temporal limitations in the usefulness of the scintigraphic techniques. The development of tomographic methodology that may be used with single-photon radionuclide emitters (including technetium and /sup 201/Tl will allow the detection of relatively small abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and regions of myocardial infarction and will help to provide a more objective interpretation of the myocardial scintigrams. The use of overlay techniques allowing simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion, infarct-avid imaging, and radionuclide ventriculograms will provide insight into the relevant aspects of the extent of myocardial damage, the relationship of damage to myocardial perfusion, and the functional impact of myocardial infarction on ventricular performance.

  6. Connexin43 contributes to electrotonic conduction across scar tissue in the intact heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Vanessa M.; Mezzano, Valeria; Mirams, Gary R.; Maass, Karen; Li, Zhen; Cerrone, Marina; Vasquez, Carolina; Bapat, Aneesh; Delmar, Mario; Morley, Gregory E.

    2016-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated non-myocytes, including fibroblasts, can electrically couple to myocytes in culture. However, evidence demonstrating current can passively spread across scar tissue in the intact heart remains elusive. We hypothesize electrotonic conduction occurs across non-myocyte gaps in the heart and is partly mediated by Connexin43 (Cx43). We investigated whether non-myocytes in ventricular scar tissue are electrically connected to surrounding myocardial tissue in wild type and fibroblast-specific protein-1 driven conditional Cx43 knock-out mice (Cx43fsp1KO). Electrical coupling between the scar and uninjured myocardium was demonstrated by injecting current into the myocardium and recording depolarization in the scar through optical mapping. Coupling was significantly reduced in Cx43fsp1KO hearts. Voltage signals were recorded using microelectrodes from control scars but no signals were obtained from Cx43fsp1KO hearts. Recordings showed significantly decreased amplitude, depolarized resting membrane potential, increased duration and reduced upstroke velocity compared to surrounding myocytes, suggesting that the non-excitable cells in the scar closely follow myocyte action potentials. These results were further validated by mathematical simulations. Optical mapping demonstrated that current delivered within the scar could induce activation of the surrounding myocardium. These data demonstrate non-myocytes in the scar are electrically coupled to myocytes, and coupling depends on Cx43 expression.

  7. Scars of Erosion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-16

    This large crescent dune in Kaiser Crater shows the scars of many types of seasonal erosional activities. Along its downwind slope are large gullies which are active during winter, when frost drives dune material downslope, carving out channels and creating fan-shaped aprons. On the upwind slope (bottom), dust devil tracks are visible: dark lines and curliques created during the spring season by small wind vortices vacuuming up a thin layer of dust and exposing the dark dune sand. Note: Both the cutout and the above image are rotated so that North is to the right. The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 25.3 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 76 centimeters (30 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21458

  8. Keloids: scar revision.

    PubMed

    Brown, L A; Pierce, H E

    1986-01-01

    The treatment of keloids can be a long-term, and at times, vexing, dermatologic surgical management problem arising in both white and non-white patients. This paper reviews a number of conventional, as well as novel, therapeutic approaches for the management of this disease of uncontrolled scar growth. Additionally, fundamental aspects of this disease are covered, including clinical, histologic, biochemical, immunologic, endocrinologic, and epidemiologic factors. An understanding of these latter aspects may be useful to the clinician in realizing the best possible therapeutic results. It must be emphasized that, regardless of the technique employed, an observation period of at least 2 years is necessary to effectively limit the chance and degree of recurrence.

  9. Scar management practice and science: a comprehensive approach to controlling scar tissue and avoiding hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, Alan David; Chait, Laurence A

    2011-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the literature forms the basis of a treatment regimen focused on the principles of support, controlled inflammation, hydration, and hastened collagen remodeling. The presented clinical trial avoided hypertrophic scarring in more than 80% of cases, validating the theory of targeting many areas of scar control in 1 approach.

  10. Semi-automated scar detection in delayed enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisi, Rita; Donini, Bruno; Lanconelli, Nico; Rosengarden, James; Morgan, John; Harden, Stephen; Curzen, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Late enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRI) has the ability to precisely delineate myocardial scars. We present a semi-automated method for detecting scars in cardiac MRI. This model has the potential to improve routine clinical practice since quantification is not currently offered due to time constraints. A first segmentation step was developed for extracting the target regions for potential scar and determining pre-candidate objects. Pattern recognition methods are then applied to the segmented images in order to detect the position of the myocardial scar. The database of late gadolinium enhancement (LE) cardiac MR images consists of 111 blocks of images acquired from 63 patients at the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust (UK). At least one scar was present for each patient, and all the scars were manually annotated by an expert. A group of images (around one third of the entire set) was used for training the system which was subsequently tested on all the remaining images. Four different classifiers were trained (Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), Bayesian and feed-forward neural network) and their performance was evaluated by using Free response Receiver Operating Characteristic (FROC) analysis. Feature selection was implemented for analyzing the importance of the various features. The segmentation method proposed allowed the region affected by the scar to be extracted correctly in 96% of the blocks of images. The SVM was shown to be the best classifier for our task, and our system reached an overall sensitivity of 80% with less than 7 false positives per patient. The method we present provides an effective tool for detection of scars on cardiac MRI. This may be of value in clinical practice by permitting routine reporting of scar quantification.

  11. Myocardial Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... pectoris: Chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015. Deedwania PC. Silent myocardial ischemia: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015. Mann DL, ...

  12. Haemodynamic implications of exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in patients with recent inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    De Vito, F; Giordano, A; Giannuzzi, P; Tavazzi, L

    1988-04-01

    Two hundred and forty patients with recent inferior myocardial infarction were studied by a symptom-limited ergometric test with haemodynamic monitoring (triple lumen tip-thermistor Swan-Ganz catheter) in order to investigate and quantify the haemodynamic effects of exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia in post-infarct patients and to assess whether the ST-segment changes give any indication of the degree of ventricular impairment. One hundred and thirteen patients showed no ST-segment changes during excercise; ST-segment elevation in leads with abnormal Q wave occurred in 14 patients, ST-segment depression was recorded in 88 subjects, and both ST-segment elevation and depression were found in 27 patients. In subjects with no ST-segment shift, as well as in those with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation, the resting and exertional haemodynamic patterns were normal or nearly normal. In subjects showing ST-segment depression or both ST-segment elevation and depression during exercise the mean pulmonary wedge pressure was abnormally elevated (at peak exercise 25 +/- 8 and 24 +/- 7 mm Hg, respectively). However, 31% of these showed a normal haemodynamic pattern either at rest or during exercise. The number of leads with ST-segment depression and the sum of ST-segment depressions in standard ECG does not reliably indicate the degree of ischaemia-dependent left ventricular impairment. In contrast, in patients grouped on the basis of time of ST depression appearance, the lower the ischaemic threshold the more severe was the left ventricular impairment. Finally, to assess the relative role of both scar and ischaemia in producing left ventricular dysfunction, the haemodynamic patterns of patients with and without exercise-induced ST-segment depression were compared in subsets with similar echocardiographic wall asynergy extent (inferior, infero-apical, infero-septo-apical). Among patients with small or medium-sized scar, the exertional left ventricular filling pressure

  13. MALIGNANT DEGENERATION IN BURN SCARS

    PubMed Central

    Castañares, Salvador

    1961-01-01

    The malignant potential of burn scars has been recognized since Marjolin's classical description of cancer arising in several types of post-traumatic scars. With improved burn therapy since the last war, there has been a higher survival rate of severe burns with proportionate increase in cancer associated with burn scars. This will create increasing problems of permanent disability and compensation. The younger the patient at the time of the burn, the longer the time required for the cancer to develop. Acute cancer development in burn scars has been reported after a four-week interval. Cancer may develop from six weeks to fifty years or more. The etiology of cancer in burn scars is not known. The most important clinical finding is the fact that most of the burn cancers occur in areas which were not grafted. The most common type of cancer encountered in burn scars is squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in Marjolin ulcers. Basal cell carcinoma may develop in the most superficial of burn scars. Treatment should be directed primarily to prompt and adequate skin grafting in all deep burns in order to prevent malignant degeneration of the burn scars. Once it has developed the treatment is the same as for other malignancies which are not associated with burns. Wide surgical excision with block dissection of the regional lymph nodes when they are involved is the treatment of choice. The prognosis of burn scar cancer is poor, once the process has extended because of early and distant metastasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13691372

  14. [The scars of Andy Warhol].

    PubMed

    Scholz, A

    1996-02-01

    The biographical and artistic documents describing to the attempted assassination of the artist Andy Warhol are reviewed. The visible scars are interpreted as symbols of the damaged integrity of the skin.

  15. Burn Scars Across Southern California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-26

    Brush fires consumed nearly 750,000 acres across Southern California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these false-color images from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  16. Screening for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Scar Features by 12-lead ECG, in Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Mewton, Nathan; Strauss, David G.; Rizzi, Patricia; Verrier, Richard L.; Liu, Chia Ying; Tereshchenko, Larisa G.; Nearing, Bruce; Volpe, Gustavo J.; Marchlinski, Francis E.; Moxley, John; Killian, Tony; Wu, Katherine C.; Spooner, Peter; Lima, João A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased QRS score and wide spatial QRS-T angle are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Our main objective was to assess whether a QRS score ≥5 and/or QRS-T angle ≥105° enable screening of patients for myocardial scar features. Methods 77 patients age ≤70 years with QRS score ≥5 AND/OR spatial QRS-T angle ≥105° as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >35% were enrolled in the study. All participants underwent complete clinical examination, signal averaged ECG (SAECG), 30-minute ambulatory ECG recording for T wave alternans (TWA), and late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR). Relationship between QRS score, QRS-T angle with scar presence and pattern, as well as gray zone, core, and total scar size by LGE-CMR were assessed. Results Myocardial scar was present in 41 (53%) patients, of whom 19 (46%) exhibited a typical ischemic pattern. QRS score but not QRS-T angle was related to total scar size and gray zone size (R2=0.12, P=0.002; R2=0.17; P ≤0.0001 respectively). Patients with QRS scores ≥6 had significantly greater myocardial scar and gray zone size, increased QRS duration and QRS-T angle, a higher prevalence of late potentials (LP) presence, increased LV end-diastolic volume and decreased LVEF. There was a significant independent and positive association between TWA value and total scar (P=0.001) and gray zone size (P=0.01). Conclusion Patients with preserved LVEF and myocardial scar by CMR also have electrocardiographic features that could be involved in ventricular arrhythmogenesis. PMID:26806840

  17. Screening for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Scar Features by 12-Lead ECG, in Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Mewton, Nathan; Strauss, David G; Rizzi, Patricia; Verrier, Richard L; Liu, Chia Ying; Tereshchenko, Larisa G; Nearing, Bruce; Volpe, Gustavo J; Marchlinski, Francis E; Moxley, John; Killian, Tony; Wu, Katherine C; Spooner, Peter; Lima, João A C

    2016-01-01

    Increased QRS score and wide spatial QRS-T angle are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Our main objective was to assess whether a QRS score ≥ 5 and/or QRS-T angle ≥ 105° enable screening of patients for myocardial scar features. Seventy-seven patients of age ≤ 70 years with QRS score ≥ 5 and/or spatial QRS-T angle ≥ 105° as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >35% were enrolled in the study. All participants underwent complete clinical examination, signal-averaged ECG (SAECG), 30-minute ambulatory ECG recording for T-wave alternans (TWA), and late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR). Relationship between QRS score, QRS-T angle with scar presence and pattern, as well as gray zone, core, and total scar size by LGE-CMR were assessed. Myocardial scar was present in 41 (53%) patients, of whom 19 (46%) exhibited a typical ischemic pattern. QRS score but not QRS-T angle was related to total scar size and gray zone size (R(2) = 0.12, P = 0.002; R(2) = 0.17; P ≤ 0.0001, respectively). Patients with QRS scores ≥ 6 had significantly greater myocardial scar and gray zone size, increased QRS duration and QRS-T angle, a higher prevalence of late potentials (LPs) presence, increased LV end-diastolic volume and decreased LVEF. There was a significant independent and positive association between TWA value and total scar (P = 0.001) and gray zone size (P = 0.01). Patients with preserved LVEF and myocardial scar by CMR also have electrocardiographic features that could be involved in ventricular arrhythmogenesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Skin to serosa: scar endometrioma.

    PubMed

    Menon, Maya; T A, Sridevi; P N, Chandrika; Selvakumar A, Sathish

    2014-10-01

    Extra pelvic endometriosis, an underappreciated and misdiagnosed gynaecological problem has been reported here for its rare location. Patient presented with swelling and cyclical pain over vertical scar (caesarean). Diagnosis was made on high index of clinical suspicion which was complimented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Scar endometrioma extended from the skin upto the uterine serosa which is extremely rare. Wide excision of endometrioma followed by mesh repair was done. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis.

  19. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. PMID:26491364

  20. Target-seeking antifibrotic compound enhances wound healing and suppresses scar formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    Permanent scars form upon healing of tissue injuries such as those caused by ischemia (myocardial infarction, stroke), trauma, surgery, and inflammation. Current options in reducing scar formation are limited to local intervention. We have designed a systemically administered, target-seeking biotherapeutic for scar prevention. It consists of a vascular targeting peptide that specifically recognizes angiogenic blood vessels and extravasates into sites of injury, fused with a therapeutic molecule, decorin. Decorin prevents tissue fibrosis and promotes tissue regeneration by inhibiting TGF-β activity and by other regulatory activities. The decorin-targeting peptide fusion protein had substantially increased neutralizing activity against TGF-β1 in vitro compared with untargeted decorin. In vivo, the fusion protein selectively accumulated in wounds, and promoted wound healing and suppressed scar formation at doses where nontargeted decorin was inactive. These results show that selective targeting yields a tissue-healing and scar-reducing compound with enhanced specificity and potency. This approach may help make reducing scar formation by systemic drug delivery a feasible option for surgery and for the treatment of pathological processes in which scar formation is a problem. PMID:21106754

  1. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no

  2. Fire scar growth and closure rates in white oak (Quercus alba) and the implications for prescribed burning

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Kevin T. Smith; Daniel C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    In burned forestlands, fire scar wounds commonly occur on tree stems as a result of cambial heating. In hardwood forests in particular, wounding can lead to stem decay with the extent of decay being related to scar size and exposure time. Therefore, wound closure rates are important to understand in the context of fire management such that allowing sufficient time for...

  3. Does Transendocardial Injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Myocardial Function Locally or Globally? An Analysis From the POSEIDON Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suncion, Viky Y.; Ghersin, Eduard; Fishman, Joel E.; Zambrano, Juan Pablo; Karantalis, Vasileios; Mandel, Nicole; Nelson, Katarina H; Gerstenblith, Gary; Velazquez, Darcy L. DiFede; Breton, Elayne; Sitammagari, Kranthi; Schulman, Ivonne H.; N.Taldone, Sabrina; Williams, Adam R.; Sanina, Cristina; Johnston, Peter V.; Brinker, Jeffrey; Altman, Peter; Mushtaq, Muzammil; Trachtenberg, Barry; Mendizabal, Adam M.; Tracy, Melissa; Da Silva, Jose; McNiece, Ian K.; Lardo, Alberto C.; George, Richard T.; Hare, Joshua M.; Heldman, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Transendocardial Stem Cell Injection (TESI) with mesenchymal stem cells improves remodeling in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, but the impact of the injection site remains unknown. Objective To address whether TESI exerts its effects at the site of injection only or also in remote areas, we hypothesized that segmental myocardial scar and segmental ejection fraction improve to a greater extent in injected than in non-injected segments. Methods and Results Biplane ventriculographic and endocardial tracings were recorded. TESI was guided to 10 sites in infarct-border zones. Sites were mapped according to the 17-myocardial segment model. As a result, 510 segments were analyzed in 30 patients before and 13-months after TESI. Segmental early enhancement defect (SEED, a measure of scar size) was reduced by TESI in both injected (−43.7±4.4%, n=95, p<0.01) and non-injected segments (−25.1±7.8%, n=148, p<0.001; between group comparison p<0.05). Conversely, segmental ejection fraction (SEF, a measure of contractility) improved in injected scar segments (19.9±3.3 to 26.3±3.5%, p=0.003) but not in non-injected scar segments (21.3±2.6 to 23.5±3.2%, p=0.20, between group comparison p<0.05). In the subgroup of scar segments with baseline SEF<20%, the SEF improvement was even greater in injected segments (12.1±1.2% to 19.9±2.7%, n=18, p=0.003) vs. non-injected segments (13.3±1.3% to 16.1±2.1%, n=15, p=0.05; between group comparison p<0.05). Conclusions These findings illustrate a dichotomy in regional responses to TESI. Although scar reduction was evident at the site of TESI and remotely, ventricular functional responses occurred preferentially at the sites of TESI. Furthermore, improvement was greatest when segmental left ventricular dysfunction was severe. PMID:24449819

  4. 3-D analysis of breast morphology changes after inverted T-scar and vertical-scar reduction mammaplasty over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Eder, Maximilian; Klöppel, Markus; Müller, Daniel; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2013-06-01

    One major objective of all types of breast reduction procedures is to achieve a long-lasting, stable and aesthetically pleasing three-dimensional (3-D) breast shape, but current surgical outcome evaluation is limited. This study compares the extent of soft-tissue oedema and breast tissue migration related to 3-D breast morphology changes after inverted T-scar and vertical-scar breast reduction over 12 months. 3-D breast surface scans of patients undergoing inverted T-scar (n=52 breasts) and vertical-scar (n=44 breasts) reduction mammaplasty were obtained preoperatively and 2-3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months postoperatively. 3-D images were analysed at each time point comparing distances, 3-D breast contour deviations (%), breast surface (cm2) and volume (cc) measurements including volumetric distribution between the upper portion (UP) and the lower portion (LP) of the breast (%). Total postoperative breast volume decreased by 11.7% (T-scar) and by 7.8% (vertical-scar) during the first 3 months (both p<0.001) without relevant changes in the following months, indicating that soft-tissue oedema is resolved after 3 months. The T-scar (vertical-scar) group showed a preoperative UP to LP volumetric distribution of 43:57% (45:55%) versus 86:14% (91:9%) immediately after surgery. Breast tissue significantly redistributes (both p=0.001) from the UP to the LP during the first postoperative year by 16.5% (T-scar) and 21% (vertical-scar), resulting in a final UP to LP ratio of 70:30% for both techniques, without further breast contour deviations (both p>0.05) after 6 months (T-scar) and 9 months (vertical-scar). Breast morphological changes after reduction mammaplasty are completed after a period of 3-6 months in the T-scar group and 6-9 months in the vertical-scar group. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected.She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  6. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients. PMID:23456048

  7. Making better scar: Emerging approaches for modifying mechanical and electrical properties following infarction and ablation.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Jeffrey W; Laksman, Zachary; Gepstein, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Following myocardial infarction (MI), damaged myocytes are replaced by collagenous scar tissue, which serves an important mechanical function - maintaining integrity of the heart wall against enormous mechanical forces - but also disrupts electrical function as structural and electrical remodeling in the infarct and borderzone predispose to re-entry and ventricular tachycardia. Novel emerging regenerative approaches aim to replace this scar tissue with viable myocytes. Yet an alternative strategy of therapeutically modifying selected scar properties may also prove important, and in some cases may offer similar benefits with lower risk or regulatory complexity. Here, we review potential goals for such modifications as well as recent proof-of-concept studies employing specific modifications, including gene therapy to locally increase conduction velocity or prolong the refractory period in and around the infarct scar, and modification of scar anisotropy to improve regional mechanics and pump function. Another advantage of scar modification techniques is that they have applications well beyond MI. In particular, ablation treats electrical abnormalities of the heart by intentionally generating scar to block aberrant conduction pathways. Yet in diseases such as atrial fibrillation (AF) where ablation can be extensive, treating the electrical disorder can significantly impair mechanical function. Creating smaller, denser scars that more effectively block conduction, and choosing the location of those lesions by balancing their electrical and mechanical impacts, could significantly improve outcomes for AF patients. We review some recent advances in this area, including the use of computational models to predict the mechanical effects of specific lesion sets and gene therapy for functional ablation. Overall, emerging techniques for modifying scar properties represents a potentially important set of tools for improving patient outcomes across a range of heart diseases

  8. Making Better Scar: Emerging Approaches for Modifying Mechanical and Electrical Properties Following Infarction and Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Laksman, Zachary; Gepstein, Lior

    2015-01-01

    Following myocardial infarction (MI), damaged myocytes are replaced by collagenous scar tissue, which serves an important mechanical function – maintaining integrity of the heart wall against enormous mechanical forces – but also disrupts electrical function as structural and electrical remodeling in the infarct and borderzone predispose to re-entry and ventricular tachycardia. Novel emerging regenerative approaches aim to replace this scar tissue with viable myocytes. Yet an alternative strategy of therapeutically modifying selected scar properties may also prove important, and in some cases may offer similar benefits with lower risk or regulatory complexity. Here, we review potential goals for such modifications as well as recent proof-of-concept studies employing specific modifications, including gene therapy to locally increase conduction velocity or prolong the refractory period in and around the infarct scar, and modification of scar anisotropy to improve regional mechanics and pump function. Another advantage of scar modification techniques is that they have applications well beyond MI. In particular, ablation treats electrical abnormalities of the heart by intentionally generating scar to block aberrant conduction pathways. Yet in diseases such as atrial fibrillation (AF) where ablation can be extensive, treating the electrical disorder can significantly impair mechanical function. Creating smaller, denser scars that more effectively block conduction, and choosing the location of those lesions by balancing their electrical and mechanical impacts, could significantly improve outcomes for AF patients. We review some recent advances in this area, including the use of computational models to predict the mechanical effects of specific lesion sets and gene therapy for functional ablation. Overall, emerging techniques for modifying scar properties represents a potentially important important set of tools for improving patient outcomes across a range of heart

  9. Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Valle, L.; Uruchurtu, E.; Medel, A.; García-Mayen, F.; Serrano-Luna, G.

    2003-09-01

    Healing of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with inflammatory response, which promotes healing and scar formation. Activation of a local inflammatory response in patients with sequel of AMI could have an important role to enhance angiogenesis and regeneration of hibernating myocardial tissue. Chronic arterial leg ulcers have a similar etiology, and healing has been promoted by exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF). We report the evolution of three AMI patients with sequel of AMI that were exposed to ELF.

  10. Myocardial imaging artifacts caused by mitral valve annulus calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, L.E.; Movahed, A.; Reeves, W.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Knowledge of imaging artifact of myocardial perfusion studies with thallium-201 is critical for improving the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery disease. Three patients are described who underwent exercise or pharmacologic stress thallium-201 imaging studies and had a moderate, fixed myocardial perfusion defect (scar) involving the posterolateral and inferoposterior walls of the left ventricle. This was an imaging artifact caused by a heavily calcified mitral valve annulus.

  11. Modified Dovetail-Plasty in Scar Revision

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Suk Joon; Yang, Jihoon; Kim, Seon Gyu; Jung, Sung Won; Koh, Sung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scar revision is one of the fundamental techniques in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Local flaps, such as a Z-plasty, W-plasty, or geometric broken-line closure, have been used for scar revision. Camouflaging a scar during scar revision for marginal scars from skin grafts and flaps, trapdoor scars, and linear scars is difficult. We describe our experience with the use of modified dovetail-plasty for scar revision in these difficult areas. Our study group consisted of 28 cases among 22 patients (9 males and 13 females) with a mean age of 33.6 years (range, 6–61 years). The conspicuous scars were located on the face (50%) and extremities (50%). The authors designed Y-shaped incision lines to relax the skin tension lines on one side of the excision line and trapezoid incision lines on the other side. There were 16 follow-up operations performed over 6 months after the initial operation among a total of 22 patients. There were scar depressions (2 patients) and a hypertrophic scar (1 patient) at the interval area between the dovetail flaps. A diffuse hypertrophic scar occurred in 1 patient with a dorsal foot scar. The overall success rates of the procedure as assessed by the surgeons were as follows: excellent (75%), good (12.4%), fair (6.3%), and poor (6.3%). This new local flap can achieve an inconspicuous scar using a blurred scar line and reducing tension. The authors recommend a modified dovetail-plasty for the revision of trapdoor scars and scars under excessive tension. PMID:24577307

  12. Anti-inflammatory cytokine TSG-6 inhibits hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Zhao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Li; Tang, Yue-Ling

    2015-03-15

    Hypertrophic scars are characterized by excessive fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and can be functionally and cosmetically problematic; however, there are few satisfactory treatments for controlling hypertrophic scars. The inflammatory cells and cytokines involved in excessive inflammation during wound healing facilitate fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, leading to pathologic scar formation. TSG-6 exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined the effect of recombinant TSG-6 on inflammation in hypertrophic scars using a rabbit ear model. Six 7-mm, full-thickness, circular wounds were made on the ears of 12 rabbits. TSG-6 and PBS were intradermally injected into the right and left ear wounds, respectively. The methods of TEM and TUNEL were used to detect fibroblast apoptosis. The expressions of inflammatory factors: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were detected by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. Collagen I and III expression detected by immunohistochemistry and Masson׳s trichrome staining and SEI (scar elevation index) was used to evaluate the extent of scarring. TSG-6 injection mitigated the formation of a hypertrophic scar in the rabbit ear. TSG-6-treated wounds exhibited decreased inflammation compared with the control group, as evidenced by the lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MPO. The SEI and the synthesis of collagens I and III were significantly decreased in the TSG-6-treated scars compared with control scars. The apoptosis rate was higher in the TSG-6-treated scars. TSG-6 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects during the wound healing process and cicatrization and significantly diminished hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model.

  13. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu What We Do Cleft & Craniofacial Educational Materials Answers to Common Questions About Scars To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  14. Before and After Photos: Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ...

  15. Soft tissue trauma and scar revision.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Steven R; Sjogren, Phayvanh P

    2014-11-01

    Numerous techniques and treatments have been described for scar revision, with most studies focusing on the adult population. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals a paucity of references related specifically to scar revision in children. This review describes the available modalities in pediatric facial scar revision. The authors have integrated current practices in soft tissue trauma and scar revision, including closure techniques and materials, topical therapy, steroid injection, cutaneous laser therapy, and tissue expanders.

  16. Midcervical scar satisfaction in thyroidectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Best, Amy R; Shipchandler, Taha Z; Cordes, Susan R

    2017-05-01

    Assess long-term patient satisfaction with conventional thyroidectomy scars and the impact of thyroidectomy scars on patient quality of life. Validated survey administration and retrospective review of clinical and demographic data. Patients who underwent conventional thyroidectomy through years 2000 to 2010 were identified and administered the validated Patient Scar Assessment Questionnaire. Mean satisfaction, appearance and scar-consciousness scores were determined. Thirty-seven patients also measured the length of their current scar. Patient demographic and operative data were collected retrospectively from the medical record. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and independent samples t testing. Sixty of 69 patients perceived the appearance of their scar to be "good" or "excellent." Sixty-three patients (91.3%) were satisfied with all scar outcomes; 67 (97.1%) were satisfied with the overall appearance of their scar. Mean total satisfaction score was 17.3 (<26 indicates a high level of satisfaction). Fifty-six (81.2%) were "not at all" self-conscious of their scar; 65 (94.2%) reported no attempt to hide their scar. Seven patients (10.1%) indicated any likelihood of pursuing scar revision. Females had significantly higher total satisfaction scores, consciousness scores, and satisfaction with appearance scores. The effect of perceived scar length was significant for scar-consciousness, not patient satisfaction. The majority of patients were satisfied with their thyroidectomy scar appearance. Few patients reported a desire to hide the scar or pursue revision. Women were more likely to be dissatisfied than men. Length may play a role in scar consciousness. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1247-1252, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Scar contractures of the hand.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Theresa; Henderson, Megan; Amalfi, Ashley; Bueno, Reuben A; Neumeister, Michael W

    2011-10-01

    This article discusses scar contracture of the hand. It contains a brief outline of the anatomy of the hand and upper extremities and the types of injuries involved. Hand reconstruction, including examination, nonoperative treatment, surgery, excision and skin grafting, flaps, postoperative management, and complications, are covered. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrauterine endometriotic cyst at the site of previous cesarean scar; scar endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Isci, H; Gonenc, G; Yigiter, A B; Guducu, N; Dünder, I

    2015-01-01

    Uterine scar endometriosis is an extremely rare entitiy. As the surgical procedures of the uterus increases through time, scar endometriosis may be diagnosed more often in the future. A case of uterine scar endometriosis is presented with complaints of menstruation lasting one day with associated pelvic pain. When a cystic mass in the site of previous surgery is diagnosed, scar endometriosis must be considered.

  19. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to differentiate scar tissue from peri-scar tissue: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Riquet, Damien; Houel, Nicolas; Bodnar, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Every human injury leads to a scar formation. The healing process leads to the formation of new tissue: the scar, which is different from the original tissue. This process is influenced by mechanical strength and the local vasculature is modified. The purpose of this study is to show that there are various temperatures between the scar and the peri-scar area associated with the healing process that can be estimated using the thermal infrared camera. In the study, 12 scars were stimulated by cold. Several changes of temperature were observed between scar and peri-scar area for 10 min. Scars appeared significantly colder with a Wilcoxon test (p = 0.01). Results showed that stimulated infrared thermography can be used to monitor the temperature difference between the scar and peri-scar tissue.

  20. [Integrated diagnosis and treatment of scar].

    PubMed

    Cen, Y; Chen, J J

    2016-11-20

    Scar is the common disease in the field of burn and plastic surgery, and its diagnosis and treatment should be involved in overwhelming majority hospitals. There are many substandard methods and medical hidden dangers in diagnosis and treatment of scar, due to the unevenness of doctors' clinical experience. According to the classification of integral scar and diabrotic scar, the problems related to diagnosis and treatment of scar are systemically summarized and normalized in this article for decrease in the incidence of adverse events and medical hidden dangers.

  1. [Prevention and treatment of pathological scars].

    PubMed

    Petit Jornet, Jesep M; Teixidó Vidal, Xavier; Magrans Abril, Astrid; Cuixart Llopis, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    At times, the appearance of a pathological scar is a result of the scar process itself which can bring with it important physical and psychological complications for an affected person. The appearance of such a scar is more frequent in injuries which have followed a scar process caused as the consequence of a second operation and a disgraceful healing process. Preventive measures should be taken right at the start of treatment of the injury and continue during a set time after its initial closure. When, in spite of everything, a pathological scar appears, there are various materials and treatment techniques which provide different degrees of effectiveness.

  2. Reliability and Photographic Equivalency of the Scar Cosmesis Assessment and Rating (SCAR) Scale, an Outcome Measure for Postoperative Scars.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, no ideal valid, feasible, and reliable scar scale existed to effectively assess the quality of postoperative linear scars. The Scar Cosmesis Assessment and Rating (SCAR) scale was developed and validated as a tool to assess the quality of postoperative scars in clinical and research settings. To assess the reliability of using photographs in lieu of live patient scar rating assessments, and to determine the interrater and intrarater reliability of the SCAR scale. This was a reliability study to assess clinicians' interrater and intrarater reliability, as well as the reliability of using high-quality macrophotographs of postoperative scars. Patients were from a private practice dermatology clinic, with assessed scars representing a range of surgical procedures including those performed by dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and general surgeons. Assessments were performed by an international multidisciplinary team from dermatology, plastic surgery, surgical oncology, emergency medicine, and physiatry, using photographs and live patient assessments. A single photograph was assessed for each patient's scar. Data were obtained between August 3, 2015, and January 18, 2016. Data analysis occurred between January 18, 2016, and July 29, 2016. Using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the scale was tested for photographic equivalency as well as interrater reliability and intrarater reliability by 5 raters on a set of 80 total patient scars, 20 of which were analyzed for photographic equivalency and the remaining 60 of which were analyzed for interrater and intrarater reliability. The SCAR scale that measures postoperative scar cosmesis, with scores ranging from 0 (best possible scar) to 15 (worst possible scar), based on 6 clinician and 2 patient items was used. Of those 60 in the photographic subgroup, 10 were rated using not only the SCAR scale but also the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale and the Vancouver Scar Scale, and 10 were

  3. Outcomes of ablative fractional laser scar treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Woo; Hwang, Na-Hyun; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Park, Seung-Ha

    2015-04-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFL) systems are commonly used to treat various scars, and recent reports have indicated that early scar treatment with fractional lasers has good aesthetic results. Some scars respond dramatically to AFL treatment, incurring high levels of patient satisfaction; however, other scars respond poorly or became worse after treatment. This study was designed to clarify prognostic factors that predict AFL scar treatment outcomes. A total of 108 patients were included in this study. The fractional laser treatments were repeated every 4 weeks until the scar site was acceptable and no additional improvement was expected or the patient discontinued the treatment. The scar improvements were defined as changes in the Manchester scar scale (MSS) from before to after laser treatment. A digital camera was used to acquire digital photographs of the scars under the same light source, the same background, exposure, and white balance. This study developed a modification of the MSS for image analysis in which colour assessment was based on L*a*b* colour co-ordinates of the digital images. The mean MSS values prior to and after laser treatments were 11.6 ± 3.6 and 9.5 ± 2.9, respectively (p < 0.01). AFL treatment improved the qualities of each scar, and the improvements were evident in colour and contour. Scar elevation, pigmentation, high vascularity, early onset of treatment, and the number of treatment sessions were directly related to scar improvement after AFL therapy (p < 0.05). AFL treatments were effective methods for scar treatment. Clinicians can use these prognostic factors to determine treatment plans and to estimate scar improvement after AFL treatment.

  4. Scar formation and ligament healing.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, K A; Frank, C B

    1998-12-01

    Ligaments are highly organized, dense, fibrous connective-tissue structures that provide stability to joints and participate in joint proprioception. Injuries to ligaments induce a healing response that is characterized by the formation of a scar. The scar tissue is weaker, larger and creeps more than normal ligament and is associated with an increased amount of minor collagens (types III, V and VI), decreased collagen cross-links and an increased amount of glycosaminoglycans. Studies have shown that certain surgical variables alter the healing of ligaments. Such factors include the size of gap between the healing ligament, ends, the use of motion in a stable joint and the presence of multiple ligamentous injuries. Research on ligament healing includes studies on low-load and failure-load properties, alterations in the expression of matrix molecules, cytokine modulation of healing and gene therapy as a method to alter matrix protein and cytokine production.

  5. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  6. Hurricane Matthew overwash extents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara; Long, Joseph W.; Birchler, Justin; Range, Ginger

    2017-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project exists to understand and predict storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This data defines the alongshore extent of overwash deposits attributed to coastal processes during Hurricane Matthew.

  7. Quantification of scar margin in keloid different from atrophic scar by multiphoton microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Chen, Jianxin; Lin, Bifang

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was applied to examine the marginal region at dermis of keloid compared with atrophic scar. High-resolution large-area image showed an obvious boundary at the scar margin and different morphological patterns of elastin and collagen on the two sides, further visualized by the focused three-dimensional images. Content alteration of elastin or collagen between the two sides of boundary was quantified to show significant difference between keloid and atrophic scar. Owing to the raised property of keloid with overproduced collagen on the scar side, the content alteration was positive for elastin and negative for collagen. On the contrary, the content alteration was negative for elastin and positive for collagen in the atrophic scar case due to the atrophic collagen on the scar side. It indicated that examination of the scar margin by MPM may lead a new way to discriminate different types of scars and better understand the scarring mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Using inverse electrocardiography to image myocardial infarction--reflecting on the 2007 PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge.

    PubMed

    Dawoud, Fady; Wagner, Galen S; Moody, George; Horácek, B Milan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the 2007 PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge was to try to establish how well it is possible to characterize the location and extent of old myocardial infarcts using electrocardiographic evidence supplemented by anatomical imaging information. A brief overview of the challenge and how different challengers approached the competition is provided, followed by detailed response of the first author to integrate electrophysiologic and anatomical data. The first author used the provided 120-electrode body-surface potential mapping data and magnetic resonance imaging heart and torso images to calculate epicardial potentials on customized ventricular geometries. A method was developed to define the location and extent of scar tissue based on the morphology of computed epicardial electrograms. Negative Q-wave deflection followed by R-wave on the left ventricular surface seemed to correspond with the location of the scar as determined by the gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging gold standard in the supplied data sets. The method shows promising results as a noninvasive imaging tool to quantitatively characterize chronic infarcts and warrants further investigation on a larger patient data set.

  9. Computational modeling of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sáez, P; Kuhl, E

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step toward simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size.

  10. Computational modeling of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, P.; Kuhl, E.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step towards simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size. PMID:26583449

  11. Cutaneous scarring: Pathophysiology, molecular mechanisms, and scar reduction therapeutics Part II. Strategies to reduce scar formation after dermatologic procedures.

    PubMed

    Tziotzios, Christos; Profyris, Christos; Sterling, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The evidence base underpinning most traditional scar reduction approaches is limited, but some of the novel strategies are promising and accumulating. We review a number of commonly adopted strategies for scar reduction. The outlined novel agents are paradigmatic of the value of translational medical research and are likely to change the scenery in the much neglected but recently revived field of scar reduction therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fully automatic left ventricular myocardial strain estimation in 2D short-axis tagged magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Morais, Pedro; Queirós, Sandro; Heyde, Brecht; Engvall, Jan; 'hooge, Jan D; Vilaça, João L

    2017-08-07

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death and frequently result in local myocardial dysfunction. Among the numerous imaging modalities available to detect these dysfunctional regions, cardiac deformation imaging through tagged magnetic resonance imaging (t-MRI) has been an attractive approach. Nevertheless, fully automatic analysis of these data sets is still challenging. In this work, we present a fully automatic framework to estimate left ventricular myocardial deformation from t-MRI. This strategy performs automatic myocardial segmentation based on B-spline explicit active surfaces, which are initialized using an annular model. A non-rigid image-registration technique is then used to assess myocardial deformation. Three experiments were set up to validate the proposed framework using a clinical database of 75 patients. First, automatic segmentation accuracy was evaluated by comparing against manual delineations at one specific cardiac phase. The proposed solution showed an average perpendicular distance error of 2.35  ±  1.21 mm and 2.27  ±  1.02 mm for the endo- and epicardium, respectively. Second, starting from either manual or automatic segmentation, myocardial tracking was performed and the resulting strain curves were compared. It is shown that the automatic segmentation adds negligible differences during the strain-estimation stage, corroborating its accuracy. Finally, segmental strain was compared with scar tissue extent determined by delay-enhanced MRI. The results proved that both strain components were able to distinguish between normal and infarct regions. Overall, the proposed framework was shown to be accurate, robust, and attractive for clinical practice, as it overcomes several limitations of a manual analysis.

  13. Fully automatic left ventricular myocardial strain estimation in 2D short-axis tagged magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Pedro; Queirós, Sandro; Heyde, Brecht; Engvall, Jan; 'hooge, Jan D.; Vilaça, João L.

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death and frequently result in local myocardial dysfunction. Among the numerous imaging modalities available to detect these dysfunctional regions, cardiac deformation imaging through tagged magnetic resonance imaging (t-MRI) has been an attractive approach. Nevertheless, fully automatic analysis of these data sets is still challenging. In this work, we present a fully automatic framework to estimate left ventricular myocardial deformation from t-MRI. This strategy performs automatic myocardial segmentation based on B-spline explicit active surfaces, which are initialized using an annular model. A non-rigid image-registration technique is then used to assess myocardial deformation. Three experiments were set up to validate the proposed framework using a clinical database of 75 patients. First, automatic segmentation accuracy was evaluated by comparing against manual delineations at one specific cardiac phase. The proposed solution showed an average perpendicular distance error of 2.35  ±  1.21 mm and 2.27  ±  1.02 mm for the endo- and epicardium, respectively. Second, starting from either manual or automatic segmentation, myocardial tracking was performed and the resulting strain curves were compared. It is shown that the automatic segmentation adds negligible differences during the strain-estimation stage, corroborating its accuracy. Finally, segmental strain was compared with scar tissue extent determined by delay-enhanced MRI. The results proved that both strain components were able to distinguish between normal and infarct regions. Overall, the proposed framework was shown to be accurate, robust, and attractive for clinical practice, as it overcomes several limitations of a manual analysis.

  14. Investigating histological aspects of scars in children.

    PubMed

    Westra, I; Verhaegen, P D H M; Ibrahim Korkmaz, H; Braam, K I; Kaspers, G J L; Niessen, H W M; Niessen, F B

    2017-05-02

    Very little is known about histological aspects of paediatric scars and the possible role of the immune system during their formation. In this study, the histology thoracic scars caused by the placement of an implantable central venous access device in children who underwent treatment for cancer was assessed. The amount and type of collagen, the collagen orientation, the type of elastic fibres, the vascularsation, and the count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes were analysed. The severity of scarring was assessed using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). To evaluate the role of the immune system on scar severity and histology, the scars of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were compared with the scars of children suffering from other types of childhood cancer. Our results showed an extremely random orientation of the collagen fibres of the paediatric scars with a mean collagen orientation index of 0.22 (standard deviation (SD) 0.10, zero indicating a perfectly random orientation and a perfectly parallel orientation). A lower collagen orientation index was seen in scars with a lower VSS score (VSS score <3: 0.19 versus VSS score ≥3 0.29, p=0.037). A higher total VSS score, resembling a worse scar, was assessed to the scars in the non-ALL group compared with the children with ALL (mean ALL: 0.91 (0-3) versus mean non-ALL: 2.50 (0-6), p=0.037). To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating a wide array of histological aspects in paediatric scars. Compared with adult scars, an extremely random collagen orientation was found (0.22 in children versus 0.41 and 0.46 adult normotrophic and hypertrophic scars, respectively). A lower collagen orientation index was found in scars with a lower VSS score. In addition, less severe scarring was measured in children suffering from ALL compared with children suffering from other types of childhood cancer. This suggests that the immune system could play a role in the development of

  15. Acne Scars: Pathogenesis, Classification and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Annunziata, M. C.; D'Arco, V.; De Vita, V.; Lodi, G.; Mauriello, M. C.; Pastore, F.; Monfrecola, G.

    2010-01-01

    Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. There are numerous treatments: chemical peels, dermabrasion/microdermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, dermal grafting, needling and combined therapies for atrophic scars: silicone gels, intralesional steroid therapy, cryotherapy, and surgery for hypertrophic and keloidal lesions. This paper summarizes acne scar pathogenesis, classification and treatment options. PMID:20981308

  16. Chiral Scars in Chaotic Dirac Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2013-02-01

    Do relativistic quantum scars in classically chaotic systems possess unique features that are not shared by nonrelativistic quantum scars? We report a class of relativistic quantum scars in massless Dirac fermion systems whose phases return to the original values or acquire a 2π change only after circulating twice about some classical unstable periodic orbits. We name such scars chiral scars, the successful identification of which has been facilitated tremendously by our development of an analytic, conformal-mapping-based method to calculate an unprecedentedly large number of eigenstates with high accuracy. Our semiclassical theory indicates that the physical origin of chiral scars can be attributed to a combined effect of chirality intrinsic to massless Dirac fermions and the geometry of the underlying classical orbit.

  17. The Rendez-vous technique for treatment of caesarean scar defects: a novel combined endoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Nirgianakis, Konstantinos; Oehler, Robert; Mueller, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A caesarean scar defect is a late complication of caesarean birth with a wide range of prevalence between 56 and 84% depending on which diagnostic tool and which definition is used. The referred symptoms which include postmenstrual spotting and infertility are fortunately rare. Moreover, severe complications such as caesarean scar pregnancy and uterine rupture in the following pregnancy may occur. Given the increasing incidence of caesarean births, the potential morbidity associated with caesarean scars is likely to become more important. Recently, a few repair techniques were described in the literature including the hysteroscopic resection of scarred tissue or the laparoscopic repair with or without robotic assistance. Between June 2009 and February 2014, 21 women with caesarean scar defects were operated with the Rendez-vous technique, a minimally invasive surgery combining the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic approach. Data were retrospectively collected. The indications for this surgery included secondary infertility, previous caesarean scar pregnancy, recurrent miscarriage and postmenstrual spotting. Prior to operation, a transvaginal ultrasound was performed to examine the uterine wall defect. The patient characteristics are provided in Table 1. In all cases, the operation was successfully completed laparoscopically. The median operation time was 125 min. One case was complicated by recurrence of the scar defect 6 weeks after the operation. No other intra- or post-operative complications were observed, and the median in-patient stay was 3 days. The benefits of the technique include the feasibility and safety of the procedure, the "Halloween sign" (Fig. 1) which indicates the exact extent and localization of the scar defect and the immediate assessment of repair through the hysteroscopy at the end of the surgery. However, before further studies evaluate the efficacy of this method, the routine repair of caesarean scar defects cannot be recommended. A video of

  18. A Systematic Review on the Prevalence, Etiology, and Pathophysiology of Intrinsic Pain in Dermal Scar Tissue.

    PubMed

    Bijlard, Eveline; Uiterwaal, Lisa; Kouwenberg, Casimir A E; Mureau, Marc A M; Hovius, Steven E R; Huygen, Frank J P M

    2017-02-01

    Scars can cause pain, even without symptoms of underlying nerve damage. A lack of knowledge on intrinsic scar pain hampers effective treatment of these complaints. Aggregate current knowledge on the prevalence, etiology, and pathophysiology of intrinsic pain in dermal scars. Systematic review. University Medical Center. We searched the Embase, Medline, Cochrane central, CINAHL, Web-of-Science, and Pubmed databases with search terms: scar, skin, pain, and etiology/pathology, adding all synonyms of these terms. Relevant papers were selected and analyzed by 3 reviewers. Intrinsic pain in scars has a low prevalence. However, pathologic scars and burns regularly cause pain of high intensity. The etiology is multifactorial, the extent of trauma was an important predicting factor. Nerve fiber density did not explain the intrinsic pain when pan-neuronal markers were used, while a correlation with an increased number of C-fiber subtypes seems plausible. Nerve growth factor (that stimulate these C-fibers) plays an important role in wound healing. Thereby, it also sensitizes neurons and promotes inflammation, releasing even more neurotrophic factors. Central sensitization causes a long-lasting effect even after wounds are healed. Furthermore, the opioid-system, that influences inflammation and healing and possible systemic sensory alterations after injury, is discussed. Liberal selection criteria challenged the systematic selection of papers. Burn and pathologic scars often lead to high intensity pain symptoms. This pain has many characteristics of neuropathic pain that could be caused by an imbalance of C-fibers subtypes. The scar tissue itself may alter the nerve fiber distribution; the imbalance results in ongoing neuro-inflammation and pain symptoms. Key words: Systematic review, scar, pain, epidermal innervation, prevalence, neuro inflammatory response, peptidergic fibers.

  19. Comparison of semi-automated scar quantification techniques using high-resolution, 3-dimensional late-gadolinium-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rajchl, Martin; Stirrat, John; Goubran, Maged; Yu, Jeff; Scholl, David; Peters, Terry M; White, James A

    2015-02-01

    The quantification and modeling of myocardial scar is of expanding interest for image-guided therapy, particularly in the field of arrhythmia management. Migration towards high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) MRI techniques for spatial mapping of myocardial scar provides superior spatial registration. However, to date no systematic comparison of available approaches to 3D scar quantification have been performed. In this study we compare the reproducibility of six 3D scar segmentation algorithms for determination of left ventricular scar volume. Additionally, comparison to two-dimensional (2D) scar quantification and 3D manual segmentation is performed. Thirty-five consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy were recruited and underwent conventional 2D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and 3D isotropic LGE imaging (voxel size 1.3 mm(3)) using a 3 T scanner. 3D LGE datasets were analyzed using six semi-automated segmentation techniques, including the signal threshold versus reference mean (STRM) technique at >2, >3, >5 and >6 standard deviations (SD) above reference myocardium, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) technique, and an optimization-based technique called hierarchical max flow (HMF). The mean ejection fraction was 32.1 ± 12.7 %. Reproducibility was greatest for HMF and FWHM techniques with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥0.95. 3D scar quantification and modeling is clinically feasible in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. While several approaches show acceptable reproducibility, HMF appears superior due to maintenance of accuracy towards manual segmentations.

  20. Scar Revision Surgery: The Patient's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Allan, Anna Y; Butler, Daniel P; Cussons, Paul D

    2015-11-01

    Insufficient satisfaction outcome literature exists to assist consultations for scar revision surgery; such outcomes should reflect the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate scar revision patient satisfaction outcomes, according to specified patient-selection criteria. Patients (250) were randomly selected for telephone contacting regarding scar revisions undertaken between 2007-2011. Visual analogue scores were obtained for scars pre- and post-revision surgery. Surgery selection criteria were; 'presence' of sufficient time for scar maturation prior to revision, technical issues during or wound complications from the initial procedure that contributed to poor scarring, and 'absence' of site-specific or patient factors that negatively influence outcomes. Patient demographics, scar pathogenesis (elective vs. trauma), underlying issue (functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic) and revision surgery details were also collected with the added use of a real-time, hospital database. Telephone contacting was achieved for 211 patients (214 scar revisions). Satisfaction outcomes were '2% worse, 16% no change, and 82% better'; a distribution maintained between body sites and despite whether surgery was functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic. Better outcomes were reported by patients who sustained traumatic scars vs. those who sustained scars by elective procedures (91.80% vs. 77.78%, P=0.016) and by females vs. males (85.52% vs. 75.36%, P<0.05), particularly in the elective group where males (36.17%) were more likely to report no change or worse outcomes versus females (16.04%) (P<0.01). Successful scar revision outcomes may be achieved using careful patient selection. This study provides useful information for referring general practitioners, and patient-surgeon consultations, when planning scar revision.

  1. Prevalence of scars and "mini-scars", and their impact on quality of life in Japanese patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobukazu; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    There have been very few studies on the prevalence and severity of acne scars in Japanese patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of acne scars and their impact on the quality of life (QOL) in Japanese acne patients. Acne scars were classified as mini-scars (atrophic scars of ≥0.5 and <2 mm in diameter) atrophic scars (≥2 mm in diameter), and hypertrophic scars. The severity of acne and acne scars were evaluated. The background of patients and their QOL in relation to acne were assessed. Of 240 subjects, 218 (90.8%) had scars. All patients with scars had mini-scars; 61.2% and 14.2% of 240 had atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars, respectively. Severe scarring was found in patients who had experienced severe acne symptoms, although 15.0% of patients with scars had experienced only mild acne symptoms. The total Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly higher in patients with scars than in patients without scars (5.9 ± 4.4 vs 4.2 ± 4.1). Almost all the patients had small atrophic scars with a diameter of 0.5 or more and less than 2 mm, which we have termed "mini-scars". Acne scars had a negative impact on patient QOL. Early initiation of treatment is recommended to avoid acne scars. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Effective Treatments of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bingrong

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic scarring is often an unfortunate and permanent complication of acne vulgaris. It has high prevalence, significant impact on quality of life, and therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. The treatment of atrophic acne scars varies depending on the types of acne scars and the limitations of the treatment modalities in their ability to improve scars. Therefore, many options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, fat transplantation, other tissue augmenting agents, needling, subcision, and combined therapy. Various modalities have been used to treat scars, but limited efficacy and problematic side effects have restricted their application. In order to optimally treat a patient’s scar, we need to consider which treatment offers the most satisfactory result. There are also promising procedures in the future, such as stem cell therapy. In this article, the authors review the different treatment options of atrophic acne scars. This may be useful for selecting the best therapeutic strategy, whether it be single or combined therapy, in the treatment of atrophic acne scars while reducing or avoiding the side effects and complications. PMID:26029333

  3. [Keloid scars of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Beogo, R; Guiébré, Y M C; Sérémé, M; Ouoba, K; Zwetyenga, N

    2012-06-01

    A keloid scar is a benign proliferative lesion of dermic collagen. It is predominant in black skin patients. It is most commonly located on the head and neck. Skin trauma and a genetic predisposition may be responsible for the keloid scar. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of keloid scar is still unclear, and no currently available treatment is 100% effective. The authors had for aim to review the current data on keloid scar pathogenesis and treatment for an optimal management of this condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Psoriatic scarring alopecia: observations in four patients.

    PubMed

    Bardazzi, F; Fanti, P A; Orlandi, C; Chieregato, C; Misciali, C

    1999-10-01

    Although acute or chronic hair loss in psoriasis of the scalp can be a symptom of the disease, until now there has been no agreement as to whether or not it is only restricted to erythrodermic, generalized pustular and scalp plaque psoriasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with chronic scalp psoriasis and alopecia and to determine if the alopecia was of the scarring type. We report four cases of psoriatic scarring alopecia and describe the clinical and histologic features of these patients. The diagnosis was made by scalp biopsies (vertical and transverse sections) and other causes of scarring alopecia were excluded. Psoriasis can cause scarring alopecia.

  5. Pathological Mechanism for Delayed Hyperenhancement of Chronic Scarred Myocardium in Contrast Agent Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Lin, Hung-Yu; Liu, Hongyu; Freed, Darren; Arora, Rakesh C.; Tian, Ganghong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate possible mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of scarred myocardium by investigating the relationship of contrast agent (CA) first pass and delayed enhancement patterns with histopathological changes. Materials and Methods Eighteen pigs underwent 4 weeks ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts firstly experienced phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy. The hearts in group I (n = 9) and II (n = 9) then received the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/kg) and gadolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 µmol/kg), respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a gradient echo sequence. Delayed enhanced T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery sequence. Masson's trichrome and anti- von Willebrand Factor (vWF) staining were performed for infarct characterization. Results Wash-in of both kinds of CA caused the sharp and dramatic T2* signal decrease of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. Myocardial blood flow and microvessel density were significantly recovered in 4-week-old scar tissue. Steady state distribution volume (ΔR1 relaxation rate) of Gd-DTPA was markedly higher in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas ΔR1 relaxation rate of P792 did not differ significantly between scarred and normal myocardium. The ratio of extracellular volume to the total water volume was significantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium. Scarred myocardium contained massive residual capillaries and dilated vessels. Histological stains indicated the extensively discrete matrix deposition and lack of cellular structure in scarred myocardium. Conclusions Collateral circulation formation and residual vessel effectively delivered CA into scarred myocardium. However, residual vessel without abnormal hyperpermeability allowed Gd-DTPA rather than

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of late iodine-enhancement dual-energy computed tomography for the detection of chronic myocardial infarction compared with late gadolinium-enhancement 3-T magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Julian L; Bauer, Ralf W; Doss, Mirko; Stock, Wenzel; Lehnert, Thomas; Bodelle, Boris; Frellesen, Claudia; Vogl, Thomas J; Kerl, J Matthias

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of late iodine-enhancement (LIE) dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) linear blending and selective myocardial iodine mapping for the detection of chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) with late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) 3-T magnetic resonance imaging. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the patients gave informed consent. A total of 20 patients with a history of CMI underwent cardiac LIE-DECT and LGE-MRI. Images of the LIE-DECT were reconstructed as 100 kilovolt (peak) (kV[p]), 140 kV(p), and weighted-average (WA; linear blending) images from low- and high-kilovoltage peak data using 3 different weighting factors (0.8, 0.6, 0.3). Additional color-coded myocardial iodine distribution maps were calculated. The images were reviewed for the presence of late enhancement, transmural extent, signal characteristics, infarct volume, and subjective image quality. Segmental analysis of LIE-DECT data from 100 kV(p), WA of 0.8, and WA of 0.6 showed identical results for the identification of CMI (89% sensitivity, 98% specificity, 96% accuracy) and correctly identified all segments with transmural scarring detected through LGE-MRI. Weighted average of 0.6 received the best subjective image quality rating (15/20 votes) and average measured infarct size correlated best with LGE-MRI (5.7% difference). In comparison with LGE-MRI, iodine distribution maps were susceptible to false-positive and false-negative findings (52% sensitivity, 88% specificity, 81% accuracy), overestimating quantity of transmural scars by 78% while underestimating infarct volume by 55%. Late iodine enhancement cardiac dual-energy computed tomography correlates well with LGE-MRI for detecting CMI, whereas iodine distribution analysis provides inferior accuracy. Linear blending further improves image quality and enables more precise estimation of scar volume.

  7. Electrical homogenization of ventricular scar by application of collagenase: a novel strategy for arrhythmia therapy.

    PubMed

    Yagishita, Daigo; Ajijola, Olujimi A; Vaseghi, Marmar; Nsair, Ali; Zhou, Wei; Yamakawa, Kentaro; Tung, Roderick; Mahajan, Aman; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2013-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation for ventricular tachycardia is an established therapy. Use of chemical agents for scar homogenization represents an alternative approach. The purpose of this study was to characterize the efficacy of collagenase (CLG) application on epicardial ventricular scar homogenization. Myocardial infarcts were created in Yorkshire pigs (n=6) by intracoronary microsphere injection. After 46.6±4.3 days, CLG type 2, type 4, and purified CLG were applied in vitro (n=1) to myocardial tissue blocks containing normal myocardium, border zone, and dense scar. Histopathologic studies were performed to identify the optimal CLG subtype. In vivo high-density electroanatomic mapping of the epicardium was also performed, and border zone and dense scar surface area and late potentials were quantified before and after CLG-4 application (n=5). Of the CLG subtypes tested in vitro, CLG-4 provided the best scar modification and least damage to normal myocardium. During in vivo testing, CLG-4 application decreased border zone area (21.3±14.3 to 17.1±11.1 mm(2), P=0.043) and increased dense scar area (9.1±10.3 to 22.0±20.6 mm(2), P=0.043). The total scar area before and after CLG application was 30.4±23.4 and 39.2±29.5 mm(2), respectively (P=0.08). Late potentials were reduced by CLG-4 application (28.8±21.8 to 13.8±13.1, P=0.043). During CLG-4 application (50.0±15.5 minutes), systolic blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly changed (68.0±7.7 versus 61.8±5.3 mmHg, P=0.08; 77.4±7.3 versus 78.8±6.0 beats per minute, P=0.50, respectively). Ventricular epicardial scar homogenization by CLG-4 application is feasible and effective. This represents the first report on bioenzymatic ablation of arrhythmogenic tissue as an alternative strategy for lesion formation.

  8. T1 Mapping for Myocardial Fibrosis by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry—A Comprehensive Technical Review

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Craig, Christian R.; Strudwick, Mark W.; Galloway, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has been widely used to assess myocardial perfusion and scar and is the non-invasive gold standard for identification of focal myocardial fibrosis. However, the late gadolinium enhancement technique is limited in its accuracy for absolute quantification and assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis by technical and pathophysiological features. CMR relaxometry, incorporating T1 mapping, has emerged as an accurate, reproducible, highly sensitive, and quantitative technique for the assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in a number of disease states. We comprehensively review the physics behind CMR relaxometry, the evidence base, and the clinical applications of this emerging technique. PMID:28361053

  9. Downscaling of inundation extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Filipe; Prigent, Catherine; Papa, Fabrice

    2014-05-01

    The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellite (GIEMS) provides multi-year monthly variations of the global surface water extent at about 25 kmx25 km resolution, from 1993 to 2007. It is derived from multiple satellite observations. Its spatial resolution is usually compatible with climate model outputs and with global land surface model grids but is clearly not adequate for local applications that require the characterization of small individual water bodies. There is today a strong demand for high-resolution inundation extent datasets, for a large variety of applications such as water management, regional hydrological modeling, or for the analysis of mosquitos-related diseases. This paper present three approaches to do downscale GIEMS: The first one is based on a image-processing technique using neighborhood constraints. The third approach uses a PCA representation to perform an algebraic inversion. The PCA-representation is also very convenient to perform temporal and spatial interpolation of complexe inundation fields. The third downscaling method uses topography information from Hydroshed Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Information such as the elevation, distance to river and flow accumulation are used to define a ``flood ability index'' that is used by the downscaling. Three basins will be considered for illustrative purposes: Amazon, Niger and Mekong. Aires, F., F. Papa, C. Prigent, J.-F. Cretaux and M. Berge-Nguyen, Characterization and downscaling of the inundation extent over the Inner Niger delta using a multi-wavelength retrievals and Modis data, J. of Hydrometeorology, in press, 2014. Aires, F., F. Papa and C. Prigent, A long-term, high-resolution wetland dataset over the Amazon basin, downscaled from a multi-wavelength retrieval using SAR, J. of Hydrometeorology, 14, 594-6007, 2013. Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W.B. Rossow, and E. Matthews. Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure

  10. Interactive Hierarchical-Flow Segmentation of Scar Tissue From Late-Enhancement Cardiac MR Images.

    PubMed

    Rajchl, Martin; Yuan, Jing; White, James A; Ukwatta, Eranga; Stirrat, John; Nambakhsh, Cyrus M S; Li, Feng P; Peters, Terry M

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel multi-region image segmentation approach to extract myocardial scar tissue from 3-D whole-heart cardiac late-enhancement magnetic resonance images in an interactive manner. For this purpose, we developed a graphical user interface to initialize a fast max-flow-based segmentation algorithm and segment scar accurately with progressive interaction. We propose a partially-ordered Potts (POP) model to multi-region segmentation to properly encode the known spatial consistency of cardiac regions. Its generalization introduces a custom label/region order constraint to Potts model to multi-region segmentation. The combinatorial optimization problem associated with the proposed POP model is solved by means of convex relaxation, for which a novel multi-level continuous max-flow formulation, i.e., the hierarchical continuous max-flow (HMF) model, is proposed and studied. We demonstrate that the proposed HMF model is dual or equivalent to the convex relaxed POP model and introduces a new and efficient hierarchical continuous max-flow based algorithm by modern convex optimization theory. In practice, the introduced hierarchical continuous max-flow based algorithm can be implemented on the parallel GPU to achieve significant acceleration in numerics. Experiments are performed in 50 whole heart 3-D LE datasets, 35 with left-ventricular and 15 with right-ventricular scar. The experimental results are compared to full-width-at-half-maximum and Signal-threshold to reference-mean methods using manual expert myocardial segmentations and operator variabilities and the effect of user interaction are assessed. The results indicate a substantial reduction in image processing time with robust accuracy for detection of myocardial scar. This is achieved without the need for additional region constraints and using a single optimization procedure, substantially reducing the potential for error.

  11. The cost of post-burn scarring

    PubMed Central

    Mirastschijski, U.; Sander, J.T.; Zier, U.; Rennekampff, H.O.; Weyand, B.; Vogt, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deep burns lead to scarring and contractures for which there is little or no published data on treatment costs. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by analysing treatment costs for burn sequelae. To do this, German-DRG for in-patient treatment was collected from the Burn Centre Lower Saxony. DRG-related T95.-coding served as a tool for burn-associated sequelae. Data on scar occurrence, plastic-reconstructive surgery and sick leave were collected by a questionnaire. The findings showed that 44.6% patients reported post-burn scarring and 31% needed surgical intervention. The expected risk for readmission was significantly higher (p=0.0002) with scars compared to without. Significantly higher costs for pressure garments were noted for scarred patients (p=0.04). No differences were found for ointments, silicone dressings or pain medication. Treatment costs for patients with scars were 5.6 times higher compared with no scar assessed by G-DRG. No differences were stated subsuming multiple readmissions for post-burn treatment per individual. Significantly higher costs (p=0.03) were noted for patients with burn sequelae other than scars with regard to individual readmissions. It has been revealed that treatment of scars causes higher costs than for other burn sequelae because of multiple surgical interventions. To reduce post-burn scarring and costs, specialized burn centres provide optimal and state-of-the-art treatment. As well as this, more emphasis should be laid on promoting research for the development of novel anti-scarring therapies. PMID:27279810

  12. The cost of post-burn scarring.

    PubMed

    Mirastschijski, U; Sander, J T; Zier, U; Rennekampff, H O; Weyand, B; Vogt, P M

    2015-09-30

    Deep burns lead to scarring and contractures for which there is little or no published data on treatment costs. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by analysing treatment costs for burn sequelae. To do this, German-DRG for in-patient treatment was collected from the Burn Centre Lower Saxony. DRG-related T95.-coding served as a tool for burn-associated sequelae. Data on scar occurrence, plastic-reconstructive surgery and sick leave were collected by a questionnaire. The findings showed that 44.6% patients reported post-burn scarring and 31% needed surgical intervention. The expected risk for readmission was significantly higher (p=0.0002) with scars compared to without. Significantly higher costs for pressure garments were noted for scarred patients (p=0.04). No differences were found for ointments, silicone dressings or pain medication. Treatment costs for patients with scars were 5.6 times higher compared with no scar assessed by G-DRG. No differences were stated subsuming multiple readmissions for post-burn treatment per individual. Significantly higher costs (p=0.03) were noted for patients with burn sequelae other than scars with regard to individual readmissions. It has been revealed that treatment of scars causes higher costs than for other burn sequelae because of multiple surgical interventions. To reduce post-burn scarring and costs, specialized burn centres provide optimal and state-of-the-art treatment. As well as this, more emphasis should be laid on promoting research for the development of novel anti-scarring therapies.

  13. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  14. Quantitative differentiation of normal and scarred tissues using second-harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Murat; Quinn, Kyle P; Kobler, James B; Zeitels, Steven M; Georgakoudi, Irene; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to differentiate normal and scarred hamster cheek pouch samples by applying a quantitative image analysis technique for determining collagen fiber direction and density in second-harmonic generation microscopy images. This paper presents a collagen tissue analysis of scarred cheek pouches of four adult male Golden Syrian hamsters as an animal model for vocal fold scarring. One cheek pouch was scarred using an electrocautery unit and the other cheek was used as a control for each hamster. A home-built upright microscope and a compact ultrafast fiber laser were used to acquire depth resolved epi-collected second-harmonic generation images of collagen fibers. To quantify the average fiber direction and fiber density in each image, we applied two-dimensional Fourier analysis and intensity thresholding at five different locations for each control and scarred tissue sample, respectively. The resultant depth-resolved average fiber direction variance for scarred hamster cheek pouches (0.61 ± 0.03) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than control tissue (0.73 ± 0.04), indicating increased fiber alignment within the scar. Depth-resolved average voxel density measurements indicated scarred tissues contained greater (p < 0.005) fiber density (0.72 ± 0.09) compared to controls (0.18 ± 0.03). In the present study, image analysis of both fiber alignment and density from depth-resolved second-harmonic generation images in epi-detection mode enabled the quantification of the increased collagen fiber deposition and alignment typically observed in fibrosis. The epi-detection geometry is the only viable method for in vivo imaging as well as imaging thick turbid tissues. These quantitative endpoints, clearly differentiating between control and scarred hamster cheek pouches, provide an objective means to characterize the extent of vocal fold scarring in vivo in preclinical and clinical research. In particular, this non-invasive method

  15. Correlation of Scar in Cardiac MRI and High‐Resolution Contact Mapping of Left Ventricle in a Chronic Infarct Model

    PubMed Central

    THAJUDEEN, ANEES; STEWART, BRIAN; COKIC, IVAN; NAKAGAWA, HIROSHI; SHEHATA, MICHAEL; AMORN, ALLEN M.; KALI, AVINASH; LIU, EZH; HARLEV, DORON; BENNETT, NATHAN; DHARMAKUMAR, ROHAN; CHUGH, SUMEET S.; WANG, XUNZHANG

    2015-01-01

    high resolution contact electroanatomical mapping accurately localizes ventricular scar and abnormal myocardial tissue in this chronic canine infarct model. The high fidelity electrograms provided clear identification of the very low amplitude ILPs within the scar tissue and has the potential to quickly identify targets for ablation. PMID:25656924

  16. Correlation of scar in cardiac MRI and high-resolution contact mapping of left ventricle in a chronic infarct model.

    PubMed

    Thajudeen, Anees; Jackman, Warren M; Stewart, Brian; Cokic, Ivan; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Shehata, Michael; Amorn, Allen M; Kali, Avinash; Liu, Ezh; Harlev, Doron; Bennett, Nathan; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Chugh, Sumeet S; Wang, Xunzhang

    2015-06-01

    ventricular scar and abnormal myocardial tissue in this chronic canine infarct model. The high fidelity electrograms provided clear identification of the very low amplitude ILPs within the scar tissue and has the potential to quickly identify targets for ablation. ©2015 The Authors. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Hyperplastic scars and keloids. Part I: basics and prevention].

    PubMed

    Baisch, A; Riedel, F

    2006-11-01

    Aberrant wound healing results in unsightly scarring, hypertrophic scarring, and keloid formation, causing functional and cosmetic deformities, discomfort, psychological stress, and patient dissatisfaction. Scar prevention and management continue to be important issues for the facial plastic surgeon. This article presents an overview on the pathogenesis of a scar and of the different types of scars. Differences between keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scars include distinct scar appearance, histologic morphology and cellular function in response to growth factors. Recent advances in our understanding of the wound healing process reveal possible causes for hypertrophic scars and keloids. This information might assist in the development of efficacious prevention and treatment for hypertrophic scar and keloid formation. This article also describes the strategies available for scar prevention. Recommendations focus on the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids.

  18. Endometriosis of episiotomy scar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mihmanli, V; Ózkan, T; Genc, S; Cetinkaya, N; Uctas, H

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of histologically normal endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis predominantly locates on peritoneal surfaces, but it also affects the vagina, vulva, and perineum, usually secondary to surgical or obstetric trauma. Endometriosis in an episiotomy scar is a fairly rare phenomenon. The authors present a case of endometriosis in an episiotomy scar.

  19. Prevention and treatment of excessive dermal scarring.

    PubMed Central

    Roseborough, Ingrid E.; Grevious, Mark A.; Lee, Raphael C.

    2004-01-01

    Today, wound management to avoid excessive scar formation is increasingly important, especially in populations with Fitzpatrick 3 or higher skin pigmentation. Medical science and industrial development are devoting more effort toward understanding and offering better therapy to control scars. However, advances in scar management have been hampered by the confusing or ambiguous terminology. There is no consensus on what amount of post-traumatic skin scar formation is "normal" and what should be considered "hypertrophic". In the World Health Organization's ICD-9, there is no diagnostic code for hypertrophic scar--only keloid is listed. Yet, the medical and scientific literature distinguishes them as different conditions. Our experience suggests that the diagnosis of keloid disease is greatly over-rendered. For black patients, an elevated scar seems, by default, diagnosed as keloid by most. This confusion results in inappropriate management of scar formation, and occasionally contributes to decision making related to elective or cosmetic surgery. Given that patients are expecting better outcomes from wound care today than in the past, this review article attempts to capture the essential biological factors related to wound scar production and discusses treatment options and indications used by the authors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:14746360

  20. Multimodal imaging of vocal fold scarring in a rabbit model by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarine, Alexei; Bouhabel, Sarah; Douillette, Annie H.; Kost, Karen; Li-Jessen, Nicole Y. K.; Mongeau, Luc; Wiseman, Paul W.

    2017-02-01

    Vocal fold scarring as a result of injury or disease can lead to voice disorders which can significantly affect the quality of life. During the scarring process, the normally elastic tissue of the vocal fold lamina propria is replaced by a much stiffer collagen-based fibrotic tissue, which impacts the fold's ability to vibrate. Surgical removal of this tissue is often ineffective and can result in further scarring. Injectable biomaterials, a form of tissue engineering, have been proposed as a potential solution to reduce existing scars or prevent scarring altogether. In order to properly evaluate the effectiveness of these new materials, multiphoton microscopy emerges as an effective tool due to its intrinsic multiple label free contrast mechanisms that highlight extracellular matrix elements. In this study, we evaluate the spatial distribution of collagen and elastin fibers in a rabbit model using second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG) and two photon autofluorescence (TPAF) applied to unlabeled tissue sections. In comparison to traditional methods that rely on histological staining or immunohistochemistry, SHG, THG and TPAF provide a more reliable detection of these native proteins. The evaluation of collagen levels allows us to follow the extent of scarring, while the presence of elastin fibers is thought to be indicative of the level of healing of the injured fold. Using these imaging modalities, we characterize the outcome of injectable biomaterial treatments in order to direct future treatments for tissue engineering.

  1. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. Case presentation We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. Conclusion In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated. PMID:23031186

  2. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Marcel-Philipp; Streitbürger, Arne; Gosheger, Georg; Surke, Carsten; Dierkes, Christian; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-10-02

    Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  3. The Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model: A Novel Human Model for Scar Research and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Steven T; Liu, Jing; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that improve the cosmetic appearance of scars. Existing nonhuman animal models to study scarring, while valuable, have well-acknowledged limitations, as it is accepted that the biology of human scarring differs significantly from scarring in other species. Moreover, human clinical trials of scarring require large numbers of subjects to achieve statistical power and are plagued by inherent intersubject variability because of the complex nature of wound healing in human beings. As a better alternative, we have developed the Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model-a novel human clinical model that permits analysis of up to 20 cutaneous scars in a single subject and allows for not only visual scar comparison, but also histologic and molecular analyses of factors involved in scarring and wound healing. We have utilized this model in 5 early phase clinical trials designed to test the safety and efficacy of a variety of scar therapeutics without any complications to date. The model not only is applicable to scar therapeutics, but also can be utilized for other applications, such as the testing of implantable biomaterials, injectable products, therapies such as lasers, or even for in vivo study of wound healing processes in humans.

  4. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-11-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.

  5. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    PubMed Central

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications. PMID:27892510

  6. Left ventricular diastolic function following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Solomon, Scott D

    2006-12-01

    An acute myocardial infarction causes a loss of contractile fibers which reduces systolic function. Parallel to the effect on systolic function, a myocardial infarction also impacts diastolic function, but this relationship is not as well understood. The two physiologic phases of diastole, active relaxation and passive filling, are both influenced by myocardial ischemia and infarction. Active relaxation is delayed following a myocardial infarction, whereas left ventricular stiffness changes depending on the extent of infarction and remodeling. Interstitial edema and fibrosis cause an increase in wall stiffness which is counteracted by dilation. The effect on diastolic function is correlated to an increased incidence of adverse outcomes. Moreover, patients with comorbid conditions that are associated with worse diastolic function tend to have more adverse outcomes after infarction. There are currently no treatments aimed specifically at treating diastolic dysfunction following a myocardial infarction, but several new drugs, including aldosterone antagonists, may offer promise.

  7. Decorin blocks scarring and cystic cavitation in acute and induces scar dissolution in chronic spinal cord wounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Bansal, Daljeet; Tizzard, Katie; Surey, Sarina; Esmaeili, Maryam; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

    2014-04-01

    In the injured central nervous system (CNS), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/2-induced scarring and wound cavitation impede axon regeneration implying that a combination of both scar suppression and axogenic treatments is required to achieve functional recovery. After treating acute and chronic dorsal funicular spinal cord lesions (DFL) in adult rats with the pan-TGF-β1/2 antagonist Decorin, we report that in: (1), acute DFL, the development of all injury parameters was significantly retarded e.g., wound cavity area by 68%, encapsulation of the wound by a glia limitans accessoria (GLA) by 65%, GLA basal lamina thickness by 94%, fibronectin, NG2 and Sema-3A deposition by 87%, 48% and 48%, respectively, and both macrophage and reactive microglia accumulations by 60%; and (2), chronic DFL, all the above parameters were attenuated to a lesser extent e.g., wound cavity area by 11%, GLA encapsulation by 25%, GLA basal lamina thickness by 31%, extracellular fibronectin, NG2 and Sema-3A deposition by 58%, 22% and 29%, respectively, and macrophage and reactive microglia accumulations by 44%. Moreover, in acute and chronic DFL, levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were raised (by 236% and 482%, respectively), as were active-MMP-2 (by 64% and 91%, respectively) and active-MMP-9 (by 122% and 18%, respectively), while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was suppressed (by 56% and 23%, respectively) and active-TIMP-1 and active TIMP-2 were both lower but only significantly suppressed in acute DFL (by 56 and 21%, respectively). These findings demonstrate that both scar tissue mass and cavitation are attenuated in acute and chronic spinal cord wounds by Decorin treatment and suggest that the dominant effect of Decorin during acute scarring is anti-fibrogenic through suppression of inflammatory fibrosis by neutralisation of TGF-β1/2 whereas, in chronic lesions, Decorin-induction of tPA and MMP (concomitant with reduced complimentary levels of TIMP and PAI-1

  8. DERMABRASIVE ABLATION OF ACNE SCARS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Adolph M.

    1958-01-01

    Dermabrasion offers cosmetic improvement of acne pits and scars, but only well-adjusted patients should be selected for this esthetic improvement. In the dermabrasion operation the deep cup-shaped pits are made shallow by saucerization, for the deep sharp shadows are eliminated as the pits are shallowed. It is the elimination of the shadow effect which is so gratifying to the patient. Although dermabrasion is a superficial skin operation, it involves dangerous instruments and thousands of minute incisions. The procedure is a surgical operation, whether done in an office or in a hospital. The author performs the operation entirely as a hospital procedure, using pentothal anesthesia with meperidine added in small increments during the operation. Thus the operation may be unhurriedly and meticulously performed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:13561125

  9. Myocardial T1 Mapping: Techniques and Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Jeremy R.; Zimmerman, Stefan L.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Halushka, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is a common endpoint in a variety of cardiac diseases and a major independent predictor of adverse cardiac outcomes. Short of histopathologic analysis, which is limited by sampling bias, most diagnostic modalities are limited in their depiction of myocardial fibrosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has the advantage of providing detailed soft-tissue characterization, and a variety of novel quantification methods have further improved its usefulness. Contrast material–enhanced cardiac MR imaging depends on differences in signal intensity between regions of scarring and adjacent normal myocardium. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis lacks these differences in signal intensity. Measurement of myocardial T1 times (T1 mapping) with gadolinium-enhanced inversion recovery–prepared sequences may depict diffuse myocardial fibrosis and has good correlation with ex vivo fibrosis content. T1 mapping calculates myocardial T1 relaxation times with image-based signal intensities and may be performed with standard cardiac MR imagers and radiologic workstations. Myocardium with diffuse fibrosis has greater retention of contrast material, resulting in T1 times that are shorter than those in normal myocardium. Early studies have suggested that diffuse myocardial fibrosis may be distinguished from normal myocardium with T1 mapping. Large multicenter studies are needed to define the role of T1 mapping in developing prognoses and therapeutic assessments. However, given its strengths as a noninvasive method for direct quantification of myocardial fibrosis, T1 mapping may eventually play an important role in the management of cardiac disease. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:24617686

  10. Analysis of frequency of use of different scar assessment scales based on the scar condition and treatment method.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seong Hwan; Bae, Yong Chan

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale were reviewed and analyzed. The scar assessment scales were identified and organized by various criteria. Among the types of scar assessment scales, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was found to be the most frequently used scale. As for the assessment of newly developed operative scars, the POSAS was most used. Meanwhile, for categories depending on the treatment methods for preexisting scars, the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was used in 6 studies following a laser treatment, the POSAS was used in 7 studies following surgical treatment, and the POSAS was used in 7 studies following a conservative treatment. Within the 12 categories of scar status, the VSS showed the highest frequency in 6 categories and the POSAS showed the highest frequency in the other 6 categories. According to our reviews, the POSAS and VSS are the most frequently used scar assessment scales. In the future, an optimal, universal scar scoring system is needed in order to better evaluate and treat pathologic scarring.

  11. The effect of topical scar treatment on postoperative scar pain and pruritus after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Geon-Hyeong; Kim, Dong-Wook; In, Yong

    2014-04-01

    The surgical wound of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) needs continuous flexion and extension movement. Silicone gel treatment is widely used to treat hypertrophic scars and keloids since it is easily applied and prevents scar pain and itching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of silicone gel applied to surgical scars of TKA on postoperative scar pain and pruritus. One hundred TKAs were randomized into a silicone gel group (silicone gel was applied to the wound after stitch-out for 1 month) or a placebo group. The postoperative scar pain and pruritus were evaluated with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS) at postoperative 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. Scar assessment was done using the Vancouver scar scale by evaluating scar pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and height. Although silicone gel group showed better pigmentation and height scales than placebo group (P < 0.05), there were no significant differences in the postoperative scar pain and pruritus VAS scores between the groups (P > 0.05). Application of silicone gel had no beneficial effects on scar pain and itching relief during the early postoperative period of TKA. I-Randomized Controlled Trial.

  12. Phase and Texture Characterizations of Scar Collagen Second-Harmonic Generation Images Varied with Scar Duration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guannan; Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-08-01

    This work developed a phase congruency algorithm combined with texture analysis to quantitatively characterize collagen morphology in second-harmonic generation (SHG) images from human scars. The extracted phase and texture parameters of the SHG images quantified collagen directionality, homogeneity, and coarseness in scars and varied with scar duration. Phase parameters showed an increasing tendency of the mean of phase congruency with scar duration, indicating that collagen fibers are better oriented over time. Texture parameters calculated from local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) and Haar wavelet transform, demonstrated that the LD-LBP variance decreased and the energy of all subimages increased with scar duration. It implied that collagen has a more regular pattern and becomes coarser with scar duration. In addition, the random forest regression was used to predict scar duration, demonstrating reliable performance of the extracted phase and texture parameters in characterizing collagen morphology in scar SHG images. Results indicate that the extracted parameters using the proposed method can be used as quantitative indicators to monitor scar progression with time and can help understand the mechanism of scar progression.

  13. Comparative study of Langerhans cells in normal and pathological human scars. I. Atrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Cracco, C; Stella, M; Teich Alasia, S; Filogamo, G

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated Langerhans cells (LCs) in the epidermal component of human atrophic scars, comparing them with those in control skin and normotrophic scars. A preliminary analysis of the histological features was first carried out on vertical serial sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The total epidermal thickness and the thickness of the single epidermal layers were then measured, by means of a digitizing tablet and a morphometric program run on an Apple IIe computer. These parameters were found to be significantly lower (40%) in atrophic scars, if compared to control skin and normotrophic scars (p less than 0.05). CDla-positive and HLA-DR-positive LCs were marked by indirect immunofluorescence. Their position among the epidermal layers, their dimensions, their density and their morphology were examined. In atrophic scars, LCs were densely and evenly distributed in all the epidermal layers. Their density was increased (about 1200 cells/mm2 of epidermal area), if compared to control skin and normotrophic scars (both 300-400 cells/mm2 of epidermal area; p less than 0.001). The CDla-positive definite cell bodies, exhibiting an unstained nucleus, were as large as those evidentiated in the normotrophic scars and twice as much the control skin values (p less than 0.001). The present results provide morphological data that distinguish atrophic scars from control skin and normotrophic scars, and suggest an involvement of the Langerhans cells in this particular case of pathological scarring.

  14. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  15. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar.

    PubMed

    Pol, Robert A; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J

    2012-07-16

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months' review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  16. Microneedling Therapy for Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Manal; Awad, Sherif; Medhat, Walid; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Farag, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of acne scarring is always a challenge. Microneedling therapy or percutaneous collagen induction is a new addition to the treatment modalities for such scars and has been reported to be simple and effective in atrophic acne scar treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes of acne scarring in response to skin microneedling. Design: A prospective clinical study. Participants: Ten patients with different types of atrophic acne scars were subjected to three months of skin microneedling treatment (six sessions at two-week intervals). Measurements: Patients were photographed, and skin biopsies were obtained at baseline as well as one and three months from the start of treatment. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative evaluation of total elastin; newly synthesized tropoelastin; collagen types I, III, and VII; and newly synthesized collagen were performed for all biopsies. Results: Compared to the baseline, patients’ evaluations revealed noticeable clinical improvement in atrophic post-acne scars in response to skin microneedling. There was a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean of collagen types I, III, and VII and newly synthesized collagen, while total elastin was significantly decreased (p<0.05) after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Multiple minimally invasive sessions of skin microneedling are an effective treatment for post-acne atrophic scars as it stimulates the repair processes with the advantage of being a relatively risk-free, in-office procedure with minimal patient recovery time. PMID:26203319

  17. Astrocyte scar formation aids CNS axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark A.; Burda, Joshua E.; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O’Shea, Timothy M.; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S.; Deming, Timothy J.; Sofroniew, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or deleting chronic astrocyte scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. In striking contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocyte scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents CNS axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  18. Scar assessment scales: a dermatologic overview.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Nayla; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    This overview critically compares subjective assessment tools and available objective measurement tools with potential devices becoming available. Our goal is to lay out the benefits of each scar assessment scale in order to propose good management skills for scars along with strong metric skills. Classifying a scar is important in daily clinical practice. Ultimately choosing which treatment modality best fits can become a challenge. Scar classification needs a more detailed and systematic approach. We researched all different factors contributing to scar formation to come up with a more detailed criteria. Such factors included pigmentation/vascularity, surface texture, surface area, thickness (scar height), and pliability. Few studies have assessed scars; each provided an assessment scale of their own. Each scale is compared on the basis of accuracy, reliability, convenience in terms of feasibility and price. There remains still no ideal objective measurement out there despite promise seen in subjective evaluation. Method refinement will however accelerate our knowledge and interventions - based on increasing study power with enhanced metrics.

  19. A quantitative approach to scar analysis.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-02-01

    Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology.

  20. Hair follicle transplantation on scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soyeon; Oh, Suk Joon; Hoon Koh, Sung

    2013-07-01

    Hair transplantation is a continuously evolving field. The procedure was originally developed by Dr. Orentreich in 1959, but he applied it only to the androgenic alopecia. Potential applications for hair grafting extend beyond treatment of hair loss. Our study group consisted of 25 cases of 23 patients. The causes of scar resulting to hair loss were burns, operation, and trauma. The scalp strips or follicular unit extracts were harvested from occipital, posterior auricular, dog-eared scalp, adjacent scalp area, and nuchal area. The recipient sites were scalp, eyebrow, lip, and eyelid. The follow-up cases over 6 months after operation were 18 among total 25 cases. The result after hair follicle transplantation was excellent (44.4%), good (38.9%), fair (11.1%), and poor (5.6%). The hair follicle transplantation on the scar tissue is more difficult than grafting on normal tissue because the scar is accompanied by poor blood circulation and stiffness of tissue. The patients with burned scar achieved more favorable result than did others. Incision scars are deeper than burned scars, and their success rates are poor. We should recommend the patients that hair follicle transplantation on the scar may need secondary or more operations for the aesthetically better result.

  1. A Quantitative Approach to Scar Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology. PMID:21281794

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the embrace Advanced Scar Therapy Device to Reduce Incisional Scar Formation

    PubMed Central

    Longaker, Michael T.; Rohrich, Rod J.; Greenberg, Lauren; Furnas, Heather; Wald, Robert; Bansal, Vivek; Seify, Hisham; Tran, Anthony; Weston, Jane; Korman, Joshua M.; Chan, Rodney; Kaufman, David; Dev, Vipul R.; Mele, Joseph A.; Januszyk, Michael; Cowley, Christy; McLaughlin, Peggy; Beasley, Bill; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scarring represents a significant biomedical burden in clinical medicine. Mechanomodulation has been linked to scarring through inflammation, but until now a systematic approach to attenuate mechanical force and reduce scarring has not been possible. Methods The authors conducted a 12-month, prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical trial to evaluate abdominoplasty scar appearance following postoperative treatment with the embrace Advanced Scar Therapy device to reduce mechanical forces on healing surgical incisions. Incisions from 65 healthy adult subjects were randomized to receive embrace treatment on one half of an abdominoplasty incision and control treatment (surgeon's optimal care methods) on the other half. The primary endpoint for this study was the difference between assessments of scar appearance for the treated and control sides using the visual analogue scale scar score. Results Final 12-month study photographs were obtained from 36 subjects who completed at least 5 weeks of dressing application. The mean visual analogue scale score for embrace-treated scars (2.90) was significantly improved compared with control-treated scars (3.29) at 12 months (difference, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.66; p = 0.027). Both subjects and investigators found that embrace-treated scars demonstrated significant improvements in overall appearance at 12 months using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale evaluation (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the embrace device significantly reduces scarring following abdominoplasty surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first level I evidence for postoperative scar reduction. PMID:24804638

  3. Usefulness of MRI to Differentiate Between Temporary and Long-Term Coronary Artery Occlusion in a Minimally Invasive Model of Experimental Myocardial Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Abegunewardene, Nico Vosseler, Markus; Gori, Tommaso; Hoffmann, Nico; Schmidt, Kai-Helge; Becker, Dietmar; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Petersen, Steffen E.; Schreiber, Laura M.; Horstick, Georg; Muenzel, Thomas

    2009-09-15

    The surgical technique employed to determine an experimental ischemic damage is a major factor in the subsequent process of myocardial scar development. We set out to establish a minimally invasive porcine model of myocardial infarction using cardiac contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ce-MRI) as the basic diagnostic tool. Twenty-seven domestic pigs were randomized to either temporary or permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Temporary occlusion was achieved by inflation of a percutaneous balloon in the left anterior descending artery directly beyond the second diagonal branch. Occlusion was maintained for 30 or 45 min, followed by reperfusion. Permanent occlusion was achieved via thrombin injection. Thirteen animals died peri- or postinterventionally due to arrhythmias. Fourteen animals survived the 30-min ischemia (four animals; group 1), the 45-min ischemia (six animals; group 2), or the permanent occlusion (4 animals; group 3). Coronary angiography and ce-MRI were performed 8 weeks after coronary occlusion to document the coronary flow grade and the size of myocardial scar tissue. The LAD was patent in all animals in groups 1 and 2, with normal TIMI flow; in group 3 animals, the LAD was totally occluded. Fibrosis of the left ventricle in group 1 (4.9 {+-} 4.4%; p = 0.008) and group 2 (9.4 {+-} 2.9%; p = 0.05) was significantly lower than in group 3 (14.5 {+-} 3.9%). Wall thickness of the ischemic area was significantly lower in group 3 versus group 1 and group 2 (2.9 {+-} 0.3, 5.9 {+-} 0.7, and 6.1 {+-} 0.7 mm; p = 0.005). The extent of late enhancement of the left ventricle was also significantly higher in group 3 (16.9 {+-} 2.1%) compared to group 1 (5.3 {+-} 5.4%; p = 0.003) and group 2 (9.7 {+-} 3.4%, p = 0.013). In conclusion, the present model of minimally invasive infarction coupled with ce-MRI may represent a useful alternative to the open chest model for studies of myocardial infarction and scar development.

  4. Controllable quantum scars in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Kaplan, L.; Heller, E. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum scars are enhancements of quantum probability density along classical periodic orbits. We study the recently discovered phenomenon of strong perturbation-induced quantum scarring in the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field. We demonstrate that both the geometry and the orientation of the scars are fully controllable with a magnetic field and a focused perturbative potential, respectively. These properties may open a path into an experimental scheme to manipulate electric currents in nanostructures fabricated in a two-dimensional electron gas.

  5. Marjolin's ulcer and chronic burn scarring.

    PubMed

    Akgüner, M; Barutçu, A; Yilmaz, M; Karataş, O; Vayvada, H

    1998-03-01

    Marjolin's ulcer is a term used to describe squamous cell carcinomas which develop in chronic wounds. These carcinomas may also develop at the site of long-standing irritation, such as unstable burn scars. Development times for burn scar carcinomas of more than 30 years have been noted. This evaluation describes the treatment of 10 patients with burn scar carcinomas who have been treated using wide excision and closure of the defect with skin grafts or flaps, plus regional lymph node dissection if required. Results indicate a mean carcinoma development time of 26 years. Local recurrence occurred in only one patient.

  6. Scar State on Time-evolving Wavepacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiya, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuyuki, Hiroyoshi; Kawamura, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Shoichi; Heller, Eric J.

    2015-09-01

    The scar-like enhancement is found in the accumulation of the time-evolving wavepacket in stadium billiard. It appears close to unstable periodic orbits, when the wavepackets are launched along the orbits. The enhancement is essentially due to the same mechanism of the well-known scar states in stationary eigenstates. The weighted spectral function reveals that the enhancement is the pileup of contributions from scar states on the same periodic orbit. The availavility of the weighted spectrum to the semiclassical approximation is also disscussed.

  7. Myocardial strain assessment by cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using non-rigid registration.

    PubMed

    Tsadok, Yossi; Friedman, Zvi; Haluska, Brian A; Hoffmann, Rainer; Adam, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate a novel post-processing method for assessment of longitudinal mid-myocardial strain in standard cine cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging sequences. Cine CMR imaging and tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) were performed in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 15 healthy volunteers served as control group. A second group of 37 post-AMI patients underwent both cine CMR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR exams. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) was performed in 36 of these patients. Cine CMR, TMRI and STE were analyzed to obtain longitudinal strain. LGE-CMR datasets were analyzed to evaluate scar extent. Comparison of peak systolic strain (PSS) measured from CMR and TMRI yielded a strong correlation (r=0.86, p<0.001). PSS measured from CMR and STE correlated well (r=0.75, p<0.001). A cutoff longitudinal PSS value of -13.14% differentiated non-infarction from any infarcted myocardium, with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 89% (area under curve (AUC) 0.95). PSS value of -9.39% differentiated non-transmural from transmural infarcted myocardium, with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 67% (AUC 0.78). The present study showed a novel off-line post-processing method for segmental longitudinal strain analysis in mid-myocardium layer based on cine CMR data. The method was found to be highly correlated with strain measurements obtained by TMRI and STE. This tool allows accurate discrimination between different transmurality states of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac Trauma: Clinical and Experimental Correlations of Myocardial Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Donald B.; Anderson, Alan E.; Rose, Earl F.; Go, Raymundo T.; Chiu, Chiang L.; Ehrenhaft, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Clinical and experimental observations in myocardial contusion have been correlated. Cardiac arrhythmia is always an important consequence and may be fatal. Reduction in cardiac output often accompanies significant cardiac injury. The coronary arterial circulation is not interrupted and is generally enhanced to the area of injury. Healing of the injury under these circulatory conditions may result in patchy scarring and peculiar adynamic areas of myocardium. Early diagnosis of myocardial contusion may be aided using radionuclide imaging with 99mTc-Sn-polyphosphate. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4412327

  9. Myocardial fibrosis in an veteran endurance athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mathew; O'Hanlon, Rory; Prasad, Sanjay; Basavarajaiah, Sandeep; Stephens, Nigel; Senior, Roxy; Shaw, Anthony; Sharma, Sanjay; Whyte, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the cardiac structure and function of a lifelong male endurance athlete, who has run over 148 000 miles, who presented with symptoms of chest discomfort, dyspnoea and loss of competitive running performance. Importantly, the athlete documented several periods of regular intensive endurance activity while suffering with flu-like symptoms. Cardiovascular MRI demonstrated a pattern of late gadolinium enhancement, which indicated myocardial scarring as a result of previous myocarditis. Myocarditis is a non-ischaemic inflammatory disease of the myocardium associated with cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmogenic substrate. The clinical course of viral myocarditis is mostly insidious with limited cardiac inflammation and dysfunction. However, as in the present case, overwhelming inflammation may occur in a subset of patients leading to myocardial fibrosis due to recurrent inflammation. PMID:21847425

  10. The evidence for natural therapeutics as potential anti-scarring agents in burn-related scarring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Branford, O A; Rolfe, K J

    2016-01-01

    Though survival rate following severe thermal injuries has improved, the incidence and treatment of scarring have not improved at the same speed. This review discusses the formation of scars and in particular the formation of hypertrophic scars. Further, though there is as yet no gold standard treatment for the prevention or treatment of scarring, a brief overview is included. A number of natural therapeutics have shown beneficial effects both in vivo and in vitro with the potential of becoming clinical therapeutics in the future. These natural therapeutics include both plant-based products such as resveratrol, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate as examples and includes the non-plant-based therapeutic honey. The review also includes potential mechanism of action for the therapeutics, any recorded adverse events and current administration of the therapeutics used. This review discusses a number of potential 'treatments' that may reduce or even prevent scarring particularly hypertrophic scarring, which is associated with thermal injuries without compromising wound repair.

  11. Extracellular Matrix and Fibroblast Communication Following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonggang; Halade, Ganesh V.; Lindsey, Merry L.

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural support by serving as a scaffold for cells, and as such the ECM maintains normal tissue homeostasis and mediates the repair response following injury. In response to myocardial infarction (MI), ECM expression is generally upregulated in the left ventricle (LV), which regulates LV remodeling by modulating scar formation. The ECM directly affects scar formation by regulating growth factor release and cell adhesion, and indirectly affects scar formation by regulating the inflammatory, angiogenic, and fibroblast responses. This review summarizes the current literature on ECM expression patterns and fibroblast mechanisms in the myocardium, focusing on the ECM response to MI. In addition, we discuss future research areas that are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms of ECM action, both in general and as a means to optimize infarct healing. PMID:22926488

  12. Multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging integration framework for image-guided catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Qian; Milles, Julien; van Huls van Taxis, Carine; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Zeppenfeld, Katja; van der Geest, Rob J.

    2012-02-01

    Catheter ablation is an important option to treat ventricular tachycardias (VT). Scar-related VT is among the most difficult to treat, because myocardial scar, which is the underlying arrhythmogenic substrate, is patient-specific and often highly complex. The scar image from preprocedural late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE- MRI) can provide high-resolution substrate information and, if integrated at the early stage of the procedure, can largely facilitate the procedure with image guidance. In clinical practice, however, early MRI integration is difficult because available integration tools rely on matching the MRI surface mesh and electroanatomical mapping (EAM) points, which is only possible after extensive EAM has been performed. In this paper, we propose to use a priori information on patient posture and a multi-sequence MRI integration framework to achieve accurate MRI integration that can be accomplished at an early stage of the procedure. From the MRI sequences, the left ventricular (LV) geometry, myocardial scar characteristics, and an anatomical landmark indicating the origin of the left main coronary artery are obtained preprocedurally using image processing techniques. Thereby the integration can be realized at the beginning of the procedure after acquiring a single mapping point. The integration method has been evaluated postprocedurally in terms of LV shape match and actual scar match. Compared to the iterative closest point (ICP) method that uses high-intensity mapping (225+/-49 points), our method using one mapping point reached a mean point-to-surface distance of 5.09+/-1.09 mm (vs. 3.85+/-0.60 mm, p<0.05), and scar correlation of -0.51+/-0.14 (vs. -0.50+/-0.14, p=NS).

  13. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... off the skin and fairly stiff to the touch. Reaching a peak after several months, the scar ... have received your message and will be in touch as soon as possible. Cleft Connection An Interview ...

  14. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Proceedings of the SCAR Conference, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) team analyzed six major topics: (1) aerodynamics, (2) stability and control, (3) propulsion, (4) environmental factor, (5) airframe structures and materials, and (6) design integration.

  16. The semiclassical limit of scar intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergini, Eduardo G.

    2015-04-01

    By using a simple statistical model we find the distribution of scar intensities surviving the semiclassical limit. The obtained distribution is verified in a wide energy range of the quantum Bunimovich stadium billiard.

  17. Improving Land Cover Product-Based Estimates of the Extent of Fragmented Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Dungan, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The effects of changing land use/land cover on regional and global climate ecosystems depends on accurate estimates of the extent of critical land cover types such as Arctic wetlands and fire scars in boreal forests. To address this information requirement, land cover products at coarse spatial resolution such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) -based maps and the MODIS Land Cover Product are being produced. The accuracy of the extent of highly fragmented cover types such as fire scars and ponds is in doubt because much (the numerous scars and ponds smaller than the pixel size) is missed. A promising method for improving areal estimates involves modeling the observed distribution of the fragment sizes as a type of truncated distribution, then estimating the sum of unobserved sizes in the lower, truncated tail and adding it to the sum of observed fragment sizes. The method has been tested with both simulated and actual cover products.

  18. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in scar quality at 12 months compared with the 3- and 6-month data. Predictors for severe scarring are depth of the wound (p < 0.001) and total body surface area burned (p < 0.001). Etiology (p = 0.753) and age (p > 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively.

  19. The "Sea" should not be operated on in scar revision for "Island-Like" scars.

    PubMed

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Hamamoto, Yusuke; Tamai, Motoki; Kudo, Hiroo; Ensako, Toshiya; Kogure, Tetsukuni; Takano, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Scars developing on body surfaces not only restrict body movement, but are also problematic from a cosmetic standpoint. Hence, revision is conducted by removing the scar and re-suturing the resultant defects. In performing scar revision, care should be taken to prevent the re-sutured wounds from developing hypertrophy again. Scars often present a pattern where hard, red parts are separated by soft parts in between. As the hard and soft parts may be analogized as islands and seas respectively, we call this the "Island-Like" scar. Two strategies can be taken to treat scars of this type. The first is to remove the entire scar-including both hard and soft parts; the second is to remove only the hard parts and leave the soft parts untouched. The authors conducted a biomechanical study using finite element analyses and found that as a body moves, greater stresses occur in the peri-wound regions with the first strategy than with the second strategy. A wound's likelihood to develop hypertrophy increases as the stresses working on it increase. Hence, it is hypothesized that the second strategy carries less risk of the operated wounds developing re-hypertrophy than the first strategy. Based on this logic, in performing scar revision for scars consisting of hard and soft parts, it is recommended only to remove only hard parts and not to operate on soft parts in between.

  20. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus. PMID:26101491

  1. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008- December 2011. Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus.

  2. Do postsurgical interventions optimize ultimate scar cosmesis.

    PubMed

    Viera, M H; Amini, S; Konda, S; Berman, B

    2009-06-01

    Keloids and other scars are different manifestations of the normal wound healing process. If located in visible areas, scars may have a psychological impact that could affect the quality of life of the scar-bearing population. Good preoperatory planning including hiding incisions in natural anatomical landmarks or placing them parallel to relaxed skin tension lines are among the techniques used to improve the cosmesis of scars. Once a prominent or noticeable scar has developed, multiple therapeutic modalities can be applied including surgical excision, although high recurrence rates precludes its use as monotherapy. Several advanced surgical correction techniques including Z-plasty and W-plasty may be useful in repositioning scars. Other modalities that have been reported to improve scar cosmesis include cryosurgery, radiotherapy, lasers, and skin substitute grafts. Adjuvant postsurgical treatment modalities have reduced dramatically the recurrence rates associated with the removal of the scar. In this review of the literature the authors discuss evidence based data related to the abovementioned modalities and other topical and intralesional therapies including occlusion, compression, silicone, corticosteroids, interferons, imiquimod, resiquimod, tacrolimus, 5-fluorouracil, retinoids, as well as the role of several over-the-counter agents such as onion extract, vitamin E and the combination of hydrocortisone, vitamin E and silicone. Finally, they address newer modalities including vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, transforming growth factor-3, interleukin-10, mannose-6-phosphate, UVA-1, narrowband UVB, intense pulsed light and photodynamic therapy. Ultimately, the decision of choosing the most appropriate postexcisional management treatment should be taken by physicians on a case-by-case basis in order to obtain the best cosmetically acceptable results.

  3. Burn Scar Biomechanics Following Pressure Garment Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayne Y.; Willard, James J.; Supp, Dorothy M.; Roy, Sashwati; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Sen, Chandan K.; Powell, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current standard of care for the prevention and treatment of scarring following burn injury is pressure garment therapy (PGT). Although this therapy has been used clinically for many years, controversy remains regarding its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PGT in a female Red Duroc pig (fRDP) burn model where wound depth could be tightly controlled. Methods Full-thickness burn wounds were generated on fRDPs. At day 28 post-burn, PGT was applied to half of the wounds (10 mmHg), with control wounds covered with garments exerting no compression. Scar area, perfusion, hardness, and elasticity were quantified at days 0, 28, 42, 56, and 72 using computerized planimetry, Laser Doppler and torsional ballistometry. Scar morphology was assessed at days 28, 56 and 76 using histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results Pressure garment therapy significantly hindered scar contraction with control scars contracting to 64.6 + 13.9% original area at day 72 while PGT scars contracted to 82.7 + 17.9% original area. PGT significantly reduced skin hardness and increased skin strength by 1.3X. No difference in perfusion or blood vessel density was observed. Average collagen fiber diameter was greater in control burns than PGT. Conclusions PGT was effective at reducing scar contraction and improving biomechanics compared to control scars. These results confirm the efficacy of pressure garments and highlight the need to further investigate the role of pressure magnitude and time of therapy application to enhance their efficacy for optimal biomechanics and patient mobility. PMID:25989300

  4. Overview of surgical scar prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram

    2014-06-01

    Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by the choice of incision design. Traditional incisions most often follow relaxed skin tension lines, but no such lines exist in high surface tension areas. If such incisions are unavoidable, the patient must be informed of this ahead of time. The management of a surgical incision does not end when the sutures are removed. Surgical scar care should be continued for one year. Patient participation is paramount in obtaining the optimal outcome. Postoperative visits should screen for signs of scar hypertrophy and has a dual purpose of continued patient education and reinforcement of proper care. Early intervention is a key to control hyperplastic response. Hypertrophic scars that do not improve by 6 months are keloids and should be managed aggressively with intralesional steroid injections and alternate modalities.

  5. Mastectomy scar histopathology of limited clinical value.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munir; Kiely, Clare; Shah, Syed H; Lawlor, Catriona; O'Donnell, Margaret

    2006-10-01

    This study assesses whether the routine submission of mastectomy scars for histologic examination at the time of delayed breast reconstruction is useful. A retrospective review was performed of all delayed breast reconstructions for breast cancer performed by a single surgeon over a 5-year period from January 2000 to December 2004. One hundred eighty-eight patients underwent delayed breast reconstruction during this period, and of these, 133 scars (1 patient had bilateral scars excised) were submitted for histology where the reconstruction was performed by either transversus rectus abdominus muscle flap (TRAM) or latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (LDF) +/- implant. Fifty-six patients had reconstruction performed by tissue expander through the inframammary crease where the original mastectomy scar was not excised and were excluded from the study. One mastectomy scar specimen showed a 2-mm suspicious area of invasive ductal carcinoma consistent with same histopathology at the time of mastectomy. This study corroborates evidence that it is questionable whether routine histopathology of mastectomy scar at the time of delayed breast reconstruction should not be a standard practice.

  6. [International clinical recommendations on scar management].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, U E

    2004-08-01

    Many techniques for management of hypertrophic scars and keloids have been proven through extensive use, but few have been supported by prospective studies with adequate control groups. Several new therapies showed good results in small-scale trials, but these have not been repeated in larger trials with long-term follow-up. This article reports a qualitative overview of the available clinical literature by an international panel of experts using standard methods of appraisal. The article provides evidence- based recommendations on prevention and treatment of abnormal scarring and, where studies are insufficient, consensus on best practice. The recommendations focus on the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids, and are internationally applicable in a range of clinical situations. These recommendations support a move to a more evidence-based approach in scar management. This approach highlights a primary role for silicon gel sheeting and intralesional corticosteroids in the management of a wide variety of abnormal scars. The authors concluded that these are the only treatments for which sufficient evidence exists to make evidence-based recommendations. A number of other therapies that are in common use have achieved acceptance by the authors as standard practice. However, it is highly desirable that many standard practice and new emerging therapies undergo large-scale studies with long-term follow-up before being recommended conclusively as alternative therapies for scar management.

  7. Resurfacing the acne-scarred face.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Silverton, K

    1999-05-01

    : Dermabrasion has been a useful method for the improvement of acne scars since 1953. However, the improvement is often limited. Adjuvant procedures are often necessary to improve results. : To improve the results of resurfacing the acne scarred face. By combining the techniques of subcutaneous filling, laser shrinkage of collagen, dermabrasion, and excision, we hope to achieve better results. A Jessner/TCA peel is performed on the neck and décolleté area after the skin has been preconditioned with vitamin A conditioning lotions. The acne scars are subcised with a semi-blunt needle, and the developed pockets are filled with adipose tissue. Following this, the surface skin is vaporized with three passes of the CO2 laser, and the deeper acne scars in the mid-face region are sanded with a diamond fraise. Residual scars are excised and sutured. A semi-occlusive dressing is used for 5 days, then replaced with an ointment-based moisturizer. After 10 days, a moisturizer-sunscreen is used, followed with a bleaching cream at 15 days. Make-up may be applied after 14 days. : By combining these multiple modalities it is possible to produce a dramatic improvement of the acne-scarred complexion.

  8. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.

    The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to

  9. Relation of functional echocardiographic parameters to infarct scar transmurality by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rost, Christian; Rost, Marie-Charlotte; Breithardt, Ole A; Schmid, Michael; Klinghammer, Lutz; Stumpf, Christian; Daniel, Werner G; Flachskampf, Frank A

    2014-07-01

    Identification of viable but dysfunctional myocardium after myocardial infarction is important for management, including the decision for revascularization. Assessment of infarct transmurality (TRM) by late contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used for this task but has several limitations, particularly its availability. The goal of this study was to compare the value of several simple echocardiographic parameters measured at rest at the bedside for the identification of three degrees of infarct TRM, with contrast-enhanced MRI as the gold standard. In a prospective, single-center study, 41 patients (33 men; mean age, 62 ± 10 years; 32 with ST-segment elevation infarctions) underwent resting echocardiography and contrast-enhanced MRI <5 days after infarction. Wall motion score, preejection velocity by tissue Doppler, and longitudinal, circumferential, and radial peak systolic strain by speckle-tracking-based strain imaging were assessed, and the findings were compared with infarct TRM stratified by contrast-enhanced MRI (no scar, 0% TRM; nontransmural scar, 1%-50% TRM; and transmural scar, 51%-100% TRM). Four hundred segments showed no scar, 125 showed nontransmural scar, and 213 showed transmural scar on contrast-enhanced MRI. The sensitivity and specificity of visual wall motion scoring to detect any scar versus no scar were 71% and 81%, respectively, similar to values for circumferential strain (sensitivity and specificity both 81% with a cutoff of -14.5%). Longitudinal and radial strain performed less well, and the presence of preejection velocity performed distinctly worse (45% and 90%, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity for identifying nontransmural versus transmural infarction was better for circumferential strain (78% and 75%, respectively, with a cutoff of -10.5%) than for the other strain types, preejection velocity (52% and 67%, respectively), or visual wall motion scoring (50% and 81%, respectively, for a

  10. Incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients with exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Assey, M.E.; Walters, G.L.; Hendrix, G.H.; Carabello, B.A.; Usher, B.W.; Spann, J.F. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-five patients with angiographically proved coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent Bruce protocol exercise stress testing with thallium-201 imaging. Twenty-seven patients (group I) showed myocardial hypoperfusion without angina pectoris during stress, which normalized at rest, and 28 patients (group II) had a similar pattern of reversible myocardial hypoperfusion but also had angina during stress. Patients were followed for at least 30 months. Six patients in group I had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 3 of whom died, and only 1 patient in group II had an AMI (p = 0.05), and did not die. Silent myocardial ischemia uncovered during exercise stress thallium testing may predispose to subsequent AMI. The presence of silent myocardial ischemia identified in this manner is of prognostic value, independent of angiographic variables such as extent of CAD and left ventricular ejection fraction.

  11. Digital representation of oil and natural gas well pad scars in southwest Wyoming: 2012 update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garman, Steven L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The recent proliferation of oil and natural gas energy development in the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming has accentuated the need to understand wildlife responses to this development. The location and extent of surface disturbance that is created by oil and natural gas well pad scars are key pieces of information used to assess the effects of energy infrastructure on wildlife populations and habitat. A digital database of oil and natural gas pad scars had previously been generated from 1-meter (m) National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery (NAIP) acquired in 2009 for a 7.7-million hectare (ha) (19,026,700 acres) region of southwest Wyoming. Scars included the pad area where wellheads, pumps, and storage facilities reside and the surrounding area that was scraped and denuded of vegetation during the establishment of the pad. Scars containing tanks, compressors, the storage of oil and gas related equipment, and produced-water ponds were also collected on occasion. This report updates the digital database for the five counties of southwest Wyoming (Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta) within the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area and for a limited portion of Fremont, Natrona, and Albany Counties using 2012 1-m NAIP imagery and 2012 oil and natural gas well permit information. This report adds pad scars created since 2009, and updates attributes of all pad scars using the 2012 well permit information. These attributes include the origination year of the pad scar, the number of active and inactive wells on or near each pad scar in 2012, and the overall status of the pad scar (active or inactive). The new 2012 database contains 17,404 pad scars of which 15,532 are attributed as oil and natural gas well pads. Digital data are stored as shapefiles projected to the Universal Transverse Mercator (zones 12 and 13) coordinate system. These data are available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://dx.doi.org/10

  12. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in acute myocardial infarction and ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.

    1982-04-01

    Thallium-201 scintigraphy provides a sensitive and reliable method of detecting acute myocardial infarction and ischemia when imaging is performed with understanding of the temporal characteristics and accuracy of the technique. The results of scintigraphy are related to the time interval between onset of symptoms and time of imaging. During the first 6 hr after chest pain almost all patients with acute myocardial infarction and approximately 50% of the patients with unstable angina will demonstrate /sup 201/TI pefusion defects. Delayed imaging at 2-4 hr will permit distinction between ischemia and infarction. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the size of the perfusion defect accurately reflects the extent of the infarcted and/or jeopardized myocardium, which may be used for prognostic stratification. In view of the characteristics of /sup 201/TI scintigraphy, the most practical application of this technique is in patients in whom myocardial infarction has to be ruled out, and for early recognition of patients at high risk for complications.

  13. Automatic classification of scar tissue in late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI for the assessment of left-atrial wall injury after radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Perry, Daniel; Morris, Alan; Burgon, Nathan; McGann, Christopher; Macleod, Robert; Cates, Joshua

    2012-02-23

    Radiofrequency ablation is a promising procedure for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) that relies on accurate lesion delivery in the left atrial (LA) wall for success. Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI (LGE MRI) at three months post-ablation has proven effective for noninvasive assessment of the location and extent of scar formation, which are important factors for predicting patient outcome and planning of redo ablation procedures. We have developed an algorithm for automatic classification in LGE MRI of scar tissue in the LA wall and have evaluated accuracy and consistency compared to manual scar classifications by expert observers. Our approach clusters voxels based on normalized intensity and was chosen through a systematic comparison of the performance of multivariate clustering on many combinations of image texture. Algorithm performance was determined by overlap with ground truth, using multiple overlap measures, and the accuracy of the estimation of the total amount of scar in the LA. Ground truth was determined using the STAPLE algorithm, which produces a probabilistic estimate of the true scar classification from multiple expert manual segmentations. Evaluation of the ground truth data set was based on both inter- and intra-observer agreement, with variation among expert classifiers indicating the difficulty of scar classification for a given a dataset. Our proposed automatic scar classification algorithm performs well for both scar localization and estimation of scar volume: for ground truth datasets considered easy, variability from the ground truth was low; for those considered difficult, variability from ground truth was on par with the variability across experts.

  14. Automatic classification of scar tissue in late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI for the assessment of left-atrial wall injury after radiofrequency ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Daniel; Morris, Alan; Burgon, Nathan; McGann, Christopher; MacLeod, Robert; Cates, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    Radiofrequency ablation is a promising procedure for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) that relies on accurate lesion delivery in the left atrial (LA) wall for success. Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI (LGE MRI) at three months post-ablation has proven effective for noninvasive assessment of the location and extent of scar formation, which are important factors for predicting patient outcome and planning of redo ablation procedures. We have developed an algorithm for automatic classification in LGE MRI of scar tissue in the LA wall and have evaluated accuracy and consistency compared to manual scar classifications by expert observers. Our approach clusters voxels based on normalized intensity and was chosen through a systematic comparison of the performance of multivariate clustering on many combinations of image texture. Algorithm performance was determined by overlap with ground truth, using multiple overlap measures, and the accuracy of the estimation of the total amount of scar in the LA. Ground truth was determined using the STAPLE algorithm, which produces a probabilistic estimate of the true scar classification from multiple expert manual segmentations. Evaluation of the ground truth data set was based on both inter- and intra-observer agreement, with variation among expert classifiers indicating the difficulty of scar classification for a given a dataset. Our proposed automatic scar classification algorithm performs well for both scar localization and estimation of scar volume: for ground truth datasets considered easy, variability from the ground truth was low; for those considered difficult, variability from ground truth was on par with the variability across experts.

  15. Left ventricular infarct size, peri-infarct zone, and papillary scar measurements: A comparison of high-resolution 3D and conventional 2D late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MR.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dana C; Appelbaum, Evan A; Nezafat, Reza; Dokhan, Basem; Han, Yuchi; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Manning, Warren J

    2009-10-01

    To compare higher spatial resolution 3D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (Cardiac MR) with 2D LGE in patients with prior myocardial infarction. Fourteen patients were studied using high spatial resolution 3D LGE (1.3 x 1.3 x 5.0 mm(3)) and conventional 2D LGE (2 x 2 x 8 mm(3)) scans. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. Total infarct volume, peri-infarct volume measured in a limited slab, and papillary muscle scar volume were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. Image quality was graded. 3D LGE had higher scar SNR (P < 0.001), higher myocardial SNR (P = 0.001), higher papillary scar-blood CNR (P = 0.01), and greater sharpness (P = 0.01). The scar volumes agreed (14.5 +/- 8.2 for 2D, vs. 13.2 +/- 8.8 for 3D), with bias +/- 2 standard deviations (SDs) of 0.5 +/- 6.8 mL, P = 0.59 R = 0.91. The peri-infarct volumes correlated but less strongly than scar (P = 0.40, R = 0.77). For patients with more heterogeneous scar, larger peri-infarct volumes were measured by 3D (1.9 +/- 1.1 mL for 2D vs. 2.4 +/- 1.6 mL for 3D, P = 0.15, in the matched region). Papillary scar, present in 6/14 (42%) patients, was more confidently identified on 3D LGE. Higher spatial resolution 3D LGE provides sharper images and higher SNR, but less myocardial nulling. Scar volumes agree well, with peri-infarct volumes correlating less well. 3D LGE may be superior in visualization of papillary muscle scar. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Effectiveness of Onion Extract Gel on Surgical Scars in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Tanrattanakorn, Somsak; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Wongkitisophon, Pranee; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2012-01-01

    Background. Onion extracts have been shown in vitro to accelerate wound healing. Results from clinical studies on surgical scars in Caucasians were disappointing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of onion extract gel in improving the cosmetic and symptoms of surgical scars in Asians. Patients/Methods. Twenty Asians who had new Pfannenstiel's cesarean section scars were recruited in this prospective double-blinded, split-scar study. Each side was randomly assigned treatment with onion extract gel or placebo at 7 days after surgery. The product was applied three times daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and 4th and 12th weeks. Scar redness was assessed by calorimeter, scar height and pliability were assessed by blinded investigators, and scar symptoms and overall cosmetic improvement were assessed by subjects. Results. Sixteen subjects completed the study. A statistically significant difference between two sides of scar in terms of scar height and scar symptoms was found. There was no statistically significant difference in scar redness, scar pliability, and overall cosmetic appearance between two sides. Conclusions. The early use of topical 12% onion extract gel on Pfannenstiel's cesarean section scar in Asians resulted in the improvement of scar height and scar symptoms. PMID:22924037

  17. Left ventricular remodeling after experimental myocardial cryoinjury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, Michele M; Paliotti, Roberta; Ferrero, Stefano; Braidotti, Paola; Esposito, Arturo; Gianelli, Umberto; Busca, Giuseppe; Cioffi, Ugo; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Magrini, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    The standard coronary ligation, the most studied model of experimental myocardial infarction in rats, is limited by high mortality and produces unpredictable areas of necrosis. To standardize the location and size of the infarct and to elucidate the mechanisms of myocardial remodeling and its progression to heart failure, we studied the functional, structural, and ultrastructural changes of myocardial infarction produced by experimental myocardial cryoinjury. The cryoinjury was successful in 24 (80%) of 30 male adult CD rats. A subepicardial infarct was documented on echocardiograms, with an average size of about 21%. Macroscopic examination reflected closely the stamp of the instrument used, without transition zones to viable myocardium. Histological examination, during the acute setting, revealed an extensive area of coagulation necrosis and hemorrhage in the subepicardium. An inflammatory infiltrate was evident since the 7th hour, whereas the reparative phase started within the first week, with proliferation of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and myocytes. From the 7th day, deposition of collagen fibers was reported with a reparative scar completed at the 30th day. Ultrastructural study revealed vascular capillary damage and irreversible alterations of the myocytes in the acute setting and confirmed the histological findings of the later phases. The damage was associated with a progressive left ventricular (LV) remodeling, including thinning of the infarcted area, hypertrophy of the noninfarcted myocardium, and significant LV dilation. This process started from the 60th day and progressed over the subsequent 120 days period; at 180 days, a significant increase in LV filling pressure, indicative of heart failure, was found. In conclusion, myocardial cryodamage, although different in respect to ischemic damage, causes a standardized injury reproducing the cellular patterns of coagulation necrosis, early microvascular reperfusion, hemorrhage, inflammation

  18. Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest.

    PubMed

    Farris, Calvin A; Baisan, Christopher H; Falk, Donald A; Yool, Stephen R; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2010-09-01

    Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire-scar fire history reconstructions has been hampered due to a lack of empirical comparisons with independent fire history data sources. We carried out such a comparison in a 2780-ha ponderosa pine forest on Mica Mountain in southern Arizona (USA) for the time period 1937-2000. Using documentary records of fire perimeter maps and ignition locations, we compared reconstructions of key spatial and temporal fire regime parameters developed from documentary fire maps and independently collected fire-scar data (n = 60 plots). We found that fire-scar data provided spatially representative and complete inventories of all major fire years (> 100 ha) in the study area but failed to detect most small fires. There was a strong linear relationship between the percentage of samples recording fire scars in a given year (i.e., fire-scar synchrony) and total area burned for that year (y = 0.0003x + 0.0087, r2 = 0.96). There was also strong spatial coherence between cumulative fire frequency maps interpolated from fire-scar data and ground-mapped fire perimeters. Widely reported fire frequency summary statistics varied little between fire history data sets: fire-scar natural fire rotations (NFR) differed by < 3 yr from documentary records (29.6 yr); mean fire return intervals (MFI) for large-fire years (i.e., > or = 25% of study area burned) were identical between data sets (25.5 yr); fire-scar MFIs for all fire years differed by 1.2 yr from documentary records. The known seasonal timing of past fires based on documentary records was furthermore reconstructed accurately by observing intra-annual ring position of fire

  19. Quality of life and psychosocial impact of scarring and non-scarring alopecia in women.

    PubMed

    Katoulis, Alexandros C; Christodoulou, Christos; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Kouris, Anargyros; Korkoliakou, Panagiota; Kaloudi, Eythymia; Kanelleas, Antonios; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-02-01

    Alopecia is a common dermatological condition with mostly cosmetic consequences that, nevertheless, has significant psychological and psychosocial impact. To assess the impact of alopecia on quality of life and certain psychological domains and to compare it between scarring and non-scarring alopecia in Greek adult women. Forty-four women, aged 18-70 years, with scarring (n = 19) or non-scarring alopecia (n = 25) were recruited. All patients were evaluated by Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Women with scarring alopecia had higher scores in DLQI, HADS and UCLA- LS and lower scores in RSES, compared to women with non-scarring alopecia. A statistically significant difference between the two groups was documented for DLQI (p = 0.0067), HADS (p = 0.0008), and HADS-Anxiety (HADS-A) (p < 0.05) and HADS-Depression (HADS-D) (p < 0.01) subscales. The psychological burden is heavier and quality of life is more severely impaired among women with scarring alopecia compared with non-scarring alopecia, probably depicting the poorer prognosis of the former. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Reflectance confocal microscopy for scarring and non-scarring alopecia real-time assessment.

    PubMed

    Ardigò, Marco; Agozzino, Marina; Franceschini, Chiara; Donadio, Carlo; Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol; Barbieri, Luca; Sperduti, Isabella; Berardesca, Enzo; González, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    Clinical management of alopecia represents one of the major issues in dermatology. Scalp biopsies are not easily accepted because of the high bleeding and sensitive anatomical area. Trichoscopy is routinely used for diagnosis of alopecia, but in several cases lack to provide sufficient information on the status of the disease. Recently, reflectance confocal microscopy demonstrated its usefulness for the evaluation of several inflammatory skin condition and preliminary reports about alopecia have been proposed in the literature. The aim was to identify the confocal features characterizing scarring and non-scarring alopecia. Reflectance confocal microscopy from 86 patients affected by scarring (28 lichen planopilaris and 9 lupus erythematosus) and non-scarring alopecia (30 androgenic alopecia and 19 alopecia areata), were retrospectively, blinded evaluated. Good concordance between different readers on the confocal criteria has been assessed. Statistical significant features, specific for scarring alopecia and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. In this study, data on reflectance confocal microscopy features useful for the differential diagnosis between scarring and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. Further studies focusing on the use of this non-invasive technique in the therapeutic follow-up and distinction of sub-entities of alopecia are still required.

  1. Papular Acne Scars of the Nose and Chin: An Under-recognised Variant of Acne Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Faisal R; Kirk, Michael; Madan, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scarring following acne vulgaris is common and can be of profound psychosocial consequence. Aims and Objectives: We have clinically noted a variant of acne scarring, overlooked by previous categorisation schemes, which we have denominated as papular acne scars of the nose and chin. We sought to characterise these novel entities further. Materials and Methods: Initially, we identified 14 patients with papular acne scars of the nose and chin in a cosmetic dermatology clinic, of whom two were female and rest were male. We then prospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients attending our tertiary referral acne isotretinoin clinic and 49 patients attending a general dermatology clinic. Results: Amongst 149 patients, from a general dermatology and tertiary acne clinic, soft papular scars were noted in four patients, distributed on the nose and chin. Three of the four patients were male, three patients had additional acne scars and the median age was 23.5. Conclusions: We have identified 18 patients with papular acne scars of the nose and chin and propose that this new category should be added to acne scarring classification schemes. Future work should be directed at corroborating the epidemiology of such lesions and describing effective treatment modalities. PMID:28163455

  2. Pingo scars in the Mission Valley, northwest Montana -- Implications for paleoclimate and the Flathead lobe of the Cordilleran ice sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Levish, D.R.; Klinger, R.E.; Ostenaa, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    More than 2,000 closed depressions on the floor of the Mission Valley have previously been interpreted as kettles from a late Wisconsin advance of the Flathead lobe of the Cordilleran ice sheet. However, these depressions are encircled by low ridges or ramparts, a distinguishing characteristic of collapsed pingos and pingo scars in areas of active and former permafrost. The morphology of these ramparts, their internal structure, and the complex crosscutting patterns of depressions and ramparts, demonstrate that these closed depressions in the Mission Valley are pingo scars. The pingo scars commonly occur in clusters. Often annular ramparts are truncated by other ramparts and smaller pingo scars are superimposed on larger ones. The scars range in diameter from 20 to 400 m; have circular, oval, and composite shapes; and have ramparts that range in height from 1 to 10 m. South of Ronan, Montana, the density of pingo scars is as high as 50--60/km[sup 2], and pingo scars are associated with relic frost mounds and thermokarst features. A 30-m-long trench excavated across the rampart of a pingo scar exposed laminated silt and clay of glacial Lake Missoula. Upturned beds, recumbent folds, and minor thrust faults record the outward displacement of material during pingo growth. Normal faults cut these compressional features and indicate extension during later pingo collapse. The pingo scars formed in glacial Lake Missoula sediment of the Mission Valley constrain the southern extent of the late Wisconsin advance of the Flathead lobe and document the existence of permafrost following the most recent draining of glacial lake Missoula.

  3. A rare case of concomitant stress (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Miguel Nobre; Silva, Doroteia; Almeida, Ana G; Pinto, Fausto J; Brito, Dulce

    2015-01-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy and myocardial infarction are generally regarded as mutually exclusive diagnoses. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with acute chest pain. Her echocardiogram and ventriculography were typical of stress cardiomyopathy, but she had one subocclusive coronary lesion, a highly significant rise in troponin and a subendocardial myocardial infarction scar documented on cardiac magnetic resonance. This is a rare case of concomitant myocardial infarction and stress cardiomyopathy, in which the acute coronary syndrome itself may have been the stressor, given the absence of other identifiable causes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Tachycardia-related channel in the scar tissue in patients with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardias: influence of the voltage scar definition.

    PubMed

    Arenal, Angel; del Castillo, Silvia; Gonzalez-Torrecilla, Esteban; Atienza, Felipe; Ortiz, Mercedes; Jimenez, Javier; Puchol, Alberto; García, Javier; Almendral, Jesús

    2004-10-26

    Endocardial mapping before sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (SMVT) induction may reduce mapping time during tachycardia and facilitate the ablation of unmappable VT. Left ventricular electroanatomic voltage maps obtained during right ventricular apex pacing in 26 patients with chronic myocardial infarction referred for VT ablation were analyzed to identify conducting channels (CCs) inside the scar tissue. A CC was defined by the presence of a corridor of consecutive electrograms differentiated by higher voltage amplitude than the surrounding area. The effect of different levels of voltage scar definition, from 0.5 to 0.1 mV, was analyzed. Twenty-three channels were identified in 20 patients. The majority of CCs were identified when the voltage scar definition was < or =0.2 mV. Electrograms with > or =2 components were recorded more frequently at the inner than at the entrance of CCs (100% versus 75%, P< or =0.01). The activation time of the latest component was longer at the inner than at the entrance of CCs (200+/-40 versus 164+/-53 ms, P< or =0.001). Pacing from these CCs gave rise to a long-stimulus QRS interval (110+/-49 ms). Radiofrequency lesion applied to CCs suppressed the inducibility in 88% of CC-related tachycardias. During a follow-up of 17+/-11 months, 23% of the patients experienced a VT recurrence. CCs represent areas of slow conduction that can be identified in 75% of patients with SMVT. A tiered decreasing-voltage definition of the scar is critical for CC identification.

  5. Recurrence of atrial fibrillation correlates with the extent of post-procedural late gadolinium enhancement: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dana C; Wylie, John V; Hauser, Thomas H; Nezafat, Reza; Han, Yuchi; Woo, Jeong Joo; Taclas, Jason; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Josephson, Mark E; Manning, Warren J

    2009-03-01

    We sought to evaluate radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesions in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and to correlate the ablation patterns with treatment success. RF ablation procedures for treatment of AF result in localized scar that is detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. We hypothesized that the extent of scar in the left atrium and pulmonary veins (PV) would correlate with moderate-term procedural success. Thirty-five patients with AF, undergoing their first RF ablation procedure, were studied. The RF ablation procedure was performed to achieve bidirectional conduction block around each PV ostium. AF recurrence was documented using a 7-day event monitor at multiple intervals during the first year. High spatial resolution 3-dimensional LGE CMR was performed 46 +/- 28 days after RF ablation. The extent of scarring around the ostia of each PV was quantitatively (volume of scar) and qualitatively (1: minimal, 3: extensive and circumferential) assessed. Thirteen (37%) patients had recurrent AF during the 6.7 +/- 3.6-month observation period. Paroxysmal AF was a strong predictor of nonrecurrent AF (15% with recurrence vs. 68% without, p = 0.002). Qualitatively, patients without recurrence had more completely circumferentially scarred veins (55% vs. 35% of veins, p = NS). Patients without recurrence more frequently had scar in the inferior portion of the right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV) (82% vs. 31%, p = 0.025, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of scar in the RIPV was quantitatively greater in patients without AF recurrence (p < or = 0.05) and was a univariate predictor of recurrence using Cox regression (p = 0.049, Bonferroni corrected). Among patients undergoing PV isolation, AF recurrence during the first year is associated with a lesser degree of PV and left atrial scarring on 3-dimensional LGE CMR. This finding was significant for RIPV scar and may have implications for the procedural technique used in PV

  6. [Burn scars: rehabilitation and skin care].

    PubMed

    Rochet, Jean-Michel; Zaoui, Affif

    2002-12-15

    Burn rehabilitation main goal is to minimize the consequences of hypertrophic scars and concomitant contractures. The treatment principles rely on the association of joint posture, continuous pressure completed with range of motion to prevent joint fusion (which happens to adults but not to children). Throughout the different treatment phases and wound evolution, reassessment is necessary to review rehabilitation goals and activities. During the acute phase the alternance of positioning is prioritized in order to keep the affected extremities in antideformity position using splint or other devices. At the rehabilitation phase, treatment is focussed on active/passive range of motion (skin posture) strengthening exercises and use of dynamic splint is introduced to correct contractures. After their discharge home, patients benefit from outpatient rehab until scar maturation (approximately 18 months). The treatment consists mainly on active/passive range of motion, scar massage, strengthening exercise and endurance retraining. Also modalities (such as thermal bath and high pressure water spray) are used to address itching problems and for scar softening. Finally, reconstructive surgery can be performed to correct excessive scarring or joint contracture for better functional or cosmetic outcome.

  7. Solanidine and tomatidine trigger scar pruritus.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Pedro E; Rioja, Luis F

    2016-05-01

    Scar pruritus is frequently encountered in clinical practice (particularly in burn patients) owing to its poorly known pathogenesis and difficult treatment. In previous work, we demonstrated the usefulness of a diet excluding edible solanaceae (viz., potatoes, tomatoes, peppers and aubergines) in patients with antihistamine-resistant scar pruritus. We hypothesized that alkaloids in solanaceae (particularly their secondary metabolites or aglycones) might be the actual pruritogens. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted a single-blind prospective study on patients responding favourably to a solanaceae-free diet whose scar pruritus could be ascribed to one of the four foods. The study involved applying the aglycones solanidine and tomatidine to each scar and checking whether, and which, had a pruritogenic effect. A total of 18 patients (90%) responded by developing pruritus; also, the triggering aglycone coincided with that prevailing in the pruritogenic food. We concluded that solanaceae aglycones are directly involved in the pathogenesis of scar pruritus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating evidence for atrophic scarring treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    McGrouther, Duncan; Chakrabarty, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Atrophic scars cause significant patient morbidity. Whilst there is evidence to guide treatment, there does not appear to be a systematic review to analyse the efficacy of treatment options. Objectives To retrieve all evidence relating to atrophic scar treatment and evaluate using the Clinical Evidence GRADE score in order to allow clinicians to make evidence-based treatment choices. Method Searches were performed in Medline, EMBASE, CINHL and Cochrane to identify all English studies published evaluating treatment of atrophic scars on adults excluding journal letters. Each study was allocated a GRADE score based on type of study, quality, dose response, consistency of results and significance of results. The end score allowed categorisation of evidence into high, moderate, low or very low quality. Results A total of 41 studies were retrieved from searches including randomised controlled trials, observational studies, retrospective analyses and case reports of which 7% were allocated a high-quality score, 10% a moderate score, 7% a low score and 75% a very low score. Treatment modalities included ablative laser therapy, non-ablative laser therapy, autologous fat transfer, dermabrasion, chemical peels, injectables, subcision, tretinoin iontophoresis and combination therapy. Conclusion There is a paucity of good-quality clinical evidence evaluating treatment modalities for atrophic scarring. Evidence supports efficacy of laser, surgery and peel therapy. Further biomolecular research is required to identify targeted treatment options and more randomised controlled trials would make the evidence base for atrophic scar treatment more robust. PMID:25352991

  9. Intracoronary Cardiosphere-Derived Cells After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Malliaras, Konstantinos; Makkar, Raj R.; Smith, Rachel R.; Cheng, Ke; Wu, Edwin; Bonow, Robert O.; Marbán, Linda; Mendizabal, Adam; Cingolani, Eugenio; Johnston, Peter V.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Schuleri, Karl H.; Lardo, Albert C.; Marbán, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to report full 1-year results, detailed magnetic resonance imaging analysis, and determinants of efficacy in the prospective, randomized, controlled CADUCEUS (CArdiosphere-Derived aUtologous stem CElls to reverse ventricUlar dySfunction) trial. Background Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) exerted regenerative effects at 6 months in the CADUCEUS trial. Complete results at the final 1-year endpoint are unknown. Methods Autologous CDCs (12.5 to 25 × 106) grown from endomyocardial biopsy specimens were infused via the intracoronary route in 17 patients with left ventricular dysfunction 1.5 to 3 months after myocardial infarction (MI) (plus 1 infused off-protocol 14 months post-MI). Eight patients were followed as routine-care control patients. Results In 13.4 months of follow-up, safety endpoints were equivalent between groups. At 1 year, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that CDC-treated patients had smaller scar size compared with control patients. Scar mass decreased and viable mass increased in CDC-treated patients but not in control patients. The single patient infused 14 months post-MI responded similarly. CDC therapy led to improved regional function of infarcted segments compared with control patients. Scar shrinkage correlated with an increase in viability and with improvement in regional function. Scar reduction correlated with baseline scar size but not with a history of temporally remote MI or time from MI to infusion. The changes in left ventricular ejection fraction in CDC-treated subjects were consistent with the natural relationship between scar size and ejection fraction post-MI. Conclusions Intracoronary administration of autologous CDCs did not raise significant safety concerns. Preliminary indications of bioactivity include decreased scar size, increased viable myocardium, and improved regional function of infarcted myocardium at 1 year post-treatment. These results, which are consistent with therapeutic regeneration

  10. Inflammation and cutaneous nervous system involvement in hypertrophic scarring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-hua; Yang, Heng-lian; Xiao, Hu; Wang, Yi-bing; Wang, De-chang; Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to use a mouse model of hypertrophic scarring by mechanical loading on the dorsum of mice to determine whether the nervous system of the skin and inflammation participates in hypertrophic scarring. Results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that inflammation contributed to the formation of a hypertrophic scar and increased the nerve density in scar tissue.Western blot assay verified that interleukin-13 expression was increased in scar tissue. These findings suggest that inflammation and the cutaneous nervous system play a role in hypertrophic scar formation. PMID:26692869

  11. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  12. Current Therapeutic Approach to Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Jović, Anamaria; Grgurević, Lovorka; Dumić-Čule, Ivo; Kostović, Krešimir; Čeović, Romana; Marinović, Branka

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal scarring and its accompanying esthetic, functional, and psychological sequelae still pose significant challe nges. To date, there is no satisfactory prevention or treatment option for hypertrophic scars (HSs), which is mostly due to not completely comprehending the mechanisms underlying their formation. That is why the apprehension of regular and controlled physiological processes of scar formation is of utmost importance when facing hypertrophic scarring, its pathophysiology, prevention, and therapeutic approach. When treating HSs and choosing the best treatment and prevention modality, physicians can choose from a plethora of therapeutic options and many commercially available products, among which currently there is no efficient option that can successfully overcome impaired skin healing. This article reviews current therapeutic approach and emerging therapeutic strategies for the management of HSs, which should be individualized, based on an evaluation of the scar itself, patients’ expectations, and practical, evidence-based guidelines. Clinicians are encouraged to combine various prevention and treatment modalities where combination therapy that includes steroid injections, 5-fluorouracil, and pulsed-dye laser seems to be the most effective. On the other hand, the current therapeutic options are usually empirical and their results are unreliable and unpredictable. Therefore, there is an unmet need for an effective, targeted therapy and prevention, which would be based on an action or a modulation of a particular factor with clarified mechanism of action that has a beneficial effect on wound healing. As the extracellular matrix has a crucial role in cellular and extracellular events that lead to pathological scarring, targeting its components mostly by regulating bone morphogenetic proteins may throw up new therapeutic approach for reduction or prevention of HSs with functionally and cosmetically acceptable outcome. PMID:28676850

  13. Reproducibility of small animal cine and scar cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using a clinical 3.0 tesla system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the inter-study, inter-reader and intra-reader reproducibility of cardiac cine and scar imaging in rats using a clinical 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) system. Methods Thirty-three adult rats (Sprague–Dawley) were imaged 24 hours after surgical occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery using a 3.0 Tesla clinical MR scanner (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) equipped with a dedicated 70 mm solenoid receive-only coil. Left-ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, ejection fraction and amount of myocardial scar tissue were measured. Intra-and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed in all animals. In addition, repeat MR exams were performed in 6 randomly chosen rats within 24 hours to assess inter-study reproducibility. Results The MR imaging protocol was successfully completed in 32 (97%) animals. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated high intra-reader reproducibility (mean bias%: LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), -1.7%; LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), -2.2%; LV ejection fraction (LVEF), 1.0%; LV mass, -2.7%; and scar mass, -1.2%) and high inter-reader reproducibility (mean bias%: LVEDV, 3.3%; LVESV, 6.2%; LVEF, -4.8%; LV mass, -1.9%; and scar mass, -1.8%). In addition, a high inter-study reproducibility was found (mean bias%: LVEDV, 0.1%; LVESV, -1.8%; LVEF, 1.0%; LV mass, -4.6%; and scar mass, -6.2%). Conclusions Cardiac MR imaging of rats yielded highly reproducible measurements of cardiac volumes/function and myocardial infarct size on a clinical 3.0 Tesla MR scanner system. Consequently, more widely available high field clinical MR scanners can be employed for small animal imaging of the heart e.g. when aiming at serial assessments during therapeutic intervention studies. PMID:24345214

  14. [Scar endometriosis in the rectus abdominis muscle].

    PubMed

    Barlas, Dündar; Bozkurt, Süleyman; Kaya, Mehmet Altan; Celik, Faik

    2010-07-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The most common locations are within the pelvis. Unusual sites ofendometriosis outside the pelvis have been reported, including the bladder, intestine, appendix, surgical scars, hernia sac, lung, kidney, and extremities. The diagnosis of scar endometriosis is usually not difficult and is based on history and physical examination. We report here two cases who developed endometriosis on the abdominal wall in the rectus abdominis muscle and were treated with local excisions.

  15. Scar treatment variations by skin type.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Bailey, J Kevin; Hom, David B

    2014-08-01

    Patients and clinicians use skin color attributes such as color uniformity, color distribution, and texture to infer physiologic health status. Normalization of skin color, surface texture, and height are important treatment goals in the treatment of scars. Skin color, structure, and response to trauma, vary with ethnicity. The incidence of hypertrophic and keloid scar formation is influenced by these inherent skin attributes. Skin type influences the response to various modalities including laser therapy and surgical intervention, and skin differences must be considered in treatment planning to achieve optimal results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Surgical therapy of wounds and scars].

    PubMed

    Koller, J

    2013-08-01

    Surgery can be very useful in all phases of wound healing and in treating scars. It can be employed along with conservative therapy, either simultaneously or in a sequential manner. The spectrum of surgical measures includes debridement with excision of wound edges or necrotic areas, skin transplantation to cover granulating wounds, and simple excision or complex reconstructive approaches to scars. The advantages of surgical treatment are seen in all phases of wound healing and include rapid onset of action, avoidance of secondary infection and improved function. The shortened healing time helps save personal and material costs.

  17. Functional Regeneration Beyond the Glial Scar

    PubMed Central

    Cregg, Jared M.; DePaul, Marc A.; Filous, Angela R.; Lang, Brad T.; Tran, Amanda; Silver, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes react to CNS injury by building a dense wall of filamentous processes around the lesion. Stromal cells quickly take up residence in the lesion core and synthesize connective tissue elements that contribute to fibrosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferate within the lesion and help to entrap dystrophic axon tips. Here we review evidence that this aggregate scar acts as the major barrier to regeneration of axons after injury. We also consider several exciting new interventions that allow axons to regenerate beyond the glial scar, and discuss the implications of this work for the future of regeneration biology. PMID:24424280

  18. Chronic caesarian section scar pain treated with fascial scar release techniques: A case series.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Jennifer B; Steele-Thornborrow, Jessica L; Yuen, Jeremy S; Halkiotis, Melissa; Riggins, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-01

    To describe outcomes of two subjects with chronically painful Caesarian section (C-section) scars following an intervention of specific myofascial scar release techniques. Case series. Over 1.3 million C-sections are performed annually in the US. Anywhere from 7 to 18% of those will develop chronic scar pain. Although anecdotal evidence supporting the use of fascial release in reducing surgical scar pain exists, almost no research has been published. Two subjects who both underwent two C-sections resulting in chronic discomfort of 6-9 years duration participated in this study. Both reported premenstrual pain, pain upon pressure to the lower abdomen, and pain during bowel movements. Subject 1 also reported sharp pain with bed mobility. Four, 30-min treatment sessions over a period of two weeks consisted of stretching the scar until a release in tissue tension was felt by the treating therapist. Outcome measures included pain and pressure tolerance using a Pressure Algometer, measurements of scar flexibility using an Adheremeter, and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). These measures were collected at baseline, five days after the final treatment and at four weeks. Both subjects demonstrated improvements in all outcome measures. At four weeks, pressure tolerance at all point improved as much as 79% (p < 0.0001) and scar mobility increased in all directions at all points as much as 200% (p < 0.0001). Following treatment, both subjects rated their premenstrual pain for all previously painful activities at 0/10 for the first time since their surgeries. These results suggest that scar release techniques may help reduce chronic scar pain in women who have had C-section surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Type 1 procollagen as a marker of severity of scarring after sternotomy: effects of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Y; Cook, H T; Wangoo, A; Glenville, B; Shaw, R J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether the abundance of newly formed collagen in healing surgical wounds correlated with scar severity, and whether topical application of steroid cream reduced new collagen formation in patients who have undergone median sternotomy. METHODS--Thirty three patients six weeks after sternotomy, and 12 controls were studied. Scars were photographed, and biopsy specimens from scars at sites treated or untreated with topical corticosteroids (clobetasol proprionate 0.5%) were examined using immunohistochemical staining for type 1 procollagen (PCP 1) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and in situ hybridisation for type 1 procollagen messenger RNA (mRNA). RESULTS--The degree of hypertrophy of the scar and the abundance of PCP 1 immunostaining were ranked independently, blind, and a correlation between these two variables was observed (r = 0.604, p < 0.001). The PCP 1 immunostaining was accompanied by a great abundance of PCP 1 mRNA and only a slight increase in TGF-beta immunostaining, when compared with normal skin or mature scars. Following the application of topical corticosteroids, for either 48 hours or twice daily for seven days, there was no reduction in PCP 1 immunostaining nor the abundance of PCP 1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that the extent of new collagen formation as assessed by PCP 1 immunohistochemistry may be a useful marker of the exuberance of the scarring process following sternotomy, and that topical corticosteroids are ineffective in reducing this component of the fibrotic response. Images PMID:7962602

  20. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the biological characteristics of human skin fibroblasts and hypertrophic scar tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongming; Hu, Chao; Li, Fengyu; Liang, Liming; Liu, Lingying

    2013-06-01

    Burn injury-mediated destruction of the skin barrier normally induces microbial invasion, in turn leading to the development of systemic infection and occasional septic shock by the release of endotoxins. The objective of this work was to study the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the biological characteristics of normal skin fibroblasts and to elucidate the influence of LPS in the initial stage of skin wound healing. Twenty patients with hypertrophic scar in proliferative stage were selected randomly and primary cultures were established from fibroblasts derived from their hypertrophic scar tissue and normal skin. Normal skin fibroblasts of passage 3 were stimulated with different concentrations of LPS. LPS stimulated the proliferation and collagen synthesis of fibroblasts within a certain extent of concentrations (0.005-0.5 μg/mL) (P < 0.05), whereas at a concentration of 1 μg/mL inhibited the proliferation and collagen synthesis of fibroblasts (P < 0.05). Collagen synthesis by normal skin fibroblasts after LPS stimulation mimicked those derived from hypertrophic scar tissue. LPS of 0.1 μg/mL had significant effect on normal skin fibroblasts-continuous passage of these fibroblasts resulted in ultrastructural pattern similar to fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar tissue, and the findings was substantiated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry detection of proliferation cell nuclear antigen, type I procollagen and α-smooth muscle actin. Our results suggest that LPS might convert normal skin fibroblasts to hypertrophic scar tissue fibroblasts and participate in the formation of hypertrophic scar; hence, appropriate concentration of LPS may have no effect or be beneficial to skin wound healing, whereas excessive concentration of LPS may delay the time of wound healing. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The clinical outcome of cesarean scar pregnancies implanted "on the scar" versus "in the niche".

    PubMed

    Kaelin Agten, Andrea; Cali, Giuseppe; Monteagudo, Ana; Oviedo, Johana; Ramos, Joanne; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan

    2017-05-01

    The term cesarean scar pregnancy refers to placental implantation within the scar of a previous cesarean delivery. The rising numbers of cesarean deliveries in the last decades have led to an increased incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy. Complications of cesarean scar pregnancy include morbidly adherent placenta, uterine rupture, severe hemorrhage, and preterm labor. It is suspected that cesarean scar pregnancies that are implanted within a dehiscent scar ("niche") behave differently compared with those implanted on top of a well-healed scar. To date there are no studies that have compared pregnancy outcomes between cesarean scar pregnancies implanted either "on the scar" or "in the niche." The purpose of this study was to determine the pregnancy outcome of cesarean scar pregnancy implanted either "on the scar" or "in the niche." This was a retrospective 2-center study of 17 patients with cesarean scar pregnancy that was diagnosed from 5-9 weeks gestation (median, 8 weeks). All cesarean scar pregnancies were categorized as either implanted or "on the scar" (group A) or "in the niche" (group B), based on their first-trimester transvaginal ultrasound examination. Clinical outcomes based on gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, blood loss at delivery, neonate weight and placental histopathologic condition were compared between the groups with the use of the Mann-Whitney U test. Myometrial thickness overlying the placenta was compared among all the patients who required hysterectomy and those who did not with the use of the Mann-Whitney U test. Myometrial thickness was also correlated with gestational age at delivery with the use of Spearman's correlation. Group A consisted of 6 patients; group B consisted of 11 patients. Gestational age at delivery was lower in group B (median, 34 weeks; range, 20-36 weeks) than in group A (median, 38 weeks; range, 37-39 weeks; P=.001). In group A, 5 patients were delivered via cesarean delivery (with normal placenta), and

  2. Will stem cells bring hope to pathological skin scar treatment?

    PubMed

    Li, Qiankun; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-08-01

    Pathological skin scars, such as keloids, aesthetically and psychosocially affect patients. The quest for scar reduction and the increasing recognition of patient satisfaction has led to the continued exploration of scar treatment. Stem cells are a promising source for tissue repair and regeneration. The multi-potency and secretory functions of these cells could offer possible treatments for pathological scars and have been examined in recent studies. Here, we analyze the factors that influence the formation of pathological skin scars, summarize recent research on pathological scar treatment with stem cells and elaborate on the possible mechanisms of this treatment. Additionally, other effects of stem cell treatments are also presented while evaluating potential side effects of stem cell-based pathological scar treatments. Thus, this review may provide meaningful guidance in the clinic for scar treatments with stem cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Differences in collagen architecture between keloid, hypertrophic scar, normotrophic scar, and normal skin: An objective histopathological analysis.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Pauline D H M; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Pennings, Noor M; van Marle, Jan; Niessen, Frank B; van der Horst, Chantal M A M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Normotrophic, hypertrophic, and keloidal scars are different types of scar formation, which all need a different approach in treatment. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between these types of scar, not only clinically but also histopathologically. Differences were explored for collagen orientation and bundle thickness in 25 normal skin, 57 normotrophic scar, 56 hypertrophic scar, and 56 keloid biopsies, which were selected on clinical diagnosis. Image analysis was performed by fast fourier transformation. The calculated collagen orientation index ranged from 0 (random orientation) to 1 (parallel orientation). The bundle distance was calculated by the average distance between the centers of the collagen bundles. The results showed that compared with all three types of scars, the collagen orientation index was significantly lower in normal skin, which indicates that scars are organized in a more parallel manner. No differences were found between the different scars. Secondly, compared with normal skin, normotrophic scar, and hypertrophic scar, the bundle distance was significantly larger in keloidal scar, which suggests that thicker collagen bundles are present in keloidal scar. This first extensive histological study showed objective differences between normal skin, normotrophic, hypertrophic, and keloidal scar.

  4. [Segmental wall movement of the left ventricle in healthy persons and myocardial infarct patients studied by a catheter-less nuclear medical method (camera-cinematography of the heart)].

    PubMed

    Geffers, H; Sigel, H; Bitter, F; Kampmann, H; Stauch, M; Adam, W E

    1976-08-01

    Camera-Kinematography is a nearly noninvasive method to investigate regional motion of the myocard, and allows evaluation of the function of the heart. About 20 min after injection of 15-20 mCi of 99mTC-Human-Serum-Albumin, when the tracer is distributed homogenously within the bloodpool, data acquisition starts. Myocardial wall motion is represented in an appropriate quasi three-dimensional form. In this representation scars can be revealed as "silent" (akinetic) regions, aneurysms by asynchronic motion. Time activity curves for arbitrarily chosen regions can be calculated and give an equivalent for regional volume changes. 16 patients with an old infarction have been investigated. In fourteen cases the location and extent of regions with abnormal motion could be evaluated. Only two cases of a small posterior wall infarction did not show deviations from normal contraction pattern.

  5. Laparoscopic Treatment of Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Felsingerová, Zuzana; Felsinger, Michal; Jandakova, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: An ectopic pregnancy within a Cesarean scar represents a rare type of extrauterine pregnancy in which the fertilized egg nidates in the myometrium of the uterine wall within a scar left from a previous Cesarean delivery. An unrecognized growing Cesarian scar pregnancy may result in uterine rupture, uncontrollable metrorrhagia, and bleeding into the abdominal cavity; therefore, early diagnosis and therapy are necessary to prevent the development of severe complications. Case: A 34-year-old woman after a previous Cesarean delivery presented with amenorrhoa of 7 weeks' duration. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed an ectopic pregnancy in the Cesarean scar, and a laparoscopic removal of the gestational sac was performed with no complications. Results: Three months later, another laparoscopy with chromopertubation showed no signs of penetration in the suture, both the Fallopian tubes being bilaterally passable. The patient was advised that she could try to achieve pregnancy through spontaneous conception, after which monitoring of the gestational development and a careful assessment of the nidation site would be needed. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgical management of a viable ectopic pregnancy is technically simple, and is followed by a good recovery. (J GYNECOL SURG 30:309) PMID:25336858

  6. Cell therapy and vocal fold scarring.

    PubMed

    Mattei, A; Magalon, J; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Veran, J; Giovanni, A

    2017-10-01

    Vocal fold microstructure is complex and can be affected by laryngeal microsurgery, inducing scarring that prevents mechanical uncoupling of epithelium and muscle, leading to vibration disorder and disabling dysphonia. Treatment options presently are few, and often without efficacy for vibration, having only an impact on volume to reduce glottal closure defect. The present review of the literature had two aims: (i) to report the current state of the literature on cell therapy in vocal fold scarring; and (ii) to analyze the therapeutic interest of the adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction in the existing therapeutic armamentarium. A PubMed(®) search conducted in September 2016 retrieved English or French-language original articles on the use of stem cells to treat vocal fold scarring. Twenty-seven articles published between 2003 and 2016 met the study selection criteria. Mesenchymal stem cells were most widely used, mainly derived from bone marrow or adipose tissue. Four studies were performed in vitro on fibroblasts, and 18 in vivo on animals. End-points comprised: (i) scar analysis (macro- and micro-scopic morphology, viscoelastic properties, extracellular matrix, fibroblasts); and (ii) assessment of stem cell survival and differentiation. The studies testified to the benefit of mesenchymal stem cells, and especially those of adipose derivation. The stromal vascular fraction exhibits properties that might improve results by facilitating production logistics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma occurring in an eyelid scar.

    PubMed

    Rayner, S A; Duncombe, A S; Keefe, M; Theaker, J; Manners, R M

    2008-01-01

    We present a case report of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) in a 76-year-old Caucasian lady occurring as a nodule in a blepharoplasty scar. NXG is a rare histiocytic disease with progressive orbital and systemic features. Management options of excision biopsy or chemotherapy are discussed.

  8. Microtopography of the skin and scar formation.

    PubMed

    Tring, F C

    1976-11-01

    The surface microtopography of normal human skin varies from one anatomical region to another. The patterns at different sites are considered to reflect different orientations of dermal fibers. A simple technique is described that enables such orientations to be accurately delineated. Various scars resulting from lacerations, surgical incisions, and steroid-induced striae were examined in the manner described.

  9. Botulinum toxin to minimize facial scarring.

    PubMed

    Jablonka, Eric M; Sherris, David A; Gassner, Holger G

    2012-10-01

    Chemoimmobilization with botulinum toxin A is an ideal biochemical agent that allows near-total elimination of muscle pull on the healing facial wound. The goal of chemoimmobilization of facial cutaneous wounds is to eliminate dynamic tension on the healing tissues to improve wound healing and minimize scarring for optimal aesthetic results.

  10. Tretinoin-iontophoresis in atrophic acne scars.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J B; Donath, P; Hannes, J; Perl, S; Neumayer, R; Reiner, A

    1999-02-01

    Atrophic acne scars are a frequent problem after acne. Hitherto, mainly invasive treatment measures were possible. In a recent paper, we demonstrated the positive effects of iontophoresis with 0.025% tretinoin gel vs. estriol 0.03%. In this further study, the recording of the clinical effects of iontophoresis with 0.025% tretinoin gel in atrophic acne scars was supplemented by immunohistochemistry investigations of collagen I and III, proliferation markers, and the estimation of epidermal thickness. The treatment was performed twice weekly in 32 volunteer patients for a period of 3 months by application of the substance under a constant direct current of 3 mA for 20 min. Skin biopsies prior to and at the end of treatment were performed in 32 voluntary patients in order to investigate collagen I/III and proliferation markers by immunohistochemistry methods. Clinically, at the end of treatment, in 94% of patients a significant decrease in the scar depth was observed. Neither epidermal thickness nor proliferation markers revealed a significant increase at the end of treatment. Furthermore, collagen I and collagen III showed no common trend, as expressed statistically by a lack of significance. In some cases, increases in collagen III became evident at the end of treatment. Tretinoin-iontophoresis is an effective, noninvasive treatment of atrophic acne scars without causing disturbing side-effects.

  11. Nonischemic left ventricular scar and cardiac sudden death in the young.

    PubMed

    di Gioia, Cira R T; Giordano, Carla; Cerbelli, Bruna; Pisano, Annalinda; Perli, Elena; De Dominicis, Enrico; Poscolieri, Barbara; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Ciallella, Costantino; Zeppilli, Paolo; d'Amati, Giulia

    2016-12-01

    Nonischemic left ventricular scar (NLVS) is a pattern of myocardial injury characterized by midventricular and/or subepicardial gadolinium hyperenhancement at cardiac magnetic resonance, in absence of significant coronary artery disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of NLVS in juvenile sudden cardiac death and to ascertain its etiology at autopsy. We examined 281 consecutive cases of sudden death of subjects aged 1 to 35 years. NLVS was defined as a thin, gray rim of subepicardial and/or midmyocardial scar in the left ventricular free wall and/or the septum, in absence of significant stenosis of coronary arteries. NLVS was the most frequent finding (25%) in sudden deaths occurring during sports. Myocardial scar was localized most frequently within the left ventricular posterior wall and affected the subepicardial myocardium, often extending to the midventricular layer. On histology, it consisted of fibrous or fibroadipose tissue. Right ventricular involvement was always present. Patchy lymphocytic infiltrates were frequent. Genetic and molecular analyses clarified the etiology of NLVS in a subset of cases. Electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings were available in more than half of subjects. The most frequent abnormality was the presence of low QRS voltages (<0.5 mV) in limb leads. In serial ECG tracings, the decrease in QRS voltages appeared, in some way, progressive. NLVS is the most frequent morphologic substrate of juvenile cardiac sudden death in sports. It can be suspected based on ECG findings. Autopsy study and clinical screening of family members are required to differentiate between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and chronic acquired myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1.

  13. Scar formation and revision after the removal of orthodontic miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Many clinicians expect complete healing after the removal of temporary anchorage devices, but clinical examination may reveal scar-like tissue. This report presents the typical features of scarring detected after the removal of miniscrews, and the clinical outcome of scar revision along with its pathologic features. PMID:26023543

  14. Fire-scar formation and compartmentalization in oak

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy. Sutherland

    1999-01-01

    Fire scars result from the death of the vascular cambium resulting from excessive heating, which exposes sapwood to infection and initiates the wood decay process. In southeastern Ohio, prescribed fires in April 1995 and 1997 scarred Quercus prinus L. and Q. velutina Lam. Low-intensity fires scorched bark and produced scars, primarily on the downslope side of the stem...

  15. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  16. Combination Therapy in the Management of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Baveja, Sukriti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5%) patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5%) patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7%) patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1%) patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2%) patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100%) patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars. PMID:24761094

  17. Fire scars reveal variability and dynamics of eastern fire regimes

    Treesearch

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2006-01-01

    Fire scar evidence in eastern North America is sparse and complex but shows promise in defining the dynamics of these fire regimes and their influence on ecosystems. We review fire scar data, methods, and limitations, and use this information to identify and examine the factors influencing fire regimes. Fire scar data from studies at more than 40 sites in Eastern North...

  18. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  19. The Use of Silicone Adhesives for Scar Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Bleasdale, Benjamin; Finnegan, Simon; Murray, Kathyryn; Kelly, Sean; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: This article discusses the history and developments of silicone gel sheeting (SGS) scar therapy. Furthermore, we review a breadth of literature to gain an insight into how and why topical silicone gels remain the favored treatment of medical experts in scar management. We also analyze an ever increasing number of alternative therapies claiming to provide enhanced scar reduction performance. Recent Advances: Topical silicone gel treatments seem to remain the first point of clinical recommendation in scar management. SGS has been used in scar therapy for over 30 years, during which its efficacy has been the subject of numerous clinical evaluations. Critical Issues: While the exact mechanisms by which SGS improves hypertrophic scars, keloid development and recovery are yet to be fully agreed upon, its ability to do so remains largely undisputed at present. However, there still is ongoing deliberation over the exact mechanism of action of silicone in improving a scar. At present it is likely that through occlusion of the scar site and hydration of the wound bed, the overactivity of scar-related cells is suppressed, and their activity normalized. Future Direction: The clinical support of topical silicone gel products, relative to all alternative scar therapies, is considered the internationally recommended first-line form of scar management, and favored by consensus among healthcare professionals. However, there still remains the need for further clinical evidence and a better understanding of the mechanism behind the benefit of silicone gel for use in the prevention of abnormal scarring. PMID:26155385

  20. Evaluation of nonablative fractional laser treatment in scar reduction.

    PubMed

    Gokalp, Hilal

    2017-08-12

    Fractional lasers have been used for the improvement of scar tissue in the recent years but there has not been extensive research on their impact. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nonablative fractional laser (NAFL) on acne, burn, and surgery/traumatic scar. The scars were also categorized as atrophic, hypertrophic, and keloid, and treatment efficacy was investigated accordingly. This is a retrospective, single-center study. Scar tissues were treated using a nonablative fractional 1550-nm Erbium glass laser in high-energy parameters at 4-week interval for 4-8 sessions. The scar regression score (SRS) was used to determine the decrease in scar appearance. Forty-six patients with acne (n:18), burn (n:13), or surgery/traumatic (n:15) scar were included. The number of sessions was higher for burn patients while SRS in burn patients was lower than in patients with acne or a surgical/traumatic scar. Evaluation according to scar types showed that atrophic scars had a significantly better response to NAFL treatment. This study indicates that NAFL treatment with the high-energy parameters has better outcomes in atrophic acne scars, while the success rate is considerably low in post-burn and keloid scars.

  1. Is routine histological examination of mastectomy scars justified? An analysis of 619 scars.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Tran, Pelu; Dunlap, Jonathan; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-02-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer is paralleled by an increasing demand for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. At the time of breast reconstruction routine submission of mastectomy scars has been considered appropriate clinical practice to ensure that no residual cancer exists. However, this practice has been challenged by some and has become the topic of controversy. In a retrospective analysis we wished to assess whether routine submission of mastectomy scars altered treatment. Utilizing the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction with routine histological analysis of mastectomy scars were identified. The following parameters were retrieved and analyzed: age, cancer histology, cancer stage (according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system), receptor status (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], Her2neu), time interval between mastectomy and reconstruction, and scar histology. A total of 442 patients with a mean age of 45.9 years (range, 22-73 years) were included in the study. Mastectomy with subsequent reconstruction was performed for in-situ disease and invasive cancer in 83 and 359 patients, respectively. A total of 619 clinically unremarkable mastectomy scars were sent for histological analysis, with the most common finding being unremarkable scar tissue (i.e. collagen fibers). Of note, no specimen revealed the presence of carcinoma. According to published reports routine histological examination of mastectomy scars may detect early local recurrence. However, we were not able to detect this benefit in our patient population. As such, particularly in the current health-care climate the cost-effectiveness of this practice deserves further attention. A more selective use of histological analysis of mastectomy scars in patients with tumors that display poor prognostic indicators may be a more reasonable utilization of

  2. Is Routine Histological Examination of Mastectomy Scars Justified? – An Analysis of 619 Scars

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Arash; Tran, Pelu; Dunlap, Jonathan; Lee, Gordon K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence of breast cancer is paralleled by an increasing demand for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. At the time of breast reconstruction routine submission of mastectomy scars has been considered appropriate clinical practice to ensure that no residual cancer exists. However, this practice has been challenged by some and has become the topic of controversy. In a retrospective analysis we wished to assess whether routine submission of mastectomy scars altered treatment. Methods Utilizing the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction with routine histological analysis of mastectomy scars were identified. The following parameters were retrieved and analyzed: age, cancer histology, cancer stage (according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system), receptor status (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], Her2neu), time interval between mastectomy and reconstruction, and scar histology. Results A total of 442 patients with a mean age of 45.9 years (range, 22 to 73 years) were included in the study. Mastectomy with subsequent reconstruction was performed for in-situ disease and invasive cancer in 83 and 359 patients, respectively. A total of 619 clinically unremarkable mastectomy scars were sent for histological analysis, with the most common finding being unremarkable scar tissue (i.e. collagen fibers). Of note, no specimen revealed the presence of carcinoma. Conclusion According to published reports routine histological examination of mastectomy scars may detect early local recurrence. However, we were not able to detect this benefit in our patient population. As such, particularly in the current health-care climate the cost-effectiveness of this practice deserves further attention. A more selective use of histological analysis of mastectomy scars in patients with tumors that display poor prognostic indicators may be

  3. Vertical scar versus the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, Lesley R; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Spronk, Cees A; van der Lei, Berend

    2012-10-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate whether the initial outcome of two types of reduction mammaplasty techniques (vertical scar reduction mammaplasty vs. the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty) remains stable in the long term: Sixty-nine patients who had undergone breast reduction surgery in the period 1997-2000 at the Department of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery at the Medical Center of Leeuwarden were willing and able to participate in this study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the degree of patient satisfaction. For subjective evaluation, the Strasser Grading System on photographs at the 3 months after surgery and after long-term follow-up (10 years) was used. The median general appreciation mark for the entire surgical procedure given by patients was 8 (1-10) on a scale from 1 to 10. Forty-six of the 69 patients could be scored according to Strasser: at 3 months in 17 patients (37%) the result was 'good', in 21 patients (46%) 'mediocre' and in eight patients (17%) 'poor'. After 10 years, in 37 of the patients (80%) the result was 'good', in six patients (13%) 'mediocre' and in three patients (7%) 'poor'. At 3 months, there was a higher incidence of bottoming out in the vertical scar group (one on two patients) as compared to the inverted-T scar group (one on 10 patients); however, at the 10-years follow-up bottoming out was 50% in the inverted-T scar group and 20% in the vertical scar group. Despite bottoming out, in both the vertical scar reduction mammaplasty technique and the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty technique, high patient satisfaction rates are achieved that remains for years. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Perioperative interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent keloid scars].

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Bardet, E; Peuvrel, P; Martinet, L; Perrot, P; Baraer, F; Loirat, Y; Sartre, J-Y; Malard, O; Ferron, C; Dreno, B

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (LDR) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medicosurgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6h). The median dose was 20Gy (range, 15-40Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early - within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6cm (p=0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Early perioperative LDR brachytherapy delivering 20Gy at 5mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. 2009 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Scar Characterization to Predict Life-Threatening Arrhythmic Events and Sudden Cardiac Death in Patients With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The GAUDI-CRT Study.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Juan; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Borràs, Roger; Anguera, Ignasi; Bisbal, Felipe; Martí-Almor, Julio; Tolosana, Jose M; Penela, Diego; Andreu, David; Soto-Iglesias, David; Evertz, Reinder; Matiello, María; Alonso, Concepción; Villuendas, Roger; de Caralt, Teresa M; Perea, Rosario J; Ortiz, Jose T; Bosch, Xavier; Serra, Luis; Planes, Xavier; Greiser, Andreas; Ekinci, Okan; Lasalvia, Luis; Mont, Lluis; Berruezo, Antonio

    2017-07-28

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether scar characterization could improve the risk stratification for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Among patients with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) indication, appropriate defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy rates are low. Primary prevention patients with a class I indication for CRT were prospectively enrolled and assigned to CRT-D or CRT pacemaker according to physician's criteria. Pre-procedure contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance was obtained and analyzed to identify scar presence or absence, quantify the amount of core and border zone (BZ), and depict BZ distribution. The presence, mass, and characteristics of BZ channels in the scar were recorded. The primary endpoint was appropriate defibrillator therapy or SCD. 217 patients (39.6% ischemic) were included. During a median follow-up of 35.5 months (12 to 62 months), the primary endpoint occurred in 25 patients (11.5%) and did not occur in patients without myocardial scar. Among patients with scar (n = 125, 57.6%), those with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies or SCD exhibited greater scar mass (38.7 ± 34.2 g vs. 17.9 ± 17.2 g; p < 0.001), scar heterogeneity (BZ mass/scar mass ratio) (49.5 ± 13.0 vs. 40.1 ± 21.7; p = 0.044), and BZ channel mass (3.6 ± 3.0 g vs. 1.8 ± 3.4 g; p = 0.018). BZ mass (hazard ratio: 1.06 [95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.08]; p < 0.001) and BZ channel mass (hazard ratio: 1.21 [95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 1.32]; p < 0.001) were the strongest predictors of the primary endpoint. An algorithm based on scar mass and the absence of BZ channels identified 148 patients (68.2%) without ICD therapy/SCD during follow-up with a 100% negative predictive value. The presence, extension, heterogeneity, and qualitative distribution of BZ tissue of myocardial scar independently predict appropriate ICD therapies and SCD in CRT patients. Copyright © 2017 American

  6. Postprocedure Mapping of Cardiac Resynchronization Lead Position Using Standard Fluoroscopy Systems: Implications for the Nonresponder with Scar

    PubMed Central

    PARKER, KATHERINE M.; BUNTING, ETHAN; MALHOTRA, ROHIT; CLARKE, SAMANTHA A.; MASON, PAMELA; DARBY, ANDREW E.; KRAMER, CHRISTOPHER M.; SALERNO, MICHAEL; HOLMES, JEFFREY W.; BILCHICK, KENNETH C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), left ventricular (LV) lead position, scar, and regional mechanical function influences CRT response. Objective To determine LV lead position relative to LV structural characteristics in standard clinical practice, we developed and validated a practical yet mathematically rigorous method to register procedural fluoroscopic LV lead position with pre-CRT cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods After one-time calibration of the standard fluoroscopic suite, we identified the projected CMR LV lead position using three reference landmarks on both CMR and fluoroscopy. This predicted lead position was validated in a canine model by histology and in eight “validation group” patients based on postoperative computed tomography scans (n = 7) or CMR coronary sinus venography (n = 1). The methodology was applied in an additional eight patients with CRT nonresponse and infarction-related myocardial scar. Results The projected and actual lead positions were within 1.2 mm in the canine model. The median distance between projected and actual lead positions for the validation group (n = 8) and animal validation case was 11.3 mm (interquartile range 9.2–14.6 mm). In the application (nonresponder) group (n = 8), the lead mapped to the scar periphery in three patients, the core of the scar in one patient, and more than 3 cm from scar in four patients. Conclusions This methodology projects procedural fluoroscopic LV lead position onto pre-CRT CMR using standard fluoroscopic equipment and a one-time calibration, enabling assessment of LV lead position with sufficient accuracy to identify the lead position relative to regional function and infarction-related scar in CRT nonresponders. PMID:24472061

  7. Myocardial Tissue Elastic Properties Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy Following SDF-1α Angiogenic Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction”

    PubMed Central

    Hiesinger, William; Brukman, Matthew J.; McCormick, Ryan C.; Fitzpatrick, J. Raymond; Frederick, John R.; Yang, Elaine C.; Muenzer, Jeffrey R.; Marotta, Nicole A.; Berry, Mark F.; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction begins with massive extracellular matrix deposition and resultant fibrosis. This loss of functional tissue and the stiffening of myocardial elastic and contractile elements starts the vicious cycle of mechanical inefficiency, adverse remodeling, and eventual heart failure. We hypothesize that SDF-1α therapy to microrevascularize ischemic myocardium will rescue salvageable peri-infarct tissue and subsequently improve myocardial elasticity. METHODS Immediately following LAD ligation, mice were randomized to receive peri-infarct injection of either saline or SDF. After six weeks, the animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from the peri-infarct borderzone, the infarct scar, and the left ventricle of non-infarcted control mice. Determination of the tissues’ elastic moduli was carried out by mechanical testing in an atomic force microscope. RESULTS SDF treated peri-infarct tissue most closely approximated the elasticity of normal ventricle and was significantly more elastic than saline treated myocardium (109 + 22.9 kPa vs. 295 + 42.3 kPa, p < 0.0001). The myocardial scar, the strength of which depends on matrix deposition from vasculature at the peri-infarct edge, was stiffer in SDF treated animals when compared to controls (804 + 102.2 kPa vs. 144 + 27.5 kPa, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS This study, through direct quantification of myocardial elastic properties, has demonstrated the ability of SDF to re-engineer the evolving myocardial infarct and peri-infarct tissue. By increasing the elasticity of the ischemic and dysfunctional peri-infarct borderzone and bolstering the weak aneurysm prone scar, SDF therapy may confer a mechanical advantage to resist adverse remodeling following infarction. PMID:22264415

  8. [Myocardial ischemia and ventricular arrhythmia].

    PubMed

    Vester, E G

    1998-01-01

    A relation between myocardial ischemia and induction of ventricular arrhythmias can be demonstrated in patients with coronary heart disease--in contrast to patients with primary non ischemic cardiac diseases--using a combined metabolic-electrophysiological investigation protocol consisting of programmed atrial and ventricular stimulation with simultaneous measurement of the arterio/coronary venous difference for lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids and amino acids. There are significant metabolic distinctions between both ischemic and non ischemic heart disease under pacing stress conditions as well as at rest. Areas of "hibernating myocardium" resp. "mismatch" zones in the myocardium showing reduced or abolished perfusion and preserved metabolism during scintographic SPECT/PET studies, may be found more often in patients with ventricular tachycardias (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the chronic post myocardial infarction state than in patients without VT/VF. The proof of such zones may be considered a possible risk factor for arrhythmic events and sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction. Hereby the concept of an interaction between acute and chronic ischemia triggering the onset of polymorphic VT or VF gaines increasing acceptance. In contrast, monomorphic reentrant VT are usually generated in the border zone of scarred areas where islands of vital fibers are surrounded by fibrotic tissue. These arrhythmogenic origin regions are characterized by a "match" pattern presenting a comparably severe reduction of perfusion and metabolism. Under those circumstances a control resp. suppression of the VT focus can only be provided by interventional techniques like catheter ablation, antitachycardiac surgery or implantation of a cardioverter/defibrillator beyond antiarrhythmic drug therapy. An antiischemic causal treatment (bypass surgery or angioplasty) represents for maximal 40% of patients with ischemically induced ventricular arrhythmias an adequate and

  9. [Surgical strategy for postburn cervical scar contracture].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaoqing; Su, Weijie; Xi, Wenjing; Min, Peiru; Pu, Zheming; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-08-01

    To explore the surgical strategy for postburn cervical scar contracture. Sixty-five patients with scar contracture as a result of burn injury in the neck were hospitalized from July 2013 to July 2014. Release of cervical scar contracture was conducted according to different demands of the 3 anatomic subunits of neck, i.e. lower lip vermilion border-supramaxillary region, submaxillary region, and anterior region of neck. After release of contracture, platysma was released. For some cases with chin retrusion, genioplasty with horizontal osteotomy was performed. The coverage of wound followed the principle of similarity, i.e. the skin tissue covering the wound in the neck should be similar to the characters of skin around the wound in terms of color, texture, and thickness. Based on this principle, except for the preschool children in whom skin grafting was performed, the wounds of the other patients were covered by local skin flaps, adjacent skin flaps, or free skin flaps. All patients underwent release of scar and platysma, while 9 patients underwent genioplasty with horizontal osteotomy. Wounds were covered with local skin flaps in 32 patients, with adjacent skin flaps in 7 patients, with free skin flaps in 11 patients, and with skin grafts in 15 patients. All skin grafts and flaps survived. Good range of motion was achieved in the neck of all patients, with the cervicomental angle after reconstruction ranging from 90 to 120°. All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months. Six patients who had undergone skin grafting were found to have some degrees of skin contracture, while none of the patients who had undergone flap coverage showed any signs of contracture recurrence. Restoration of the cervicomental angle is critical in the treatment of postburn cervical scar contracture, and the release of scar contracture should conform to the subunit principle. The coverage of wound should be based on the principle of similarity, with repair by skin flaps as the first

  10. Repigmentation of cutaneous scars depends on original wound type

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah L; Yip, Christina; Ferguson, Mark W J; Shah, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring is currently an inevitable outcome following skin injury. Abnormal pigmentation within scars makes them more noticeable, causing distress for patients, particularly as there is no reliable and effective treatment available to date. The Duroc pig, known to scar badly, was used to investigate repigmentation of scars resulting from three different wound types: incisional, partial thickness excisional and full thickness excisional. Wounds were created on the backs of Duroc pigs and the resulting scars harvested at days 35, 56, 70 and 90 days post-injury. Scars were processed for histology and immunohistochemistry, quantitatively analysed using image analysis software and subjected to statistical analysis. Photographs of the macroscopic appearance of scars were scored for pigmentation using a visual analogue scale. Results demonstrated temporal and spatial differences in melanocyte repopulation and function within scars from different wound types. The microscopic pigment deposition did not correlate with macroscopic appearances in mature scars. Pigmentation of scars is dependent on the width and depth of wounds. This study has provided important information on which we can base future studies to investigate factors controlling the repigmentation of scars. PMID:23668313

  11. Rat myocardial protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Steer, J H; Hopkins, B E

    1981-07-01

    1. Myocardial protein degradation rates were determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated left hemi-atria in vitro. 2. After two 20 min preincubations the rate of tyrosine release from hemi-atria was constant for 4 h. 3. Skeletal muscle protein degradation was determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated hemi-diaphragm (Fulks, Li & Goldberg, 1975). 4. Insulin (10(-7) M) inhibited tyrosine release from hemi-atria and hemi-diaphragm to a similar extent. A 48 h fast increased tyrosine release rate from hemi-diaphragm and decreased tyrosine release rate from hemi-atria. Hemi-diaphragm tyrosine release was inhibited by 15 mmol/l D-glucose but a variety of concentrations of D-glucose (0, 5, 15 mmol/l) had no effect on tyrosine release from hemi-atria. Five times the normal plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine had no effect on tyrosine release from either hemi-atria or hemi-diaphragm.

  12. Suppressed inflammatory gene expression during human hypertrophic scar compared to normotrophic scar formation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; van der Veer, Willem M; de Jong, Etty H; Gibbs, Susan; Niessen, Frank B

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scar formation is a result of adverse cutaneous wound healing. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. A problem next to the lack of suitable animal models is that often normal skin is compared to hypertrophic scar (HTscar) and not to normotrophic scar (NTscar) tissue. Another drawback is that often only one time period after wounding is studied, while scar formation is a dynamic process over a period of several months. In this study, we compared the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and also macrophage infiltration in biopsies obtained before and up to 52 weeks after standard surgery in five patients who developed HTscar and six patients who developed NTscar. It was found that HTscar formation coincided with a prolonged decreased expression of inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1RN, CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, CXCR2, C3 and IL-10) and an extended increased expression of ECM-related genes (PLAU, Col3A1, TGFβ3). This coincided with a delayed but prolonged infiltration of macrophages (type 2) in HTscar tissue compared to NTscar tissue. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical localization of proteins coding for select genes named above. Our study emphasizes that human cutaneous wound healing is a dynamic process that is needed to be studied over a period of time rather than a single point of time. Taken together, our results suggest innate immune stimulatory therapies may be a better option for improving scar quality than the currently used anti-inflammatory scar therapies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Neuroendocrine activation after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    McAlpine, H M; Morton, J J; Leckie, B; Rumley, A; Gillen, G; Dargie, H J

    1988-01-01

    The extent of neuroendocrine activation, its time course, and relation to left ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias were investigated in 78 consecutive patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. High concentrations of arginine vasopressin were found within six hours of symptoms, even in the absence of myocardial infarction (n = 18). Plasma catecholamine concentrations also were highest on admission, whereas renin and angiotensin II concentrations rose progressively over the first three days, not only in those with heart failure but also in patients with no clinical complications. Heart failure, ventricular tachycardia, and deaths were associated with extensive myocardial infarction, low left ventricular ejection fraction, and persistently high concentrations of catecholamines, renin, and angiotensin II up to 10 days after admission, whereas in uncomplicated cases concentrations had already returned to normal. PMID:3415870

  14. [Physiopathology of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Bassand, J P; Anguenot, T

    1991-12-01

    The geometry of both the infarcted and non-infarcted zone of the left ventricle changes after myocardial infarction. Two mechanisms are involved: expansion of the infarcted zone and secondary dilatation of the non-infarcted zone. The necrosed area undergoes an inflammatory reaction followed by fibrosis which end up as a sca within a period of a few days to a few weeks. During this period if fibrous scarring the infarcted, thinned myocardium undergoes progressive expansion which starts in the first hours of the myocardial infarction. The loss of left ventricular systolic function related to the infarct and volumic overload created by expansion of the infarct influence the secondary development of dilatation of the non-infarcted zones. This dilatation results in restoration of left ventricular stroke volume but at the price of increased wall stress, which itself induces compensatory wall hypertrophy. These phenomena are more pronounced when the initial infarction is extensive and if they are sustained, they result in definitive myocardial failure. Several factors influence remodeling: the size of the infarct, arterial patency, wall stress and the quality of the scarring process itself. Therapeutic interventions of each of these factors can influence the remodeling. Limitation of infarct size by thrombolytic therapy, arterial revascularisation, even when performed late, seem capable of limiting expansion of the necrosed zone. Pharmacodynamic intervention of left ventricular afterload also affects ventricular remodeling. Nitrate derivatives, vasodilator therapy in general and converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to be effective.

  15. Implementation of a burn scar assessment system by ultrasound techniques.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Chung-Lin; Chen, Tainsong

    2006-01-01

    Tissue injury and its ensuing healing process cause scar formation. In addition to physical disability, the subsequent disfigurements from burns often bring negative psychological impacts on the survivors. Scar hypertrophy and contracture limit the joint motion and body function of the patient. With fast development of the current available technologies regarding the scar therapies, not only the process of wound healing has to be focused, but also the cosmetic and functional outcomes need to be emphasized. Therefore, proper evaluation and assessment of the healing process to nil scar status is highly recommended. However, the currently employed tools for scar evaluation are mostly subjective. For example, Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) scar index uses color, pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and depth of the scar as dependent variables for scar evaluation. These parameters only estimate the superficial surface of the scar, but they can not evaluate the deeper tissue within dermis. Ultrasound is a safe, inexpensive, and multifunctional technique for probing tissue characteristics. In addition, its resolution is not inferior to other measurement techniques. Although 3D-ultrasound is available in clinical application, it's still not widely used in scar evaluation because of its high cost. In this study, we proposed a system for scar assessment using B-mode ultrasonic technique. By utilizing the reconstruction methods to search the scar border, many characteristic parameters, including depth, area and volume, can be estimated. The proposed method is useful in assisting the clinician to evaluate the treatment effect and to plan further therapeutic strategy more objectively. In this report, the quantitative assessment system was used to evaluate the scar of a seriously burned patient. In order to verify the reliability of systematic reconstruction method, we constructed a phantom to imitate the scar tissue. The results show that it can achieve more than 90% in

  16. Fire Scars Area Estimation Using CHRIS PROBA Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchev, Lachezar; Dimitrov, Petar

    2013-12-01

    The dawn of 21st century is marked by severe and unpredictable natural and man - made hazards and disasters linked as to climate change as to human impact on environment. To study their effects on natural landscapes and protected areas it is important to perform, in some restrict regime protected areas, a continuous monitoring. Earth observation by satellites is one of the most promising instruments for this as it has the necessary time, spatial, and spectral resolution for this as well as it provides for non-contact estimation of the overall condition of the environment. This study presents preliminary results of fire scars area estimation on the territory of Bistrishko Branishte UNESCO Man and Biosphere (MAB) reserve in Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria using CHRIS/PROBA satellite data. During the summer and early autumn of 2012 CHRIS/PROBA instrument was tasked to perform a series of acquisitions with a view to study the vegetation structure. The study uses two CHRIS/PROBA scenes acquired subsequently on 22 June 2012 and on 28 September 2012. The wildfire, which effects are studied, took place during the first two weeks of July 2012. After it was settled the second acquisition of CHRIS/PROBA instrument made possible the analysis of the post fire situation. The methods used for the study are the standard methods for image change detection based on spectral data employed in ENVI software (Academic license). In order to perform the change detection, the CHRIS/PROBA source data was geometrically and atmospherically corrected as well as co-registered. The multi angle product of CHRIS/PROBA Mode 1, consisting of 5 images, was used to check to what extent the five viewing angles affect the area estimation of the fire scars in the mountainous area following same procedures. The results from the analysis shown that almost 60 hectares from the coniferous vegetation (dead and healthy tree stands) were devastated by the wildfire.

  17. Botulinum toxin to minimize facial scarring.

    PubMed

    Sherris, David A; Gassner, Holger G

    2002-02-01

    Botulinum toxin injection has been used for a variety of indications in humans, including blepharospasm and hyperfunctional facial lines. This article describes a novel formulation of botulinum toxin, which supplies immediate feedback to the injecting physician. Additionally, recent findings are described that indicate the immediate injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles underlying a wound can improve the cosmetic outcome of the facial cutaneous scar. Future applications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Umbilical scarring in hatchling American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiebe, J.J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Buckland, J.E.; Anderson, S.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Umbilical scarring is the presence of excess scar tissue deposited between abdominal dermal layers at the site of yolk sac absorption in hatchling American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The presence of this dermal condition plays a key evaluatory role in the overall quality and subsequent value for various commercial leather products. Despite the prevalent nature of this condition, currently the industry has no standardized protocols for its quantification. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between hatchling weight and age and incidence of umbilical scarring and to develop a quantifiable and reproducible technique to measure this dermal condition in hatchling American alligators. Thirty eggs from each of nine clutches were incubated in two separate incubators at different facilities and hatchling umbilical scarring was measured at 2 and 10 days of age using digital calipers. Umbilical area was calculated by multiplying umbilical length times umbilical width. There was a significant effect of both age and clutch on umbilical area (overall decline of 64%) by 10 days post-hatch. However, only five of the nine clutches utilized expressed a noticeable decline in the size of this dermal condition (range 67-74%). We had hypothesized that larger hatchlings would have larger umbilical areas and a slower rate of improvement in this condition during the first few days post-hatch. The differences in umbilical area and percent decline with age across clutches, however, were not associated with differences in initial hatchling weights. Within clutches and time periods, hatchling weight had no significant effect on the size and/or rate of decline of this condition. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Persistent scarring and dilated cardiomyopathy suggest incomplete regeneration of the apex resected neonatal mouse myocardium--A 180 days follow up study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Baun, Christina; Hvidsten, Svend; Zebrowski, David C; Engel, Felix Benedikt; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2016-01-01

    Heart damage in mammals is generally considered to result in scar formation, whereas zebrafish completely regenerate their hearts following an intermediate and reversible state of fibrosis after apex resection (AR). Recently, using the AR procedure, one-day-old mice were suggested to have full capacity for cardiac regeneration as well. In contrast, using the same mouse model others have shown that the regeneration process is incomplete and that scarring still remains 21 days after AR. The present study tested the hypothesis that like in zebrafish, fibrosis in neonatal mammals could be an intermediate response before the onset of complete heart regeneration. Myocardial damage was performed by AR in postnatal day 1 C57BL/6 mice, and myocardial function and scarring assessed at day 180 using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and histology, respectively. AR mice exhibited decreased ejection fraction and wall motion with increased end-diastolic and systolic volumes compared to sham-operated mice. Scarring with collagen accumulation was still substantial, with increased heart size, while cardiomyocyte size was unaffected. In conclusion, these data thus show that apex resection in mice results in irreversible fibrosis and dilated cardiomyopathy suggesting that cardiac regeneration is limited in neonatal mammals and thus distinct from the regenerative capacity seen in zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Complement Component 3 is Necessary to Preserve Myocardium and Myocardial Function in Chronic Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Solanki, Mitesh; Borkowska, Sylwia; van Hoose, Patrick; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.; Rokosh, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the complement cascade (CC) with myocardial infarction (MI) acutely initiates immune cell infiltration, membrane attack complex formation on injured myocytes, and exacerbates myocardial injury. Recent studies implicate the CC in mobilization of stem/progenitor cells and tissue regeneration. Its role in chronic MI is unknown. Here, we consider complement component C3, in the chronic response to MI. C3 knockout (KO) mice were studied after permanent coronary artery ligation. C3 deficiency exacerbated myocardial dysfunction 28 days after MI compared to WT with further impaired systolic function and LV dilation despite similar infarct size 24 hours post-MI. Morphometric analysis 28 days post-MI showed C3 KO mice had more scar tissue with less viable myocardium within the infarct zone which correlated with decreased c-kitpos cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CPSC), decreased proliferating Ki67pos CSPCs and decreased formation of new BrdUpos/α-sarcomeric actinpos myocytes and increased apoptosis compared to WT. Decreased CSPCs and increased apoptosis were evident 7 days post-MI in C3 KO hearts. The inflammatory response with MI was attenuated in the C3 KO and was accompanied by attenuated hematopoietic, pluripotent, and cardiac stem/progenitor cell mobilization into the peripheral blood 72 hours post-MI. These results are the first to demonstrate the CC, through C3, contributes to myocardial preservation and regeneration in response to chronic MI. Responses in the C3 KO infer that C3 activation in response to MI expands the resident CSPC population, increases new myocyte formation, increases and preserves myocardium, inflammatory response, and bone marrow stem/progenitor cell mobilization to preserve myocardial function. PMID:24806427

  1. Complement component 3 is necessary to preserve myocardium and myocardial function in chronic myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Solanki, Mitesh; Borkowska, Sylwia; van Hoose, Patrick; Brittian, Kenneth R; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Rokosh, Gregg

    2014-09-01

    Activation of the complement cascade (CC) with myocardial infarction (MI) acutely initiates immune cell infiltration, membrane attack complex formation on injured myocytes, and exacerbates myocardial injury. Recent studies implicate the CC in mobilization of stem/progenitor cells and tissue regeneration. Its role in chronic MI is unknown. Here, we consider complement component C3, in the chronic response to MI. C3 knockout (KO) mice were studied after permanent coronary artery ligation. C3 deficiency exacerbated myocardial dysfunction 28 days after MI compared to WT with further impaired systolic function and LV dilation despite similar infarct size 24 hours post-MI. Morphometric analysis 28 days post-MI showed C3 KO mice had more scar tissue with less viable myocardium within the infarct zone which correlated with decreased c-kit(pos) cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CPSC), decreased proliferating Ki67(pos) CSPCs and decreased formation of new BrdU(pos) /α-sarcomeric actin(pos) myocytes, and increased apoptosis compared to WT. Decreased CSPCs and increased apoptosis were evident 7 days post-MI in C3 KO hearts. The inflammatory response with MI was attenuated in the C3 KO and was accompanied by attenuated hematopoietic, pluripotent, and cardiac stem/progenitor cell mobilization into the peripheral blood 72 hours post-MI. These results are the first to demonstrate that CC, through C3, contributes to myocardial preservation and regeneration in response to chronic MI. Responses in the C3 KO infer that C3 activation in response to MI expands the resident CSPC population, increases new myocyte formation, increases and preserves myocardium, inflammatory response, and bone marrow stem/progenitor cell mobilization to preserve myocardial function. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Recognition of Fibrotic Infarct Density by the Pattern of Local Systolic-Diastolic Myocardial Electrical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; Jorge, Esther; García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramón; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Cinca, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial electrical impedance is a biophysical property of the heart that is influenced by the intrinsic structural characteristics of the tissue. Therefore, the structural derangements elicited in a chronic myocardial infarction should cause specific changes in the local systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance, but this is not known. This study aimed to characterize the local changes of systolic-diastolic myocardial impedance in a healed myocardial infarction model. Six pigs were successfully submitted to 150 min of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. 4 weeks later, myocardial impedance spectroscopy (1–1000 kHz) was measured at different infarction sites. The electrocardiogram, left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV dP/dt, and aortic blood flow (ABF) were also recorded. A total of 59 LV tissue samples were obtained and histopathological studies were performed to quantify the percentage of fibrosis. Samples were categorized as normal myocardium (<10% fibrosis), heterogeneous scar (10–50%) and dense scar (>50%). Resistivity of normal myocardium depicted phasic changes during the cardiac cycle and its amplitude markedly decreased in dense scar (18 ± 2 Ω·cm vs. 10 ± 1 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001, respectively). The mean phasic resistivity decreased progressively from normal to heterogeneous and dense scar regions (285 ± 10 Ω·cm, 225 ± 25 Ω·cm, and 162 ± 6 Ω·cm, at 41 kHz; P < 0.001 respectively). Moreover, myocardial resistivity and phase angle correlated significantly with the degree of local fibrosis (resistivity: r = 0.86 at 1 kHz, P < 0.001; phase angle: r = 0.84 at 41 kHz, P < 0.001). Myocardial infarcted regions with greater fibrotic content show lower mean impedance values and more depressed systolic-diastolic dynamic impedance changes. In conclusion, this study reveals that differences in the degree of myocardial fibrosis can be detected in vivo by local measurement of phasic systolic

  3. Molecular Imaging of Healing After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Naresh, Nivedita K; Ben-Mordechai, Tamar; Leor, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The progression from acute myocardial infarction (MI) to heart failure continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Potential new therapies for improved infarct healing such as stem cells, gene therapy, and tissue engineering are being investigated. Noninvasive imaging plays a central role in the evaluation of MI and infarct healing, both clinically and in preclinical research. Traditionally, imaging has been used to assess cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and viability. However, new imaging methods can be used to assess biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. We review molecular imaging techniques for evaluating the biology of infarct healing and repair. Specifically, we cover recent advances in imaging the various phases of MI and infarct healing such as apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and scar formation. Significant progress has been made in preclinical molecular imaging, and future challenges include translation of these methods to clinical practice. PMID:21869911

  4. Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian J; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Baum, Christian L; Hamilton, Grant S; Wehby, George L; Dunnwald, Martine

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive, and unbiased assessments of postsurgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue digital images of postsurgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD imaging system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software, and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with intraclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (p ranging from 1.20(-05) to 1.95(-14) ). Physicians' clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high interobserver variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome.

  5. Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian J.; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F.; Moreno, Lina M.; Baum, Christian L.; Hamilton, Grant S.; Wehby, George L.; Dunnwald, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive and unbiased assessments of post-surgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue (RGB) digital images of post-surgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD image system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with interclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (P ranging from 1.20−05 to 1.95−14). Physicians’ clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high inter-observer variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome. PMID:24635173

  6. The value of the 12-lead electrocardiogram in localizing the scar in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Oloriz, Teresa; Wellens, Hein J J; Santagostino, Giulia; Trevisi, Nicola; Silberbauer, John; Peretto, Giovanni; Maccabelli, Giuseppe; Della Bella, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and ventricular tachycardia can be categorized as anteroseptal (AS) or inferolateral (IL) scar sub-types based on imaging and voltage mapping studies. The aim of this study was to correlate the baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) with endo-epicardial voltage maps created during ablation procedures and identify the ECG characteristics that may help to distinguish the scar as AS or IL. We assessed 108 baseline ECGs; 72 patients fulfilled criteria for dilated cardiomyopathy whereas 36 showed minimal structural abnormalities. Based on the unipolar low-voltage distribution, the scar pattern was classified as predominantly AS (n = 59) or IL (n = 49). Three ECG criteria (PR interval < 170 ms or QRS voltage in inferior leads <0.6 mV or a lateral q wave) resulted in 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity for predicting an IL pattern in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). The four-step algorithm for dilated cardiomyopathy included a paced ventricular rhythm or PR > 230 ms or QRS > 170 ms or an r ≤ 0.3 mV in V3 having 92 and 81% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively, in predicting AS scar pattern. A significant negative correlation was found between the extension of the endocardial unipolar low voltage area and left ventricular EF (rs = -0.719, P < 0.001). The extent of endocardial AS unipolar low voltage was correlated with PR interval and QRS duration (rs = 0.583 and rs = 0.680, P < 0.001, respectively) and the IL epicardial unipolar low voltage with the mean voltage of the limb leads (rs = -0.639, P < 0.001). Baseline ECG features are well correlated with the distribution of unipolar voltage abnormalities in NICM and may help to predict the location of scar in this population. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Utility of multiparametric MRI in Caesarean section scar characterization and preoperative prediction of scar dehiscence: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ishan; Verma, Ashish; Matah, Manjari; Satpathy, Gayatri

    2017-07-01

    Background Post-Caesarean uterine scar rupture during vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) is a potentially life-threatening complication. Prediction of scar dehiscence and scar rupture is vital in treatment planning and selecting candidates of trial of labor after a Caesarean section (CS). Purpose To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of post-Caesarean uterine scar and to predict scar dehiscence during repeat CS. Material and Methods Thirty patients with a history of at least one previous CS underwent pelvic MRI for assessment of uterine scar during a subsequent gestation, all of whom underwent lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS) subsequently due to one of the established indications of CSs. Thickness, T1, T2 signal intensity ratio (SER), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of scar site were charted. The lower uterine segment was assessed and graded intraoperatively and findings were correlated with MRI findings. Results A total of 30 participants were included in this study, of which nine were classified as having an abnormal scar (of various grades) based on surgical observations. T2 SER with a cutoff value of 0.935 showed the highest sensitivity of 100% and scar thickness value of 3.45 mm showed highest specificity of 91% in prediction of abnormal scar. On drawing a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, T2 signal intensity ratio showed the highest area under the curve (AUC) closely followed by scar thickness values. Conclusion MRI derived parameters may be utilized for differentiation of an abnormal post-Caesarean uterine scar from a normal one. Both scar thickness and T2 SER measured on MRI can be used to predict scar dehiscence. However, T2 SER can serve as a more standardized and objective criterion.

  8. Pathological observation of acute myocardial infarction in Chinese miniswine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuang; Wang, Shao-Xin; Dong, Ping-Shuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Duan, Na-Na; Wang, Yan-Yu; Wang, Ke; Li, Zhuan-Zhen; Wei, Li-Juan; Meng, Ya-Li; Cheng, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in Chinese miniswine was built by percutaneous coronary artery occlusion. Pathological observation of AMI was performed, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infarct sites was detected at different days after modeling in Chinese miniswine. The experimental findings may be used as the basis for blood flow reconstruction and intervention after AMI. Seven experimental Chinese miniswine were subjected to general anesthesia and Seldinger right femoral artery puncture. After coronary angiography, the gelfoam was injected via the microtube to occlude the obtuse marginal branch (OM branch). At 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d, 14 d and 17 d after modeling, hetatoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe the pathological changes and to detect the expression of TNF-α in the myocardial tissues. Cytoplasmic acidophilia of the necrotic myocardial tissues at 1 d after modeling was enhanced, and cytoplasmic granules were formed; at 3 d, the margins of the necrotic myocardial tissues were infiltrated by a large number of inflammatory cells; at 5 d, the nuclei of the necrotic myocardial cells were fragmented; at 7 d, extensive granulation tissues were formed at the margin of the necrotic myocardial tissues; at 10 d, part of the granulation tissues were replaced by fibrous scar tissues; at 14-17 d, all granulation tissues were replaced by fibrous scar tissues. Immunohistochemical detection indicated that no TNF-α expression in normal myocardial tissues. The TNF-α expression was first detected at 3 d in the necrotic myocardial tissues and then increased at 5 d and 7 d. After reaching the peak at 10 d, the expression began to decrease at 14 d and the decrease continued at 17 d. Coronary angiography showed the disappearance of blood flow at the distal end of OM branch occluded by gelfoam, indicating that AMI model was constructed successfully. The repair of the infarcted myocardium began at 10-17 d after

  9. Laparoscopic Repair of Cesarean Scar Defect "Isthmocele".

    PubMed

    Urman, Bulent; Arslan, Tonguc; Aksu, Sertan; Taskiran, Cagatay

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the technique of laparoscopic repair of a large cesarean scar defect (isthmocele). Case report (Canadian Task Force classification III). Cesarean scar defect, also known as an isthmocele, is the result of incomplete healing of the isthmic myometrium after a low transverse uterine incision performed for cesarean section. Although mostly asymptomatic, it may cause menstrual abnormalities (typically postmenstrual spotting), chronic pelvic pain, and secondary infertility. Scar tissue dehiscence, scar pregnancy, and abnormally adherent placenta are some of the obstetric complications associated with this defect. No standardized treatment has yet been accepted. Hysteroscopy and laparoscopy are the minimally invasive approaches currently used to repair the defect. A 40-year-old patient, G2P2, presented with postmenstrual spotting and secondary infertility for the past 2 years. She had a history of 2 previous cesarean deliveries. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed a large (2.5 × 1.5 cm) niche. Thickness of the myometrium over the defect was 3 mm. Laparoscopic repair of the uterine defect was performed. The bladder that was densely adherent to the lower uterine segment was freed by careful dissection. The defect was then localized with a sharp curette placed transcervically into the uterus. The curette was pushed anteriorly to delineate the margins of the defect and puncture the ceiling of the isthmocele cavity. The fibrotic tissue that formed the ceiling and the lateral borders of the defect was excised using laparoscopic scissors. Reapproximation of the edges was done with continuous nonlocking 3-0 V-Loc sutures. The procedure took 90 minutes, and there were no associated complications. Postoperative ultrasound performed in the second month after the operation showed a minimal defect measuring 0.5 cm, with a residual myometrial thickness of 7 mm. At the time of this writing, the patient was free of symptoms. Laparoscopic repair, although not

  10. Laparoscopic Resection of Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ades, Alex; Parghi, Sneha

    To demonstrate a technique for the laparoscopic surgical management of cesarean section scar ectopic pregnancy. Step-by-step presentation of the procedure using video (Canadian Task Force classification III). Cesarean section scar ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with an incidence ranging from 1:1800 to 1:2216. Over the last decade, the incidence seems to be on the rise with increasing rates of cesarean deliveries and early use of Doppler ultrasound. These pregnancies can lead to life-threatening hemorrhage, uterine rupture, and hysterectomy if not managed promptly. Local or systemic methotrexate therapy has been used successfully but can result in prolonged hospitalization, requires long-term follow-up, and in some cases treatment can fail. In the hands of a trained operator, laparoscopic resection can be performed to manage this type of pregnancy. Consent was obtained from the patient, and exemption was granted from the local Internal Review Board (The Womens' Hospital, Parkville). In this video we describe our technique for laparoscopic management of a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. We present the case of a 34-year-old G4P2T1 with the finding of a live 8-week pregnancy embedded in the cesarean section scar. The patient had undergone 2 previous uncomplicated cesarean sections at term. On presentation her β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level was 52 405 IU/L. She was initially managed with an intragestational sac injection of potassium chloride and methotrexate, followed by 4 doses of intramuscular methotrexate. Despite these conservative measures, the level of β-hCG did not adequately fall and an ultrasound showed a persistent 4-cm mass. A decision was made to proceed with surgical treatment in the form of a laparoscopic resection of the ectopic pregnancy. The surgery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged home within 24 hours of her procedure. Her serial β-hCG levels were followed until complete resolution

  11. Update on scar management: guidelines for treating Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sukwha; Choi, Tae Hyun; Liu, Wei; Ogawa, Rei; Suh, Jeong Seok; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    Following injury, Asian skin has a tendency towards hyper-pigmentation and scar formation, and therefore the prevention of scarring is particularly important in Asian patients. Since publication of an International Clinical Recommendation on Scar Management in 2002, there have been numerous publications in the field of scar management. Advances in understanding scar formation have also led to the introduction of new treatments as well as a better understanding of established therapeutic options. A literature search for abstracts, clinical trials and meta-analyses evaluating scar prevention and treatment was performed using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Based on this data a panel of experts formulated treatment recommendations for Asian patients. Following surgery, scar prevention should be initiated in all Asian patients due to the high risk of poor scars. There is strong evidence for the efficacy of silicone based products, and due to their ease of use, they can be considered first-line therapy. Silicone gel (versus silicone gel sheets) products have demonstrated efficacy. For patients who fail to respond to first-line therapy, intralesional steroid injections, radiation therapy, and intralesional 5-flourouracil injections have achieved widespread acceptance. Laser treatments have been increasingly used, although the evidence remains largely anecdotal without a clear consensus on optimal wavelength, or amount of energy. Surgical approaches have increased in sophistication with recognition of the impact that tension has on scar formation. Updated scar management recommendations will benefit practitioners making decisions regarding optimal, evidence-based treatment strategies for their patients.

  12. Flattening of atrophic acne scars by using tretinoin by iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Knor, Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Atrophic scars are a frequent consequence of acne, with a negative esthetic and psychological influence. Treatment of atrophic acne scars includes different invasive methods. In our study, we used a noninvasive method with local application of 0.05% tretinoin gel by iontophoresis. In patients with a tendency towards exacerbation, we performed mild peeling with 5% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution 3-4 times during the treatment. Twenty-minute treatments were applied on 38 patients, 29 women and 9 men, during 3.5 months on average. Median age of patients was 21 years (range, 16-29). Clinical assessment included an assessment of scars, pore size, skin moisture, vascularization, and skin firmness and elasticity. As confirmed by photographs taken before and after therapy, the treatment proved to be clinically effective in decreasing acne scars and persistence of effects. Flattening of acne scars was observed in 79% of the patients. The results depended on duration of scars persistence as well as on a the type of scars. The best results were achieved with younger scars as well as with superficial and ice pick scars. Side effects involved a very mild retinoid dermatitis and more often acne exacerbation. The therapy was clinically effective and the patients accepted the treatment very easily. Local therapy of acne scars with tretinoin by iontophoresis can in some cases successfully replace invasive techniques, and could also be combined with those techniques.

  13. Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, α smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in α smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars.

  14. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. New Patient-Oriented Tools for Assessing Atrophic Acne Scarring.

    PubMed

    Layton, Alison; Dréno, Brigitte; Finlay, Andrew Y; Thiboutot, Diane; Kang, Sewon; Lozada, Vicente Torres; Bourdès, Valerie; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Petit, Laurent; Tan, Jerry

    2016-06-01

    Scarring on visible areas such as the face is associated with negative psychological impact. Many patients with acne have clinically relevant scarring for which they seek treatment, implying that there is an impact on their lives. Currently there are no validated tools to assess the burden of atrophic acne scarring from the patient's perspective or to assess treatment benefit. Two patient-reported outcome measures, the self-assessment of clinical acne-related scars (SCARS) and the facial acne scar quality of life (FASQoL) tools, both specific to facial atrophic acne scarring, were developed according to Food and Drug Administration guidance methodology. Patient interviews were conducted first to elicit patient-important concepts about scarring, then to validate patients' understanding of wording in the tools. These tools focus on symptoms (SCARS) and psychological and social well-being (FASQoL) and were designed to be suitable for self-completion and to be rapidly completed (2-5 min) within a clinical research setting. Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with 30 subjects and cognitive interviews with 20 subjects. With acne scarring, important concepts for patients included size, surface area affected, counts, and depth. The SCARS and FASQoL tools were shown to address relevant concepts that were easily understood by patients. Two patient-reported measures, SCARS and FASQoL, have been developed to help clinicians assess the severity and impact of acne scars. Responsivity of these instruments to treatment will require further evaluation. Galderma R&D, Sophia Antipolis, France.

  16. Laser therapy for prevention and treatment of pathologic excessive scars.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Huang, Xiaolu; Li, Hua; Yuan, Yuwen; Li, Bin; Cheng, Chen; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-12-01

    The management of hypertrophic scars and keloids remains a therapeutic challenge. Treatment regimens are currently based on clinical experience rather than substantiated evidence. Laser therapy is an emerging minimally invasive treatment that has recently gained attention. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various laser therapies. The pooled response rate, pooled standardized mean difference of Vancouver Scar Scale scores, scar height, erythema, and pliability were reported. Twenty-eight well-designed clinical trials with 919 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The overall response rate for laser therapy was 71 percent for scar prevention, 68 percent for hypertrophic scar treatment, and 72 percent for keloid treatment. The 585/595-nm pulsed-dye laser and 532-nm laser subgroups yielded the best responses among all laser systems. The pooled estimates of hypertrophic scar studies also showed that laser therapy reduced total Vancouver Scar Scale scores, scar height, and scar erythema of hypertrophic scars. Regression analyses of pulsed-dye laser therapy suggested that the optimal treatment interval is 5 to 6 weeks. In addition, the therapeutic effect of pulsed-dye laser therapy is better on patients with lower Fitzpatrick skin type scores. This study presents the first meta-analysis to confirm the efficacy and safety of laser therapy in hypertrophic scar management. The level of evidence for laser therapy as a keloid treatment is low. Further research is required to determine the mechanism of action for different laser systems and to examine the efficacy in quantifiable parameters, such as scar erythema, scar texture, degrees of symptom relief, recurrence rates, and adverse effects.

  17. Myocardial Upregulation of Cathepsin D by Ischemic Heart Disease Promotes Autophagic Flux and Protects Against Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Penglong; Yuan, Xun; Li, Faqian; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Wei; Wei, Meng; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2017-07-01

    Lysosomal dysfunction is implicated in human heart failure for which ischemic heart disease is the leading cause. Altered myocardial expression of CTSD (cathepsin D), a major lysosomal protease, was observed in human heart failure, but its pathophysiological significance has not been determined. Western blot analyses revealed an increase in the precursor but not the mature form of CTSD in myocardial samples from explanted human failing hearts with ischemic heart disease, which is recapitulated in chronic myocardial infarction produced via coronary artery ligation in Ctsd(+/+) but not Ctsd(+/-) mice. Mice deficient of Ctsd displayed impaired myocardial autophagosome removal, reduced autophagic flux, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. After induction of myocardial infarction, weekly serial echocardiography detected earlier occurrence of left ventricle chamber dilatation, greater decreases in ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and lesser wall thickening throughout the first 4 weeks; pressure-volume relationship analyses at 4 weeks revealed greater decreases in systolic and diastolic functions, stroke work, stroke volume, and cardiac output; greater increases in the ventricular weight to body weight and the lung weight to body weight ratios and larger scar size were also detected in Ctsd(+/-) mice compared with Ctsd(+/+) mice. Significant increases of myocardial autophagic flux detected at 1 and 4 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction in the Ctsd(+/+) mice were diminished in the Ctsd(+/-) mice. Myocardial CTSD upregulation induced by myocardial infarction protects against cardiac remodeling and malfunction, which is at least in part through promoting myocardial autophagic flux. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Acute oedema in the evaluation of microvascular reperfusion and myocardial salvage in reperfused myocardial infarction with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Abdel-Aty, Hassan; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Friedrich, Matthias G; Taylor, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    The accurate measurement of myocardial salvage is critical to the ongoing refinement of reperfusion strategies in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can define the area at risk in AMI by the presence of myocardial oedema, identified by high signal intensity on T(2)-weighted imaging with a short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence. In addition, myocardial necrosis can be identified with CMR delayed contrast enhanced imaging. In this prospective study we examined the relationship of acute oedema and necrosis with impaired microvascular reperfusion. We also evaluated acute oedema as a marker of the area at risk in AMI, for the purposes of documenting myocardial salvage. CMR was performed on 15 patients with (AMI), within 24h of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was defined by a systolic thickening <40% (severe <20%). Microvascular reperfusion was evaluated during the acute phase of contrast wash-in. CMR was repeated 3 months post-PCI to evaluate recovery of LV function and final infarct size. Myocardial salvage was defined as the percentage of the area at risk that was not infarcted on follow up CMR. There was a significant correlation between impaired microvascular reperfusion and the extent of segmental oedema (R=0.363, P<0.01), but not myocardial necrosis (R=0.110, P>0.5). The extent of myocardial salvage correlated with recovery of systolic function (R=0.241, P<0.05), which was strongest in LV segments with severely reduced systolic function (R=0.422, P<0.01). In acutely reperfused AMI, oedema can be used to identify the area at risk for the purpose of calculating myocardial salvage. The correlation between myocardial oedema and reperfusion status suggests a pathological role of acute oedema in the impairment of microvascular reperfusion. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How Infants Encode Spatial Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan; Duffy, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how infants encode an object's spatial extent. We habituated 6.5-month-old infants to a dowel inside a container and then tested whether they dishabituate to a change in absolute size when the relation between dowel and container is held constant (by altering the size of both container and dowel) and when the relation changes…

  20. Role of the lesion scar in the response to damage and repair of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hitoshi; Kimura-Kuroda, Junko; Komuta, Yukari; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Li, Hong Peng; Kawamura, Koki; Li, Ying; Raisman, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    Traumatic damage to the central nervous system (CNS) destroys the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and provokes the invasion of hematogenous cells into the neural tissue. Invading leukocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes secrete various cytokines that induce an inflammatory reaction in the injured CNS and result in local neural degeneration, formation of a cystic cavity and activation of glial cells around the lesion site. As a consequence of these processes, two types of scarring tissue are formed in the lesion site. One is a glial scar that consists in reactive astrocytes, reactive microglia and glial precursor cells. The other is a fibrotic scar formed by fibroblasts, which have invaded the lesion site from adjacent meningeal and perivascular cells. At the interface, the reactive astrocytes and the fibroblasts interact to form an organized tissue, the glia limitans. The astrocytic reaction has a protective role by reconstituting the BBB, preventing neuronal degeneration and limiting the spread of damage. While much attention has been paid to the inhibitory effects of the astrocytic component of the scars on axon regeneration, this review will cover a number of recent studies in which manipulations of the fibroblastic component of the scar by reagents, such as blockers of collagen synthesis have been found to be beneficial for axon regeneration. To what extent these changes in the fibroblasts act via subsequent downstream actions on the astrocytes remains for future investigation.

  1. T1 Mapping in Characterizing Myocardial Disease: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Puntmann, Valentina O; Peker, Elif; Chandrashekhar, Y; Nagel, Eike

    2016-07-08

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides insights into myocardial structure and function noninvasively, with high diagnostic accuracy and without ionizing radiation. Myocardial tissue characterization in particular gives cardiovascular magnetic resonance a prime role among all the noninvasive cardiovascular investigations. Late gadolinium enhancement imaging is an established method for visualizing replacement scar, providing diagnostic and prognostic information in a variety of cardiac conditions. Late gadolinium enhancement, however, relies on the regional segregation of tissue characteristics to generate the imaging contrast. Thus, myocardial pathology that is diffuse in nature and affecting the myocardium in a rather uniform and global distribution is not well visualized with late gadolinium enhancement. Examples include diffuse myocardial inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, and infiltration. T1 mapping is a novel technique allowing to diagnose these diffuse conditions by measurement of T1 values, which directly correspond to variation in intrinsic myocardial tissue properties. In addition to providing clinically meaningful indices, T1-mapping measurements also allow for an estimation of extracellular space by calculation of extracellular volume fraction. Multiple lines of evidence suggest a central role for T1 mapping in detection of diffuse myocardial disease in early disease stages and complements late gadolinium enhancement in visualization of the regional changes in common advanced myocardial disease. As a quantifiable measure, it may allow grading of disease activity, monitoring progress, and guiding treatment, potentially as a fast contrast-free clinical application. We present an overview of clinically relevant technical aspects of acquisition and processing, and the current state of art and evidence, supporting its clinical use. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Serum concentration of amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) as a prognostic marker for skin fibrosis after scar correction in burned patients.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dietmar; Noah, Ernst-Magnus; Burchardt, Elmar Reinhardt; Atkins, Derek; Pallua, Norbert

    2002-12-01

    -operative serum values and degree of immunostaining (r(2)=0.45; P<0.05). The increased concentration of PIIINP seen in our burned patients' sera might serve as a marker for the extent of skin fibrosis and for the risk of developing new severe fibrotic reactions after scar correction.

  3. [Mechanism of scar formation and strategy of treatment].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-liang

    2013-04-01

    So far, studies on the mechanism of scar formation have mainly focused on cells, cytokines and extracellular matrix. Some studies have shown that fibroblast is one of the most important element in the process of scar formation, while epidermal and endothelial cells exert synergistic effects as well. Genetic factor can not be ignored in scar formation, either. Recently, studies have shown decisively the loss or damage of the three-dimensional structure of dermal tissue is the initiator of scar formation. Thus, the defect of epidermis template is proposed as a theory in order to explain the mechanism of scar formation. There are various techniques for scar treatment. The commonly accepted methods are physical therapy, pressure therapy, pharmaceutical therapy, radiotherapy, etc.

  4. Cutaneous Scar Prevention and Management: Overview of current therapies.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management.

  5. Nondestructive measurements of the properties of healing burn scars.

    PubMed

    Chu, B M; Brody, G

    1975-01-01

    A testing protocol and the requisite instrumentation have been developed to nondestructively monitor the temporal and mechanical properties of maturing scar. The maturing scar can become progressively and unpredictably adherent or contractured, producing varying degrees of functional impairment. By plotting these mechanical changes as a temporal function of limb motion history, more accurate prediction and control of the ultimate scarring may result. These same techniques could also be used to study normal skin aging. Extrapolation could be made to connective tissue scars in tendons, ligaments, and other structural elements. Scar contractures may develop slowly along lines of tension or areas of maximum skin defect in large maturing scars once the patient has recovered sufficiently to exercise the underlying joints. Since the present endeavor to monitor potential contractures requires measurement of the "in-plane" stresses and strains, we have chosen to utilize an in situ strip biaxial test configuration.

  6. Scar Management in the Pediatric and Adolescent Populations.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Andrew C; Totri, Christine R; Donelan, Matthias B; Shumaker, Peter R

    2016-02-01

    For most children and adolescents who have developed symptomatic scars, cosmetic concerns are only a portion of the motivation that drives them and their caregivers to obtain treatment. In addition to the potential for cosmetic disfigurement, scars may be associated with a number of physical comorbidities including hypertrichosis, dyshidrosis, tenderness/pain, pruritus, dysesthesias, and functional impairments such as contractures, all of which may be compounded by psychosocial factors. Although a plethora of options for treating scars exists, specific management guidelines for the pediatric and adolescent populations do not, and evidence must be extrapolated from adult studies. New modalities such as the scar team approach, autologous fat transfer, and ablative fractional laser resurfacing suggest a promising future for children who suffer symptomatically from their scars. In this state-of-the-art review, we summarize cutting-edge scar treatment strategies as they relate to the pediatric and adolescent populations. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Novel Insights on Understanding of Keloid Scar: Article Review.

    PubMed

    Mari, Walid; Alsabri, Sami G; Tabal, Najib; Younes, Sara; Sherif, Abdulamagid; Simman, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Keloid scar, dermal benign fibro-proliferative growth that extends outside the original wound and invades adjacent dermal tissue due to extensive production of extracellular matrix, especially collagen, which caused by over expression of cytokines and growth factors. Although many attempts were made to understand the exact pathophysiology and the molecular abnormalities, the pathogenesis of keloid scar is yet to be determined. Even though there are several treatment options for keloid scars include combination of medical and surgical therapies like combination of surgical removal followed by cryotherapy or intralesional steroid therapy, the reoccurrence rate is still high despite the present treatment. In this review, PubMed, clinical key and Wright State Library web site have been used to investigate any update regarding Keloid disease. We used Keloid, scar formation, hypertrophic scar and collagen as key words. More than 40 articles have been reviewed. This paper reviews literature about keloid scar formation mechanism, the most recent therapeutic options including the ones under research.

  8. Scar tissue classification using nonlinear optical microscopy and discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelf, Timothy Andrew; Gosnell, Martin; Sandnes, Bjornar; Guller, Anna E; Shekhter, Anatoly B; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2012-02-01

    This paper addresses the scar tissue maturation process that occurs stepwise, and calls for reliable classification. The structure of collagen imaged by nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) in post-burn hypertrophic and mature scar, as well as in normal skin, appeared to distinguish these maturation steps. However, it was a discrimination analysis, demonstrated here, that automated and quantified the scar tissue maturation process. The achieved scar classification accuracy was as high as 96%. The combination of NLOM and discrimination analysis is believed to be instrumental in gaining insight into the scar formation, for express diagnosis of scar and surgery planning. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Laparoscopic resection and total scar dehiscence repair. A case report.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Sara; Gabriele, Victor; Faller, Emilie; Langer, Bruno; Wattiez, Arnaud; Lecointre, Lise; Akladios, Cherif

    2017-02-04

    Illustrate laparoscopic technique for resection of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, associated with isthmocele repair. Case report SETTING: Tertiary referral centre in Strasbourg, France. The study was approved by the local IRB. Cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. The major risk of this type of pregnancy is the early uterine rupture with massive bleeding and maternal life-threatening. It is therefore crucial to manage actively these pregnancies as soon as they are diagnosed. Therapeutic options can be medical, surgical, or a combination of both. Many case reports or case series are found in the literature, but only few clinical studies, too difficult to carry out because of cases rarity and inconclusiveness. "Systematic review: What is the best first-line approach for cesarean section ectopic pregnancy?" is a meta-analysis that was published in 2016, and includes 194 studies between 1978 and 2014 (126 case reports, 45 cases series and 23 clinical studies). According to this systematic review, hysteroscopy or laparoscopic hysterotomy seems to be the best first-line approach to treat cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Uterine artery embolization seems to be reserved for significant bleeding and/or a high suspicion index for arteriovenous malformation. There is however no consensus on treatment of reference. The case concerns a 38-year-old primiparous women with cesarean section in 2010, who was diagnosed by US scan at 7 WG as cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, confirmed by pelvic MRI. The patient has initially received medical treatment with two intramuscular injections of Methotrexate and one local intra-gestational injection of KCl. Initial rate of HCG was 82000 IU/L. Through a rigorous weekly biological and US scan monitoring, it has been observed an involution of the ectopic pregnancy at ultrasonography associated to HCG decreasing. No bleeding or infectious complications occurred during this period. After 10 weeks of monitoring, because of a

  10. Dependence of light fluence on treated depth with photosensitization reaction shortly after photosensitizer injection in rabbit myocardial tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenari, T.; Matsuo, H.; Ito, A.; Miyoshi, S.; Arai, T.

    2010-02-01

    We investigated experimentally dependence of light fluence on treated depth with photosensitization reaction shortly after photosensitizer injection in rabbit myocardial tissue in vivo. In this particular photosensitization reaction scheme, the photosensitizer accumulation characteristics for target region are not available. Meanwhile, the photosensitizer dose and hospitalization period under restricted light circumstance might be reduced. Since both photosensitizer and oxygen supply are governed by blood flow, this photosensitization reaction is influenced significantly by blood flow variation in particular blood vessel occlusion. We employed the myocardial tissue to keep tissue blood flow during the photosensitization reaction because vessel blood flow speed in myocardial tissue is fast to resist vascular occlusion. Surgically exposed rabbits myocardial tissues were irradiated with the light fluence ranging 25-100 J/cm2 by a 663 nm diode laser 30 min after the injection of 2 mg/kg water soluble chlorin photosensitizer, Talaporfin sodium. Two weeks after the irradiation, the rabbits were sacrificed and the histological specimens of the irradiated area were made to measure scar layer thickness. The scar layer tissue thickness of 0.2-3.0 mm was observed microscopically by the light fluence ranging 25-100 J/cm2. The scarring threshold in the deposit light fluence was estimated to 15-25 J/cm3 based on the above mentioned relation assuming constant and uniform myocardial effective attenuation coefficient of 0.72 mm-1. The estimated scarring threshold in the deposit light fluence was lower than the threshold of conventional PDT. Large variation of the estimated threshold value might be attributed to unconsidered PDT parameter such as flow rate inhomogeneity in the myocardial tissue. These results suggested that the photosensitization reaction investigated in this study would be available to apply arrhythmia therapy such as atrial fibrillation.

  11. Analysis of state of vehicular scars on Arctic Tundra, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathram, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    Identification on ERTS images of severe vehicular scars in the northern Alaska tundra suggests that, if such scars are of an intensity or have spread to a dimension such that they can be resolved by ERTS sensors (20 meters), they can be identified and their state monitored by the use of ERTS images. Field review of the state of vehicular scars in the Umiat area indicates that all are revegetating at varying rates and are approaching a stable state.

  12. Dermal tunneling: a proposed treatment for depressed scars.

    PubMed

    Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Depressed facial scars are still a challenge in medical literature, despite the wide range of proposed treatments. Subcision is a technique that is frequently performed to improve this type of lesions. This article proposes a new method to release depressed scars, reported and named by the author as dermal tunneling. This study presents a simple and didactic manner to perform this method. The results in 17 patients with facial scars were considered promising. Thus, the technique was deemed to be safe and reproducible.

  13. Permanent Ligation of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Mice: A Model of Post-myocardial Infarction Remodelling and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Lox, Marleen; Jacobs, Frank; De Geest, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a syndrome in which the heart fails to pump blood at a rate commensurate with cellular oxygen requirements at rest or during stress. It is characterized by fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue, in particular on exertion. Heart failure is a growing public health problem, the leading cause of hospitalization, and a major cause of mortality. Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of heart failure. Ventricular remodelling refers to changes in structure, size, and shape of the left ventricle. This architectural remodelling of the left ventricle is induced by injury (e.g., myocardial infarction), by pressure overload (e.g., systemic arterial hypertension or aortic stenosis), or by volume overload. Since ventricular remodelling affects wall stress, it has a profound impact on cardiac function and on the development of heart failure. A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is used to investigate ventricular remodelling and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction. This model is fundamentally different in terms of objectives and pathophysiological relevance compared to the model of transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In this latter model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the initial extent of the infarct may be modulated by factors that affect myocardial salvage following reperfusion. In contrast, the infarct area at 24 hr after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is fixed. Cardiac function in this model will be affected by 1) the process of infarct expansion, infarct healing, and scar formation; and 2) the concomitant development of left ventricular dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy, and ventricular remodelling. Besides the model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the technique of invasive hemodynamic measurements in mice is presented in detail. PMID:25489995

  14. Imaging of experimental myocardial infarction with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsberg, R.P.; Milne, N.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.

    1981-03-01

    We have studied the use of Tc-99m-labeled 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid(Tc-99m DMSA) to scintigraph acute myocardial infaction after coronary occlusion in dogs. Optimal images were obtained 5 hr after injection of radiotracer, with consistent delineation 48 hr after occlusion. Delivery of tracer was dependent on blood flow. Uptake of tracer correlated to extent of infarction as determined by the myocardial depletion of creatine kinase. Myocardial Tc-99m DMSA was protein-bound.

  15. Successful treatment of atrophic postoperative and traumatic scarring with carbon dioxide ablative fractional resurfacing: quantitative volumetric scar improvement.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elliot T; Chapas, Anne; Brightman, Lori; Hunzeker, Christopher; Hale, Elizabeth K; Karen, Julie K; Bernstein, Leonard; Geronemus, Roy G

    2010-02-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) for nonacne atrophic scarring. In this before-and-after trial, each scar received 3 AFR treatments and 6 months of follow-up. Private academic practice. Fifteen women with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV, aged 21 to 66 years, presented with 22 nonacne atrophic scars between June 1 and November 30, 2007. Three patients (3 scars) were excluded from the study after receiving 1 AFR treatment and not returning for follow-up visits. The remaining 12 patients (19 scars) completed all 3 treatments and 6 months of follow-up. Each scar received 3 AFR treatments at 1- to 4-month intervals. Erythema, edema, petechiae, scarring, crusting, and dyschromia were graded after treatment and through 6 months of follow-up. Skin texture, pigmentation, atrophy, and overall appearance were evaluated after treatment and through 6 months of follow-up by the patient and a nonblinded investigator. A 3-dimensional optical profiling system generated high-resolution topographic representations of atrophic scars for objective measurement of changes in scar volume and depth. Adverse effects of treatment were mild to moderate, and no scarring or delayed-onset hypopigmentation was observed. At the 6-month follow-up visit, patient and investigator scores demonstrated improvements in skin texture for all scars (patient range, 1-4 [mean, 2.79]; investigator range, 2-4 [mean, 2.95]), pigmentation for all scars (patient range, 1-4 [mean, 2.32]; investigator range, 1-4 [mean, 2.21]), atrophy for all scars (patient range, 1-4 [mean, 2.26]; investigator range, 2-4 [mean, 2.95]), and overall scar appearance for all scars (patient range, 2-4 [mean, 2.89]; investigator range, 2-4 [mean, 3.05]). Image analysis revealed a 38.0% mean reduction of volume and 35.6% mean reduction of maximum scar depth. The AFR treatments represent a safe, effective treatment modality for improving atrophic scarring due to surgery or trauma.

  16. Genetic risk factors for hypertrophic scar development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Callie M; Hocking, Anne M; Honari, Shari; Muffley, Lara A; Ga, Maricar; Gibran, Nicole S

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTSs) occur in 30 to 72% patients after thermal injury. Risk factors include skin color, female sex, young age, burn site, and burn severity. Recent correlations between genetic variations and clinical conditions suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with HTS formation. The authors hypothesized that an SNP in the p27 gene (rs36228499) previously associated with decreased restenosis after coronary stenting would be associated with lower Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) measurements and decreased itching. Patient and injury characteristics were collected from adults with thermal burns. VSS scores were calculated at 4 to 9 months after injury. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for HTS as measured by a VSS score >7. Three hundred subjects had a median age of 39 years (range, 18-91); 69% were male and median burn size was 7% TBSA (range, 0.25-80). Consistent with literature, the p27 variant SNP had an allele frequency of 40%, but was not associated with reduced HTS formation or lower itch scores in any genetic model. HTS formation was associated with American Indian/Alaskan Native race (odds ratio [OR], 12.2; P = .02), facial burns (OR, 9.4; P = .04), and burn size ≥20% TBSA (OR, 1.99; P = .03). Although the p27 SNP may protect against vascular fibroproliferation, the effect cannot be generalized to cutaneous scars. This study suggests that American Indian/Alaskan Native race, facial burns, and higher %TBSA are independent risk factors for HTS. The American Indian/Alaskan Native association suggests that there are potentially yet-to-be-identified genetic variants.

  17. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.

  18. [Cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction : Clinical practice update].

    PubMed

    Ertl, G; Brenner, S; Angermann, C E

    2017-02-01

    Heart failure remains a frequent cause of death and is the leading reason for hospitalization in Germany although therapeutic options have significantly increased over the past years particularly in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Clinical symptoms are usually preceded by cardiac remodeling, which was originally defined only by left ventricular dilatation and depressed function but is also associated with typical cellular and molecular processes. Healing after acute myocardial infarction is characterized by inflammation, cellular migration and scar formation. Cardiac remodeling is accompanied by adaptive changes of the peripheral cardiovascular system. Since prevention is the primary goal, rapid diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction are mandatory. Early reperfusion therapy limits infarct size and enables the best possible preservation of left ventricular function. Standard pharmacotherapy includes angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-1-receptor blockers and beta blockers. In addition, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists have proven beneficial. Compounds specifically targeting infarct healing processes are currently under development.

  19. Positron emission tomography for the assessment of myocardial viability: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    the flow of blood to the heart via coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or through minimally invasive percutaneous coronary interventions (balloon angioplasty and stenting). Both methods, however, are associated with important perioperative risks including mortality, so it is essential to properly select patients for this procedure. Left ventricular dysfunction may be permanent if a myocardial scar is formed, or it may be reversible after revascularization. Reversible LV dysfunction occurs when the myocardium is viable but dysfunctional (reduced contractility). Since only patients with dysfunctional but viable myocardium benefit from revascularization, the identification and quantification of the extent of myocardial viability is an important part of the work-up of patients with heart failure when determining the most appropriate treatment path. Various non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities can be used to assess patients in whom determination of viability is an important clinical issue, specifically: dobutamine echocardiography (echo),stress echo with contrast,SPECT using either technetium or thallium,cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI), andpositron emission tomography (PET). Stress echocardiography can be used to detect viable myocardium. During the infusion of low dose dobutamine (5 - 10 μg/kg/min), an improvement of contractility in hypokinetic and akentic segments is indicative of the presence of viable myocardium. Alternatively, a low-high dose dobutamine protocol can be used in which a biphasic response characterized by improved contractile function during the low-dose infusion followed by a deterioration in contractility due to stress induced ischemia during the high dose dobutamine infusion (dobutamine dose up to 40 ug/kg/min) represents viable tissue. Newer techniques including echocardiography using contrast agents, harmonic imaging, and power doppler imaging may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy of echocardiographic assessment of

  20. Skin wound healing and scarring: fetal wounds and regenerative restitution.

    PubMed

    Yates, Cecelia C; Hebda, Patricia; Wells, Alan

    2012-12-01

    The adverse physiological and psychological effects of scars formation after healing of wounds are broad and a major medical problem for patients. In utero, fetal wounds heal in a regenerative manner, though the mechanisms are unknown. Differences in fetal scarless regeneration and adult repair can provide key insight into reduction of scarring therapy. Understanding the cellular and extracellular matrix alterations in excessive adult scarring in comparison to fetal scarless healing may have important implications. Herein, we propose that matrix can be controlled via cellular therapy to resemble a fetal-like matrix that will result in reduced scarring. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Acne scarring: a review and current treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Albert E

    2008-10-01

    Acne is a prevalent condition in society and often results in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Of course, prevention is the optimal method to avoid having to correct the physically or emotionally troublesome scars. However, even with the best efforts, scars will certainly arise. This article attempts to give a broad overview of multiple management options, whether medically, surgically, or procedurally based. The hope is that a general knowledge of the current available alternatives will be of value to the physician when confronted with the difficult task of developing a treatment plan for acne-scarred individuals, even in challenging cases.

  2. NEW MOLECULAR MEDICINE-BASED SCAR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent disabling conditions with still suboptimal treatments. Basic science and molecular-based medicine research has contributed to unravel new bench-to-bedside scar therapies, and to dissect the complex signaling pathways involved. Peptides such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, with SMADs, Ski, SnoN, Fussels, endoglin, DS-Sily, Cav-1p, AZX100, thymosin-β4 and other related molecules may emerge as targets to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. The aim of this review is to describe the basic complexity of these new molecular scar management strategies, and point out new fibrosis research lines. PMID:24438742

  3. Skin Wound Healing and Scarring: Fetal Wounds and Regenerative Restitution

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Cecelia C.; Hebda, Patricia; Wells, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The adverse physiological and psychological effects of scars formation after healing of wounds are broad and a major medical problem for patients. In utero, fetal wounds heal in a regenerative manner, though the mechanisms are unknown. Differences in fetal scarless regeneration and adult repair can provide key insight into reduction of scarring therapy. Understanding the cellular and extracellular matrix alterations in excessive adult scarring in comparison to fetal scarless healing may have important implications. Herein, we propose that matrix can be controlled via cellular therapy to resemble a fetal-like matrix that will result in reduced scarring. PMID:24203921

  4. Intralesional Cryotherapy for the Treatment of Keloid Scars: Evaluating Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bulstra, Anne Eva J.; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Ritt, Marco J. P. F.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Niessen, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intralesional (IL) cryotherapy is a novel treatment technique for keloid scars, in which the scar is frozen from inside. Over the past decade, several studies have been published with varying outcomes. A critical analysis of the current literature is, therefore, warranted to determine whether IL cryotherapy is an alternative to established keloid scar treatments. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception. Studies and level of recommendation were graded according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons criteria. Results: Eight studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The average scar volume decrease ranged from 51% to 63%, but no complete scar eradication was achieved on average. Scar recurrence ranged from 0% to 24%. Hypopigmentation posttreatment was seen mostly in Fitzpatrick 4–6 skin type patients. Finally, complaints of pain and pruritus decreased significantly in most studies. Conclusions: IL cryotherapy for the treatment of keloid scars shows favorable results in terms of volume reduction and alleviated complaints of pain and pruritus. However, no complete scar eradication is established, and recurrences are seen. Also, persistent hypopigmentation proved a problem in Fitzpatrick 4–6 skin type patients. Summarized, the evidence proved limited and inconsistent resulting in an American Society of Plastic Surgeons grade C recommendation for this type of treatment of keloid scars. PMID:26180738

  5. Quantitative analysis of a scar's pliability, perfusion and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Mariacarla; Sevilla, Nicole; Chue-Sang, Joseph; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2017-02-01

    The primary effect of scarring is the loss of function in the affected area. Scarring also leads to physical and psychological problems that could be devastating to the patient's life. Currently, scar assessment is highly subjective and physician dependent. The examination relies on the expertise of the physician to determine the characteristics of the scar by touch and visual examination using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS), which categorizes scars depending on pigmentation, pliability, height and vascularity. In order to establish diagnostic guidelines for scar formation, a quantitative, accurate assessment method needs to be developed. An instrument capable of measuring all categories was developed; three of the aforementioned parameters will be explored. In order to look at pliability, a durometer which measures the amount of resistance a surface exerts to prevent the permanent indentation of the surface is used due to its simplicity and quantitative output. To look at height and vascularity, a profilometry system that collects the location of the scar in three-dimensions and laser speckle imaging (LSI), which shows the dynamic changes in perfusion, respectively, are used. Gelatin phantoms were utilized to measure pliability. Finally, dynamic changes in skin perfusion of volunteers' forearms undergoing pressure cuff occlusion were measured, along with incisional scars.

  6. Scarred resonances and steady probability distribution in a chaotic microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soo-Young; Rim, Sunghwan; Kim, Chil-Min; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kwon, Tae-Yoon

    2005-12-15

    We investigate scarred resonances of a stadium-shaped chaotic microcavity. It is shown that two components with different chirality of the scarring pattern are slightly rotated in opposite ways from the underlying unstable periodic orbit, when the incident angles of the scarring pattern are close to the critical angle for total internal reflection. In addition, the correspondence of emission pattern with the scarring pattern disappears when the incident angles are much larger than the critical angle. The steady probability distribution gives a consistent explanation about these interesting phenomena and makes it possible to expect the emission pattern in the latter case.

  7. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  8. [Effects of scar excision combined with negative-pressure on repair of hypertrophic scar in burn children].

    PubMed

    Cai, J H; Deng, H P; Shen, Z A; Sun, T J; Li, D J; Li, D W; He, L X; Wang, L; Jin, X

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To explore the effects of scar excision combined with negative-pressure on repair of hypertrophic scar in burn children. Methods: From October 2010 to August 2016, 25 children with hypertrophic scar after deep burn were hospitalized, with scar course ranging from 3 months to 11 years and scar area ranging from 35 to 427 [83(51, 98)]cm(2). A total of 35 scars of 25 children were located in trunk (11 scars), upper limb (11 scars), and lower limb (13 scars). All children received scar excision operation and negative-pressure treatment (negative-pressure value ranged from -40 to -20 kPa), among which 6 cases received scar excision operation and negative-pressure treatment for two times for further removal of scars. After scar excision, electronic spring scale was used to measure the tension of the incision. The tension value of children ranged from 3.43 to 23.84 [7.16 (5.59, 9.12)] N, and then the incision was closed with appropriate suture according to the value of the tension. The incision with smaller tension was firstly opened on post operation day (POD) 8. After removing the suture, negative-pressure was conducted to POD 14. The incision with larger tension was firstly opened on POD 12. After removing the suture, biological semi-membrane was used to reduce tension to POD 16. All healed incisions were performed with anti-scar treatment for 1 year and relaxation and fixation for 3 months. General condition of the incision was observed after operation. The reduction percentage of scar area was calculated half-year after operation. The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale was used to record the overall score of scar and scar score of trunk, upper limb, and lower limb before operation and half-year after operation. Data were processed with paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: After removing the suture, all incisions of children healed well without redness, effusion, and rupture. Half-year after operation, the appearance and deformity of

  9. Efficacy and Safety of a Novel 100% Silicone Scar Gel Treatment for Early Intervention in Scar Management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new topical silicone gel for the early intervention in the management of scars. Design: In this 12-week, observational study, healthy subjects (n=15) with an accessible linear or hypertrophic scar were given the test product and instructed to apply twice daily. Subjects returned 14, 28, 56, and 84 days later for evaluation and recording of adverse events. Setting: Private practice of the author. Participants: Eligible subjects had a scar with a Vancouver Scar Scale total score ≥3 at baseline. Measurements: Improvement was evaluated by the Vancouver Scar Scale and Observer Scar Assessment Scale at baseline and at four follow-up visits. Results: The median total Vancouver Scar Scale score and median total Observer Scar Assessment Scale score decreased significantly from baseline at each visit, showing rapid and continuing improvement in the appearance of the scars. For Vancouver Scar Scale, significant differences of individual parameters from baseline began at 28 days for pliability and height, 56 days for vascularity, and 84 days for pigmentation. For Observer Scar Assessment Scale parameters, significant differences from baseline began at 14 days and continued until 84 days for vascularization, thickness, and pigmentation. Pain and pruritis scores were low at each visit. Overall, 84.6 percent of subjects rated the treatment as excellent, very good, or good after three months of treatment. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: The test product improved the appearance of scars after three months of twice-daily treatment and without adverse events. PMID:28210394

  10. The GSK-3 family as therapeutic target for myocardial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Hind; Ahmad, Firdos; Woodgett, James; Force, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    GSK-3 is one of the very few signaling molecules that regulate a truly astonishing number of critical intracellular signaling pathways. It has been implicated in a number of diseases including heart failure, bipolar disorder, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, aging, inflammation and cancer. Furthermore, a recent clinical trial has validated the feasibility of targeting GSK-3 with small molecule inhibitors for human diseases. In the current review we will focus on its expanding role in the heart, concentrating primarily on recent studies that have employed cardiomyocyte- and fibroblast-specific conditional gene deletion in mouse models. We will highlight the role of the GSK-3 isoforms in various pathological conditions including myocardial aging, ischemic injury, myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte proliferation. We will discuss our recent findings that deletion of GSK-3α specifically in cardiomyocytes attenuates ventricular remodeling and cardiac dysfunction post-MI by limiting scar expansion and promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation. The recent emergence of GSK-3β as a regulator of myocardial fibrosis will also be discussed. We will review our very recent findings that specific deletion of GSK-3β in cardiac fibroblasts leads to fibrogenesis, left ventricular dysfunction and excessive scarring in the ischemic heart. Finally, we will examine the underlying mechanisms that drive the aberrant myocardial fibrosis in the models in which GSK-3β is specifically deleted in cardiac fibroblasts. We will summarize these recent results and offer explanations, whenever possible, and hypotheses when not. For these studies we will rely heavily on our models and those of others to reconcile some of the apparent inconsistencies in the literature. PMID:25552693

  11. Periodontitis and myocardial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-01

    There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.

  12. Semiclassical quantization of highly excited scar states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergini, Eduardo G.

    2017-04-01

    The semiclassical quantization of Hamiltonian systems with classically chaotic dynamics is restricted to low excited states, close to the ground state, because the number of required periodic orbits grows exponentially with energy. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate that it is possible to find eigenenergies of highly excited states scarred by a short periodic orbit. Specifically, by using 18146 homoclinic orbits (HO)s of the shortest periodic orbit of the hyperbola billiard, we find eigenenergies of the strongest scars over a range which includes 630 even eigenfunctions. The analysis of data reveals that the used semiclassical formula presents two regimes. First, when all HOs with excursion time smaller than the Heisenberg time t H are included, the error is around 3.3% of the mean level spacing. Second, in the energy region defined by \\tilde{t}/ tH > 0.13 , where \\tilde{t} is the maximum excursion time included in the calculation, the error is around 15% of the mean level spacing.

  13. Cesarean Scar Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Natalia; Tulandi, Togas

    A relatively new type of ectopic pregnancy is cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). This is related to the increasing number of cesarean deliveries and the advances in imaging. There are 2 types of CSP: CSP with progression to the cervicoisthmic space or uterine cavity (type I, endogenic type) or with deep invasion of scar defect with progression toward the bladder and abdominal cavity (type II, exogenic type). The endogenic type of CSP could result in a viable pregnancy, yet with a high risk of bleeding at the placental site. The exogenic type could be complicated with uterine rupture and bleeding early in pregnancy. Because early diagnosis and treatment are important for the best outcome, every pregnant woman with a history of cesarean delivery should be screened early in the first trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosis can be achieved with ultrasound and Doppler imaging. To date, there have been only 5 randomized studies on CSP, and evidence-based management remains unclear. Until then, treatment should be individualized according to many factors including clinical presentation, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, imaging features, and the surgeon's skill. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lesion quantification and detection in myocardial (18)F-FDG PET using edge-preserving priors and anatomical information from CT and MRI: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Turco, Anna; Nuyts, Johan; Gheysens, Olivier; Duchenne, Jürgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Claus, Piet; Vunckx, Kathleen

    2016-12-01

    The limited spatial resolution of the clinical PET scanners results in image blurring and does not allow for accurate quantification of very thin or small structures (known as partial volume effect). In cardiac imaging, clinically relevant questions, e.g. to accurately define the extent or the residual metabolic activity of scarred myocardial tissue, could benefit from partial volume correction (PVC) techniques. The use of high-resolution anatomical information for improved reconstruction of the PET datasets has been successfully applied in other anatomical regions. However, several concerns linked to the use of any kind of anatomical information for PVC on cardiac datasets arise. The moving nature of the heart, coupled with the possibly non-simultaneous acquisition of the anatomical and the activity datasets, is likely to introduce discrepancies between the PET and the anatomical image, that in turn might mislead lesion quantification and detection. Non-anatomical (edge-preserving) priors could represent a viable alternative for PVC in this case. In this work, we investigate and compare the regularizing effect of different anatomical and non-anatomical priors applied during maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) reconstruction of cardiac PET datasets. The focus of this paper is on accurate quantification and lesion detection in myocardial (18)F-FDG PET. Simulated datasets, obtained with the XCAT software, are reconstructed with different algorithms and are quantitatively analysed. The results of this simulation study show a superiority of the anatomical prior when an ideal, perfectly matching anatomy is used. The anatomical information must clearly differentiate between normal and scarred myocardial tissue for the PVC to be successful. In case of mismatched or missing anatomical information, the quality of the anatomy-based MAP reconstructions decreases, affecting both overall image quality and lesion quantification. The edge-preserving priors produce reconstructions with

  15. Functional and mechanistic investigation of Shikonin in scarring.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Fan, Chen; Dong, Ying; Lynam, Emily; Leavesley, David I; Li, Kun; Su, Yonghua; Yang, Yinxue; Upton, Zee

    2015-02-25

    Scarring is a significant medical burden; financially to the health care system and physically and psychologically for patients. Importantly, there have been numerous case reports describing the occurrence of cancer in burn scars. Currently available therapies are not satisfactory due to their undesirable side-effects, complex delivery routes, requirements for long-term use and/or expense. Radix Arnebiae (Zi Cao), a perennial herb, has been clinically applied to treat burns and manage scars for thousands of years in Asia. Shikonin, an active component extracted from Radix Arnebiae, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Apoptosis is an essential process during scar tissue remodelling. It was therefore hypothesized that Shikonin may induce apoptosis in scar-associated cells. This investigation presents the first detailed in vitro study examining the functional responses of scar-associated cells to Shikonin, and investigates the mechanisms underlying these responses. The data obtained suggests that Shikonin inhibits cell viability and proliferation and reduces detectable collagen in scar-derived fibroblasts. Further investigation revealed that Shikonin induces apoptosis in scar fibroblasts by differentially regulating the expression of caspase 3, Bcl-2, phospho-Erk1/2 and phospho-p38. In addition, Shikonin down-regulates the expression of collagen I, collagen III and alpha-smooth muscle actin genes hence attenuating collagen synthesis in scar-derived fibroblasts. In summary, it is demonstrated that Shikonin induces apoptosis and decreases collagen production in scar-associated fibroblasts and may therefore hold potential as a novel scar remediation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of scars: updated practical guidelines and use of silicones.

    PubMed

    Meaume, Sylvie; Le Pillouer-Prost, Anne; Richert, Bertrand; Roseeuw, Diane; Vadoud, Javid

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids resulting from surgery, burns, trauma and infection can be associated with substantial physical and psychological distress. Various non-invasive and invasive options are currently available for the prevention and treatment of these scars. Recently, an international multidisciplinary group of 24 experts on scar management (dermatologists; plastic and reconstructive surgeons; general surgeons; physical medicine, rehabilitation and burns specialists; psychosocial and behavioural researchers; epidemiologists; beauticians) convened to update a set of practical guidelines for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars on the basis of the latest published clinical evidence on existing scar management options. Silicone-based products such as sheets and gels are recommended as the gold standard, first-line, non-invasive option for both the prevention and treatment of scars. Other general scar preventative measures include avoiding sun exposure, compression therapy, taping and the use of moisturisers. Invasive treatment options include intralesional injections of corticosteroids and/or 5-fluorouracil, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, laser therapy and surgical excision. All of these options may be used alone or as part of combination therapy. Of utmost importance is the regular re-evaluation of patients every four to eight weeks to evaluate whether additional treatment is warranted. The amount of scar management measures that are applied to each wound depends on the patient's risk of developing a scar and their level of concern about the scar's appearance. The practical advice presented in the current guidelines should be combined with clinical judgement when deciding on the most appropriate scar management measures for an individual patient.

  17. Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Akaishi, Satoshi; Koike, Sachiko; Dohi, Teruyuki; Kobe, Kyoko; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Pathological cutaneous scars such as keloids and hypertrophic scars (HSs) are characterized by a diffuse redness that is caused by the overgrowth of capillary vessels due to chronic inflammation. Our group has been using long-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser in noncontact mode with low fluence and a submillisecond pulse duration to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars since 2006 with satisfactory results. The present study examined the efficacy of this approach in 22 Japanese patients with keloids (n = 16) or hypertrophic scars (n = 6) who were treated every 3 to 4 weeks. Treatment settings were as follows: 5 mm spot size diameter; 14 J/cm2 energy density; 300 μs exposure time per pulse; and 10 Hz repetition rate. The responses of the pathological scars to the treatment were assessed by measuring their erythema, hypertrophy, hardness, itching, and pain or tenderness. Moreover, skin samples from 3 volunteer patients were subjected to histological evaluation and 5 patients underwent thermography during therapy. The average total scar assessment score dropped from 9.86 to 6.34. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Elastica Masson-Goldner staining showed that laser treatment structurally changed the tissue collagen. This influence reached a depth of 0.5 to 1 mm. Electron microscopy revealed plasma protein leakage, proteoglycan particles, and a change in the collagen fiber fascicles. Further analyses revealed that noncontact mode Nd:YAG laser treatment is highly effective for keloids and hypertrophic scars regardless of patient age, the origin and multiplicity of scarring, the location of the scar(s), or the tension on the scar. PMID:22259645

  18. Reliable scar scoring system to assess photographs of burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Mecott, Gabriel A.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Branski, Ludwik K.; Hegde, Sachin; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N.; Maldonado, Susana A.; Rivero, Haidy G.; Rodriguez-Escobar, Noe; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several scar-scoring scales exist to clinically monitor burn scar development and maturation. Although scoring scars through direct clinical examination is ideal, scars must sometimes be scored from photographs. No scar scale currently exists for the latter purpose. Materials and methods We modified a previously described scar scale (Yeong et al., J Burn Care Rehabil 1997) and tested the reliability of this new scale in assessing burn scars from photographs. The new scale consisted of three parameters: scar height, surface appearance, and color mismatch. Each parameter was assigned a score of 1 (best) to 4 (worst), generating a total score of 3 to 12. Five physicians with burns training scored 120 representative photographs using the original and modified scales. Reliability was analyzed using coefficient of agreement, Cronbach’s alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, variance, and coefficient of variance. Analysis of variance was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Color mismatch and scar height scores were validated by analyzing actual height and color differences. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient, the coefficient of agreement, and Cronbach’s alpha were higher for the modified scale than the original scale. The original scale produced more variance than the modified scale. Sub-analysis demonstrated that, for all categories, the modified scale had greater correlation and reliability than the original scale. The correlation between color mismatch scores and actual color differences was 0.84 and between scar height scores and actual height was 0.81. Conclusions The modified scar scale is a simple, reliable, and useful scale for evaluating photographs of burn patients. PMID:26092214

  19. Reliable scar scoring system to assess photographs of burn patients.

    PubMed

    Mecott, Gabriel A; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Branski, Ludwik K; Hegde, Sachin; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Maldonado, Susana A; Rivero, Haidy G; Rodriguez-Escobar, Noe; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Several scar-scoring scales exist to clinically monitor burn scar development and maturation. Although scoring scars through direct clinical examination is ideal, scars must sometimes be scored from photographs. No scar scale currently exists for the latter purpose. We modified a previously described scar scale (Yeong et al., J Burn Care Rehabil 1997) and tested the reliability of this new scale in assessing burn scars from photographs. The new scale consisted of three parameters as follows: scar height, surface appearance, and color mismatch. Each parameter was assigned a score of 1 (best) to 4 (worst), generating a total score of 3-12. Five physicians with burns training scored 120 representative photographs using the original and modified scales. Reliability was analyzed using coefficient of agreement, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, variance, and coefficient of variance. Analysis of variance was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Color mismatch and scar height scores were validated by analyzing actual height and color differences. The intraclass correlation coefficient, the coefficient of agreement, and Cronbach alpha were higher for the modified scale than those of the original scale. The original scale produced more variance than that in the modified scale. Subanalysis demonstrated that, for all categories, the modified scale had greater correlation and reliability than the original scale. The correlation between color mismatch scores and actual color differences was 0.84 and between scar height scores and actual height was 0.81. The modified scar scale is a simple, reliable, and useful scale for evaluating photographs of burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intramyocardial Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Seeded Hydrogel Preserves Cardiac Function and Attenuates Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Eva; Lamirault, Guillaume; Toquet, Claire; Lhommet, Pierre; Rederstorff, Emilie; Sourice, Sophie; Biteau, Kevin; Hulin, Philippe; Forest, Virginie; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background To improve the efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy targeted to infarcted myocardium, we investigated whether a self-setting silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel seeded with MSC (MSC+hydrogel) could preserve cardiac function and attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling during an 8-week follow-up study in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Methodology/Principal Finding Si-HPMC hydrogel alone, MSC alone or MSC+hydrogel were injected into the myocardium immediately after coronary artery ligation in female Lewis rats. Animals in the MSC+hydrogel group showed an increase in cardiac function up to 28 days after MI and a mid-term prevention of cardiac function alteration at day 56. Histological analyses indicated that the injection of MSC+hydrogel induced a decrease in MI size and an increase in scar thickness and ultimately limited the transmural extent of MI. These findings show that intramyocardial injection of MSC+hydrogel induced short-term recovery of ventricular function and mid-term attenuation of remodeling after MI. Conclusion/Significance These beneficial effects may be related to the specific scaffolding properties of the Si-HPMC hydrogel that may provide the ability to support MSC injection and engraftment within myocardium. PMID:23284842

  1. Intramyocardial delivery of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded hydrogel preserves cardiac function and attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Eva; Lamirault, Guillaume; Toquet, Claire; Lhommet, Pierre; Rederstorff, Emilie; Sourice, Sophie; Biteau, Kevin; Hulin, Philippe; Forest, Virginie; Weiss, Pierre; Guicheux, Jérôme; Lemarchand, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy targeted to infarcted myocardium, we investigated whether a self-setting silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel seeded with MSC (MSC+hydrogel) could preserve cardiac function and attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling during an 8-week follow-up study in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Si-HPMC hydrogel alone, MSC alone or MSC+hydrogel were injected into the myocardium immediately after coronary artery ligation in female Lewis rats. Animals in the MSC+hydrogel group showed an increase in cardiac function up to 28 days after MI and a mid-term prevention of cardiac function alteration at day 56. Histological analyses indicated that the injection of MSC+hydrogel induced a decrease in MI size and an increase in scar thickness and ultimately limited the transmural extent of MI. These findings show that intramyocardial injection of MSC+hydrogel induced short-term recovery of ventricular function and mid-term attenuation of remodeling after MI. These beneficial effects may be related to the specific scaffolding properties of the Si-HPMC hydrogel that may provide the ability to support MSC injection and engraftment within myocardium.

  2. Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis resolves spontaneously if dense scars are not formed

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Diel, J.H.; Slauson, D.O.; Halliwell, W.H.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    The relation of static compliance of excised lungs to collagen accumulation and histologic fibrosis was examined in Syrian hamsters inhaling sufficient /sup 238/PuO2 particles to achieve initial lung burdens of 50 or 100 nCi. Control animals were exposed to nonradioactive aerosols. Irradiated lungs from hamsters at both dose levels had compliance reduced to the same extent at point of maximal reduction. However, collagen accumulation was more closely related to /sup 238/Pu exposure level than the compliance measurements. Histologic examination revealed both diffuse alveolar thickening and some dense fibrous scars, the former predominating at lower dose levels. Hamsters exposed to 50 nCi /sup 238/PuO2 showed normal collagen content and static lung compliance with minimal histologic fibrosis 288 days after exposure. In contrast, hamsters exposed to 100 nCi had significant pulmonary fibrosis at that time and the highest incidence of dense scars at any time period. Such findings are consistent with a stiffening of lung parenchyma. They suggest that the diffuse interstitial fibrosis developed by this injury resolves spontaneously; dense fibrous scars, however, do not.

  3. Infarct tissue characteristics of patients with versus without early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction: a contrast-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Olimulder, M A G M; Kraaier, K; Galjee, M A; Scholten, M F; van Es, J; Wagenaar, L J; van der Palen, J; von Birgelen, C

    2012-05-01

    Histopathological studies have suggested that early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) limits the size, transmural extent, and homogeneity of myocardial necrosis. However, the long-term effect of early revascularization on infarct tissue characteristics is largely unknown. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with contrast enhancement (CE) allows non-invasive examination of infarct tissue characteristics and left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function in one examination. A total of 69 patients, referred for cardiac evaluation for various clinical reasons, were examined with CE-CMR >1 month (median 6, range 1-213) post-acute MI. We compared patients with (n = 33) versus without (n = 36) successful early revascularization for acute MI. Cine-CMR measurements included the LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (ESV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF, %), and wall motion score index (WMSI). CE images were analyzed for core, peri, and total infarct size (%), and for the number of transmural segments. In our population, patients with successful early revascularization had better LVEFs (46 ± 16 vs. 34 ± 14%; P < 0.01), superior WMSIs (0.53, range 0.00-2.29 vs. 1.42, range 0.00-2.59; P < 0.01), and smaller ESVs (121 ± 70 vs. 166 ± 82; P = 0.02). However, there was no difference in core (9 ± 6 vs. 11 ± 6%), peri (9 ± 4 vs. 10 ± 4%), and total infarct size (18 ± 9 vs. 21 ± 9%; P > 0.05 for all comparisons); only transmural extent (P = 0.07) and infarct age (P = 0.06) tended to be larger in patients without early revascularization. CMR wall motion abnormalities are significantly better after revascularization; these differences are particularly marked later after infarction. The difference in scar size is more subtle and does not reach significance in this study.

  4. Rest perfusion abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: correlation with myocardial fibrosis and risk factors for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Chiribiri, A; Leuzzi, S; Conte, M R; Bongioanni, S; Bratis, K; Olivotti, L; De Rosa, C; Lardone, E; Di Donna, P; Villa, A D M; Cesarani, F; Nagel, E; Gaita, F; Bonamini, R

    2015-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of abnormal rest perfusion in a population of consecutive patients with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) referred for cardiovascular MRI (CMR), and to assess any associations between abnormal rest perfusion and the presence, pattern, and severity of myocardial scar and the presence of risk factors for sudden death. Eighty consecutive patients with known HCM referred for CMR underwent functional imaging, rest first-pass perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Thirty percent of the patients had abnormal rest perfusion, all of them corresponding to areas of mid-myocardial LGE and to a higher degree of segmental hypertrophy. Rest perfusion abnormalities correlated with more extensive and confluent LGE. The subgroup of patients with myocardial fibrosis and rest perfusion abnormalities (fibrosis+/perfusion+) had more than twice the incidence of episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring in comparison to patients with myocardial fibrosis and normal rest perfusion (fibrosis+/perfusion-) and patients with no fibrosis and normal rest perfusion (fibrosis-/perfusion-). First-pass perfusion CMR identifies abnormal rest perfusion in a significant proportion of patients with HCM. These abnormalities are associated with the presence and distribution of myocardial scar and the degree of hypertrophy. Rest perfusion abnormalities identify patients with increased incidence of episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring, independently from the presence of myocardial fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Myocardial Architecture, Mechanics, and Fibrosis in Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghonim, Sarah; Voges, Inga; Gatehouse, Peter D.; Keegan, Jennifer; Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Kilner, Philip J.; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V.

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common category of birth defect, affecting 1% of the population and requiring cardiovascular surgery in the first months of life in many patients. Due to advances in congenital cardiovascular surgery and patient management, most children with CHD now survive into adulthood. However, residual and postoperative defects are common resulting in abnormal hemodynamics, which may interact further with scar formation related to surgical procedures. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become an important diagnostic imaging modality in the long-term management of CHD patients. It is the gold standard technique to assess ventricular volumes and systolic function. Besides this, advanced CMR techniques allow the acquisition of more detailed information about myocardial architecture, ventricular mechanics, and fibrosis. The left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle have unique myocardial architecture that underpins their mechanics; however, this becomes disorganized under conditions of volume and pressure overload. CMR diffusion tensor imaging is able to interrogate non-invasively the principal alignments of microstructures in the left ventricular wall. Myocardial tissue tagging (displacement encoding using stimulated echoes) and feature tracking are CMR techniques that can be used to examine the deformation and strain of the myocardium in CHD, whereas 3D feature tracking can assess the twisting motion of the LV chamber. Late gadolinium enhancement imaging and more recently T1 mapping can help in detecting fibrotic myocardial changes and evolve our understanding of the pathophysiology of CHD patients. This review not only gives an overview about available or emerging CMR techniques for assessing myocardial mechanics and fibrosis but it also describes their clinical value and how they can be used to detect abnormalities in myocardial architecture and mechanics in CHD patients. PMID:28589126

  6. What is the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring following burns?

    PubMed

    Bombaro, Kristine M; Engrav, Loren H; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Wiechman, Shelly A; Faucher, Lee; Costa, Beth A; Heimbach, David M; Rivara, Frederick P; Honari, Shari

    2003-06-01

    Hypertrophic scarring after burns remains a major problem and is considered to be "common". Pressure garments are commonly used as treatment even though there is little sound data that they reduce the prevalence or magnitude of the scarring. In 1999 we began a study of the efficacy of pressure garments on forearm burns. After studying 30 patients, mainly white adults, we found no hypertrophic scar in either those treated with pressure or without. This prompted us to review the literature on the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring after burns and found only four articles with a relatively small number of patients and only three geographical locations. It became clear that the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring is really unknown. We then did a retrospective study of 110 burn survivors and counted all hypertrophic scars of all sizes and locations in all races and found the prevalence hypertrophic scarring to be 67% which conflicts with the published reports and our prospective study and suggests that further research is necessary. We concluded that a worldwide, prospective survey is necessary to establish the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring after burns. In this article we are calling for and offering to organize this survey.

  7. Treatment of symptomatic abnormal skin scars with electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Perry, D; Colthurst, J; Giddings, P; McGrouther, D A; Morris, J; Bayat, A

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of non-invasive biofeedback electrical stimulation on symptomatic abnormal skin scars. Thirty patients with over 140 scars with long-term pain and itch were recruited into the study. Patients monitored the intensity of symptoms (pain and itching) on a numerical rating scale. In addition, a modified Manchester scar scale was used to objectively assess digital photographs of each scar in terms of colour, contour, distortion and texture, while a non-invasive spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis was used to monitor the scars' physical characteristics. The electrical stimulation device resulted in a clinically and statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of symptoms and scar scores. Pain and itch scores were both reduced to a median score of 0 by 2 months, from a baseline of 7 and 6 respectively. Scar scores were reduced from a baseline of 14 to a median score of 11 by 2 months. These results give a preliminary indication of the potential role of non-invasive biofeedback electrical stimulation in the management of chronic scar pain and itch. However, further large scale controlled studies are warranted to elucidate its overall efficacy and mechanistic action. Funding was provided from Fenzian Ltd for this study.

  8. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla P; Melo, Cristina; Alexandrino, Ana M; Noites, Andreia

    2013-06-01

    Physiotherapy has a very important role in the maintenance of the integumentary system integrity. There is very few evidence in humans. Nevertheless, there are some studies about tissue regeneration using low-level laser therapy (LLLT). To analyze the effectiveness of LLLT on scar tissue. Seventeen volunteers were stratified by age of their scars, and then randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) - n = 9 - and a placebo group (PG) - n = 8. Fifteen sessions were conducted to both the groups thrice a week. However, in the PG, the laser device was switched off. Scars' thickness, length, width, macroscopic aspect, pain threshold, pain perception, and itching were measured. After 5 weeks, there were no statistically significant differences in any variable between both the groups. However, analyzing independently each group, EG showed a significant improvement in macroscopic aspect (p = 0.003) using LLLT. Taking into account the scars' age, LLLT showed a tendency to decrease older scars' thickness in EG. The intervention with LLLT appears to have a positive effect on the macroscopic scars' appearance, and on old scars' thickness, in the studied sample. However, it cannot be said for sure that LLLT has influence on scar tissue.

  9. External charring and fire scarring in three western conifers

    Treesearch

    E. K. Sutherland; Josh Farella; David K Wright; Ian Hyp; K. T. Smith; Donald A. Falk; Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel

    2013-01-01

    Fires that injure but do not kill trees cause scars used as proxies for the reconstruction of wildfire history. Understanding about these wildfires - and their relationship to vegetation dynamics and climate - has profoundly affected wildfire and land management policy globally. To better understand scarring in the context of wildfire behavior, landscape and biological...

  10. The distribution and implications of BCG scars in northern Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Fine, P. E.; Ponnighaus, J. M.; Maine, N.

    1989-01-01

    Reported are data on the BCG scar status of more than 112,000 individuals who were surveyed in Karonga District, northern Malawi, between 1979 and 1984. The age and sex patterns of apparent BCG scars reflect the history of BCG vaccination activities in the district. Repeated independent examinations of large numbers of people revealed that the proportions remaining with the same observed scar status among those initially classified as being scar "positive" or scar "negative" were each approximately 90%. The repeatability of positive scar reading was lower among children and older adults than among young adults aged 15-24 years, and blind follow-up of children known to have been vaccinated as infants in child health clinics indicated that less than 60% had a detectable scar 3 years after receiving the vaccine. "Negative" repeatability increased consistently with age. The implications of these findings for estimating BCG vaccine uptake and for assessing its efficacy in case-control and cohort studies are discussed. The finding that BCG scars may be difficult to read suggests there is a danger of observer bias that could lead to distortion--in particular, to overestimates of vaccine efficacy. PMID:2706726

  11. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Treatment of Acne Scars.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Andrej; Pljakovska, Vesna

    2016-03-15

    Scars appear as a result of skin damage during the process of the skin healing. There are two types of acne scars, depending on whether there is a loss or accumulation of collagen: atrophic and hypertrophic. In 80-90% it comes to scars with loss of collagen compared to smaller number of hypertrophic scars and keloids. The aim of the study was to determine efficiency and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of acne scars. The study was carried out in Acibadem Sistina Clinical Hospital, Skopje at the Department of Dermatovenerology, with a total of 40 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser (Lutronic eCO2). The study included patients with residual acne scars of a different type. Comedogenic and papular acne in our material were proportionately presented in 50% of cases, while the other half were the more severe clinical forms of acne - pustular inflammatory acne and nodulocystic acne that leave residual lesions in the form of second, third and fourth grade of scars. The experiences of our work confirm the world experiences that the best result with this method is achieved in dotted ice pick or V-shaped acne scars.

  12. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4, Wound Healing, Scarring, and Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Michael S; Longaker, Michael T

    2016-11-01

    Scarring and fibrosis are an enormous public health concern, resulting in excessive morbidity and mortality in addition to countless lost health care dollars. Recent advances in cell and developmental biology promise a better understanding of scarring and fibrosis and may translate to new clinical therapies.

  13. Scar-modulating treatments for central nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dingding; Wang, Xiaodong; Gu, Xiaosong

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic injury to the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) leads to complex cellular responses. Among them, the scar tissue formed is generally recognized as a major obstacle to CNS repair, both by the production of inhibitory molecules and by the physical impedance of axon regrowth. Therefore, scar-modulating treatments have become a leading therapeutic intervention for CNS injury. To date, a variety of biological and pharmaceutical treatments, targeting scar modulation, have been tested in animal models of CNS injury, and a few are likely to enter clinical trials. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the scar-modulating treatments according to their specific aims: (1) inhibition of glial and fibrotic scar formation, and (2) blockade of the production of scar-associated inhibitory molecules. The removal of existing scar tissue is also discussed as a treatment of choice. It is believed that only a combinatorial strategy is likely to help eliminate the detrimental effects of scar tissue on CNS repair.

  14. Artificial hair fiber restoration in the treatment of scalp scars.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Mariangela; Pérez-Rangel, Roberto; D'Ugo, Angelo; Griselli, Giampiero; Igitian, Garigin; Martin, Ildefonso Garcia; Nesheim, Geir B; Eddin, Usama Saad; Smith, Geoff; Brady, Gerard W; Chaker, Cherine

    2007-01-01

    There is presently no treatment for scalp scars that is fully satisfactory. The modalities of treatment currently in use are surgery, hair transplantation, and micropigmentation. Scalp implantation with artificial hair fibers is used by some physicians as an adjunctive treatment. The objective was to assess the utility of artificial hair fibers to treat scalp scars. Data were collected by the principal author from 10 hair restoration practitioners who tested polyamide hair fiber (Biofibre CE 0373/TGA by Medicap Ltd., Carpi (MO), Italy) implantation for scalp scars. Artificial hair fiber implantation occurred between June 1996 and December 2000, and observations continued until December 2004. Data from 54 scars from 44 patients treated showed: (1) no complications in 49 scars (90.7%); (2) mild adverse outcomes in 4 scars (7.4%)-temporary superficial inflammation-infection that subsided following topical cortisone and local/systemic antibiotic treatment; and (3) moderately adverse outcomes in 1 scar (1.9%)-significant inflammation and generalized infection requiring removal of artificial implant to alleviate. Occasional minor skin reactions, sebum plugs, and hyperseborrhea were successfully controlled and well accepted by patients. Fiber fall rate was 20% on average per annum. Data show that polyamide hair fiber restoration can be considered an adjunctive treatment for scalp scars in selected cases.

  15. Cosmetic evaluation of surgical scars after external dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Saquib, Mohammad; Maheshwari, Rakesh; Gupta, Yogesh; Iqbal, Zafar; Maheshwari, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the surgical scars of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) cosmetically. METHODS Totally 50 consecutive cases of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) were included in the study. Surgical scars were assessed by the patients and two independent observers at 2, 6 and 12wk postoperatively on the basis of visibility of the scars and still photographs respectively and were graded from 0-3. Kappa test was utilised to check the agreement of scar grading between the two observers. Wilcoxan signed ranks test was used to analyse the improvement of scar grading. RESULTS Thirty-four (68%) patients graded their incision site as very visible (grade 3) at 2wk. At 6 and 12wk, incision site was observed as grade 3 by 7 (14%) and 1 (2%) patients respectively. Photographic evaluation of patients by 2 observers showed an average score of 2.75, 1.94 and 0.94 at 2, 6 and 12wk respectively. Change in scar grading from grade 3 to grade 0 in consecutive follow-up (2, 6 and 12wk) was found to be highly significant both for the patient as well for the observers (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION The external DCR is a highly effective and safe procedure and in view of low percentage of cases who complained of marked scarring in the present study, thus scarring should not be the main ground for deciding the approach to DCR surgery, even in young cosmetically conscious patients. PMID:28003973

  16. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Treatment of Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Andrej; Pljakovska, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scars appear as a result of skin damage during the process of the skin healing. There are two types of acne scars, depending on whether there is a loss or accumulation of collagen: atrophic and hypertrophic. In 80-90% it comes to scars with loss of collagen compared to smaller number of hypertrophic scars and keloids. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine efficiency and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of acne scars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in Acibadem Sistina Clinical Hospital, Skopje at the Department of Dermatovenerology, with a total of 40 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser (Lutronic eCO2). The study included patients with residual acne scars of a different type. RESULTS: Comedogenic and papular acne in our material were proportionately presented in 50% of cases, while the other half were the more severe clinical forms of acne - pustular inflammatory acne and nodulocystic acne that leave residual lesions in the form of second, third and fourth grade of scars. CONCLUSION: The experiences of our work confirm the world experiences that the best result with this method is achieved in dotted ice pick or V-shaped acne scars. PMID:27275326

  17. Macroanatomy of compartmentalization in fire scars of three western conifers

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Sutherland; Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Donald. Falk

    2013-01-01

    Fire scars are visible evidence of compartmentalization and closure processes that contribute to tree survival after fire injury. Preliminary observations of dissected fire scars from trees injured within the last decade showed centripetal development of wound-initiated discoloration (WID) through 2-3 decades of former sapwood in Larix occidentalis and Pseudotsuga...

  18. Predicting fire scars in Ozark timber species following prescribed burning

    Treesearch

    Aaron P. Stevenson; Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2009-01-01

    A potential consequence of using prescribed fire is heat-related injury to timber trees. Scars formed following fire injuries are often associated with extensive decay in hardwoods. The ability to predict scarring caused by prescribed fire is important when multiple management goals are incorporated on a single forest site.

  19. Regenerative healing, scar-free healing and scar formation across the species: current concepts and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, Sara; Volk, Susan W; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2014-09-01

    All species have evolved mechanisms of repair to restore tissue function following injury. Skin scarring is an inevitable and permanent endpoint for many postnatal organisms except for non-amniote vertebrates such as amphibians, which are capable of tissue regeneration. Furthermore, mammalian foetuses through mid-gestation are capable of rapid wound repair in the absence of scar formation. Notably, excessive cutaneous scar formation, such as hypertrophic and keloid scars, is a species limited clinical entity as it occurs only in humans, although wounds on the distal limbs of horses are also prone to heal with fibroproliferative pathology known as equine exuberant granulation tissue. Currently, there are no reliable treatment options to eradicate or prevent scarring in humans and vertebrates. The limited number of vertebrate models for either hypertrophic or keloid scarring has been an impediment to mechanistic studies of these diseases and the development of therapies. In this viewpoint essay, we highlight the current concepts of regenerative, scar-free and scar-forming healing compared across a number of species and speculate on areas for future research. Furthermore, in-depth investigative research into the mechanisms of scarless repair may allow for the development of improved animal models and novel targets for scar prevention. As the ability to heal in both a scarless manner and propensity for healing with excessive scar formation is highly species dependent, understanding similarities and differences in healing across species as it relates to the regenerative process may hold the key to improve scarring and guide translational wound-healing studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Use of Autologous Fat Grafting for Treatment of Scar Tissue and Scar-Related Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Negenborn, Vera L; Groen, Jan-Willem; Smit, Jan Maerten; Niessen, Frank B; Mullender, Margriet G

    2016-01-01

    Scar tissue can cause cosmetic impairments, functional limitations, pain, and itch. It may also cause emotional, social, and behavioral problems, especially when it is located in exposed areas. To date, no gold standard exists for the treatment of scar tissue. Autologous fat grafting has been introduced as a promising treatment option for scar tissue-related symptoms. However, the scientific evidence for its effectiveness remains unclear. This systematic review aims to evaluate the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of autologous fat grafting for the treatment of scar tissue and scar-related conditions. A systematic literature review was performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science. No language restrictions were imposed. Twenty-six clinical articles were included, reporting on 905 patients in total. Meta-analysis was not performed because of the heterogeneous methodology demonstrated among the articles. Main outcome measures were scar appearance and skin characteristics, restoration of volume and/or (three-dimensional) contour, itch, and pain. All publications report a beneficial effect of autologous fat grafting on scar tissue. There is statistical significant improvement of the scar appearance, skin characteristics, and pain. Itch and restoration of volume and three-dimensional contour also improved. Autologous fat grafting is used to improve a variety of symptoms related to scar tissue. This systematic review suggests that autologous fat grafting provides beneficial effects with limited side effects. However, the level of evidence and methodological quality are quite low. Future randomized controlled trials with a methodologically strong design are necessary to confirm the effects of autologous fat grafting on scar tissue and scar-related conditions.

  1. [Depression and myocardial infaction].

    PubMed

    Testuz, A

    2009-03-04

    Several works show an association between depression and the occurence of a first myocardial infarction. Depression after myocardial infarction seems to be a marker of poorer outcome, regardless of other risk factors or severity of the myocardial infarction. Dysautonomia and alteration of platelet activation are a few physiopathological changes shared by both affections, through which they might be related. Treatment of depression is not associated with better cardiovascular outcome, but selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown safe and efficient among patients with coronary heart disease. Cognitivo-comportemental approach and cardiovascular rehabilitation program after myocardial infarction also play a role in improving quality of life of the depressed patient with coronary heart disease.

  2. [Study of the cutaneous scar after external dacryocystorhinostomy].

    PubMed

    Mjarkesh, M M; Morel, X; Renard, G

    2012-02-01

    To objectively analyze the cutaneous scar after external dacryocystorhinostomy and to compare the cosmetic result of a nasal incision and an inferior eyelid incision. All patients consecutively operated between January 2007 and December 2009 were notified of an examination. The cutaneous scar was photographed and de visu analyzed by the two authors who gave marks : 20, no visible scar ; 10, visible scar but cosmetically considered not detrimental ; 0, visible scar and considered unesthetic. Eighteen of the 60 patients notified came for examination. One hundred percent of ten patients operated via an inferior eyelid incision were graded 20 versus 25% of eight patients operated via a nasal incision. Of these patients, 62.5% were graded 10. Only one patient was marked 0 (nasal incision). The inferior eyelid incision seemed to give much better cosmetic results than the nasal incision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ablative fractional laser resurfacing helps treat restrictive pediatric scar contractures.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Andrew C; Goldenberg, Alina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Murray, Jill-Peck; Shumaker, Peter R

    2014-12-01

    Conventional management of debilitating pediatric scar contractures, including hand therapy and surgery, may often be beset by delayed treatment, suboptimal results, and additional surgical morbidity. Ablative fractional laser resurfacing is an emerging adjunctive procedural option for scar contractures because of its promising efficacy and safety profile. However, its use to improve function has not been studied in the pediatric population. Herein we report 2 pediatric patients with recalcitrant scar contractures, causing persistent functional deficits, treated with an ablative fractional laser protocol. Both patients experienced rapid and cumulative subjective and objective improvements in range of motion and function as measured by an independent occupational therapist without reported complications. We highlight ablative fractional laser resurfacing as a novel and promising tool in the management of function-limiting scar contractures in children and propose that the technique be incorporated into existing scar treatment paradigms, guided by future research.

  4. Causes of shell scarring in dog cockles Glycymeris glycymeris L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, K.; Richardson, C. A.; Kaiser, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the possible causes of shell scars in the bivalve mollusc Glycymeris glycymeris, including fishing disturbance, predator attacks and burrowing activity. Individuals collected from an area of sea bed experimentally fished once by a scallop dredge 12 months previously did not display significantly more shell scars than those collected before fishing or from a control area. In the laboratory, Glycymeris offered to the predatory crab Cancer pagurus had a significantly higher incidence of scars seen in acetate peels of shell cross-sections than control shells. However, scarring on Glycymeris excavated from the sediment and left to reburrow was not significantly different from those in an undisturbed control group. Currently, it is not possible in G. glycymeris to differentiate between scars caused by fishing disturbance or natural disturbances, either on the grounds of visual appearance or position of damage.

  5. Old-scar mass and changing surgical perspective: Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Aktimur, Recep; Aktimur, Sude Hatun; Çolak, Elif; Alıcı, Ömer; Demirağ, Mehmet Derya

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of an unknown etiology. Skin is involved in 25% of all cases, and 29% of them present as a scar sarcoidosis. Asymptomatic old-scar masses are generally regarded as a foreign body reaction by surgeons and often result in excisional biopsy. We describe a case of a patient who developed sarcoidosis in a 34-year-old appendectomy scar and adjacent inguinal lymph nodes without any local or systemic symptom and radiologic finding. Surgeons should not underestimate the importance of such lesions as a simple condition. Scar sarcoidosis may resolve spontaneously, or the treatment with some topical agents is effective. Furthermore, scar sarcoidosis may be the initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. PMID:25931946

  6. Endometrial cancer implanted within a cesarean section scar.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tsukasa; Mandai, Masaki; Yamanishi, Yukio; Suzuki, Ayako; Kang, Hyun Sook; Konishi, Ikuo

    2011-03-01

    Several reports have documented adenocarcinoma arising from endometriotic implants within cesarean section (C-S) scars on the serosal surface of the uterus; however, endometrial cancer invading the C-S scar from the uterine cavity has not been described. We report a case of a grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma 'drop' lesion invading a previous C-S scar with resultant cervical stromal invasion. Using both MR images and a thorough review of the pathology, the tumor at the C-S scar was determined to be an implant derived from a primary lesion at the uterine fundus. With increases in the incidence of both endometrial cancer and births by C-S, it is likely we will encounter more cases of iatrogenic implants of endometrial cancers in C-S scars.

  7. EphA4 deficient mice maintain astroglial-fibrotic scar formation after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Shah, Ravi R.; Chan, Andrea F.; Zheng, Binhai

    2010-01-01

    One important aspect of recovery and repair after spinal cord injury (SCI) lies in the complex cellular interactions at the injury site that leads to the formation of a lesion scar. EphA4, a promiscuous member of the EphA family of repulsive axon guidance receptors, is expressed by multiple cell types in the injured spinal cord, including astrocytes and neurons. We hypothesized that EphA4 contributes to aspects of cell-cell interactions at the injury site after SCI, thus modulating the formation of the astroglial-fibrotic scar. To test this hypothesis, we studied tissue responses to a thoracic dorsal hemisection SCI in an EphA4 mutant mouse line. We found that EphA4 expression, as assessed by β-galactosidase reporter gene activity, is associated primarily with astrocytes in the spinal cord, neurons in the cerebral cortex and, to a lesser extent, spinal neurons, before and after SCI. However, we did not observe any overt reduction of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the injured area of EphA4 mutants in comparison with controls following SCI. Furthermore, there was no evident disruption of the fibrotic scar, and the boundary between reactive astrocytes and meningeal fibroblasts appeared unaltered in the mutants, as were lesion size, neuronal survival and inflammation marker expression. Thus, genetic deletion of EphA4 does not significantly alter the astroglial response or the formation of the astroglial-fibrotic scar following a dorsal hemisection SCI in mice. In contrast to what has been proposed, these data do not support a major role for EphA4 in reactive astrogliosis following SCI. PMID:20170651

  8. EphA4 deficient mice maintain astroglial-fibrotic scar formation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Julia E; Shah, Ravi R; Chan, Andrea F; Zheng, Binhai

    2010-06-01

    One important aspect of recovery and repair after spinal cord injury (SCI) lies in the complex cellular interactions at the injury site that leads to the formation of a lesion scar. EphA4, a promiscuous member of the EphA family of repulsive axon guidance receptors, is expressed by multiple cell types in the injured spinal cord, including astrocytes and neurons. We hypothesized that EphA4 contributes to aspects of cell-cell interactions at the injury site after SCI, thus modulating the formation of the astroglial-fibrotic scar. To test this hypothesis, we studied tissue responses to a thoracic dorsal hemisection SCI in an EphA4 mutant mouse line. We found that EphA4 expression, as assessed by beta-galactosidase reporter gene activity, is associated primarily with astrocytes in the spinal cord, neurons in the cerebral cortex and, to a lesser extent, spinal neurons, before and after SCI. However, we did not observe any overt reduction of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the injured area of EphA4 mutants in comparison with controls following SCI. Furthermore, there was no evident disruption of the fibrotic scar, and the boundary between reactive astrocytes and meningeal fibroblasts appeared unaltered in the mutants, as were lesion size, neuronal survival and inflammation marker expression. Thus, genetic deletion of EphA4 does not significantly alter the astroglial response or the formation of the astroglial-fibrotic scar following a dorsal hemisection SCI in mice. In contrast to what has been proposed, these data do not support a major role for EphA4 in reactive astrogliosis following SCI. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ULTRASOUND EVALUATION OF UTERINE SCAR AFTER CESAREAN SECTION

    PubMed Central

    Basic, Ejub; Basic-Cetkovic, Vesna; Kozaric, Hadzo; Rama, Admir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The rate of attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery has decreased, while the success rate of such births increased. Advances in surgical techniques, the development of anesthesiology services, particularly endotracheal anesthesia, very quality postoperative care with cardiovascular, respiratory and biochemical resuscitation, significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity after cesarean section. Progress and development of neonatal services, and intensive care of newborns is enabled and a high survival of newborn infants. Complications after cesarean section were reduced, and the introduction of prophylaxis and therapy of powerful antibiotics, as well as materials for sewing drastically reduce all forms of puerperal infection. Goal: Goal was to establish a measurement value of the parameters that are evaluated by ultrasound. Material and methods: Each of the measured parameters was scored. The sum of points is shown in tables. Based on the sum of points was done an estimate of the scar on the uterus after previous caesarian section and make the decision whether to complete delivery naturally or repeat cesarean section. We conducted a prospective study of 108 pregnant women. Analyzed were: shape scar thickness (thickening), continuity, border scar out, echoing the structure of the lower uterine segment and scar volume Results: The study showed that scar thickness of 3.5 mm or more, the homogeneity of the scar, scar triangular shape, qualitatively richer perfusion, and scar volume verified by 3D technique up to10 cm are attributes of the quality of the scar. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results we conclude that ultrasound evaluation of the quality of the scar has practical application in the decision on the mode of delivery in women who had previously given birth by Caesarean section. PMID:23322970

  10. Assessment of vaccination coverage, vaccination scar rates, and smallpox scarring in five areas of West Africa*

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Ralph H.; Davis, Hillard; Eddins, Donald L.; Foege, William H.

    1973-01-01

    In 1966, nineteen countries of West and Central Africa began a regional smallpox eradication and measles control programme in cooperation with the World Health Organization. This paper summarizes sample survey data collected to assess the results of the programme in Northern Nigeria (Sokoto and Katsina Provinces), Western Nigeria, Niger, Dahomey, and Togo. These data indicate that the programme, which used mass vaccination campaigns based on a collecting-point strategy, was generally successful in reaching a high proportion of the population. Analysis of vaccination coverage and vaccination scar rates by age underlined the importance to the programme of newborn children who accumulate rapidly following the mass campaign. Of all persons without vaccination scars at the time of the surveys, 34.4% were under 5 years of age; in the absence of a maintenance programme, this figure would rise to 40% after 1 year. PMID:4541684

  11. Collagen nerve wrap for median nerve scarring.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Ballas, Efstathios G; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2015-02-01

    Nerve wrapping materials have been manufactured to inhibit nerve tissue adhesions and diminish inflammatory and immunologic reactions in nerve surgery. Collagen nerve wrap is a biodegradable type I collagen material that acts as an interface between the nerve and the surrounding tissues. Its main advantage is that it stays in place during the period of tissue healing and is then gradually absorbed once tissue healing is completed. This article presents a surgical technique that used a collagen nerve wrap for the management of median nerve tissue adhesions in 2 patients with advanced carpal tunnel syndrome due to median nerve scarring and adhesions. At last follow-up, both patients had complete resolution with no recurrence of their symptoms. Complications related to the biodegradable material were not observed. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a rhinoplasty scar

    PubMed Central

    Dulguerov, Nicolas; Vankatova, Lenka; Landis, Basile Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a subcutaneous hard bony-like lump at the lateral nasal wall after a septorhinoplasty procedure is an unfavourable result. The reported patient developed this complication 2 years after a revision surgery, in which percutaneous osteotomies were performed. An excision biopsy of the lump took place and the histopathological analysis revealed a granulomatous gigantocellular inflammation with absence of birefringent particles on polarised lamp and negative mycobacteria culture. After additional investigations, the final diagnosis was consistent with grade 2 pulmonary sarcoidosis associated with subcutaneous sarcoidosis. No treatment was initiated. The facial symptoms resolved without any additional treatment and the pulmonary function tests have not deteriorated after 1 year of follow-up. The polymorphism of cutaneous lesions in sarcoidosis, the absence of systemic symptoms and the unrecognised entity of subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a scar illustrate the diagnostic challenge with this patient. PMID:25819832

  13. Bastrop County Complex Fire Burn Scar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired September 12, 2011 To view more images from this event go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=52029 The Bastrop County Complex Fire in southern Texas started on September 4, 2011. By September 13, 2011, the fire was 70 percent contained, but had scorched 34,068 acres (13,787 hectares). The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this image of the affected region on September 12, 2011. This false-color image shows a wide-area view of the fire. Vegetation is bright green, and sparsely vegetated or bare land is green-yellow. The burn scar appears in shades of red and orange. The burn scar is far from uniform; burned areas are separated by unburned expanses. As of September 13, a re-entry plan had been established for residents of the region, the Incident Information System reported. Residents were warned, however, that they might see vegetation still smoldering or burning. Ongoing drought set the stage for severe fires in Texas in the slate summer of 2011. In early September, Tropical Storm Lee, which drenched other parts of the United States, brought strong winds to Texas, worsening the fires. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Myocardial Noncompaction Presenting With Myocardial Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuechun; Li, Xinchun; Lu, Dongfeng; Xiao, Aiyi; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Myocardial noncompaction, namly isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium (NVM), is a rare congenital disease. It can be either seen in the absence of other cardiac anomalies, or associated with other congenital cardiac defects, mostly stenotic lesions of the left ventricular outflow tract. A myocardial bridge (MB) is thought being associated with coronary heart disease, such as coronary spasm, arrhythmia, and so on. The significance of MB in association with other congenital cardiac conditions is unknown. We report a novel case who was presented NVM and MB. A 34-year-old man complained of chest prickling-like pain and dizzy for 1 year. His blood pressure was 110/70 mm Hg. Echocardiograph revealed increased trabeculations below the level of papillary muscle of left ventricle (LV); deep intertrabecular recesses in the endocardial wall of LV particularly in apex free wall; and LV ejection fraction of 57%. A coronary computerized tomography scan showed that part, 38.9 cm, of left descending artery tunnel was surrounding by cardiac muscles rather than resting on top of the myocardium. The therapeutics interventions included lifestyle cares, agents of anti-ischemia and improvement myocardial cell metabolism. The patient was followed up for 2.6 years, and his general condition was stable. This case indicates that NVM can be developed with MB, and the complete diagnosis of NVM and MB should be made by different image studies. PMID:26356695

  15. Reliability and validity testing of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale in evaluating linear scars after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Truong, Pauline T; Lee, Junella C; Soer, Benjamin; Gaul, Catherine A; Olivotto, Ivo A

    2007-02-01

    The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale is a promising new method incorporating observer and patient ratings in evaluating burn scars. The authors compared this tool to the Vancouver Scar Scale in a cohort of women with linear scars from breast cancer surgery. Twenty women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were prospectively accrued. Thirty-one scars were evaluated. The median time from surgery to scar assessment was 8 weeks (range, 3 to 25 weeks). Observer assessment was performed by three independent raters using the Vancouver scale and the observer component of the new tool. Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the tool. Internal consistency, interobserver reliability, and convergent validity were examined. Internal consistency was acceptable for the Vancouver scale and both components of the new tool (Cronbach's alpha, 0.71, 0.74, and 0.77, respectively). Interobserver reliability was substantial with both the Vancouver scale and the observer tool (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.78 and 0.60, respectively). The observer tool and Vancouver scale correlated significantly with each other (p < 0.001), but only the observer tool correlated well with patients' ratings (p = 0.04). In surgical scar assessment, the new Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale and Vancouver Scar Scale were both associated with acceptable internal consistency and interobserver reliability. The new tool is more comprehensive and has higher correlation with patients' ratings. These findings support the use of the new tool as a reliable, valid, and comprehensive approach to assess linear surgical scars.

  16. The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow during acute and chronic myocardial ischemia in anesthetized and awake intact dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, J T; Watson, J T; Hutton, I; Fixler, D E; Curry, G C; Templeton, G H

    1975-01-01

    The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow and ventricular performance was studied during acute myocardial ischemia in awake, unsedated and in anesthesized dogs and after myocardial infarction in awake unsedated dogs. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Generalized increases in regional myocardial blood flow occurred after mannitol in all of the different animal models studied. The increases in coronary blood flow after mannitol were just as impressive in the nonischemic regions as in the ischemic portion of the left ventricle in all of the different models that were examined in this study. Improvement in regional myocardial blood flow to the ischemic area of the left ventricle after mannitol was associated with a reduction in ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. The increases in regional myocardial flow after mannitol were also associated with increases in contractility, but the increases in flow appeared to be more impressive than the changes in contractility. The data obtained demonstrate that mannitol increases regional coronary blood flow to both ischemic and nonischemic myocardium in both anesthetized and awake, unsedated, intact dogs with acute and chronic myocardial ischemia and that mannitol reduces ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. Thus the results suggest that under these circumstances the increases in regional myocardial blood flow after mannitol are of physiological importance in reducing the extent of myocardial injury. Since coronary blood flow increased to nonischemic regions the increases in regional myocardial flow demonstrated in this study after mannitol cannot be entirely explained by the mechanism of reduction in ischemic cell swelling. PMID:1123427

  17. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  18. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  19. New perspectives on the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate myocardial salvage and myocardial hemorrhage after acute reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mangion, Kenneth; Corcoran, David; Carrick, David; Berry, Colin

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging enables the assessment of left ventricular function and pathology. In addition to established contrast-enhanced methods for the assessment of infarct size and microvascular obstruction, other infarct pathologies, such as myocardial edema and myocardial hemorrhage, can be identified using innovative CMR techniques. The initial extent of myocardial edema revealed by T2-weighted CMR has to be stable for edema to be taken as a retrospective marker of the area-at-risk, which is used to calculate myocardial salvage. The timing of edema assessment is important and should be focused within 2 - 7 days post-reperfusion. Some recent investigations have called into question the diagnostic validity of edema imaging after acute STEMI. Considering the results of these studies, as well as results from our own laboratory, we conclude that the time-course of edema post-STEMI is unimodal, not bimodal. Myocardial hemorrhage is the final consequence of severe vascular injury and a progressive and prognostically important complication early post-MI. Myocardial hemorrhage is a therapeutic target to limit reperfusion injury and infarct size post-STEMI.

  20. Etiology and implications of dense cavitary ''photopenia'' on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Dae, M.; Canhasi, B.; Botvinick, E.; Olvera, S.; Schechtmann, N.; Engelstad, B.; Hattner, R.; Schiller, N.; O'Connell, W.; Faulkner, D.

    1985-07-01

    Dense cavitary ''photopenia'' was observed on 21 of 200 consecutive stress perfusion scintigrams. A prominent finding in many cases, it sometimes occupied only a portion of the region overlying the ventricular cavity, was often seen in some projections and not others, and was frequently adjacent to myocardial perfusion defects. To distinguish an etiology among reduced cavitary radioactivity, relatively increased background radioactivity, or reduced radioactivity in overlying myocardium, quantitative analysis of cavitary, lung and myocardial radioactivity was performed in patients with dense cavitary ''photopenia,'' with and without lung uptake, and compared with results from studies showing increased lung uptake without cavitary photopenia and with normal studies. The results showed that dense cavitary photopenia was related to reduced radioactivity in overlying myocardium. Correlative imaging studies performed with echocardiography and contrast ventriculography confirmed this relationship to myocardial scar in 15 of 21 patients in whom associated akinesis or dyskinesis was seen. Hence, dense cavitary photopenia on stress perfusion scintigraphy is due to a dense myocardial perfusion abnormality, and is often indicative of related scar and an associated severe contraction abnormality.

  1. The etiology and implications of dense cavitary "photopenia" on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Dae, M; Canhasi, B; Botvinick, E; Olvera, S; Schechtmann, N; Engelstad, B; Hattner, R; Schiller, N; O'Connell, W; Faulkner, D

    1985-07-01

    Dense cavitary "photopenia" was observed on 21 of 200 consecutive stress perfusion scintigrams. A prominent finding in many cases, it sometimes occupied only a portion of the region overlying the ventricular cavity, was often seen in some projections and not others, and was frequently adjacent to myocardial perfusion defects. To distinguish an etiology among reduced cavitary radioactivity, relatively increased background radioactivity, or reduced radioactivity in overlying myocardium, quantitative analysis of cavitary, lung and myocardial radioactivity was performed in patients with dense cavitary "photopenia," with and without lung uptake, and compared with results from studies showing increased lung uptake without cavitary photopenia and with normal studies. The results showed that dense cavitary photopenia was related to reduced radioactivity in overlying myocardium. Correlative imaging studies performed with echocardiography and contrast ventriculography confirmed this relationship to myocardial scar in 15 of 21 patients in whom associated akinesis or dyskinesis was seen. Hence, dense cavitary photopenia on stress perfusion scintigraphy is due to a dense myocardial perfusion abnormality, and is often indicative of related scar and an associated severe contraction abnormality.

  2. Detecting Moorland Wildfire Scars and their Persistence in the Landscape using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in the Peak District National Park, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millin-chalabi, G. R.; McMorrow, J.; Agnew, C.

    2012-12-01

    The overall aim of this research is to assess the ability of SAR to detect moorland wildfire scars and their persistence in the landscape using the Peak District National Park (PDNP) in the UK as a case study. Spatially-robust data to monitor wildfire scar size and severity in UK moorlands is currently rare. Fires can burn deep into peat soils and contribute to the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and may also affect the water quality of nearby streams. Information on fire extent would be useful for conservation organisations such as Moors For The Future who are trying to preserve the delicate peatland environment. Knowing the size and location of fire scars would help the Fire and Rescue Service to plan future response to moorland fires. Fire scar boundaries can be mapped in the field using Global Positioning Systems (GPS), however this is labour intensive. Indeed in the PDNP wildfire scar mapping is conducted by park rangers which provides essential ground truth data for assessing against the SAR data. Therefore this particular area provides a unique opportunity for testing an alternative SAR technique for monitoring wildfire scars in the moorland landscape. Previous research shows that SAR has been successfully applied for wildfire scar detection in other types of environments such as boreal (Bourgeau-Chavez et al, 1997) and the tropics (Huang and Siegert, 2004). This research presents some of the first results of the project which tests the capability of ERS 2; ASAR (C-band) and PALSAR (L-band) data to detect several wildfire scars from 2003 - 2008 of various spatial scales and fire severity. Some of the key areas of interest the paper will explore are at Bleaklow and the Kinder plateau. The Bleaklow peat fire of 18th April 2003 was larger (7km2) and more severe than at Kinder, which burned between 26-29th May 2008 and covered an area of 10 ha. All the wildfire scars were GPS, mapped just after the fire event. Archival time-series SAR imagery was

  3. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  4. The persistence of epiphyseal scars in the adult tibia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Catriona; Hackman, Lucina; Black, Sue

    2014-03-01

    Estimation of chronological age from skeletal material is dependent upon estimation of maturational stage observed. Following completion of epiphyseal fusion, a transverse radio-opaque line, termed "epiphyseal scar", may be observed in the region of the former growth plate. According to the literature, this line is likely to become obliterated shortly after completion of epiphyseal fusion. Consequently, presence of an epiphyseal scar has been interpreted as an indication of recent epiphyseal fusion; however, this has not been validated by quantitative research. A study was undertaken to determine persistence of the epiphyseal scars in a cross-sectional population of adults between 20 and 50 years of age. This study examined 1,216 radiographs of proximal and distal tibiae from both sexes and sides of the body. This study suggested that 98.05% of females and 97.74% of males retained some remnant of the epiphyseal scar at the proximal tibia whilst 92.72% of females and 92.95% of males retained some remnant of the epiphyseal scar at the distal tibia. General linear model (GLM) analysis determined that chronological age accounted for 2.7% and 7.6% of variation in persistence of the epiphyseal scar at the proximal and distal tibiae, respectively. This study suggests that obliteration of the epiphyseal scar is not as dependent on chronological age as previously thought. It is, therefore, recommended that this feature not be used as an indicator of chronological age during forensic age assessment.

  5. Prevalence of scar contractures after burn: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oosterwijk, Anouk M; Mouton, Leonora J; Schouten, Hennie; Disseldorp, Laurien M; van der Schans, Cees P; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    2017-02-01

    Burn scar contractures are the pathological outcome of excessive scarring and ongoing scar contraction. Impairment of joint range of motion is a threat to performing activities in daily living. To direct treatment strategies to prevent and/or correct such contractures, insight into the prevalence, course, and determinants is essential. A literature search was conducted including Pubmed, Cochrane library, CINAHL, and PEDro. Articles were included if they provided burn scar contracture data to calculate the point prevalence. The quality of the articles was scored. Data were extracted regarding study, subject and burn characteristics, method of scar contracture assessment, point prevalence, and possible determinants. Nine articles and one abstract could be included for data extraction. The prevalence at discharge was 38-54%, but with a longer time after burn, the prevalence was lower. Contractures were more likely to occur in more severe burns, flame burns, children, female, the cervical spine, and the upper extremity. The prevalence of burn scar contractures varies considerably between studies. When prevalence is unclear, it is also difficult to investigate potential determinants and evaluate changes in interventions. There is a need for extensive, well-designed longitudinal (inter)national studies that investigate prevalence of scar contractures, their evolvement over time, and risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Preventing Scars after Injury with Partial Irreversible Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Villiger, Martin; Khan, Saiqa; Quinn, Kyle P; Lo, William C Y; Bouma, Brett E; Mihm, Martin C; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin L

    2016-11-01

    Preventing the formation of hypertrophic scars, especially those that are a result of major trauma or burns, would have enormous impact in the fields of regenerative and trauma medicine. In this report, we introduce a noninvasive method to prevent scarring based on nonthermal partial irreversible electroporation. Contact burn injuries in rats were treated with varying treatment parameters to optimize the treatment protocol. Scar surface area and structural properties of the scar were assessed with histology and non-invasive, longitudinal imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. We found that partial irreversible electroporation using 200 pulses of 250 V and 70 μs duration, delivered at 3 Hz every 20 days during a total of five therapy sessions after the initial burn injury, resulted in a 57.9% reduction of the scar area compared with untreated scars and structural features approaching those of normal skin. Unlike humans, rats do not develop hypertrophic scars. Therefore, the use of a rat animal model is the limiting factor of this work.

  7. Modeling fibrosis using fibroblasts isolated from scarred rat vocal folds

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Yo; Kishimoto, Ayami Ohno; Ye, Shuyun; Kendziorski, Christina; Welham, Nathan V.

    2016-01-01

    Following injury, pathologically activated vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) can engage in disordered extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, leading to VF fibrosis and impaired voice function. Given the importance of scar VFFs to phenotypically appropriate in vitro modeling of VF fibrosis, we pursued detailed characterization of scar VFFs obtained from surgically injured rat VF mucosae, compared to those obtained from experimentally naïve, age-matched tissue. Scar VFFs initially exhibited a myofibroblast phenotype characterized by increased proliferation, increased Col1a1 transcription and collagen, type I synthesis, increased Acta2 transcription and α-smooth muscle actin synthesis, and enhanced contractile function. These features were most distinct at passage 1 (P1); we observed a coalescence of the scar and naïve VFF phenotypes at later passages. An empirical Bayes statistical analysis of the P1 cell transcriptome identified 421 genes that were differentially expressed by scar, compared to naïve, VFFs. These genes were primarily associated with the wound response, ECM regulation, and cell proliferation. Follow-up comparison of P1 scar VFFs and their in vivo tissue source showed substantial transcriptomic differences. Finally, P1 scar VFFs responded to treatment with hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor-β3, two biologics with reported therapeutic value. Despite the practical limitations inherent to working with early passage cells, this experimental model is easily implemented in any suitably equipped laboratory and has the potential to improve the applicability of preclinical VF fibrosis research. PMID:27111284

  8. Acute Marjolin's Ulcer in a Postauricular Scar after Mastoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Sumaiyah M.; Hajjaj, Mutawakel F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Marjolin's ulcer is a rare, aggressive cutaneous malignancy that arises primarily in burn scars but can occur in other types of scars. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant, and while malignant degeneration usually takes a long time, it can develop acutely. Case Report. a 30-year-old man who developed Marjolin's ulcer acutely in a right postauricular scar after mastoidectomy and the incision and drainage of a mastoid abscess. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a Marjolin's ulcer in a postauricular surgical scar. However, it has been reported in others areas in the head and neck. Conclusion. Marjolin's ulcer is most commonly observed after postburn scars, but it may be observed after any type of scars, as our patient developed an SCC with a postsurgical scar. Early diagnosis is essential, and a biopsy should be performed on any nonhealing wound or chronic wound that undergoes a sudden change. Tissue samples should be taken from both the centre and the margins of the wound. PMID:28050297

  9. 1550-nm nonablative laser resurfacing for facial surgical scars.

    PubMed

    Pham, Annette M; Greene, Ryan M; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kaufman, Joely; Grunebaum, Lisa D

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 1550-nm (Fraxel SR1500 RE:Store; Solta Medical, Hayward, California) nonablative laser treatment of facial surgical scars. In this prospective clinical study, a volunteer sample of 13 adults with Fitzpatrick skin types I to III and facial surgical scars with a postoperative duration longer than 6 months were enrolled. Subjects were treated once every 4 weeks for a total of 4 treatments. Initial settings for the 1550-nm nonablative laser were at energy level 40 mJ and treatment level 4 and were subsequently increased on each visit according to the patients' tolerance level. Using a previously validated Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), the study subject and an independent evaluator completed assessments of the scar at each visit. According to the Friedman test on ratings across all occasions after the first treatment to the last evaluation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the patient's assessment of the color, stiffness, thickness, and irregularity of the scar but not for pain or itching. For the observer's ratings, there was a statistically significant improvement in pigmentation, thickness, relief, and pliability but not for vascularization. Preliminary data suggest improved aesthetic results, demonstrating the potential use of fractional photothermolysis as a scar revision technique. Future studies with a longer follow-up period could elucidate the role of fractional photothermolysis in more permanent scar improvements.

  10. The neck burn scar contracture: a concept of effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Akita, Sadanori; Hayashida, Kenji; Takaki, Satoshi; Kawakami, Yoshihisa; Oyama, Takuto; Ohjimi, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    A neck scar contracture can severely and negatively affect the function of mastication, phonic, or breathing and result in neck pain and issues with esthetics. The best way is of course to avoid such contracture by means of non-surgical treatment such as use of a growth factor. The basic fibroblastic growth factor is clinically well proven in decreasing scar formation and improving healing. There are numerous reconstructive methods for neck contracture, especially when the lesions are relatively limited in part of the neck. However, a very severe and full circumferential scar contracture requires extensive reconstruction. The thin groin flap is one of the answers and well matches with the tissue texture and maintains the flexibility. Even with extensive burns and delayed reconstructions due to resuscitation first, the groin area is well preserved and can be safely harvested by dual vasculature systems of the superficial circumflex iliac artery and superficial epigastric artery, which warrant more reliability compared to the perforator flaps in this area. More demanding and stringent forms of the neck burn scar contracture are the sequelae of radiation. A radiation burn or radiation injury can be progressing and hard to heal. Adipose-derived stem cells can reverse the scar contracture as the surrounding tissue is softened and can accelerate wound healing. In this review, different types of neck burn scar contracture and reconstructive methods are summarized, including innovative use of bFGF and ADSCs in the management of difficult wound healing and scar contracture.

  11. Minimal-scar handlift: a new surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Handle, Markus; Bonfatti-Ribeiro, Luiz M; Barcaro-Machado, Bárbara H; Pitanguy, Ivo

    2011-11-01

    Removal of excess skin from the aging hand can cause scarring in one of the body's most visible areas, which is highly undesirable for patients. A minimal-scar approach to tightening this skin, in conjunction with the rejuvenating effects of minimally-invasive procedures, is therefore needed. The authors describe a new technique for limiting scar size and visibility by locating the incision in a unique position on the ulnar side of the dorsum of the hand. Eleven patients were treated with the authors' method between March and September 2009. Both hands were treated for each patient, but these procedures occurred separately, at an interval of two to four months. The surgical approach included skin flap advancement and rotation, and the procedure took place under local anesthesia and sedation. The resultant scar was S-shaped. Changes in postoperative stress ratio were visualized. Patients reported being highly satisfied with this procedure with regard to scar size, quality, and location. No major complications were observed, such as infection, flap necrosis, and nerve damage. All minor complications were treated conservatively. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I-III profited from less scar visibility in their outcomes. All patients experienced quick recovery with minimal downtime, independent of skin type. The minimal-scar handlift technique is an effective surgical approach to rejuvenating the hand and can be implemented concurrently with minimally-invasive techniques for volume restoration. The complication rate is low, and patient/surgeon satisfaction with outcomes is high.

  12. Myocardial stunning in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: recovery predicted by single photon emission computed tomographic thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, D.G.; Clements, I.P.; Callahan, M.J.

    1989-05-01

    A young woman with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy confirmed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization presented with chest pain and features of a large left ventricular aneurysm. The initial diagnosis was myocardial ischemia with either an evolving or an ancient myocardial infarction. Subsequently, verapamil therapy was associated with complete resolution of the extensive left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction and a minimal myocardial infarction. Normal thallium uptake on single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy early in the hospital course predicted myocardial viability in the region of the aneurysm. Thus, orally administered verapamil may reverse spontaneous extensive myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and possibly limit the extent of myocardial infarction in such circumstances.

  13. MRI evaluation of RF ablation scarring for atrial fibrillation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Yuri; Nazafat, Reza; Wylie, John V.; Linguraru, Marius G.; Josephson, Mark E.; Howe, Robert D.; Manning, Warren J.; Peters, Dana C.

    2007-03-01

    This study presents a multi-modality image registration method that evaluates left atrial scarring after radiofrequency (RF) ablation for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. Our group has recently developed a delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) method with the potential to visualize and monitor non-invasively post-ablation scarring in the left atrium and the PV ostia. We wished to compare the 3D configuration of scarring in the DE-MRI image and the ablation points recorded by electroanatomical mapping (EAM) system, hypothesizing that scarring detected by DE-MRI overlaps with ablation points recorded by the EAM system used in the procedure. Methods and Results: Three data sets, DE-MRI images and pulmonary vein MR angiography (PV-MRA) images, and EAM data (CARTO-XP, Biosense-Webster, Inc., Diamond Bar, CA) from a patient who underwent PV ablation, were used for the multi-modal image registration. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed 38 days after the ablation procedure. PV-MRA and DE-MRI were fused by intensity-based rigid registration. Scar tissue was extracted from the DE-MRI images using multiple threshold values. EAM data was further fused with segmented PV-MRA by the iterative closest point algorithm (ICP). After registration, the distance from PV-MRA to the scar was 2.6 +/- 2.1 mm, and from ablation points to the surface of the scar was 2.5 +/- 2.3 mm. The fused image demonstrates the 3D relationship between the PV ostia, the scar and the EAM recording of ablation points. Conclusion: Multimodal data fusion indicated that the scar tissue lesion after PV isolation showed good overlap with the ablation points.

  14. Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

    2012-03-01

    Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 μm) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

  15. [Corneal scar development after cross-linking in keratoconus].

    PubMed

    Raiskup, F; Kissner, A; Hoyer, A; Spörl, E; Pillunat, L E

    2010-09-01

    Corneal scar development after riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) was retrospectively evaluated. A total of 163 CXL-treated eyes in 127 patients with stage 1-3 keratoconus according to Krumeich's classification were included in this retrospective analysis. The follow-up period was 1 year. At the first and at all follow-up examinations uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), biomicroscopic findings, corneal topography and corneal thickness were recorded. At 1 year following CXL, 149 eyes (91.4%) of 114 patients had a clear cornea without corneal scar (control group), while 14 eyes (8.6%) of 13 patients developed clinically significant corneal scar (scar group). Preoperatively, the mean K value of the apex was 62.1 ± 13.8 D in the control group and 71.1 ± 13.2 D in the scar group (P=.02). The mean value of corneal thickness before the procedure was 478.1 ± 52.4 μm in the control group and 420.0 ± 33.9 μm in the scar group (P=.001). The UCVA and BCVA, which were preoperatively similar between groups (P=.59, P=.75 respectively), were postoperatively improved in the control group (P=.023, P=.001 respectively), but reduced in the scar group (P=.012, P=.004 respectively). K-values and corneal thickness could be considered as predictive factors for the possible development of corneal scarring after riboflavin-UVA-induced CXL. Advanced keratoconus appears to be associated with a higher risk of corneal scar development due to lower corneal thickness, greater curvature and intrinsic tissue characteristics.

  16. Microneedling Therapy in Atrophic Facial Scars: An Objective Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2009-01-01

    Background: Atrophic facial scars are always a challenge to treat, especially the ones that are deep-seated and/or involve much of the face. Microneedling or dermaroller therapy is a new addition to the treatment armamentarium for such scars that offers a simple and reportedly effective management of these scars. Aims: The aim of the present study was to perform an objective evaluation of the efficacy of dermaroller treatment in atrophic facial scars of varying etiology. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven patients of atrophic facial scarring were offered multiple sittings of microneedling (dermaroller) treatment and their scars were evaluated and graded clinically and by serial photography at the start as well as at two months after the conclusion of the treatment protocol. Any change in the grading of scars after the end of treatment and follow-up period was noted down. The patients were also asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment received on a 1-10 point scale. The efficacy of dermaroller treatment was thus assessed both subjectively by the patients as well as objectively by a single observer. Results: Overall 36 out of the total of 37 patients completed the treatment schedule and were evaluated for its efficacy. Out of these 36 patients, 34 achieved a reduction in the severity of their scarring by one or two grades. More than 80% of patients assessed their treatment as ‘excellent’ on a 10-point scale. No significant adverse effects were noted in any patient. Conclusions: Microneedling therapy seems to be a simple and effective treatment option for the management of atrophic facial scars. PMID:20300368

  17. Compression therapy affects collagen type balance in hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Tejiram, Shawn; Zhang, Jenny; Travis, Taryn E; Carney, Bonnie C; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Moffatt, Lauren T; Johnson, Laura S; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-01

    The effects of pressure on hypertrophic scar are poorly understood. Decreased extracellular matrix deposition is hypothesized to contribute to changes observed after pressure therapy. To examine this further, collagen composition was analyzed in a model of pressure therapy in hypertrophic scar. Hypertrophic scars created on red Duroc swine (n = 8) received pressure treatment (pressure device mounting and delivery at 30 mm Hg), sham treatment (device mounting and no delivery), or no treatment for 2 wk. Scars were assessed weekly and biopsied for histology, hydroxyproline quantification, and gene expression analysis. Transcription levels of collagen precursors COL1A2 and COL3A1 were quantified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Masson trichrome was used for general collagen quantification, whereas immunofluorescence was used for collagen types I and III specific quantification. Total collagen quantification using hydroxyproline assay showed a 51.9% decrease after pressure initiation. Masson trichrome staining showed less collagen after 1 (P < 0.03) and 2 wk (P < 0.002) of pressure application compared with sham and untreated scars. Collagen 1A2 and 3A1 transcript decreased by 41.9- and 42.3-fold, respectively, compared with uninjured skin after pressure treatment, whereas a 2.3- and 1.3-fold increase was seen in untreated scars. This decrease was seen in immunofluorescence staining for collagen types I (P < 0.001) and III (P < 0.04) compared with pretreated levels. Pressure-treated scars also had lower levels of collagen I and III after pressure treatment (P < 0.05) compared with sham and untreated scars. These results demonstrate the modulation of collagen aft