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Sample records for myocyte enhancer factor-2

  1. Protein kinase A represses skeletal myogenesis by targeting myocyte enhancer factor 2D.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Perry, Robert L S; Nowacki, Nathaniel B; Gordon, Joseph W; Salma, Jahan; Zhao, Jianzhong; Aziz, Arif; Chan, Joseph; Siu, K W Michael; McDermott, John C

    2008-05-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by elevation of the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level inhibits skeletal myogenesis. Previously, an indirect modulation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) was implicated as the mechanism. Because myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins are key regulators of myogenesis and obligatory partners for the MRFs, here we assessed whether these proteins could be involved in PKA-mediated myogenic repression. Initially, in silico analysis revealed several consensus PKA phosphoacceptor sites on MEF2, and subsequent analysis by in vitro kinase assays indicated that PKA directly and efficiently phosphorylates MEF2D. Using mass spectrometric determination of phosphorylated residues, we document that MEF2D serine 121 and serine 190 are targeted by PKA. Transcriptional reporter gene assays to assess MEF2D function revealed that PKA potently represses the transactivation properties of MEF2D. Furthermore, engineered mutation of MEF2D PKA phosphoacceptor sites (serines 121 and 190 to alanine) rendered a PKA-resistant MEF2D protein, which efficiently rescues myogenesis from PKA-mediated repression. Concomitantly, increased intracellular cAMP-mediated PKA activation also resulted in an enhanced nuclear accumulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and a subsequent increase in the MEF2D-HDAC4 repressor complex. Collectively, these data identify MEF2D as a primary target of PKA signaling in myoblasts that leads to inhibition of the skeletal muscle differentiation program.

  2. Expression of myocyte enhancer factor-2 and downstream genes in ground squirrel skeletal muscle during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Shannon N; Storey, Kenneth B

    2010-11-01

    Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factors regulate the expression of a variety of genes encoding contractile proteins and other proteins associated with muscle performance. We proposed that changes in MEF2 levels and expression of selected downstream targets would aid the skeletal muscle of thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) in meeting metabolic challenges associated with winter hibernation; e.g., cycles of torpor-arousal, body temperature that can fall to near 0°C, long periods of inactivity that could lead to atrophy. MEF2A protein levels were significantly elevated when animals were in torpor (maximally 2.8-fold higher than in active squirrels) and the amount of phosphorylated active MEF2A Thr312 increased during entrance into torpor. MEF2C levels also rose significantly during entrance and torpor as did the amount of phosphorylated MEF2C Ser387. Furthermore, both MEF2 members showed elevated amounts in the nuclear fraction during torpor as well as enhanced binding to DNA indicating that MEF2-mediated gene expression was up-regulated in torpid animals. Indeed, the protein products of two MEF2 downstream gene targets increased in muscle during torpor (glucose transporter isoforms 4; GLUT4) or early arousal (myogenic differentiation; MyoD). Significant increases in Glut4 and MyoD mRNA transcript levels correlated with the rise in protein product levels and provided further support for the activation of MEF2-mediated gene expression in the hibernator. Transcript levels of Mef2a and Mef2c also showed time-dependent patterns with levels of both being highest during arousal from torpor. The data suggest a significant role for MEF2-mediated gene transcription in the selective adjustment of muscle protein complement over the course of torpor-arousal cycles.

  3. Differential requirements for Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 during adult myogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bryantsev, Anton L.; Baker, Phillip W.; Lovato, TyAnna L.; Jaramillo, MaryAnn S.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Identifying the genetic program that leads to formation of functionally and morphologically distinct muscle fibers is one of the major challenges in developmental biology. In Drosophila, the Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factor is important for all types of embryonic muscle differentiation. In this study we investigated the role of MEF2 at different stages of adult skeletal muscle formation, where a diverse group of specialized muscles arises. Through stage- and tissue- specific expression of Mef2 RNAi constructs, we demonstrate that MEF2 is critical at the early stages of adult myoblast fusion: mutant myoblasts are attracted normally to their founder cell targets, but are unable to fuse to form myotubes. Interestingly, ablation of Mef2 expression at later stages of development showed MEF2 to be more dispensable for structural gene expression: after myoblast fusion, Mef2 knockdown did not interrupt expression of major structural gene transcripts, and myofibrils were formed. However, the MEF2-depleted fibers showed impaired integrity and a lack of fibrillar organization. When Mef2 RNAi was induced in muscles following eclosion, we found no adverse effects of attenuating Mef2 function. We conclude that in the context of adult myogenesis, MEF2 remains an essential factor, participating in control of myoblast fusion, and myofibrillogenesis in developing myotubes. However, MEF2 does not show a major requirement in the maintenance of muscle structural gene expression. Our findings point to the importance of a diversity of regulatory factors that are required for the formation and function of the distinct muscle fibers found in animals. PMID:22008792

  4. The Drosophila Transcription Factors Tinman and Pannier Activate and Collaborate with Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 to Promote Heart Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, TyAnna L.; Sensibaugh, Cheryl A.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Martinez, Melody M.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the MADS domain transcription factor Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2) is regulated by numerous and overlapping enhancers which tightly control its transcription in the mesoderm. To understand how Mef2 expression is controlled in the heart, we identified a late stage Mef2 cardiac enhancer that is active in all heart cells beginning at stage 14 of embryonic development. This enhancer is regulated by the NK-homeodomain transcription factor Tinman, and the GATA transcription factor Pannier through both direct and indirect interactions with the enhancer. Since Tinman, Pannier and MEF2 are evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates, and since their vertebrate homologs can convert mouse fibroblast cells to cardiomyocytes in different activator cocktails, we tested whether over-expression of these three factors in vivo could ectopically activate known cardiac marker genes. We found that mesodermal over-expression of Tinman and Pannier resulted in approximately 20% of embryos with ectopic Hand and Sulphonylurea receptor (Sur) expression. By adding MEF2 alongside Tinman and Pannier, a dramatic expansion in the expression of Hand and Sur was observed in almost all embryos analyzed. Two additional cardiac markers were also expanded in their expression. Our results demonstrate the ability to initiate ectopic cardiac fate in vivo by the combination of only three members of the conserved Drosophila cardiac transcription network, and provide an opportunity for this genetic model system to be used to dissect the mechanisms of cardiac specification. PMID:26225919

  5. Myocyte enhancer factor 2D regulates ectoderm specification and adhesion properties of animal cap cells in the early Xenopus embryo.

    PubMed

    Katz Imberman, Sandra; Kolpakova, Alina; Keren, Aviad; Bengal, Eyal

    2015-08-01

    In Xenopus, animal cap (AC) cells give rise to ectoderm and its derivatives: epidermis and the central nervous system. Ectoderm has long been considered a default pathway of embryonic development, with cells that are not under the influence of vegetal Nodal signaling adopting an ectodermal program of gene expression. In the present study, we describe the involvement of the animally-localized maternal transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor (Mef) 2D in regulating the identity of AC cells. We find that Mef2D is required for the formation of both ectodermal lineages: neural and epidermis. Gain and loss of function experiments indicate that Mef2D regulates early gastrula expression of key ectodermal/epidermal genes in the animal region. Mef2D controls the activity of zygotic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling known to dictate the epidermal differentiation program. Exogenous expression of Mef2D in vegetal blastomeres was sufficient to induce ectopic expression of ectoderm/epidermal genes in the vegetal half of the embryo, when Nodal signaling was inhibited. Depletion of Mef2D caused a loss of AC cell adhesion that was rescued by the expression of E-cadherin or bone morphogenetic protein 4. In addition, expression of Mef2D in the prospective endoderm caused unusual aggregation of vegetal cells with animal cells in vitro and inappropriate segregation to other germ layers in vivo. Mef2D cooperates with another animally-expressed transcription factor, FoxI1e. Together, they regulate the expression of genes encoding signaling proteins and the transcription factors that control the regional identity of animal cells. Therefore, we describe a new role for the animally-localized Mef2D protein in early ectoderm specification, which is similar to that of the vegetally-localized VegT in endoderm and mesoderm formation.

  6. Identification of singles bar as a direct transcriptional target of Drosophila Myocyte enhancer factor-2 and a regulator of adult myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Tonya M; Fremin, Brayon J; Cripps, Richard M

    2015-05-15

    In Drosophila, myoblast fusion is a conserved process in which founder cells (FCs) and fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a syncytial muscle fiber. Mutants for the myogenic regulator Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) show a failure of myoblast fusion, indicating that MEF2 regulates the fusion process. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that several genes involved in myoblast fusion are bound by MEF2 during embryogenesis. Of these, the MARVEL domain gene singles bar (sing), is down-regulated in MEF2 knockdown pupae, and has five consensus MEF2 binding sites within a 9000-bp region. To determine if MEF2 is an essential and direct regulator of sing during pupal muscle development, we identified a 315-bp myoblast enhancer of sing. This enhancer was active during myoblast fusion, and mutation of two MEF2 sites significantly decreased enhancer activity. We show that lack of sing expression resulted in adult lethality and muscle loss, due to a failure of fusion during the pupal stage. Additionally, we sought to determine if sing was required in either FCs or FCMs to support fusion. Interestingly, knockdown of sing in either population did not significantly affect fusion, however, knockdown in both FCs and FCMs resulted in muscles with significantly reduced nuclei numbers, provisionally indicating that sing function is required in either cell type, but not both. Finally, we found that MEF2 regulated sing expression at the embryonic stage through the same 315-bp enhancer, indicating that sing is a MEF2 target at both critical stages of myoblast fusion. Our studies define for the first time how MEF2 directly controls fusion at multiple stages of the life cycle, and provide further evidence that the mechanisms of fusion characterized in Drosophila embryos is also used in the formation of the more complex adult muscles.

  7. Inhibition of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A improved diabetic cardiac fibrosis partially by regulating endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Ying; Lv, Rui-Juan; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yu-Gang; Li, Peng; Dong, Wen-Qian; Liu, Xue; Liang, Er-Shun; Tian, Hong-Liang; Lu, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Xiang

    2016-05-24

    Cardiac fibrosis is an important pathological process of diabetic cardiomyopathy, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study sought to identify whether inhibition of Myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) alleviates cardiac fibrosis by partially regulating Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). We induced type 1 diabetes mellitus using the toxin streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and injected with lentivirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) in myocardium to inhibit MEF2A expression. Protein expression, histological and functional parameters were examined twenty-one weeks post-STZ injection. We found that Diabetes mellitus increased cardiac MEF2A expression, aggravated cardiac dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis through the accumulation of fibroblasts via EndMT. All of these features were abolished by MEF2A inhibition. MEF2A gene silencing by shRNA in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) ameliorated high glucose-induced phenotypic transition and acquisition of mesenchymal markers through interaction with p38MAPK and Smad2. We conclude that inhibition of endothelial cell-derived MEF2A might be beneficial in the prevention of diabetes mellitus-induced cardiac fibrosis by partially inhibiting EndMT through interaction with p38MAPK and Smad2. PMID:27105518

  8. Interactions between mitochondria and the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulate neuronal structural and functional plasticity and metaplasticity.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Janaina; Haas, Kurt

    2015-08-15

    The classical view of mitochondria as housekeeping organelles acting in the background to simply maintain cellular energy demands has been challenged by mounting evidence of their direct and active participation in synaptic plasticity in neurons. Time-lapse imaging has revealed that mitochondria are motile in dendrites, with their localization and fusion and fission events regulated by synaptic activity. The positioning of mitochondria directly influences function of nearby synapses through multiple pathways including control over local concentrations of ATP, Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have also shown that mitochondrial protein cascades, classically associated with apoptosis, are involved in neural plasticity in healthy cells. These findings link mitochondria to the plasticity- and metaplasticity-associated activity-dependent transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), further repositioning mitochondria as potential command centres for regulation of synaptic plasticity. Intriguingly, MEF2 and mitochondrial functions appear to be intricately intertwined, as MEF2 is a target of mitochondrial apoptotic caspases and, in turn, MEF2 regulates mitochondrial genome transcription essential for production of superoxidase and hydrogen peroxidase. Here, we review evidence supporting mitochondria as central organelles controlling the spatiotemporal expression of neuronal plasticity, and attempt to disentangle the MEF2-mitochondria relationship mediating these functions. PMID:25581818

  9. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C: a novel target gene of miR-214-3p in suppressing angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Fang-zhou; Zhu, Jie-Ning; Fu, Yong-Heng; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Deng, Chun-Yu; Hu, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Hui; Zheng, Xi-Long; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Wu, Shu-Lin; Shan, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The role of microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) in cardiac hypertrophy was not well illustrated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and potential target of miR-214-3p in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy. In mice with either Ang-II infusion or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model, miR-214-3p expression was markedly decreased in the hypertrophic myocardium. Down-regulation of miR-214-3p was observed in the myocardium of patients with cardiac hypertrophy. Expression of miR-214-3p was upregulated in Ang-II-induced hypertrophic neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy was attenuated in Ang-II-infused mice by tail vein injection of miR-214-3p. Moreover, miR-214-3p inhibited the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) in Ang-II-treated mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), which was increased in Ang-II-induced hypertrophic mouse myocardium and cardiomyocytes, was identified as a target gene of miR-214-3p. Functionally, miR-214-3p mimic, consistent with MEF2C siRNA, inhibited cell size increase and protein expression of ANP and β-MHC in Ang-II-treated mouse cardiomyocytes. The NF-κB signal pathway was verified to mediate Ang-II-induced miR-214-3p expression in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, our results revealed that MEF2C is a novel target of miR-214-3p, and attenuation of miR-214-3p expression may contribute to MEF2Cexpressionin cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27796324

  10. Neuroendocrine phenotypes in a boy with 5q14 deletion syndrome implicate the regulatory roles of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C in the postnatal hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasunari; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsushita, Yuki; Akamine, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Shaw, Chad A; Lim, Janghoo; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    The 5q14.3 deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, seizures and dysmorphic features. We report a 14-year-old boy with 5q14.3 deletion syndrome who carried a heterozygous deletion of the myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c (MEF2C) gene. In addition to the typical neurodevelopmental features of 5q14.3 deletion syndrome, he showed recurrent hypoglycemia, appetite loss and hypothermia. Hormonal loading tests using insulin, arginine and growth hormone-releasing factor revealed that growth hormone was insufficiently released into serum in response to these stimuli, thus disclosing the hypothalamic dysfunction in the present case. To uncover the biological roles of MEF2C in the hypothalamus, we studied its expression in the postnatal mouse brain. Notably, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-positive interneurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei highly expressed MEF2C. In contrast, the Rett syndrome-associated protein, Methyl-CpG binding Protein 2 (MECP2) was barely expressed in these neurons. MEF2C knockdown or overexpression experiments using Neuro2a cells revealed that MEF2C activated the endogenous transcription of NPY. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MECP2 led to derepression of the Npy gene. These data support the concept that MEF2C and MECP2 share common molecular pathways regulating the homeostatic expression of NPY in the adult hypothalamus. We propose that individuals with 5q14.3 deletion syndrome may exhibit neuroendocrine phenotypes through the functional loss of MEF2C in the postnatal hypothalamus.

  11. Autism-Associated Chromatin Regulator Brg1/SmarcA4 Is Required for Synapse Development and Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2-Mediated Synapse Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zilai; Cao, Mou; Chang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Cindy; Shi, Xuanming; Zhan, Xiaoming; Birnbaum, Shari G; Bezprozvanny, Ilya; Huber, Kimberly M; Wu, Jiang I

    2016-01-01

    Synapse development requires normal neuronal activities and the precise expression of synapse-related genes. Dysregulation of synaptic genes results in neurological diseases such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mutations in genes encoding chromatin-remodeling factor Brg1/SmarcA4 and its associated proteins are the genetic causes of several developmental diseases with neurological defects and autistic symptoms. Recent large-scale genomic studies predicted Brg1/SmarcA4 as one of the key nodes of the ASD gene network. We report that Brg1 deletion in early postnatal hippocampal neurons led to reduced dendritic spine density and maturation and impaired synapse activities. In developing mice, neuronal Brg1 deletion caused severe neurological defects. Gene expression analyses indicated that Brg1 regulates a significant number of genes known to be involved in synapse function and implicated in ASD. We found that Brg1 is required for dendritic spine/synapse elimination mediated by the ASD-associated transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and that Brg1 regulates the activity-induced expression of a specific subset of genes that overlap significantly with the targets of MEF2. Our analyses showed that Brg1 interacts with MEF2 and that MEF2 is required for Brg1 recruitment to target genes in response to neuron activation. Thus, Brg1 plays important roles in both synapse development/maturation and MEF2-mediated synapse remodeling. Our study reveals specific functions of the epigenetic regulator Brg1 in synapse development and provides insights into its role in neurological diseases such as ASD.

  12. Autism-Associated Chromatin Regulator Brg1/SmarcA4 Is Required for Synapse Development and Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2-Mediated Synapse Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zilai; Cao, Mou; Chang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Cindy; Shi, Xuanming; Zhan, Xiaoming; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Bezprozvanny, Ilya; Huber, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapse development requires normal neuronal activities and the precise expression of synapse-related genes. Dysregulation of synaptic genes results in neurological diseases such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mutations in genes encoding chromatin-remodeling factor Brg1/SmarcA4 and its associated proteins are the genetic causes of several developmental diseases with neurological defects and autistic symptoms. Recent large-scale genomic studies predicted Brg1/SmarcA4 as one of the key nodes of the ASD gene network. We report that Brg1 deletion in early postnatal hippocampal neurons led to reduced dendritic spine density and maturation and impaired synapse activities. In developing mice, neuronal Brg1 deletion caused severe neurological defects. Gene expression analyses indicated that Brg1 regulates a significant number of genes known to be involved in synapse function and implicated in ASD. We found that Brg1 is required for dendritic spine/synapse elimination mediated by the ASD-associated transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and that Brg1 regulates the activity-induced expression of a specific subset of genes that overlap significantly with the targets of MEF2. Our analyses showed that Brg1 interacts with MEF2 and that MEF2 is required for Brg1 recruitment to target genes in response to neuron activation. Thus, Brg1 plays important roles in both synapse development/maturation and MEF2-mediated synapse remodeling. Our study reveals specific functions of the epigenetic regulator Brg1 in synapse development and provides insights into its role in neurological diseases such as ASD. PMID:26459759

  13. Assignment of human myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2C (hMEF2C) to human chromosome 5q14 and evidence that MEF2C is evolutionarily conserved

    SciTech Connect

    Krainc, D.; Lipton, S.A.; Haas, M.; Ward, D.C.

    1995-10-10

    Human myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2C (hMEF2C) belongs to the MEF2 subfamily of the MADS (MCM1, AGAMOUS, DEF A, serum response factor) family of transcription factors. Members of the MADS family share a conserved domain - the MADS domain - that is necessary for DNA binding. Highly conserved versions of the MADS domain and of an adjacent domain that is known as the MEF2 domain are found in members of the MEF2 subfamily. Both of these domains are necessary for binding to the MEF2 regulatory element. This regulatory element is known to be functionally important in a variety of muscle-specific genes and possibly in the brain creatine kinase gene. The MEF2C gene product activates transcription by binding to the MEF2 element. hMEF2C is expressed at high levels in postmitotic neurons in the brain, where it is most abundant in the cerebral cortex, and is also expressed in differentiated myotubes. Several lines of evidence suggest the existence of a rat homologue of MEF2C, and a mouse homologue has been cloned. The mouse gene was mapped to mouse chromosome 13 in a region that is syntenic to human 5q13-q15. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Transcription of the human beta enolase gene (ENO-3) is regulated by an intronic muscle-specific enhancer that binds myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 proteins and ubiquitous G-rich-box binding factors.

    PubMed Central

    Feo, S; Antona, V; Barbieri, G; Passantino, R; Calì, L; Giallongo, A

    1995-01-01

    To provide evidence for the cis-regulatory DNA sequences and trans-acting factors involved in the complex pattern of tissue- and stage-specific expression of the beta enolase gene, constructs containing fragments of the gene fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene were used in transient-transfection assays of C2C12 myogenic cells. Deletion analysis revealed the presence of four major regions: two negative regions in the 5'-flanking sequence, a basal promoter region which directs expression at low levels in proliferating and differentiated muscle cells, and a positive region within the first intron that confers cell-type-specific and differentiation-induced expression. This positive regulatory element is located in the 3'-proximal portion of the first intron (nucleotides +504 to +637) and acts as an enhancer irrespective of orientation and position from the homologous beta enolase promoter or the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter, conferring in both cases muscle-specific expression to the linked reporter gene. Deletion of a putative myocyte-specific enhancer factor 1 (MEF-1) binding site, containing a canonical E-box motif, had no effects on muscle-specific transcription, indicating that this site is not required for the activity of the enhancer. Gel mobility shift assays, competition analysis, DNase I footprinting, and mutagenesis studies indicated that this element interacts through an A/T-rich box with a MEF-2 protein(s) and through a G-rich box with a novel ubiquitous factor(s). Mutation of either the G-rich box or the A/T-rich box resulted in a significantly reduced activity of the enhancer in transient-transfection assays. These data indicate that MEF-2 and G-rich-box binding factors are each necessary for tissue-specific expression of the beta enolase gene in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:7565752

  15. Dioxin (TCDD) enhances triggered-afterdepolarizations in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, An; Walker, Nigel J.; Wang, Desuo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of TCDD (2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) on action potential and afterdepolarizations were studied in rat ventricular myocytes using nystatin-perforated whole-cell patch-clamp technique. TCDD treatment, in the concentration range of 1 to 100 nM, significantly prolonged action potential duration measured at 90% of repolarization (APD90). The triggered delayed-afterdepolarizations (DADs) was observed in 6 out of 8 cells after exposure of TCDD (10 nM). In the presence of isoproterenol (ISO, 10 nM) or Bay K 8644 (1 μM), TCDD (10 nM) markedly augmented the amplitude and frequency of the arrhythmogenic DADs and triggered sustained spontaneous firings in ventricular myocytes. Voltage-clamp data indicated that TCDD (10 nM) exposure significantly enhanced the transient inward current (Iti). The triggered early-afterdepolarizations (EADs) were evoked only in cells simultaneously exposed to TCDD (10 nM) and ISO (or Bay K 8644). Further study indicated that TCDD treatment increased L-type Ca2+ current. These results indicate that activation of TCDD signaling pathway can prolong action potential duration and cause abnormal triggered afterdepolarizations. These effects may lead to clinically relevant ventricular arrhythmia especially when susceptible individuals are under elevated sympathetic stress or suffering from other myocardiopathies coincided with Ca2+-overload. PMID:17303918

  16. Nitrate-containing beetroot enhances myocyte metabolism and mitochondrial content

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Gannon, Nicholas P.; Carriker, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Beetroot (甜菜 tián cài) juice consumption is of current interest for improving aerobic performance by acting as a vasodilator and possibly through alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism and physiology. This work explored the effects of a commercially available beetroot supplement on metabolism, gene expression, and mitochondrial content in cultured myocytes. C2C12 myocytes were treated with various concentrations of the beetroot supplement for various durations. Glycolytic metabolism and oxidative metabolism were quantified via measurement of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption, respectively. Metabolic gene expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and mitochondrial content was assessed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cells treated with beetroot exhibited significantly increased oxidative metabolism, concurrently with elevated metabolic gene expression including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and glucose transporter 4, leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data show that treatment with a beetroot supplement increases basal oxidative metabolism. Our observations are also among the first to demonstrate that beetroot extract is an inducer of metabolic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. These observations support the need for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of nitrate-containing supplements for health and athletic benefits. PMID:26870674

  17. Nitrate-containing beetroot enhances myocyte metabolism and mitochondrial content.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Gannon, Nicholas P; Carriker, Colin R

    2016-01-01

    Beetroot ( tián cài) juice consumption is of current interest for improving aerobic performance by acting as a vasodilator and possibly through alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism and physiology. This work explored the effects of a commercially available beetroot supplement on metabolism, gene expression, and mitochondrial content in cultured myocytes. C2C12 myocytes were treated with various concentrations of the beetroot supplement for various durations. Glycolytic metabolism and oxidative metabolism were quantified via measurement of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption, respectively. Metabolic gene expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and mitochondrial content was assessed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cells treated with beetroot exhibited significantly increased oxidative metabolism, concurrently with elevated metabolic gene expression including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and glucose transporter 4, leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data show that treatment with a beetroot supplement increases basal oxidative metabolism. Our observations are also among the first to demonstrate that beetroot extract is an inducer of metabolic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. These observations support the need for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of nitrate-containing supplements for health and athletic benefits. PMID:26870674

  18. Trophic effect of human pericardial fluid on adult cardiac myocytes. Differential role of fibroblast growth factor-2 and factors related to ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Corda, S; Mebazaa, A; Gandolfini, M P; Fitting, C; Marotte, F; Peynet, J; Charlemagne, D; Cavaillon, J M; Payen, D; Rappaport, L; Samuel, J L

    1997-11-01

    Pericardial fluid (PF) may contain myocardial growth factors that exert paracrine actions on cardiac myocytes. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of human PF and serum, collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery, on the growth of cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes and (2) to relate the growth activity of both fluids to the adaptive changes in overloaded human hearts. Both PF and serum increased the rate of protein synthesis, measured by [14C]phenylalanine incorporation in adult rat cardiomyocytes (PF, +71.9 +/- 8.2% [n = 17]; serum, +14.9 +/- 6.5% [n = 13]; both P < .01 versus control medium). The effects of both PF and serum on cardiomyocyte growth correlated positively with the respective left ventricular (LV) mass. However, the magnitude of change with PF was 3-fold greater than with serum (P < .01). These trophic effects of PF were mimicked by exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and inhibited by anti-FGF2 antibodies and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), suggesting a relationship to FGF2. In addition, FGF2 concentration in PF was 20 times greater than in serum. On the other hand, the LV mass-dependent trophic effect, present in both fluids, was independent of FGF2 concentration or other factors, such as angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic factor, and TGF-beta. These data suggest that FGF2 in human PF is a major determining factor in normal myocyte growth, whereas unidentified LV mass-dependent factor(s), present in both PF and serum, participates in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:9351441

  19. Cardiac Non-myocyte Cells Show Enhanced Pharmacological Function Suggestive of Contractile Maturity in Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocyte Microtissues

    PubMed Central

    Ravenscroft, Stephanie M.; Pointon, Amy; Williams, Awel W.; Cross, Michael J.; Sidaway, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The immature phenotype of stem cell derived cardiomyocytes is a significant barrier to their use in translational medicine and pre-clinical in vitro drug toxicity and pharmacological analysis. Here we have assessed the contribution of non-myocyte cells on the contractile function of co-cultured human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in spheroid microtissue format. Microtissues were formed using a scaffold free 96-well cell suspension method from hESC-CM cultured alone (CM microtissues) or in combination with human primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblasts (CMEF microtissues). Contractility was characterized with fluorescence and video-based edge detection. CMEF microtissues displayed greater Ca2+ transient amplitudes, enhanced spontaneous contraction rate and remarkably enhanced contractile function in response to both positive and negative inotropic drugs, suggesting a more mature contractile phenotype than CM microtissues. In addition, for several drugs the enhanced contractile response was not apparent when endothelial cell or fibroblasts from a non-cardiac tissue were used as the ancillary cells. Further evidence of maturity for CMEF microtissues was shown with increased expression of genes that encode proteins critical in cardiac Ca2+ handling (S100A1), sarcomere assembly (telethonin/TCAP) and β-adrenergic receptor signalling. Our data shows that compared with single cell-type cardiomyocyte in vitro models, CMEF microtissues are superior at predicting the inotropic effects of drugs, demonstrating the critical contribution of cardiac non-myocyte cells in mediating functional cardiotoxicity. PMID:27125969

  20. Transforming growth factor-{beta}2 enhances differentiation of cardiac myocytes from embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinender . E-mail: Dinender.Kumar@uvm.edu; Sun, Baiming

    2005-06-24

    Stem cell therapy holds great promise for the treatment of injured myocardium, but is challenged by a limited supply of appropriate cells. Three different isoforms of transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) -{beta}1, -{beta}2, and -{beta}3 exhibit distinct regulatory effects on cell growth, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development. We compared the effects of these three different isoforms on cardiomyocyte differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) cells. In contrast to TGF-{beta}1, or -{beta}3, treatment of mouse ES cells with TGF-{beta}2 isoform significantly increased embryoid body (EB) proliferation as well as the extent of the EB outgrowth that beat rhythmically. At 17 days, 49% of the EBs treated with TGF-{beta}2 exhibited spontaneous beating compared with 15% in controls. Cardiac myocyte specific protein markers sarcomeric myosin and {alpha}-actin were demonstrated in beating EBs and cells isolated from EBs. In conclusion, TGF-{beta}2 but not TGF-{beta}1, or -{beta}3 promotes cardiac myocyte differentiation from ES cells.

  1. Carbon nanotubes enhance intercalated disc assembly in cardiac myocytes via the β1-integrin-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyu; Lü, Shuanghong; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xia; Li, Hong; Lin, Qiuxia; Mou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuwei; Han, Yao; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Changyong

    2015-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a new paradigm for constructing functional cardiac patches and repairing myocardial infarction (MI). However, little is known about how CNTs enhance the mechanical integrity and electrophysiological function of cardiac myocytes. To address this issue, we investigated the regularity and precise mechanism of the influence of CNTs on the assembly of intercalated disc (IDs). Here, single walled CNTs incorporated into collagen substrates were utilized as growth supports for neonatal cardiomyocytes, which enhanced cardiomyocyte adhesion and maturation. Furthermore, through the use of immunohistochemical staining, western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular calcium transient measurement, we discovered that the addition of CNTs remarkably increased ID-related protein expression and enhanced ID assembly and functionality. On that basis, we further explored the underlying mechanism for how CNTs enhanced ID assembly through the use of immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. We found that the β1-integrin-mediated signaling pathway mediated CNT-induced upregulation of electrical and mechanical junction proteins. Notably, CNTs remarkably accelerated gap junction formation via activation of the β1-integrin-mediated FAK/ERK/GATA4 pathway. These findings provide valuable insight into the mechanistic effects that CNTs have on neonatal cardiomyocyte performance and will have a significant impact on the future of nanomedical research.

  2. Enhancement of contraction and L-type Ca(2+) current by murrayafoline-A via protein kinase C in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Chidipi, Bojjibabu; Son, Min-Jeong; Kim, Joon-Chul; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Toan, Tran Quoc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Lee, Byung Ho; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that murrayafoline-A (1-methoxy-3-methyl-9H-carbazole, Mu-A) increases the contractility of ventricular myocytes, in part, via enhancing Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels, and that it increases the Ca(2+) transients by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we further examined the cellular mechanisms for the enhancement of contractility and L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) by Mu-A. Cell shortening and ICa,L were measured in rat ventricular myocytes using a video edge detection method and perforated patch-clamp technique, respectively. We found that the positive inotropic effect of Mu-A was not affected by pre-exposure to the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors KT5720 or H-89, or the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Interestingly, the Mu-A-mediated increases in cell shortening and in the rate of contraction were completely suppressed by pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. The stimulatory effect of Mu-A on ICa,L was not altered by inhibition of PKA (KT5720), G-protein coupled receptors (suramin), or α1-adrenoceptor (prazosin). However, pre-exposure to the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X or chelerythrine, abolished the Mu-A-induced increase in ICa,L. Pre-exposure to the Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN93 slightly reduced the stimulatory effects on contraction and ICa,L by Mu-A. Phosphorylation of PKC was enhanced by Mu-A in ventricular myocytes. These data suggest that Mu-A increases contraction and ICa,L via PKC in rat ventricular myocytes, and that the PKC-mediated responses in the presence of Mu-A may be partly mediated by CaMKII.

  3. Enhancement of dynein-mediated autophagosome trafficking and autophagy maturation by ROS in mouse coronary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Yang; Pitzer, Ashley L; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2014-11-01

    Dynein-mediated autophagosome (AP) trafficking was recently demonstrated to contribute to the formation of autophagolysosomes (APLs) and autophagic flux process in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs). However, it remains unknown how the function of dynein as a motor protein for AP trafficking is regulated under physiological and pathological conditions. The present study tested whether the dynein-mediated autophagy maturation is regulated by a redox signalling associated with lysosomal Ca(2+) release machinery. In primary cultures of CAMs, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2 O2 and O2 (-.) (generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase) significantly increased dynein ATPase activity and AP movement, which were accompanied by increased lysosomal fusion with AP and APL formation. Inhibition of dynein activity by (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) (EHNA) or disruption of the dynein complex by dynamitin (DCTN2) overexpression blocked ROS-induced dynein activation, AP movement and APL formation, and resulted in an accumulation of AP along with a failed breakdown of AP. Antagonism of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-mediated Ca(2+) signalling with NED-19 and PPADS abolished ROS-enhanced lysosomal Ca(2+) release and dynein activation in CAMs. In parallel, all these changes were also enhanced by overexpression of NADPH oxidase-1 (Nox1) gene in CAMs. Incubation with high glucose led to a marked O2 (-.) production compared with normoglycaemic CAMs, while Nox1 inhibitor ML117 abrogated this effect. Moreover, ML117 and NED-19 and PPADS significantly suppressed dynein activity and APL formation caused by high glucose. Taken together, these data suggest that ROS function as important players to regulate dynein-dependent AP trafficking leading to efficient autophagic maturation in CAMs.

  4. Coxsackievirus group B type 3 infection upregulates expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in cardiac myocytes, which leads to enhanced migration of mononuclear cells in viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Xu, Wei; Chu, Yi-Wei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Xiong, Si-Dong

    2004-11-01

    Coxsackievirus group B type 3 (CVB3) is an important cause of viral myocarditis. The infiltration of mononuclear cells into the myocardial tissue is one of the key events in viral myocarditis. Immediately after CVB3 infects the heart, the expression of chemokine(s) by infected myocardial cells may be the first trigger for inflammatory infiltration and immune response. However, it is unknown whether CVB3 can induce the chemokine expression in cardiac myocytes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemokine that stimulates the migration of mononuclear cells. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of CVB3 infection on MCP-1 expression in murine cardiac myocytes and the role of MCP-1 in migration of mononuclear cells in viral myocarditis. Our results showed that the expression of MCP-1 was significantly increased in cardiac myocytes after wild-type CVB3 infection in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which resulted in enhanced migration of mononuclear cells in mice with viral myocarditis. The migration of mononuclear cells was partially abolished by antibodies specific for MCP-1 in vivo and in vitro. Administration of anti-MCP-1 antibody prevented infiltration of mononuclear cells bearing the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 in mice with viral myocarditis. Infection by UV-irradiated CVB3 induced rapid and transient expression of MCP-1 in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, our results indicate that CVB3 infection stimulates the expression of MCP-1 in myocardial cells, which subsequently leads to migration of mononuclear cells in viral myocarditis. PMID:15507642

  5. Nitrite circumvents canonical cGMP signaling to enhance proliferation of myocyte precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Totzeck, Matthias; Schicho, Andreas; Stock, Pia; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue has a remarkable high regenerative capacity. The underlying cellular events are governed by complex signaling processes, and the proliferation of skeletal myoblasts is a key initial event. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in cell cycle regulation is well-appreciated. Nitrite, an NO oxidation product, is a stable source for NO-like bioactivity particularly in cases when oxygen shortage compromises NO-synthases activity. Although numerous studies suggest that nitrite effects are largely related to NO-dependent signaling, emerging evidence also implicates that nitrite itself can activate protein pathways albeit under physiological, normoxic conditions. This includes a recently demonstrated cyclic guanosine monophosphate-(cGMP)-independent enhancement of endothelial cell proliferation. Whether nitrite itself has the potential to affect myoblast proliferation and metabolism with or without activation of the canonical NO/cGMP pathway to subsequently support muscle cell regeneration is not known. Here we show that nitrite increases proliferation and metabolic activity of murine cultured myoblasts dose-dependently. This effect is not abolished by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimida-zoline-1-oxyl-3 oxide and does not affect intracellular cGMP levels, implicating a cGMP-independent mechanism. Nitrite circumvents the rapamycin induced attenuation of myoblast proliferation and enhances mTOR activity. Our results provide evidence for a novel potential physiological and therapeutic approach of nitrite in skeletal muscle regeneration processes under normoxia independent of NO and cGMP. PMID:25501648

  6. Expression and Critical Role of Interleukin Enhancer Binding Factor 2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shaobing; Jiang, Xu; Ding, Chaofeng; Du, Chengli; Owusu-Ansah, Kwabena Gyabaah; Weng, Xiaoyu; Hu, Wendi; Peng, Chuanhui; Lv, Zhen; Tong, Rongliang; Xiao, Heng; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 plays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the expression levels of ILF2 in HCC tissue with Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. To examine the effect of ILF2 on liver cancer cell growth and apoptosis, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ILF2 were recombined to create lentiviral overexpression vectors. Our results showed higher expression levels of ILF2 mRNA and ILF2 protein in HCC tissue compared with matched peritumoral tissue. Expression of ILF2 may regulate cell growth and apoptosis in liver cancer cells via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 related ovarian killer (Bok), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). Moreover, we inoculated nude mice with liver cancer cells to investigate the effect of ILF2 on tumorigenesis in vivo. As expected, a rapid growth was observed in cancer cells inoculated with a lentiviral vector coding Flag-ILF2 (Lenti-ILF2) compared with the control cells. Hence, these results promote a better understanding of ILF2’s potential role as a therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27556459

  7. Expression and Critical Role of Interleukin Enhancer Binding Factor 2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaobing; Jiang, Xu; Ding, Chaofeng; Du, Chengli; Owusu-Ansah, Kwabena Gyabaah; Weng, Xiaoyu; Hu, Wendi; Peng, Chuanhui; Lv, Zhen; Tong, Rongliang; Xiao, Heng; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 plays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the expression levels of ILF2 in HCC tissue with Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. To examine the effect of ILF2 on liver cancer cell growth and apoptosis, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ILF2 were recombined to create lentiviral overexpression vectors. Our results showed higher expression levels of ILF2 mRNA and ILF2 protein in HCC tissue compared with matched peritumoral tissue. Expression of ILF2 may regulate cell growth and apoptosis in liver cancer cells via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 related ovarian killer (Bok), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). Moreover, we inoculated nude mice with liver cancer cells to investigate the effect of ILF2 on tumorigenesis in vivo. As expected, a rapid growth was observed in cancer cells inoculated with a lentiviral vector coding Flag-ILF2 (Lenti-ILF2) compared with the control cells. Hence, these results promote a better understanding of ILF2's potential role as a therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27556459

  8. Inhibition of muscarinic K+ current in guinea-pig atrial myocytes by PD 81,723, an allosteric enhancer of adenosine binding to A1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Brandts, B; Bünemann, M; Hluchy, J; Sabin, G V; Pott, L

    1997-01-01

    PD 81,723 has been shown to enhance binding of adenosine to A1 receptors by stabilizing G protein-receptor coupling (‘allosteric enhancement'). Evidence has been provided that in the perfused hearts and isolated atria PD 81,723 causes a sensitization to adenosine via this mechanism. We have studied the effect of PD 81,723 in guinea-pig isolated atrial myocytes by use of whole-cell measurement of the muscarinic K+ current (IK(ACh)) activated by different Gi-coupled receptors (A1, M2, sphingolipid). PD 81,273 caused inhibition of IK(ACh) (IC50≃5 μM) activated by either of the three receptors. Receptor-independent IK(ACh) in cells loaded with GTP-γ-S and background IK(ACh), which contributes to the resting conductance of atrial myocytes, were equally sensitive to PD 81,723. At no combination of concentrations of adenosine and PD 81,723 could an enhancing effect be detected. The compound was active from the outside only. Loading of the cells with PD 81,723 (50 μM) via the patch pipette did not affect either IK(ACh) or its sensitivity to adenosine. We suggest that PD 81,723 acts as an inhibitor of inward rectifying K+ channels; this is supported by the finding that ventricular IK1, which shares a large degree of homology with the proteins (GIRK1/GIRK4) forming IK(ACh) but is not G protein-gated, was also blocked by this compound. It is concluded that the functional effects of PD 81,723 described in the literature are not mediated by the A1 adenosine receptor-Gi-IK(ACh) pathway. PMID:9249260

  9. Electrical consequences of cardiac myocyte: fibroblast coupling.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Lisa; Chilton, Lisa; Smith, Godfrey L; Nicklin, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Gap junctions are channels which allow electrical signals to propagate through the heart from the sinoatrial node and through the atria, conduction system and onwards to the ventricles, and hence are essential for co-ordinated cardiac contraction. Twelve connexin (Cx) proteins make up one gap junction channel, of which there are three main subtypes in the heart; Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45. In the cardiac myocyte, gap junctions are present mainly at the intercalated discs between neighbouring myocytes, and assist in rapid electrical conduction throughout the ventricular myocardium. Fibroblasts provide the structural skeleton of the myocardium and fibroblast numbers significantly increase in heart disease. Fibroblasts also express connexins and this may facilitate heterocellular electrical coupling between myocytes and fibroblasts in the setting of cardiac disease. Interestingly, cardiac fibroblasts have been demonstrated to increase Cx43 expression in experimental models of myocardial infarction and functional gap junctions between myocytes and fibroblasts have been reported. Therefore, in the setting of heart disease enhanced cardiac myocyte: fibroblast coupling may influence the electrical activity of the myocyte and contribute to arrhythmias.

  10. Enhancement of energy production by black ginger extract containing polymethoxy flavonoids in myocytes through improving glucose, lactic acid and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kazuya; Takeda, Shogo; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Enhancement of muscular energy production is thought to improve locomotive functions and prevent metabolic syndromes including diabetes and lipidemia. Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) has been cultivated for traditional medicine in Thailand. Recent studies have shown that black ginger extract (KPE) activated brown adipocytes and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, which may cure obesity-related dysfunction of lipid metabolism. However, the effect of KPE on glucose and lipid utilization in muscle cells has not been examined yet. Hence, we evaluated the effect of KPE and its constituents on energy metabolism in pre-differentiated (p) and differentiated (d) C2C12 myoblasts. KPE (0.1-10 μg/ml) was added to pC2C12 cells in the differentiation process for a week or used to treat dC2C12 cells for 24 h. After culturing, parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed. In terms of the results, KPE enhanced the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and lactic acid as well as the mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 in both types of cells. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α was enhanced in pC2C12 cells. In addition, KPE enhanced the production of ATP and mitochondrial biogenesis. Polymethoxy flavonoids in KPE including 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and PGC-1α. Moreover, KPE and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In conclusion, KPE and its polymethoxy flavonoids were found to enhance energy metabolism in myocytes. KPE may improve the dysfunction of muscle metabolism that leads to metabolic syndrome and locomotive dysfunction.

  11. Contribution of myocyte enhancer factor 2 family transcription factors to BZLF1 expression in Epstein-Barr virus reactivation from latency.

    PubMed

    Murata, Takayuki; Narita, Yohei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kawashima, Daisuke; Kanda, Teru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2013-09-01

    Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latency is dependent on expression of the viral transactivator BZLF1 protein, whose promoter (Zp) normally exhibits only low basal activity but is activated in response to chemical or biological inducers. Using a reporter assay system, we screened for factors that can activate Zp and isolated genes, including those encoding MEF2B, KLF4, and some cellular b-Zip family transcription factors. After confirming their importance and functional binding sites in reporter assays, we prepared recombinant EBV-BAC, in which the binding sites were mutated. Interestingly, the MEF2 mutant virus produced very low levels of BRLF1, another transactivator of EBV, in addition to BZLF1 in HEK293 cells. The virus failed to induce a subset of early genes, such as that encoding BALF5, upon lytic induction, and accordingly, could not replicate to produce progeny viruses in HEK293 cells, but this restriction could be completely lifted by exogenous supply of BRLF1, together with BZLF1. In B cells, induction of BZLF1 by chemical inducers was inhibited by point mutations in the ZII or the three SP1/KLF binding sites of EBV-BAC Zp, while leaky BZLF1 expression was less affected. Mutation of MEF2 sites severely impaired both spontaneous and induced expression of not only BZLF1, but also BRLF1 in comparison to wild-type or revertant virus cases. We also observed that MEF2 mutant EBV featured relatively high repressive histone methylation, such as H3K27me3, but CpG DNA methylation levels were comparable around Zp and the BRLF1 promoter (Rp). These findings shed light on BZLF1 expression and EBV reactivation from latency. PMID:23843637

  12. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Daichi; Oishi, Isao; Makino, Ryuichi; Kurumisawa, Nozomi; Nakaya, Ryuma; Ono, Tamao; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-04-22

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  13. HISTONE DEACETYLASE 7 (HDAC7) REGULATES MYOCYTE MIGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengzhuo; Liu, Yu; Lam, Minh; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Summary Class IIa HDACs including HDAC7 play a role in gene expression, cell differentiation, and animal development through their association with transcription factors such as myogenic enhancer factors 2 (MEF2s). In this study, we show that endogenous HDAC7 localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of C2C12 myoblasts, but is exclusively retained in the cytoplasm of myotubes after completion of differentiation process. To elucidate the role of differential distribution of HDAC7 during myogenesis, we examined the effects of stably expressed HDAC7 mutants on myogenesis. Expression of nuclear-retained HDAC7 mutants significantly inhibits myogenesis in C2C12 cells and reduces the expression of muscle-specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myogenin. The inhibition in myocyte differentiation can be partially relieved by introduction of a mutation disrupting HDAC7:MEF2 interaction. Since phosphorylation of HDAC7 plays an important role in its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, we further investigated the expression and distribution of phosphorylated HDAC7. To our surprise, the phosphorylation levels of HDAC7 at S344 and S479 were slightly decreased upon differentiation, whereas the phosphorylation of S178 was unchanged. Interestingly, a significant fraction of pS344- and/or pS479-HDAC7 localizes to plasma membrane of myotubes. In addition, Ser178-phosphorylated (pS178) HDAC7 shows a predominant actin filament-like staining prior to muscle differentiation and cytoplasmic and plasma membrane staining after differentiation. Consistent with this notion, HDAC7 partially co-localizes with actin filaments; in particular, pS178-HDAC7 largely colocalizes with actin filaments as indicated by phalloidin counter staining in myocytes. Furthermore, C2C12 cells expressing nuclear-retained HDAC7 display defects in migration. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanisms that regulate myocyte differentiation and migration by controlling the subcellular distribution of HDAC7 in

  14. Four-and-a-half LIM domains proteins are novel regulators of the protein kinase D pathway in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Cuello, Friederike; Candasamy, Alexandra J; Kemp, Elizabeth M; Ehler, Elisabeth; Haworth, Robert S; Avkiran, Metin

    2014-02-01

    PKD (protein kinase D) is a serine/threonine kinase implicated in multiple cardiac roles, including the phosphorylation of the class II HDAC5 (histone deacetylase isoform 5) and thereby de-repression of MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) transcription factor activity. In the present study we identify FHL1 (four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 1) and FHL2 as novel binding partners for PKD in cardiac myocytes. This was confirmed by pull-down assays using recombinant GST-fused proteins and heterologously or endogenously expressed PKD in adult rat ventricular myocytes or NRVMs (neonatal rat ventricular myocytes) respectively, and by co-immunoprecipitation of FHL1 and FHL2 with GFP-PKD1 fusion protein expressed in NRVMs. In vitro kinase assays showed that neither FHL1 nor FHL2 is a PKD1 substrate. Selective knockdown of FHL1 expression in NRVMs significantly inhibited PKD activation and HDAC5 phosphorylation in response to endothelin 1, but not to the α₁-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. In contrast, selective knockdown of FHL2 expression caused a significant reduction in PKD activation and HDAC5 phosphorylation in response to both stimuli. Interestingly, neither intervention affected MEF2 activation by endothelin 1 or phenylephrine. We conclude that FHL1 and FHL2 are novel cardiac PKD partners, which differentially facilitate PKD activation and HDAC5 phosphorylation by distinct neurohormonal stimuli, but are unlikely to regulate MEF2-driven transcriptional reprogramming.

  15. Exogenous insulin-like growth factor 2 administration enhances memory consolidation and persistence in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Young Woo; Gao, Qingtao; Lee, Younghwa; Lee, Hyung Eun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Memory consolidation is an important process for the formation of long-term memory. We have previously reported that mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning. Recent studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) significantly enhances memory consolidation and prevents forgetting. Thus, we hypothesized that IGF2 exerts its activity on cognitive performance in a time-dependent manner as observed in our previous study. In the one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task, we demonstrate that a bilateral injection of IGF2 into the dorsal hippocampus 6 or 9 h after training significantly enhanced the step-through latencies compared with the vehicle-treated controls in the retention trial, which was conducted 24 h after the acquisition trial. However, 12h post-training, IGF2 injection did not increase the step-through latencies. Intriguingly, in the retention trial at 21 days after the training, hippocampal IGF2 injection 6, 9 or 12 h after the acquisition trial significantly increased the step-through latencies compared with the vehicle-treated controls. IGF2 administration at 9 h and 12 h after the acquisition trial significantly increased discrimination index and exploration time on the novel-located object in the test trial at 24 h and 21 days, respectively, after the acquisition trial in the novel location recognition task. In addition, IGF2-induced an increase in the step-through latencies in the retention trial 24 h or 21 days, respectively, after the initial learning was completely abolished by co-injected anti-IGF2 receptor antibody. These results suggest that IGF2 enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning, and increased IGF2 within the 12 h after the acquisition trial, which represents a delayed consolidation phase, is also critical for memory persistence.

  16. Hydralazine-induced promoter demethylation enhances sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase and calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsun; Cheng, Chen-Chuan; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chung, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Ting-I; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2011-09-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) plays an essential role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and cardiac functions. The promoter region of SERCA2a has a high content of CpG islands; thus, epigenetic modification by inhibiting methylation can enhance SERCA2a expression in cardiomyocytes. Hydralazine, a drug frequently used in heart failure, is a potential DNA methylation inhibitor. We evaluated whether hydralazine can modulate Ca(2+) handling through an increase in SERCA2a expression via regulating methylation. We used indo-1 fluorescence, real-time RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and methylation-specific PCR to investigate intracellular Ca(2+), the expressions of RNA and protein, and methylation of SERCA2a in HL-1 cardiomyocytes with and without (control) the administration of hydralazine (1, 10, and 30 μM) for 72 h. Hydralazine (10 and 30 μM) increased the intracellular Ca(2+) transients and SR Ca(2+) contents. Hydralazine (10 and 30 μM) decreased methylation in the SERCA2a promoter region and increased the RNA and protein expressions of SERCA2a. Additionally, hydralazine (10 and 30 μM) decreased the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1. Moreover, treatment with hydralazine in isoproterenol-induced heart failure rats decreased the promoter methylation of SERCA2a and increased SERCA2a RNA expression. In conclusion, hydralazine-induced promoter demethylation may improve cardiac function through increasing SERCA2a and modulating calcium homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.

  17. Modeling gender effects on electrical activity of single ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Cieniawa, Jerzy; Baszak, Jacek; Olchowik, Grazyna; Widomska, Justyna

    2013-09-01

    In this study we investigate the mechanisms underlying gender differences in the generation of arrhythmias in the long QT and Brugada syndromes. Simulations were conducted at the single myocyte level using a detailed mathematical model of human ventricular myocytes. Given the scarce human data on the gender-related differences in single cardiac cells, we assumed gender-related differences in five ionic-current systems: fast sodium current (INa), slowly inactivating late sodium current (INal), transient outward potassium current (Ito), slow delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs), and calcium current through the L-type channel (ICa(L)), based on experimental results obtained in canine myocytes. Our modeling results suggest that in left ventricular myocytes, enhanced INal under conditions of reduced repolarization reserve results in sex-dependent development of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in the post-pause action potentials (APs). Moreover, this modeling study demonstrates increased propensity for the development of the loss of the AP dome in male epicardial myocytes of the right ventricle compared with other types of myocytes from the left and right ventricles. Finally, we also found a slight effect of INal on gender-dependent loss of AP dome in epicardial right ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, at the cellular level, gender differences in the development of EADs and the propensity to develop the loss of the AP dome can be attributed to male/female related differences in INa, INal, Ito, IKs, and ICa(L). PMID:23726761

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 delivery from spinal cord bridges to enhance angiogenesis following injury.

    PubMed

    De Laporte, Laura; des Rieux, Anne; Tuinstra, Hannah M; Zelivyanskaya, Marina L; De Clerck, Nora M; Postnov, Andrei A; Préat, Véronique; Shea, Lonnie D

    2011-09-01

    The host response to spinal cord injury can lead to an ischemic environment that can induce cell death and limits cell transplantation approaches to promote spinal cord regeneration. Spinal cord bridges that provide a localized and sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) were investigated for their ability to promote angiogenesis and nerve growth within the injury. Bridges were fabricated by fusion of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres using a gas foaming/particulate leaching technique, and proteins were incorporated by encapsulation into the microspheres and/or mixing with the microspheres before foaming. Compared to the mixing method, encapsulation reduced the losses during leaching and had a slower protein release, while VEGF was released more rapidly than FGF-2. In vivo implantation of bridges loaded with VEGF enhanced the levels of VEGF within the injury at 1 week, and bridges releasing VEGF and FGF-2 increased the infiltration of endothelial cells and the formation of blood vessel at 6 weeks postimplantation. Additionally, substantial neurofilament staining was observed within the bridge; however, no significant difference was observed between bridges with or without protein. Bridges releasing angiogenic factors may provide an approach to overcome an ischemic environment that limits regeneration and cell transplantation-based approaches.

  19. Everolimus enhances cellular cytotoxicity of lapatinib via the eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Han, Jun; Tang, Con; Chen, Nan; Lin, Zhong; Peng, Pei-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high relapse and metastatic rates; hence, development of new therapeutics is an immediate requirement. Lapatinib and everolimus have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of several carcinomas. This preclinical study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of lapatinib combined with everolimus on NPC cells. Methods The Cell Counting Kit 8 and colony formation assay were used to detect the effect of lapatinib alone or lapatinib combined with everolimus on the growth and proliferation of cells. Apoptosis was tested by flow cytometry and was further confirmed by western blot. The targets of lapatinib and the effects of lapatinib or everolimus on the eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2) kinase pathway were analyzed by western blot, which also evaluated autophagy activity. Results Lapatinib inhibited the cellular viability and colony formation in NPC cells. At 24–72 h, the average half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of lapatinib were ranging from 3 to 5 μM. This study further found that lapatinib induced both apoptosis and autophagy in NPC cells, and this autophagic activity was described as type II programmed cell death via an eEF-2 kinase-dependent pathway. In addition, augmentation of lapatinib-induced autophagy by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus enhanced the cytocidal effect of lapatinib in NPC cells via the mTOR/S6 kinase/eEF-2 kinase pathway. Conclusion This study reveals that everolimus can sensitize NPC cells to lapatinib by the activation of eEF-2 kinase and provides a potential model of combination therapy. PMID:27785067

  20. Evidence for Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 as a Mediator of Amphetamine-Enhanced Motor Improvement following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, William A.; Martin, Jody L.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.; Farrer, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have shown that addition of amphetamine to physical therapy results in enhanced motor improvement following stroke in rats, which was associated with the formation of new motor pathways from cortical projection neurons of the contralesional cortex. It is unclear what mechanisms are involved, but amphetamine is known to induce the neuronal release of catecholamines as well as upregulate fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression in the brain. Since FGF-2 has been widely documented to stimulate neurite outgrowth, the present studies were undertaken to provide evidence for FGF-2 as a neurobiological mechanism underlying amphetamine-induced neuroplasticity. In the present study rats that received amphetamine plus physical therapy following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion exhibited significantly greater motor improvement over animals receiving physical therapy alone. Amphetamine plus physical therapy also significantly increased the number of FGF-2 expressing pyramidal neurons of the contralesional cortex at 2 weeks post-stroke and resulted in significant axonal outgrowth from these neurons at 8 weeks post-stroke. Since amphetamine is a known releaser of norepinephrine, in vitro analyses focused on whether noradrenergic stimulation could lead to neurite outgrowth in a manner requiring FGF-2 activity. Primary cortical neurons did not respond to direct stimulation by norepinephrine or amphetamine with increased neurite outgrowth. However, conditioned media from astrocytes exposed to norepinephrine or isoproterenol (a beta adrenergic agonist) significantly increased neurite outgrowth when applied to neuronal cultures. Adrenergic agonists also upregulated FGF-2 expression in astrocytes. Pharmacological analysis indicated that beta receptors and alpha1, but not alpha2, receptors were involved in both effects. Antibody neutralization studies demonstrated that FGF-2 was a critical contributor to neurite outgrowth induced by astrocyte

  1. Gene Transfer into Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sarah E.; Westfall, Margaret V.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for DNA transfection are often inefficient and toxic for terminally differentiated cells, such as cardiac myocytes. Vector-based gene transfer is an efficient approach for introducing exogenous cDNA into these types of primary cell cultures. In this chapter, separate protocols for adult rat cardiac myocyte isolation and gene transfer with recombinant adenovirus are provided and are routinely utilized for studying the effects of sarcomeric proteins on myofilament function. PMID:25836585

  2. Regulation of L-type calcium channel by phospholemman in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Chen, Xiongwen; Houser, Steven R; Peterson, Blaise Z; Tucker, Amy L; Feldman, Arthur M; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated whether phospholemman (PLM) regulates L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) in mouse ventricular myocytes. Expression of α1-subunit of L-type Ca(2+) channels between wild-type (WT) and PLM knockout (KO) hearts was similar. Compared to WT myocytes, peak ICa (at -10 mV) from KO myocytes was ~41% larger, the inactivation time constant (τ(inact)) of ICa was ~39% longer, but deactivation time constant (τ(deact)) was similar. In the presence of isoproterenol (1 μM), peak ICa was ~48% larger and τ(inact) was ~144% higher in KO myocytes. With Ba(2+) as the permeant ion, PLM enhanced voltage-dependent inactivation but had no effect on τ(deact). To dissect the molecular determinants by which PLM regulated ICa, we expressed PLM mutants by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in cultured KO myocytes. After 24h in culture, KO myocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) had significantly larger peak ICa and longer τ(inact) than KO myocytes expressing WT PLM; thereby independently confirming the observations in freshly isolated myocytes. Compared to KO myocytes expressing GFP, KO myocytes expressing the cytoplasmic domain truncation mutant (TM43), the non-phosphorylatable S68A mutant, the phosphomimetic S68E mutant, and the signature PFXYD to alanine (ALL5) mutant all resulted in lower peak ICa. Expressing PLM mutants did not alter expression of α1-subunit of L-type Ca(2+) channels in cultured KO myocytes. Our results suggested that both the extracellular PFXYD motif and the transmembrane domain of PLM but not the cytoplasmic tail were necessary for regulation of peak ICa amplitude. We conclude that PLM limits Ca(2+) influx in cardiac myocytes by reducing maximal ICa and accelerating voltage-dependent inactivation.

  3. Neutrophil adherence to isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Induction by cardiac lymph collected during ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Youker, K; Smith, C W; Anderson, D C; Miller, D; Michael, L H; Rossen, R D; Entman, M L

    1992-01-01

    Canine neutrophils can be induced to adhere in vitro to isolated adult cardiac myocytes by stimulation of the neutrophils with chemotactic factors such as zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) only if the myocytes have been previously exposed to cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These cytokines induce synthesis and surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the myocyte, and neutrophil adhesion is almost entirely CD18 and ICAM-1 dependent. The present study examines cardiac-specific lymph collected from awake dogs during 1-h coronary occlusion and 3 d of reperfusion for its ability to induce both ICAM-1 expression in cardiac myocytes, and neutrophil-myocyte adherence. Reperfusion lymph induced ICAM-1 expression in isolated myocytes, and myocyte adherence to ZAS-stimulated neutrophils that was completely inhibited by anti-CD18 and anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies. This activity peaked at 90 min of reperfusion and persisted for up to 72 h. Preischemic lymph was not stimulatory. IL-1 appeared not to be a stimulating factor in lymph in that dilutions of lymph were found to inhibit the stimulatory effects of recombinant IL-1 beta. However, investigation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) revealed that recombinant IL-6 stimulated myocyte adhesiveness for ZAS-stimulated neutrophils (ED50 = 0.002 U/ml) and expression of ICAM-1 by isolated myocytes. IL-6 neutralizing antibody markedly reduced the ability of reperfusion lymph to stimulate adhesion and ICAM-1 expression, and estimates of levels of IL-6 in reperfusion lymph ranged from 0.035 to 0.14 U/ml. These results indicate that cytokines capable of promoting neutrophil-myocyte adhesion occur in extracellular fluid during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, and that one of these cytokines is IL-6. Neutrophil-myocyte adhesion may be of pathogenic significance because it may enhance the cytotoxic activity of the neutrophil. Images PMID:1346618

  4. Cell contact as an independent factor modulating cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and survival in long-term primary culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. A.; Decker, M. L.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Janes, D. M.; Decker, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes maintained in cell culture develop hypertrophy both in response to mechanical loading as well as to receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms. However, it has been shown that the hypertrophic response to these stimuli may be modulated through effects of intercellular contact achieved by maintaining cells at different plating densities. In this study, we show that the myocyte plating density affects not only the hypertrophic response and features of the differentiated phenotype of isolated adult myocytes, but also plays a significant role influencing myocyte survival in vitro. The native rod-shaped phenotype of freshly isolated adult myocytes persists in an environment which minimizes myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum. However, these conditions are not optimal for long-term maintenance of cultured adult cardiac myocytes. Conditions which promote myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum, on the other hand, also promote the re-establishment of new intercellular contacts between myocytes. These contacts appear to play a significant role in the development of spontaneous activity, which enhances the redevelopment of highly differentiated contractile, junctional, and sarcoplasmic reticulum structures in the cultured adult cardiomyocyte. Although it has previously been shown that adult cardiac myocytes are typically quiescent in culture, the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists stimulates beating and myocyte hypertrophy, and thereby serves to increase the level of intercellular contact as well. However, in densely-plated cultures with intrinsically high levels of intercellular contact, spontaneous contractile activity develops without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists. In this study, we compare the function, morphology, and natural history of adult feline cardiomyocytes which have been maintained in cultures with different levels of intercellular contact, with and without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists

  5. PKCβII Modulation of Myocyte Contractile Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyosook; Robinson, Dustin A; Stevenson, Tamara K; Wu, Helen C; Kampert, Sarah E; Pagani, Francis D; Dyke, D. Brad; Martin, Jody L; Sadayappan, Sakthival; Day, Sharlene M; Westfall, Margaret V

    2012-01-01

    Significant up-regulation of the protein kinase CβII (PKCβII) develops during heart failure and yet divergent functional outcomes are reported in animal models. The goal here is to investigate PKCβII modulation of contractile function and gain insights into downstream targets in adult cardiac myocytes. Increased PKCβII protein expression and phosphorylation developed after gene transfer into adult myocytes while expression remained undetectable in controls. The PKCβII was distributed in a perinuclear pattern and this expression resulted in diminished rates and amplitude of shortening and re-lengthening compared to controls and myocytes expressing dominant negative PKCβII (PKCβDN). Similar decreases were observed in the Ca2+ transient and the Ca2+ decay rate slowed in response to caffeine in PKCβII-expressing myocytes. Parallel phosphorylation studies indicated PKCβII targets phosphatase activity to reduce phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation at residue Thr17 (pThr17-PLB). The PKCβ inhibitor, LY379196 (LY) restored pThr17-PLB to control levels. In contrast, myofilament protein phosphorylation was enhanced by PKCβII expression, and individually, LY and the phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A each failed to block this response. Further work showed PKCβII increased Ca2+- activated, calmodulin-dependent kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) expression and enhanced both CaMKIIδ and protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of both signaling targets also was resistant to acute inhibition by LY. These later results provide evidence PKCβII modulates contractile function via intermediate downstream pathway(s) in cardiac myocytes. PMID:22587992

  6. Rat cardiac myocyte adenosine transport and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, D.A.; Rovetto, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the importance of myocardial adenosine and adenine nucleotide metabolism, the adenosine salvage pathway in ventricular myocytes was studied. Accurate estimates of transport rates, separate from metabolic fllux, were determined. Adenosine influx was constant between 3 and 60 s. Adenosine metabolism maintained intracellular adenosine concentrations < 10% of the extracellular adenosine concentrations and thus unidirectional influx could be measured. Myocytes transported adenosine via saturable and nonsaturable processes. A minimum estimate of the V/sub max/ of myocytic adenosine kinase indicated the saturable component of adenosine influx was independent of adenosine kinase activity. Saturable transport was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine and verapamil. Extracellular adenosine taken up myocytes was rapidly phosphorylated to adenine taken up by myocytes was rapidly phosphorylated to adenine nucleotides. Not all extracellular adenosine, though, was phosphorylated on entering myocytes, since free, as opposed to protein-bound, intracellular adenosine was detected after digitonin extraction of cells in the presence of 1 mM ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid.

  7. Neutrophil adherence to isolated adult canine myocytes. Evidence for a CD18-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Entman, M L; Youker, K; Shappell, S B; Siegel, C; Rothlein, R; Dreyer, W J; Schmalstieg, F C; Smith, C W

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes were isolated from adult dogs and incubated with isolated canine neutrophils (PMN). Intercellular adhesion was low and unchanged by stimulation of the PMN with zymosan activated serum or platelet activating factor (PAF) at concentrations that significantly enhance PMN adhesion to protein-coated glass and canine endothelial cell monolayers. Intercellular adhesion was significantly increased only when both myocytes and PMN were stimulated (e.g., myocytes incubated with IL-1, tumor necrosis factor, or phorbol myristate acetate, and PMN were chemotactically stimulated). Inhibitors of protein synthesis diminished the IL-1 beta-induced effect by greater than 80%. The IL-1 beta, PAF-stimulated PMN-myocyte adhesion was associated with substantial H2O2 production. Under conditions with low PMN-myocyte adhesion (i.e., IL-1 beta alone, PAF alone, or no stimulus) H2O2 production was generally less than 5% of that occurring with high adhesion. An anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (R15.7) inhibited stimulated PMN-myocyte adhesion by greater than 95% and reduced H2O2 production by greater than 90%. Control isotype-matched, binding, and nonbinding antibodies were without effect on adherence or H2O2 production. The results indicate that cytokine stimulation of adult myocytes induces expression of a ligand involved in CD18-dependent adherence of canine neutrophils. Images PMID:1970581

  8. Regional chromosomal assignments for four members of the myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 2 (MEF2) gene family to human chromosomes 15q, 19q, 5q, and 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, G.M.; Funanage, V.L.; Krahe, R.

    1994-09-01

    MEF2 genes belong to the MADS box family of transcription factors and encode proteins that bind as homo- and heterodimers to a consensus CTA(T/A){sub 4}TAG/A sequence present in the regulatory regions of numerous muscle-specific and growth inducible genes. Sequence analysis of human MEF2 cDNA clones suggested that they arose from alternatively spliced transcripts of four different genes, termed MEF2A-D. We have mapped the MEF2 genes to human chromosomal regions by identifying unique sequences in the 5{prime} or 3{prime} untranslated regions of each clone and using these sequences as PCR primers on the DNA of a human-rodent hybrid clone panel informative for different regions of the human genome. The localization of MEF2A to chromosome 15q, MEF2B to 19q, MEF2C to 5q, and MEF2D to 1q verifies the existence of at least four distinct loci for members of this gene family. The same PCR primers were used to identify individual YAC clones for each gene. Such isolated clones are now being used for fluorescence in situ hybridization for high resolution chromosomal regional assignment.

  9. MicroRNAs in the Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2)-regulated Gtl2-Dio3 Noncoding RNA Locus Promote Cardiomyocyte Proliferation by Targeting the Transcriptional Coactivator Cited2.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amanda L; Naya, Francisco J

    2015-09-18

    Understanding cell cycle regulation in postmitotic cardiomyocytes may lead to new therapeutic approaches to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. We have demonstrated previously that microRNAs encoded by the Gtl2-Dio3 noncoding RNA locus function downstream of the MEF2A transcription factor in skeletal muscle regeneration. We have also reported expression of these miRNAs in the heart. Here we investigated the role of two Gtl2-Dio3 miRNAs, miR-410 and miR-495, in cardiac muscle. Overexpression of miR-410 and miR-495 robustly stimulated cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Interestingly, unlike our findings in skeletal muscle, these miRNAs did not modulate the activity of the WNT signaling pathway. Instead, these miRNAs targeted Cited2, a coactivator required for proper cardiac development. Consistent with miR-410 and miR-495 overexpression, siRNA knockdown of Cited2 in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in robust proliferation. This phenotype was associated with reduced expression of Cdkn1c/p57/Kip2, a cell cycle inhibitor, and increased expression of VEGFA, a growth factor with proliferation-promoting effects. Therefore, miR-410 and miR-495 are among a growing number of miRNAs that have the ability to potently stimulate neonatal cardiomyocyte proliferation.

  10. Modeling the isolated cardiac myocyte.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Jose L; Wang, Fei; Bers, Donald M

    2004-01-01

    Computer modeling of cardiac myocytes has flourished in recent years. Models have evolved from mathematical descriptions of ionic channels alone to more sophisticated formulations that include calcium transport mechanisms, ATP production and metabolic pathways. The increased complexity is fueled by the new data available in the field. The continuous production of experimental data has led to the evolution of increasingly refined descriptions of the phenomena by modelers. Integrating the numerous systems involved in cardiac myocyte homeostasis makes the use of computer models necessary due to the unreliability of intuitive approaches. However the complexity of the model should not imply a cumbersome operation of the program. As with any tool, computer models have to be easy to operate or their strength will be diminished and potential users will not benefit fully from them. The contribution of the computer modeler to their respective biological fields will be more successful and enduring if modelers devote sufficient time to implement their equations into a model with user-friendly characteristics. PMID:15142742

  11. Electrochemical properties and myocyte interaction of carbon nanotube microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Fung, Andrew O; Tsiokos, Christos; Paydar, Omeed; Chen, Li Han; Jin, Sungho; Wang, Yibin; Judy, Jack W

    2010-11-10

    Arrays of carbon nanotube (CNT) microelectrodes (nominal geometric surface areas 20-200 μm(2)) were fabricated by photolithography with chemical vapor deposition of randomly oriented CNTs. Raman spectroscopy showed strong peak intensities in both G and D bands (G/D = 0.86), indicative of significant disorder in the graphitic layers of the randomly oriented CNTs. The impedance spectra of gold and CNT microelectrodes were compared using equivalent circuit models. Compared to planar gold surfaces, pristine nanotubes lowered the overall electrode impedance at 1 kHz by 75%, while nanotubes treated in O(2) plasma reduced the impedance by 95%. Cyclic voltammetry in potassium ferricyanide showed potential peak separations of 133 and 198 mV for gold and carbon nanotube electrodes, respectively. The interaction of cultured cardiac myocytes with randomly oriented and vertically aligned CNTs was investigated by the sectioning of myocytes using focused-ion-beam milling. Vertically aligned nanotubes deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were observed to penetrate the membrane of neonatal-rat ventricular myocytes, while randomly oriented CNTs remained external to the cells. These results demonstrated that CNT electrodes can be leveraged to reduce impedance and enhance biological interfaces for microelectrodes of subcellular size. PMID:20954739

  12. Engineering design of a cardiac myocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, W. J.; Pong, T.; Geisse, N. A.; Sheehy, S. P.; Diop-Frimpong, B.; Parker, K. K.

    2007-04-01

    We describe a design algorithm to build a cardiac myocyte with specific spatial dimensions and physiological function. Using a computational model of a cardiac muscle cell, we modeled calcium (Ca2+) wave dynamics in a cardiac myocyte with controlled spatial dimensions. The modeled myocyte was replicated in vitro when primary neonate rat ventricular myocytes were cultured on micropatterned substrates. The myocytes remodel to conform to the two dimensional boundary conditions and assume the shape of the printed extracellular matrix island. Mechanical perturbation of the myocyte with an atomic force microscope results in calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular stores and the propagation of a Ca2+ wave, as indicated by high speed video microscopy using fluorescent indicators of intracellular Ca2+. Analysis and comparison of the measured wavefront dynamics with those simulated in the computer model reveal that the engineered myocyte behaves as predicted by the model. These results are important because they represent the use of computer modeling, computer-aided design, and physiological experiments to design and validate the performance of engineered cells. The ability to successfully engineer biological cells and tissues for assays or therapeutic implants will require design algorithms and tools for quality and regulatory assurance.

  13. Controlled dual delivery of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Interleukin-10 by heparin-based coacervate synergistically enhances ischemic heart repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, William C W; Lee, Brandon G; Park, Dae Woo; Kim, Kyobum; Chu, Hunghao; Kim, Kang; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2015-12-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes myocardial necrosis, triggers chronic inflammatory responses, and leads to pathological remodeling. Controlled delivery of a combination of angiogenic and immunoregulatory proteins may be a promising therapeutic approach for MI. We investigated the bioactivity and therapeutic potential of an injectable, heparin-based coacervate co-delivering an angiogenic factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. Coacervate delivery of FGF2 and IL-10 preserved their bioactivities on cardiac stromal cell proliferation in vitro. Upon intramyocardial injection into a mouse MI model, echocardiography revealed that FGF2/IL-10 coacervate treated groups showed significantly improved long-term LV contractile function and ameliorated LV dilatation. FGF2/IL-10 coacervate substantially augmented LV myocardial elasticity. Additionally, FGF2/IL-10 coacervate notably enhanced long-term revascularization, especially at the infarct area. In addition, coacervate loaded with 500 ng FGF2 and 500 ng IL-10 significantly reduced LV fibrosis, considerably preserved infarct wall thickness, and markedly inhibited chronic inflammation at the infarct area. These results indicate that FGF2/IL-10 coacervate has notably greater therapeutic potential than coacervate containing only FGF2. Overall, our data suggest therapeutically synergistic effects of FGF-2/IL-10 coacervate, particularly coacervate with FGF2 and 500 ng IL-10, for the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  14. Poly(ethylene glycol) modification enhances penetration of fibroblast growth factor 2 to injured spinal cord tissue from an intrathecal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Catherine E; Tator, Charles H; Shoichet, Molly S

    2010-05-21

    There is no effective treatment for spinal cord injury and clinical drug delivery techniques are limited by the blood-spinal cord barrier. Our lab has developed an injectable drug delivery system consisting of a biopolymer blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC) that can sustain drug release for up to 24h in the intrathecal space. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has great potential for treatment of spinal cord injury due to its angiogenic and trophic effects, but previous studies showed no penetration into spinal cord tissue when delivered locally. Conjugation to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is known to improve penetration of proteins into tissue by reducing clearance and providing immunogenic shielding. We investigated conjugation of PEG to FGF2 and compared its distribution relative to unmodified FGF2 in injured spinal cord tissue when delivered intrathecally from HAMC. Importantly, PEG conjugation nearly doubled the concentration of FGF2 in the injured spinal cord when delivered locally and, contrary to previous reports, we show that some FGF2 penetrated into the injured spinal cord using a more sensitive detection technique. Our results suggest that PEGylation of FGF2 enhanced tissue penetration by reducing its rate of elimination.

  15. Redox signaling in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Celio X.C.; Anilkumar, Narayana; Zhang, Min; Brewer, Alison C.; Shah, Ajay M.

    2011-01-01

    The heart has complex mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of an oxygen supply–demand balance necessary for its contractile function in response to physiological fluctuations in workload as well as in response to chronic stresses such as hypoxia, ischemia, and overload. Redox-sensitive signaling pathways are centrally involved in many of these homeostatic and stress-response mechanisms. Here, we review the main redox-regulated pathways that are involved in cardiac myocyte excitation–contraction coupling, differentiation, hypertrophy, and stress responses. We discuss specific sources of endogenously generated reactive oxygen species (e.g., mitochondria and NADPH oxidases of the Nox family), the particular pathways and processes that they affect, the role of modulators such as thioredoxin, and the specific molecular mechanisms that are involved—where this knowledge is available. A better understanding of this complex regulatory system may allow the development of more specific therapeutic strategies for heart diseases. PMID:21236334

  16. MondoA coordinately regulates skeletal myocyte lipid homeostasis and insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byungyong; Soundarapandian, Mangala M; Sessions, Hampton; Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Roth, Gregory P; Li, Jian-Liang; Sugarman, Eliot; Koo, Ada; Malany, Siobhan; Wang, Miao; Yea, Kyungmoo; Brooks, Jeanne; Leone, Teresa C; Han, Xianlin; Vega, Rick B; Kelly, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Intramuscular lipid accumulation is a common manifestation of chronic caloric excess and obesity that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The mechanistic links between lipid accumulation in myocytes and insulin resistance are not completely understood. In this work, we used a high-throughput chemical biology screen to identify a small-molecule probe, SBI-477, that coordinately inhibited triacylglyceride (TAG) synthesis and enhanced basal glucose uptake in human skeletal myocytes. We then determined that SBI-477 stimulated insulin signaling by deactivating the transcription factor MondoA, leading to reduced expression of the insulin pathway suppressors thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and arrestin domain-containing 4 (ARRDC4). Depleting MondoA in myocytes reproduced the effects of SBI-477 on glucose uptake and myocyte lipid accumulation. Furthermore, an analog of SBI-477 suppressed TXNIP expression, reduced muscle and liver TAG levels, enhanced insulin signaling, and improved glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. These results identify a key role for MondoA-directed programs in the coordinated control of myocyte lipid balance and insulin signaling and suggest that this pathway may have potential as a therapeutic target for insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. PMID:27500491

  17. Electrodeposition of anchored polypyrrole film on microelectrodes and stimulation of cultured cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Matsuhiko; Nozaki, Hyuma; Kaji, Hirokazu; Kitazume, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Ishibashi, Takeshi; Abe, Takashi

    2007-03-01

    The electrically conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) was electrochemically deposited onto Pt microelectrodes on a polyimide (PI) substrate. Pre-modification of the PI surface with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane-induced anisotropic lateral growth of PPy along the PI surface and enhanced adhesive strength of the PPy film. The lateral growth of PPy film around the electrode anchored the whole film to the substrate. External stimulation of cultured cardiac myocytes was carried out using the PPy-coated microelectrode. The myocytes on the microelectrode substrate were electrically conjugated to form a sheet, and showed synchronized beating upon stimulation. The threshold charge for effective stimulation of a 0.8 cm(2) sheet of myocytes was around 0.2 microC, roughly corresponding to a membrane depolarization of 250 mV.

  18. Integrative modeling of the cardiac ventricular myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Raimond L.; Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian; Hashambhoy, Yasmin L.; Rice, John Jeremy; Greenstein, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac electrophysiology is a discipline with a rich 50-year history of experimental research coupled with integrative modeling which has enabled us to achieve a quantitative understanding of the relationships between molecular function and the integrated behavior of the cardiac myocyte in health and disease. In this paper, we review the development of integrative computational models of the cardiac myocyte. We begin with a historical overview of key cardiac cell models that helped shape the field. We then narrow our focus to models of the cardiac ventricular myocyte and describe these models in the context of their subcellular functional systems including dynamic models of voltage-gated ion channels, mitochondrial energy production, ATP-dependent and electrogenic membrane transporters, intracellular Ca dynamics, mechanical contraction, and regulatory signal transduction pathways. We describe key advances and limitations of the models as well as point to new directions for future modeling research. PMID:20865780

  19. Two Types of Calcium Channels in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Raman; Morad, Martin

    1986-07-01

    In cardiac muscle, Ca2+ plays a key role in regulation of numerous processes, including generation of the action potential and development of tension. The entry of Ca2+ into the cell is regulated primarily by voltage-gated channels in the membrane. Until recently, it was felt that only one type of Ca2+ channel existed in cardiac ventricular muscle. Experiments reported here suggest that in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, there are two distinct types of Ca2+ channels with markedly different activation thresholds, inactivation kinetics, and sensitivities to inorganic and organic Ca2+ channel blockers. The channels were also distinguished based on their response to increased frequency of clamping such that the current through the low-threshold channel decreased while that through the high-threshold channel increased. In a few cells, the current through both channels was enhanced by isoproterenol, a β -adrenergic agonist, but only the high-threshold channel was enhanced by the Ca2+-channel agonist Bay K 8644. Thus, isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes appear to have two types of Ca2+ channels distinguished by various criteria.

  20. Mechanically induced orientation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, J.-L.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present study describes the spatial orientation of a population of freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes using a computerized mechanical cell stimulator device for tissue cultured cells. A continuous unidirectional stretch of the substratum at 60 to 400 microns/min for 120 to 30 min, respectively, during the cell attachment period in a serum-free medium was found to induce a significant threefold increase in the number of rod-shaped myocytes oriented parallel to the direction of movement. The myocytes orient less well with unidirectional substratum stretching after their adhesion to the substratum. Adult myocytes plated onto a substratum undergoing continuous 10-percent stretch-relaxation cycling show no significant change in the myocyte orientation or cytoskeletal organization. In addition to the type of mechanical activity, orientation of rod-shaped myocytes is dependent on the speed of the substratum, the final stretch amplitude, and the timing between initiation of substratum stretching and adhesion of myocytes to the substratum.

  1. Diesterified nitrone rescues nitroso-redox levels and increases myocyte contraction via increased SR Ca(2+) handling.

    PubMed

    Traynham, Christopher J; Roof, Steve R; Wang, Honglan; Prosak, Robert A; Tang, Lifei; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Racoma, Ira O; Catalano, Dominic J; Huang, Xin; Han, Yongbin; Kim, Shang-U; Gyorke, Sandor; Billman, George E; Villamena, Frederick A; Ziolo, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O(2) (-)) are important cardiac signaling molecules that regulate myocyte contraction. For appropriate regulation, NO and O(2) (.-) must exist at defined levels. Unfortunately, the NO and O(2) (.-) levels are altered in many cardiomyopathies (heart failure, ischemia, hypertrophy, etc.) leading to contractile dysfunction and adverse remodeling. Hence, rescuing the nitroso-redox levels is a potential therapeutic strategy. Nitrone spin traps have been shown to scavenge O(2) (.-) while releasing NO as a reaction byproduct; and we synthesized a novel, cell permeable nitrone, 2-2-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide (EMEPO). We hypothesized that EMEPO would improve contractile function in myocytes with altered nitroso-redox levels. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from wildtype (C57Bl/6) and NOS1 knockout (NOS1(-/-)) mice, a known model of NO/O(2) (.-) imbalance, and incubated with EMEPO. EMEPO significantly reduced O(2) (.-) (lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence) and elevated NO (DAF-FM diacetate) levels in NOS1(-/-) myocytes. Furthermore, EMEPO increased NOS1(-/-) myocyte basal contraction (Ca(2+) transients, Fluo-4AM; shortening, video-edge detection), the force-frequency response and the contractile response to β-adrenergic stimulation. EMEPO had no effect in wildtype myocytes. EMEPO also increased ryanodine receptor activity (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak/load relationship) and phospholamban Serine16 phosphorylation (Western blot). We also repeated our functional experiments in a canine post-myocardial infarction model and observed similar results to those seen in NOS1(-/-) myocytes. In conclusion, EMEPO improved contractile function in myocytes experiencing an imbalance of their nitroso-redox levels. The concurrent restoration of NO and O(2) (.-) levels may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of various cardiomyopathies. PMID:23300588

  2. Mst1 inhibition rescues β1-adrenergic cardiomyopathy by reducing myocyte necrosis and non-myocyte apoptosis rather than myocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace J.; Yan, Lin; Vatner, Dorothy E.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that inhibition of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) protects the heart through reducing myocyte apoptosis. We determined whether inhibition with a dominant-negative Mst1 (DN-Mst1) would protect against the cardiomyopathy induced by chronic β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) stimulation by preventing myocyte apoptosis. DN-Mst1 mice were mated with β1-AR transgenic (Tg) mice and followed for 20 months. β1-AR Tg mice developed cardiomyopathy as they aged, as reflected by premature mortality and depressed cardiac function, which were rescued in β1-AR × DN-Mst1 bigenic mice. Surprisingly, myocyte apoptosis did not significantly decrease with Mst1 inhibition. Instead, Mst1 inhibition predominantly reduced non-myocyte apoptosis, e.g., fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils and endothelial cells. Fibrosis in the hearts with cardiomyopathy increased fivefold and this increase was nearly abolished in the bigenic mice with Mst1 inhibition. Regression analysis showed no correlation between myocyte apoptosis and cardiac function or myocyte number, whereas the latter two correlated significantly, p < 0.05, with fibrosis, which generally results from necrosis. To examine the role of myocyte necrosis, chronic β-AR stimulation with isoproterenol was induced for 24 h and myocyte necrosis was assessed by 1 % Evans blue dye. Compared to WT, DN-Mst1 mice showed significant inhibition, p < 0.05, of myocyte necrosis. We confirmed this result in Mst1-knockout mice, which also showed significant protection, p < 0.05, against myocyte necrosis compared to WT. These data indicate that Mst1 inhibition rescued cardiac fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction in β1-AR cardiomyopathy. However, this did not occur through Mst1 inhibition of myocyte apoptosis but rather by inhibition of cardiomyocyte necrosis and non-myocyte apoptosis, features of Mst1 not considered previously. PMID:25600225

  3. Mechanisms of leukocyte accumulation and activation in chorioamnionitis: interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha enhance colony stimulating factor 2 expression in term decidua.

    PubMed

    Arcuri, Felice; Toti, Paolo; Buchwalder, Lynn; Casciaro, Alessandra; Cintorino, Marcella; Schatz, Frederick; Rybalov, Basya; Lockwood, Charles J

    2009-05-01

    Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of prematurity as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality. The present study observed a marked increase in immunohistochemical staining for Colony Stimulating Factor 2 (CSF2; also known as granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor), a potent neutrophil and macrophage chemoattractant and activator, in the decidua of patients with CAM compared with controls (n = 8; P = .001). To examine the regulation of this CSF2, cultured decidual cells primed with estradiol (E2) or E2 plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-1beta and secreted CSF2 measured by ELISA. Levels of CSF2 in E2 plus MPA-treated cultures increased 18- and 245-fold following treatment with TNF or IL1B (n = 7, P < .05). Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated parallel changes in mRNA levels. This study reveals that CSF2 is strongly expressed in decidua from patients with CAM and indicates TNF or IL1B as important regulators of CAM-related decidual leukocyte infiltration and activation.

  4. Sodium current kinetics in cat atrial myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Follmer, C H; ten Eick, R E; Yeh, J Z

    1987-01-01

    1. Na+ current kinetics were studied in isolated atrial myocytes from the adult cat using the single suction-pipette voltage-clamp technique. 2. Current-voltage and conductance-voltage relationships were similar to those described in other cardiac myocyte preparations. 3. Analysis of Na+ current decay using single-pulse, double-pulse and tail current measurements were in agreement and demonstrate a second-order process of current decay. 4. Voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation curves was not symmetrical, having an inflexion at about -90 mV. These results suggest more than a single inactivation process for Na+ channel in the negative potential region. 5. Recovery of Na+ current from inactivation had a sigmoid time course: an initial slow component (delay) followed by a fast and then a second slow component. Increasing the pre-pulse duration slowed the time course of recovery. 6. Taken together, the results were consistent with the presence of multiple inactivated states for the atrial myocyte Na+ channel. PMID:2443658

  5. Isoform- and tissue-specific regulation of the Ca(2+)-sensitive transcription factor NFAT in cardiac myocytes and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Andreas; Kapur, Nidhi; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Pogwizd, Steven M; Bers, Donald M; Banach, Kathrin; Blatter, Lothar A

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFATs) are Ca(2+)-sensitive transcription factors that have been implicated in hypertrophy, heart failure (HF), and arrhythmias. Cytosolic NFAT is activated by dephosphorylation by the Ca(2+)-sensitive phosphatase calcineurin, resulting in translocation to the nucleus, which is opposed by kinase activity, rephosphorylation, and nuclear export. Four different NFAT isoforms are expressed in the heart. The activation and regulation of NFAT in adult cardiac myocytes, which may depend on the NFAT isoform and cell type, are not fully understood. This study compared basal localization, import, and export of NFATc1 and NFATc3 in adult atrial and ventricular myocytes to identify isoform- and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms of NFAT activation under physiological conditions and in HF. NFAT-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins and NFAT immunocytochemistry were used to analyze NFAT regulation in adult cat and rabbit myocytes. NFATc1 displayed basal nuclear localization in atrial and ventricular myocytes, an effect that was attenuated by reducing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and inhibiting calcineurin, and enhanced by the inhibition of nuclear export. In contrast, NFATc3 was localized to the cytoplasm but could be driven to the nucleus by angiotensin II and endothelin-1 stimulation in atrial, but not ventricular, cells. Inhibition of nuclear export (by leptomycin B) facilitated nuclear localization in both cell types. Ventricular myocytes from HF rabbits showed increased basal nuclear localization of endogenous NFATc3 and reduced responsiveness of NFAT translocation to phenylephrine stimulation. In control myocytes, Ca(2+) overload, leading to spontaneous Ca(2+) waves, induced substantial translocation of NFATc3 to the nucleus. We conclude that the activation of NFAT in adult cardiomyocytes is isoform and tissue specific and is tightly controlled by nuclear export. NFAT is activated in myocytes from HF animals and may be

  6. Novel Protective Role of Endogenous Cardiac Myocyte P2X4 Receptors in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tiehong; Shen, Jian-bing; Yang, Ronghua; Redden, John; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Grady, James; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Liang, Bruce T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF), despite continuing progress, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) have emerged as potentially important molecules in regulating cardiac function and as potential targets for HF therapy. Transgenic P2X4R overexpression can protect against HF, but this does not explain the role of native cardiac P2X4R. Our goal is to define the physiological role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R under basal conditions and during HF induced by myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Methods and Results Mice established with conditional cardiac-specific P2X4R knockout were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation–induced postinfarct or transverse aorta constriction–induced pressure overload HF. Knockout cardiac myocytes did not show P2X4R by immunoblotting or by any response to the P2X4R-specific allosteric enhancer ivermectin. Knockout hearts showed normal basal cardiac function but depressed contractile performance in postinfarct and pressure overload models of HF by in vivo echocardiography and ex vivo isolated working heart parameters. P2X4R coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) in wild-type cardiac myocytes. Mice with cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpression had increased S-nitrosylation, cyclic GMP, NO formation, and were protected from postinfarct and pressure overload HF. Inhibitor of eNOS, L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride, blocked the salutary effect of cardiac P2X4R overexpression in postinfarct and pressure overload HF as did eNOS knockout. Conclusions This study establishes a new protective role for endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R in HF and is the first to demonstrate a physical interaction between the myocyte receptor and eNOS, a mediator of HF protection. PMID:24622244

  7. Loss of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha in the lung alveolar epithelium of mice leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation in cobalt-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Proper, Steven P; Saini, Yogesh; Greenwood, Krista K; Bramble, Lori A; Downing, Nathaniel J; Harkema, Jack R; Lapres, John J

    2014-02-01

    Hard metal lung disease (HMLD) is an occupational lung disease specific to inhalation of cobalt-containing particles whose mechanism is largely unknown. Cobalt is a known hypoxia mimic and stabilizer of the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Previous work revealed that though HIF1α contrib utes to cobalt toxicity in vitro, loss of HIF1α in the alveolar epithelial cells does not provide in vivo protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation. HIF1α and HIF2α show unique tissue expression profiles, and HIF2α is known to be the predominant HIF mRNA isoform in the adult lung. Thus, if HIF2α activation by cobalt contributes to pathophysiology of HMLD, we hypothesized that loss of HIF2α in lung epithelium would provide protection from cobalt-induced inflammation. Mice with HIF2α-deficiency in Club and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATIIs) (HIF2α(Δ/Δ)) were exposed to cobalt (60 µg/day) or saline using a subacute occupational exposure model. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity, cytokines, qRT-PCR, and histopathology were analyzed. Results show that loss of HIF2α leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation and increased goblet cell metaplasia. Additionally, control mice demonstrated a mild recovery from cobalt-induced lung injury compared with HIF2α(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a role for epithelial HIF2α in repair mechanisms. The expression of important cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10, displayed significant differences following cobalt exposure when HIF2α(Δ/Δ) and control mice were compared. In summary, our data suggest that although loss of HIF2α does not afford protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation, epithelial HIF2α signaling does play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and repair response in the lung.

  8. Loss of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha in the lung alveolar epithelium of mice leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation in cobalt-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Proper, Steven P; Saini, Yogesh; Greenwood, Krista K; Bramble, Lori A; Downing, Nathaniel J; Harkema, Jack R; Lapres, John J

    2014-02-01

    Hard metal lung disease (HMLD) is an occupational lung disease specific to inhalation of cobalt-containing particles whose mechanism is largely unknown. Cobalt is a known hypoxia mimic and stabilizer of the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Previous work revealed that though HIF1α contrib utes to cobalt toxicity in vitro, loss of HIF1α in the alveolar epithelial cells does not provide in vivo protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation. HIF1α and HIF2α show unique tissue expression profiles, and HIF2α is known to be the predominant HIF mRNA isoform in the adult lung. Thus, if HIF2α activation by cobalt contributes to pathophysiology of HMLD, we hypothesized that loss of HIF2α in lung epithelium would provide protection from cobalt-induced inflammation. Mice with HIF2α-deficiency in Club and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATIIs) (HIF2α(Δ/Δ)) were exposed to cobalt (60 µg/day) or saline using a subacute occupational exposure model. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity, cytokines, qRT-PCR, and histopathology were analyzed. Results show that loss of HIF2α leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation and increased goblet cell metaplasia. Additionally, control mice demonstrated a mild recovery from cobalt-induced lung injury compared with HIF2α(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a role for epithelial HIF2α in repair mechanisms. The expression of important cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10, displayed significant differences following cobalt exposure when HIF2α(Δ/Δ) and control mice were compared. In summary, our data suggest that although loss of HIF2α does not afford protection from cobalt-induced lung inflammation, epithelial HIF2α signaling does play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and repair response in the lung. PMID:24218148

  9. Distinct effects of Abelson kinase mutations on myocytes and neurons in dissociated Drosophila embryonic cultures: mimicking of high temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) is known to regulate axon guidance, muscle development, and cell-cell interaction in vivo. The Drosophila primary culture system offers advantages in exploring the cellular mechanisms mediated by Abl with utilizing various experimental manipulations. Here we demonstrate that single-embryo cultures exhibit stage-dependent characteristics of cellular differentiation and developmental progression in neurons and myocytes, as well as nerve-muscle contacts. In particular, muscle development critically depends on the stage of dissociated embryos. In wild-type (WT) cultures derived from embryos before stage 12, muscle cells remained within cell clusters and were rarely detected. Interestingly, abundant myocytes were spotted in Abl mutant cultures, exhibiting enhanced myocyte movement and fusion, as well as neuron-muscle contacts even in cultures dissociated from younger, stage 10 embryos. Notably, Abl myocytes frequently displayed well-expanded lamellipodia. Conversely, Abl neurons were characterized with fewer large veil-like lamellipodia, but instead had increased numbers of filopodia and darker nodes along neurites. These distinct phenotypes were equally evident in both homo- and hetero-zygous cultures (Abl/Abl vs. Abl/+) of different alleles (Abl(1) and Abl(4) ) indicating dominant mutational effects. Strikingly, in WT cultures derived from stage 10 embryos, high temperature (HT) incubation promoted muscle migration and fusion, partially mimicking the advanced muscle development typical of Abl cultures. However, HT enhanced neuronal growth with increased numbers of enlarged lamellipodia, distinct from the characteristic Abl neuronal morphology. Intriguingly, HT incubation also promoted Abl lamellipodia expansion, with a much greater effect on nerve cells than muscle. Our results suggest that Abl is an essential regulator for myocyte and neuron development and that high-temperature incubation partially mimics the faster muscle development

  10. Patterning, Prestress, and Peeling Dynamics of Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Maureen A.; Engler, Adam J.; Barber, Thomas A.; Healy, Kevin E.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Discher, Dennis E.

    2004-01-01

    As typical anchorage-dependent cells myocytes must balance contractility against adequate adhesion. Skeletal myotubes grown as isolated strips from myoblasts on micropatterned glass exhibited spontaneous peeling after one end of the myotube was mechanically detached. Such results indicate the development of a prestress in the cells. To assess this prestress and study the dynamic adhesion strength of single myocytes, the shear stress of fluid aspirated into a large-bore micropipette was then used to forcibly peel myotubes. The velocity at which cells peeled from the surface, Vpeel, was measured as a continuously increasing function of the imposed tension, Tpeel, which ranges from ∼0 to 50 nN/μm. For each cell, peeling proved highly heterogeneous, with Vpeel fluctuating between 0 μm/s (∼80% of time) and ∼10 μm/s. Parallel studies of smooth muscle cells expressing GFP-paxillin also exhibited a discontinuous peeling in which focal adhesions fractured above sites of strong attachment (when pressure peeled using a small-bore pipette). The peeling approaches described here lend insight into the contractile-adhesion balance and can be used to study the real-time dynamics of stressed adhesions through both physical detection and the use of GFP markers; the methods should prove useful in comparing normal versus dystrophic muscle cells. PMID:14747355

  11. Myocyte proliferation in the developing heart

    PubMed Central

    Sedmera, David; Thompson, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of organ growth is critical during embryogenesis. At the cellular level, mechanisms controlling the size of individual embryonic organs include cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and attrition through cell death. All these mechanisms play a role in cardiac morphogenesis, but experimental studies have shown that the major determinant of cardiac size during prenatal development is myocyte proliferation. As this proliferative capacity becomes severely restricted after birth, the number of cell divisions that occur during embryogenesis limits the growth potential of the postnatal heart. We summarize here current knowledge concerning regional control of myocyte proliferation as related to cardiac morphogenesis and dysmorphogenesis. There are significant spatial and temporal differences in rates of cell division, peaking during the pre-septation period and then gradually decreasing towards birth. Analysis of regional rates of proliferation helps to explain the mechanics of ventricular septation, chamber morphogenesis, and the development of the cardiac conduction system. Proliferation rates are influenced by hemodynamic loading, and transduced by autocrine and paracrine signaling via growth factors. Understanding the biological response of the developing heart to such factors and physical forces will further our progress in engineering artificial myocardial tissues for heart repair and designing optimal treatment strategies for congenital heart disease. PMID:21538685

  12. Evidence for selective regulation of the phosphorylation of myocyte proteins by isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J S; Bowling, N; King, K L; Boder, G B

    1982-01-12

    Both isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1 increased the activation state of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cultured myocytes; however, only isoproterenol enhanced phosphorylase activity and contractile state. Following the incubation of intact myocytes with 32PO3-(4), 32 phosphoproteins were resolved from total cellular proteins by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels followed by autoradiography. Isoproterenol stimulated 32PO3-(4) incorporation into 16 proteins, including 2 phosphoproteins not observed under control conditions. By contrast, prostaglandin E1 neither caused a measurable change in the protein phosphorylation pattern nor interfered with isoproterenol's capacity to do so. Isoproterenol stimulated myocyte protein phosphorylation in either the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. The results suggest that the regulation of protein phosphorylation following adenylate cyclase stimulation is: (1) an agonist-specific process and not due solely to a random accumulation of intracellular cycle AMP and activation of protein kinase; (2) the Ca2+ mobilization component of beta-receptor activation does not account for the paradoxical effects of isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1; (3) activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase does not always result in an enhancement of protein phosphorylation.

  13. The Scaffold Protein Muscle A-Kinase Anchoring Protein β Orchestrates Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophic Signaling Required for the Development of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kritzer, Michael D.; Li, Jinliang; Passariello, Catherine L.; Gayanilo, Marjorie; Thakur, Hrishikesh; Dayan, Joseph; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Kapiloff, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy is regulated by an extensive intracellular signal transduction network. In vitro evidence suggests that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein β (mAKAPβ) serves as a nodal organizer of hypertrophic signaling. However, the relevance of mAKAPβ signalosomes to pathological remodeling and heart failure in vivo remains unknown. Methods and Results Using conditional, cardiac myocyte–specific gene deletion, we now demonstrate that mAKAPβ expression in mice is important for the cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and catecholamine toxicity. mAKAPβ targeting prevented the development of heart failure associated with long-term transverse aortic constriction, conferring a survival benefit. In contrast to 29% of control mice (n=24), only 6% of mAKAPβ knockout mice (n=31) died in the 16 weeks of pressure overload (P=0.02). Accordingly, mAKAPβ knockout inhibited myocardial apoptosis and the development of interstitial fibrosis, left atrial hypertrophy, and pulmonary edema. This improvement in cardiac status correlated with the attenuated activation of signaling pathways coordinated by the mAKAPβ scaffold, including the decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase D1 and histone deacetylase 4 that we reveal to participate in a new mAKAP signaling module. Furthermore, mAKAPβ knockout inhibited pathological gene expression directed by myocyte-enhancer factor-2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell transcription factors that associate with the scaffold. Conclusions mAKAPβ orchestrates signaling that regulates pathological cardiac remodeling in mice. Targeting of the underlying physical architecture of signaling networks, including mAKAPβ signalosome formation, may constitute an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of pathological remodeling and heart failure. PMID:24812305

  14. Physiological changes induced in cardiac myocytes by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hassin, D.; Fixler, R.; Shimoni, Y.; Rubinstein, E.; Raz, S.; Gotsman, M.S.; Hasin, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The lethal hit induced by viral specific, sensitized, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) attacking virus-infected heart cells is important in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis and reflects the key role of CTL in this immune response. The mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Studies of the physiological changes induced in mengovirus-infected, cultured, neonatal, rat heart cells by CTL that had been previously sensitized by the same virus are presented. The CTL were obtained from spleens of mengovirus-infected, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matched adult rats. Cell wall motion was measured by an optical method, action potentials with intracellular microelectrodes, and total exchangeable calcium content by /sup 45/Ca tracer measurements after loading the myocytes with /sup 45/Ca and then exposing them to CTL. After 50 min (mean time) of exposing mengovirus-infected myocytes to the CTL, the mechanical relaxation of the myocyte was slowed, with a subsequent slowing of beating rate and a reduced amplitude of contraction. Impaired relaxation progressed, and prolonged oscillatory contractions lasting up to several seconds appeared, with accompanying oscillations in the prolonged plateau phase of the action potentials. Arrest of the myocyte contractions appeared 98 min (mean time) after exposure to CTL. It is concluded that infection of cultured myocytes with mengovirus predisposes them to attack by mengovirus specific CTL, and that persistent dysfunction of the myocyte is preceded by reversible changes in membrane potential and contraction. This is suggestive of an altered calcium handling by the myocytes possibly resulting in the cytotoxic effect.

  15. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis in relation to myocyte necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, I.J.; Jalil, J.E.; Tan, L.B.; Cho, K.; Weber, K.T.; Clark, W.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol results in cardiac hypertrophy, myocyte necrosis, and interstitial cell fibrosis. Our objectives in this study have been to examine whether hypertrophy and fibrosis occur in a compensatory and reparative response to myocyte loss or whether either process may be occurring independently of myocyte loss and thus be a reactive response to adrenergic hormone stimulation. We have examined this question by evaluating each of these responses in rats treated with different doses and forms of isoproterenol administration. Myocyte necrosis was evaluated using in vivo labeling with monoclonal antimyosin for identification of myocytes with permeable sarcolemma, which was indicative of irreversible injury. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated by morphometric point counting of Gomori-stained tissue sections and by assessment of the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by determination of increased levels of DNA synthesis. Stimulation of fibroblast DNA synthesis was determined from DNA specific radioactivities and radioautography after pulse labeling with (3H)thymidine. The evidence provided by this study suggests that the degree and timing of myocardial hypertrophy does not follow the course of myocyte loss and, thus, appears to be either a response to altered cardiac loading or a reactive response to beta-adrenergic hormone stimulation rather than a compensation for myocyte loss. Myocardial fibrosis, on the other hand, appears to be more closely related to myocyte necrosis with respect to collagen accumulation in the same areas of the heart, its dose-response relation to the amount of isoproterenol administered, and the timing of increased DNA synthesis, or fibroblast proliferation, after myocyte loss.

  16. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Tafazzin Gene Knockdown in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Quan; Harris, Nicole; Ren, Jun; Han, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:25247053

  17. Physiological pathway of magnesium influx in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Michiko; Inoue, Hana; Konishi, Masato

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic free Mg(2+) concentration ([Mg(2+)]i) was measured in rat ventricular myocytes with a fluorescent indicator furaptra (mag-fura-2) introduced by AM-loading. By incubation of the cells in a high-K(+) (Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-free) solution, [Mg(2+)]i decreased from ? 0.9 mM to 0.2 to 0.5 mM. The lowered [Mg(2+)]i was recovered by perfusion with Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution containing 1 mM Mg(2+). The time course of the [Mg(2+)]i recovery was fitted by a single exponential function, and the first derivative at time 0 was analyzed as being proportional to the initial Mg(2+) influx rate. The Mg(2+) influx rate was inversely related to [Mg(2+)]i, being higher at low [Mg(2+)]i. The Mg(2+) influx rate was augmented by the high extracellular Mg(2+) concentration (5 mM), whereas it was greatly reduced by cell membrane depolarization caused by high K(+). Known inhibitors of TRPM7 channels, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), NS8593, and spermine reduced the Mg(2+) influx rate with half inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of, respectively, 17 ?M, 2.0 ?M, and 22 ?M. We also studied Ni(2+) influx by fluorescence quenching of intracellular furaptra by Ni(2+). The Ni(2+) influx was activated by lowering intra- and extracellular Mg(2+) concentrations, and it was inhibited by 2-APB and NS8593 with IC50 values comparable with those for the Mg(2+) influx. Intracellular alkalization (caused by pulse application of NH4Cl) enhanced, whereas intracellular acidification (induced after the removal of NH4Cl) slowed the Mg(2+) influx. Under the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, the removal of intracellular and extracellular divalent cations induced large inward and outward currents, MIC (Mg-inhibited cation) currents or IMIC, carried by monovalent cations likely via TRPM7 channels. IMIC measured at -120 mV was diminished to ? 50% by 100 ?M 2-APB or 10 ?M NS8593. These results suggest that TRPM7/MIC channels serve as a major physiological pathway of Mg(2+) influx in rat

  18. Aged garlic extract enhances heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit expression via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kei; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Morihara, Naoaki

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway defends cells against oxidative stress and regulates the cellular redox balance. Activation of this pathway induces a variety of antioxidant enzymes, resulting in the protection of our bodies against oxidative damage. It has been reported that aged garlic extract (AGE), a garlic preparation that is rich in water-soluble cysteinyl moieties, reduces oxidative stress and helps to ameliorate of cardiovascular, renal and hepatic diseases. We hypothesized that AGE enhances the expression of antioxidant enzymes via the Nrf2-ARE pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes expression were evaluated using western blotting analyses. We found that AGE promoted the accumulation of Nrf2 into the nucleus in a time- and dose-dependent manner and increased the gene expression and polypeptide level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM). Moreover, the effect of AGE in elevating the gene expression of HO-1 and GCLM was found to be mediated via Nrf2 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that AGE induces the expression of HO-1 and GCLM, which are antioxidant enzymes, via activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. PMID:26507778

  19. A clinical commentary on the article "N-acetylglucosamine conjugated to nanoparticles enhances myocyte uptake and improves delivery of a small molecule p38 inhibitor for post-infarct healing" : N-acetylglucosamine conjugated nanoparticles: translational opportunities and barriers.

    PubMed

    Levit, Rebecca D; Taylor, W Robert

    2011-10-01

    Targeting drugs and nanoparticles to cardiomyocytes has been an elusive challenge. Cardiomyocytes are inherently non-phagocytic and their environment is subjected to contractile forces which tend to expel injected and catheter-delivered drugs. In this issue, a novel-targeting strategy, N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) coating, is shown to enhance cardiomyocyte nanoparticle uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Many effective and proven therapies for myocardial infarction are in clinical use thus raising the bar for the translation of new technologies. Nevertheless, GlcNAc targeting represents a promising approach for improved targeting of drug therapies to cardiomyocytes.

  20. Measuring mitochondrial function in intact cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dedkova, Elena N.; Blatter, Lothar A.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in cellular functions that go beyond the traditional role of these organelles as the power plants of the cell. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including cardiac dysfunction, and play a role in the aging process. Many aspects of our knowledge of mitochondria stem from studies performed on the isolated organelle. Their relative inaccessibility imposes experimental difficulties to study mitochondria in their natural environment – the cytosol of intact cells – and has hampered a comprehensive understanding of the plethora of mitochondrial functions. Here we review currently available methods to study mitochondrial function in intact cardiomyocytes. These methods primarily use different flavors of fluorescent dyes and genetically encoded fluorescent proteins in conjunction with high-resolution imaging techniques. We review methods to study mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+ and Na+ signaling, mitochondrial pH regulation, redox state and ROS production, NO signaling, oxygen consumption, ATP generation and the activity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Where appropriate we complement this review on intact myocytes with seminal studies that were performed on isolated mitochondria, permeabilized cells, and in whole hearts. PMID:21964191

  1. Transcriptional repression of Kruppel like factor-2 by the adaptor protein p66shc

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Hoffman, Timothy A.; DeRicco, Jeremy; Naqvi, Asma; Jain, Mukesh K.; Irani, Kaikobad

    2009-01-01

    The adaptor protein p66shc promotes cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanistic relationship between p66shc and the kruppel like factor-2 (KLF2) transcription factor and show that this relationship has biological relevance to p66shc-regulated cellular oxidant level, as well as KLF2-induced target gene expression. Genetic knockout of p66shc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) stimulates activity of the core KLF2 promoter and increases KLF2 mRNA and protein expression. Similarly, shRNA-induced knockdown of p66shc increases KLF2-promoter activity in HeLa cells. The increase in KLF2-promoter activity in p66shc-knockout MEFs is dependent on a myocyte enhancing factor-2A (MEF2A)-binding sequence in the core KLF2 promoter. Short-hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of p66shc in endothelial cells also stimulates KLF2 mRNA and protein expression, as well as expression of the endothelial KLF2 target gene thrombomodulin. MEF2A protein and mRNA are more abundant in p66shc-knockout MEFs, resulting in greater occupancy of the KLF2 promoter by MEF2A. In endothelial cells, the increase in KLF2 and thrombomodulin protein by shRNA-induced decrease in p66shc expression is partly abrogated by knockdown of MEF2A. Finally, knockdown of KLF2 abolishes the decrease in the cellular reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide observed with knockdown of p66shc, and KLF2 overexpression suppresses cellular hydrogen peroxide levels, independent of p66shc expression. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which p66shc promotes cellular oxidative stress, through suppression of MEF2A expression and consequent repression of KLF2 transcription.—Kumar, A., Hoffman, T. A., DeRicco, J., Naqvi, A., Jain, M. K., Irani, K. Transcriptional repression of Kruppel like factor-2 by the adaptor protein p66shc. PMID:19696221

  2. Inorganic polyphosphate in cardiac myocytes: from bioenergetics to the permeability transition pore and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Dedkova, Elena N

    2016-02-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of Pi residues linked together by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds as in ATP. PolyP is present in all living organisms ranging from bacteria to human and possibly even predating life of this planet. The length of polyP chain can vary from just a few phosphates to several thousand phosphate units long, depending on the organism and the tissue in which it is synthesized. PolyP was extensively studied in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes by Kulaev's group in the Russian Academy of Sciences and by the Nobel Prize Laureate Arthur Kornberg at Stanford University. Recently, we reported that mitochondria of cardiac ventricular myocytes contain significant amounts (280±60 pmol/mg of protein) of polyP with an average length of 25 Pi and that polyP is involved in Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Enzymatic polyP depletion prevented Ca(2+)-induced mPTP opening during ischaemia; however, it did not affect reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mPTP opening during reperfusion and even enhanced cell death in cardiac myocytes. We found that ROS generation was actually enhanced in polyP-depleted cells demonstrating that polyP protects cardiac myocytes against enhanced ROS formation. Furthermore, polyP concentration was dynamically changed during activation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and stress conditions such as ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and heart failure (HF) indicating that polyP is required for the normal heart metabolism. This review discusses the current literature on the roles of polyP in cardiovascular health and disease. PMID:26862184

  3. Changes in gene expression with iron loading and chelation in cardiac myocytes and non-myocytic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Parkes, J G; Liu, Y; Sirna, J B; Templeton, D M

    2000-02-01

    Iron overload is associated with long-term cardiac iron accumulation and tissue changes such as fibrosis. To determine short-term iron-dependent changes in expression of genes associated with iron homeostasis and fibrosis we measured mRNA on Northern blots prepared from cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and non-myocytes (fibroblasts) as a function of iron loading and chelation. Transferrin receptor mRNA was reduced in myocytes exposed to various concentrations of iron for 3 days and this decline was associated with a 63% decline in iron-response element (IRE) binding of iron regulatory protein-1, indicating that myocytes utilize IRE-dependent mechanisms to modulate gene expression. In myocytes iron caused a dose-dependent decline in mRNAs coding for transforming growth factor- beta(1)(TGF- beta(1)), biglycan, and collagen type I while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA was unaffected by iron loading and decorin mRNA doubled. Total TGF- beta bioactivity was also decreased by iron loading. Thus, the effects of iron loading on genes related to cardiac fibrosis are gene-specific. Addition of deferoxamine for 1 day did not have any significant effect on any of these genes. Parallel changes in gene expression were exhibited by non-myocytes (fibroblasts), where chelation also decreased TGF- beta(1)mRNA and activity, and mRNA for collagen type I and biglycan, and collagen synthesis. In addition to these changes in transcripts associated with matrix formation the mRNA of the metabolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was unaffected by iron loading but doubled in both cell types upon treatment with deferoxamine. These findings suggest that in both cardiac myocytes and non-myocyte fibroblasts gene expression is coupled to intracellular iron pools by gene-specific and IRE-dependent and idependent mechanisms. This linkage may influence matrix deposition, a significant component of cardiac injury.

  4. Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 coordinates dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase/PPAR-γ/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathways that enhance nitric oxide generation in human glomerular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zaiming; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) degrades asymmetric dimethylarginine, which inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that binds to antioxidant response elements and transcribes many antioxidant genes. Because the promoters of the human DDAH-1 and DDAH-2, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and PPAR-γ genes contain 2 to 3 putative antioxidant response elements, we hypothesized that they were regulated by Nrf2/antioxidant response element. Incubation of human renal glomerular endothelial cells with the Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone (20 μmol·L(-1)) significantly (P<0.05) increased NO and activities of NOS and DDAH and decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine. It upregulated genes for hemoxygenase-1, eNOS, DDAH-1, DDAH-2, and PPAR-γ and partitioned Nrf2 into the nucleus. Knockdown of Nrf2 abolished these effects. Nrf2 bound to one antioxidant response element on DDAH-1 and DDAH-2 and PPAR-γ promoters but not to the eNOS promoter. An increased eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (P-eNOSser-1177) expression with tert-butylhydroquinone was prevented by knockdown of PPAR-γ. Expression of Nrf2 was reduced by knockdown of PPAR-γ, whereas PPAR-γ was reduced by knockdown of Nrf2, thereby demonstrating 2-way positive interactions. Thus, Nrf2 transcribes HO-1 and other genes to reduce reactive oxygen species, and DDAH-1 and DDAH-2 to reduce asymmetric dimethylarginine and PPAR-γ to increase eNOS and its phosphorylation and activity thereby coordinating 3 pathways that enhance endothelial NO generation. PMID:25691623

  5. Cytoskeletal prestress regulates nuclear shape and stiffness in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Adams, William J; Alford, Patrick W; McCain, Megan L; Feinberg, Adam W; Sheeny, Sean P; Goss, Josue A

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stresses on the myocyte nucleus have been associated with several diseases and potentially transduce mechanical stimuli into cellular responses. Although a number of physical links between the nuclear envelope and cytoplasmic filaments have been identified, previous studies have focused on the mechanical properties of individual components of the nucleus, such as the nuclear envelope and lamin network. The mechanical interaction between the cytoskeleton and chromatin on nuclear deformability remains elusive. Here, we investigated how cytoskeletal and chromatin structures influence nuclear mechanics in cardiac myocytes. Rapid decondensation of chromatin and rupture of the nuclear membrane caused a sudden expansion of DNA, a consequence of prestress exerted on the nucleus. To characterize the prestress exerted on the nucleus, we measured the shape and the stiffness of isolated nuclei and nuclei in living myocytes during disruption of cytoskeletal, myofibrillar, and chromatin structure. We found that the nucleus in myocytes is subject to both tensional and compressional prestress and its deformability is determined by a balance of those opposing forces. By developing a computational model of the prestressed nucleus, we showed that cytoskeletal and chromatin prestresses create vulnerability in the nuclear envelope. Our studies suggest the cytoskeletal–nuclear–chromatin interconnectivity may play an important role in mechanics of myocyte contraction and in the development of laminopathies by lamin mutations. PMID:25908635

  6. Myomaker mediates fusion of fast myocytes in zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Landemaine, Aurélie; Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Gabillard, Jean-Charles

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes during embryonic myogenesis. • Myomaker is essential for fast myocyte fusion in zebrafish. • The function of myomaker is conserved among Teleostomi. - Abstract: Myomaker (also called Tmem8c), a new membrane activator of myocyte fusion was recently discovered in mice. Using whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos at different stages of embryonic development, we show that myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes forming the bulk of zebrafish myotome. Zebrafish embryos injected with morpholino targeted against myomaker were alive after yolk resorption and appeared morphologically normal, but they were unable to swim, even under effect of a tactile stimulation. Confocal observations showed a marked phenotype characterized by the persistence of mononucleated muscle cells in the fast myotome at developmental stages where these cells normally fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This indicates that myomaker is essential for myocyte fusion in zebrafish. Thus, there is an evolutionary conservation of myomaker expression and function among Teleostomi.

  7. Dynamic investigation of Drosophila myocytes with second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, Catherine; Stewart, Bryan; Cisek, Richard; Prent, Nicole; Major, Arkady; Barzda, Virginijus

    2006-09-01

    The functional dynamics and structure of both larval and adult Drosophila melanogaster muscle were investigated with a nonlinear multimodal microscope. Imaging was carried out using a home built microscope capable of recording the multiphoton excitation fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation signals simultaneously at a scanning rate of up to ~12 frames/sec. The sample was excited by a home built femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at 840 nm, or by a Yb-ion doped potassium gadolinium tungstate (Yb:KGW) crystal based oscillator at 1042 nm. There was no observable damage detected in the myocyte after prolonged scanning with either of the lasers. Microscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) appears particularly strong in the myocytes. This allows the fast contraction dynamics of the myocytes to be followed. The larger sarcomere size observed in the larvae myocytes is especially well suited for studying the contraction dynamics. Microscopic imaging of muscle contractions showed different relaxation and contraction rates. The SHG intensities were significantly higher in the relaxed state of the myocyte compared to the contracted state. The imaging also revealed disappearance of SHG signal in highly stretched sarcomeres, indicating that SHG diminishes in the disordered structures. The study illustrates that SHG microscopy, combined with other nonlinear contrast mechanisms, can help to elucidate physiological mechanisms of contraction. This study also provides further insight into the mechanisms of harmonic generation in biological tissue and shows that crystalline arrangement of macromolecules has a determining factor for the high efficiency second harmonic generation from the bulk structures.

  8. Nuclear Morphology and Deformation in Engineered Cardiac Myocytes and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Adams, William J.; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Feinberg, Adam W.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering requires finely-tuned manipulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment to optimize internal myocardial organization. The myocyte nucleus is mechanically connected to the cell membrane via cytoskeletal elements, making it a target for the cellular response to perturbation of the ECM. However, the role of ECM spatial configuration and myocyte shape on nuclear location and morphology is unknown. In this study, printed ECM proteins were used to configure the geometry of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Engineered one- and two-dimensional tissue constructs and single-myocyte islands were assayed using live fluorescence imaging to examine nuclear position, morphology and motion as a function of the imposed ECM geometry during diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction. Image analysis showed that anisotropic tissue constructs cultured on microfabricated ECM lines possessed a high degree of nuclear alignment similar to that found in vivo; nuclei in isotropic tissues were polymorphic in shape with an apparently random orientation. Nuclear eccentricity was also increased for the anisotropic tissues, suggesting that intracellular forces deform the nucleus as the cell is spatially confined. During systole, nuclei experienced increasing spatial confinement in magnitude and direction of displacement as tissue anisotropy increased, yielding anisotropic deformation. Thus, the nature of nuclear displacement and deformation during systole appears to rely on a combination of the passive myofibril spatial organization and the active stress fields induced by contraction. Such findings have implications in understanding the genomic consequences and functional response of cardiac myocytes to their ECM surroundings under conditions of disease. PMID:20382423

  9. Allicin inhibits transient outward potassium currents in mouse ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    CAO, HONG; HUANG, CONGXIN; WANG, XIN

    2016-01-01

    Allicin is the active constituent of garlic, a widely used spice and food. The remedial properties of garlic have also been extensively researched and it has been demonstrated that allicin is able to inhibit the transient outward potassium current (Ito) in atrial myocytes. However, the direct effect of allicin on Ito in ventricular myocytes has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of allicin on Ito in ventricular myocytes isolated from mice were investigated, using the whole-cell patch recording technique. The results revealed that Ito current was not significantly suppressed by allicin in the low-dose group (10 µmol/l; P>0.05). However, Ito was significantly inhibited by higher doses of allicin (30, 100 and 300 µmol/l; P<0.05 vs. control; n=6) in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=41.6 µmol/l). In addition, a high concentration of allicin (≥100 µmol/l) was able to accelerate the voltage-dependent inactivation of Ito in mouse ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, the present study revealed that allicin inhibited the Ito in mouse ventricular myocytes, which may be the mechanism through which allicin exerts its antiarrhythmic effect. PMID:27168824

  10. LabHEART: an interactive computer model of rabbit ventricular myocyte ion channels and Ca transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puglisi, J. L.; Bers, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    An interactive computer program, LabHEART, was developed to simulate the action potential (AP), ionic currents, and Ca handling mechanisms in a rabbit ventricular myocyte. User-oriented, its design allows switching between voltage and current clamp and easy on-line manipulation of key parameters to change the original formulation. The model reproduces normal rabbit ventricular myocyte currents, Ca transients, and APs. We also changed parameters to simulate data from heart failure (HF) myocytes, including reduced transient outward (I(to)) and inward rectifying K currents (I(K1)), enhanced Na/Ca exchange expression, and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase function, but unaltered Ca current density. These changes caused reduced Ca transient amplitude and increased AP duration (especially at lower frequency) as observed experimentally. The model shows that the increased Na/Ca exchange current (I(NaCa)) in HF lowers the intracellular [Ca] threshold for a triggered AP from 800 to 540 nM. Similarly, the decrease in I(K1) reduces the threshold to 600 nM. Changes in I(to) have no effect. Combining enhanced Na/Ca exchange with reduced I(K1) (as in HF) lowers the threshold to trigger an AP to 380 nM. These changes reproduce experimental results in HF, where the contributions of different factors are not readily distinguishable. We conclude that the triggered APs that contribute to nonreentrant ventricular tachycardia in HF are due approximately equally (and nearly additively) to alterations in I(NaCa) and I(K1). A free copy of this software can be obtained at http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/DeptWebs/physio/bers.html.

  11. Some growth factors stimulate cultured adult rabbit ventricular myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. S.; Cook, M. G.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Decker, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Cultured adult rabbit cardiac myocytes treated with recombinant growth factors display enhanced rates of protein accumulation (ie, growth) in response to insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), but epidermal growth factor, acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor failed to increase contractile protein synthesis or growth of the heart cells. Insulin and IGF-1 increased growth rates by stimulating anabolic while simultaneously inhibiting catabolic pathways, whereas IGF-2 elevated growth modestly by apparently inhibiting lysosomal proteolysis. Neutralizing antibodies directed against either IGF-1 or IGF-2 or IGF binding protein 3 blocked protein accumulation. A monoclonal antibody directed against the IGF-1 receptor also inhibited changes in protein turnover provoked by recombinant human IGF-1 but not IGF-2. Of the other growth factors tested, only transforming growth factor-beta 1 increased the fractional rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis, with beta-MHC synthesis being elevated and alpha-MHC synthesis being suppressed. However, the other growth factors were able to modestly stimulate the rate of DNA synthesis in this preparation. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed that these growth factors increased DNA synthesis in myocytes and nonmyocytes alike, but the heart cells displayed neither karyokinesis or cytokinesis. In contrast, cocultures of cardiac myocytes and nonmyocytes and nonmyocyte-conditioned culture medium failed to enhance the rate of cardiac MHC synthesis or its accumulation, implying that quiescent heart cells do not respond to "conditioning" by cardiac nonmyocytes. These findings demonstrated that insulin and the IGFs promote passively loaded cultured adult rabbit heart cells to hypertrophy but suggest that other growth factors tested may be limited in this regard.

  12. ErbB4 localization to cardiac myocyte nuclei, and its role in myocyte DNA damage response

    SciTech Connect

    Icli, Basak; Bharti, Ajit; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Sawyer, Douglas B.

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ErbB4 localizes to cardiac myocyte nuclei as a full-length receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myocytes express predominantly JM-a/CYT-1 ErbB4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocyte p53 activation in response to doxorubicin requires ErbB4 activity. -- Abstract: The intracellular domain of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is known to translocate to the nucleus of cells where it can regulate p53 transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ErbB4 can localize to the nucleus of adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM), and regulate p53 in these cells. We demonstrate that ErbB4 does locate to the nucleus of cardiac myocytes as a full-length protein, although nuclear location occurs as a full-length protein that does not require Protein Kinase C or {gamma}-secretase activity. Consistent with this we found that only the non-cleavable JM-b isoform of ErbB4 is expressed in ARVM. Doxorubicin was used to examine ErbB4 role in regulation of a DNA damage response in ARVM. Doxorubicin induced p53 and p21 was suppressed by treatment with AG1478, an EGFR and ErbB4 kinase inhibitor, or suppression of ErbB4 expression with small interfering RNA. Thus ErbB4 localizes to the nucleus as a full-length protein, and plays a role in the DNA damage response induced by doxorubicin in cardiac myocytes.

  13. Modeling beta-adrenergic control of cardiac myocyte contractility in silico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucerman, Jeffrey J.; Brunton, Laurence L.; Michailova, Anushka P.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic signaling pathway regulates cardiac myocyte contractility through a combination of feedforward and feedback mechanisms. We used systems analysis to investigate how the components and topology of this signaling network permit neurohormonal control of excitation-contraction coupling in the rat ventricular myocyte. A kinetic model integrating beta-adrenergic signaling with excitation-contraction coupling was formulated, and each subsystem was validated with independent biochemical and physiological measurements. Model analysis was used to investigate quantitatively the effects of specific molecular perturbations. 3-Fold overexpression of adenylyl cyclase in the model allowed an 85% higher rate of cyclic AMP synthesis than an equivalent overexpression of beta 1-adrenergic receptor, and manipulating the affinity of Gs alpha for adenylyl cyclase was a more potent regulator of cyclic AMP production. The model predicted that less than 40% of adenylyl cyclase molecules may be stimulated under maximal receptor activation, and an experimental protocol is suggested for validating this prediction. The model also predicted that the endogenous heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor may enhance basal cyclic AMP buffering by 68% and increasing the apparent Hill coefficient of protein kinase A activation from 1.0 to 2.0. Finally, phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel and phospholamban were found sufficient to predict the dominant changes in myocyte contractility, including a 2.6x increase in systolic calcium (inotropy) and a 28% decrease in calcium half-relaxation time (lusitropy). By performing systems analysis, the consequences of molecular perturbations in the beta-adrenergic signaling network may be understood within the context of integrative cellular physiology.

  14. Novel Role for Vinculin in Ventricular Myocyte Mechanics and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Jared R.; Chuang, Joyce S.; Janssen, Matthew S.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Liao, Peter; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Wu, Xin; Meininger, Gerald A.; Muthuchamy, Mariappan; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice; Ross, Robert S.; Frank, Lawrence R.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Omens, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Vinculin (Vcl) plays a key structural role in ventricular myocytes that, when disrupted, can lead to contractile dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy. To investigate the role of Vcl in myocyte and myocardial function, cardiomyocyte-specific Vcl knockout mice (cVclKO) and littermate control wild-type mice were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tagging before the onset of global ventricular dysfunction. MRI revealed significantly decreased systolic strains transverse to the myofiber axis in vivo, but no changes along the muscle fibers or in fiber tension in papillary muscles from heterozygous global Vcl null mice. Myofilament lattice spacing from TEM was significantly greater in cVclKO versus wild-type hearts fixed in the unloaded state. AFM in Vcl heterozygous null mouse myocytes showed a significant decrease in membrane cortical stiffness. A multiscale computational model of ventricular mechanics incorporating cross-bridge geometry and lattice mechanics showed that increased transverse systolic stiffness due to increased lattice spacing may explain the systolic wall strains associated with Vcl deficiency, before the onset of ventricular dysfunction. Loss of cardiac myocyte Vcl may decrease systolic transverse strains in vivo by decreasing membrane cortical tension, which decreases transverse compression of the lattice thereby increasing interfilament spacing and stress transverse to the myofibers. PMID:23561539

  15. Alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic signal transduction in cultured uterine myocytes.

    PubMed

    Phillippe, M; Saunders, T; Bangalore, S

    1990-04-01

    The following studies were undertaken to develop a cultured uterine myocyte model which would allow further clarification of the adrenergic signal transduction mechanisms utilized by these myocytes. After mechanical removal of the endometrium, rabbit uterine myocytes were isolated by an overnight enzymatic disaggregation using collagenase and DNase I. The isolated myocytes were maintained in culture in 75-cm2 flasks containing Waymouth's MB 751/1 medium-10% fetal bovine serum along with 10(-8) M estradiol, penicillin, streptomycin, and Fungizone. The phase contrast and electron micrographic appearance of these cells was consistent with that previously reported for smooth muscle myocytes in culture. Immunocytochemical studies utilizing monoclonal anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibodies confirmed the presence of smooth muscle actin in these cultured myocytes. Western blot studies similarly confirmed the presence of alpha-smooth muscle actin in rabbit myometrial tissue and the cultured myocytes, both the primary and F1 generation. After prelabeling the myocytes with [3H]inositol, adrenergic stimulation experiments demonstrated alpha-1 receptor mediated stimulation of inositol phosphates. Beta receptor stimulation experiments confirmed cAMP production in these cultured myocytes, and the ability of clonidine, an alpha-2 agonist, to inhibit forskolin stimulated cAMP production confirmed the presence of functional alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in these myocytes. In conclusion, these cultured rabbit uterine myocytes have provided an in vitro model which can be utilized to further clarify the adrenergic receptor signal transduction mechanisms in genital tract smooth muscle.

  16. Evidence that NO/cGMP/PKG signalling cascade mediates endothelium dependent inhibition of IP3R mediated Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes of ureteric microvascular network in situ

    PubMed Central

    Borysova, Lyudmyla; Burdyga, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    In ureteric microvessels the antagonistic relationship between Ca2+ signalling in endothelium and Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes of arterioles and venules involves nitric oxide (NO), but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of carbachol and NO donor SNAP on Ca2+ signalling and vasomotor responses of arterioles and venules in intact urteric microvascular network in situ using confocal microscopy. Vasomotor responses of arterioles and venules induced by AVP correlated with the occurrence of Ca2+ oscillations in the myocytes and pericytes and were not abolished by the removal of Ca2+ from extracellular fluid. Carbachol-induced rise of intracellular Ca2+ in endothelium was accompanied by the termination of the Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes. This carbachol-induced inhibitory effect on Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes was reversed by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS, an inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG). Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes were also effectively blocked by NO donor SNAP. An Inhibitory effect of SNAP was markedly enhanced by zaprinast, a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase-5, and reversed by sGC inhibitor, ODQ and PKG inhibitor, Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS. The cGMP analogue and selective PKG activator 8pCPT-cGMP also induced inhibition of the AVP-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes. SNAP had no effects on Ca2+ oscillations induced by caffeine in distributing arcade arterioles. Consequently, we conclude that NO- mediated inhibition of Ca2+ oscillations in myocytes and pericytes predominantly recruits the cGMP/PKG dependent pathway. The inhibitory effect of NO/cGMP/PKG cascade is associated with suppressed Ca2+ release from the SR of myocytes and pericytes selectively via the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels. PMID:26344105

  17. Extracellular Ubiquitin: Role in Myocyte Apoptosis and Myocardial Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Stephanie L C; Amin, Parthiv; Singh, Mahipal; Singh, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin (UB) is a highly conserved low molecular weight (8.5 kDa) protein. It consists of 76 amino acid residues and is found in all eukaryotic cells. The covalent linkage of UB to a variety of cellular proteins (ubiquitination) is one of the most common posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. This modification generally regulates protein turnover and protects the cells from damaged or misfolded proteins. The polyubiquitination of proteins serves as a signal for degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway. UB is present in trace amounts in body fluids. Elevated levels of UB are described in the serum or plasma of patients under a variety of conditions. Extracellular UB is proposed to have pleiotropic roles including regulation of immune response, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. CXCR4 is identified as receptor for extracellular UB in hematopoietic cells. Heart failure represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western society. Cardiac remodeling is a determinant of the clinical course of heart failure. The components involved in myocardial remodeling include-myocytes, fibroblasts, interstitium, and coronary vasculature. Increased sympathetic nerve activity in the form of norepinephrine is a common feature during heart failure. Acting via β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR), norepinephrine is shown to induce myocyte apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. β-AR stimulation increases extracellular levels of UB in myocytes, and UB inhibits β-AR-stimulated increases in myocyte apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. This review summarizes intracellular and extracellular functions of UB with particular emphasis on the role of extracellular UB in cardiac myocyte apoptosis and myocardial remodeling. PMID:26756642

  18. Hypoxic-induced stress protein expression in rat cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, G.; Geoghegan, T.E.

    1986-05-01

    Mammalian stress proteins can be induced in cells and tissues exposed to a variety of conditions including hyperthermia and diminished O/sub 2/ supply. The authors have previously shown that the expression of three stress proteins (71, 85, and 95 kDa) was induced in cardiac tissue from mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. The expression of mRNAs coding for the 85 and 95 kDa proteins increase with time of exposure to hypoxia, while the mRNA coding for the 71 kDa protein is transiently induced. The authors extended these studies to investigate the expression of stress proteins in isolated rat cardiac myocytes. Freshly prepared myocytes were exposed to control, hypoxic, anoxic, or heat-shock environments for up to 16 h. The proteins were then labeled for 6 hours with (/sup 35/S)methionine. Analysis of the solubilized proteins by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography showed that there was a 6-fold increase in synthesis of the 85 kDa protein upon exposure to hypoxia but not heat-shock conditions. The 71 kDa protein was present at high levels in both control and treated myocyte protein preparations, and presumably had been induced during the isolation procedure. Total RNA isolated from intact rat heart and isolated myocytes was compared by cell-free translation analysis and showed induction of RNAs coding for several stress proteins in the myocyte preparation. The induced proteins at 85 and 95 kDa have molecular weights similar to reported cell stress and/or glucose-regulated proteins.

  19. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel protects cardiac myocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua; Xiong, Yiqun; Xu, Chaoying; Liu, Xinliang; Lin, Jian; Mu, Guiping; Xu, Shaogang; Liu, Wenhe

    2016-09-01

    The sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (sarcKATP) channel plays a cardioprotective role during stress. However, the role of the sarcKATP channel in the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and association with mitochondrial calcium remains unclear. For this purpose, we developed a model of LPS-induced sepsis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs). The TUNEL assay was performed in order to detect the apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and the MTT assay was performed to determine cellular viability. Exposure to LPS significantly decreased the viability of the NRCs as well as the expression of Bcl-2, whereas it enhanced the activity and expression of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and Bax, respectively. The sarcKATP channel blocker, HMR-1098, increased the apoptosis of NRCs, whereas the specific sarcKATP channel opener, P-1075, reduced the apoptosis of NRCs. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) partially inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of HMR-1098. In order to confirm the role of the sarcKATP channel, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector carrying the sarcKATP channel mutant subunit Kir6.2AAA to inhibit the channel activity. Kir6.2AAA adenovirus infection in NRCs significantly aggravated the apoptosis of myocytes induced by LPS. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of the sarcKATP channel in apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies for the management of sepsis and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27430376

  20. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel protects cardiac myocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua; Xiong, Yiqun; Xu, Chaoying; Liu, Xinliang; Lin, Jian; Mu, Guiping; Xu, Shaogang; Liu, Wenhe

    2016-01-01

    The sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (sarcKATP) channel plays a cardioprotective role during stress. However, the role of the sarcKATP channel in the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and association with mitochondrial calcium remains unclear. For this purpose, we developed a model of LPS-induced sepsis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs). The TUNEL assay was performed in order to detect the apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and the MTT assay was performed to determine cellular viability. Exposure to LPS significantly decreased the viability of the NRCs as well as the expression of Bcl-2, whereas it enhanced the activity and expression of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and Bax, respectively. The sarcKATP channel blocker, HMR-1098, increased the apoptosis of NRCs, whereas the specific sarcKATP channel opener, P-1075, reduced the apoptosis of NRCs. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) partially inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of HMR-1098. In order to confirm the role of the sarcKATP channel, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector carrying the sarcKATP channel mutant subunit Kir6.2AAA to inhibit the channel activity. Kir6.2AAA adenovirus infection in NRCs significantly aggravated the apoptosis of myocytes induced by LPS. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of the sarcKATP channel in apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies for the management of sepsis and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27430376

  1. Local stimulation of cultured myocyte cells by femtosecond laser-induced stress wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yung-En; Wu, Cheng-Chi; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Maezawa, Yasuyo; Okano, Kazunori; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2010-12-01

    When an 800 nm femtosecond laser is tightly focused into cell culture medium a stress wave is generated at the laser focal point. Since the stress wave localizes in a few tens of μm, it is possible to locally stimulate single cells in vitro. In this work, several kinds of cultured mammalian cells, HeLa, PC12, P19CL6, and C2C12, were stimulated by the stress wave and the cell growth after the stress loading with the laser irradiation was investigated. In comparison with the control conditions, cell growth after the laser irradiation was enhanced for the cells of C2C12 and P19CL6, which can differentiate into myocytes, and suppressed for PC12 and HeLa cell lines. These results suggest a possibility of cell growth enhancement due to myogenic cells response to the femtosecond laser-induced stress.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters ventricular myocyte contractile function in the offspring of rats: influence of maternal Mg2+ supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wold, L E; Norby, F L; Hintz, K K; Colligan, P B; Epstein, P N; Ren, J

    2001-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is often associated with cardiac hypertrophy and impaired ventricular function in a manner similar to postnatal chronic alcohol ingestion. Chronic alcoholism has been shown to lead to hypomagnesemia, and dietary Mg2+ supplementation was shown to ameliorate ethanol- induced cardiovascular dysfunction such as hypertension. However, the role of gestational Mg2+ supplementation on FAS-related cardiac dysfunction is unknown. This study was conducted to examine the influence of gestational dietary Mg2+ supplementation on prenatal ethanol exposure-induced cardiac contractile response at the ventricular myocyte level. Timed-pregnancy female rats were fed from gestation day 2 with liquid diets containing 0.13 g/L Mg2+ supplemented with ethanol (36%) or additional Mg2+ (0.52 g/L), or both. The pups were maintained on standard rat chow through adulthood, and ventricular myocytes were isolated and stimulated to contract at 0.5 Hz. Mechanical properties were evaluated using an IonOptix soft-edge system, and intracellular Ca2+ transients were measured as changes in fura-2 fluorescence intensity (Delta FFI). Offspring from all groups displayed similar growth curves. Myocytes from the ethanol group exhibited reduced cell length, enhanced peak shortening (PS), and shortened time to 90% relengthening (TR90) associated with a normal Delta FFI and time to PS (TPS). Mg2+ reverted the prenatal ethanol-induced alteration in PS and maximal velocity of relengthening. However, it shortened TPS and TR90, and altered the Delta FFI, as well as Ca2+ decay rate by itself. Additionally, myocytes from the ethanol group exhibited impaired responsiveness to increased extracellular Ca2+ or stimulating frequency, which were restored by gestational Mg2+ supplementation. These data suggest that although gestational Mg2+ supplementation may be beneficial to certain cardiac contractile dysfunctions in offspring of alcoholic mothers, caution must be taken, as Mg2

  3. Integrins and Integrin-Associated Proteins in the Cardiac Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that are expressed in all cells, including those in the heart. They participate in multiple critical cellular processes including adhesion, extracellular matrix organization, signaling, survival, and proliferation. Particularly relevant for a contracting muscle cell, integrins are mechanotransducers, translating mechanical to biochemical information. While it is likely that cardiovascular clinicians and scientists have highest recognition of integrins in the cardiovascular system from drugs used to inhibit platelet aggregation, the focus of this article will be on the role of integrins specifically in the cardiac myocyte. Following a general introduction to integrin biology, the manuscript will discuss important work on integrin signaling, mechanotransduction, and lessons learned about integrin function from a range of model organisms. Then we will detail work on integrin-related proteins in the myocyte, how integrins may interact with ion channels and mediate viral uptake into cells, and also play a role in stem cell biology. Finally, we will discuss directions for future study. PMID:24481847

  4. Biology of the cardiac myocyte in heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Angela K.; Bjerke, Maureen A.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure, and it has been shown that this increase in size occurs at the level of the cardiac myocyte. Cardiac myocyte model systems have been developed to study this process. Here we focus on cell culture tools, including primary cells, immortalized cell lines, human stem cells, and their morphological and molecular responses to pathological stimuli. For each cell type, we discuss commonly used methods for inducing hypertrophy, markers of pathological hypertrophy, advantages for each model, and disadvantages to using a particular cell type over other in vitro model systems. Where applicable, we discuss how each system is used to model human disease and how these models may be applicable to current drug therapeutic strategies. Finally, we discuss the increasing use of biomaterials to mimic healthy and diseased hearts and how these matrices can contribute to in vitro model systems of cardiac cell biology. PMID:27418636

  5. pH regulation in adult cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallert, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the pH{sub i} regulatory mechanisms of adult ventricular myocytes, the cells that perform the pumping work of the heart. The cell system for this study was the ventricular myocyte, isolated by enzymatic dissociation from adult rate heart. In agreement with the findings on other cardiac model cells, I demonstrated the existence of a Cl{sup {minus}}/HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} exchanger and a Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger in ventricular myocytes. The existence of the anion exchanger was demonstrated in {sup 36}Cl{sup {minus}} flux experiments and as stilbene disulfonate-inhibitable and Cl{sup {minus}} gradient-dependent intracellular pH shifts in the presence of bicarbonate. The fluorescein derivative BCECF served as a fluorescent probe of intracellular pH in the these experiments. The existence of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger was demonstrated in pH{sub i} experiments using BCECF. Further experiments characterized the kinetics of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger and its regulation. The steady-state pH{sub i} of ventricular myocytes was 7.16 {+-} 0.11 at pH{sub 0} = 7.4. Several agonists caused a rise in steady-state pH{sub i}: the protein kinase stimulator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), the {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic agonist 6-fluoro-norepinephrine (6F-NE) and the {beta}-agonist UK14304, and ATP.

  6. Differential radiation response of cultured endothelial cells and smooth myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.K.; Longenecker, J.P.; Fajardo, L.F.

    1982-09-01

    In vivo observations have suggested that endothelial cells are the most radiosensitive elements of the vascular wall. To test whether this represents an intrinsic differential sensitivity, the response of bovine aortic endothelial cells and smooth myocytes was investigated in confluent cell cultures exposed to single doses of gamma radiation (250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 rad). Both cell types showed a dose-dependent decrease in attachment efficiency when dissociated and replated at six hours after radiation. However, the attachment efficiency in both cell types was similar when a 72-hour postirradiation incubation period was used prior to dissociation of the cells. Growth inhibition was significantly greater (7- to 10-fold) in endothelial cells than in myocytes when examined four days after attachment. Confluent endothelial monolayers showed a dose-dependent, progressive cell loss during the 72-hour postirradiation period (70% after 1,000 rad); the myocyte cultures showed no radiation effect on the cell numbers. In spite of the reduction in number, the endothelial cells maintained the continuity of their monolayer by compensation with an increase in mean cell size. Endothelial cells developed multiple structural lesions, including an increase in the number and size of residual and lysosomal bodies, electron-lucent cytoplasmic defects, interruptions in the plasma membrane and irregular aggregation of chromatin, causing electron-lucent nuclei. These changes increased in severity with time and dose and were most pronounced 24 to 72 hours after 1,000 rad. No significant ultrastructural alterations were detected in myocytes four days after 2,000 rad.

  7. Intermyofilament dynamics of myocytes revealed by second harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Prent, Nicole; Green, Chantal; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Cisek, Richard; Major, Arkady; Stewart, Bryan; Barzda, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larva myocytes are imaged with second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy undergoing forced stretching and rhythmic contractions to determine the nature of the SHG signal. During stretching, double peaked SHG profiles of the anisotropic (A-) bands evolve into single peaks with a higher SHG intensity. The dip in the intensity profile at the center of the A-band is attributed to destructive interference from out-of-phase second harmonic radiating myosin molecules that, in the central region of myofilaments, are arranged antiparallel. An intensity increase at the center of the A-band appears during forced stretching due to a small, less than 100 nm, intermyofilament separation of the antiparallel myosin molecules leading to constructive interference of the SHG radiation. In addition, the same phenomenon occurs during periodic contractions of the myocyte, where an SHG intensity increase with the lengthening of sarcomeres is observed. The SHG intensity dependence on sarcomere length can be used for imaging myocyte contractions with low resolution microscopy, and can be applied for the development of diagnostic tools where monitoring of muscle contraction dynamics is required.

  8. Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Imaging of the Human Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Sulkin, Matthew S.; Yang, Fei; Holzem, Katherine M.; Van Leer, Brandon; Bugge, Cliff; Laughner, Jacob I.; Green, Karen; Efimov, Igor R.

    2014-01-01

    The ventricular human myocyte is spatially organized for optimal ATP and Ca2+ delivery to sarcomeric myosin and ionic pumps during every excitation-contraction cycle. Comprehension of three-dimensional geometry of the tightly packed ultrastructure has been derived from discontinuous two-dimensional images, but has never been precisely reconstructed or analyzed in human myocardium. Using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope, we created nanoscale resolution serial images to quantify the three-dimensional ultrastructure of a human left ventricular myocyte. Transverse tubules (t-tubule), lipid droplets, A-bands, and mitochondria occupy 1.8, 1.9, 10.8, and 27.9% of the myocyte volume, respectively. The complex t-tubule system has a small tortuosity (1.04 ± 0.01), and is composed of long transverse segments with diameters of 317 ± 24 nm and short branches. Our data indicates that lipid droplets located well beneath the sarcolemma are proximal to t-tubules, where 59% (13 of 22) of lipid droplet centroids are within 0.50 μm of a t-tubule. This spatial association could have an important implication in the development and treatment of heart failure because it connects two independently known pathophysiological alterations, a substrate switch from fatty acids to glucose and t-tubular derangement. PMID:25160725

  9. Mechanical properties of adult feline ventricular myocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Pollack, P S; Carson, N L; Nuss, H B; Marino, T A; Houser, S R

    1991-01-01

    The contractile and electrophysiological properties of cultured adult feline ventricular myocytes were studied. Cells were field stimulated and contraction was measured using a video-based edge detector. The magnitude of contraction decreased by 36% and the rate of contraction decreased by 52% 2 h after the cells were plated on laminin-coated cover slips. The magnitude and rate of contraction then remained stable for 1 wk. The duration of contraction prolonged and a second component to the twitch frequently, but not invariably, developed after 5 days in culture. This was associated with prolongation of the action potential duration. After 7 days in culture, cells could be divided into two groups based on resting membrane potential. Norepinephrine increased the magnitude of contraction for 5 days after plating. Cultured ventricular myocytes became unresponsive to the effects of norepinephrine after 7 days. Adult cardiac myocytes maintained in primary culture continue to respond to field stimulation and retain many contractile properties for up to 7 days; however, the functional characteristics of these cells do not remain uniform during this time period. PMID:1992803

  10. A unified theory of calcium alternans in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhilin; Liu, Michael B.; Nivala, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) alternans is a dynamical phenomenon in ventricular myocytes, which is linked to the genesis of lethal arrhythmias. Iterated map models of intracellular Ca2+ cycling dynamics in ventricular myocytes under periodic pacing have been developed to study the mechanisms of Ca2+ alternans. Two mechanisms of Ca2+ alternans have been demonstrated in these models: one relies mainly on fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and uptake, and the other on refractoriness and other properties of Ca2+ sparks. Each of the two mechanisms can partially explain the experimental observations, but both have their inconsistencies with the experimental results. Here we developed an iterated map model that is composed of two coupled iterated maps, which unifies the two mechanisms into a single cohesive mathematical framework. The unified theory can consistently explain the seemingly contradictory experimental observations and shows that the two mechanisms work synergistically to promote Ca2+ alternans. Predictions of the theory were examined in a physiologically-detailed spatial Ca2+ cycling model of ventricular myocytes. PMID:27762397

  11. Imatinib Activates Pathological Hypertrophy by Altering Myocyte Calcium Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Larry; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Berretta, Remus M.; Gao, Hui; Troupes, Constantine D.; Woitek, Felix; Recchia, Fabio; Kubo, Hajime; Force, Thomas; Houser, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Imatinib mesylate is a selective tyrosine-kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of multiple cancers, most notably chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). There is evidence that imatinib can induce cardiotoxicity in cancer patients. Our hypothesis is that imatinib alters calcium regulatory mechanisms and can contribute to development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Methods/Results Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were treated with clinical doses (Low: 2µM, High: 5µM) of imatinib and assessed for molecular changes. Imatinib increased peak systolic Ca2+ and Ca2+ transient decay rates and Western analysis revealed significant increases in phosphorylation of phospholamban (Thr-17) and the ryanodine receptor (Ser-2814), signifying activation of CaMKII. Imatinib significantly increased NRVM volume as assessed by Coulter counter, myocyte surface area and ANP abundance seen by Western. Imatinib induced cell death, but did not activate the classical apoptotic program as assessed by caspase-3 cleavage, indicating a necrotic mechanism of death in myocytes. We expressed AdNFATc3-GFP in NRVMS and showed imatinib treatment significantly increased NFAT translocation that was inhibited by the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 or CaMKII inhibitors. Conclusion These data show that imatinib can activate pathological hypertrophic signaling pathways by altering intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. This is likely a contributing mechanism for the adverse cardiac effects of imatinib. PMID:24931551

  12. Altered Na/Ca exchange distribution in ventricular myocytes from failing hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gadeberg, Hanne C.; Bryant, Simon M.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca efflux via Na/Ca exchange (NCX) occurs predominantly at T tubules. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubular structure, but its effect on t-tubular function is less clear. We therefore investigated t-tubular NCX activity in ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ∼18 wk after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding sham operation (Sham). NCX current (INCX) and l-type Ca current (ICa) were recorded using the whole cell, voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated (DT) myocytes; intracellular free Ca concentration ([Ca]i) was monitored simultaneously using fluo-4. INCX was activated and measured during application of caffeine to release Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Whole cell INCX was not significantly different in Sham and CAL myocytes and occurred predominantly in the T tubules in Sham myocytes. CAL was associated with redistribution of INCX and ICa away from the T tubules to the cell surface and an increase in t-tubular INCX/ICa density from 0.12 in Sham to 0.30 in CAL myocytes. The decrease in t-tubular INCX in CAL myocytes was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of Ca sequestered by SR. However, SR Ca content was not significantly different in Sham, Sham DT, and CAL myocytes but was significantly increased by DT of CAL myocytes. In Sham myocytes, there was hysteresis between INCX and [Ca]i, which was absent in DT Sham but present in CAL and DT CAL myocytes. These data suggest altered distribution of NCX in CAL myocytes. PMID:26566728

  13. The Heart: Mostly Postmitotic or Mostly Premitotic? Myocyte Cell Cycle, Senescence and Quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Sailay; Sussman, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of myocyte division and myocyte-mediated regeneration has re-emerged in the past five years through development of sophisticated transgenic mice and carbon-dating of cells. Although, recently, a couple of studies have been conducted as an attempt to intervene in myocyte division, the efficiency in adult animals remains discouragingly low. Re-enforcing myocyte division is a vision that has been desired for decades, leading to years of experience in myocytes resistance to pro-proliferative stimuli. Previous attempts have indeed provided a platform for basic knowledge on molecular players and signaling in myocytes. However, natural biological processes such as hypertrophy and binucleation provide layers of complexity in interpretation of previous and current findings. A major hurdle in mediating myocyte division is a lack of insight in the myocyte cell cycle. To date, no knowledge is gained on myoycte cell cycle progression and/or duration. The current review will provide an overview of previous and current literature on myocytes cell cycle and division. Furthermore, this overview will point-out the limitations of current approaches and focus on re-igniting basic questions that may be essential in understand myocardial resistance to division. PMID:25442430

  14. Myocyte Dedifferentiation Drives Extraocular Muscle Regeneration in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Kasprick, Daniel S.; Junttila, Tyler L.; Grzegorski, Steven J.; Louie, Ke'ale W.; Chiari, Estelle F.; Kish, Phillip E.; Kahana, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the injury response of extraocular muscles (EOMs) in adult zebrafish. Methods Adult zebrafish underwent lateral rectus (LR) muscle myectomy surgery to remove 50% of the muscle, followed by molecular and cellular characterization of the tissue response to the injury. Results Following myectomy, the LR muscle regenerated an anatomically correct and functional muscle within 7 to 10 days post injury (DPI). Following injury, the residual muscle stump was replaced by a mesenchymal cell population that lost cell polarity and expressed mesenchymal markers. Next, a robust proliferative burst repopulated the area of the regenerating muscle. Regenerating cells expressed myod, identifying them as myoblasts. However, both immunofluorescence and electron microscopy failed to identify classic Pax7-positive satellite cells in control or injured EOMs. Instead, some proliferating nuclei were noted to express mef2c at the very earliest point in the proliferative burst, suggesting myonuclear reprogramming and dedifferentiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling of regenerating cells followed by a second myectomy without repeat labeling resulted in a twice-regenerated muscle broadly populated by BrdU-labeled nuclei with minimal apparent dilution of the BrdU signal. A double-pulse experiment using BrdU and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) identified double-labeled nuclei, confirming the shared progenitor lineage. Rapid regeneration occurred despite a cell cycle length of 19.1 hours, whereas 72% of the regenerating muscle nuclei entered the cell cycle by 48 hours post injury (HPI). Dextran lineage tracing revealed that residual myocytes were responsible for muscle regeneration. Conclusions EOM regeneration in adult zebrafish occurs by dedifferentiation of residual myocytes involving a muscle-to-mesenchyme transition. A mechanistic understanding of myocyte reprogramming may facilitate novel approaches to the development of molecular

  15. Resveratrol reduces intracellular free calcium concentration in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Ma, Hui-Jie; Wang, Chuan; Li, Ming; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2005-10-25

    Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5-trihydroxy stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skins and red wine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. It has been speculated that resveratrol may have cardioprotective activity. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat ventricular myocytes. [Ca(2+)](i) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results showed that resveratrol (15~60 mumol/L) reduced [Ca(2+)](i) in normal and Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of resveratrol on [Ca(2+)](i) in normal Tyrode's solution was partially inhibited by pretreatment with sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4, 1.0 mmol/L, P<0.01), an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase, or L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist Bay K8644 (10 mumol/L, P<0.05), but could not be antagonized by NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (1.0 mmol/L). Resveratrol also markedly inhibited the ryanodine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution (P<0.01). When Ca(2+) waves were produced by increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration from 1 to 10 mmol/L, resveratrol (60 mumol/L) could reduce the velocity and duration of propagating waves, and block the propagating waves of elevated [Ca(2+)](i). These results suggest that resveratrol may reduce the [Ca(2+)](i) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. The inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel and tyrosine kinase, and alleviation of Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are possibly involved in the effects of resveratrol on rat ventricular myocytes. These findings could help explain the protective activity of resveratrol against cardiovascular disease. PMID:16220198

  16. Agrin regulation of alpha3 sodium-potassium ATPase activity modulates cardiac myocyte contraction.

    PubMed

    Hilgenberg, Lutz G W; Pham, Bryan; Ortega, Maria; Walid, Saif; Kemmerly, Thomas; O'Dowd, Diane K; Smith, Martin A

    2009-06-19

    Drugs that inhibit Na,K-ATPases, such as digoxin and ouabain, alter cardiac myocyte contractility. We recently demonstrated that agrin, a protein first identified at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction, binds to and regulates the activity of alpha3 subunit-containing isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase in the mammalian brain. Both agrin and the alpha3 Na,K-ATPase are expressed in heart, but their potential for interaction and effect on cardiac myocyte function was unknown. Here we show that agrin binds to the alpha3 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase in cardiac myocyte membranes, inducing tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibiting activity of the pump. Agrin also triggers a rapid increase in cytoplasmic Na(+) in cardiac myocytes, suggesting a role in cardiac myocyte function. Consistent with this hypothesis, spontaneous contraction frequencies of cultured cardiac myocytes prepared from mice in which agrin expression is blocked by mutation of the Agrn gene are significantly higher than in the wild type. The Agrn mutant phenotype is rescued by acute treatment with recombinant agrin. Furthermore, exposure of wild type myocytes to an agrin antagonist phenocopies the Agrn mutation. These data demonstrate that the basal frequency of myocyte contraction depends on endogenous agrin-alpha3 Na,K-ATPase interaction and suggest that agrin modulation of the alpha3 Na,K-ATPase is important in regulating heart function.

  17. Protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on ouabain toxicity in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hallaq, H.; Leaf, A. ); Sellmayer, A. ); Smith, T.W. )

    1990-10-01

    Isolated neonatal cardiac myocytes have been utilized as a model for the study of cardiac arrhythmogenic factors. The myocytes respond to the toxic effects of a potent cardiac glycoside, ouabain at 0.1 mM, by an increase in their spontaneous beating rate and a reduction in amplitude of contractions resulting within minutes in a lethal state of contracture. Incubating the isolated myocytes for 3{endash}5 days in culture medium enriched with 5 {mu}M arachidonic acid had no effect on the development of lethal contracture after subsequent exposure to 0.1 mM ouabain. By contrast, incubating the myocytes for 3{endash}5 days with 5 {mu}M eicosapentaenoic acid completely prevented the toxic effects of ouabain at 0.1 mM. No differences in bumetanide-inhibitable {sup 86}Rb flux were observed between the three preparations. However, measurements with fura-2 of cytosolic free calcium levels indicated that control and arachidonic acid-enriched myocytes developed toxic cytosolic calcium concentrations of 845 {plus minus} 29 and 757 {plus minus} 64 nM, respectively, on exposure to 0.1 mM ouabain, whereas in eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched myocytes, physiologic calcium levels were preserved. Incubating the myocytes with eicosapentaenoic acid for 3{endash}5 days resulted in a small reduction of arachidonic acid and a small but significant increase of eicosapentaenoic acid in membrane phospolipids of the myocytes.

  18. Laminar arrangement of ventricular myocytes influences electrical behavior of the heart.

    PubMed

    Hooks, Darren A; Trew, Mark L; Caldwell, Bryan J; Sands, Gregory B; LeGrice, Ian J; Smaill, Bruce H

    2007-11-01

    The response of the heart to electrical shock, electrical propagation in sinus rhythm, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of ventricular fibrillation all depend critically on the electrical anisotropy of cardiac tissue. A long-held view of cardiac electrical anisotropy is that electrical conductivity is greatest along the myocyte axis allowing most rapid propagation of electrical activation in this direction, and that conductivity is isotropic transverse to the myocyte axis supporting a slower uniform spread of activation in this plane. In this context, knowledge of conductivity in two directions, parallel and transverse to the myofiber axis, is sufficient to characterize the electrical action of the heart. Here we present new experimental data that challenge this view. We have used a novel combination of intramural electrical mapping, and experiment-specific computer modeling, to demonstrate that left ventricular myocardium has unique bulk conductivities associated with three microstructurally-defined axes. We show that voltage fields induced by intramural current injection are influenced by not only myofiber direction, but also the transmural arrangement of muscle layers or myolaminae. Computer models of these experiments, in which measured 3D tissue structure was reconstructed in-silico, best matched recorded voltages with conductivities in the myofiber direction, and parallel and normal to myolaminae, set in the ratio 4:2:1, respectively. These findings redefine cardiac tissue as an electrically orthotropic substrate and enhance our understanding of how external shocks may act to successfully reset the fibrillating heart into a uniform electrical state. More generally, the mechanisms governing the destabilization of coordinated electrical propagation into ventricular arrhythmia need to be evaluated in the light of this discovery.

  19. T-tubule disruption promotes calcium alternans in failing ventricular myocytes: mechanistic insights from computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Nivala, Michael; Song, Zhen; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin

    2015-02-01

    In heart failure (HF), T-tubule (TT) disruption contributes to dyssynchronous calcium (Ca) release and impaired contraction, but its role in arrhythmogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effects of TT disruption and other HF remodeling factors on Ca alternans in ventricular myocytes using computer modeling. A ventricular myocyte model with detailed spatiotemporal Ca cycling modeled by a coupled Ca release unit (CRU) network was used, in which the L-type Ca channels and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels were simulated by random Markov transitions. TT disruption, which removes the L-type Ca channels from the associated CRUs, results in "orphaned" RyR clusters and thus provides increased opportunity for spark-induced Ca sparks to occur. This effect combined with other HF remodeling factors promoted alternans by two distinct mechanisms: 1) for normal sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase (SERCA) activity, alternans was caused by both CRU refractoriness and coupling. The increased opportunity for spark-induced sparks by TT disruption combined with the enhanced CRU coupling by Ca elevation in the presence or absence of increased RyR leakiness facilitated spark synchronization on alternate beats to promote Ca alternans; 2) for down-regulated SERCA, alternans was caused by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load-dependent mechanism, independent of CRU refractoriness. TT disruption and increased RyR leakiness shifted and steepened the SR Ca release-load relationship, which combines with down-regulated SERCA to promote Ca alternans. In conclusion, the mechanisms of Ca alternans for normal and down-regulated SERCA are different, and TT disruption promotes Ca alternans by both mechanisms, which may contribute to alternans at different stages of HF.

  20. A rabbit pulmonary vein myocyte isolation method based on simultaneous heart and pulmonary vein perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Miao-Miao; Zhang, Liang-Pin; Yang, Shu-Lin; Yao, Ke-Jun; Song, Yuan-Long

    2016-02-25

    Myocytes in the pulmonary veins (PV) play a pivotal role in the development of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). It is therefore important to understand physiological characteristics of these cells. Studies on these cells are, however, markedly impeded by the fact that single PV myocytes are very difficult to obtain due to lack of effective isolation methods. In this study, we described a novel PV myocyte isolation method. The key aspect of this method is to establish a combination of retrograde heart perfusion (via the aorta) and anterograde PV perfusion (via the pulmonary artery). With this simultaneous perfusion method, a better perfusion of the PV myocytes can be obtained. As results, the output and viability of single myocytes isolated by simultaneous heart and PV perfusion method were increased compared with those in conventional retrograde heart perfusion method. PMID:26915322

  1. Continual electric field stimulation preserves contractile function of adult ventricular myocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Berger, H J; Prasad, S K; Davidoff, A J; Pimental, D; Ellingsen, O; Marsh, J D; Smith, T W; Kelly, R A

    1994-01-01

    To model with greater fidelity the electromechanical function of freshly isolated heart muscle cells in primary culture, we describe a technique for the continual electrical stimulation of adult myocytes at physiological frequencies for several days. A reusable plastic cover was constructed to fit standard, disposable 175-cm2 tissue culture flasks and to hold parallel graphite electrodes along the long axis of each flask, which treated a uniform electric field that resulted in a capture efficiency of ventricular myocytes of 75-80%. Computer-controlled amplifiers were designed to be capable of driving a number of flasks concurrently, each containing up to 4 x 10(6) myocytes, over a range of stimulation frequencies (from 0.1 to 7.0 Hz) with reversal of electrode polarity after each stimulus to prevent the development of pH gradients around each electrode. Unlike quiescent, unstimulated myocytes, the amplitude of contraction, and velocities of shortening and relaxation did not change in myocytes paced at 3-5 Hz for up to 72 h. The maintenance of normal contractile function in paced myocytes required mechanical contraction per se, since paced myocytes that remained quiescent due to the inclusion of 2.5 microM verapamil in the culture medium for 48 h also exhibited a decline in contractility when paced after verapamil removal. Similarly, pacing increased peak calcium current compared with quiescent cells that had not been paced. Thus myocyte contraction at physiological frequencies induced by continual uniform electric field stimulation in short-term primary culture in defining medium maintains some biophysical parameters of myocyte phenotype that are similar to those observed in freshly isolated adult ventricular myocytes.

  2. Microfluidic partitioning of the extracellular space around single cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey L; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the partitioning of the extracellular space around an electrically activated single cardiac myocyte, constrained within a microfluidic device. Central to this new method is the production of a hydrophobic gap-structure, which divides the extracellular space into two distinct microfluidic pools. The content of these pools was controlled using a pair of concentric automated pipets (subsequently called "dual superfusion pipet"), each providing the ability to dispense (i.e., the source, inner pipet) and aspirate (the sink, outer pipet) a buffer solution (perfusate) into each of the two pools. For rapid solution switching around the cell, additional dual superfusion pipets were inserted into the microchannel for defined time periods using a piezostepper, enabling us to add a test solution, such as a drug. Three distinct areas of the cell were manipulated, namely, the microfluidic environment, the cellular membrane, and the intracellular space. Planar integrated microelectrodes enabled the electrical stimulation of the cardiomyocyte and the recording of the evoked action potential. The device was mounted on an inverted microscope to allow simultaneous sarcomere length and epifluorescence measurements during evoked electrical activity, including, for example, the response of the stimulated end of the cardiac myocyte in comparison with the untreated cell end.

  3. Myocyte repolarization modulates myocardial function in aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Signore, Sergio; Qanud, Khaled; Borghetti, Giulia; Meo, Marianna; Cannata, Antonio; Zhou, Yu; Wybieralska, Ewa; Luciani, Marco; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Zhang, Eric; Matsuda, Alex; Webster, Andrew; Cimini, Maria; Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; D'Alessandro, David A; Wunimenghe, Oriyanhan; Michler, Robert E; Royer, Christopher; Goichberg, Polina; Leri, Annarosa; Barrett, Edward G; Anversa, Piero; Hintze, Thomas H; Rota, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Studies of myocardial aging are complex and the mechanisms involved in the deterioration of ventricular performance and decreased functional reserve of the old heart remain to be properly defined. We have studied a colony of beagle dogs from 3 to 14 yr of age kept under a highly regulated environment to define the effects of aging on the myocardium. Ventricular, myocardial, and myocyte function, together with anatomical and structural properties of the organ and cardiomyocytes, were evaluated. Ventricular hypertrophy was not observed with aging and the structural composition of the myocardium was modestly affected. Alterations in the myocyte compartment were identified in aged dogs, and these factors negatively interfere with the contractile reserve typical of the young heart. The duration of the action potential is prolonged in old cardiomyocytes contributing to the slower electrical recovery of the myocardium. Also, the remodeled repolarization of cardiomyocytes with aging provides inotropic support to the senescent muscle but compromises its contractile reserve, rendering the old heart ineffective under conditions of high hemodynamic demand. The defects in the electrical and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes with aging suggest that this cell population is an important determinant of the cardiac senescent phenotype. Collectively, the delayed electrical repolarization of aging cardiomyocytes may be viewed as a critical variable of the aging myopathy and its propensity to evolve into ventricular decompensation under stressful conditions.

  4. Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang-Min; Deisl, Christine; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2016-01-01

    Small changes of Na/K pump activity regulate internal Ca release in cardiac myocytes via Na/Ca exchange. We now show conversely that transient elevations of cytoplasmic Ca strongly regulate cardiac Na/K pumps. When cytoplasmic Na is submaximal, Na/K pump currents decay rapidly during extracellular K application and multiple results suggest that an inactivation mechanism is involved. Brief activation of Ca influx by reverse Na/Ca exchange enhances pump currents and attenuates current decay, while repeated Ca elevations suppress pump currents. Pump current enhancement reverses over 3 min, and results are similar in myocytes lacking the regulatory protein, phospholemman. Classical signaling mechanisms, including Ca-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen, are evidently not involved. Electrogenic signals mediated by intramembrane movement of hydrophobic ions, such as hexyltriphenylphosphonium (C6TPP), increase and decrease in parallel with pump currents. Thus, transient Ca elevation and Na/K pump inactivation cause opposing sarcolemma changes that may affect diverse membrane processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19267.001 PMID:27627745

  5. [Effect of allitridum on remodeling of the transient outward potassium current of ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    PubMed

    Dan, Qing; Zhao, Ying; Wu, Zhi-juan; Zhu, Chao; Liu, Li; Xu, Bin; Liu, Yu-qi; Chen, Qi; Li, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to study the effect of allitridum (All) on the transient outward potassium current (Ito) of ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Totally 30 male SHRs were randomly divided into three groups: low-dose All group (7.5 mg·kg(-1)), high-dose All group (15.0 mg·kg(-1)) and normal saline group. The other 10 sex and age matched Wistar-kyoto rats (WKY) were also taken as control group (WKY group). All animals received i.p. administration for 8 weeks. The dual enzymatic method was used to separate single ventricular myocyte from animals. Patch-clamp technique was used to record Ito and analyze the effect of All on the current. It was shown that the left ventricular hypertrophy of SHR was reversed significantly by All. Furthermore, the density of Ito was recovered in both high and low dose All groups. The peak current densities of Ito were enhanced from 18.23±3.64 to 25.17±2.86 pA/pF (P<0.01) and 36.47±5.42 pA/pF (P<0.01) at +50 mV by All 7.5 mg·kg(-1) and 15.0 mg·kg(-1), respectively, which was not significantly different with WKY group. The effect was associated with positive shift of the steady-state, close-state inactivation, and shortened recovery from inactivation of Ito. It is concluded that All decreases the remodeling of Ito of ventricular hypertrophic myocytes of SHR. PMID:25924473

  6. The cannabinoid receptor type 2 promotes cardiac myocyte and fibroblast survival and protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Defer, Nicole; Wan, Jinghong; Souktani, Richard; Escoubet, Brigitte; Perier, Magali; Caramelle, Philippe; Manin, Sylvie; Deveaux, Vanessa; Bourin, Marie-Claude; Zimmer, Andreas; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Pecker, Françoise; Pavoine, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    Post-myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure is a major public health problem in Western countries and results from ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced cell death, remodeling, and contractile dysfunction. Ex vivo studies have demonstrated the cardioprotective anti-inflammatory effect of the cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor agonists within hours after IR. Herein, we evaluated the in vivo effect of CB2 receptors on IR-induced cell death, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction and investigated the target role of cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. The infarct size was increased 24 h after IR in CB2(-/-) vs. wild-type (WT) hearts and decreased when WT hearts were injected with the CB2 agonist JWH133 (3 mg/kg) at reperfusion. Compared with WT hearts, CB2(-/-) hearts showed widespread injury 3 d after IR, with enhanced apoptosis and remodeling affecting the remote myocardium. Finally, CB2(-/-) hearts exhibited exacerbated fibrosis, associated with left ventricular dysfunction 4 wk after IR, whereas their WT counterparts recovered normal function. Cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts isolated from CB2(-/-) hearts displayed a higher H(2)O(2)-induced death than WT cells, whereas 1 microM JWH133 triggered survival effects. Furthermore, H(2)O(2)-induced myofibroblast activation was increased in CB2(-/-) fibroblasts but decreased in 1 microM JWH133-treated WT fibroblasts, compared with that in WT cells. Therefore, CB2 receptor activation may protect against post-IR heart failure through direct inhibition of cardiac myocyte and fibroblast death and prevention of myofibroblast activation.

  7. Knock-in of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein or/and Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Gene into β-Casein Gene Locus in the Porcine Fibroblasts to Produce Therapeutic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Ji Woo; Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Yeong Ji; Moon, Seung Ju; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Keun-Jung; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kang, Man-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic animals have become important tools for the production of therapeutic proteins in the domestic animal. Production efficiencies of transgenic animals by conventional methods as microinjection and retrovirus vector methods are low, and the foreign gene expression levels are also low because of their random integration in the host genome. In this study, we investigated the homologous recombination on the porcine β-casein gene locus using a knock-in vector for the β-casein gene locus. We developed the knock-in vector on the porcine β-casein gene locus and isolated knock-in fibroblast for nuclear transfer. The knock-in vector consisted of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) as a positive selectable marker gene, diphtheria toxin-A gene as negative selection marker, and 5′ arm and 3′ arm from the porcine β-casein gene. The secretion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was more easily detected in the cell culture media than it was by western blot analysis of cell extract of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells transfected with EGFP knock-in vector. These results indicated that a knock-in system using β-casein gene induced high expression of transgene by the gene regulatory sequence of endogenous β-casein gene. These fibroblasts may be used to produce transgenic pigs for the production of therapeutic proteins via the mammary glands. PMID:25358326

  8. Knock-in of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein or/and Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Gene into β-Casein Gene Locus in the Porcine Fibroblasts to Produce Therapeutic Protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Ji Woo; Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Yeong Ji; Moon, Seung Ju; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Keun-Jung; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kang, Man-Jong

    2014-11-01

    Transgenic animals have become important tools for the production of therapeutic proteins in the domestic animal. Production efficiencies of transgenic animals by conventional methods as microinjection and retrovirus vector methods are low, and the foreign gene expression levels are also low because of their random integration in the host genome. In this study, we investigated the homologous recombination on the porcine β-casein gene locus using a knock-in vector for the β-casein gene locus. We developed the knock-in vector on the porcine β-casein gene locus and isolated knock-in fibroblast for nuclear transfer. The knock-in vector consisted of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) as a positive selectable marker gene, diphtheria toxin-A gene as negative selection marker, and 5' arm and 3' arm from the porcine β-casein gene. The secretion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was more easily detected in the cell culture media than it was by western blot analysis of cell extract of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells transfected with EGFP knock-in vector. These results indicated that a knock-in system using β-casein gene induced high expression of transgene by the gene regulatory sequence of endogenous β-casein gene. These fibroblasts may be used to produce transgenic pigs for the production of therapeutic proteins via the mammary glands.

  9. Stimulation of isolated ventricular myocytes within an open architecture microarray.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey L; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2005-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the physiological responses of single heart cells within microfluidic chambers, in response to stimulation by integrated microelectrodes. To enable these investigations, which included the measurement of action potential duration, intracellular Ca2+ and cell shortening, a series of microfluidic chambers (50 microm wide, 180 microm long, 400 microm high, 500 microm pitch) and connecting channels (200 microm wide, 5000 microm long, 50 microm high, 500 microm pitch) were replica-moulded into the silicone elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The structures were formed against a master of posts and lines, photolithograhically patterned into the high aspect ratio photoresist SU-8. The chambers within the slab of PDMS were aligned against pairs of stimulating gold microelectrodes (50 microm long, 20 microm wide, 0.1-10 microm thick, 180 microm apart) patterned on a microscope coverslip base, thus defining cavities of approximately 4 nL volume. The assembly was filled with physiological saline and single isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes were introduced by micropipetting, thus creating limited volumes of saline above individual myocytes that could be varied between 4 nL and > or = 4 microL. The application of transient current pulses to the cells via the electrodes caused transient contractions with constant amplitude (recorded as changes in sarcomere length), confirming that excitation contraction coupling (EC coupling) remained functional in these limited volumes. Continuous monitoring of the intracellular Ca2+ (using calcium sensitive dyes) showed, that in the absence of bath perfusion, the amplitude of the transients remained constant for approximately 3 min in the 4-nL volume and approximately 20 min for the 4 microL volume. Beyond this time, the cells became unexcitable until the bath was renewed. The action potential duration (APD) was recorded at stimulation frequencies of 1 Hz and 0.5 Hz using potential sensitive dyes and was

  10. Direct toxic effects of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on cardiac myocytes at clinically relevant concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Shigeyuki; Zhang Xiuquan; Kadono, Toshie; Matsuoka, Nobuhiro; Rollins, Douglas; Badger, Troy; Rodesch, Christopher K.; Barry, William H.

    2009-04-01

    Aims: Our goal was to determine if clinically relevant concentrations of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (CSE) have direct deleterious effects on ventricular myocytes during simulated ischemia, and to investigate the mechanisms involved. Methods: CSE was prepared with a smoking chamber. Ischemia was simulated by metabolic inhibition (MI) with cyanide (CN) and 0 glucose. Adult rabbit and mouse ventricular myocyte [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was measured by flow cytometry using fluo-3. Mitochondrial [Ca{sup 2+}] was measured with confocal microscopy, and Rhod-2 fluorescence. The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) was detected by TMRM fluorescence and myocyte contracture. Myocyte oxidative stress was quantified by dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence with confocal microscopy. Results: CSE 0.1% increased myocyte contracture caused by MI. The nicotine concentration (HPLC) in 0.1% CSE was 15 ng/ml, similar to that in humans after smoking cigarettes. CSE 0.1% increased mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake, and increased the susceptibility of mitochondria to the MPT. CSE 0.1% increased DCF fluorescence in isolated myocytes, and increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in paced myocytes exposed to 2.0 mM CN, 0 glucose (P-MI). These effects were inhibited by the superoxide scavenger Tiron. The effect of CSE on [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} during P-MI was also prevented by ranolazine. Conclusions: CSE in clinically relevant concentrations increases myocyte [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} during simulated ischemia, and increases myocyte susceptibility to the MPT. These effects appear to be mediated at least in part by oxidative radicals in CSE, and likely contribute to the effects of cigarette smoke to increase myocardial infarct size, and to decrease angina threshold.

  11. Vector-averaged gravity alters myocyte and neuron properties in cell culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, Raphael; Hoeger, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    The effect of changes in the gravitational field of developing neurons and myocytes on the development of these cells was investigated using observations of rotated cultures of embryonic spinal neurons and myocytes in a horizontal clinostat, in which rotation produces, from the cells' perspective, a 'vector-free' gravity environment by continous averaging of the vector, thus simulating the microgravity of space. It was found that, at rotation rates between 1 and 50 rpm, cellular and nuclear areas of myocytes become significantly enlarged and the number of presumptive nucleoli increase; in neurons, frequent and large swellings appeared along neuritic shafts. Some of these changes were reversible after the cessation of rotation.

  12. Trafficking of an endogenous potassium channel in adult ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiantian; Cheng, Yvonne; Dou, Ying; Goonesekara, Charitha; David, Jens-Peter; Steele, David F.; Huang, Chen

    2012-01-01

    The roles of several small GTPases in the expression of an endogenous potassium current, Ito,f, in adult rat ventricular myocytes have been investigated. The results indicate that forward trafficking of newly synthesized Kv4.2, which underlies Ito,f in these cells, requires both Rab1 and Sar1 function. Expression of a Rab1 dominant negative (DN) reduced Ito,f current density by roughly one-half relative to control, mCherry-transfected myocytes. Similarly, expression of a Sar1DN nearly halved Ito,f current density. Rab11 is not essential to trafficking of Kv4.2, as expression of a Rab11DN had no effect on Ito,f over the time frames investigated here. In a process dependent on intact endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport, however, overexpression of wild-type Rab11 resulted in a doubling of Ito,f density; block of ER-to-Golgi traffic by Brefeldin A completely abrogated the effect. Also implicated in the trafficking of Kv4.2 are Rab5 and Rab4. Rab5DN expression increased endogenous Ito,f by two- to threefold, nonadditively with inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis. And, in a phenomenon similar to that previously reported for myoblast-expressed Kv1.5, Rab4DN expression roughly doubled endogenous peak transient currents. Colocalization experiments confirmed the involvement of Rab4 in postinternalization trafficking of Kv4.2. There was little role evident for the lysosome in the degradation of internalized Kv4.2, as overexpression of neither wild-type nor DN isoforms of Rab7 had any effect on Ito,f. Instead, degradation may depend largely on the proteasome; the proteasome inhibitor MG132 significantly increased Ito,f density. PMID:22914645

  13. Cardiac sodium channel palmitoylation regulates channel availability and myocyte excitability with implications for arrhythmia generation

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zifan; Xiao, Yucheng; Meng, Jingwei; Hudmon, Andy; Cummins, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.5) play an essential role in regulating cardiac electric activity by initiating and propagating action potentials in the heart. Altered Nav1.5 function is associated with multiple cardiac diseases including long-QT3 and Brugada syndrome. Here, we show that Nav1.5 is subject to palmitoylation, a reversible post-translational lipid modification. Palmitoylation increases channel availability and late sodium current activity, leading to enhanced cardiac excitability and prolonged action potential duration. In contrast, blocking palmitoylation increases closed-state channel inactivation and reduces myocyte excitability. We identify four cysteines as possible Nav1.5 palmitoylation substrates. A mutation of one of these is associated with cardiac arrhythmia (C981F), induces a significant enhancement of channel closed-state inactivation and ablates sensitivity to depalmitoylation. Our data indicate that alterations in palmitoylation can substantially control Nav1.5 function and cardiac excitability and this form of post-translational modification is likely an important contributor to acquired and congenital arrhythmias. PMID:27337590

  14. Stimulatory action of protein kinase Cɛ isoform on the slow component of delayed rectifier K+ current in guinea-pig atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Toda, H; Ding, W-G; Yasuda, Y; Toyoda, F; Ito, M; Matsuura, H; Horie, M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Protein kinase C (PKC) comprises at least twelve isoforms and has an isoform-specific action on cardiac electrical activity. The slow component of delayed rectifier K+ current (I Ks) is one of the major repolarizing currents in the hearts of many species and is also potentiated by PKC activation. Little is known, however, about PKC isoform(s) functionally involved in the potentiation of I Ks in native cardiac myocytes. Experimental approach: I Ks was recorded from guinea-pig atrial myocytes, using the whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp method. Key results: Bath application of phenylephrine enhanced I Ks concentration-dependently with EC50 of 5.4 μM and the maximal response (97.1±11.9% increase, n=16) was obtained at 30 μM. Prazosin (1 μM) almost totally abolished the potentiation of I Ks by phenylephrine, supporting the involvement of α1-adrenoceptors. The stimulatory action of phenylephrine was significantly, if not entirely, inhibited by the general PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I but was little affected by Gö-6976, Gö-6983 and rottlerin. Furthermore, this stimulatory effect was significantly reduced by dialyzing atrial myocytes with PKCɛ-selective inhibitory peptide ɛV1-2 but was not significantly affected by conventional PKC isoform-selective inhibitory peptide βC2-4. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at 100 nM substantially increased I Ks by 64.2±1.3% (n=6), which was also significantly attenuated by an internal dialysis with ɛV1-2 but not with βC2-4. Conclusions and implications: The present study provides experimental evidence to suggest that, in native guinea-pig cardiac myocytes, activation of PKC contributes to α1-adrenoceptor-mediated potentiation of I Ks and that ɛ is the isoform predominantly involved in this PKC action. PMID:17339832

  15. Effects of photoreleased cADP-ribose on calcium transients and calcium sparks in myocytes isolated from guinea-pig and rat ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Y; Galione, A; Terrar, D A

    1999-01-01

    Actions of photoreleased cADP-ribose (cADPR), a novel regulator of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) from ryanodine-sensitive stores, were investigated in cardiac myocytes. Photoreleased cADPR caused an increase in the magnitude of whole-cell calcium transients studied in mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes (both guinea-pig and rat) using confocal microscopy). Approx. 15 s was required following photorelease of cADPR for the development of its maximal effect. Photoreleased cADPR also increased the frequency of calcium 'sparks', which are thought to be elementary events which make up the whole-cell calcium transient, and were studied in rat myocytes, but had little or no effect on spark characteristics (amplitude, rise time, decay time and distance to half amplitude). The potentiating effects of photoreleased cADPR on both whole-cell transients and the frequency of calcium sparks were prevented by cytosolic application of the antagonist 8-amino-cADPR (5 microM). These experiments, therefore, provide the first evidence in any cell type for an effect of cADPR on calcium sparks, and are the first to show the actions of photoreleased cADPR on whole-cell calcium transients in mammalian cells. The observations are consistent with the effects of cADPR in enhancing the calcium sensitivity of CICR from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac ventricular myocytes, leading to an increase in the probability of occurrence of calcium sparks and to an increase in whole-cell calcium transients. The slow time-course for development of the full effect on whole-cell calcium transients might be taken to indicate that the influence of cADPR on CICR may involve complex molecular interactions rather than a simple direct action of cADPR on the ryanodine-receptor channels. PMID:10455010

  16. Variations in local calcium signaling in adjacent cardiac myocytes of the intact mouse heart detected with two-dimensional confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Karin P.; Hohendanner, Felix; Blatter, Lothar A.; Pieske, Burkert M.; Heinzel, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Dyssynchronous local Ca release within individual cardiac myocytes has been linked to cellular contractile dysfunction. Differences in Ca kinetics in adjacent cells may also provide a substrate for inefficient contraction and arrhythmias. In a new approach we quantify variation in local Ca transients between adjacent myocytes in the whole heart. Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were loaded with Fluo-8 AM to detect Ca and Di-4-ANEPPS to visualize cell membranes. A spinning disc confocal microscope with a fast camera allowed us to record Ca signals within an area of 465 μm by 315 μm with an acquisition speed of 55 fps. Images from multiple transients recorded at steady state were registered to their time point in the cardiac cycle to restore averaged local Ca transients with a higher temporal resolution. Local Ca transients within and between adjacent myocytes were compared with regard to amplitude, time to peak and decay at steady state stimulation (250 ms cycle length). Image registration from multiple sequential Ca transients allowed reconstruction of high temporal resolution (2.4 ± 1.3 ms) local CaT in 2D image sets (N = 4 hearts, n = 8 regions). During steady state stimulation, spatial Ca gradients were homogeneous within cells in both directions and independent of distance between measured points. Variation in CaT amplitudes was similar across the short and the long side of neighboring cells. Variations in TAU and TTP were similar in both directions. Isoproterenol enhanced the CaT but not the overall pattern of spatial heterogeneities. Here we detected and analyzed local Ca signals in intact mouse hearts with high temporal and spatial resolution, taking into account 2D arrangement of the cells. We observed significant differences in the variation of CaT amplitude along the long and short axis of cardiac myocytes. Variations of Ca signals between neighboring cells may contribute to the substrate of cardiac remodeling. PMID:25628569

  17. Effects of troglitazone and pioglitazone on the action potentials and membrane currents of rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, S; Watanabe, T

    1998-09-18

    The effects of the antidiabetic thiazolidinediones troglitazone and pioglitazone on action potentials and membrane currents were studied in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Troglitazone (10 microM) reversibly reduced excitability of the myocytes and modified their action potential configuration. It significantly increased the stimulation threshold required to elicit action potentials and decreased action potential amplitude and the maximum upstroke velocity of the action potentials. The Inhibition of the maximum upstroke velocity by troglitazone was also significant at 1 microM. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed that troglitazone (10 microM) reversibly inhibited both the slow inward Ca2+ current and the steady-state K+ current. In contrast to troglitazone, pioglitazone (1-10 microM) had no significant effect on the excitability, action potential configuration, or membrane currents of myocytes. These results suggest that troglitazone, but not pioglitazone, modulates Na+, Ca2+ and K+ currents, leading to the changes in excitability and action potential configuration of ventricular myocytes. PMID:9797043

  18. Contribution of the late sodium current to intracellular sodium and calcium overload in rabbit ventricular myocytes treated by anemone toxin.

    PubMed

    Kornyeyev, Dmytro; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Nguyen, Steven; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Serge; Yao, Lina; Rajamani, Sridharan; Belardinelli, Luiz

    2016-02-01

    Pathological enhancement of late Na(+) current (INa) can potentially modify intracellular ion homeostasis and contribute to cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of late INa can be a source of intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)]i) overload. Late INa was enhanced by exposing rabbit ventricular myocytes to Anemonia sulcata toxin II (ATX-II) and measured using whole cell patch-clamp technique. [Na(+)]i was determined with fluorescent dye Asante NaTRIUM Green-2 AM. Pacing-induced changes in the dye fluorescence measured at 37°C were more pronounced in ATX-II-treated cells than in control (dye washout prevented calibration). At 22-24°C, resting [Na(+)]i was 6.6 ± 0.8 mM. Treatment with 5 nM ATX-II increased late INa 8.7-fold. [Na(+)]i measured after 2 min of electrical stimulation (1 Hz) was 10.8 ± 1.5 mM and 22.1 ± 1.6 mM (P < 0.001) in the absence and presence of 5 nM ATX-II, respectively. Inhibition of late INa with GS-967 (1 μM) prevented Na(+) i accumulation. A strong positive correlation was observed between the late INa and the pacing-induced increase of [Na(+)]i (R(2) = 0.88) and between the rise in [Na(+)]i and the increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) (R(2) = 0.96). ATX-II, tetrodotoxin, or GS-967 did not affect [Na(+)]i in quiescent myocytes suggesting that late INa was solely responsible for triggering the ATX-II effect on [Na(+)]i. Experiments with pinacidil and E4031 indicate that prolongation of the action potential contributes to as much as 50% of the [Na(+)]i overload associated with the increase in late INa caused by ATX-II. Enhancement of late INa can cause intracellular Na(+) overload in ventricular myocytes. PMID:26637557

  19. Stimulation of single isolated adult ventricular myocytes within a low volume using a planar microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey L; Cooper, Jon

    2003-09-01

    Microchannels (40- microm wide, 10- microm high, 10-mm long, 70- microm pitch) were patterned in the silicone elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane on a microscope coverslip base. Integrated within each microchamber were individually addressable stimulation electrodes (40- microm wide, 20- microm long, 100-nm thick) and a common central pseudo-reference electrode (60- microm wide, 500- microm long, 100-nm thick). Isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes were introduced into the chamber by micropipetting and subsequently capped with a layer of mineral oil, thus creating limited volumes of saline around individual myocytes that could be varied from 5 nL to 100 pL. Excitation contraction coupling was studied by monitoring myocyte shortening and intracellular Ca(2+) transients (using Fluo-3 fluorescence). The amplitude of stimulated myocyte shortening and Ca(2+) transients remained constant for 90 min in the larger volume (5 nL) configuration, although the shortening (but not the Ca(2+) transient) amplitude gradually decreased to 20% of control within 60 min in the low volume (100 pL) arrangement. These studies indicate a lower limit for the extracellular volume required to stimulate isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Whereas this arrangement could be used to create a screening assay for drugs, individual microchannels (100 pL) can also be used to study the effects of limited extracellular volume on the contractility of single cardiac myocytes.

  20. Stimulation of Single Isolated Adult Ventricular Myocytes within a Low Volume Using a Planar Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey L.; Cooper, Jon

    2003-01-01

    Microchannels (40-μm wide, 10-μm high, 10-mm long, 70-μm pitch) were patterned in the silicone elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane on a microscope coverslip base. Integrated within each microchamber were individually addressable stimulation electrodes (40-μm wide, 20-μm long, 100-nm thick) and a common central pseudo-reference electrode (60-μm wide, 500-μm long, 100-nm thick). Isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes were introduced into the chamber by micropipetting and subsequently capped with a layer of mineral oil, thus creating limited volumes of saline around individual myocytes that could be varied from 5 nL to 100 pL. Excitation contraction coupling was studied by monitoring myocyte shortening and intracellular Ca2+ transients (using Fluo-3 fluorescence) . The amplitude of stimulated myocyte shortening and Ca2+ transients remained constant for 90 min in the larger volume (5 nL) configuration, although the shortening (but not the Ca2+ transient) amplitude gradually decreased to 20% of control within 60 min in the low volume (100 pL) arrangement. These studies indicate a lower limit for the extracellular volume required to stimulate isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Whereas this arrangement could be used to create a screening assay for drugs, individual microchannels (100 pL) can also be used to study the effects of limited extracellular volume on the contractility of single cardiac myocytes. PMID:12944291

  1. VAMP-1, VAMP-2, and syntaxin-4 regulate ANP release from cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ferlito, Marcella; Fulton, William B; Zauher, Mohamed A; Marbán, Eduardo; Steenbergen, Charles; Lowenstein, Charles J

    2010-11-01

    ANP is a peptide released by cardiac myocytes that regulates blood pressure and natriuresis. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling ANP release from cardiac myocytes are not defined. We now identify three components of the exocytic machinery that regulate ANP release from atrial myocytes. We found that cardiac myocytes express N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP), and SNAP receptors (SNAREs). Additionally we found that specific SNARE molecules, VAMP-1 and VAMP-2, both co-sediment and co-localize with ANP. Also, one SNARE molecule, syntaxin-4, partially co-sediments and partially co-localizes with ANP. Furthermore, these three SNAREs, syntaxin-4 and VAMP-1 and VAMP-2, form a SNARE complex inside cardiac myocytes. Finally, knockdown of VAMP-1, VAMP-2, or syntaxin-4 blocks regulated release of ANP. In contrast, silencing of VAMP-3 did not have an effect on ANP release. Our data suggest that three specific SNAREs regulate cardiac myocyte exocytosis of ANP. Pathways that modify the exocytic machinery may influence natriuresis and blood pressure.

  2. VAMP-1, VAMP-2 and Syntaxin-4 Regulate ANP Release from Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ferlito, Marcella; Fulton, William B.; Zauher, A. M.; Marbán, Eduardo; Steenbergen, Charles; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    ANP is a peptide released by cardiac myocytes that regulates blood pressure and natriuresis. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling ANP release from cardiac myocytes are not defined. We now identify three components of the exocytic machinery that regulate ANP release from atrial myocytes. We found that cardiac myocytes express N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP), and SNAP receptors (SNAREs). Additionally we found that specific SNARE molecules, VAMP1 and VAMP-2, both co-sediment and co-localize with ANP. Also, one SNARE molecule, syntaxin-4, partially co-sediments and partially co-localizes with ANP. Furthermore, these three SNAREs, sytntaxin-4 and VAMP-1 and VAMP-2 form a SNARE complex inside cardiac myocytes. Finally, knockdown of VAMP1, VAMP-2 or syntaxin-4 blocks regulated release of ANP. In contrast, silencing of VAMP-3 did not have an effect on ANP release. Our data suggest that three specific SNAREs regulate cardiac myocyte exocytosis of ANP. Pathways that modify the exocytic machinery may influence natriuresis and blood pressure. PMID:20801128

  3. Biphasic effects of hyposmotic challenge on excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Brette, F; Calaghan, S C; Lappin, S; White, E; Colyer, J; Le Guennec, J Y

    2000-10-01

    The effects of short (1 min) and long (7-10 min) exposure to hyposmotic solution on excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes were studied. After short exposure, the action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD(90)), the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transient amplitude, and contraction increased, whereas the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca, L)) amplitude decreased. Fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release increased but SR Ca(2+) load did not. After a long exposure, I(Ca,L), APD(90), [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitude, and contraction decreased. The abbreviation of APD(90) was partially reversed by 50 microM DIDS, which is consistent with the participation of Cl(-) current activated by swelling. After 10-min exposure to hyposmotic solution in cells labeled with di-8-aminonaphthylethenylpyridinium, t-tubule patterning remained intact, suggesting the loss of de-t-tubulation was not responsible for the fall in I(Ca,L). After long exposure, Ca(2+) load of the SR was not increased, and swelling had no effect on the site-specific phosphorylation of phospholamban, but fractional SR Ca(2+) release was depressed. The initial positive inotropic response to hyposmotic challenge may be accounted for by enhanced coupling between Ca(2+) entry and release. The negative inotropic effect of prolonged exposure can be accounted for by shortening of the action potential duration and a fall in the I(Ca,L) amplitude. PMID:11009486

  4. Verrucotoxin inhibits KATP channels in cardiac myocytes through a muscarinic M3 receptor-PKC pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Wu; Yazawa, Kazuto; Hao, Li-Ying; Onoue, Yoshio; Kameyama, Masaki

    2007-06-01

    Verrucotoxin is the major component of venom from the stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa). Stings from the dorsal spines of the stonefish produce intensive pain, convulsions, hypotension, paralysis, respiratory weakness and collapse of the cardiovascular system, occasionally leading to death. It has been reported that verrucotoxin might modulate ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) current in frog atrial fibers. However, the mechanism by which verrucotoxin acts on KATP current remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether verrucotoxin inhibited KATP current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, using the patch clamp method. Verrucotoxin suppressed KATP current induced by pinacidil (KATP channel opener) in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half maximum concentration of 16.3 microg/ml. The effect of verrucotoxin on KATP current was suppressed by atropine (1 microM), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (100 nM), a muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the effect of verrucotoxin on KATP current was attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine (10 microM) and calphostin C (10 microM), yet not by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor H-89 (0.5 microM). These results suggest that verrucotoxin inhibits KATP current through the muscarinic M3 receptor-PKC pathway. These findings enhance our understanding of the toxic effects of verrucotoxin from the stonefish. PMID:17362922

  5. Regulation of autophagic flux by dynein-mediated autophagosomes trafficking in mouse coronary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Xiong, Jing; Xia, Min; Gulbins, Erich; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2013-12-01

    Autophagic flux is an important process during autophagy maturation in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs). Here, we defined the role and molecular mechanism of the motor protein dynein in the regulation of autophagic flux in CAMs. In mouse CAMs, dynein protein is abundantly expressed. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of dynein activity dramatically enhanced 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket)-induced expression of the autophagic marker LC3B and increased the cellular levels of p62, a selective substrate for autophagy. Inhibition of dynein activity increased 7-Ket-induced formation of autophagosomes (APs), but reduced the number of autophagolysosomes (APLs) in CAMs. Furthermore, 7-Ket increased the fusion of APs with lysosomes and the velocity of APs movement in mouse CAMs, which was abolished when the dynein activity in these cells was inhibited. Interestingly, 7-Ket increased lysosomal Ca(2+) release and stimulated dynein ATPase activity, both of which were abolished by NAADP antagonists, NED-19 and PPADS. Taken together, our data suggest that NAADP-mediated Ca(2+) release plays a crucial role in regulating dynein activity, which mediates APs trafficking and fusion with lysosomes to form APLs thus regulating autophagic flux in CAMs under atherogenic stimulation.

  6. An Experimental Model Using Cultured Cardiac Myocytes for a Study of the Generation of Premature Ventricular Contractions Under Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    2011-09-01

    It is known that use of a contrast agents in echocardiography increases the probability of generation of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). As a basic study to elucidate the mechanisms and to reduce adverse effects, the generation of PVCs was investigated using cultured cardiac myocytes instead of the intact heart in vivo. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured on a cover slip. The myocyte sample was exposed to pulsed ultrasound with microbubbles adjacent to the myocytes, and generation of PVCs was examined with ultrasound exposure at various delay times after onset of myocyte contraction. The experimental results showed that generation of PVCs had a stable threshold delay time and that PVCs were generated only when myocytes were exposed to ultrasound with delay times longer than the threshold. The results indicate that the model used in this study is useful for revealing the mechanisms by which PVCs are induced by ultrasound exposure.

  7. Functional consequences of caspase activation in cardiac myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Communal, Catherine; Sumandea, Marius; de Tombe, Pieter; Narula, Jagat; Solaro, R. John; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2002-04-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is present in many cardiac disease states, including heart failure and ischemic heart disease. Apoptosis is associated with the activation of caspases that mediate the cleavage of vital and structural proteins. However, the functional contribution of apoptosis to these conditions is not known. Furthermore, in cardiac myocytes, apoptosis may not be complete, allowing the cells to persist for a prolonged period within the myocardium. Therefore, we examined whether caspase-3 cleaved cardiac myofibrillar proteins and, if so, whether it affects contractile function. The effects of caspase-3 were studied in vitro on individual components of the cardiac myofilament including -actin, -actinin, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain 1/2, tropomyosin, cardiac troponins (T, I, C), and the trimeric troponin complex. Exposure of the myofibrillar protein (listed above) to caspase-3 for 4 h resulted in the cleavage of -actin and -actinin, but not myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain 1/2, and tropomyosin, into three fragments (30, 20, and 15 kDa) and one major fragment (45 kDa), respectively. When cTnT, cTnI, and cTnC were incubated individually with caspase-3, there was no detectable cleavage. However, when the recombinant troponin complex was exposed to caspase-3, cTnT was cleaved, resulting in fragments of 25 kDa. Furthermore, rat cardiac myofilaments exposed to caspase-3 exhibited similar patterns of myofibrillar protein cleavage. Treatment with the caspase inhibitor DEVD-CHO or z-VAD-fmk abolished the cleavage. Myofilaments, isolated from adult rat ventricular myocytes after induction of apoptotic pathway by using -adrenergic stimulation, displayed a similar pattern of actin and TnT cleavage. Exposure of skinned fiber to caspase-3 decreased maximal Ca2+-activated force and myofibrillar ATPase activity. Our results indicate that caspase-3 cleaved myofibrillar proteins, resulting in an impaired force/Ca2+ relationship and myofibrillar ATPase activity

  8. Calcium binding to cardiac myocytes protected from proteolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L E; Fawzi, A B

    1985-04-17

    Excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle is dependent on extracellular calcium and calcium bound to the surface of the myocardial cell. In this study, we examined the physical characteristics of calcium binding to adult guinea pig ventricular myocytes disaggregated mechanically in oxygenated tissue culture medium containing a proteinase inhibitor (aprotinin), and separated from cellular debris by Cytodex beads. Cells prepared in this manner excluded Trypan blue and showed no evidence of spontaneous contraction or contracture. Scatchard plots of calcium binding determined by continuous flow equilibrium dialysis revealed a high-affinity, low-capacity pool, Ka = 65 X 10(3) M-1 and Bt = 1.3 nmol X mg-1 and a low-affinity, high-capacity pool, Ka = 141 M-1 and Bt = 138 nmol X mg-1. The low-affinity pool was not detectable after lanthanum, trypsin or collagenase treatment or in cells prepared without aprotinin in the isolation medium. Both neuraminidase and phospholipase C reduced Bt of the low-affinity pool by one half, but only neuraminidase affected the affinity constant of this pool. Ka was increased to 516.7 M-1, similar to the apparent affinity constant for calcium binding estimated from dP/dtmax measured at several extracellular calcium concentrations (470 M-1). The results suggest that calcium bound to sarcolemmal phospholipids represents the superficial calcium involved in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart.

  9. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extract regulates energy metabolism in myocytes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zheng; Moss-Pierce, Tijuana; Ford, Paul; Jiang, T Alan

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide. Herbs and spices have been used for the treatment of diabetes for centuries in folk medicine. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extracts (SE) have been shown to perform comparably to insulin by significantly reducing blood glucose levels in animal models; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the effects of clove on metabolism in C2C12 myocytes and demonstrated that SE significantly increases glucose consumption. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was increased by SE treatment. SE also transcriptionally regulates genes involved in metabolism, including sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α). Nicotinamide, an SIRT1 inhibitor, diminished SE's effects on glucose consumption. Furthermore, treatment with SE dose-dependently increases muscle glycolysis and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. Overall, our study suggests that SE has the potential to increase muscle glycolysis and mitochondria function by activating both AMPK and SIRT1 pathways.

  10. Electrophysiological Determination of Submembrane Na(+) Concentration in Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Bence; Bányász, Tamás; Shannon, Thomas R; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T

    2016-09-20

    In the heart, Na(+) is a key modulator of the action potential, Ca(2+) homeostasis, energetics, and contractility. Because Na(+) currents and cotransport fluxes depend on the Na(+) concentration in the submembrane region, it is necessary to accurately estimate the submembrane Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]sm). Current methods using Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators or Na(+) -sensitive electrodes cannot measure [Na(+)]sm. However, electrophysiology methods are ideal for measuring [Na(+)]sm. In this article, we develop patch-clamp protocols and experimental conditions to determine the upper bound of [Na(+)]sm at the peak of action potential and its lower bound at the resting state. During the cardiac cycle, the value of [Na(+)]sm is constrained within these bounds. We conducted experiments in rabbit ventricular myocytes at body temperature and found that 1) at a low pacing frequency of 0.5 Hz, the upper and lower bounds converge at 9 mM, constraining the [Na(+)]sm value to ∼9 mM; 2) at 2 Hz pacing frequency, [Na(+)]sm is bounded between 9 mM at resting state and 11.5 mM; and 3) the cells can maintain [Na(+)]sm to the above values, despite changes in the pipette Na(+) concentration, showing autoregulation of Na(+) in beating cardiomyocytes. PMID:27653489

  11. Local regional stimulation of single isolated ventricular myocytes using microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2009-08-01

    The regional manipulation of the microenvironment surrounding single adult cardiac myocytes in a microfluidic structure is described. The flow rates of laminar streams were adjusted such that the fluid interface between an injection flow and a perfusion flow was manipulated laterally to stimulate regions of the cell surface. Using this general principle, we were able to selectively expose defined regions of the cell to test solutions, with predefined pulse durations and frequencies. We demonstrate the transient depolarisation of the cardiomyocyte through the regional chemical stimulation of localized areas of the cell with elevated potassium concentrations (100 mM). The results show that chemical stimulation at frequencies < or = 0.25 Hz evoked Ca(2+) transients and cell shortening, comparable to those induced by electrical (field) stimulation. At higher frequencies the membrane potential failed to recover sufficiently from the depolarisation with the high K(+) solution, possibly because of the slow clearance of the ion from the t-tubular system. To test this hypothesis, the clearance of fluorescently labeled 10 kDa dextran from the t-system was measured and found to be approximately 0.5 s delayed compared to that of the bulk extracellular space, indicating the slow diffusion inside the confined space of the tubular membrane invaginations.

  12. Angiotensin II stimulates internalization and degradation of arterial myocyte plasma membrane BK channels to induce vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Leo, M. Dennis; Bulley, Simon; Bannister, John P.; Kuruvilla, Korah P.; Narayanan, Damodaran

    2015-01-01

    Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that modulate arterial contractility. In arterial myocytes, β1 subunits are stored within highly mobile rab11A-positive recycling endosomes. In contrast, BKα subunits are primarily plasma membrane-localized. Trafficking pathways for BKα and whether physiological stimuli that regulate arterial contractility alter BKα localization in arterial myocytes are unclear. Here, using biotinylation, immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer (immunoFRET) microscopy, and RNAi-mediated knockdown, we demonstrate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BKα to the plasma membrane in myocytes of resistance-size cerebral arteries. Angiotensin II (ANG II), a vasoconstrictor, reduced both surface and total BKα, an effect blocked by bisindolylmaleimide-II, concanavalin A, and dynasore, protein kinase C (PKC), internalization, and endocytosis inhibitors, respectively. In contrast, ANG II did not reduce BKα mRNA, and sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, did not alter surface BKα protein over the same time course. MG132 and bafilomycin A, proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors, respectively, also inhibited the ANG II-induced reduction in surface and total BKα, resulting in intracellular BKα accumulation. ANG II-mediated BK channel degradation reduced BK currents in isolated myocytes and functional responses to iberiotoxin, a BK channel blocker, and NS1619, a BK activator, in pressurized (60 mmHg) cerebral arteries. These data indicate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BKα to the plasma membrane in arterial myocytes. We also show that ANG II stimulates PKC-dependent BKα internalization and degradation. These data describe a unique mechanism by which ANG II inhibits arterial myocyte BK currents, by reducing surface channel number, to induce vasoconstriction. PMID:26179602

  13. MicroRNA-214 protects cardiac myocytes against H2O2-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guangwei; Shao, Suxia; Dong, Hua; Bian, Xiaohua; Yang, Xingwei; Dong, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cardiac myocyte injury resulting from changes in the expression levels of multiple genes plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of numerous heart diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential roles of microRNA-214 (miR-214) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated gene regulation in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to demonstrate that miR-214 was upregulated in cardiac myocytes after treatment with H2O2. We transfected cells with pre-miR-214 to upregulate miR-214 expression and transfected cells with a miR-214 inhibitor (anti-miR-214) to downregulate miR-214 expression. H2O2-induced cardiac cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The level of apoptosis was increased by the miR-214 inhibitor and decreased by pre-miR-214. Therefore, we believe that miR-214 plays a positive role in H2O2-induced cardiac cell apoptosis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is constitutively active and is considered to be the primary downregulator of the pro-oncogenic PI3K/Akt pathway. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of the PTEN protein in cardiac myocytes decreased after H2O2 induction. Anti-miR-214 increased PTEN protein expression level, in contrast, pre-miR-214 decreased the PTEN protein expression level in cultured cardiac myocytes. These results indicate that PTEN is regulated by miR-214 and serves as an important target of miR-214 in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, miR-214 is sensitive to H2O2 stimulation, and miR-214 protects cardiac myocytes against H2O2-induced injury via one of its targets, PTEN.

  14. Contractile reserve and calcium regulation are depressed in myocytes from chronically unloaded hearts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, Kenta; Nakayama, Masaharu; Hasan, Faisal; Yan, Xinhua; Schneider, Michael D.; Lorell, Beverly H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic cardiac unloading of the normal heart results in the reduction of left ventricular (LV) mass, but effects on myocyte contractile function are not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac unloading and reduction in LV mass were induced by heterotopic heart transplantation to the abdominal aorta in isogenic rats. Contractility and [Ca(2+)](i) regulation in LV myocytes were studied at both 2 and 5 weeks after transplantation. Native in situ hearts from recipient animals were used as the controls for all experiments. Contractile function indices in myocytes from 2-week unloaded and native (control) hearts were similar under baseline conditions (0.5 Hz, 1.2 mmol/L [Ca(2+)](o), and 36 degrees C) and in response to stimulation with high [Ca(2+)](o) (range 2.5 to 4.0 mmol/L). In myocytes from 5-week unloaded hearts, there were no differences in fractional cell shortening and peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) at baseline; however, time to 50% relengthening and time to 50% decline in [Ca(2+)](i) were prolonged compared with controls. Severe defects in fractional cell shortening and peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) were elicited in myocytes from 5-week unloaded hearts in response to high [Ca(2+)](o). However, there were no differences in the contractile response to isoproterenol between myocytes from unloaded and native hearts. In 5-week unloaded hearts, but not in 2-week unloaded hearts, LV protein levels of phospholamban were increased (345% of native heart values). Protein levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger were not changed. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic unloading of the normal heart caused a time-dependent depression of myocyte contractile function, suggesting the potential for impaired performance in states associated with prolonged cardiac atrophy.

  15. Contractile reserve and intracellular calcium regulation in mouse myocytes from normal and hypertrophied failing hearts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, K.; Yan, X.; Tajima, M.; Su, Z.; Barry, W. H.; Lorell, B. H.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Mouse myocyte contractility and the changes induced by pressure overload are not fully understood. We studied contractile reserve in isolated left ventricular myocytes from mice with ascending aortic stenosis (AS) during compensatory hypertrophy (4-week AS) and the later stage of early failure (7-week AS) and from control mice. Myocyte contraction and [Ca(2+)](i) transients with fluo-3 were measured simultaneously. At baseline (0.5 Hz, 1.5 mmol/L [Ca(2+)](o), 25 degrees C), the amplitude of myocyte shortening and peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) in 7-week AS were not different from those of controls, whereas contraction, relaxation, and the decline of [Ca(2+)](i) transients were slower. In response to the challenge of high [Ca(2+)](o), fractional cell shortening was severely depressed with reduced peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) in 7-week AS compared with controls. In response to rapid pacing stimulation, cell shortening and peak-systolic [Ca(2+)](i) increased in controls, but this response was depressed in 7-week AS. In contrast, the responses to both challenge with high [Ca(2+)](o) and rapid pacing in 4-week AS were similar to those of controls. Although protein levels of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger were increased in both 4-week and 7-week AS, the ratio of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase to phospholamban protein levels was depressed in 7-week AS compared with controls but not in 4-week AS. This was associated with an impaired capacity to increase sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load during high work states in 7-week AS myocytes. In hypertrophied failing mouse myocytes, depressed contractile reserve is related to an impaired augmentation of systolic [Ca(2+)](i) and SR Ca(2+) load and simulates findings in human failing myocytes.

  16. Velocity-curvature relationship of colliding spherical calcium waves in rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wussling, M H; Scheufler, K; Schmerling, S; Drygalla, V

    1997-01-01

    Colliding spherical calcium waves in enzymatically isolated rat cardiac myocytes develop new wavefronts propagating perpendicular to the original direction. When investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM, "cusp"-like structures become visible that are favorably approximated by double parabolae. The time-dependent position of the vertices is used to determine propagation velocity and negative curvature of the wavefront in the region of collision. It is evident that negatively curved waves propagate faster than positively curved, single waves. Considering two perfectly equal expanding circular waves, we demonstrated that the collision of calcium waves is due to an autocatalytic process (calcium-induced calcium release), and not to a simple phenomenon of interference. Following the spatiotemporal organization in simpler chemical systems maintained under conditions far from the thermodynamic equilibrium (Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction), the dependence of the normal velocity on the curvature of the spreading wavefront is given by a linear relation. The so-called velocity-curvature relationship makes clear that the velocity is enhanced by curvature toward the direction of forward propagation and decreased by curvature away from the direction of forward propagation (with an influence of the diffusion coefficient). Experimentally obtained velocity data of both negatively and positively curved calcium waves were approximated by orthogonal weighted regression. The negative slope of the straight line resulted in an effective diffusion coefficient of 1.2 x 10(-4) mm2/s. From the so-called critical radius, which must be exceeded to initiate a traveling calcium wave, a critical volume (with enhanced [Ca2+]i) of approximately 12 microm3 was calculated. This is almost identical to the volume that is occupied by a single calcium spark. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:9284291

  17. VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway promotes myocyte hypertrophy and survival in the infarcted myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tieqiang; Zhao, Wenyuan; Meng, Weixin; Liu, Chang; Chen, Yuanjian; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Kumar, Rahul; Sun, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have shown that in addition to angio/lymphangiogenesis, the VEGF family is involved in other cellular actions. We have recently reported that enhanced VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in the infarcted rat myocardium, suggesting the paracrine/autocrine function of VEGF-C on cardiac remodeling. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that VEGF-C regulates cardiomyocyte growth and survival in the infarcted myocardium. Methods and results: Gene profiling and VEGFR-3 expression of cardiomyocytes were assessed by laser capture microdissection/microarray and immunohistochemistry in the normal and infarcted myocardium. The effect of VEGF-C on myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis during normoxia and hypoxia was detected by RT-PCR and western blotting in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. VEGFR-3 was minimally expressed in cardiomyocytes of the normal and noninfarcted myocardium, while markedly elevated in the surviving cardiomyocytes of the infarcted myocardium and border zone. Genes altered in the surviving cardiomyocytes were associated with the networks regulating cellular growth and survival. VEGF-C significantly increased the expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANP), brain natriuretic factor (BNP), and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC), markers of hypertrophy, in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Hypoxia caused neonatal cardiomyocyte atrophy, which was prevented by VEGF-C treatment. Hypoxia significantly enhanced apoptotic mediators, including cleaved caspase 3, 8, and 9, and Bax in neonatal cardiomyocytes, which were abolished by VEGF-C treatment. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 pathway exerts a beneficial role in the infarcted myocardium by promoting compensatory cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and survival. PMID:26064438

  18. Myocytic androgen receptor controls the strength but not the mass of limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Céline; Duteil, Delphine; Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Messaddeq, Nadia; Malivindi, Rocco; Kato, Shigeaki; Chambon, Pierre; Metzger, Daniel

    2010-08-10

    The anabolic effects of androgens on skeletal muscles are thought to be mediated predominantly through the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the ligand-dependent nuclear receptor superfamily. However, despite numerous studies performed in men and in rodents, these effects remain poorly understood. To characterize androgen signaling in skeletal muscles, we generated mice in which the AR is selectively ablated in myofibers. We show that myocytic AR controls androgen-induced insulin-like growth factor IEa (IGF-IEa) expression in the highly androgen-sensitive perineal muscles and that it mediates androgen-stimulated postnatal hypertrophy of these muscles. In contrast, androgen-dependent postnatal hypertrophy of limb muscle fibers is independent of myocytic AR. Thus, androgens control perineal and limb muscle mass in male mice through myocytic AR-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. Importantly, we also show that AR deficiency in limb myocytes impairs myofibrillar organization of sarcomeres and decreases muscle strength, thus demonstrating that myocytic AR controls key pathways required for maximum force production. These distinct androgen signaling pathways in perineal and limb muscles may allow the design of screens to identify selective androgen modulators of muscle strength.

  19. Methamphetamine oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and functional deficits are modulated by nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2.

    PubMed

    Ramkissoon, Annmarie; Wells, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors like nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) can enhance the transcription of cytoprotective genes during oxidative stress. We investigated whether Nrf2 is activated by methamphetamine (METH) thereby altering neurotoxicity in Nrf2 +/+ and -/- adult mouse brain. A single dose of METH can induce the mRNA levels of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and cytoprotective proteins in mouse brain. Multiple-day dosing with METH enhanced DNA oxidation and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter staining in the striatum, indicating dopaminergic nerve terminal toxicity, which was more severe in -/- mice, as were deficits in motor coordination and olfactory discrimination. These Nrf2-dependent effects were independent of changes in METH metabolism or the induction of hyperthermia. Similarly, METH increased striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein, indicating neurotoxicity. METH neurotoxicity was also observed in the glial cells and in the GABAergic system of the olfactory bulbs and was enhanced in -/- mice, whereas dopaminergic parameters were unaffected. With one-day dosing of METH, there were no differences between +/+ and -/- mice in either basal or METH-enhanced DNA oxidation and neurotoxicity markers. Nrf2-mediated pathways accordingly may protect against the neurodegenerative effects and functional deficits initiated by METH and perhaps other reactive oxygen species-enhancing neurotoxicants, when there is time for transcriptional activation and protein induction. In human users of METH, this mechanism may be essential when differences in drug abuse patterns may alter the induction and duration of Nrf2 activation thereby modulating susceptibility to the neurotoxic effects of METH.

  20. Functional properties of K+ currents in adult mouse ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Judith; Clark, Robert B; Giles, Wayne R; Fiset, Céline

    2004-01-01

    Although the K+ currents expressed in hearts of adult mice have been studied extensively, detailed information concerning their relative sizes and biophysical properties in ventricle and atrium is lacking. Here we describe and validate pharmacological and biophysical methods that can be used to isolate the three main time- and voltage-dependent outward K+ currents which modulate action potential repolarization. A Ca2+-independent transient outward K+ current, Ito, can be separated from total outward current using an ‘inactivating prepulse’. The rapidly activating, slowly inactivating delayed rectifier K+ current, IKur, can be isolated using submillimolar concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The remaining K+ current, Iss, can be obtained by combining these two procedures: (i) inactivating Ito and (ii) eliminating IKur by application of low concentration of 4-AP. Iss activates relatively slowly and shows very little inactivation, even during depolarizations lasting several seconds. Our findings also show that the rate of reactivation of Ito is more than 20-fold faster than that of IKur. These results demonstrate that the outward K+ currents in mouse ventricles can be separated based on their distinct time and voltage dependence, and different sensitivities to 4-AP. Data obtained at both 22 and 32°C demonstrate that although the duration of the inactivating prepulse has to be adapted for the recording temperature, this approach for separation of K+ current components is also valid at more physiological temperatures. To demonstrate that these methods also allow separation of these K+ currents in other cell types, we have applied this same approach to myocytes from mouse atria. Molecular approaches have been used to compare the expression levels of different K+ channels in mouse atrium and ventricle. These findings provide new insights into the functional roles of IKur, Ito and Iss during action potential repolarization. PMID:15272047

  1. Stimulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation in myocytes by regulating its cellular uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-aleem, S.; Frangakis, C. ); Badr, M. )

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the regulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation in the heart, the effect of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor enoximone on the oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonic acid, and (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonyl-CoA, were studied in adult rat myocytes, and isolated rat heart mitochondria. Enoximone stimulated arachidonate oxidation by 94%, at a concentration of 0.25 mM. The apparent Vmax value of archidonate oxidation in the presence of enoximone was approximately 75% higher than the value observed with the control in isolated myocytes. Also, enoximone stimulated arachidonate uptake by 27% at a concentration of 0.25 mM. On the other hand, enoximone had no effect on the oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonyl-CoA in isolated rat heart mitochondria. These results suggest that the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in myocytes is regulated by the rate of uptake of these acids across sarcolemmal membranes.

  2. Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells can transdifferentiate into skeletal myocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Fujie, Masaki; Endo, Tuyoshi; Kano, Koichiro

    2008-12-19

    We have previously reported the establishment of preadipocyte cell lines, termed dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells, from mature adipocytes of various animals. DFAT cells possess long-term viability and can redifferentiate into adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, DFAT cells can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes under appropriate culture conditions. However, it is unclear whether DFAT cells are capable of transdifferentiating into skeletal myocytes, which is common in the mesodermal lineage. Here, we show that DFAT cells can be induced to transdifferentiate into skeletal myocytes in vitro. Myogenic induction of DFAT cells resulted in the expression of MyoD and myogenin, followed by cell fusion and formation of multinucleated cells expressing sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. These results indicate that DFAT cells derived from mature adipocytes can transdifferentiate into skeletal myocytes in vitro.

  3. Numerical Simulations of Calcium Ions Spiral Wave in Single Cardiac Myocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Xing

    2010-04-01

    The calcium ions (Ca2+) spark is an elementary Ca2+ release event in cardiac myocytes. It is believed to buildup cell-wide Ca2+ signals, such as Ca2+ transient and Ca2+ wave, through a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) mechanism. Here the excitability of the Ca2+ wave in a single cardiac myocyte is simulated by employing the fire-diffuse-fire model. By modulating the dynamic parameters of Ca2+ release and re-uptake channels, we find three Ca2+ signaling states in a single cardiac myocyte: no wave, plane wave, and spiral wave. The period of a spiral wave is variable in the different regimes. This study indicates that the spiral wave or the excitability of the system can be controlled through micro-modulation in a living excitable medium.

  4. Carbon fiber technique for the investigation of single-cell mechanics in intact cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Seiryo; Nishimura, Satoshi; Yasuda, Soichiro; Hosoya, Yumiko; Katoh, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for attaching single isolated cardiac myocytes to carbon fibers for mechanical manipulation and measurement. This method relies on cell-adhesive carbon fibers that attach easily to the cell membrane without causing damage, and is thus applicable to intact myocytes. To connect the carbon fiber to micromanipulators, a fiber holder with glass capillaries must first be fabricated. After connection of the fibers to the micromanipulators, firm attachment is easily established by gently pressing the fiber tip onto the cell membrane. Unlike other methods, this technique does not require vast technical expertise, and therefore greatly facilitates experiments. This method enables detection of the effect of drugs, genetic defects or the expression of exogenous proteins on both active and passive properties of cardiac myocytes. In combination with other experimental procedures, this technique can also be applied to the study of mechano-transduction. This protocol can be completed in 3.5 h.

  5. Fibroblast–myocyte electrotonic coupling: Does it occur in native cardiac tissue?☆

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Peter; Gourdie, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Heterocellular electrotonic coupling between cardiac myocytes and non-excitable connective tissue cells has been a long-established and well-researched fact in vitro. Whether or not such coupling exists in vivo has been a matter of considerable debate. This paper reviews the development of experimental insight and conceptual views on this topic, describes evidence in favour of and against the presence of such coupling in native myocardium, and identifies directions for further study needed to resolve the riddle, perhaps less so in terms of principal presence which has been demonstrated, but undoubtedly in terms of extent, regulation, patho-physiological context, and actual relevance of cardiac myocyte–non-myocyte coupling in vivo. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Myocyte-Fibroblast Signalling in Myocardium." PMID:24412581

  6. Cytosolic and nuclear calcium signaling in atrial myocytes: IP3-mediated calcium release and the role of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hohendanner, Felix; Maxwell, Joshua T; Blatter, Lothar A

    2015-01-01

    In rabbit atrial myocytes Ca signaling has unique features due to the lack of transverse (t) tubules, the spatial arrangement of mitochondria and the contribution of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-induced Ca release (IICR). During excitation-contraction coupling action potential-induced elevation of cytosolic [Ca] originates in the cell periphery from Ca released from the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (j-SR) and then propagates by Ca-induced Ca release from non-junctional (nj-) SR toward the cell center. The subsarcolemmal region between j-SR and the first array of nj-SR Ca release sites is devoid of mitochondria which results in a rapid propagation of activation through this domain, whereas the subsequent propagation through the nj-SR network occurs at a velocity typical for a propagating Ca wave. Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca uptake with the Ca uniporter blocker Ru360 accelerates propagation and increases the amplitude of Ca transients (CaTs) originating from nj-SR. Elevation of cytosolic IP3 levels by rapid photolysis of caged IP3 has profound effects on the magnitude of subcellular CaTs with increased Ca release from nj-SR and enhanced CaTs in the nuclear compartment. IP3 uncaging restricted to the nucleus elicites 'mini'-Ca waves that remain confined to this compartment. Elementary IICR events (Ca puffs) preferentially originate in the nucleus in close physical association with membrane structures of the nuclear envelope and the nucleoplasmic reticulum. The data suggest that in atrial myocytes the nucleus is an autonomous Ca signaling domain where Ca dynamics are primarily governed by IICR. PMID:25891132

  7. Concanavalin A amplifies both beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor-adenylate cyclase-linked pathways in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Singh, K J; Hines, D K; Honbo, N Y; Karliner, J S

    1991-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) is a tetrameric plant lectin that disrupts plasma membrane-cytoskeletal interactions and alters plasma membrane fluidity. We used Con A as a probe to explore beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor-mediated regulation of cAMP in intact neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Preincubation with Con A, 0.5 micrograms/ml, attenuated 1 microM (-)-norepinephrine (NE)-induced downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors and resulted in a 50% augmentation of cAMP accumulation stimulated by 1 microM NE. Con A also augmented forskolin (1-10 microM)-stimulated cAMP accumulation by an average of 37% (P less than 0.05); however, Con A preincubation had no effect on basal or cholera toxin-stimulated cAMP content. The muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol (1-100 microM) decreased 1 microM NE-stimulated cAMP generation by an average of 32% (n = 7, P less than 0.05); preincubation with Con A further enhanced the inhibitory effect of carbachol by 18% (n = 7, P less than 0.05). Carbachol (1 microM) for 2 h decreased muscarinic cholinergic receptor density in whole cells by 33%; preincubation with Con A prevented this receptor downregulation. Con A pretreatment did not affect (-)-isoproterenol- or forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in cell homogenates, suggesting that an intact cytoarchitecture is necessary for Con A to augment cAMP formation. We conclude that Con A, through its modulation of beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor signaling, amplifies both stimulatory and inhibitory adenylate cyclase-linked pathways in intact neonatal ventricular myocytes. These data suggest the possibility that plasma membrane-cytoskeletal interaction is an important regulator of transmembrane signaling because interference with this interaction results in alterations in cAMP accumulation mediated by both beta-adrenergic- and muscarinic cholinergic-adenylate cyclase pathways. PMID:1653274

  8. IGF-I and amino acids effects through TOR signaling on proliferation and differentiation of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Emilio J; Lutfi, Esmail; Jiménez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Riera-Codina, Miquel; Capilla, Encarnación; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and development is controlled by nutritional (amino acids, AA) as well as hormonal factors (insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I); however, how its interaction modulates muscle mass in fish is not clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development of gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes to describe the effects of AA and IGF-I on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression, as well as on the transduction pathways involved in its signaling (TOR/AKT). Our results showed that AA and IGF-I separately increased the number of PCNA-positive cells and, together produced a synergistic effect. Furthermore, AA and IGF-I, combined or separately, increased significantly Myogenin protein expression, whereas MyoD was not affected. These results indicate a role for these factors in myocyte proliferation and differentiation. At the mRNA level, AA significantly enhanced PCNA expression, but no effects were observed on the expression of the MRFs or AKT2 and FOXO3 upon treatment. Nonetheless, we demonstrated for the first time in gilthead sea bream that AA significantly increased the gene expression of TOR and its downstream effectors 4EBP1 and 70S6K, with IGF-I having a supporting role on 4EBP1 up-regulation. Moreover, AA and IGF-I also activated TOR and AKT by phosphorylation, respectively, being this activation decreased by specific inhibitors. In summary, the present study demonstrates the importance of TOR signaling on the stimulatory role of AA and IGF-I in gilthead sea bream myogenesis and contributes to better understand the potential regulation of muscle growth and development in fish.

  9. Cyclic GMP reduces ventricular myocyte stunning after simulated ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, A; Yan, L; Scholz, P M; Huang, M W; Weiss, H R

    1999-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the second messenger activated by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP, would reduce the effects of myocyte stunning following simulated ischemia-reperfusion and that this was related to cyclic GMP protein kinase. Ventricular cardiac myocytes were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits (n = 8). Cell shortening was measured by a video edge detector and protein phosphorylation was determined autoradiographically after SDS gel electrophoresis. Cell shortening data were acquired at: (i) baseline followed by 8-Bromo-cGMP 10(-6) M (8-Br-cGMP) and then KT 5823 10(-6) M (cyclic GMP protein kinase inhibitor) and (ii) simulated ischemia (20 min of 95% N(2)-5% CO(2) at 37 degrees C) followed by simulated reperfusion (reoxygenation) with addition of 8-Br-cGMP 10(-6) M followed by KT 5823 10(-6) M, (iii) addition of 8-Br-cGMP prior to ischemia followed by the addition of KT 5823 10(-6) M after 30 min of reoxygenation. In the control group, 8-Br-cGMP 10(-6) M decreased percentage shortening (%short) (5.0 +/- 0.6 vs 3.8 +/- 0. 4) and the maximum velocity (V(max), microm/s) (48.6 +/- 6.9 vs 40.2 +/- 6.4). KT 5823 10(-6) M added after 8-Br-cGMP partially restored %short (4.6 +/- 0.5) and V(max) (46.6 +/- 8.0). After stunning, baseline myocytes had decreased %short (3.4 +/- 0.2) and V(max) (36. 0 +/- 4.2). After the addition of 8-Br-cGMP, the %short (2.7 +/- 0. 2) and V(max) (27.6 +/- 2.5) decreased further. The addition of KT 5823 did not change either the %short or the V(max). The myocytes with 8-Br-cGMP during ischemia had increased %short (4.2 +/- 0.2) and V(max) (37.2 +/- 3.4) when compared to the stunned group. The addition of KT 5823 did not significantly alter %short (3.3 +/- 0.4) or V(max) (29.2 +/- 5.0) in the myocytes pretreated with 8-Br-cGMP. Protein phosphorylation was increased by 8-Br-cGMP in control and stunned myocytes. KT 5823 blocked this effect in control but not stunned myocytes, suggesting some change in the cyclic GMP protein kinase

  10. Leptin modulates electrophysiological characteristics and isoproterenol-induced arrhythmogenesis in atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is an important risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Leptin is an important adipokine. However, it is not clear whether leptin directly modulates the electrophysiological characteristics of atrial myocytes. Results Whole cell patch clamp and indo-1 fluorescence were used to record the action potentials (APs) and ionic currents in isolated rabbit left atrial (LA) myocytes incubated with and without (control) leptin (100 nM) for 1 h to investigate the role of leptin on atrial electrophysiology. Leptin-treated LA myocytes (n = 19) had longer 20% of AP duration (28 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 2 ms, p < 0.05), but similar 50% of AP duration (51 ± 4 vs. 50 ± 3 ms, p > 0.05), and 90% of AP duration (89 ± 5 vs. 94 ± 4 ms, p > 0.05), as compared to the control (n = 22). In the presence of isoproterenol (10 nM), leptin-treated LA myocytes (n = 21) showed a lower incidence (19% vs. 54.2%, p < 0.05) of delayed afterdepolarization (DAD) than the control (n = 24). Leptin-treated LA myocytes showed a larger sodium current, but a smaller ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium current, and sodium-calcium exchanger current than the control. Leptin-treated and control LA myocytes exhibited a similar late sodium current, inward rectifier potassium current, transient outward current and L-type calcium current. In addition, the leptin-treated LA myocytes (n = 38) exhibited a smaller intracellular Ca2+ transient (0.21 ± 0.01 vs. 0.26 ± 0.01 R410/485, p < 0.05) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content (0.35 ± 0.02 vs. 0.43 ± 0.03 R410/485, p < 0.05) than the control LA myocytes (n = 42). Conclusions Leptin regulates the LA electrophysiological characteristics and attenuates isoproterenol-induced arrhythmogenesis. PMID:24354396

  11. The relationship between contraction and intracellular sodium in rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S M; McCall, E; Boyett, M R

    1992-01-01

    1. The contraction, measured optically, and the intracellular Na+ activity (aNai), measured with the Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye SBFI, have been recorded simultaneously in rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. 2. In rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes at rest, aNai was 7.8 +/- 0.3 mM (n = 4) and 5.1 +/- 0.3 mM (n = 16), respectively. 3. When both rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes were stimulated at 1 Hz after a rest there was usually a gradual increase in twitch shortening (referred to as a 'staircase') over several minutes accompanied by an increase in aNai over a similar time course. Twitch shortening increased by 21 +/- 3% (n = 6) and 20 +/- 4% (n = 16) (of steady-state twitch shortening during 1 Hz stimulation) per millimolar rise in aNai in rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes, respectively. 4. When rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes were exposed to strophanthidin to block the Na(+)-K+ pump, there were increases in twitch shortening and aNai over similar time courses. Twitch shortening increased by 24 +/- 4% (n = 5) and 20 +/- 3% (n = 10) (of control twitch shortening) per millimolar rise in aNai in rat and guinea-pig ventricular myocytes respectively. 5. The inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides, such as strophanthidin, is widely regarded to be principally the result of the rise in aNai. The similarity of the relation between twitch shortening and aNai during the staircase and on application of strophanthidin suggests that the progressive increase in the strength of contraction during the staircase was also linked to the rise in aNai. 6. In guinea-pig, but not rat, ventricular myocytes there was hysteresis in the relation between twitch shortening and aNai on application and wash-off of strophanthidin. This indicates that strophanthidin has another inotropic action in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. 7. A computer model of excitation-contraction coupling has been developed to simulate the staircase and the action of cardiac glycoside

  12. The stimulus interval-tension relation in enzymatically isolated single myocytes of the frog heart.

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, G; Colomo, F; Poggesi, C; Tesi, C

    1992-01-01

    1. Apparatus for recording the small tensions developed by electrically stimulated single intact myocytes of frog heart is described. A laser-light optoelectronic transducer was used. The compliance of the force probes was 10-20 nm/nN, with a frequency response of 600-900 Hz in Ringer solution. The myocyte shortening during an ordinary twitch contraction was no greater than 1% of the slack length. The overall sensitivity of the transducer system was 5-10 mV/nN, with a total noise of 0.5-1 nN peak to peak. The experiments were performed at 20-23 degrees C on either atrial or ventricular myocytes at 2.15-2.2 microns sarcomere length, in 1 mM-Ca2+ Ringer solution. 2. Isoprenaline (5 microM), increases in external Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o), and shortening of stimulus interval potentiated the myocyte twitch tension. The dependence of twitch characteristics on these inotropic interventions for all the atrial and ventricular myocytes tested was comparable to that of multicellular preparations under similar experimental conditions. This implies that the enzymatic isolation procedure had not altered the physiological properties of the myocytes. 3. The stimulus interval-tension relation for premature twitches of atrial and ventricular myocytes showed (i) a very steep rising phase in the region of intervals just longer than 0.52 and 0.66 s (the duration of the mechanical refractoriness in atrial or ventricular cells), (ii) a peak, at intervals of 0.7-0.8 s, where the twitch tension was strongly potentiated compared to that of the controls, and (iii) as the stimulus interval was further increased, a progressive return to the control level. The stimulus interval-tension relation for steady-state conditions exhibited similar characteristics. 4. The degree of tension potentiation by isoprenaline was greater in the controls than in the earliest test twitches. The result was that the stimulus interval-tension relations for isoprenaline-treated myocytes showed a gentler rise and

  13. Current-Voltage Relationship for Late Na(+) Current in Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Clark, R B; Giles, W R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that the slowly inactivating component of the Na(+) current (INa-L) in the mammalian heart is a significant regulator of the action potential waveform. This insight has led to detailed studies of the role of INa-L in a number of important and challenging pathophysiological settings. These include genetically based ventricular arrhythmias (LQT 1, 2, and 3), ventricular arrhythmias arising from progressive cardiomyopathies (including diabetic), and proarrhythmic abnormalities that develop during local or global ventricular ischemia. Inhibition of INa-L may also be a useful strategy for management of atrial flutter and fibrillation. Many important biophysical parameters that characterize INa-L have been identified; and INa-L as an antiarrhythmia drug target has been studied extensively. However, relatively little information is available regarding (1) the ion transfer or current-voltage relationship for INa-L or (2) the time course of its reactivation at membrane potentials similar to the resting or diastolic membrane potential in mammalian ventricle. This chapter is based on our preliminary findings concerning these two very important physiological/biophysical descriptors for INa-L. Our results were obtained using whole-cell voltage clamp methods applied to enzymatically isolated rat ventricular myocytes. A chemical agent, BDF 9148, which was once considered to be a drug candidate in the Na(+)-dependent inotropic agent category has been used to markedly enhance INa-L current. BDF acts in a potent, selective, and reversible fashion. These BDF 9148 effects are compared and contrasted with the prototypical activator of INa-L, a sea anemone toxin, ATX II. PMID:27586292

  14. Current-Voltage Relationship for Late Na(+) Current in Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Clark, R B; Giles, W R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that the slowly inactivating component of the Na(+) current (INa-L) in the mammalian heart is a significant regulator of the action potential waveform. This insight has led to detailed studies of the role of INa-L in a number of important and challenging pathophysiological settings. These include genetically based ventricular arrhythmias (LQT 1, 2, and 3), ventricular arrhythmias arising from progressive cardiomyopathies (including diabetic), and proarrhythmic abnormalities that develop during local or global ventricular ischemia. Inhibition of INa-L may also be a useful strategy for management of atrial flutter and fibrillation. Many important biophysical parameters that characterize INa-L have been identified; and INa-L as an antiarrhythmia drug target has been studied extensively. However, relatively little information is available regarding (1) the ion transfer or current-voltage relationship for INa-L or (2) the time course of its reactivation at membrane potentials similar to the resting or diastolic membrane potential in mammalian ventricle. This chapter is based on our preliminary findings concerning these two very important physiological/biophysical descriptors for INa-L. Our results were obtained using whole-cell voltage clamp methods applied to enzymatically isolated rat ventricular myocytes. A chemical agent, BDF 9148, which was once considered to be a drug candidate in the Na(+)-dependent inotropic agent category has been used to markedly enhance INa-L current. BDF acts in a potent, selective, and reversible fashion. These BDF 9148 effects are compared and contrasted with the prototypical activator of INa-L, a sea anemone toxin, ATX II.

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation mitigates intrinsic cardiac neuronal and adverse myocyte remodeling postmyocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Southerland, Elizabeth M.; Hardwick, Jean C.; Wright, Gary L.; Ryan, Shannon; Li, Ying; KenKnight, Bruce H.; Armour, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to determine whether chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) mitigates myocardial infarction (MI)-induced remodeling of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS), along with the cardiac tissue it regulates. Guinea pigs underwent VNS implantation on the right cervical vagus. Two weeks later, MI was produced by ligating the ventral descending coronary artery. VNS stimulation started 7 days post-MI (20 Hz, 0.9 ± 0.2 mA, 14 s on, 48 s off; VNS-MI, n = 7) and was compared with time-matched MI animals with sham VNS (MI n = 7) vs. untreated controls (n = 8). Echocardiograms were performed before and at 90 days post-MI. At termination, IC neuronal intracellular voltage recordings were obtained from whole-mount neuronal plexuses. MI increased left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) 30% (P = 0.027) and reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 6.5% (P < 0.001) at 90 days post-MI compared with baseline. In the VNS-MI group, LVESV and LVEF did not differ from baseline. IC neurons showed depolarization of resting membrane potentials and increased input resistance in MI compared with VNS-MI and sham controls (P < 0.05). Neuronal excitability and sensitivity to norepinephrine increased in MI and VNS-MI groups compared with controls (P < 0.05). Synaptic efficacy, as determined by evoked responses to stimulating input axons, was reduced in VNS-MI compared with MI or controls (P < 0.05). VNS induced changes in myocytes, consistent with enhanced glycogenolysis, and blunted the MI-induced increase in the proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (P < 0.05). VNS mitigates MI-induced remodeling of the ICNS, correspondingly preserving ventricular function via both neural and cardiomyocyte-dependent actions. PMID:26276818

  16. Facilitation by intracellular carbonic anhydrase of Na+–HCO3− co-transport but not Na+/H+ exchange activity in the mammalian ventricular myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Ford, Kerrie; Cardenas, Rosa; Supuran, Claudiu T; Cobden, Philip M; Rohling, Mala; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase enzymes (CAs) catalyse the reversible hydration of CO2 to H+ and HCO3− ions. This catalysis is proposed to be harnessed by acid/base transporters, to facilitate their transmembrane flux activity, either through direct protein–protein binding (a ‘transport metabolon’) or local functional interaction. Flux facilitation has previously been investigated by heterologous co-expression of relevant proteins in host cell lines/oocytes. Here, we examine the influence of intrinsic CA activity on membrane HCO3− or H+ transport via the native acid-extruding proteins, Na+–HCO3− cotransport (NBC) and Na+/H+ exchange (NHE), expressed in enzymically isolated mammalian ventricular myocytes. Effects of intracellular and extracellular (exofacial) CA (CAi and CAe) are distinguished using membrane-permeant and –impermeant pharmacological CA inhibitors, while measuring transporter activity in the intact cell using pH and Na+ fluorophores. We find that NBC, but not NHE flux is enhanced by catalytic CA activity, with facilitation being confined to CAi activity alone. Results are quantitatively consistent with a model where CAi catalyses local H+ ion delivery to the NBC protein, assisting the subsequent (uncatalysed) protonation and removal of imported HCO3− ions. In well-superfused myocytes, exofacial CA activity is superfluous, most likely because extracellular CO2/HCO3− buffer is clamped at equilibrium. The CAi insensitivity of NHE flux suggests that, in the native cell, intrinsic mobile buffer-shuttles supply sufficient intracellular H+ ions to this transporter, while intrinsic buffer access to NBC proteins is restricted. Our results demonstrate a selective CA facilitation of acid/base transporters in the ventricular myocyte, implying a specific role for the intracellular enzyme in HCO3− transport, and hence pHi regulation in the heart. PMID:24297849

  17. Facilitation by intracellular carbonic anhydrase of Na+ -HCO3- co-transport but not Na+ / H+ exchange activity in the mammalian ventricular myocyte.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Ford, Kerrie; Cardenas, Rosa; Supuran, Claudiu T; Cobden, Philip M; Rohling, Mala; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2014-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase enzymes (CAs) catalyse the reversible hydration of CO2 to H+ and HCO3- ions. This catalysis is proposed to be harnessed by acid/base transporters, to facilitate their transmembrane flux activity, either through direct protein-protein binding (a 'transport metabolon') or local functional interaction. Flux facilitation has previously been investigated by heterologous co-expression of relevant proteins in host cell lines/oocytes. Here, we examine the influence of intrinsic CA activity on membrane HCO3- or H+ transport via the native acid-extruding proteins, Na+ -HCO3- cotransport (NBC) and Na+ / H+ exchange (NHE), expressed in enzymically isolated mammalian ventricular myocytes. Effects of intracellular and extracellular (exofacial) CA (CAi and CAe) are distinguished using membrane-permeant and -impermeant pharmacological CA inhibitors, while measuring transporter activity in the intact cell using pH and Na+ fluorophores. We find that NBC, but not NHE flux is enhanced by catalytic CA activity, with facilitation being confined to CAi activity alone. Results are quantitatively consistent with a model where CAi catalyses local H+ ion delivery to the NBC protein, assisting the subsequent (uncatalysed) protonation and removal of imported HCO3- ions. In well-superfused myocytes, exofacial CA activity is superfluous, most likely because extracellular CO2/HCO3- buffer is clamped at equilibrium. The CAi insensitivity of NHE flux suggests that, in the native cell, intrinsic mobile buffer-shuttles supply sufficient intracellular H+ ions to this transporter, while intrinsic buffer access to NBC proteins is restricted. Our results demonstrate a selective CA facilitation of acid/base transporters in the ventricular myocyte, implying a specific role for the intracellular enzyme in HCO3- transport, and hence pHi regulation in the heart.

  18. Role of Na(+)-H(+) exchange in the modulation of L-type Ca(2+) current during fluid pressure in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Chul; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2013-02-01

    Application of fluid pressure (FP) using pressurized fluid flow suppresses the L-type Ca(2+) current through both enhancement of Ca(2+) release and intracellular acidosis in ventricular myocytes. As FP-induced intracellular acidosis is more severe during the inhibition of Na(+)-H(+) exchange (NHE), we examined the possible role of NHE in the regulation of I(Ca) during FP exposure using HOE642 (cariporide), a specific NHE inhibitor. A flow of pressurized (~16 dyn/cm(2)) fluid was applied onto single rat ventricular myocytes, and the I(Ca) was monitored using a whole-cell patch-clamp under HEPES-buffered conditions. In cells pre-exposed to FP, additional treatment with HOE642 dose-dependently suppressed the I(Ca) (IC(50) = 0.97 ± 0.12 μM) without altering current-voltage relationships and inactivation time constants. In contrast, the I(Ca) in control cells was not altered by HOE642. The HOE642 induced a left shift in the steady-state inactivation curve. The suppressive effect of HOE642 on the I(Ca) under FP was not altered by intracellular high Ca(2+) buffering. Replacement of external Cl(-) with aspartate to inhibit the Cl(-)-dependent acid loader eliminated the inhibitory effect of HOE642 on I(Ca). These results suggest that NHE may attenuate FP-induced I(Ca) suppression by preventing intracellular H(+) accumulation in rat ventricular myocytes and that NHE activity may not be involved in the Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of the I(Ca) during FP exposure. PMID:23313474

  19. Ionic mechanism of the effects of hydrogen peroxide in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ward, C A; Giles, W R

    1997-05-01

    1. Whole-cell and amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp techniques have been used to study the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on action potentials and underlying ionic currents in single myocytes from the ventricles of adult rat hearts. 2. The results obtained differed markedly depending on the recording method utilized. Conventional whole-cell recordings, in which the myoplasm is dialysed with the contents of the pipette, failed to show any significant effects of H2O2 on the action potential or cell shortening. In contrast, when action potentials were recorded with the amphotericin-perforated patch method, H2O2 (50-200 microM) produced a marked prolongation of the action potential and an increase in cell shortening. 3. Voltage-clamp recordings with the amphotericin-perforated patch method showed that H2O2 caused no significant changes in either the Ca(2+)-independent transient outward K+ current (Ito) or the inwardly rectifying K+ current (IK1). 4. Application of tetrodotoxin (TTX; 8 x 10(-6) M), a Na+ channel blocker, largely inhibited the effects of H2O2 on the action potential. Moreover, anthopleurin A (4 x 10 (-7) M), which augments Na+ current (INa) by slowing its inactivation, mimicked the effects of H2O2 on the action potential of ventricular myocytes. These effects on INa were also blocked almost completely by TTX. 5. The hypothesis that H2O2 can augment INa by slowing its kinetics of inactivation was tested directly using ensemble recordings from cell-attached macropatches. These results demonstrated a significant enhancement of late opening events when H2O2 (200 microM) was included in the recording pipette. A corresponding slowing of inactivation of the ensemble INa was observed. 6. The possibility that protein kinase C (PKC) is an intracellular second messenger for the observed effects of H2O2 was examined using the blocker bisindolylmaelimide (BIS; 10(-7) M). Bath application of BIS prior to H2O2 exposure significantly delayed and also attenuated

  20. Fibroblast growth factor-2 alters the nature of extinction.

    PubMed

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2011-02-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction, do not depend on NMDAr activation. Three experiments demonstrated that FGF2 prevents the switch from NMDAr-dependent to NMDAr-independent reacquisition and re-extinction, suggesting that FGF2 may lead to the partial erasure of the original fear memory. These findings add to a growing body of work suggesting that FGF2 may be a novel pharmacological enhancer of exposure therapy for humans with anxiety disorders.

  1. Aging increases stiffness of cardiac myocytes measured by atomic force microscopy nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Samuel C; Aubry, Nadine; Pain, Jayashree; Diaz, Gissela; Kim, Song-Jung; Vatner, Stephen F

    2004-08-01

    It is well established that the aging heart exhibits left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and changes in mechanical properties, which are thought to be due to alterations in the extracellular matrix. We tested the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of cardiac myocytes significantly change with aging, which could contribute to the global changes in LV diastolic dysfunction. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM), which determines cellular mechanical property changes at nanoscale resolution in myocytes, from young (4 mo) and old (30 mo) male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats. A measure of stiffness, i.e., apparent elastic modulus, was determined by analyzing the relationship between AFM indentation force and depth with the classical infinitesimal strain theory and by modeling the AFM probe as a blunted conical indenter. This is the first study to demonstrate a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the apparent elastic modulus of single, aging cardiac myocytes (from 35.1 +/- 0.7, n = 53, to 42.5 +/- 1.0 kPa, n = 58), supporting the novel concept that the mechanism mediating LV diastolic dysfunction in aging hearts resides, in part, at the level of the myocyte.

  2. EXPOSURE OF CULTURED MYOCYTES TO ZINC RESULTS IN ALTERED BEAT RATE AND INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cultured myocytes to zinc results in altered beat rate and intercellular communication

    Graff, Donald W, Devlin, Robert B, Brackhan, Joseph A, Muller-Borer, Barbara J, Bowman, Jill S, Cascio, Wayne E.

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particulate matter (...

  3. Effects of cannabidiol on contractions and calcium signaling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ramez M; Al Kury, Lina T; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Qureshi, Anwar; Rajesh, Mohanraj; Galadari, Sehamuddin; Shuba, Yaroslav M; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Oz, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic cannabinoid found in Cannabis plant, has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions under various physiological and pathological conditions. In the present study, the effects of CBD on contractility and electrophysiological properties of rat ventricular myocytes were investigated. Video edge detection was used to measure myocyte shortening. Intracellular Ca(2+) was measured in cells loaded with the Ca(2+) sensitive fluorescent indicator fura-2 AM. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to measure action potential and Ca(2+) currents. Radioligand binding was employed to study pharmacological characteristics of CBD binding. CBD (1μM) caused a significant decrease in the amplitudes of electrically evoked myocyte shortening and Ca(2+) transients. However, the amplitudes of caffeine-evoked Ca(2+) transients and the rate of recovery of electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients following caffeine application were not altered. CBD (1μM) significantly decreased the duration of APs. Further studies on L-type Ca(2+) channels indicated that CBD inhibits these channels with IC50 of 0.1μM in a voltage-independent manner. Radioligand studies indicated that the specific binding of [(3)H]Isradipine, was not altered significantly by CBD. The results suggest that CBD depresses myocyte contractility by suppressing L-type Ca(2+) channels at a site different than dihydropyridine binding site and inhibits excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes.

  4. Interleukin 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibit Cardiac Myocyte β -adrenergic Responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Tod; Chung, Mina K.; Pieper, Stephen J.; Lange, Louis G.; Schreiner, George F.

    1989-09-01

    Reversible congestive heart failure can accompany cardiac allograft rejection and inflammatory myocarditis, conditions associated with an immune cell infiltrate of the myocardium. To determine whether immune cell secretory products alter cardiac muscle metabolism without cytotoxicity, we cultured cardiac myocytes in the presence of culture supernatants from activated immune cells. We observed that these culture supernatants inhibit β -adrenergic agonist-mediated increases in cultured cardiac myocyte contractility and intracellular cAMP accumulation. The myocyte contractile response to increased extracellular Ca2+ concentration is unaltered by prior exposure to these culture supernatants, as is the increase in myocyte intracellular cAMP concentration in response to stimulation with forskolin, a direct adenyl cyclase activator. Inhibition occurs in the absence of alteration in β -adrenergic receptor density or ligand binding affinity. Suppressive activity is attributable to the macrophage-derived cytokines interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. Thus, these observations describe a role for defined cytokines in regulating the hormonal responsiveness and function of contractile cells. The effects of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor on intracellular cAMP accumulation may be a model for immune modulation of other cellular functions dependent upon cyclic nucleotide metabolism. The uncoupling of agonist-occupied receptors from adenyl cyclase suggests that β -receptor or guanine nucleotide binding protein function is altered by the direct or indirect action of cytokines on cardiac muscle cells.

  5. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of isolated cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, J; Lynch, R M; Balaban, R S

    1989-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) plays a critical role in oxidative phosphorylation as the primary source of reducing equivalents to the respiratory chain. Using a modified fluorescence microscope, we have obtained spectra and images of the blue autofluorescence from single rat cardiac myocytes. The optical setup permitted rapid acquisition of fluorescence emission spectra (390-595 nm) or intensified digital video images of individual myocytes. The spectra showed a broad fluorescence centered at 447 +/- 0.2 nm, consistent with mitochondrial NADH. Addition of cyanide resulted in a 100 +/- 10% increase in fluorescence, while the uncoupler FCCP resulted in a 82 +/- 4% decrease. These two transitions were consistent with mitochondrial NADH and implied that the myocytes were 44 +/- 6% reduced under the resting control conditions. Intracellular fluorescent structures were observed that correlated with the distribution of a mitochondrial selective fluorescent probe (DASPMI), the mitochondrial distribution seen in published electron micrographs, and a metabolic digital subtraction image of the cyanide fluorescence transition. These data are consistent with the notion that the blue autofluorescence of rat cardiac myocytes originates from mitochondrial NADH. Images FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 PMID:2720061

  6. Effects of cannabidiol on contractions and calcium signaling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ramez M; Al Kury, Lina T; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Qureshi, Anwar; Rajesh, Mohanraj; Galadari, Sehamuddin; Shuba, Yaroslav M; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Oz, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic cannabinoid found in Cannabis plant, has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions under various physiological and pathological conditions. In the present study, the effects of CBD on contractility and electrophysiological properties of rat ventricular myocytes were investigated. Video edge detection was used to measure myocyte shortening. Intracellular Ca(2+) was measured in cells loaded with the Ca(2+) sensitive fluorescent indicator fura-2 AM. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to measure action potential and Ca(2+) currents. Radioligand binding was employed to study pharmacological characteristics of CBD binding. CBD (1μM) caused a significant decrease in the amplitudes of electrically evoked myocyte shortening and Ca(2+) transients. However, the amplitudes of caffeine-evoked Ca(2+) transients and the rate of recovery of electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients following caffeine application were not altered. CBD (1μM) significantly decreased the duration of APs. Further studies on L-type Ca(2+) channels indicated that CBD inhibits these channels with IC50 of 0.1μM in a voltage-independent manner. Radioligand studies indicated that the specific binding of [(3)H]Isradipine, was not altered significantly by CBD. The results suggest that CBD depresses myocyte contractility by suppressing L-type Ca(2+) channels at a site different than dihydropyridine binding site and inhibits excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. PMID:25711828

  7. Effects of phytoestrogens on protein turnover in rainbow trout primary myocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean-derived ingredients used in aquaculture feeds may contain phytoestrogens, but it is unknown if these compounds can mimic the catabolic effects of estradiol in fish muscle. Six day-old rainbow trout primary myocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations (10 nM – 100 µM) of either geniste...

  8. Relationship between transient outward K+ current and Ca2+ influx in rat cardiac myocytes of endo- and epicardial origin

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Tilmann; Nguyen, Thi Hong-Diep; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Ehmke, Heimo

    1999-01-01

    The transient outward K+ current (Ito) is a major repolarizing ionic current in ventricular myocytes of several mammals. Recently it has been found that its magnitude depends on the origin of the myocyte and is regulated by a number of physiological and pathophysiological signals. The relationship between the magnitude of Ito, action potential duration (APD) and Ca2+ influx (QCa) was studied in rat left ventricular myocytes of endo- and epicardial origin using whole-cell recordings and the action potential voltage-clamp method. Under control conditions, in response to a depolarizing voltage step to +40 mV, Ito averaged 12.1 ± 2.6 pA pF−1 in endocardial (n = 11) and 24.0 ± 2.6 pA pF−1 in epicardial myocytes (n = 12; P < 0.01). APD90 (90 % repolarization) was twice as long in endocardial myocytes, whereas QCa inversely depended on the magnitude of Ito. L-type Ca2+ current density was similar in myocytes from both regions. To determine the effects of controlled reductions of Ito on QCa, recordings were repeated in the presence of increasing concentrations of the Ito inhibitor 4-aminopyridine. Inhibition of Ito by as little as 20 % more than doubled QCa in epicardial myocytes, whereas it had only a minor effect on QCa in myocytes of endocardial origin. Further inhibition of Ito led to a progressive increase in QCa in epicardial myocytes; at 90 % inhibition of Ito, QCa was four times larger than the control value. We conclude that moderate changes in the magnitude of Ito strongly affect QCa primarily in epicardial regions. An alteration of Ito might therefore allow for a regional regulation of contractility during physiological and pathophysiological adaptations. PMID:10457095

  9. Myocyte morphology of free wall trabeculae in right ventricular pressure overload hypertrophy in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hamrell, B B; Roberts, E T; Carkin, J L; Delaney, C L

    1986-02-01

    Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and changes in mechanical properties develop in response to sustained pulmonary artery construction in rabbits. We use basilar RV free wall trabeculae from rabbits for measurements of force, shortening and sarcomere length (diffraction and/or photomicrography). With enzymes we dispersed calcium tolerant myocytes from trabeculae similar to those used for the above mechanical studies. The average weight of the normal (N) rabbits (n = 16) was 2.21 +/- 0.16(1) kg and was 2.11 +/- 0.10 kg for the rabbits with RV hypertrophy (H; n = 16). The ratio of RV free wall to total ventricular weight was 0.17 +/- 0.01 in the N and 0.31 +/- 0.02 in H hearts (P less than 0.01). Average length and width were determined from digitized measures of the projected image of 42 +/- 3 Ca2+ tolerant myocytes from each N heart and 41 +/- 3 from each H heart. Average myocyte length increased from 102.9 +/- 0.9 in N to 109.8 +/- 1.0 micron in H (6.7% above N; P less than 0.05) and average width from 15.4 +/- 0.2 to 20.0 +/- 0.2 micron (29.9% above N; P less than 0.01). Sarcomere length in these quiescent myocytes was 1.92 +/- 0.003 micron in the N and 1.90 +/- 0.004 in H (P greater than 0.05); consequently, the restoring forces in the myocytes were the same as N in H. The greater addition of parallel myofibrils than of series sarcomeres in H is important for tension generation in the presence of the increased pressure load of pulmonary artery constriction. The addition of sarcomeres in series may be important to sustain muscle shortening in H and is consistent with our measures of sarcomere shortening in N and H trabeculae. PMID:2937924

  10. -Adrenergic receptors on rat ventricular myocytes: characteristics and linkage to cAMP metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Buxton, I.L.O.; Brunton, L.L.

    1986-08-01

    When incubated with purified cardiomyocytes from adult rat ventricle, the 1-antagonist (TH)prazosin binds to a single class of sites with high affinity. Competition for (TH)prazosin binding by the 2-selective antagonist yohimbine and the nonselective -antagonist phentolamine demonstrates that these receptors are of the 1-subtype. In addition, incubation of myocyte membranes with (TH)yohimbine results in no measurable specific binding. Agonist competition for (TH)prazosin binding to membranes prepared from purified myocytes demonstrates the presence of two components of binding: 28% of 1-receptors interact with norepinephrine with high affinity (K/sub D/ = 36 nM), whereas the majority of receptors (72%) have a low affinity for agonist (K/sub D/ = 2.2 M). After addition of 10 M GTP, norepinephrine competes for (TH)prazosin binding to a single class of sites with lower affinity (K/sub D/ = 2.2 M). Incubation of intact myocytes for 2 min with 1 M norepinephrine leads to significantly less cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation than stimulation with either norepinephrine plus prazosin or isoproterenol. Likewise, incubation of intact myocytes with 10 W M norepinephrine leads to significantly less activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase than when myocytes are stimulated by both norepinephrine and the 1-adrenergic antagonist, prazosin or the US -adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. They conclude that the cardiomyocyte 1 receptor is coupled to a guanine nucleotide-binding protein, that 1-receptors are functionally linked to decreased intracellular cAMP content, and that this change in cellular cAMP is expressed as described activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  11. Conditional Knockout of Myocyte Focal Adhesion Kinase Abrogates Ischemic Preconditioning in Adult Murine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Perricone, Adam J.; Bivona, Benjamin J.; Jackson, Fannie R.; Vander Heide, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the importance of a cytoskeletal‐based survival signaling pathway using in vitro models of ischemia/reperfusion (IR). However, the importance of this pathway in mediating stress‐elicited survival signaling in vivo is unknown. Methods and Results The essential cytoskeletal signaling pathway member focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was selectively deleted in adult cardiac myocytes using a tamoxifen‐inducible Cre‐Lox system (α‐MHC‐MerCreMer). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot were performed to confirm FAK knockout (KO). All mice were subjected to a 40‐minute coronary occlusion followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning (IP) was performed using a standard protocol. Control groups included wild‐type (WT) and tamoxifen‐treated α‐MHC‐MerCreMer+/−/FAKWT/WT (experimental control) mice. Infarct size was expressed as a percentage of the risk region. In WT mice IP significantly enhanced the expression of activated/phosphorylated FAK by 36.3% compared to WT mice subjected to a sham experimental protocol (P≤0.05; n=6 hearts [sham], n=4 hearts [IP]). IP significantly reduced infarct size in both WT and experimental control mice (43.7% versus 19.8%; P≤0.001; 44.7% versus 17.5%; P≤0.001, respectively). No difference in infarct size was observed between preconditioned FAK KO and nonpreconditioned controls (37.1% versus 43.7% versus 44.7%; FAK KO versus WT versus experimental control; P=NS). IP elicited a 67.2%/88.8% increase in activated phosphatidylinositol‐3‐kinase (PI3K) p85/activated Akt expression in WT mice, but failed to enhance the expression of either in preconditioned FAK KO mice. Conclusions Our results indicate that FAK is an essential mediator of IP‐elicited cardioprotection and provide further support for the hypothesis that cytoskeletal‐based signaling is an important component of stress‐elicited survival signaling. PMID:24080910

  12. L-type Ca2+ channels serve as a sensor of the SR Ca2+ for tuning the efficacy of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Hajime; Nagao, Taku; Ichijo, Hidenori; Adachi-Akahane, Satomi

    2003-01-01

    In cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from ryanodine receptors (RyRs), triggered by Ca2+ entry through the nearby L-type Ca2+ channel, induces Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of the Ca2+ channel. Aiming at elucidating the physiological role of CDI produced by CICR (CICR-dependent CDI), we investigated the contribution of the CICR-dependent CDI to action potential (AP) waveform and the amount of Ca2+-influx through Ca2+ channels during AP in rat ventricular myocytes. The elimination of the CICR-dependent CDI, by depletion of the SR Ca2+ with thapsigargin, significantly prolonged AP duration (APD). APD changed in parallel with the magnitude of CICR during the recovery of the SR Ca2+ content after transient depletion by caffeine. Such CICR-dependent change of APD persisted under the highly Ca2+ buffered condition where the Ca2+ signalling was restricted to nanoscale domains. Blockers of the Ca2+-dependent Cl− channel or the BK channel did not affect AP waveform. The amount of Ca2+-influx through Ca2+ channels during the SR-depleted type AP waveform, measured in the SR-depleted myocyte, was increased by 40% over that during the SR-intact type AP waveform measured in the SR-intact myocyte. The protein kinase A stimulation further enhanced the Ca2+-influx during AP under the SR-depleted condition to 70% of that under the SR-intact condition. These results indicate that the CICR-dependent CDI of L-type Ca2+ channels, under control of the privileged cross-signalling between L-type Ca2+ channels and RyRs, play important roles for monitoring and tuning the SR Ca2+ content via changes of AP waveform and the amount of Ca2+-influx during AP in ventricular myocytes. PMID:14561825

  13. The cardiotoxicity and myocyte damage caused by small molecule anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors is correlated with lack of target specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B.

    2010-04-15

    The use of the new anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. However, the use of some of these results in cardiotoxicity. Large-scale profiling data recently made available for the binding of 7 of the 9 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases has allowed us to correlate kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with TKI-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The tyrosine kinase selectivity scores, but not the serine-threonine kinase scores, were highly correlated with the myocyte damaging effects of the TKIs. Additionally, we showed that damage to myocytes gave a good rank order correlation with clinical cardiotoxicity. Finally, strength of TKI binding to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) was highly correlated with myocyte damage, thus possibly implicating this kinase in contributing to TKI-induced cardiotoxicity.

  14. Study of proliferative processes and nuclear estradiol and progesterone receptors in myocytes in pregnant and postpartum mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Skurupiy, V A; Obedinskaya, K S

    2012-08-01

    Numerical densities of the nuclei were morhometrically evaluated in all myocytes and myocytes expressing nuclear estrogen- and progesterone-receptor complexes, which were revealed immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies in C57Bl/6 mice. It was shown that the above quantitative parameters of myometrial cells after the first pregnancy were similar to those in nonpregnant mice by day 10 after delivery. In the third pregnancy, especially developed after the second interrupted pregnancy, proliferation processes in the myometrium were not completed by postpartum day 10, but dramatically progressed. It was associated with a significant decrease in the fraction of myocytes carrying nuclear hormone-receptor complexes with estradiol and progesterone and their disturbed physiological relations in the myometrium during and after pregnancy probably due to dedifferentiation of a considerable part of myocytes.

  15. Altered distribution of ICa impairs Ca release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes from failing hearts

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Simon M.; Kong, Cherrie H.T.; Watson, Judy; Cannell, Mark B.; James, Andrew F.; Orchard, Clive H.

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca influx and release occur predominantly at t-tubules, ensuring synchronous Ca release throughout the cell. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubule structure, but its effect on t-tubule function is less clear. We therefore investigated Ca influx and release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ~ 18 weeks after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding Sham operation. L-type Ca current (ICa) was recorded using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated myocytes; Ca release at t-tubules was monitored using confocal microscopy with voltage- and Ca-sensitive fluorophores. CAL was associated with cardiac and cellular hypertrophy, decreased ejection fraction, disruption of t-tubule structure and a smaller, slower Ca transient, but no change in ryanodine receptor distribution, L-type Ca channel expression, or ICa density. In Sham myocytes, ICa was located predominantly at the t-tubules, while in CAL myocytes, it was uniformly distributed between the t-tubule and surface membranes. Inhibition of protein kinase A with H-89 caused a greater decrease of t-tubular ICa in CAL than in Sham myocytes; in the presence of H-89, t-tubular ICa density was smaller in CAL than in Sham myocytes. The smaller t-tubular ICa in CAL myocytes was accompanied by increased latency and heterogeneity of SR Ca release at t-tubules, which could be mimicked by decreasing ICa using nifedipine. These data show that CAL decreases t-tubular ICa via a PKA-independent mechanism, thereby impairing Ca release at t-tubules and contributing to the altered excitation–contraction coupling observed in heart failure. PMID:26103619

  16. Contribution of NADPH Oxidase to Membrane CD38 Internalization and Activation in Coronary Arterial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Ritter, Joseph K.; Abais, Justine M.; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway importantly contributes to the vasomotor response in different arteries. Although there is evidence indicating that the activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase is associated with CD38 internalization, the molecular mechanism mediating CD38 internalization and consequent activation in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli remains poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that CD38 may sense redox signals and is thereby activated to produce cellular response and that the NADPH oxidase isoform, NOX1, is a major resource to produce superoxide (O2·−) in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs) in response to muscarinic receptor agonist, which uses CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase signaling pathway to exert its action in these CAMs. These findings led us hypothesize that NOX1-derived O2·− serves in an autocrine fashion to enhance CD38 internalization, leading to redox activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in mouse CAMs. To test this hypothesis, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and a membrane protein biotinylation assay were used in the present study. We first demonstrated that CD38 internalization induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) was inhibited by silencing of NOX1 gene, but not NOX4 gene. Correspondingly, NOX1 gene silencing abolished ET-1-induced O2·− production and increased CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in CAMs, while activation of NOX1 by overexpression of Rac1 or Vav2 or administration of exogenous O2·− significantly increased CD38 internalization in CAMs. Lastly, ET-1 was found to markedly increase membrane raft clustering as shown by increased colocalization of cholera toxin-B with CD38 and NOX1. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence that Rac1-NOX1-dependent O2·− production mediates CD38 internalization in CAMs, which may represent an important mechanism linking receptor activation with CD38 activity in these cells. PMID:23940720

  17. Adiponectin mediates cardioprotection in oxidative stress-induced cardiac myocyte remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Essick, Eric E.; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Wilson, Richard M.; Ohashi, Koji; Ghobrial, Joanna; Shibata, Rei; Pimentel, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity that mediates hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling. Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine, modulates cardiac hypertrophy, but it is unknown if APN inhibits ROS-induced cardiomyocyte remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that APN ameliorates ROS-induced cardiomyocyte remodeling and investigated the mechanisms involved. Cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM) were pretreated with recombinant APN (30 μg/ml, 18 h) followed by exposure to physiologic concentrations of H2O2 (1–200 μM). ARVM hypertrophy was measured by [3H]leucine incorporation and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene expression by RT-PCR. MMP activity was assessed by in-gel zymography. ROS was induced with angiotensin (ANG)-II (3.2 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 14 days) in wild-type (WT) and APN-deficient (APN-KO) mice. Myocardial MMPs, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), p-AMPK, and p-ERK protein expression were determined. APN significantly decreased H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by decreasing total protein, protein synthesis, ANF, and BNP expression. H2O2-induced MMP-9 and MMP-2 activities were also significantly diminished by APN. APN significantly increased p-AMPK in both nonstimulated and H2O2-treated ARVM. H2O2-induced p-ERK activity and NF-κB activity were both abrogated by APN pretreatment. ANG II significantly decreased myocardial p-AMPK and increased p-ERK expression in vivo in APN-KO vs. WT mice. ANG II infusion enhanced cardiac fibrosis and MMP-2-to-TIMP-2 and MMP-9-to-TIMP-1 ratios in APN-KO vs. WT mice. Thus APN inhibits ROS-induced cardiomyocyte remodeling by activating AMPK and inhibiting ERK signaling and NF-κB activity. Its effects on ROS and ultimately on MMP expression define the protective role of APN against ROS-induced cardiac remodeling. PMID:21666115

  18. Cell-specific promoter in adenovirus vector for transgenic expression of SERCA1 ATPase in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Inesi, G; Lewis, D; Sumbilla, C; Nandi, A; Strock, C; Huff, K W; Rogers, T B; Johns, D C; Kessler, P D; Ordahl, C P

    1998-03-01

    Adenovirus-mediated transfer of cDNA encoding the chicken skeletal muscle sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) yielded selective expression in cultured chick embryo cardiac myocytes under control of a segment (-268 base pair) of the cell-specific cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter or nonselective expression in myocytes and fibroblasts under control of a constitutive viral [cytomegalovirus (CMV)] promoter. Under optimal conditions nearly all cardiac myocytes in culture were shown to express transgenic SERCA1 ATPase. Expression was targeted to intracellular membranes and was recovered in subcellular fractions with a pattern identical to that of the endogenous SERCA2a ATPase. Relative to control myocytes, transgenic SERCA1 expression increased up to four times the rates of ATP-dependent (and thapsigargin-sensitive) Ca2+ transport activity of cell homogenates. Although the CMV promoter was more active than the cTnT promoter, an upper limit for transgenic expression of functional enzyme was reached under control of either promoter by adjustment of the adenovirus plaque-forming unit titer of infection media. Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration transients and tension development of whole myocytes were also influenced to a similar limit by transgenic expression of SERCA1 under control of either promoter. Our experiments demonstrate that a cell-specific protein promoter in recombinant adenovirus vectors yields highly efficient and selective transgene expression of a membrane-bound and functional enzyme in cardiac myocytes.

  19. A force transducer and a length-ramp generator for mechanical investigations of frog-heart myocytes.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, G; Colomo, F; Poggesi, C; Tesi, C

    1993-04-01

    An apparatus for studying the mechanics of isolated frog heart myocytes is described. The cells are held horizontal in a through of Ringer solution by means of two suction micropipettes. Myocyte force is measured with an opto-electronic system recording the deflection of the tip of one micropipette, which acts as a cantilever force probe. The force probes are selected for compliance according to the force a myocyte is expected to develop in a given condition, so as to limit myocyte shortening during force development to no more than 1% of the slack cellular length (l0). The other micropipette, which is stiff relative to the forces measured, is mounted on an electromagnetic-loudspeaker motor by which controlled-velocity length changes, of preset size and in either direction, are imposed on myocytes. The force transducer has a sensitivity of 5-10 mV/nN, with a frequency response of 700-900 Hz in Ringer solution and a resolution of 0.5-1 nN. The motor with a suction micropipette can complete controlled-velocity length ramps within 1.5-2.0 ms, across a range of +/- 100 microns at a resolution of 8.0 nm. These values correspond, for frog-heart myocytes 200 microns and 400 microns long, to 25%-50% l0 and 0.002%-0.004% l0 respectively. PMID:8488085

  20. The Molecular Mechanism of Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Clint D. J.; Ferguson, Scarlett B.; Giles, David H.; Wang, Qiantao; Wellmann, Rebecca M.; O'Brien, John P.; Warthaka, Mangalika; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Ren, Pengyu; Dalby, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) impedes protein synthesis through phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2). It is subject to complex regulation by multiple upstream signaling pathways, through poorly described mechanisms. Precise integration of these signals is critical for eEF-2K to appropriately regulate protein translation rates. Here, an allosteric mechanism comprising two sequential conformations is described for eEF-2K activation. First, Ca2+/CaM binds eEF-2K with high affinity (Kd(CaM)app = 24 ± 5 nm) to enhance its ability to autophosphorylate Thr-348 in the regulatory loop (R-loop) by > 104-fold (kauto = 2.6 ± 0.3 s−1). Subsequent binding of phospho-Thr-348 to a conserved basic pocket in the kinase domain potentially drives a conformational transition of the R-loop, which is essential for efficient substrate phosphorylation. Ca2+/CaM binding activates autophosphorylated eEF-2K by allosterically enhancing kcatapp for peptide substrate phosphorylation by 103-fold. Thr-348 autophosphorylation results in a 25-fold increase in the specificity constant (kcatapp/Km(Pep-S)app), with equal contributions from kcatapp and Km(Pep-S)app, suggesting that peptide substrate binding is partly impeded in the unphosphorylated enzyme. In cells, Thr-348 autophosphorylation appears to control the catalytic output of active eEF-2K, contributing more than 5-fold to its ability to promote eEF-2 phosphorylation. Fundamentally, eEF-2K activation appears to be analogous to an amplifier, where output volume may be controlled by either toggling the power switch (switching on the kinase) or altering the volume control (modulating stability of the active R-loop conformation). Because upstream signaling events have the potential to modulate either allosteric step, this mechanism allows for exquisite control of eEF-2K output. PMID:25012662

  1. Optimisation of a generic ionic model of cardiac myocyte electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianruo; Al Abed, Amr; Lovell, Nigel H; Dokos, Socrates

    2013-01-01

    A generic cardiomyocyte ionic model, whose complexity lies between a simple phenomenological formulation and a biophysically detailed ionic membrane current description, is presented. The model provides a user-defined number of ionic currents, employing two-gate Hodgkin-Huxley type kinetics. Its generic nature allows accurate reconstruction of action potential waveforms recorded experimentally from a range of cardiac myocytes. Using a multiobjective optimisation approach, the generic ionic model was optimised to accurately reproduce multiple action potential waveforms recorded from central and peripheral sinoatrial nodes and right atrial and left atrial myocytes from rabbit cardiac tissue preparations, under different electrical stimulus protocols and pharmacological conditions. When fitted simultaneously to multiple datasets, the time course of several physiologically realistic ionic currents could be reconstructed. Model behaviours tend to be well identified when extra experimental information is incorporated into the optimisation.

  2. A systematic approach for assessing Ca²⁺ handling in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Sipido, Karin R; Macquaide, Niall; Bito, Virginie

    2015-05-01

    In cardiac myocytes, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) store through the opening of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) is the major source of Ca(2+) for activation of myofilaments and contraction. Over the past 20 years, tools have become available to study this release process in detail, allowing new insights into the regulation of SR Ca(2+) release and RyR function. To assess these processes, we recommend and here review a systematic approach that evaluates the essential transport mechanisms and Ca(2+) fluxes in isolated single cardiac myocytes by using fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators and whole-cell recording of membrane voltage and ionic currents under voltage clamp. The approach includes an assessment of the L-type Ca(2+) current as a trigger for opening of RyRs and release of SR Ca(2+), of the SR Ca(2+) content, of intrinsic properties of RyRs, and of Ca(2+)-removal systems.

  3. Speckle based configuration for simultaneous in vitro inspection of mechanical contractions of cardiac myocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golberg, Mark; Fixler, Dror; Shainberg, Asher; Zlochiver, Sharon; Micó, Vicente; Garcia, Javier; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-04-01

    In this manuscript we propose optical lensless configuration for a remote non-contact measuring of mechanical contractions of vast number of cardiac myocytes. All the myocytes were taken from rats, and the measurements were done in an in vitro mode. The optical method is based on temporal analysis of secondary reflected speckle patterns generated in lensless microscope configuration. The processing involves analyzing the movement and the change in the statistics of the generated secondary speckle patterns that are created on top of the cell culture when it is illuminated by a spot of laser beam. The main advantage of the proposed system is the ability to measure many cells simultaneously (approximately one thousand cells) and to extract the statistical data of their movement at once. The presented experimental results also include investigation the effect of isoproteranol on cells contraction process.

  4. Erythropoietin protects cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis through an Akt-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Tramontano, Anthony F; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Black, Aislinn D; Blendea, Mihaela C; Cohen, Inna; Deng, Lili; Sowers, James R; Cutaia, Michael V; El-Sherif, Nabil

    2003-09-01

    Apoptosis is a contributing cause of myocyte loss in ischemic heart disease. Recent work has shown that erythropoietin (EPO) offers protection against apoptosis in a wide variety of tissues. We demonstrate that the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is expressed in the neonatal rat ventricular myocyte (NRVM). Exposure of NRVMs to hypoxia, with recombinant human EPO, significantly decreased apoptosis as measured by TUNEL, flow cytometry, and caspase 3/7 like activity when compared to hypoxia treatment alone. EPO administered at the initiation of coronary artery occlusion in the rat significantly decreased apoptosis in the myocardial ischemic region. In the NRVM, EPO increased the activity of Akt. The anti-apoptotic effect of EPO was abrogated by co-treatment with LY294002, a specific blocker of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). Our study demonstrates that EPO inhibits apoptosis in the NRVM exposed to hypoxia, through an Akt-dependent pathway. EPO also inhibits apoptosis in the in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia.

  5. Calcium-sensing receptor activation contributed to apoptosis stimulates TRPC6 channel in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yi-hua; Li, Yong-quan; Feng, Shan-li; Li, Bao-xin; Pan, Zhen-wei; Xu, Chang-qing; Li, Ting-ting; Yang, Bao-feng

    2010-04-16

    Capacitative calcium entry (CCE) refers to the influx of calcium through plasma membrane channels activated on depletion of endoplasmic sarcoplasmic/reticulum (ER/SR) Ca{sup 2+} stores, which is performed mainly by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and plays an important role in mediating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there are no data regarding the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart. In this study, in rat neonatal myocytes, by Ca{sup 2+} imaging, we found that the depletion of ER/SR Ca{sup 2+} stores by thapsigargin (TG) elicited a transient rise in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), followed by sustained increase depending on extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. But, TRP channels inhibitor (SKF96365), not L-type channels or the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger inhibitors, inhibited [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} relatively high. Then, we found that the stimulation of CaR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or by an increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+}([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}) increased the concentration of intracelluar Ca{sup 2+}, whereas, the sustained elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of SKF96365. Similarly, the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Western blot analysis showed that GdCl{sub 3} increased the expression of TRPC6, which was reversed by SKF96365. Additionally, SKF96365 reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by GdCl{sub 3}. Our results suggested that CCE exhibited in rat neonatal myocytes and CaR activation induced Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cationic channels TRPCs to gate the CCE, for which TRPC6 was one of the most likely candidates. TRPC6 channel was functionally coupled with CaR to enhance the cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  6. Comparison of sarcolemmal calcium channel current in rabbit and rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, W; Ginsburg, K S; Bers, D M

    1996-01-01

    1. Fundamental properties of Ca2+ channel currents in rat and rabbit ventricular myocytes were measured using whole cell voltage clamp. 2. In rat, as compared with rabbit myocytes, Ca2+ channel current (ICa) was half-activated at about 10 mV more negative potential, decayed slower, was half-inactivated (in steady state) at about 5 mV more positive potential, and recovered faster from inactivation. 3. These features result in a larger steady-state window current in rat, and also suggest that under comparable voltage clamp conditions, including action potential (AP) clamp, more Ca2+ influx would be expected in rat myocytes. 4. Ca2+ channel current carried by Na+ and Cs+ in the absence of divalent ions (Ins) also activated at more negative potential and decayed more slowly in rat. 5. The reversal potential for Ins was 6 mV more positive in rabbit, consistent with a larger permeability ratio (PNa/PCs) in rabbit than in rat. ICa also reversed at slightly more positive potentials in rabbit (such that PCa/PCs might also be higher). 6. Ca2+ influx was calculated by integration of ICa evoked by voltage clamp pulses (either square pulses or pulses based on recorded rabbit or rat APs). For a given clamp waveform, the Ca2+ influx was up to 25% greater in rat, as predicted from the fundamental properties of ICa and Ins. 7. However, the longer duration of the AP in rabbit myocytes compensated for the difference in influx, such that the integrated Ca2+ influx via ICa in response to the species-appropriate waveform was about twice as large as that seen in rat. PMID:8799895

  7. Comparison of SERCA1 and SERCA2a expressed in COS-1 cells and cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Sumbilla, C; Cavagna, M; Zhong, L; Ma, H; Lewis, D; Farrance, I; Inesi, G

    1999-12-01

    Cultured COS-1 cells, as well as chicken embryonic and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, were infected with recombinant adenovirus vectors to define limiting factors in the expression and Ca2+ transport function of recombinant sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) (SERCA) isoforms. Titration experiments showed that all COS-1 cells and myocytes in culture could be infected by an adenovirus titer of 10 plaque-forming units (pfu) per seeded cell. Raising the adenovirus titer further yielded higher protein expression up to an asymptotic limit for functional, membrane-bound SERCA protein. The asymptotic behavior of SERCA expression was not transcription related but was due to posttranscriptional events. The minimal (-268) cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter was a convenient size for adenovirus vector construction and manifested tight muscle specificity. However, its efficiency was lower than that of the nonspecific cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. At any rate, identical maximal levels of SERCA expression were obtained with the CMV and the cTnT promoter, as long as the viral titer was adjusted to compensate for transcription efficiency. A maximal threefold increase of total SERCA protein expression over the level of the endogenous SERCA of control myocytes was reached (a sevenfold increase compared with the endogenous SERCA of the same infected myocytes due to reduction of endogenous SERCA after infection). In contrast with previous reports [Ji et al. Am. J. Physiol. 276 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 45): H89-H97, 1999], a higher kinetic turnover was demonstrated for the SERCA1 compared with the SERCA2a isoform as shown by a 5.0- versus 2.6-fold increase in calcium uptake rate accompanying maximal expression of recombinant SERCA1 or SERCA2a, respectively. This information is deemed necessary for studies attempting to modify myocardial cell function by manipulation of SERCA expression.

  8. In vitro characterization of HCN channel kinetics and frequency dependence in myocytes predicts biological pacemaker functionality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Bucchi, Annalisa; Oren, Ronit V; Kryukova, Yelena; Dun, Wen; Clancy, Colleen E; Robinson, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    The pacemaker current, mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, contributes to the initiation and regulation of cardiac rhythm. Previous experiments creating HCN-based biological pacemakers in vivo found that an engineered HCN2/HCN1 chimeric channel (HCN212) resulted in significantly faster rates than HCN2, interrupted by 1-5 s pauses. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in HCN212 and HCN2 in vivo functionality as biological pacemakers, we studied newborn rat ventricular myocytes over-expressing either HCN2 or HCN212 channels. The HCN2- and HCN212-over-expressing myocytes manifest similar voltage dependence, current density and sensitivity to saturating cAMP concentrations, but HCN212 has faster activation/deactivation kinetics. Compared with HCN2, myocytes expressing HCN212 exhibit a faster spontaneous rate and greater incidence of irregular rhythms (i.e. periods of rapid spontaneous rate followed by pauses). To explore these rhythm differences further, we imposed consecutive pacing and found that activation kinetics of the two channels are slower at faster pacing frequencies. As a result, time-dependent HCN current flowing during diastole decreases for both constructs during a train of stimuli at a rapid frequency, with the effect more pronounced for HCN2. In addition, the slower deactivation kinetics of HCN2 contributes to more pronounced instantaneous current at a slower frequency. As a result of the frequency dependence of both instantaneous and time-dependent current, HCN2 exhibits more robust negative feedback than HCN212, contributing to the maintenance of a stable pacing rhythm. These results illustrate the benefit of screening HCN constructs in spontaneously active myocyte cultures and may provide the basis for future optimization of HCN-based biological pacemakers. PMID:19171659

  9. Minocycline suppresses oxidative stress and attenuates fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis triggered by in utero cocaine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Shen, Ruoqing; Nzenwa, Ify; Gelfand, Robert; Mahata, Sushil K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the molecular mechanisms by which minocycline, a second generation tetracycline, prevents cardiac myocyte death induced by in utero cocaine exposure. Timed mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received one of the following treatments twice daily from embryonic (E) day 15–21 (E15–E21): (i) intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline (control); (ii) IP injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg BW); and (iii) IP injections of cocaine + oral administration of 25 mg/kg BW of minocycline. Pups were killed on postnatal day 15 (P15). Additional pregnant dams received twice daily IP injections of cocaine (from E15–E21) + oral administration of a relatively higher (37.5 mg/kg BW) dose of minocycline. Minocycline treatment continued from E15 until the pups were sacrificed on P15. In utero cocaine exposure resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis through activation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Continued minocycline treatment from E15 through P15 significantly prevented oxidative stress, kinase activation, perturbation of BAX/BCL-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and attenuated fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis after prenatal cocaine exposure. These results demonstrate in vivo cardioprotective effects of minocycline in preventing fetal cardiac myocyte death after prenatal cocaine exposure. Given its proven clinical safety and ability to cross the placental barrier and enter into the fetal circulation, minocycline may be an effective therapy for preventing cardiac consequences of in utero cocaine exposure. PMID:21424555

  10. Optimal range for parvalbumin as relaxing agent in adult cardiac myocytes: gene transfer and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Coutu, Pierre; Metzger, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV) has recently been shown to increase the relaxation rate when expressed in intact isolated cardiac myocytes via adenovirus gene transfer. We report here a combined experimental and mathematical modeling approach to determine the dose-response and the sarcomere length (SL) shortening-frequency relationship of PV in adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture. The dose-response was obtained experimentally by observing the PV-transduced myocytes at different time points after gene transfer. Calcium transients and unloaded mechanical contractions were measured. The results were as follows. At low estimated [PV] (approximately 0.01 mM), contractile parameters were unchanged; at intermediate [PV], relaxation rate of the mechanical contraction and the decay rate of the calcium transient increased with little effects on amplitude; and at high [PV] (approximately 0.1 mM), relaxation rate was further increased, but the amplitudes of the mechanical contraction and the calcium transient were diminished when compared with control myocytes. The SL shortening-frequency relationship exhibited a biphasic response to increasing stimulus frequency in controls (decrease in amplitude and re-lengthening time from 0.2 to 1.0 Hz followed by an increase in these parameters from 2.0 to 4.0 Hz). The effect of PV was to flatten this frequency response. This flattening effect was partly explained by a reduction in the variation in fractional binding of PV to calcium during beats at high frequency. In conclusion, experimental results and mathematical modeling indicate that there is an optimal PV range for which relaxation rate is increased with little effect on contractile amplitude and that PV effectiveness decreases as the stimulus frequency increases. PMID:11964244

  11. Intracellular tortuosity underlies slow cAMP diffusion in adult ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Mark; Lomas, Oliver; Jalink, Kees; Ford, Kerrie L.; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D.; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Aims 3′,5′-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signals in the heart are often confined to concentration microdomains shaped by cAMP diffusion and enzymatic degradation. While the importance of phosphodiesterases (degradative enzymes) in sculpting cAMP microdomains is well established in cardiomyocytes, less is known about cAMP diffusivity (DcAMP) and factors affecting it. Many earlier studies have reported fast diffusivity, which argues against sharply defined microdomains. Methods and results [cAMP] dynamics in the cytoplasm of adult rat ventricular myocytes were imaged using a fourth generation genetically encoded FRET-based sensor. The [cAMP]-response to the addition and removal of isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) quantified the rates of cAMP synthesis and degradation. To obtain a read out of DcAMP, a stable [cAMP] gradient was generated using a microfluidic device which delivered agonist to one half of the myocyte only. After accounting for phosphodiesterase activity, DcAMP was calculated to be 32 µm2/s; an order of magnitude lower than in water. Diffusivity was independent of the amount of cAMP produced. Saturating cAMP-binding sites with the analogue 6-Bnz-cAMP did not accelerate DcAMP, arguing against a role of buffering in restricting cAMP mobility. cAMP diffused at a comparable rate to chemically unrelated but similar sized molecules, arguing for a common physical cause of restricted diffusivity. Lower mitochondrial density and order in neonatal cardiac myocytes allowed for faster diffusion, demonstrating the importance of mitochondria as physical barriers to cAMP mobility. Conclusion In adult cardiac myocytes, tortuosity due to physical barriers, notably mitochondria, restricts cAMP diffusion to levels that are more compatible with microdomain signalling. PMID:27089919

  12. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.J.; Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N.; Bridgland-Taylor, M.; Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P.

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility.

  13. Heuristic problems in defining the three-dimensional arrangement of the ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Ho, Siew Yen; Sanchez-Quintana, Damian; Redmann, Klaus; Lunkenheimer, Paul P

    2006-06-01

    There is lack of consensus concerning the three-dimensional arrangement of the myocytes within the ventricular muscle masses. Bioengineers are seeking to model the structure of the heart. Although the success of such models depends on the accuracy of the anatomic evidence, most of them have been based on concepts that are far from anatomical reality, which ignore many significant previous accounts of anatomy presented over the past 400 years. During the 19th century, Pettigrew emphasized that the heart was built on the basis of a modified blood vessel rather than in the form of skeletal muscles. This fact was reemphasized by Lev and Simkins as well as Grant in the 20th century, but the caveats listed by these authors have been ignored by proponents of two current concepts, which state either that the myocardium is arranged in the form of a "unique myocardial band," or that the walls of the ventricles are sequestrated in uniform fashion by laminar sheets of fibrous tissue extending from epicardium to endocardium. These two concepts are themselves incompatible and are further at variance with the majority of anatomic studies, which have emphasized the regional heterogeneity to be found in the three-dimensional packing of the myocytes within a supporting matrix of fibrous tissue. We reemphasize the significance of this three-dimensional muscular mesh, showing how the presence of intruding aggregates of myocytes extending in oblique transmural fashion also contends against the notion that all myocytes are orientated with their long axes parallel to the epicardial and enodcardial surfaces.

  14. Loading rat heart myocytes with Mg2+ using low-[Na+] solutions

    PubMed Central

    Almulla, Hasan A; Bush, Peter G; Steele, Michael G; Ellis, David; Flatman, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate how Mg2+ enters mammalian cardiac cells. During this work, we found evidence for a previously undescribed route for Mg2+ entry, and now provide a preliminary account of its properties. Changes in Mg2+ influx into rat ventricular myocytes were deduced from changes in intracellular ionized Mg2+ concentration ([fMg2+]i) measured from the fluorescence of mag-fura-2 loaded into isolated cells. Superfusion of myocytes at 37°C with Ca2+-free solutions with both reduced [Na+] and raised [Mg2+] caused myocytes to load with Mg2+. Uptake was seen with solutions containing 5 mm Mg2+ and 95 mm Na+, and increased linearly with increasing extracellular [Mg2+] or decreasing extracellular [Na+]. It was very sensitive to temperature (Q10 > 9, 25–37°C), was observed even in myocytes with very low Na+ contents, and stopped abruptly when external [Na+] was returned to normal. Uptake was greatly reduced by imipramine or KB-R7943 if these were added when [fMg2+]i was close to the physiological level, but was unaffected if they were applied when [fMg2+]i was above 2 mm. Uptake was also reduced by depolarizing the membrane potential by increasing extracellular [K+] or voltage clamp to 0 mV. We suggest that initial Mg2+ uptake may involve several transporters, including reversed Na+–Mg2+ antiport and, depending on the exact conditions, reversed Na+–Ca2+ antiport. The ensuing rise of [fMg2+]i, in conjunction with reduced [Na+], may then activate a new Mg2+ transporter that is highly sensitive to temperature, is insensitive to imipramine or KB-R7943, but is inactivated by depolarization. PMID:16793904

  15. Myocyte-derived Tnfsf14 is a survival factor necessary for myoblast differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Waldemer-Streyer, R J; Chen, J

    2015-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle tissue has a uniquely robust capacity for regeneration, which gradually declines with aging or is compromised in muscle diseases. The cellular mechanisms regulating adult myogenesis remain incompletely understood. Here we identify the cytokine tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14 (Tnfsf14) as a positive regulator of myoblast differentiation in culture and muscle regeneration in vivo. We find that Tnfsf14, as well as its cognate receptors herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR), are expressed in both differentiating myocytes and regenerating myofibers. Depletion of Tnfsf14 or either receptor inhibits myoblast differentiation and promotes apoptosis. Our results also suggest that Tnfsf14 regulates myogenesis by supporting cell survival and maintaining a sufficient pool of cells for fusion. In addition, we show that Akt mediates the survival and myogenic function of Tnfsf14. Importantly, local knockdown of Tnfsf14 is found to impair injury-induced muscle regeneration in a mouse model, affirming an important physiological role for Tnfsf14 in myogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that localized overexpression of Tnfsf14 potently enhances muscle regeneration, and that this regenerative capacity of Tnfsf14 is dependent on Akt signaling. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel regulator of skeletal myogenesis and implicate Tnfsf14 in future therapeutic development. PMID:26720335

  16. Cyclin D2 induces proliferation of cardiac myocytes and represses hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Busk, Peter K. . E-mail: pkbu@novonordisk.com; Hinrichsen, Rebecca; Bartkova, Jirina; Hansen, Ane H.; Christoffersen, Tue E.H.; Bartek, Jiri; Haunso, Stig

    2005-03-10

    The myocytes of the adult mammalian heart are considered unable to divide. Instead, mitogens induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We have investigated the effect of adenoviral overexpression of cyclin D2 on myocyte proliferation and morphology. Cardiomyocytes in culture were identified by established markers. Cyclin D2 induced DNA synthesis and proliferation of cardiomyocytes and impaired hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II and serum. At the molecular level, cyclin D2 activated CDK4/6 and lead to pRB phosphorylation and downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}. Expression of the CDK4/6 inhibitor p16 inhibited proliferation and cyclin D2 overexpressing myocytes became hypertrophic under such conditions. Inhibition of hypertrophy by cyclin D2 correlated with downregulation of p27{sup Kip1}. These data show that hypertrophy and proliferation are highly related processes and suggest that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is due to low amounts of cell cycle activators unable to overcome the block imposed by cell cycle inhibitors. Cell cycle entry upon hypertrophy may be converted to cell division by increased expression of activators such as cyclin D2.

  17. Nuclear Compartmentalization of α1-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in Adult Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Although convention dictates that G protein-coupled receptors localize to and signal at the plasma membrane, accumulating evidence suggests that G protein-coupled receptors localize to and signal at intracellular membranes, most notably the nucleus. In fact, there is now significant evidence indicating that endogenous alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) localize to and signal at the nuclei in adult cardiac myocytes. Cumulatively, the data suggest that α1-ARs localize to the inner nuclear membrane, activate intranuclear signaling, and regulate physiologic function in adult cardiac myocytes. Although α1-ARs signal through Gαq, unlike other Gq-coupled receptors, α1-ARs mediate important cardioprotective functions including adaptive/physiologic hypertrophy, protection from cell death (survival signaling), positive inotropy, and preconditioning. Also unlike other Gq-coupled receptors, most, if not all, functional α1-ARs localize to the nuclei in adult cardiac myocytes, as opposed to the sarcolemma. Together, α1-AR nuclear localization and cardioprotection might suggest a novel model for compartmentalization of Gq-coupled receptor signaling in which nuclear Gq-coupled receptor signaling is cardioprotective. PMID:25264754

  18. Caveolae in Ventricular Myocytes are Required for Stretch-Dependent Conduction Slowing

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, E.R.; Wright, A.T.; Edwards, A.G.; Stowe, J.C.; McNall, K.; Tan, J.; Niesman, I.; Patel, H.H.; Roth, D.M.; Omens, J.H.; McCulloch, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical stretch of cardiac muscle modulates action potential propagation velocity, causing potentially arrhythmogenic conduction slowing. The mechanisms by which stretch alters cardiac conduction remain unknown, but previous studies suggest that stretch can affect the conformation of caveolae in myocytes and other cell types. We tested the hypothesis that slowing of action potential conduction due to cardiac myocyte stretch is dependent on caveolae. Cardiac action potential propagation velocities, measured by optical mapping in isolated mouse hearts and in micropatterned mouse cardiomyocyte cultures, decreased reversibly with volume loading or stretch, respectively (by 19±5% and 26±4%). Stretch-dependent conduction slowing was not altered by stretch-activated channel blockade with gadolinium or by GsMTx-4 peptide, but was inhibited when caveolae were disrupted via genetic deletion of caveolin-3 (Cav3 KO) or membrane cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin. In wild-type mouse hearts, stretch coincided with recruitment of caveolae to the sarcolemma, as observed by electron microscopy. In myocytes from wild-type but not Cav3 KO mice, stretch significantly increased cell membrane capacitance (by 98±64%), electrical time constant (by 285±149%), and lipid recruitment to the bilayer (by 84±39%). Recruitment of caveolae to the sarcolemma during physiologic cardiomyocyte stretch slows ventricular action potential propagation by increasing cell membrane capacitance. PMID:25257915

  19. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Morton, M J; Armstrong, D; Abi Gerges, N; Bridgland-Taylor, M; Pollard, C E; Bowes, J; Valentin, J-P

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies - radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology - was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost.

  20. Quantification of Myocyte Chemotaxis: A Role for FAK in Regulating Directional Motility

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Britni; Hakim, Zeenat S.; Cameron, Morgan V.; Smithies, Oliver; Taylor, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a fully functional four-chambered heart involves an intricate and complex series of events that includes precise spatial–temporal regulation of cell specification, proliferation, and migration. The formation of the ventricular septum during mid-gestation ensures the unidirectional flow of blood, and is necessary for postnatal viability. Notably, a majority of all congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system in humans involve septal abnormalities which afflict 1 out of 100 newborn children in the United States. Thus, a clear understanding of the precise mechanisms involved in this morphogenetic event will undoubtedly reveal important therapeutic targets. The final step in valvuloseptal morphogenesis occurs, in part, by directed movement of flanking myocytes into the cushion mesenchyme. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms that regulate this critical myocyte function, we have developed two in vitro methodologies; a transwell assay to assess population changes in motility and a single-cell tracking assay to identify signals that drive the coordinated movement of these cells. These methods have proven effective to identify focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as an intracellular component that is critical for myocyte chemotaxis. PMID:22222526

  1. Pannexin 1 Constitutes the Large Conductance Cation Channel of Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kienitz, Marie-Cecile; Bender, Kirsten; Dermietzel, Rolf; Pott, Lutz; Zoidl, Georg

    2011-01-01

    A large conductance (∼300 picosiemens) channel (LCC) of unknown molecular identity, activated by Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, particularly when augmented by caffeine, has been described previously in isolated cardiac myocytes. A potential candidate for this channel is pannexin 1 (Panx1), which has been shown to form large ion channels when expressed in Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cells. Panx1 function is implicated in ATP-mediated auto-/paracrine signaling, and a crucial role in several cell death pathways has been suggested. Here, we demonstrate that after culturing for 4 days LCC activity is no longer detected in myocytes but can be rescued by adenoviral gene transfer of Panx1. Endogenous LCCs and those related to expression of Panx1 share key pharmacological properties previously used for identifying and characterizing Panx1 channels. These data demonstrate that Panx1 constitutes the LCC of cardiac myocytes. Sporadic openings of single Panx1 channels in the absence of Ca2+ release can trigger action potentials, suggesting that Panx1 channels potentially promote arrhythmogenic activities. PMID:21041301

  2. Effect of Transmurally Heterogeneous Myocyte Excitation-Contraction Coupling on Left Ventricular Electromechanics

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Stuart G.; Howard, Elliot; Aguado-Sierra, Jazmin; Coppola, Benjamin A.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Mulligan, Lawrence J.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy CP

    2009-01-01

    The excitation-contraction coupling properties of cardiac myocytes isolated from different regions of the mammalian left ventricular wall have been shown to vary considerably, with uncertain effects on ventricular function. We embedded a cell-level excitation-contraction coupling model with region-dependent parameters within a simple finite element model of left ventricular geometry to study effects of electromechanical heterogeneity on local myocardial mechanics and global hemodynamics. This model was compared with one in which heterogeneous myocyte parameters were assigned randomly throughout the mesh while preserving the total amount of each cell subtype. The two models displayed nearly identical transmural patterns of fibre and cross-fibre strains at end systole, but showed clear differences in fibre strains at earlier points during systole. Hemodynamic function, including peak left ventricular pressure, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, and stroke volume were essentially identical in the two models. These results suggest that in the intact ventricle heterogeneously distributed myocyte subtypes primarily impact local deformation of the myocardium, and that these effects are greatest during early systole. PMID:19251984

  3. A Computational Model of the Human Left-Ventricular Epicardial Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Vivek; Mazhari, Reza; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2004-01-01

    A computational model of the human left-ventricular epicardial myocyte is presented. Models of each of the major ionic currents present in these cells are formulated and validated using experimental data obtained from studies of recombinant human ion channels and/or whole-cell recording from single myocytes isolated from human left-ventricular subepicardium. Continuous-time Markov chain models for the gating of the fast Na+ current, transient outward current, rapid component of the delayed rectifier current, and the L-type calcium current are modified to represent human data at physiological temperature. A new model for the gating of the slow component of the delayed rectifier current is formulated and validated against experimental data. Properties of calcium handling and exchanger currents are altered to appropriately represent the dynamics of intracellular ion concentrations. The model is able to both reproduce and predict a wide range of behaviors observed experimentally including action potential morphology, ionic currents, intracellular calcium transients, frequency dependence of action-potential duration, Ca2+-frequency relations, and extrasystolic restitution/post-extrasystolic potentiation. The model therefore serves as a useful tool for investigating mechanisms of arrhythmia and consequences of drug-channel interactions in the human left-ventricular myocyte. PMID:15345532

  4. Heat stress activates AKT via focal adhesion kinase-mediated pathway in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongguang; Vander Heide, Richard S

    2008-08-01

    Heat stress (HS)-induced cardioprotection is associated with increased paxillin localization to the membrane fraction of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the subcellular signaling pathways activated by HS; 2) to determine whether myocardial stress organizes and activates an integrated survival pathway; and 3) to investigate potential downstream cytoprotective proteins activated by HS. After HS, NRVM were subjected to chemical inhibitors (CI) designed to simulate ischemia by inhibiting both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Protein kinase B (AKT) expression (wild type) was increased selectively with an adenoviral vector. Cell signaling was analyzed with Western blot analysis, while oncosis/apoptosis was assayed by measuring Trypan blue exclusion and/or terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. HS increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at tyrosine 397 but did not adversely affect the viability of NRVM before CI. HS increased association between FAK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase as well as causing a significant increase in AKT activity. Increased expression of wild-type AKT protected myocytes from both oncotic and apoptotic cell death. Increased expression of a FAK inhibitor, FRNK, reduced AKT phosphorylation in response to HS both at time 0 and after 10 min of CI compared with myocytes expressing empty virus. We conclude that myocardial stress activates cytoskeleton-based signaling pathways that are associated with protection from lethal cell injury.

  5. Injectable fibroblast growth factor-2 coacervate for persistent angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hunghao; Gao, Jin; Chen, Chien-Wen; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2011-08-16

    Enhancing the maturity of the newly formed blood vessels is critical for the success of therapeutic angiogenesis. The maturation of vasculature relies on active participation of mural cells to stabilize endothelium and a basal level of relevant growth factors. We set out to design and successfully achieved robust angiogenesis using an injectable polyvalent coacervate of a polycation, heparin, and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). FGF2 was loaded into the coacervate at nearly 100% efficiency. In vitro assays demonstrated that the matrix protected FGF2 from proteolytic degradations. FGF2 released from the coacervate was more effective in the differentiation of endothelial cells and chemotaxis of pericytes than free FGF2. One injection of 500 ng of FGF2 in the coacervate elicited comprehensive angiogenesis in vivo. The number of endothelial and mural cells increased significantly, and the local tissue contained more and larger blood vessels with increased circulation. Mural cells actively participated during the whole angiogenic process: Within 7 d of the injection, pericytes were recruited to close proximity of the endothelial cells. Mature vasculature stabilized by vascular smooth muscle cells persisted till at least 4 wk. On the other hand, bolus injection of an identical amount of free FGF2 induced weak angiogenic responses. These results demonstrate the potential of polyvalent coacervate as a new controlled delivery platform.

  6. Validation of an in vitro contractility assay using canine ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harmer, A.R. Abi-Gerges, N.; Morton, M.J.; Pullen, G.F.; Valentin, J.P.; Pollard, C.E.

    2012-04-15

    Measurement of cardiac contractility is a logical part of pre-clinical safety assessment in a drug discovery project, particularly if a risk has been identified or is suspected based on the primary- or non-target pharmacology. However, there are limited validated assays available that can be used to screen several compounds in order to identify and eliminate inotropic liability from a chemical series. We have therefore sought to develop an in vitro model with sufficient throughput for this purpose. Dog ventricular myocytes were isolated using a collagenase perfusion technique and placed in a perfused recording chamber on the stage of a microscope at ∼ 36 °C. Myocytes were stimulated to contract at a pacing frequency of 1 Hz and a digital, cell geometry measurement system (IonOptix™) was used to measure sarcomere shortening in single myocytes. After perfusion with vehicle (0.1% DMSO), concentration–effect curves were constructed for each compound in 4–30 myocytes taken from 1 or 2 dog hearts. The validation test-set was 22 negative and 8 positive inotropes, and 21 inactive compounds, as defined by their effect in dog, cynolomolgous monkey or humans. By comparing the outcome of the assay to the known in vivo contractility effects, the assay sensitivity was 81%, specificity was 75%, and accuracy was 78%. With a throughput of 6–8 compounds/week from 1 cell isolation, this assay may be of value to drug discovery projects to screen for direct contractility effects and, if a hazard is identified, help identify inactive compounds. -- Highlights: ► Cardiac contractility is an important physiological function of the heart. ► Assessment of contractility is a logical part of pre-clinical drug safety testing. ► There are limited validated assays that predict effects of compounds on contractility. ► Using dog myocytes, we have developed an in vitro cardiac contractility assay. ► The assay predicted the in vivo contractility with a good level of accuracy.

  7. Two functionally different Na/K pumps in cardiac ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to voltage clamp acutely isolated myocytes at -60 mV and study effects of ionic environment on Na/K pump activity. In quiescent guinea pig myocytes, normal intracellular Na+ is approximately 6 mM, which gives a total pump current of 0.25 +/- 0.09 pA/pF, and an inward background sodium current of 0.75 +/- 0.26 pA/pF. The average capacitance of a cell is 189 +/- 61 pF. Our main conclusion is the total Na/K pump current comprises currents from two different types of pumps, whose functional responses to the extracellular environment are different. Pump current was reversibly blocked with two affinities by extracellular dihydro-ouabain (DHO). We determined dissociation constants of 72 microM for low affinity (type-1) pumps and 0.75 microM for high affinity (type-h) pumps. These dissociation constants did not detectably change with two intracellular Na+ concentrations, one saturating and one near half- saturating, and with two extracellular K+ concentrations of 4.6 and 1.0 mM. Ion effects on type-h pumps were therefore measured using 5 microM DHO and on total pump current using 1 mM DHO. Extracellular K+ half- maximally activated the type-h pumps at 0.4 mM and the type-1 at 3.7 mM. Extracellular H+ blocked the type-1 pumps with half-maximal blockade at a pH of 7.71 whereas the type-h pumps were insensitive to extracellular pH. Both types of pumps responded similarly to changes in intracellular-Na+, with 9.6 mM causing half-maximal activation. Neither changes in intracellular pH between 6.0 and 7.2, nor concentrations of intracellular K+ of 140 mM or below, had any effect on either type of pump. The lack of any effect of intracellular K+ suggests the dissociation constants are in the molar range so this step in the pump cycle is not rate limiting under normal physiological conditions. Changes in intracellular-Na+ did not affect the half-maximal activation by extracellular K+, and vice versa. We found DHO-blockade of Na/K pump

  8. Fetal myocardium in the kidney capsule: an in vivo model of repopulation of myocytes by bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Eric Y; Xiong, Qiang; Ye, Lei; Suntharalingam, Piradeep; Wang, Xiaohong; Astle, C Michael; Zhang, Jianyi; Harrison, David E

    2012-01-01

    Debate surrounds the question of whether the heart is a post-mitotic organ in part due to the lack of an in vivo model in which myocytes are able to actively regenerate. The current study describes the first such mouse model--a fetal myocardial environment grafted into the adult kidney capsule. Here it is used to test whether cells descended from bone marrow can regenerate cardiac myocytes. One week after receiving the fetal heart grafts, recipients were lethally irradiated and transplanted with marrow from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing C57Bl/6J (B6) donors using normal B6 recipients and fetal donors. Levels of myocyte regeneration from GFP marrow within both fetal myocardium and adult hearts of recipients were evaluated histologically. Fetal myocardium transplants had rich neovascularization and beat regularly after 2 weeks, continuing at checkpoints of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and12 months after transplantation. At each time point, GFP-expressing rod-shaped myocytes were found in the fetal myocardium, but only a few were found in the adult hearts. The average count of repopulated myocardium with green rod-shaped myocytes was 996.8 cells per gram of fetal myocardial tissue, and 28.7 cells per adult heart tissue, representing a thirty-five fold increase in fetal myocardium compared to the adult heart at 12 months (when numbers of green rod-shaped myocytes were normalized to per gram of myocardial tissue). Thus, bone marrow cells can differentiate to myocytes in the fetal myocardial environment. The novel in vivo model of fetal myocardium in the kidney capsule appears to be valuable for testing repopulating abilities of potential cardiac progenitors.

  9. Hypertrophy, gene expression, and beating of neonatal cardiac myocytes are affected by microdomain heterogeneity in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Matthew W.; Sharma, Sadhana; Desai, Tejal A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes are known to be influenced by the rigidity and topography of their physical microenvironment. It was hypothesized that 3D heterogeneity introduced by purely physical microdomains regulates cardiac myocyte size and contraction. This was tested in vitro using polymeric microstructures (G′=1.66 GPa) suspended with random orientation in 3D by a soft Matrigel matrix (G′=22.9 Pa). After 10 days of culture, the presence of 100 μm-long microstructures in 3D gels induced fold increases in neonatal rat ventricular myocyte size (1.61±0.06, p<0.01) and total protein/cell ratios (1.43± 0.08, p<0.05) that were comparable to those induced chemically by 50 μM phenylephrine treatment. Upon attachment to microstructures, individual myocytes also had larger cross-sectional areas (1.57±0.05, p<0.01) and higher average rates of spontaneous contraction (2.01±0.08, p<0.01) than unattached myocytes. Furthermore, the inclusion of microstructures in myocyte-seeded gels caused significant increases in the expression of beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1-AR, 1.19±0.01), cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, 1.26±0.02), and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA2, 1.59±0.12, p<0.05), genes implicated in hypertrophy and contractile activity. Together, the results demonstrate that cardiac myocyte behavior can be controlled through local 3D microdomains alone. This approach of defining physical cues as independent features may help to advance the elemental design considerations for scaffolds in cardiac tissue engineering and therapeutic microdevices. PMID:20668947

  10. Steroid hormone modulation of cAMP production in response to beta adrenergic receptor stimulation in genital tract myocytes.

    PubMed

    DiGiovanni, L; Austin, R; Phillippe, M

    1992-01-01

    beta-Adrenergic receptor stimulation results in smooth muscle relaxation through activation of adenylyl cyclase and subsequent cyclic AMP (cAMP) production. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of steroid hormones (i.e. testosterone and hydrocortisone) on beta 2-adrenergic receptors and their signal transduction in the DDT1 MF-2 genital tract myocyte. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated that these two steroid hormones produced a 70 to 80% increase in the density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in these myocytes. Stimulation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol resulted in a significant increase of cAMP in control myocytes; cells treated with testosterone for 24 h demonstrated a comparable response to isoproterenol, whereas hydrocortisone for 24 h resulted in a 50% greater cAMP response. In contrast to the response at 24 h, stimulation of myocytes after testosterone treatment for 48 h resulted in a cAMP response comparable to that seen in response to hydrocortisone at 24 h. Studies performed using theophylline demonstrated similar cAMP responses at 24 h between the control and testosterone-treated myocytes, thereby ruling out the possibility that the delayed increase of the cAMP response after testosterone was caused by stimulation of phosphodiesterase. Direct stimulation with forskolin resulted in greater cAMP production in the testosterone-treated myocytes compared to controls, thereby refuting the possibility that testosterone directly suppresses adenylyl cyclase activity at 24 h. These findings suggest that although both testosterone and hydrocortisone produce a twofold increase in beta 2-adrenergic receptor density in the DDT1 myocytes, beta 2-adrenergic receptors expressed in response to hydrocortisone appear functional at 24 h resulting in increased cAMP production, whereas those expressed in response to testosterone require 48 h to demonstrate increased functional activity.

  11. Uniaxial cyclic strain enhances adipose-derived stem cell fusion with skeletal myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens Isak; Juhl, Morten; Nielsen, Thøger; Emmersen, Jeppe; Fink, Trine; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) applied to ASCs alone or in coculture with myogenic precursors. • CTS promoted the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs. • Without biochemical supplements, CTS did not support advanced myogenic differentiation of ASCs. • Mechanical stimulation of cocultures boosted fusion of ASCs with skeletal myoblasts. - Abstract: Although adult muscle tissue possesses an exceptional capacity for regeneration, in the case of large defects, the restoration to original state is not possible. A well-known source for the de novo regeneration is the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be readily isolated and have been shown to have a broad differentiation and regenerative potential. In this work, we employed uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS), to mechanically stimulate human ASCs to participate in the formation skeletal myotubes in an in vitro model of myogenesis. The application of CTS for 48 h resulted in the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs, but failed to support skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. When the same stimulation paradigm was applied to cocultures with mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts, the percentage of ASCs contributing to the formation of myotubes significantly exceeded the levels reported in the literature hitherto. In perspective, the mechanical strain may be used to increase the efficiency of incorporation of ASCs in the skeletal muscles, which could be found useful in diverse traumatic or pathologic scenarios.

  12. Effect of overexpressed adenylyl cyclase VI on β1- and β2-adrenoceptor responses in adult rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Joalice C C; Haydock, Stephen F; Foo, Roger; Brown, Morris J; Harding, Sian E

    2004-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclase VI (ACVI) is one of the most abundantly expressed β adrenergic receptor (βAR)-coupled cyclases responsible for cyclic AMP (cAMP) production within the mammalian myocardium. We investigated the role of ACVI in the regulation of cardiomyocyte contractility and whether it is functionally coupled with β1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Recombinant adenoviruses were generated for ACVI and for antisense to ACVI (AS). Adult rat ventricular myocytes were transfected with ACVI virus, AS or both (SAS). Adenovirus for green fluorescent protein (GFP) served as control. Myocyte contraction amplitudes (% shortening) and relaxation times (R50) were analysed. ACVI function was determined using cAMP assays. ACVI-transfected cells demonstrated a strong 139 kDa ACVI protein band compared to controls. ACVI myocytes had higher steady-state intracellular cAMP levels than GFP myocytes when unstimulated (GFP vs ACVI=6.60±0.98 vs 14.2±2.1 fmol cAMP/viable cell, n=4, P<0.05) and in the presence of 1 μM isoprenaline or 10 μM forskolin. ACVI myocytes had increased basal contraction (% shortening: GFP vs ACVI: 1.90±1.36 vs 3.91±2.29, P<0.0001) and decreased basal R50 (GFP vs ACVI: 62.6±24.2 ms (n=50) vs 45.0±17.2 ms (n=248), P<0.0001). ACVI myocyte responses were increased for forskolin (Emax: GFP=6.70±1.59 (n=6); ACVI=9.06±0.69 (n=14), P<0.01) but not isoprenaline. ACVI myocyte responses were increased (Emax: GFP vs ACVI=3.16±0.77 vs 5.10±0.60, P<0.0001) to xamoterol (a partial β1AR-selective agonist) under β2AR blockade (+50 nM ICI 118, 551). AS decreased both control and ACVI-stimulated xamoterol responses (Emax: AS=2.59±1.42, SAS=1.38±0.5). ACVI response was not mimicked by IBMX. Conversely, response through β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) was decreased in ACVI myocytes. In conclusion, ACVI overexpression constitutively increases myocyte contraction amplitudes by raising cAMP levels. Native ACVI did not contribute to basal cAMP production or contraction

  13. p21-activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R. John; Banach, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca2+ handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1-/-) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1-/- VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1-/- VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca2+]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca2+ release events and waves. The Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1-/- VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47phox-/-) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1-/- VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca2+ overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident. PMID:24380729

  14. p21-Activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R John; Banach, Kathrin

    2014-02-01

    Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca(2+) handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1(-/-)) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca(2+) transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1(-/-) VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1(-/-) VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca(2+) release events and waves. The Ca(2+) overload in Pak1(-/-) VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1(-/-) VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47(phox-/-)) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1(-/-) VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca(2+) overload in Pak1(-/-) VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca(2+) overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident.

  15. High Speed Striation Pattern Recognition In Contracting Cardiac Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Kenneth P.; Bliton, A. Christyne; Lubell, Bradford A.; Parker, John M.; Patton, Mark J.; Taylor, Stuart R.

    1989-06-01

    The understanding of muscle contraction and relaxation requires the quantitation of movement at the sub-micron level in living cells. Two complementary non-RS-170 imaging systems used for authentic real time measurement of contractile dynamics are described and compared. Images from isolated skeletal or cardiac muscle cells are projected by an optical microscope onto single line or area charge-coupled device (CCD) photodiode arrays. These data are digitized and stored for subsequent image processing and analysis. The inherently low contrast muscle striation patterns are enhanced and their rapid movement measured with an accuracy at least an order of magnitude greater than traditional limits of optical resolution. The features of each image format are complementary and when combined provide the maximum overall information in time and space.

  16. Interferon-γ Causes Cardiac Myocyte Atrophy via Selective Degradation of Myosin Heavy Chain in a Model of Chronic Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Cosper, Pippa F.; Harvey, Pamela A.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a proinflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of forms of heart disease including myocarditis and congestive heart failure. In fact, overexpression of IFN-γ in mice causes dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the direct effects of IFN-γ on cardiac myocytes and the mechanism by which it causes cardiac dysfunction have not been described. Here, we present the molecular pathology of IFN-γ exposure and its effect on myofibrillar proteins in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Treatment with IFN-γ caused cardiac myocyte atrophy attributable to a specific decrease in myosin heavy chain protein. This selective degradation of myosin heavy chain was not accompanied by a decrease in total protein synthesis or by an increase in total protein degradation. IFN-γ increased both proteasome and immunoproteasome activity in cardiac myocytes and their inhibition blocked myosin heavy chain loss and myocyte atrophy, whereas inhibition of the lysosome or autophagosome did not. Collectively, these results provide a mechanism by which IFN-γ causes cardiac pathology in the setting of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23058369

  17. Characterization of L-type calcium channel activity in atrioventricular nodal myocytes from rats with streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Kathryn H; Al Kury, Lina T; Howarth, Frank Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular complications are common in patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. We have previously shown that spontaneous cellular electrical activity is altered in atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes, isolated from the streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of type-1 DM. In this study, utilizing the same model, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single AVN myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess the changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current. A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. L-type calcium channel current also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident, and a slowing of restitution parameters. These findings demonstrate that experimentally induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. These changes in ion channel activity may contribute to the abnormalities in cardiac electrical function that are associated with high mortality levels in patients with DM. PMID:26603460

  18. Intramembrane charge movement in guinea-pig and rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, R W; Lederer, W J

    1989-01-01

    1. Non-linear capacitative current (charge movement) was studied in isolated guinea-pig and rat ventricular myocytes. Linear capacitance was subtracted using standard procedures. Most of the experiments were done with guinea-pig myocytes, while rat myocytes were used for comparison. 2. When a myocyte was held at -100 mV, depolarizing clamp steps produced a rapid outward current transient, which was followed by an inward current transient upon repolarization. This current was identified as the movement of charged particles in the cell membrane, rather than ionic movement across the membrane, for the following reasons: (1) the current saturated at membrane potentials positive to +20 mV; (2) the current was capacitative in nature, having no reversal potential; (3) in general, the charge moved during depolarization (Qon) approximated the charge moved during repolarization (Qoff). 3. Qoff was significantly less than Qon for a depolarization from -100 mV to 0 mV. However, the Qoff/Qon ratio approached unity if the cell was instead repolarized to -140 mV. This was interpreted as being due to the immobilization of a fraction of the charge during the depolarization, which recovered rapidly enough to be measured at -140 mV, but recovered too slowly at -100 mV. 4. Charge movement in these cells had a sigmoidal dependence on the membrane potential, which could be empirically described by the two-state Boltzmann equation Q = Qmax/(1 + exp[-(V-V*)/kappa]), where Q is the charge movement at potential V, Qmax is the maximum charge, V* is the membrane potential at Q = Qmax/2, and kappa is a slope factor. Qmax was 11.7 nC/microF, V* was -18 mV and kappa was 16 mV in guinea-pig myocytes held at -100 mV, while the values in rat myocytes were 10.9 nC/microF, -32 mV and 13 mV. 5. The charge movement could be partially immobilized by a prior depolarization. This effect developed over a broad voltage range, from -120 to +20 mV. The fraction of charge that could be immobilized by a 10 s

  19. Transverse tubules are a common feature in large mammalian atrial myocytes including human.

    PubMed

    Richards, M A; Clarke, J D; Saravanan, P; Voigt, N; Dobrev, D; Eisner, D A; Trafford, A W; Dibb, K M

    2011-11-01

    Transverse (t) tubules are surface membrane invaginations that are present in all mammalian cardiac ventricular cells. The apposition of L-type Ca(2+) channels on t tubules with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) constitutes a "calcium release unit" and allows close coupling of excitation to the rise in systolic Ca(2+). T tubules are virtually absent in the atria of small mammals, and therefore Ca(2+) release from the SR occurs initially at the periphery of the cell and then propagates into the interior. Recent work has, however, shown the occurrence of t tubules in atrial myocytes from sheep. As in the ventricle, Ca(2+) release in these cells occurs simultaneously in central and peripheral regions. T tubules in both the atria and the ventricle are lost in disease, contributing to cellular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine if the occurrence of t tubules in the atrium is restricted to sheep or is a more general property of larger mammals including humans. In atrial tissue sections from human, horse, cow, and sheep, membranes were labeled using wheat germ agglutinin. As previously shown in sheep, extensive t-tubule networks were present in horse, cow, and human atrial myocytes. Analysis shows half the volume of the cell lies within 0.64 ± 0.03, 0.77 ± 0.03, 0.84 ± 0.03, and 1.56 ± 0.19 μm of t-tubule membrane in horse, cow, sheep, and human atrial myocytes, respectively. The presence of t tubules in the human atria may play an important role in determining the spatio-temporal properties of the systolic Ca(2+) transient and how this is perturbed in disease.

  20. Ca2+ paradox injury mediated through TRPC channels in mouse ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Akiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Shuichi

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Ca(2+) paradox is an important phenomenon associated with Ca(2+) overload-mediated cellular injury in myocardium. The present study was undertaken to elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms for the development of the Ca(2+) paradox. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Fluorescence imaging was performed on fluo-3 loaded quiescent mouse ventricular myocytes using confocal laser scanning microscope. KEY RESULTS The Ca(2+) paradox was readily evoked by restoration of the extracellular Ca(2+) following 10-20 min of nominally Ca(2+)-free superfusion. The Ca(2+) paradox was significantly reduced by blockers of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, Gd(3+), La(3+)) and anti-TRPC1 antibody. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content, assessed by caffeine application, gradually declined during Ca(2+)-free superfusion, which was further accelerated by metabolic inhibition. Block of SR Ca(2+) leak by tetracaine prevented Ca(2+) paradox. The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchange (NCX) blocker KB-R7943 significantly inhibited Ca(2+) paradox when applied throughout superfusion period, but had little effect when added for a period of 3 min before and during Ca(2+) restoration. The SR Ca(2+) content was better preserved during Ca(2+) depletion by KB-R7943. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the expression of TRPC1, in addition to TRPC3 and TRPC4, in mouse ventricular myocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide evidence that (i) the Ca(2+) paradox is primarily mediated by Ca(2+) entry through TRPC (probably TRPC1) channels that are presumably activated by SR Ca(2+) depletion; and (ii) reverse mode NCX contributes little to the Ca(2+) paradox, whereas inhibition of NCX during Ca(2+) depletion improves SR Ca(2+) loading, and is associated with reduced incidence of Ca(2+) paradox in mouse ventricular myocytes.

  1. An integrative model of the cardiac ventricular myocyte incorporating local control of Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Joseph L; Winslow, Raimond L

    2002-01-01

    The local control theory of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in cardiac muscle asserts that L-type Ca(2+) current tightly controls Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via local interaction of closely apposed L-type Ca(2+) channels (LCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). These local interactions give rise to smoothly graded Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR), which exhibits high gain. In this study we present a biophysically detailed model of the normal canine ventricular myocyte that conforms to local control theory. The model formulation incorporates details of microscopic EC coupling properties in the form of Ca(2+) release units (CaRUs) in which individual sarcolemmal LCCs interact in a stochastic manner with nearby RyRs in localized regions where junctional SR membrane and transverse-tubular membrane are in close proximity. The CaRUs are embedded within and interact with the global systems of the myocyte describing ionic and membrane pump/exchanger currents, SR Ca(2+) uptake, and time-varying cytosolic ion concentrations to form a model of the cardiac action potential (AP). The model can reproduce both the detailed properties of EC coupling, such as variable gain and graded SR Ca(2+) release, and whole-cell phenomena, such as modulation of AP duration by SR Ca(2+) release. Simulations indicate that the local control paradigm predicts stable APs when the L-type Ca(2+) current is adjusted in accord with the balance between voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation processes as measured experimentally, a scenario where common pool models become unstable. The local control myocyte model provides a means for studying the interrelationship between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors in a manner that would not be possible in experiments. PMID:12496068

  2. Dynamics of Muscle Microcirculatory and Blood-myocyte O2 Flux During Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Poole, David C.; Copp, Steven W.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Musch, Timothy I.

    2011-01-01

    The O2 requirements of contracting skeletal muscle may increase 100-fold above rest. In 1919 August Krogh’s brilliant insights recognized the capillary as the principal site for this increased blood-myocyte O2 flux. Based on the premise that most capillaries did not sustain RBC flux at rest Krogh proposed that capillary recruitment (i.e., initiation of red blood cell (RBC) flux in previously non-flowing capillaries) increased the capillary surface area available for O2 flux and reduced mean capillary-to-mitochondrial diffusion distances. More modern experimental approaches reveal that most muscle capillaries may support RBC flux at rest. Thus, rather than contraction-induced capillary recruitment per se, increased RBC flux and hematocrit within already-flowing capillaries likely elevate perfusive and diffusive O2 conductances and hence blood-myocyte O2 flux. Additional surface area for O2 exchange is recruited but, crucially, this may occur along the length of already-flowing capillaries (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Today, the capillary is still considered the principal site for O2 and substrate delivery to contracting skeletal muscle. Indeed, the presence of very low intramyocyte O2 partial pressures (PO2’s) and the absence of PO2 gradients, whilst refuting the relevance of diffusion distances, place an even greater importance on capillary hemodynamics. This emergent picture calls for a paradigm-shift in our understanding of the function of capillaries by de-emphasizing de novo ‘capillary recruitment.’ Diseases such as heart failure impair blood-myocyte O2 flux, in part, by decreasing the proportion of RBC-flowing capillaries. Knowledge of capillary function in healthy muscle is requisite for identification of pathology and efficient design of therapeutic treatments. PMID:21199399

  3. Ca2+ Release Events in Cardiac Myocytes Up Close: Insights from Fast Confocal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shkryl, Vyacheslav M.; Blatter, Lothar A.

    2013-01-01

    The spatio-temporal properties of Ca2+ transients during excitation-contraction coupling and elementary Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks) were studied in atrial and ventricular myocytes with ultra-fast confocal microscopy using a Zeiss LSM 5 LIVE system that allows sampling rates of up to 60 kHz. Ca2+ sparks which originated from subsarcolemmal junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (j-SR) release sites in atrial myocytes were anisotropic and elongated in the longitudinal direction of the cell. Ca2+ sparks in atrial cells originating from non-junctional SR and in ventricular myocytes were symmetrical. Ca2+ spark recording in line scan mode at 40,000 lines/s uncovered step-like increases of [Ca2+]i. 2-D imaging of Ca2+ transients revealed an asynchronous activation of release sites and allowed the sequential recording of Ca2+ entry through surface membrane Ca2+ channels and subsequent activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. With a latency of 2.5 ms after application of an electrical stimulus, Ca2+ entry could be detected that was followed by SR Ca2+ release after an additional 3 ms delay. Maximum Ca2+ release was observed 4 ms after the beginning of release. The timing of Ca2+ entry and release was confirmed by simultaneous [Ca2+]i and membrane current measurements using the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. In atrial cells activation of discrete individual release sites of the j-SR led to spatially restricted Ca2+ release events that fused into a peripheral ring of elevated [Ca2+]i that subsequently propagated in a wave-like fashion towards the center of the cell. In ventricular myocytes asynchronous Ca2+ release signals from discrete sites with no preferential subcellular location preceded the whole-cell Ca2+ transient. In summary, ultra-fast confocal imaging allows investigation of Ca2+ signals with a time resolution similar to patch clamp technique, however in a less invasive fashion. PMID:23637847

  4. [THE EXCESS OF PALMITIC FATTY ACID IN FOOD AS MAIN CAUSE OF LIPOIDOSIS OF INSULIN-DEPENDENT CELLS: SKELETAL MYOCYTES, CARDIO-MYOCYTES, PERIPORTAL HEPATOCYTES, KUPFFER MACROPHAGES AND B-CELLS OF PANCREAS].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2016-02-01

    In phylogenesis, becoming of biologicalfunctions and biological reactions proceeds with the purpose ofpermanent increasing of "kinetic perfection ". The main role belongs to factors ofphysical, chemical and biological kinetics, their evaluation using systemic approach technique under permanent effect of natural selection. The late-in-phylogenesis insulin, proceeded with, in development of biological function of locomotion, specialization of insulin-dependent cells: skeletal myocytes, syncytium of cardiomyocytes, subcutaneous adipocytes, periportal hepatocytes, Kupffer's macrophages and β-cells of islets of pancreas. The insulin initiated formation of new, late in phylogenesis, large pool of fatty cells-subcutaneous adipocytes that increased kinetic parameters of biological function of locomotion. In realization of biological function of locomotion only adipocytes absorb exogenous mono unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in composition of oleic and palmitic lipoproteins of very low density using apoE/B-100 endocytosis. The rest of insulin-dependent cells absorb fatty acids in the form of unesterified fatty acids from associates with albumin and under effect of CD36 of translocase offatty acids. The insulin in all insulin-depended cells inhibits biological reaction of lipolysis enhancing contributing into development of lipoidosis. The insulin expresses transfer offatty acids in the form of unsaturated fatty acids from adipocytes into matrix of mitochondria. The insulin supplies insulin-dependent cells with substrates for acquiring energy subject to that in pool of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes prevails hydrophobic palmitic unsaturated fatiy acid that slowly passes into matrix through external membrane ofmitochondria; oxidases of mitochondria so slowly implement its β-oxidation that content of exogenous palmitic unsaturatedfatty acid can't be higher than phylogenetic, physiological level - 15% of all amount offatty acids

  5. Cardiac Myocyte Alternans in Intact Heart: Influence of Cell-Cell Coupling and β-Adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Karin P.; Ljubojevic, Senka; Ripplinger, Crystal M.; Pieske, Burkert M.; Bers, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac alternans are proarrhythmic and mechanistically link cardiac mechanical dysfunction and sudden cardiac death. Beat-to-beat alternans occur when beats with large Ca2+ transients and long action potential duration (APD) alternate with the converse. APD alternans are typically driven by Ca2+ alternans and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release alternans. But the effect of intercellular communication via gap junctions (GJ) on alternans in intact heart remains unknown. Objective We assessed the effects of cell-to-cell coupling on local alternans in intact Langen-dorff-perfused mouse hearts, measuring single myocyte [Ca2+] alternans synchronization among neighboring cells, and effects of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) activation and reduced GJ coupling. Methods and Results Mouse hearts (C57BL/6) were retrogradely perfused and loaded with Fluo-8 AM to record cardiac myocyte [Ca2+] in situ with confocal microscopy. Single cell resolution allowed analysis of alternans within the intact organ during alternans induction. Carbenoxolone (25 μM), a GJ inhibitor, significantly increased the occurrence and amplitude of alternans in single cells within the intact heart. Alternans were concordant between neighboring cells throughout the field of view, except transiently during onset. β-AR stimulation only reduced Ca2+ alternans in tissue that had reduced GJ coupling, matching effects seen in isolated myocytes. Conclusions Ca2+ alternans among neighboring myocytes is predominantly concordant, likely because of electrical coupling between cells. Consistent with this, partial GJ uncoupling increased propensity and amplitude of Ca2+ alternans, and made them more sensitive to reversal by β-AR activation, as in isolated myocytes. Electrical coupling between myocytes may thus limit the alternans initiation, but also allow alternans to be more stable once established. PMID:25828762

  6. Long-term hypothermic preservation of cardiac myocytes isolated from the neonatal rat ventricle: a comparison of various crystalloid solutions.

    PubMed

    Orita, H; Fukasawa, M; Uchino, H; Uchida, T; Shiono, S; Washio, M

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the functional and biochemical effects of crystalloid solutions on immature cardiac myocytes incubated under hypothermic conditions were evaluated. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rat ventricles and cultured for 4 days, following which 12.5 x 10(5) myocytes per flask were incubated at 4 degrees C for 3, 6, 12, and 18 h in five types of crystalloid solutions: lactated Ringer's (LR), St. Thomas' Hospital (ST), University of Wisconsin (UW), 5% glucose-based potassium (GK), and normal saline (NS). The levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the solutions were measured after each hypothermic incubation, following which the myocytes were cultured for an additional 24 h at 37 degrees C to evaluate the recovery of the myocyte beating rate. In the LR, UW, and NS groups, the recovery ratios of the myocyte beating rate were over 95% of the control (the beating rate prior to hypothermic incubation) at 3 h, but decreased to 20.3, 15.1, and 0%, respectively, at 18 h. The ST and GK groups had significantly lower recovery ratios than the other three groups (72.9% and 63.4%, respectively) at 3 h. The release of CPK and LDH in the LR, UW, and NS groups was significantly suppressed compared to the ST and GK groups, with the greatest suppression observed in the LR group. Moreover, the ST and GK groups had the highest CPK and LDH levels, respectively. Thus, LR solution had the least cytotoxic effects, indicating that it could be the most suitable basic solution of the various cardioplegic or preservation solutions during the neonatal period. PMID:7640455

  7. Dilated cardiomyopathy mutations in δ-sarcoglycan exert a dominant-negative effect on cardiac myocyte mechanical stability.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew D; Witcher, Marc; Gopal, Anoop; Michele, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    Delta-sarcoglycan is a component of the sarcoglycan subcomplex within the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex located at the plasma membrane of muscle cells. While recessive mutations in δ-sarcoglycan cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2F, dominant mutations in δ-sarcoglycan have been linked to inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of this study was to investigate functional cellular defects present in adult cardiac myocytes expressing mutant δ-sarcoglycans harboring the dominant inherited DCM mutations R71T or R97Q. This study demonstrates that DCM mutant δ-sarcoglycans can be stably expressed in adult rat cardiac myocytes and traffic similarly to wild-type δ-sarcoglycan to the plasma membrane, without perturbing assembly of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. However, expression of DCM mutant δ-sarcoglycan in adult rat cardiac myocytes is sufficient to alter cardiac myocyte plasma membrane stability in the presence of mechanical strain. Upon cyclical cell stretching, cardiac myocytes expressing mutant δ-sarcoglycan R97Q or R71T have increased cell-impermeant dye uptake and undergo contractures at greater frequencies than myocytes expressing normal δ-sarcoglycan. Additionally, the R71T mutation creates an ectopic N-linked glycosylation site that results in aberrant glycosylation of the extracellular domain of δ-sarcoglycan. Therefore, appropriate glycosylation of δ-sarcoglycan may also be necessary for proper δ-sarcoglycan function and overall dystrophin-glycoprotein complex function. These studies demonstrate that DCM mutations in δ-sarcoglycan can exert a dominant negative effect on dystrophin-glycoprotein complex function leading to myocardial mechanical instability that may underlie the pathogenesis of δ-sarcoglycan-associated DCM.

  8. The combination of a synthetic promoter and a CMV promoter improves foreign gene expression efficiency in myocytes.

    PubMed

    Jianwei, Dai; Qianqian, Zhang; Songcai, Liu; Mingjun, Zhang; Xiaohui, Ren; Linlin, Hao; Qingyan, Jiang; Yongliang, Zhang

    2012-04-15

    Skeletal muscle is becoming an attractive target tissue for gene therapy. Nevertheless, the low level of gene therapeutic expression in this tissue is the major limitation to it becoming an ideal target for gene transfer. The promoter is important element for gene transcription; however, the gene expression efficiencies and specificities of viral promoters and skeletal muscle-specific promotors are in themselves limiting factors. In this study, we established a dual-promoters system in skeletal muscle using a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and a skeletal muscle-specific synthetic promoter. Mouse myoblast cell line C2C12 cells were transfected with the system. We demonstrated that the dual-promoters system could significantly improve exogenous gene expression rate in vitro when compared with a single CMV promoter system and a skeletal muscle-specific synthetic promoter system in C2C12 cell line, by 69.48% and 41.93%, respectively. Next, we evaluated the system efficiency in vivo, the results showed that the dual-promoters system increased gene expression in mice 1.23-fold and 1.60-fold, respectively compared with expression controlled by the two single promoter vectors. Finally, we tested the dual-promoters system in growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene therapy, and revealed that when these two promoters co-drove the GHRH gene expression in vivo animal growth was enhanced significantly. All these results indicate that use of the dual-promoter vector was more efficient for gene expression in skeletal muscle tissue than use of the single promoter vectors. These finding could, hopefully, lead to the development of a high efficiency expression system in myocytes and form an ideal approach for gene therapy.

  9. Urocortin 2 stimulates nitric oxide production in ventricular myocytes via Akt- and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1177

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Stefanie; Pluteanu, Florentina; Renz, Susanne; Nikonova, Yulia; Maxwell, Joshua T.; Yang, Li-Zhen; Schmidt, Kurt; Edwards, Joshua N.; Wakula, Paulina; Groschner, Klaus; Maier, Lars S.; Spiess, Joachim; Blatter, Lothar A.; Pieske, Burkert

    2014-01-01

    Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) is a cardioactive peptide exhibiting beneficial effects in normal and failing heart. In cardiomyocytes, it elicits cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent positive inotropic and lusitropic effects. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition, Ucn2 activates cardiac nitric oxide (NO) signaling and elucidated the underlying signaling pathways and mechanisms. In isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, Ucn2 caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473, Thr308), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (Ser1177), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, was suppressed by inhibition of MEK1/2. Increased Akt phosphorylation resulted in increased Akt kinase activity and was mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor 2 (CRF2) receptors (astressin-2B sensitive). Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) diminished both Akt as well as eNOS phosphorylation mediated by Ucn2. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) reduced Ucn2-induced phosphorylation of eNOS but did not affect the increase in phosphorylation of Akt. Conversely, direct receptor-independent elevation of cAMP via forskolin increased phosphorylation of eNOS but not of Akt. Ucn2 increased intracellular NO concentration ([NO]i), [cGMP], [cAMP], and cell shortening. Inhibition of eNOS suppressed the increases in [NO]i and cell shortening. When both PI3K-Akt and cAMP-PKA signaling were inhibited, the Ucn2-induced increases in [NO]i and cell shortening were attenuated. Thus, in rabbit ventricular myocytes, Ucn2 causes activation of cAMP-PKA, PI3K-Akt, and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway is not required for stimulation of NO signaling in these cells. The other two pathways, cAMP-PKA and PI3K-Akt, converge on eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and result in pronounced and sustained cellular NO production with subsequent stimulation of cGMP signaling. PMID:25015964

  10. High frequency stimulation of cardiac myocytes: a theoretical and computational study.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth H

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency stimulation (HFS) has recently been identified as a novel approach for terminating life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. HFS elevates myocyte membrane potential and blocks electrical conduction for the duration of the stimulus. However, low amplitude HFS can induce rapidly firing action potentials, which may reinitiate an arrhythmia. The cellular level mechanisms underlying HFS-induced electrical activity are not well understood. Using a multiscale method, we show that a minimal myocyte model qualitatively reproduces the influence of HFS on cardiac electrical activity. Theoretical analysis and simulations suggest that persistent activation and de-inactivation of ionic currents, in particular a fast inward window current, underlie HFS-induced action potentials and membrane potential elevation, providing hypotheses for future experiments. We derive analytical expressions to describe how HFS modifies ionic current amplitude and gating dynamics. We show how fast inward current parameters influence the parameter regimes for HFS-induced electrical activity, demonstrating how the efficacy of HFS as a therapy for terminating arrhythmias may depend on the presence of pathological conditions or pharmacological treatments. Finally, we demonstrate that HFS terminates cardiac arrhythmias in a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach to characterize the influence of HFS on ionic current gating dynamics, provide new insight into HFS of the myocardium, and suggest mechanisms underlying HFS-induced electrical activity.

  11. Irregularly Appearing Early Afterdepolarizations in Cardiac Myocytes: Random Fluctuations or Dynamical Chaos?

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Daisuke; Xie, Lai-Hua; Nguyen, Thao P.; Weiss, James N.; Qu, Zhilin

    2010-01-01

    Irregularly occurring early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in cardiac myocytes are traditionally hypothesized to be caused by random ion channel fluctuations. In this study, we combined 1), patch-clamp experiments in which action potentials were recorded at different pacing cycle lengths from isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes under several experimental conditions inducing EADs, including oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide, calcium overload with BayK8644, and ionic stress with hypokalemia; 2), computer simulations using a physiologically detailed rabbit ventricular action potential model, in which repolarization reserve was reduced to generate EADs and random ion channel or path cycle length fluctuations were implemented; and 3), iterated maps with or without noise. By comparing experimental, modeling, and bifurcation analyses, we present evidence that noise-induced transitions between bistable states (i.e., between an action potential with and without an EAD) is not sufficient to account for the large variation in action potential duration fluctuations observed in experimental studies. We conclude that the irregular dynamics of EADs is intrinsically chaotic, with random fluctuations playing a nonessential, auxiliary role potentiating the complex dynamics. PMID:20682253

  12. A comparative assessment of fluo Ca2+ indicators in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Brian M.; Boyman, Liron; Kao, Joseph P.Y.; Lederer, W. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Summary The fluo family of indicators is frequently used in studying Ca2+ physiology; however, choosing which fluo indicator to use is not obvious. Indicator properties are typically determined in well-defined aqueous solutions. Inside cells, however, the properties can change markedly. We have characterized each of three fluo variants (fluo-2MA, fluo-3 and fluo-4) in two forms—the acetoxymethyl (AM) ester and the K+ salt. We loaded indicators into rat ventricular myocytes and used confocal microscopy to monitor depolarization-induced fluorescence changes and fractional shortening. Myocytes loaded with the indicator AM esters showed significantly different Ca2+ transients and fractional shortening kinetics. Loading the K+ salts via whole-cell patch-pipette eliminated differences between fluo-3 and fluo-4, but not fluo-2. Cells loaded with different indicator AM esters showed different staining patterns—suggesting differential loading into organelles. Ca2+ dissociation constants (Kd,Ca), measured in protein-rich buffers mimicking the cytosol were significantly higher than values determined in simple buffers. This increase in Kd,Ca (decrease in Ca2+ affinity) was greatest for fluo-3 and fluo-4, and least for fluo-2. We conclude that the structurally-similar fluo variants differ with respect to cellular loading, subcellular compartmentalization, and intracellular Ca2+ affinity. Therefore, judicious choice of fluo indicator and loading procedure is advisable when designing experiments. PMID:22721780

  13. Na+ Transport in Cardiac Myocytes; Implications for Excitation-Contraction Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Bers, Donald M.; Despa, Sanda

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) is very important in modulating the contractile and electrical activity of the heart. Upon electrical excitation of the myocardium, voltage-dependent Na+ channels open, triggering the upstroke of the action potential (AP). During the AP, Ca2+ enters the myocytes via L-type Ca2+ channels. This triggers Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and thus activates contraction. Relaxation occurs when cytosolic Ca2+ declines, mainly due to re-uptake into the SR via SR Ca2+-ATPase and extrusion from the cell via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). NCX extrudes one Ca2+ ion in exchange for three Na+ ions and its activity is critically regulated by [Na+]i. Thus, via NCX, [Na+]i is centrally involved in the regulation of intracellular [Ca2+] and contractility. Na+ brought in by Na+ channels, NCX and other Na+ entry pathways is extruded by the Na+/K+ pump (NKA) to keep [Na+]i low. NKA is regulated by phospholemman, a small sarcolemmal protein that associates with NKA. Unphosphorylated phospholemman inhibits NKA by decreasing the pump affinity for internal Na+ and this inhibition is relieved upon phosphorylation. Here we discuss the main characteristics of the Na+ transport pathways in cardiac myocytes and their physiological and pathophysiological relevance. PMID:19243007

  14. Cardiac fibroblasts are predisposed to convert into myocyte phenotype: Specific effect of transforming growth factor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, M.; Tomek, R.; Woods, C.; Bhambi, B. )

    1991-02-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts are mainly responsible for the synthesis of major extracellular matrix proteins in the heart, including fibrillar collagen types I and III and fibronectin. In this report we show that these cells, when stimulated by transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}), acquire certain myocyte-specific properties. Cultured cardiac fibroblasts from adult rabbit heart were treated with TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, (10-15 ng/ml) for different periods of time. Northern hybridization analysis of total RNA showed that cells treated with TGF-{beta}{sub 1} became stained with a monoclonal antibody to muscle-specific actin. After treatment of quiescent cells with TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, cell proliferation (as measured by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation) was moderately increased. Cultured cardiac fibroblasts at the subconfluent stage, when exposed to TGF-{beta}{sub 1} in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum, gave rise to a second generation of slowly growing cells that expressed muscle-specific actin filaments. The findings demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts can be made to differentiate into cells that display many characteristics of cardiac myocytes. TGF-{beta}{sub 1} seems to be a specific inducer of such conversion.

  15. Patterns of evolution of myocyte damage after human heart transplantation detected by indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Ballester-Rodes, M.; Carrio-Gasset, I.; Abadal-Berini, L.; Obrador-Mayol, D.; Berna-Roqueta, L.; Caralps-Riera, J.M.

    1988-09-15

    The indium-111 labeled Fab fragment of antimyosin monoclonal antibody was used to study cardiac rejection and the time course of myocyte damage after transplantation. Fifty-three studies were performed in 21 patients, 17 men and 4 women, aged 19 to 54 years (mean 37 +/- 8), from 7 to 40 months after transplantation. Repeat studies were available in 8, and 10 were studied after the first year of transplantation. A heart-to-lung ratio was used for quantitation of uptake (normal 1.46 +/- 0.04). Differences between absent (1.69 +/- 0.29) and moderate (1.90 +/- 0.36) rejection were significant (p less than 0.03). Antimyosin ratio at 1 to 3 months (1.89 +/- 0.35) differed from that at greater than 12 months (1.65 +/- 0.2) (p less than 0.01). Repeat studies revealed a decrease in antimyosin ratio in 5 patients with uneventful clinical course; 2 had persistent activity after transplantation and suffered heart failure from rejection. After 1 year of transplantation uptake was within normal limits in 7 of 10 patients, and high uptake was associated with vascular rejection in 1. Because they can define evolving patterns of myocardial lesion activity, antimyosin studies could be useful both in patient management and in concentrating resources for those patients who most require them. The heart-to-lung ratio is suggested to monitor sequentially the degree of myocyte damage after transplantation.

  16. X-ray microanalysis of single cardiac myocytes frozen under voltage-clamp conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt-Gallitelli, M.F.; Isenberg, G.

    1989-02-01

    By means of a patch pipette, an isolated ventricular myocyte was transferred into the taper of a silver holder covered by pioloform film. Once the cell was on the film, the cell was voltage clamped (pulses from -45 to +5 mV at 0.5 Hz). The amount of Ca entry was estimated from the Ca current. When contractility (cell shortening) was potentiated with either five pulses of 0.2 s or four pulses of 1 s, shock freezing was timed 116 or 816 ms after start of the clamp pulse. Electron micrographs from freeze-substituted cells revealed the good preservation of the intracellular compartments. The myocytes were cut at -150 degrees C, and the cryosections were freeze dried. In representative examples, the amount of Ca entry is compared with the subcellular Ca distribution as it is analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray microprobe analysis in cytoplasm, junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), mitochondria, and the subsarcolemmal space (sarcolemma, peripheral SR, fringe of cytosol).

  17. High frequency stimulation of cardiac myocytes: A theoretical and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Seth H.

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency stimulation (HFS) has recently been identified as a novel approach for terminating life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. HFS elevates myocyte membrane potential and blocks electrical conduction for the duration of the stimulus. However, low amplitude HFS can induce rapidly firing action potentials, which may reinitiate an arrhythmia. The cellular level mechanisms underlying HFS-induced electrical activity are not well understood. Using a multiscale method, we show that a minimal myocyte model qualitatively reproduces the influence of HFS on cardiac electrical activity. Theoretical analysis and simulations suggest that persistent activation and de-inactivation of ionic currents, in particular a fast inward window current, underlie HFS-induced action potentials and membrane potential elevation, providing hypotheses for future experiments. We derive analytical expressions to describe how HFS modifies ionic current amplitude and gating dynamics. We show how fast inward current parameters influence the parameter regimes for HFS-induced electrical activity, demonstrating how the efficacy of HFS as a therapy for terminating arrhythmias may depend on the presence of pathological conditions or pharmacological treatments. Finally, we demonstrate that HFS terminates cardiac arrhythmias in a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach to characterize the influence of HFS on ionic current gating dynamics, provide new insight into HFS of the myocardium, and suggest mechanisms underlying HFS-induced electrical activity.

  18. Restoration of β -Adrenergic Signaling in Failing Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes via Adenoviral-Mediated Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shahab A.; Skaer, Christine A.; Kypson, Alan P.; McDonald, Patricia H.; Peppel, Karsten C.; Glower, Donald D.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.; Koch, Walter J.

    1997-10-01

    Cardiovascular gene therapy is a novel approach to the treatment of diseases such as congestive heart failure (CHF). Gene transfer to the heart would allow for the replacement of defective or missing cellular proteins that may improve cardiac performance. Our laboratory has been focusing on the feasibility of restoring β -adrenergic signaling deficiencies that are a characteristic of chronic CHF. We have now studied isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbits that have been chronically paced to produce hemodynamic failure. We document molecular β -adrenergic signaling defects including down-regulation of myocardial β -adrenergic receptors (β -ARs), functional β -AR uncoupling, and an upregulation of the β -AR kinase (β ARK1). Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of the human β 2-AR or an inhibitor of β ARK1 to these failing myocytes led to the restoration of β -AR signaling. These results demonstrate that defects present in this critical myocardial signaling pathway can be corrected in vitro using genetic modification and raise the possibility of novel inotropic therapies for CHF including the inhibition of β ARK1 activity in the heart.

  19. Automatic quantitative analysis of t-tubule organization in cardiac myocytes using ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Pasqualin, Côme; Gannier, François; Malécot, Claire O; Bredeloux, Pierre; Maupoil, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    The transverse tubule system in mammalian striated muscle is highly organized and contributes to optimal and homogeneous contraction. Diverse pathologies such as heart failure and atrial fibrillation include disorganization of t-tubules and contractile dysfunction. Few tools are available for the quantification of the organization of the t-tubule system. We developed a plugin for the ImageJ/Fiji image analysis platform developed by the National Institutes of Health. This plugin (TTorg) analyzes raw confocal microscopy images. Analysis options include the whole image, specific regions of the image (cropping), and z-axis analysis of the same image. Batch analysis of a series of images with identical criteria is also one of the options. There is no need to either reorientate any specimen to the horizontal or to do a thresholding of the image to perform analysis. TTorg includes a synthetic "myocyte-like" image generator to test the plugin's efficiency in the user's own experimental conditions. This plugin was validated on synthetic images for different simulated cell characteristics and acquisition parameters. TTorg was able to detect significant differences between the organization of the t-tubule systems in experimental data of mouse ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mice. TTorg is freely distributed, and its source code is available. It provides a reliable, easy-to-use, automatic, and unbiased measurement of t-tubule organization in a wide variety of experimental conditions.

  20. Gaining myocytes or losing fibroblasts: Challenges in cardiac fibroblast reprogramming for infarct repair.

    PubMed

    Nagalingam, Raghu S; Safi, Hamza A; Czubryt, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Unlike most somatic tissues, the heart possesses a very limited inherent ability to repair itself following damage. Attempts to therapeutically salvage the myocardium after infarction, either by sparing surviving myocytes or by injection of exogenous cells of varied provenance, have met with limited success. Cardiac fibroblasts are numerous, resistant to hypoxia, and amenable to phenotype reprogramming to cardiomyocytes - a potential panacea to an intractable problem. However, the long-term effects of mass conversion of fibroblasts are as-yet unknown. Since fibroblasts play key roles in normal cardiac function, treating these cells as a ready source of replacements for myocytes may have the effect of swapping one problem for another. This review briefly examines the roles of cardiac fibroblasts, recaps the strides made so far in their reprogramming to cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and discusses the potential ramifications of large-scale cellular identity swapping. While such therapy offers great promise, the potential repercussions require consideration and careful study. PMID:26640115

  1. Laminar structure of the heart: ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog.

    PubMed

    LeGrice, I J; Smaill, B H; Chai, L Z; Edgar, S G; Gavin, J B; Hunter, P J

    1995-08-01

    We have studied the three-dimensional arrangement of ventricular muscle cells and the associated extracellular connective tissue matrix in dog hearts. Four hearts were potassium-arrested, excised, and perfusion-fixed at zero transmural pressure. Full-thickness segments were cut from the right and left ventricular walls at a series of precisely located sites. Morphology was visualized macroscopically and with scanning electron microscopy in 1) transmural planes of section and 2) planes tangential to the epicardial surface. The appearance of all specimens was consistent with an ordered laminar arrangement of myocytes with extensive cleavage planes between muscle layers. These planes ran radially from endocardium toward epicardium in transmural section and coincided with the local muscle fiber orientation in tangential section. Stereological techniques were used to quantify aspects of this organization. There was no consistent variation in the cellular organization of muscle layers (48.4 +/- 20.4 microns thick and 4 +/- 2 myocytes across) transmurally or in different ventricular regions (23 sites in 6 segments), but there was significant transmural variation in the coupling between adjacent layers. The number of branches between layers decreased twofold from subepicardium to midwall, whereas the length distribution of perimysial collagen fibers connecting muscle layers was greatest in the midwall. We conclude that ventricular myocardium is not a uniformly branching continuum but a laminar hierarchy in which it is possible to identify three axes of material symmetry at any point.

  2. Pertussis toxin treatment attenuates some effects of insulin in BC3H-1 murine myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, L.M.; Hewlett, E.L.; Romero, G.; Rogol, A.D.

    1988-05-05

    The effects of pertussis toxin (PT) treatment on insulin-stimulated myristoyl-diacylglycerol (DAG) generation, hexose transport, and thymidine incorporation were studied in differentiated BC3H-1 mycocytes. Insulin treatment caused a biphasic increase in myristoyl-DAG production which was abolished in myocytes treated with PT. There was no effect of PT treatment on basal (nonstimulated) myristoyl-DAG production. Insulin-stimulated hydrolysis of a membrane phosphatidylinositol glycan was blocked by PT treatment. ADP-ribosylation of BC3H-1 plasma membranes with (/sup 32/P)NAD revealed a 40-kDa protein as the major PT substrate in vivo and in vitro. The time course and dose dependence of the effects of PT on diacylglycerol generation correlated with the in vivo ADP-ribosylation of the 40-kDa substrate. Pertussis toxin treatment resulted in a 71% attenuation of insulin-stimulated hexose uptake without effect on either basal or phorbol ester-stimulated uptake. The stimulatory effects of insulin and fetal calf serum on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into quiescent myocytes were attenuated by 61 and 59%, respectively, when PT was added coincidently with the growth factors. Nonstimulated and EGF-stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation was unaffected by PT treatment. These data suggest that a PT-sensitive G protein is involved in the cellular signaling mechanisms of insulin.

  3. Important role of energy-dependent mitochondrial pathways in cultured rat cardiac myocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, J; Tatsumi, T; Keira, N; Akashi, K; Mano, A; Yamanaka, S; Matoba, S; Asayama, J; Yaoi, T; Fushiki, S; Fliss, H; Nakagawa, M

    2001-10-01

    Recent studies have suggested that apoptosis and necrosis share common features in their signaling pathway and that apoptosis requires intracellular ATP for its mitochondrial/apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 suicide cascade. The present study was, therefore, designed to examine the role of intracellular energy levels in determining the form of cell death in cardiac myocytes. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were first incubated for 1 h in glucose-free medium containing oligomycin to achieve metabolic inhibition. The cells were then incubated for another 4 h in similar medium containing staurosporine and graded concentrations of glucose to manipulate intracellular ATP levels. Under ATP-depleting conditions, the cell death caused by staurosporine was primarily necrotic, as determined by creatine kinase release and nuclear staining with ethidium homodimer-1. However, under ATP-replenishing conditions, staurosporine increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, as determined by nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation. Caspase-3 activation by staurosporine was also ATP dependent. However, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), Bax translocation, and cytochrome c release were observed in both apoptotic and necrotic cells. Moreover, cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, attenuated staurosporine-induced apoptosis and necrosis through the inhibition of DeltaPsi(m) reduction, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. Our data therefore suggest that staurosporine induces cell demise through a mitochondrial death signaling pathway and that the presence of intracellular ATP favors a shift from necrosis to apoptosis through caspase activation. PMID:11557554

  4. Glucose deprivation causes oxidative stress and stimulates aggresome formation and autophagy in cultured cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Marambio, Paola; Toro, Barbra; Sanhueza, Carlos; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo; García, Lorena; Quiroga, Clara; Munafo, Daniela; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Bravo, Roberto; González, María-Julieta; Diaz-Araya, Guilermo; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Colombo, María Isabel; Lavandero, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Aggresomes are dynamic structures formed when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is overwhelmed with aggregation-prone proteins. In this process, small protein aggregates are actively transported towards the microtubule-organizing center. A functional role for autophagy in the clearance of aggresomes has also been proposed. In the present work we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved on aggresome formation in cultured rat cardiac myocytes exposed to glucose deprivation. Confocal microscopy showed that small aggregates of polyubiquitinated proteins were formed in cells exposed to glucose deprivation for 6 h. However, at longer times (18 h), aggregates formed large perinuclear inclusions (aggresomes) which colocalized with gamma-tubulin (a microtubule-organizing center marker) and Hsp70. The microtubule disrupting agent vinblastine prevented the formation of these inclusions. Both small aggregates and aggresomes colocalized with autophagy markers such as GFP-LC3 and Rab24. Glucose deprivation stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreases intracellular glutathione levels. ROS inhibition by N-acetylcysteine or by the adenoviral overexpression of catalase or superoxide dismutase disrupted aggresome formation and autophagy induced by glucose deprivation. In conclusion, glucose deprivation induces oxidative stress which is associated with aggresome formation and activation of autophagy in cultured cardiac myocytes. PMID:20176105

  5. Executioner Caspase-3 and 7 Deficiency Reduces Myocyte Number in the Developing Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Maria; López, Juan Antonio; Serafín, Anna; Rongvaux, Anthony; Inserte, Javier; García-Dorado, David; Flavell, Richard; Llovera, Marta; Cañas, Xavier; Vázquez, Jesús; Sanchis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Executioner caspase-3 and -7 are proteases promoting cell death but non-apoptotic roles are being discovered. The heart expresses caspases only during development, suggesting they contribute to the organ maturation process. Therefore, we aimed at identifying novel functions of caspases in heart development. We induced simultaneous deletion of executioner caspase-3 and -7 in the mouse myocardium and studied its effects. Caspase knockout hearts are hypoplastic at birth, reaching normal weight progressively through myocyte hypertrophy. To identify the molecular pathways involved in these effects, we used microarray-based transcriptomics and multiplexed quantitative proteomics to compare wild type and executioner caspase-deficient myocardium at different developmental stages. Transcriptomics showed reduced expression of genes promoting DNA replication and cell cycle progression in the neonatal caspase-deficient heart suggesting reduced myocyte proliferation, and expression of non-cardiac isoforms of structural proteins in the adult null myocardium. Proteomics showed reduced abundance of proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation accompanied by increased abundance of glycolytic enzymes underscoring retarded metabolic maturation of the caspase-null myocardium. Correlation between mRNA expression and protein abundance of relevant genes was confirmed, but transcriptomics and proteomics indentified complementary molecular pathways influenced by caspases in the developing heart. Forced expression of wild type or proteolytically inactive caspases in cultured cardiomyocytes induced expression of genes promoting cell division. The results reveal that executioner caspases can modulate heart’s cellularity and maturation during development, contributing novel information about caspase biology and heart development. PMID:26121671

  6. The lack of target specificity of small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors is correlated with their ability to damage myocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B. Patel, Daywin

    2010-12-01

    Many new targeted small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors are actively being developed. However, the clinical use of some kinase inhibitors has been shown to result in cardiotoxicity. In most cases the mechanisms by which they exert their cardiotoxicity are not well understood. We have used large scale profiling data on 8 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors and 10 other kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases in order to correlate binding constants and kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with kinase inhibitor-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The 18 kinase inhibitors that were the subject of this study were: canertinib, dasatinib, dovitinib, erlotinib, flavopiridol, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, midostaurin, motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, staurosporine, sunitinib, tandutinib, tozasertib, vandetanib and vatalanib. The combined tyrosine kinase and serine-threonine kinase selectivity scores were highly correlated with the myocyte-damaging effects of the kinase inhibitors. This result suggests that myocyte damage was due to a lack of target selectivity to binding of both tyrosine kinases and serine-threonine kinases, and was not due to binding to either group specifically. Finally, the strength of kinase inhibitor binding for 290 kinases was examined for correlations with myocyte damage. Kinase inhibitor binding was significantly correlated with myocyte damage for 12 kinases. Thus, myocyte damage may be multifactorial in nature with the inhibition of a number of kinases involved in producing kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage.

  7. The lack of target specificity of small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors is correlated with their ability to damage myocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hasinoff, Brian B; Patel, Daywin

    2010-12-01

    Many new targeted small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors are actively being developed. However, the clinical use of some kinase inhibitors has been shown to result in cardiotoxicity. In most cases the mechanisms by which they exert their cardiotoxicity are not well understood. We have used large scale profiling data on 8 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors and 10 other kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases in order to correlate binding constants and kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with kinase inhibitor-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The 18 kinase inhibitors that were the subject of this study were: canertinib, dasatinib, dovitinib, erlotinib, flavopiridol, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, midostaurin, motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, staurosporine, sunitinib, tandutinib, tozasertib, vandetanib and vatalanib. The combined tyrosine kinase and serine-threonine kinase selectivity scores were highly correlated with the myocyte-damaging effects of the kinase inhibitors. This result suggests that myocyte damage was due to a lack of target selectivity to binding of both tyrosine kinases and serine-threonine kinases, and was not due to binding to either group specifically. Finally, the strength of kinase inhibitor binding for 290 kinases was examined for correlations with myocyte damage. Kinase inhibitor binding was significantly correlated with myocyte damage for 12 kinases. Thus, myocyte damage may be multifactorial in nature with the inhibition of a number of kinases involved in producing kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage. PMID:20832415

  8. CaMKII Negatively Regulates Calcineurin-NFAT Signaling in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    MacDonnell, Scott M.; Weisser-Thomas, Jutta; Kubo, Hajime; Hanscome, Marie; Liu, Qinghang; Jaleel, Naser; Berretta, Remus; Chen, Xiongwen; Brown, Joan H.; Sabri, Abdel-Karim; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Houser, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Pathologic cardiac myocyte hypertrophy is thought to be induced by the persistent increases in intracellular Ca2+ needed to maintain cardiac function when systolic wall stress is increased. Hypertrophic Ca2+ binds to calmodulin (CaM) and activates the phosphatase calcineurin (Cn) and CaM kinase (CaMKII). Cn dephosphorylates cytoplasmic nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), inducing its translocation to the nucleus where it activates anti-apoptotic and hypertrophic target genes. Cytoplasmic CaMKII regulates Ca2+ handling proteins but whether or not it is directly involved in hypertrophic and survival signaling is not known. Objective This study explored the hypothesis that cytoplasmic CaMKII reduces NFAT nuclear translocation by inhibiting the phosphatase activity of Cn. Methods and Results GFP-tagged NFATc3 was used to determine the cellular location of NFAT in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and adult feline ventricular myocytes. Constitutively active (CaMKII-CA) or dominant negative (CaMKII-DN) mutants of cytoplasmic targeted CaMKIIδc were used to activate and inhibit cytoplasmic CaMKII activity. In NRVM CaMKII-DN (48.5±3%, P<0.01 vs control) increased while CaMKII-CA decreased (5.9±1%, P<0.01 vs control) NFAT nuclear translocation (Control: 12.3±1%). Cn inhibitors were used to show that these effects were caused by modulation of Cn activity. Increasing Ca2+ increased Cn-dependent NFAT translocation (to 71.7±7%, p<0.01) and CaMKII-CA reduced this effect (to 17.6±4%). CaMKII-CA increased TUNEL and caspase-3 activity (P<0.05). CaMKII directly phosphorylated Cn at Ser197 in CaMKII-CA infected NRVM and in hypertrophied feline hearts. Conclusion These data show that activation of cytoplasmic CaMKII inhibits NFAT nuclear translocation by phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of Cn. PMID:19608982

  9. NFAT transcription factor regulation by urocortin II in cardiac myocytes and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Walther, Stefanie; Awad, Sawsan; Lonchyna, Vassyl A; Blatter, Lothar A

    2014-03-01

    Urocortin II (UcnII), a cardioactive peptide with beneficial effects in normal and failing hearts, is also arrhythmogenic and prohypertrophic. We demonstrated that cardiac effects are mediated by a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase (Akt)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors play a key role in the regulation of gene expression in cardiac development, maintenance of an adult differentiated cardiac phenotype, and remodeling processes in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). We tested the hypothesis that UcnII differentially regulates NFAT activity in cardiac myocytes from both normal and failing hearts through the PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO pathway. Isoforms NFATc1 and NFATc3 revealed different basal subcellular distribution in normal and HF rabbit ventricular myocytes with a nuclear NFATc1 and a cytosolic localization of NFATc3. However, in HF, the nuclear localization of NFATc1 was less pronounced, whereas the nuclear occupancy of NFATc3 was increased. In normal myocytes, UcnII induced nuclear export of NFATc1 and attenuated NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity but did not affect the distribution of NFATc3. In HF UcnII facilitated nuclear export of both isoforms and reduced transcriptional activity. NFAT regulation was mediated by a PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO signaling cascade that converged on the activation of several kinases, including glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38), and PKG, resulting in phosphorylation, deactivation, and nuclear export of NFAT. In conclusion, while NFATc1 and NFATc3 reveal distinct subcellular distribution patterns, both are regulated by the UcnII-PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO pathway that converges on the activation of NFAT kinases and NFAT inactivation. The data reconcile cardioprotective and prohypertrophic UcnII effects mediated by different NFAT isoforms.

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,…

  11. R-CEPIA1er as a new tool to directly measure sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca] in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Elisa; Martin, Jody L; Tyryfter, Jollyn; de Tombe, Pieter P; Zima, Aleksey V

    2016-07-01

    In cardiomyocytes, [Ca] within the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR; [Ca]SR) partially determines the amplitude of cytosolic Ca transient that, in turn, governs myocardial contraction. Therefore, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate [Ca]SR handling. Until recently, the best approach available to directly measure [Ca]SR was to use low-affinity Ca indicators (e.g., Fluo-5N). However, this approach presents several limitations, including nonspecific cellular localization, dye extrusion, and species limitation. Recently a new genetically encoded family of Ca indicators has been generated, named Ca-measuring organelle-entrapped protein indicators (CEPIA). Here, we tested the red fluorescence SR-targeted Ca sensor (R-CEPIA1er) as a tool to directly measure [Ca]SR dynamics in ventricular myocytes. Infection of rabbit and rat ventricular myocytes with an adenovirus expressing the R-CEPIA1er gene displayed prominent localization in the SR and nuclear envelope. Calibration of R-CEPIA1er in myocytes resulted in a Kd of 609 μM, suggesting that this sensor is sensitive in the whole physiological range of [Ca]SR [Ca]SR dynamics measured with R-CEPIA1er were compared with [Ca]SR measured with Fluo5-N. We found that both the time course of the [Ca]SR depletion and fractional SR Ca release induced by an action potential were similar between these two Ca sensors. R-CEPIA1er fluorescence did not decline during experiments, indicating lack of dye extrusion or photobleaching. Furthermore, measurement of [Ca]SR with R-CEPIA1er can be combined with cytosolic [Ca] measurements (with Fluo-4) to obtain more detailed information regarding Ca handling in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, R-CEPIA1er is a promising tool that can be used to measure [Ca]SR dynamics in myocytes from different animal species. PMID:27233762

  12. Sick sinus syndrome and atrial fibrillation in older persons - A view from the sinoatrial nodal myocyte.

    PubMed

    Monfredi, O; Boyett, M R

    2015-06-01

    Sick sinus syndrome remains a highly relevant clinical entity, being responsible for the implantation of the majority of electronic pacemakers worldwide. It is an infinitely more complex disease than it was believed when first described in the mid part of the 20th century. It not only involves the innate leading pacemaker region of the heart, the sinoatrial node, but also the atrial myocardium, predisposing to atrial tachydysrhythmias. It remains controversial as to whether the dysfunction of the sinoatrial node directly causes the dysfunction of the atrial myocardium, or vice versa, or indeed whether these two aspects of the condition arise through some related underlying pathological mechanism, such as extracellular matrix remodeling, i.e., fibrosis. This review aims to shed new light on the myriad possible contributing factors in the development of sick sinus syndrome, with a particular focus on the sinoatrial nodal myocyte. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled CV Aging.

  13. Mst1 promotes cardiac myocyte apoptosis through phosphorylation and inhibition of Bcl-xL

    PubMed Central

    Del Re, Dominic P.; Matsuda, Takahisa; Zhai, Peiyong; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Jain, Mohit Raja; Liu, Tong; Li, Hong; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The Hippo pathway, evolutionarily conserved from flies to mammals, promotes cell death and inhibits cell proliferation to regulate organ size. The core component of this cascade, Mst1 in mammalian cells, is sufficient to promote apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying both its activation and its ability to elicit cell death remain largely undefined. We here identify a novel signaling cassette in cardiac myocytes consisting of K-Ras, the scaffold RASSF1A and Mst1 that is localized to mitochondria and promotes Mst1 activation in response to oxidative stress. Activated Mst1 phosphorylates Bcl-xL at Ser14, which resides in the BH4 domain, thereby antagonizing Bcl-xL-Bax binding. This, in turn, causes activation of Bax and subsequent mitochondria-mediated apoptotic death. Our findings demonstrate mitochondrial localization of Hippo signaling and identify a novel target of this cascade, Bcl-xL, which is directly modified to promote apoptosis. PMID:24813943

  14. Toward an integrative computational model of the Guinea pig cardiac myocyte.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Laura Doyle; Greenstein, Joseph L; Winslow, Raimond L

    2012-01-01

    The local control theory of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling asserts that regulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) release occurs at the nanodomain level, where openings of single L-type Ca(2+) channels (LCCs) trigger openings of small clusters of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) co-localized within the dyad. A consequence of local control is that the whole-cell Ca(2+) transient is a smooth continuous function of influx of Ca(2+) through LCCs. While this so-called graded release property has been known for some time, its functional importance to the integrated behavior of the cardiac ventricular myocyte has not been fully appreciated. We previously formulated a biophysically based model, in which LCCs and RyRs interact via a coarse-grained representation of the dyadic space. The model captures key features of local control using a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations. Voltage-dependent gain and graded Ca(2+) release are emergent properties of this model by virtue of the fact that model formulation is closely based on the sub-cellular basis of local control. In this current work, we have incorporated this graded release model into a prior model of guinea pig ventricular myocyte electrophysiology, metabolism, and isometric force production. The resulting integrative model predicts the experimentally observed causal relationship between action potential (AP) shape and timing of Ca(2+) and force transients, a relationship that is not explained by models lacking the graded release property. Model results suggest that even relatively subtle changes in AP morphology that may result, for example, from remodeling of membrane transporter expression in disease or spatial variation in cell properties, may have major impact on the temporal waveform of Ca(2+) transients, thus influencing tissue level electromechanical function. PMID:22783206

  15. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Male Mouse Skeletal Muscle Is Largely Independent of D2 in Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Werneck-de-Castro, Joao P; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Ignacio, Daniele L; Fernandes, Gustavo W; Andrade-Feraud, Cristina M; Lartey, Lattoya J; Ribeiro, Marcelo B; Ribeiro, Miriam O; Gereben, Balazs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2015-10-01

    The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26214036

  16. The signaling mechanisms of long distance intercellular calcium waves (far waves) in cultured human uterine myocytes.

    PubMed

    Young, Roger C; Schumann, Ralph; Zhang, Peisheng

    2002-01-01

    Cultured human myocytes exhibit intercellular calcium waves that travel farther than 100 microm ('far waves'). This work investigates the mechanism of far wave propagation. Culture lines were initiated from myometrial biopsies of term pregnant women. Calcium green-1 was used as a fluorescence probe for intracellular free calcium. Serial imaging was performed at a frame rate of 0.83 frames/s. Intercellular calcium waves were mechanically initiated by atraumatically applying small drops of mineral oil onto the surface of the monolayer. Each intercellular calcium wave was scored using a standardized grid, and points were assigned depending upon the distance the wave traveled and the fluorescent intensity observed within each region. Experiments were performed in the presence of inhibitors of gap junctions and connexin hemichannels (octanol), ATP (apyrase and MDL 12330 A), prostaglandins (indomethacin, high concentrations of lanthanum), the prostaglandin transporter, PGT (DIDS), and transmembrane calcium flux (low concentrations of lanthanum). Octanol, apyrase and MDL 12330 A failed to modify the far waves, indicating gap junctions, connexin hemichannels and ATP do not participate in the paracrine mechanism. Indomethacin at 30, 100 and 300 microM, in a dose dependent manner, reduced the far wave score to 0, suggesting a prostaglandin was critically involved in the mechanism. DIDS reduced the far wave score, but did not fully inhibit wave propagation, suggesting the presence of PGT-dependent and -independent components to the mechanism. Lanthanum at 0.1 mM had no effect, but at 1 mM, reduced the far wave score. These results are consistent with PGF2alpha and/or PGE2 being the signal molecule for the PGT-dependent component. Taken together, these data indicate that long distance intercellular calcium waves in cultured human myocytes utilizes a paracrine signaling mechanism, but with more than one extracellular signaling compound.

  17. Dependence of Na-K pump current on internal Na+ in mammalian cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Mogul, D J; Singer, D H; Ten Eick, R E

    1990-08-01

    Na-K pump current (Ipump) is a function of the intracellular Na+ concentration [( Na+]i). We examined the quantitative relationship between Ipump and [Na+]i in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes under steady-state conditions. [Na+]i was controlled and "clamped" at several selected concentrations using wide-tipped pipette microelectrodes, and membrane current was measured using the whole cell patch voltage-clamp technique. Ipump generated at a holding potential of -40 mV was determined by measuring the change in steady-state holding current before and during exposure to dihydroouabain (1 mM); Ipump was measured at 11 levels of [Na+]i ranging from 0 to 80 mM (n = 63) with only one measurement per cell and normalized to cell capacitance to account for differences between myocytes in sarcolemmal surface area. Ipump exhibited a nonlinear dependence on [Na+]i; a Hill analysis of the relationship yielded a half-maximal [Na+]i for pump stimulation of 43.2 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.53. An alternative analysis of the experimental data was performed assuming that occupation of three internal binding sites by Na+ is required for enzyme turnover. Regression analysis gave the best fit when only two different binding affinities (KD) are postulated. The values are KD1 = 1 mM, KD2 = KD3 = 29 mM. From the analysis using the latter model, the level of [Na+]i at which Ipump saturated closely approximated the theoretical saturation level calculated from published estimates of pump turnover rate and density. The maximal sensitivity of the Na-K pump to changes in [Na+]i occurs when internal [Na+] is within the range for the normal resting physiological level. PMID:2167023

  18. Dissociation of insulin receptor phosphorylation and stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojsilovic, L.P.; Standaert, M.L.; Rosic, N.K.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated insulin receptor phosphorylation in differentiated cultured BC3H-1 myocytes. As for other insulin-responsive cell systems in partially purified wheat germ agglutinin receptor preparations, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of its own receptor (95K ..beta..-subunits) in a dose dependent manner (0-400 nM), as identified by immunoprecipitation with antiinsulin receptor antibodies and SDS-PAGE. In the same preparations they show that 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol acetate (TPA), which in many respect ..beta..-subunits in the same dose dependent manner (0-5 ..mu..M). In addition, antiinsulin receptor antibodies (B-10) also induced phosphorylation of mimics insulin action, also induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and HPLC tryptic maps of the /sup 32/P-labeled ..beta..-subunit were identical to those for insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation. However, while insulin and TPA are potent stimulators of glucose transport in these muscle cells, the antireceptor antibodies alone failed to provoke glucose transport at any concentration. The specificity and activity of these antibodies were confirmed in their system by their ability to inhibit insulin binding and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Their results indicate that phosphorylation of insulin receptor is not a crucial event in mediating insulin action, at least with respect to glucose transport. While the effects of the B-10 antibody in the BC3H-1 myocyte differ from those in the adipocyte, their results provide independent confirmation of their essential conclusion that phosphorylation of the insulin receptor may not be necessary nor sufficient for its acute action in promoting glucose transport.

  19. Actin isoform synthesis by cultured cardiac myocytes: effects of actinomycin D and mithramycin

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.; Gonzalez, B.

    1986-03-01

    Cultured neonatal rat myocardial cells (CMC) were incubated with the Actinomycin D (ACT) and mithramycin (MIT) in concentrations of 1 x 10/sup -8/M to 1 x 10/sup -5/M in medium containing 35..mu..Ci of /sup 35/S-methionine to determine incorporation into myocardial contractile proteins. After 24h, cells were harvested in buffer with Triton X-100, homogenized and subjected to centrifugation. Protein content of the centrifuged extracts was determined and equivalent amounts of protein were applied to 8-15% gradient sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). Similar aliquots were subjected to isoelectric focusing and to gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. Electrophoretic gels were autoradiographed and were quantified densitometrically. A concentration-dependent effect of ACT and MIT on protein and on actin synthesis was found in cultured myocytes with decreased intensity of the radiolabeled actin band in CMC exposed to 1 x 10/sup -8/M to 1 x 10/sup -5/M ACT of 1 x 10/sup -7/M to 1 x 10/sup -5/M MIT. Autoradiography of gels showed focusing of actin isoforms but decreased intensity of iso-actin spots in extracts from CMC exposed to 1 x 10/sup -7/M ACT. ACT and MIT decreased CMC protein and synthesis by 20% at 1 x 10/sup -8/M respectively. The effect of MIT and ACT on CMC actin synthesis and synthesis of other proteins in heart cells is not as specific as the effect of anthracycline antineoplastics on cardiac myocyte proteins and actin.

  20. Cellular Trafficking of Phospholamban and Formation of Functional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum During Myocyte DIfferentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenoien, David L.; Knyushko, Tatyana V.; Londono, Monica P.; Opresko, Lee; Mayer, M. Uljana; Brady, Scott T.; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2007-06-01

    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) family members are transmembrane proteins that play an essential role in regulating intracellular calcium levels. Phospholamban (PLB), a 52 amino acid phosphoprotein, regulates SERCA activity in adult heart and skeletal muscle. Using the C2C12 myocyte cell line, we find endogenous PLB constitutively expressed in both myoblasts and myotubes, whereas SERCA expression coincides with activation of the differentiation program. PLB has a punctuate distribution in myoblasts changing to a reticular distribution in myotubes where it colocalizes with SERCAs. To examine the distribution and dynamics of PLB and SERCA, we expressed fluorescent fusion proteins (GFP, CFP, and YFP) of PLB and SERCA in myoblasts. Coexpressed PLB and SERCA localize to distinct cellular compartments in myoblasts but begin to colocalize as cells differentiate. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) studies show different recovery patterns for each protein in myoblasts confirming their localization to distinct compartments. To extend these studies, we created stable cell lines expressing O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) fusions with PLB or SERCA to track their localization as myocytes differentiate. These experiments demonstrate that PLB localizes to punctate vesicles in myoblasts and adopts a reticular distribution that coincides with SERCA distribution after differentiation. Colocalization experiments indicate that a subset of PLB in myoblasts colocalizes with endosomes, Golgi, and the plasma membrane however PLB also localizes to other, as yet unidentified vesicles. Our results indicate that differentiation plays a critical role in regulating PLB distribution to ensure its colocalization within the same cellular compartment as SERCA in differentiated cells. The presence and altered distribution of PLB in undifferentiated myoblasts raises the possibility that this protein has additional functions distinct from SERCA regulation.

  1. Dual effects of tetracaine on spontaneous calcium release in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Györke, S; Lukyanenko, V; Györke, I

    1997-01-01

    1. Confocal microfluorometry was used to study the effects of tetracaine on spontaneous Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. 2. At low concentrations (0.25-1.25 mM), tetracaine caused an initial inhibition of spontaneous release events (Ca2+ sparks) and Ca2+ waves, which was followed by a gradual increase in Ca2+ release activity. The frequency and magnitude of sparks were first decreased and then increased with respect to control levels. At high concentrations (> 1.25 mM), tetracaine abolished all forms of spontaneous release. 3. Exposure of the myocytes to tetracaine resulted in a gradual increase in the SR Ca2+ load as indexed by changes in the magnitude of caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients. 4. In cardiac SR Ca(2+)-release channels incorporated into lipid bilayers, tetracaine (> 0.25 mM) induced a steady inhibition of channel activity. Addition of millimolar Ca2+ to the luminal side of the channel caused an increase in channel open probability under control conditions as well as in the presence of various concentrations of tetracaine. 5. We conclude that the primary effect of tetracaine on SR Ca(2+)-release channels is inhibition of channel activity both in vitro and in situ. The ability of tetracaine to reduce spark magnitude suggests that these events are not due to activation of single channels or non-reducible clusters of channels and, therefore, supports the multichannel origin of sparks. We propose that the paradoxical late potentiation of release by submaximal concentrations of tetracaine is caused by a gradual increase in SR Ca2+ load and subsequent activation of the Ca(2+)-release channels by Ca2+ inside the SR. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9147318

  2. Comprehensive Analyses of Ventricular Myocyte Models Identify Targets Exhibiting Favorable Rate Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bugana, Marco; Severi, Stefano; Sobie, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse rate dependence is a problematic property of antiarrhythmic drugs that prolong the cardiac action potential (AP). The prolongation caused by reverse rate dependent agents is greater at slow heart rates, resulting in both reduced arrhythmia suppression at fast rates and increased arrhythmia risk at slow rates. The opposite property, forward rate dependence, would theoretically overcome these parallel problems, yet forward rate dependent (FRD) antiarrhythmics remain elusive. Moreover, there is evidence that reverse rate dependence is an intrinsic property of perturbations to the AP. We have addressed the possibility of forward rate dependence by performing a comprehensive analysis of 13 ventricular myocyte models. By simulating populations of myocytes with varying properties and analyzing population results statistically, we simultaneously predicted the rate-dependent effects of changes in multiple model parameters. An average of 40 parameters were tested in each model, and effects on AP duration were assessed at slow (0.2 Hz) and fast (2 Hz) rates. The analysis identified a variety of FRD ionic current perturbations and generated specific predictions regarding their mechanisms. For instance, an increase in L-type calcium current is FRD when this is accompanied by indirect, rate-dependent changes in slow delayed rectifier potassium current. A comparison of predictions across models identified inward rectifier potassium current and the sodium-potassium pump as the two targets most likely to produce FRD AP prolongation. Finally, a statistical analysis of results from the 13 models demonstrated that models displaying minimal rate-dependent changes in AP shape have little capacity for FRD perturbations, whereas models with large shape changes have considerable FRD potential. This can explain differences between species and between ventricular cell types. Overall, this study provides new insights, both specific and general, into the determinants of AP duration

  3. Toward an Integrative Computational Model of the Guinea Pig Cardiac Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Laura Doyle; Greenstein, Joseph L.; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2012-01-01

    The local control theory of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling asserts that regulation of calcium (Ca2+) release occurs at the nanodomain level, where openings of single L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs) trigger openings of small clusters of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) co-localized within the dyad. A consequence of local control is that the whole-cell Ca2+ transient is a smooth continuous function of influx of Ca2+ through LCCs. While this so-called graded release property has been known for some time, its functional importance to the integrated behavior of the cardiac ventricular myocyte has not been fully appreciated. We previously formulated a biophysically based model, in which LCCs and RyRs interact via a coarse-grained representation of the dyadic space. The model captures key features of local control using a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations. Voltage-dependent gain and graded Ca2+ release are emergent properties of this model by virtue of the fact that model formulation is closely based on the sub-cellular basis of local control. In this current work, we have incorporated this graded release model into a prior model of guinea pig ventricular myocyte electrophysiology, metabolism, and isometric force production. The resulting integrative model predicts the experimentally observed causal relationship between action potential (AP) shape and timing of Ca2+ and force transients, a relationship that is not explained by models lacking the graded release property. Model results suggest that even relatively subtle changes in AP morphology that may result, for example, from remodeling of membrane transporter expression in disease or spatial variation in cell properties, may have major impact on the temporal waveform of Ca2+ transients, thus influencing tissue level electromechanical function. PMID:22783206

  4. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Hyun . E-mail: ihpark@uiuc.edu; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-09-10

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector.

  6. Using models of the myocyte for functional interpretation of cardiac proteomic data

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Raimond L; Cortassa, Sonia; Greenstein, Joseph L

    2005-01-01

    There has been significant progress towards the development of highly integrative computational models of the cardiac myocyte over the past decade. Models now incorporate descriptions of voltage-gated ionic currents and membrane transporters, mechanisms of calcium-induced calcium release and intracellular calcium cycling, mitochondrial ATP production and its coupling to energy-requiring membrane transport processes and mechanisms of force generation. There is an extensive literature documenting both the reconstructive and predictive abilities of these models and there is no question that an interplay between quantitative modelling and experimental investigation has become a central component of modern cardiovascular research. As data regarding the cardiovascular proteome in both health and disease emerge, integrative models of the myocyte are becoming useful tools for interpreting the functional significance of changes in protein expression and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Data of particular importance include information on: (a) changes of expressed protein level, (b) changes of protein PTMs, (c) protein localization, and (d) protein–protein interactions, as it is often possible to incorporate and interpret the functional significance of such findings using computational models. We provide two examples of how models may be used in this fashion. In the first example, we show how information on altered expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, when interpreted through the use of a computational model, has provided key insights into fundamental mechanisms regulating cardiac action potential duration. In the second example, we show how information on the effects of phosphorylation of L-type Ca2+ channels, when interpreted through the use of a model, provides insights on how this post-translational modification alters the properties of excitation–contraction coupling and risk for arrhythmia. PMID:15611013

  7. Single adult rabbit and rat cardiac myocytes retain the Ca2+- and species-dependent systolic and diastolic contractile properties of intact muscle

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    The systolic and diastolic properties of single myocytes and intact papillary muscles isolated from hearts of adult rats and rabbits were examined at 37 degrees C over a range of stimulation frequencies and bathing [Ca2+]o (Cao). In both rabbit myocytes and intact muscles bathed in 1 mM Cao, increasing the frequency of stimulation from 6 to 120 min-1 resulted in a positive staircase of twitch performance. During stimulation at 2 min-1, twitch performance also increased with increases in Cao up to 20 mM. In the absence of stimulation, both rabbit myocytes and muscles were completely quiescent in less than 15 mM Cao. Further increases in Cao caused the appearance of spontaneous asynchronous contractile waves in myocytes and in intact muscles caused scattered light intensity fluctuations (SLIF), which were previously demonstrated to be caused by Ca2+-dependent spontaneous contractile waves. In contrast to rabbit preparations, intact rat papillary muscles exhibited SLIF in 1.0 mM Cao. Two populations of rat myocytes were observed in 1 mM Cao: approximately 85% of unstimulated cells exhibited low-frequency (3-4 min-1) spontaneous contractile waves, whereas 15%, during a 1-min observation period, were quiescent. In a given Cao, the contractile wave frequency in myocytes and SLIF in intact muscles were constant for long periods of time. In both intact rat muscles and myocytes with spontaneous waves, in 1 mM Cao, increasing the frequency of stimulation from 6 to 120 min-1 resulted, on the average, in a 65% reduction in steady state twitch amplitude. Of the rat myocytes that did not manifest waves, some had a positive, some had a flat, and some had a negative staircase; the average steady state twitch amplitude of these cells during stimulation at 120 min-1 was 30% greater than that at 6 min-1. In contrast to rabbit preparations, twitch performance during stimulation at 2 min-1 saturated at 1.5 mM Cao in both intact rat muscles and in the myocytes with spontaneous waves. We

  8. Cardioprotective Benefits of Adenosine Triphosphate: Sensitive Potassium Channel Opener Diazoxide Are Lost with Administration after the Onset of Stress in Mouse and Human Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, M Burhan; Makepeace, Carol M; Anastacio, Melissa M; Schuessler, Richard B; Nichols, Colin G; Lawton, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Background Adenosine triphosphate - sensitive (KATP) potassium channel opener diazoxide (DZX) maintains myocyte volume and contractility during stress via an unknown mechanism when administered at the onset of stress. This study was performed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of DZX when added after the onset of the stresses of hyperkalemic cardioplegia, metabolic inhibition, and hypo osmotic stress. Study Design Isolated mouse ventricular and human atrial myocytes were exposed to control Tyrode’s solution (TYR) for 10–20 min, test solution for 30 min (hypothermic hyperkalemic cardioplegia (CPG), CPG + 100uM diazoxide (CPG+DZX), metabolic inhibition (MI), MI+DZX, mild hypo osmotic stress (0.9T), or 0.9T + DZX) with DZX added after 10 or 20 min stress, followed by 20 min re-exposure to TYR (+/− DZX). Myocyte volume (human + mouse) and contractility (mouse) were compared. Results Mouse and human myocytes demonstrated significant swelling during exposure to CPG, MI, and hypo osmotic stress that was not prevented by DZX when administered either at 10 or 20 min after the onset of stress. Contractility following the stress of CPG in mouse myocytes significantly declined when DZX was administered 20 min after the onset of stress (p<0.05 vs. TYR). Contractility following hypo osmotic stress in mouse myocytes was not altered by the addition of DZX. Conclusions To maintain myocyte volume homeostasis and contractility during stress (hyperkalemic cardioplegia, metabolic inhibition, and hypo osmotic stress), KATP channel opener diazoxide requires administration at the onset of stress in this isolated myocyte model. These data have potential implications for any future clinical application of diazoxide. PMID:25158912

  9. The Expression and Role of Protein Kinase C in Neonatal Cardiac Myocyte Attachment, Cell Volume, and Myofibril Formation Is Dependent on the Composition of the Extracellular Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Tara A.; Borg, Thomas K.; Price, Robert L.

    2005-06-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic component of tissues that influences cellular phenotype and behavior. We sought to determine the role of specific ECM substrates in the regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme expression and function in cardiac myocyte attachment, cell volume, and myofibril formation. PKC isozyme expression was ECM substrate specific. Increasing concentrations of the PKC [delta] inhibitor rottlerin attenuated myocyte attachment to randomly organized collagen (1, 5, and 10 [mu]M), laminin (5 and 10 [mu]M), aligned collagen (5 and 10 [mu]M), and fibronectin (10 [mu]M). Rottlerin significantly decreased cell volume on laminin and randomly organized collagen, and inhibited myofibril formation on laminin. The PKC [alpha] inhibitor Gö 6976 inhibited attachment to randomly organized collagen at 6 nM but did not affect cell volume. The general PKC inhibitor Bisindolylmalemide I (10 and 30 [mu]M) did not affect myocyte attachment; however, it significantly decreased cell volume on randomly organized collagen. Our data indicate that PKC isozymes are expressed and utilized by neonatal cardiac myocytes during attachment, cell growth, and myofibril formation. Specifically, it appears that PKC [delta] and/or its downstream effectors play an important role in the interaction between cardiac myocytes and laminin, providing further evidence that the ECM influences cardiac myocyte behavior.

  10. Chloride current in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Novel mechanism for autonomic regulation of action potential duration and resting membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The properties of the autonomically regulated chloride current (ICl) were studied in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. This current was elicited upon exposure to isoproterenol (ISO) and reversed upon concurrent exposure to acetylcholine (ACh). ICl was time independent and exhibited outward rectification. The responses to ISO and ACh could be blocked by propranolol and atropine, respectively, and ICl was also elicited by forskolin, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, and 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine, indicating that the current is regulated through a cAMP-dependent pathway. The reversal potential of the ISO- induced current followed the predicted chloride equilibrium potential, consistent with it being carried predominantly by Cl-. Activation of ICl produced changes in the resting membrane potential and action potential duration, which were Cl- gradient dependent. These results indicate that under physiological conditions ICl may play an important role in regulating action potential duration and resting membrane potential in mammalian cardiac myocytes. PMID:2165130

  11. Thyroid hormone regulation of transmembrane signalling in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes by selective alteration of the expression and coupling of G-protein alpha-subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Bahouth, S W

    1995-01-01

    Thyroid hormone exerts profound effects on the activity of the hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system in the heart. Distinct guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins) mediate stimulatory and inhibitory influences on adenylate cyclase activity. To examine whether the effects of thyroid hormone on adenylate cyclase involve specific changes in G-protein subunit expression, the influence of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on the biosynthesis and activity of G-proteins in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes was determined. In myocytes challenged with T3 for 5 days, Gs alpha levels increased by 4 +/- 0.5-fold, whereas Gi2 alpha levels declined by more than 80%. T3 down-regulated Gi2 alpha mRNA by 60% within 3 days, but had no effect on Gs alpha mRNA. The basis for the decline in Gi2 alpha mRNA was the T3-mediated suppression of Gi2 alpha gene transcription by 80 +/- 9% within 4 h. The decline in Gi2 alpha mRNA in response to T3 produced a 2-fold decrease in relative rate of synthesis of Gi2 alpha but not in its half-life (46 +/- 7 h). Gs alpha synthesis was not altered by T3, but the half-life of Gs alpha increased from 50 +/- 6 h in control cells to 72 +/- 8 h in T3-treated cells. In addition, T3 provoked the translocation of Gs alpha from the cytoplasmic to the membranous compartment. Membranous Gs alpha increased from 30 +/- 6% to 61 +/- 7% of total cellular Gs alpha, whereas cytoplasmic Gs alpha declined from 68 +/- 6% to 33 +/- 8% within 1 day of exposure to T3. T3-mediated up-regulation of Gs alpha enhanced the activation of myocardial adenylate cyclase by the stimulatory pathway whereas the down-regulation of Gi2 alpha attenuated the deactivation of myocardial adenylate cyclase by the inhibitory pathway. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7741715

  12. Effects of magnesium supplementation on electrophysiological remodeling of cardiac myocytes in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Aslan, Mutay; Ozdemir, Semir

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiac hypertrophy and magnesium deficiency is suggested to be a contributing factor in the progression of this complication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between intracellular free Mg(2+) levels and electrophysiological changes developed in the myocardium of L-NAME induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by administration of 40 mg/kg of L-NAME for 6 weeks, while magnesium treated rats fed with a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg of MgO for the same period. L-NAME administration for 6 weeks elicited a significant increase in blood pressure which was corrected with MgO treatment; thereby cardiac hypertrophy developing secondary to hypertension was prevented. Cytosolic free magnesium levels of ventricular myocytes were significantly decreased with hypertension and magnesium administration restored these changes. Hypertension significantly decreased the fractional shortening with slowing of shortening kinetics in left ventricular myocytes whereas magnesium treatment was capable of restoring hypertension-induced contractile dysfunction. Long-term magnesium treatment significantly restored the hypertension-induced prolongation in action potentials of ventricular myocytes and suppressed Ito and Iss currents. In contrast, hypertension dependent decrement in intracellular Mg(2+) level did not cause a significant change in L-type Ca(2+) currents, SR Ca(2+) content and NCX activity. Nevertheless, hypertension mediated increase in superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and protein oxidation mitigated with magnesium treatment. In conclusion, magnesium administration improves mechanical abnormalities observed in hypertensive rat ventricular myocytes due to reduced oxidative stress. It is likely that, changes in intracellular magnesium balance may contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic heart diseases.

  13. Effects of magnesium supplementation on electrophysiological remodeling of cardiac myocytes in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Aslan, Mutay; Ozdemir, Semir

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiac hypertrophy and magnesium deficiency is suggested to be a contributing factor in the progression of this complication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between intracellular free Mg(2+) levels and electrophysiological changes developed in the myocardium of L-NAME induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by administration of 40 mg/kg of L-NAME for 6 weeks, while magnesium treated rats fed with a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg of MgO for the same period. L-NAME administration for 6 weeks elicited a significant increase in blood pressure which was corrected with MgO treatment; thereby cardiac hypertrophy developing secondary to hypertension was prevented. Cytosolic free magnesium levels of ventricular myocytes were significantly decreased with hypertension and magnesium administration restored these changes. Hypertension significantly decreased the fractional shortening with slowing of shortening kinetics in left ventricular myocytes whereas magnesium treatment was capable of restoring hypertension-induced contractile dysfunction. Long-term magnesium treatment significantly restored the hypertension-induced prolongation in action potentials of ventricular myocytes and suppressed Ito and Iss currents. In contrast, hypertension dependent decrement in intracellular Mg(2+) level did not cause a significant change in L-type Ca(2+) currents, SR Ca(2+) content and NCX activity. Nevertheless, hypertension mediated increase in superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and protein oxidation mitigated with magnesium treatment. In conclusion, magnesium administration improves mechanical abnormalities observed in hypertensive rat ventricular myocytes due to reduced oxidative stress. It is likely that, changes in intracellular magnesium balance may contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic heart diseases. PMID:27193439

  14. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Action Potential and Transient Outward Potassium Current in Ventricular Myocytes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhou; Ren, Yi-Peng; Lu, Cai-Yi; Li, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Peng, Li; Fan, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation contributes to the development and recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. However, the electrophysiological changes in ventricular myocytes in sleep deprivation are still unknown. Material/Methods Sleep deprivation was induced by modified multiple platform technique. Fifty rats were assigned to control and sleep deprivation 1, 3, 5, and 7 days groups, and single ventricular myocytes were enzymatically dissociated from rat hearts. Action potential duration (APD) and transient outward current (Ito) were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results Compared with the control group, the phases of APD of ventricular myocytes in 3, 5, and 7 days groups were prolonged and APD at 20% and 50% level of repolarization (APD20 and APD50) was significantly elongated (The APD20 values of control, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days groups: 5.66±0.16 ms, 5.77±0.20 ms, 8.28±0.30 ms, 11.56±0.32 ms, 13.24±0.56 ms. The APD50 values: 50.66±2.16 ms, 52.77±3.20 ms, 65.28±5.30 ms, 83.56±7.32 ms, 89.24±5.56 ms. P<0.01, n=18). The current densities of Ito significantly decreased. The current density-voltage (I–V) curve of Ito was vitally suppressed downward. The steady-state inactivation curve and steady-state activation curve of Ito were shifted to left and right, respectively, in sleep deprivation rats. The inactivation recovery time of Ito was markedly retarded and the time of closed-state inactivation was markedly accelerated in 3, 5, and 7 days groups. Conclusions APD of ventricular myocytes in sleep deprivation rats was significantly prolonged, which could be attributed to decreased activation and accelerated inactivation of Ito. PMID:25694200

  15. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ release is both necessary and sufficient for SK channel activation in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Terentyev, Dmitry; Rochira, Jennifer A; Terentyeva, Radmila; Roder, Karim; Koren, Gideon; Li, Weiyan

    2014-03-01

    SK channels are upregulated in human patients and animal models of heart failure (HF). However, their activation mechanism and function in ventricular myocytes remain poorly understood. We aim to test the hypotheses that activation of SK channels in ventricular myocytes requires Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and that SK currents contribute to reducing triggered activity. SK2 channels were overexpressed in adult rat ventricular myocytes using adenovirus gene transfer. Simultaneous patch clamp and confocal Ca(2+) imaging experiments in SK2-overexpressing cells demonstrated that depolarizations resulted in Ca(2+)-dependent outward currents sensitive to SK inhibitor apamin. SR Ca(2+) release induced by rapid application of 10 mM caffeine evoked repolarizing SK currents, whereas complete depletion of SR Ca(2+) content eliminated SK currents in response to depolarizations, despite intact Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels. Furthermore, voltage-clamp experiments showed that SK channels can be activated by global spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release events Ca(2+) waves (SCWs). Current-clamp experiments revealed that SK overexpression reduces the amplitude of delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) resulting from SCWs and shortens action potential duration. Immunolocalization studies showed that overexpressed SK channels are distributed both at external sarcolemmal membranes and along the Z-lines, resembling the distribution of endogenous SK channels. In summary, SR Ca(2+) release is both necessary and sufficient for the activation of SK channels in rat ventricular myocytes. SK currents contribute to repolarization during action potentials and attenuate DADs driven by SCWs. Thus SK upregulation in HF may have an anti-arrhythmic effect by reducing triggered activity.

  16. Prostacyclin attenuates oxidative damage of myocytes by opening mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels via the EP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Shinmura, Ken; Tamaki, Kayoko; Sato, Toshiaki; Ishida, Hideyuki; Bolli, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) and the PGE family alleviate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and limit oxidative damage. The cardioprotective effects of PGI2 have been traditionally ascribed to activation of IP receptors. Recent advances in prostanoid research have revealed that PGI2 can bind not only to IP, but also to EP, receptors, suggesting cross talk between PGI2 and PGEs. The mechanism(s) whereby PGI2 protects myocytes from oxidative damage and the specific receptors involved remain unknown. Thus fresh isolated adult rat myocytes were exposed to 200 microM H2O2 with or without carbaprostacyclin (cPGI2), IP-selective agonists, and ONO-AE-248 (an EP3-selective agonist). Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion after 30 min of H2O2 superfusion. cPGI2 and ONO-AE-248 significantly improved cell survival during H2O2 superfusion; IP-selective agonists did not. The protective effect of cPGI2 and ONO-AE-248 was completely abrogated by pretreatment with 5-hydroxydecanoate or glibenclamide. In the second series of experiments, the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel opener diazoxide (Dx) reversibly oxidized flavoproteins in control myocytes. Exposure to prostanoid analogs alone had no effect on flavoprotein fluorescence. A second application of Dx in the presence of cPGI2 or ONO-AE-248 significantly increased flavoprotein fluorescence compared with Dx alone, but IP-selective agonists did not. This study demonstrates that PGI2 analogs protect cardiac myocytes from oxidative stress mainly via activation of EP3. The data also indicate that activation of EP3 receptors primes the opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels and that this mechanism is essential for EP3-dependent protection.

  17. Mitochondrial membrane potential in single living adult rat cardiac myocytes exposed to anoxia or metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lisa, F; Blank, P S; Colonna, R; Gambassi, G; Silverman, H S; Stern, M D; Hansford, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. The relation between mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) and cell function was investigated in single adult rat cardiac myocytes during anoxia and reoxygenation. delta psi m was studied by loading myocytes with JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetra-ethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide), a fluorescent probe characterized by two emission peaks (539 and 597 nm with excitation at 490 nm) corresponding to monomer and aggregate forms of the dye. 2. De-energizing conditions applied to mitochondria, cell suspensions or single cells decreased the aggregate emission and increased the monomer emission. This latter result cannot be explained by changes of JC-1 concentration in the aqueous mitochondrial matrix phase indicating that hydrophobic interaction of the probe with membranes has to be taken into account to explain JC-1 fluorescence properties in isolated mitochondria or intact cells. 3. A different sensitivity of the two JC-1 forms to delta psi m changes was shown in isolated mitochondria by the effects of ADP and FCCP and the calibration with K+ diffusion potentials. The monomer emission was responsive to values of delta psi m below 140 mV, which hardly modified the aggregate emission. Thus JC-1 represents a unique double sensor which can provide semi-quantitative information in both low and high potential ranges. 4. At the onset of glucose-free anoxia the epifluorescence of individual myocytes studied in the single excitation (490 nm)-double emission (530 and 590 nm) mode showed a gradual decline of the aggregate emission, which reached a plateau while electrically stimulated (0.2 Hz) contraction was still retained. The subsequent failure of contraction was followed by the rise of the emission at 530 nm, corresponding to the monomer form of the dye, concomitantly with the development of rigor contracture. 5. The onset of the rigor was preceded by the increase in intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) monitored by mag-indo-1 epifluorescence

  18. Regulation of L-type calcium current by intracellular magnesium in rat cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Tashiro, Michiko; Berlin, Joshua R

    2004-01-01

    The effects of changing cytosolic [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]i) on l-type Ca2+ currents were investigated in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes voltage-clamped with patch pipettes containing salt solutions with defined [Mg2+] and [Ca2+]. To control [Mg2+]i and cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i), the pipette solution included 30 mm citrate and 10 mm ATP along with 5 mm EGTA (slow Ca2+ buffer) or 15 mm EGTA plus 5 mm BAPTA (fast Ca2+ buffer). With pipette [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]p) set at 100 nm using a slow Ca2+ buffer and pipette [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]p) set at 0.2 mm, peak l-type Ca2+ current density (ICa) was 17.0 ± 2.2 pA pF−1. Under the same conditions, but with [Mg2+]p set to 1.8 mm, ICa was 5.6 ± 1.0 pA pF−1, a 64 ± 2.8% decrease in amplitude. This decrease in ICa was accompanied by an acceleration and a –8 mV shift in the voltage dependence of current inactivation. The [Mg2+]p-dependent decrease in ICa was not significantly different when myocytes were preincubated with 10 μm forskolin and 300 μm 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and voltage-clamped with pipettes containing 50 μm okadaic acid, to maximize Ca2+ channel phosphorylation. However, when myocytes were voltage-clamped with pipettes containing protein phosphatase 2A, to promote channel dephosphorylation, ICa decreased only 25 ± 3.4% on changing [Mg2+]p from 0.2 to 1.8 mm. In the presence of 0.2 mm[Mg2+]p, changing channel phosphorylation conditions altered ICa over a 4-fold range; however, with 1.8 mm[Mg2+]p, these same manoeuvres had a much smaller effect on ICa. These data suggest that [Mg2+]i can antagonize the effects of phosphorylation on channel gating kinetics. Setting [Ca2+]p to 1, 100 or 300 nm also showed that the [Mg2+]p-induced reduction of ICa was smaller at the lowest [Ca2+]p, irrespective of channel phosphorylation conditions. This interaction between [Ca2+]i and [Mg2+]i to modulate ICa was not significantly affected by ryanodine, fast Ca2+ buffers or inhibitors of calmodulin, calmodulin-dependent kinase and

  19. Na(+)-K+ pump cycle during beta-adrenergic stimulation of adult rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, M; Hastings, S L; Stimers, J R

    1998-03-01

    1. The mechanisms underlying the increase in Na(+)-K+ pump current (Ip) caused by adrenergic stimulation were investigated in cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique at 31-33 degrees C. 2. In myocytes perfused internally with 50 mM Na+ (0 K+i, 20 nM Ca2+, caesium aspartate solution) and externally with 5.4 mM K+o, noradrenaline (NA) and isoprenaline (Iso) (1-50 microM) stimulated Ip by 40-45%. 3. Na(+)-dependent transient Ip measurements with 0 mM K+i and 0 mM K+o revealed no change in the total charge transferred by the Na(+)-K+ pump during the conformational change, suggesting that the pump site density was not changed by adrenergic stimulation (2630 +/- 370 pumps micron-2 in control and 2540 +/- 190 pumps micron-2 in the presence of 10 microM NA). 4. With saturating Na+i or K+o (150 and 15-20 mM, respectively), Ip was still stimulated by NA and Iso. Thus, there was no indication that adrenergic activation of the Na(+)-K+ pump was mediated by accumulation of Na+i and K+o or changes in the Na(+)-K+ pump affinity for Na+i and K+o. 5. Both Ip and its increase under adrenergic stimulation were found to depend on [K+]i. While steady-state Ip decreased from 2.2 +/- 0.1 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 pA pF-1 (P < 0.05), the stimulation of Ip by 10 microM Iso increased from 0.38 +/- 0.04 to 0.67 +/- 0.06 pA pF-1 (P < 0.05) with an increase in [K+]i from 0 to 100 mM. 6. Under conditions that cause the Ip-Vm (membrane potential) relationship to express a positive slope ([Na+]o, 150 mM; [K+]o, 5.4 mM) or a negative slope ([Na+]o, 0; [K+]o, 0.3 mM) Iso stimulated Ip with no change in the shape of Ip-Vm curves. Thus, adrenergic stimulation of the Na(+)-K+ pump was not due to an alteration of voltage-dependent steps of the pump cycle. 7. Simulation of these data with a six-step model of the Na(+)-K+ pump cycle suggested that in rat ventricular myocytes a signal from adrenergic receptors increased the Na(+)-K+ pump rate by modulating the rate of K+ de

  20. Carbon Nanohorns Promote Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes and Inhibit Proliferation of Cardiac Fibroblasts: a Promising Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yujing; Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Yi; Tian, Lei; Bai, Rui; Wei, Yujie; Han, Dong; Liu, Huiliang; Xu, Jianxun

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) has developed rapidly, but a great challenge remains in finding practical scaffold materials for the construction of engineered cardiac tissues. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs) may be a potential candidate due to their special structure and properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CNHs on the biological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) for CTE applications. CNHs were incorporated into collagen to form growth substrates for NRVMs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that CNHs exhibited a good affinity to collagen. Moreover, it was found that CNH-embedded substrates enhanced adhesion and proliferation of NRVMs. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and intracellular calcium transient measurements indicated that the addition of CNHs significantly increased the expression and maturation of electrical and mechanical proteins (connexin-43 and N-cadherin). Bromodeoxyuridine staining and a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that CNHs have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CNHs can have a valuable effect on the construction of engineered cardiac tissues and may be a promising scaffold for CTE. PMID:27263018

  1. Carbon Nanohorns Promote Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes and Inhibit Proliferation of Cardiac Fibroblasts: a Promising Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yujing; Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Yi; Tian, Lei; Bai, Rui; Wei, Yujie; Han, Dong; Liu, Huiliang; Xu, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) has developed rapidly, but a great challenge remains in finding practical scaffold materials for the construction of engineered cardiac tissues. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs) may be a potential candidate due to their special structure and properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CNHs on the biological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) for CTE applications. CNHs were incorporated into collagen to form growth substrates for NRVMs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that CNHs exhibited a good affinity to collagen. Moreover, it was found that CNH-embedded substrates enhanced adhesion and proliferation of NRVMs. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and intracellular calcium transient measurements indicated that the addition of CNHs significantly increased the expression and maturation of electrical and mechanical proteins (connexin-43 and N-cadherin). Bromodeoxyuridine staining and a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that CNHs have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CNHs can have a valuable effect on the construction of engineered cardiac tissues and may be a promising scaffold for CTE.

  2. Voltage-gated calcium channel currents in human coronary myocytes. Regulation by cyclic GMP and nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Quignard, J F; Frapier, J M; Harricane, M C; Albat, B; Nargeot, J; Richard, S

    1997-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels contribute to the maintenance of contractile tone in vascular myocytes and are potential targets for vasodilating agents. There is no information available about their nature and regulation in human coronary arteries. We used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to characterize Ca2+-channel currents immediately after enzymatic dissociation and after primary culture of coronary myocytes taken from heart transplant patients. We recorded a dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type current in both freshly isolated and primary cultured cells. A T-type current was recorded only in culture. The L- (but not the T-) type current was inhibited by permeable analogues of cGMP in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was mimicked by the nitric oxide-generating agents S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine which increased intracellular cGMP. Methylene blue, known to inhibit guanylate cyclase, antagonized the effect of SNAP. Inhibitions by SNAP and cGMP were not additive and seemed to occur through a common pathway. We conclude that (a) L-type Ca2+ channels are the major pathway for voltage-gated Ca2+ entry in human coronary myocytes; (b) their inhibition by agents stimulating nitric oxide and/or intracellular cGMP production is expected to contribute to vasorelaxation and may be involved in the therapeutic effect of nitrovasodilators; and (c) the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in culture may be triggered by cell proliferation. PMID:9005986

  3. IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musaro, A.; McCullagh, K. J.; Naya, F. J.; Olson, E. N.; Rosenthal, N.

    1999-01-01

    Localized synthesis of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) has been broadly implicated in skeletal muscle growth, hypertrophy and regeneration. Virally delivered IGF-1 genes induce local skeletal muscle hypertrophy and attenuate age-related skeletal muscle atrophy, restoring and improving muscle mass and strength in mice. Here we show that the molecular pathways underlying the hypertrophic action of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle are similar to those responsible for cardiac hypertrophy. Transfected IGF-1 gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes activates calcineurin-mediated calcium signalling by inducing calcineurin transcripts and nuclear localization of calcineurin protein. Expression of activated calcineurin mimics the effects of IGF-1, whereas expression of a dominant-negative calcineurin mutant or addition of cyclosporin, a calcineurin inhibitor, represses myocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Either IGF-1 or activated calcineurin induces expression of the transcription factor GATA-2, which accumulates in a subset of myocyte nuclei, where it associates with calcineurin and a specific dephosphorylated isoform of the transcription factor NF-ATc1. Thus, IGF-1 induces calcineurin-mediated signalling and activation of GATA-2, a marker of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which cooperates with selected NF-ATc isoforms to activate gene expression programs.

  4. A model of calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes based on the kinetics of ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y; Othmer, H G

    1994-01-01

    The ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels are pivotal to signal transduction and cell function in many cell types, including cardiac myocytes. In this paper a kinetic model is proposed for these channels. In the model there are two Ca regulatory sites on the channel protein, one positive and the other negative. Cytoplasmic Ca binds to these regulatory sites independently It is assumed that the binding of Ca to the positive site is a much faster process than binding to the negative site. At steady state, the channel opening as a function of the Ca concentration is a bell-shaped curve. The model predicts the adaptation of channels to constant Ca stimulus. When this model is applied to cardiac myocytes, it predicts excitability with respect to Ca perturbations, smoothly graded responses, and Ca oscillations in certain pathological circumstances. In a spatially distributed system, traveling Ca waves in individual myocytes exist under certain conditions. This model can also be applied to other systems where the ryanodine-sensitive channels have been identified. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 15 PMID:7696464

  5. DNA Damage Response and DNA Repair in Skeletal Myocytes From a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Fayzullina, Saniya; Martin, Lee J

    2016-09-01

    We studied DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair capacities of skeletal muscle cells from a mouse model of infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) caused by loss-of-function mutation of survival of motor neuron (Smn). Primary myocyte cultures derived from skeletal muscle satellite cells of neonatal control and mutant SMN mice had similar myotube length, myonuclei, satellite cell marker Pax7 and differentiated myotube marker myosin, and acetylcholine receptor clustering. DNA damage was induced in differentiated skeletal myotubes by γ-irradiation, etoposide, and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Unexposed control and SMA myotubes had stable genome integrity. After γ-irradiation and etoposide, myotubes repaired most DNA damage equally. Control and mutant myotubes exposed to MMS exhibited equivalent DNA damage without repair. Control and SMA myotube nuclei contained DDR proteins phospho-p53 and phospho-H2AX foci that, with DNA damage, dispersed and then re-formed similarly after recovery. We conclude that mouse primary satellite cell-derived myotubes effectively respond to and repair DNA strand-breaks, while DNA alkylation repair is underrepresented. Morphological differentiation, genome stability, genome sensor, and DNA strand-break repair potential are preserved in mouse SMA myocytes; thus, reduced SMN does not interfere with myocyte differentiation, genome integrity, and DNA repair, and faulty DNA repair is unlikely pathogenic in SMA. PMID:27452406

  6. Functional Role and Mechanism of microRNA-28b in Atrial Myocyte in a Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbin; Kang, Weiqiang; Wang, Xu; Chen, Meina; Qin, Qiaoji; Guo, Minglei; Ge, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent atrial fibrillation has been indicated to be related with microRNA-28b. However, the exact role of microRNA-28b in persistent atrial fibrillation needs to be further elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a rat model of persistent atrial fibrillation to investigate the level of microRNA-28b in atrial myocytes and to explore the molecular mechanism involved. Material/Methods A persistent atrial fibrillation model was established in rats by using chronic rapid atrial pacing induction. The size of the heart was measured by ultrasonic method. The expression of microRNA-28b in left atrial myocytes was quantified by RT-PCR. Cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The specific inhibitor of ERK signaling pathway, PD98059, was used to further illustrate the role of ERK signaling pathway in the modulation of cardiomyocytes in persistent atrial fibrillation. Results MicroRNA-28b was up-regulated in the experimental rat model with persistent atrial fibrillation. The proliferation of cardiomyocytes was significantly inhibited with potentiated apoptosis. Blockage of the ERK pathway suppressed the microRNA-28b expression and inhibited cell apoptosis. Conclusions microRNA-28b-induced growth inhibition and cell apoptosis of atrial myocytes was observed in the rat model with persistent atrial fibrillation, via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27574952

  7. Nesprin-1{alpha} contributes to the targeting of mAKAP to the cardiac myocyte nuclear envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Pare, Genevieve C.; Easlick, Juliet L.; Mislow, John M.; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Kapiloff, Michael S. . E-mail: kapiloff@ohsu.edu

    2005-02-15

    Muscle A-kinase anchoring protein (mAKAP) is a scaffold protein found principally at the nuclear envelope of striated myocytes. mAKAP maintains a complex consisting of multiple signal transduction molecules including the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, the ryanodine receptor calcium release channel, phosphodiesterase type 4D3, and protein phosphatase 2A. By an unknown mechanism, a domain containing spectrin repeats is responsible for targeting mAKAP to the nuclear envelope. We now demonstrate that the integral membrane protein nesprin-1{alpha} serves as a receptor for mAKAP on the nuclear envelope in cardiac myocytes. Nesprin-1{alpha} is inserted into the nuclear envelope by a conserved, C-terminal, klarsicht-related transmembrane domain and forms homodimers by the binding of an amino-terminal spectrin repeat domain. Through the direct binding of the nesprin-1{alpha} amino-terminal dimerization domain to the third mAKAP spectrin repeat, nesprin-1{alpha} targets mAKAP to the nuclear envelope. In turn, overexpression of these spectrin repeat domains in myocytes can displace mAKAP from nesprin-1{alpha}.

  8. A stereological method for estimating the total number of ventricular myocyte nuclei in fetal and postnatal hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, A; Fagan, D G; Mayhew, T M

    1995-01-01

    An experimental protocol is presented for obtaining efficient estimates of the total numbers of myocyte nuclei in the ventricles of human hearts from archival collections. Hearts were collected postmortem from fetuses at 31-42 weeks of gestation and infants at 7 days-9 months postnatal age. Ventricles from normal and abnormal subjects were examined. Numbers of myocyte nuclei per unit volume of myocardium were estimated separately for left and right ventricles using a design-based stereological device, the physical disector (parallel pairs of sections). Absolute numbers were calculated by multiplying nuclear packing densities by myocardial volume. The latter was estimated from ventricular mass and the percentage of ventricle occupied by myocardium. The findings, albeit preliminary, suggest that (1) myocyte number may rise during the last trimester of gestation, (2) postnatal ventricular growth is probably hypertrophic and/or interstitial rather than hyperplastic and (3) whilst absolute numbers are greater in the left ventricle, the pattern of growth is similar in both ventricles. Nuclear numbers found in 2 abnormal hearts (1 from a case of sudden infant death) tended to be lower than normal. PMID:8586563

  9. (/sup 3/H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine binding to A1 adenosine receptors of intact rat ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, D.; Lohse, M.J.; Schwabe, U.

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was the identification of A1 adenosine receptors in intact rat ventricular myocytes, which are thought to mediate the negative inotropic effects of adenosine. The adenosine receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine was used as radioligand. Binding of the radioligand to intact myocytes was rapid, reversible, and saturable with a binding capacity of 40,000 binding sites per cell. The dissociation constant of the radioligand was 0.48 nM. The adenosine receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, xanthine amine congener, and theophylline were competitive inhibitors with affinities in agreement with results obtained for A1 receptors in other tissues. Competition experiments using the adenosine receptor agonists R-N(6)-phenylisopropyladenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, and S-N(6)-phenylisopropyladenosine gave monophasic displacement curves with Ki values of 50 nM, 440 nM, and 4,300 nM, which agreed well with the GTP-inducible low affinity state in cardiac membranes. The low affinity for agonists was not due to agonist-induced desensitization, and correlated well with the corresponding IC50 values for the inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation by isoprenaline. It is suggested that only a low affinity state of A1 receptors can be detected in intact rat myocytes due to the presence of high concentrations of guanine nucleotides in intact cells.

  10. Slow recovery of excitability and the Wenckebach phenomenon in the single guinea pig ventricular myocyte.

    PubMed

    Delmar, M; Michaels, D C; Jalife, J

    1989-09-01

    The cellular mechanisms of Wenckebach periodicity were investigated in single, enzymatically dissociated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, as well as in computer reconstructions of transmembrane potential of the ventricular cell. When depolarizing current pulses of the appropriate magnitude were delivered repetitively to a well-polarized myocyte, rate-dependent activation failure was observed. Such behavior accurately mimicked the Wenckebach phenomenon in cardiac activation and was the consequence of variations in cell excitability during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. The recovery of cell excitability during diastole was studied through the application of single test pulses of fixed amplitude and duration at variable delays with respect to a basic train of normal action potentials. The results show that recovery of excitability is a slow process that can greatly outlast action potential duration (i.e., postrepolarization refractoriness). Two distinct types of subthreshold responses were recorded when activation failure occurred: one was tetrodotoxin- and cobalt-insensitive (type 1) and the other was sensitive to sodium-channel blockade (type 2). Type 1 responses, which were commonly associated with the typical structure of the Wenckebach phenomenon (Mobitz type 1 block), were found to be the result of the nonlinear conductance properties of the inward rectifier current, IK1. Type 2 sodium-channel-mediated responses were associated with the so-called "millisecond Wenckebach." These responses may be implicated in the mechanism of Mobitz type 2 rate-dependent block. Single-cell voltage-clamp experiments suggest that variations in excitability during diastole are a consequence of the slow deactivation kinetics of the delayed rectifier, IK. Computer simulations of the ventricular cell response to depolarizing current pulses reproduced very closely all the response patterns obtained in the experimental preparation. It is concluded that postrepolarization

  11. Effects of temperature on intracellular Ca2+ in trout atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Holly A; Vornanen, Matti; Farrell, Anthony P

    2002-12-01

    Acute temperature change can be cardioplegic to mammals, yet certain ectotherms maintain their cardiac scope over a wide temperature range. To better understand the acute effects of temperature on the ectothermic heart, we investigated the stimulus-induced change in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i); cytosolic Ca(2+) transient) in isolated rainbow trout myocytes at 7 degrees C, 14 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Myocytes were voltage-clamped and loaded with Fura-2 to measure the L-type Ca(2+) channel current (I(Ca)) and [Ca(2+)](i) during physiological action potential (AP) pulses at frequencies that correspond to trout heart rates in vivo at 7 degrees C, 14 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Additionally, [Ca(2+)](i) and I(Ca) were examined with square (SQ) pulses at slow (0.2 Hz) and physiologically relevant contraction frequencies. The amplitude of [Ca(2+)](i) decreased with increasing temperature for both SQ and AP pulses, which may contribute to the well-known negative inotropic effect of warm temperature on contractile strength in trout hearts. With SQ pulses, [Ca(2+)](i) decreased from 474+/-53 nmol l(-1) at 7 degrees C to 198+/-21 nmol l(-1) at 21 degrees C, while the decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) with AP pulses was from 234+/-49 nmol l(-1) to 79+/-12 nmol l(-1), respectively. Sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx was increased slightly at cold temperatures with AP pulses (charge transfer was 0.27+/-0.04 pC pF(-1), 0.19+/-0.03 pC pF(-1) and 0.13+/-0.03 pC pF(-1) at 7 degrees C, 14 degrees C and 21 degrees C, respectively). At all temperatures, cells were better able to maintain diastolic Ca(2+) levels at physiological frequencies with AP pulses compared with 500 ms SQ pulses. We suggest that temperature-dependent modulation of the AP is important for cellular Ca(2+) regulation during temperature and frequency change in rainbow trout heart.

  12. Ageing is associated with deterioration of calcium homeostasis in isolated human right atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Álvarez-García, Jesus; Llach, Anna; Molina, Cristina E.; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Ferrero-Gregori, Andreu; Rodríguez, Cristina; Vallmitjana, Alexander; Benítez, Raúl; Padró, Josep M.; Martínez-González, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Aims Ageing-related cardiac disorders such as heart failure and atrial fibrillation often present with intracellular calcium homeostasis dysfunction. However, knowledge of the intrinsic effects of ageing on cellular calcium handling in the human heart is sparse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse how ageing affects key mechanisms that regulate intracellular calcium in human atrial myocytes. Methods and results Whole membrane currents and intracellular calcium transients were measured in isolated human right atrial myocytes from 80 patients with normal left atrial dimensions and no history of atrial fibrillation. Patients were categorized as young (<55 years, n = 21), middle aged (55–74 years, n = 42), and old (≥75 years, n = 17). Protein levels were determined by western blot. Ageing was associated with the following electrophysiological changes: (i) a 3.2-fold decrease in the calcium transient (P < 0.01); (ii) reduction of the L-type calcium current (ICa) amplitude (2.4 ± 0.3 pA/pF vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 pA/pF, P < 0.01); (iii) lower levels of L-type calcium channel alpha-subunit (P < 0.05); (iv) lower rates of both fast (14.5 ± 0.9 ms vs. 20.9 ± 1.9, P < 0.01) and slow (73 ± 3 vs. 120 ± 12 ms, P < 0.001) ICa inactivation; and (v) a decrease in the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content (10.1 ± 0.8 vs. 6.4 ± 0.6 amol/pF, P < 0.005) associated with a significant decrease in both SERCA2 (P < 0.05) and calsequestrin-2 (P < 0.05) protein levels. In contrast, ageing did not affect spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release. Conclusion Ageing is associated with depression of SR calcium content, L-type calcium current, and calcium transient amplitude that may favour a progressive decline in right atrial contractile function with age. PMID:25712961

  13. Nonuniform elasticity of titin in cardiac myocytes: a study using immunoelectron microscopy and cellular mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Granzier, H; Helmes, M; Trombitás, K

    1996-01-01

    Titin (also known as connectin) is a muscle-specific giant protein found inside the sarcomere, spanning from the Z-line to the M-line. The I-band segment of titin is considered to function as a molecular spring that develops tension when sarcomeres are stretched (passive tension). Recent studies on skeletal muscle indicate that it is not the entire I-band segment of titin that behaves as a spring; some sections are inelastic and do not take part in the development of passive tension. To better understand the mechanism of passive tension development in the heart, where passive tension plays an essential role in the pumping function, we investigated titin's elastic segment in cardiac myocytes using structural and mechanical techniques. Single cardiac myocytes were stretched by various amounts and then immunolabeled and processed for electron microscopy in the stretched state. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize different titin epitopes were used, and the locations of the titin epitopes in the sarcomere were studied as a function of sarcomere length. We found that only a small region of the I-band segment of titin is elastic; its contour length is estimated at approximately 75 nm, which is only approximately 40% of the total I-band segment of titin. Passive tension measurements indicated that the fundamental determinant of how much passive tension the heart develops is the strain of titin's elastic segment. Furthermore, we found evidence that in sarcomeres that are slack (length, approximately 1.85 microns) the elastic titin segment is highly folded on top of itself. Based on the data, we propose a two-stage mechanism of passive tension development in the heart, in which, between sarcomere lengths of approximately 1.85 microns and approximately 2.0 microns, titin's elastic segment straightens and, at lengths longer than approximately 2.0 microns, the molecular domains that make up titin's elastic segment unravel. Sarcomere shortening to lengths below slack

  14. Contraction and relaxation of isolated cardiac myocytes of the frog under varying mechanical loads.

    PubMed

    Parikh, S S; Zou, S Z; Tung, L

    1993-02-01

    The mechanics of cardiac systole and relaxation have been studied primarily at the level of the whole heart or intact muscle. End-systolic pressure-volume relations of frog hearts have been found to be load dependent, whereas those of the mammal are relatively load independent. On the other hand, myocardial relaxation as studied at the muscle level is load independent in the frog but markedly load dependent in the mammal. Interpretation of these studies is complicated because of the unknown contribution of extracellular connective tissue, neurohumoral factors, and, in the case of the heart, the complex chamber geometry. Therefore, it is valuable to study cardiac mechanics at the level of the basic unit of contractile activity--the isolated myocyte. The goal of this study was to subject isolated frog cardiomyocytes to mechanical loading paradigms that mimic those presented to the cells within the heart. In the first part of this study, the afterload and preload of contracting cells were varied to study their effects on the end-systolic force-length relation, which was consistently found to be load independent over the range of isotonic shortening tested (typically 5%). We also investigated the force-length-time response of the cells to test the concept of the heart behaving as a time-varying elastance. Our results suggest that in this regard the frog myocyte behaves like mammalian muscle, and they are consistent with the presence of a small viscosity within the cell. We conclude that the tissue structure of the frog heart may contribute to disparity in mechanical behavior at the different structural levels. In the second part of this study, we subjected isolated frog cardiomyocytes to four different loading paradigms to test the hypothesis that myocardial relaxation in the frog is independent of load. These sequences consisted of afterloaded contractions followed by conventional isotonic-isometric relaxation (ACCR) or afterloaded contractions followed by

  15. On the degradability and exocytosis of ceroid/lipofuscin in cultured rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Terman, A; Brunk, U T

    1998-01-30

    The accumulation of lipofuscin (LF)--a polymeric, electron-dense, autofluorescent substance--within postmitotic cells is a characteristic manifestation of aging. It is generally believed that LF is undegradable and formed due to peroxidative alterations of various macromolecules under intralysosomal autophagic degradation. We report here that a short-term exposure of cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes to the thiol protease-inhibitor leupeptin, causes an accumulation of numerous electron-dense autophagic lysosomes within the cells. Although very similar to LF by ultrastructure, these inclusions do not display LF-specific, yellow-orange autofluorescence when excited with blue light. Moreover, they rapidly disappear from the cells upon re-establishment of normal culture conditions. In contrast, prolonged leupeptin treatment results in an accumulation of dense lysosomes that also show LF-typical autofluorescence. This autofluorescent material remains in the cells after the end of leupeptin action. The results suggest that: (i) a certain amount of time is needed for autophagocytosed material to become peroxidized, autofluorescent and undegradable, i.e. to acquire properties typical of LF; (ii) protease-inhibition by itself does not lead to LF-formation but rather allows the prolonged time needed for oxidative modification of autophagocytosed material; (iii) mature LF is probably not subjected to either degradation or exocytosis.

  16. Comparison of Detailed and Simplified Models of Human Atrial Myocytes to Recapitulate Patient Specific Properties.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Daniel M; Fenton, Flavio H; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-08-01

    Computer studies are often used to study mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF). A crucial component in these studies is the electrophysiological model that describes the membrane potential of myocytes. The models vary from detailed, describing numerous ion channels, to simplified, grouping ionic channels into a minimal set of variables. The parameters of these models, however, are determined across different experiments in varied species. Furthermore, a single set of parameters may not describe variations across patients, and models have rarely been shown to recapitulate critical features of AF in a given patient. In this study we develop physiologically accurate computational human atrial models by fitting parameters of a detailed and of a simplified model to clinical data for five patients undergoing ablation therapy. Parameters were simultaneously fitted to action potential (AP) morphology, action potential duration (APD) restitution and conduction velocity (CV) restitution curves in these patients. For both models, our fitting procedure generated parameter sets that accurately reproduced clinical data, but differed markedly from published sets and between patients, emphasizing the need for patient-specific adjustment. Both models produced two-dimensional spiral wave dynamics for that were similar for each patient. These results show that simplified, computationally efficient models are an attractive choice for simulations of human atrial electrophysiology in spatially extended domains. This study motivates the development and validation of patient-specific model-based mechanistic studies to target therapy. PMID:27494252

  17. The Multi-Domain Fibroblast/Myocyte Coupling in the Cardiac Tissue: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Greisas, Ariel; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac fibroblast proliferation and concomitant collagenous matrix accumulation (fibrosis) develop during multiple cardiac pathologies. Recent studies have demonstrated direct electrical coupling between myocytes and fibroblasts in vitro, and assessed the electrophysiological implications of such coupling. However, in the living tissues, such coupling has not been demonstrated, and only indirect coupling via the extracellular space is likely to exist. In this study we employed a multi-domain model to assess the modulation of the cardiac electrophysiological properties by neighboring fibroblasts assuming only indirect coupling. Numerical simulations in 1D and 2D human atrial models showed that extracellular coupling sustains a significant impact on conduction velocity (CV) and a less significant effect on the action potential duration. Both CV and the slope of the CV restitution increased with increasing fibroblast density. This effect was more substantial for lower extracellular conductance. In 2D, spiral waves exhibited reduced frequency with increasing fibroblast density, and the propensity of wavebreaks and complex dynamics at high pacing rates significantly increased. PMID:27150222

  18. Regional electroporation of single cardiac myocytes in a focused electric field.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2010-01-15

    There is now a significant interest in being able to locate single cells within geometrically defined regions of a microfluidic chip and to gain intracellular access through the local electroporation of the cell membrane. This paper describes the microfabrication of electroporation devices which can enable the regional electroporation of adult ventricular myocytes, in order to lower the local electrical resistance of the cell membrane. Initially three different devices, designed to suit the characteristic geometry of the cardiomyocyte, were investigated (all three designs serve to focus the electric field to selected regions of the cell). We demonstrate that one of these three devices revealed the sequence of cellular responses to field strengths of increasing magnitudes, namely, cell contraction, hypercontraction, and lysis. This same device required a reduced threshold voltage for each of these events, including in particular membrane breakdown. We were not only able to show the gradual regional increase in the electric conductivity of the cell membrane but were also able to avoid changes in the local intra- and extracellular pH (by preventing the local generation of protons at the electrode surface, as a consequence of the reduced threshold voltage). The paper provides evidence for new strategies for achieving robust and reproducible regional electroporation, a technique which, in future, may be used for the insertion of large molecular weight molecules (including genes) as well as for on-chip voltage clamping of the primary adult cardiomyocyte.

  19. A simple numerical model of calcium spark formation and detection in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G D; Keizer, J E; Stern, M D; Lederer, W J; Cheng, H

    1998-01-01

    The elementary events of excitation-contraction coupling in heart muscle are Ca2+ sparks, which arise from one or more ryanodine receptors in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Here a simple numerical model is constructed to explore Ca2+ spark formation, detection, and interpretation in cardiac myocytes. This model includes Ca2+ release, cytosolic diffusion, resequestration by SR Ca2+-ATPases, and the association and dissociation of Ca2+ with endogenous Ca2+-binding sites and a diffusible indicator dye (fluo-3). Simulations in a homogeneous, isotropic cytosol reproduce the brightness and the time course of a typical cardiac Ca2+ spark, but underestimate its spatial size (approximately 1.1 micron vs. approximately 2.0 micron). Back-calculating [Ca2+]i by assuming equilibrium with indicator fails to provide a good estimate of the free Ca2+ concentration even when using blur-free fluorescence data. A parameter sensitivity study reveals that the mobility, kinetics, and concentration of the indicator are essential determinants of the shape of Ca2+ sparks, whereas the stationary buffers and pumps are less influential. Using a geometrically more complex version of the model, we show that the asymmetric shape of Ca2+ sparks is better explained by anisotropic diffusion of Ca2+ ions and indicator dye rather than by subsarcomeric inhomogeneities of the Ca2+ buffer and transport system. In addition, we examine the contribution of off-center confocal sampling to the variance of spark statistics. PMID:9649364

  20. Curvature effects on activation speed and repolarization in an ionic model of cardiac myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comtois, P.; Vinet, A.

    1999-10-01

    Reentry is a major mechanism underlying the initiation and perpetuation of many cardiac arrhythmias 12345. Stimulated ventricular myocytes give action potential characterized by a fast upstroke, a long-lasting plateau, and a late repolarization phase. The plateau phase determines the action potential duration (APD) during which the system remains refractory, a property essential to the synchronization of the heart cycle. The APD varies much with prematurity and this change has been shown to be the main determinant of the dynamics in models of paced cells and cable, and during reentry in the one-dimensional loop. Curvature has also been shown to be an important factor for propagation in experimental and theoretical cardiac extended tissue. The objective of this paper is to combine both curvature and prematurity effects in a kinematical model of propagation in cardiac tissue. First, an approximation of the ionic model is used to obtain the effects of curvature and prematurity on the speed of propagation, the APD, and the absolute refractory period. Two versions of the ionic model are studied that differ in their rate of excitability recovery. The functions are used in a kinematical model describing the propagation of period-1 solutions around an annulus.

  1. Functional Coupling of Ca2+ Channels and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sham, James S. K.; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin

    1995-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, dihydropyridine receptors are functionally coupled to ryanodine receptors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in triadic or diadic junctional complexes. In cardiac muscle direct physical or functional couplings have not been demonstrated. We have tested the hypothesis of functional coupling of L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in rat cardiac myocytes by comparing the efficacies of Ca2+ in triggering Ca2+ release when the ion enters the cell via the Ca2+ channels or the Na^+/Ca2+ exchanger. Ca2+ transported through the Ca2+ channels was 20-160 times more effective than Ca2+ influx via the Na^+/Ca2+ exchanger in gating Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, suggesting privileged communication between Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors. In support of this hypothesis we found that Ca2+ channels were inactivated by Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, even though the myoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations were buffered with 10 mM EGTA. The data thus suggest privileged cross signaling between the dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptors such that Ca2+ flux through either the Ca2+ channel or the ryanodine receptor alters the gating kinetics of the other channel.

  2. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; So, Kawai; Koh, Ho-Jin; Queiroz, André Lima; Hirshman, Michael F; Fielding, Roger A; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-related kinase (SNARK, also known as NUAK2), increased with muscle cell differentiation. SNARK expression increased in skeletal muscles from young mice exposed to metabolic stress and in muscles from healthy older human subjects. The regulation of SNARK expression in muscle with differentiation and physiological stress suggests that SNARK may function in the maintenance of muscle mass. Consistent with this hypothesis, decreased endogenous SNARK expression (using siRNA) in cultured muscle cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cell survival under conditions of metabolic stress. Likewise, muscle-specific transgenic animals expressing a SNARK dominant-negative inactive mutant (SDN) had increased myonuclear apoptosis and activation of apoptotic mediators in muscle. Moreover, animals expressing SDN had severe, age-accelerated muscle atrophy and increased adiposity, consistent with sarcopenic obesity. Reduced SNARK activity, in vivo and in vitro, caused downregulation of the Rho kinase signaling pathway, a key mediator of cell survival. These findings reveal a critical role for SNARK in myocyte survival and the maintenance of muscle mass with age. PMID:26690705

  3. Cardiac myocyte dysfunction induced by streptolysin O is membrane pore and calcium dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Devin D.; Li, Zhi; McIndoo, Eric R.; Tweten, Rodney K.; Bryant, Amy E.; Stevens, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Septic cardiomyopathy is a severe complication among some patients who develop group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (StrepTSS). Despite the importance of cardiac dysfunction in determining prognosis, very little is known about mechanisms that reduce cardiac output in association with streptococcal infection. Here, we investigated the effects of streptococcal extracellular toxins on mechanical contractility of electrically paced primary murine cardiomyocytes. Our data demonstrate that Streptolysin O (SLO) is the major streptococcal toxin responsible for cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. SLO dose-dependently affected cardiac myocyte function in discrete stages. Exposure to SLO caused a failure of cardiac cells to respond to electrical pacing, followed by spontaneous dysregulated contractions and augmented strength of contraction. Central to these SLO-mediated effects is a marked influx of calcium into the cytosol through SLO-mediated pores in the cytoplasmic membrane. Such calcium mobilization in response to SLO correlated temporally with hypercontractility and unpaced contractions. During continued exposure to SLO, cardiomyocytes exhibited periods of reversion to normal electrical pacing suggestive of membrane lesion repair and restoration of calcium handling. Together, these observations are consistent with the clinical observation that septic cardiomyopathy is a reversible condition in patients that survive StrepTSS. These data provide strong evidence that streptococcal exotoxins, specifically SLO, can directly impact cardiac mechanical function. PMID:25243426

  4. Orientation and length of mammalian skeletal myocytes in response to a unidirectional stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinsworth, A. M.; Torgan, C. E.; Nagda, S. N.; Rajalingam, R. J.; Kraus, W. E.; Truskey, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of mechanical forces exerted on mammalian skeletal muscle cells during development were studied using an in vitro model to unidirectionally stretch cultured C2C12 cells grown on silastic membrane. Previous models to date have not studied these responses of the mammalian system specifically. The silastic membrane upon which these cells were grown exhibited linear strain behavior over the range of 3.6-14.6% strain, with a Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.5. To mimic murine in utero long bone growth, cell substrates were stretched at an average strain rate of 2.36%/day for 4 days or 1.77%/day for 6 days with an overall membrane strain of 9.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Both control and stretched fibers stained positively for the contractile protein, alpha-actinin, demonstrating muscle fiber development. An effect of stretch on orientation and length of myofibers was observed. At both strain rates, stretched fibers aligned at a smaller angle relative to the direction of stretch and were significantly longer compared to randomly oriented control fibers. There was no effect of duration of stretch on orientation or length, suggesting the cellular responses are independent of strain rate for the range tested. These results demonstrate that, under conditions simulating mammalian long bone growth, cultured myocytes respond to mechanical forces by lengthening and orienting along the direction of stretch.

  5. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; So, Kawai; Koh, Ho-Jin; Queiroz, André Lima; Hirshman, Michael F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-related kinase (SNARK, also known as NUAK2), increased with muscle cell differentiation. SNARK expression increased in skeletal muscles from young mice exposed to metabolic stress and in muscles from healthy older human subjects. The regulation of SNARK expression in muscle with differentiation and physiological stress suggests that SNARK may function in the maintenance of muscle mass. Consistent with this hypothesis, decreased endogenous SNARK expression (using siRNA) in cultured muscle cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cell survival under conditions of metabolic stress. Likewise, muscle-specific transgenic animals expressing a SNARK dominant-negative inactive mutant (SDN) had increased myonuclear apoptosis and activation of apoptotic mediators in muscle. Moreover, animals expressing SDN had severe, age-accelerated muscle atrophy and increased adiposity, consistent with sarcopenic obesity. Reduced SNARK activity, in vivo and in vitro, caused downregulation of the Rho kinase signaling pathway, a key mediator of cell survival. These findings reveal a critical role for SNARK in myocyte survival and the maintenance of muscle mass with age. PMID:26690705

  6. Cross talk between cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts: from multiscale investigative approaches to mechanisms and functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, P.; Su, J.

    2012-01-01

    The heart is comprised of a syncytium of cardiac myocytes (CM) and surrounding nonmyocytes, the majority of which are cardiac fibroblasts (CF). CM and CF are highly interspersed in the myocardium with one CM being surrounded by one or more CF. Bidirectional cross talk between CM and CF plays important roles in determining cardiac mechanical and electrical function in both normal and diseased hearts. Genetically engineered animal models and in vitro studies have provided evidence that CM and CF can regulate each other's function. Their cross talk contributes to structural and electrical remodeling in both atria and ventricles and appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of various heart diseases that lead to heart failure and arrhythmia disorders. Mechanisms of CM-CF cross talk, which are not yet fully understood, include release of paracrine factors, direct cell-cell interactions via gap junctions and potentially adherens junctions and nanotubes, and cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. In this article, we provide an overview of the existing multiscale experimental and computational approaches for the investigation of cross talk between CM and CF and review recent progress in our understanding of the functional consequences and underlying mechanisms. Targeting cross talk between CM and CF could potentially be used therapeutically for the modulation of the cardiac remodeling response in the diseased heart and may lead to new strategies for the treatment of heart failure or rhythm disturbances. PMID:23064834

  7. Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel activity during Ca(2+) alternans in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Blatter, Lothar A

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac alternans, defined beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit ventricular myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. A strong correlation between beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT alternans was observed. During CaT alternans application of voltage clamp protocols in form of pre-recorded APs revealed a prominent Ca(2+)-dependent membrane current consisting of a large outward component coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2, followed by an inward current during AP repolarization. Approximately 85% of the initial outward current was blocked by Cl(-) channel blocker DIDS or lowering external Cl(-) concentration identifying it as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current (ICaCC). The data suggest that ICaCC plays a critical role in shaping beat-to-beat alternations in AP morphology during alternans.

  8. Apoptosis and the systolic dysfunction in congestive heart failure. Story of apoptosis interruptus and zombie myocytes.

    PubMed

    Narula, J; Arbustini, E; Chandrashekhar, Y; Schwaiger, M

    2001-02-01

    Although previously it was believed that apoptosis could not occur in the terminally differentiated tissue, such as adult heart muscle cells, recent studies in endomyocardial biopsies from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and in explanted hearts from patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing cardiac transplantation have demonstrated histologic evidence of apoptosis. Whereas neurohormonal activation during heart failure leads to compensatory hemodynamic alterations, coupled with ventricular dilatation, it induces transcription factors and myocyte hypertrophy. Persistent growth stimulation in terminally differentiated cells may lead paradoxically to apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis in cardiomyopathic hearts is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm and activation of proteolytic caspase-8 and -3. Although the caspases are duly processed, the fragmentation of the nuclear proteins (including DNA) is completed less frequently, and only a variable degree of fragmentation of cytoplasmic proteins (including contractile proteins) is observed. It is hypothesized that release of cytochrome c from mitochondria should interfere with energy production and lead to functional impairment and variable loss of contractile proteins in a living heart muscle cell should contribute to systolic dysfunction. Because a nuclear blueprint is retained, however, the dysfunctional cell may continue to exist and in favorable conditions, such as with LVAD support, the apoptotic process may subside. Potential feasibility of reversal of heart failure should renew efforts to develop more targeted pharmaceutical intervention within the apoptotic cascade and allow newer paradigm for the management of heart failure. PMID:11787805

  9. PEDF attenuates insulin-dependent molecular pathways of glucose homeostasis in skeletal myocytes.

    PubMed

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Dass, Crispin R

    2016-02-15

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic serpin associated with insulin resistance in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity and polycystic ovarian syndrome. While the mechanism of PEDF induced-insulin resistance of metabolic disorders has been attributed to its inflammatory and lipolytic effects, little evidence exists to support a direct role of PEDF in mediating insulin resistance. Here, we seminally provide evidence that PEDF can inhibit insulin signal transduction governing glucose homeostasis from the receptor to the effector phosphorylation through Akt/PKB-dependent and -independent pathways in mouse and human skeletal muscle cell lines. PEDF attenuates the insulin-dependent molecular axes of glucose metabolism. Exposure of skeletal myocytes to PEDF attenuates insulin-dependent insulin receptor autophosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, and dual loop phosphorylation-activation of Akt. PEDF significantly inhibits the downstream effector - glycogen synthase kinase (and thereby the glycogenic axis of insulin signalling). PEDF turned off both the molecular switches of GLUT4 translocation: IRS-Akt/PKB-AS160 mediated and IR-pCbl-dependent GLUT4 translocation (the molecular axis of glucose uptake). These findings implicate a direct effect of PEDF on multiple insulin-dependent molecular mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells, thereby enabling it to contribute to peripheral insulin resistance at the cellular level.

  10. The Effects of Puerarin on Rat Ventricular Myocytes and the Potential Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Zhao, Manxi; Liang, Shenghui; Huang, Quanshu; Xiao, Yunchuan; Ye, Liang; Wang, Qinyi; He, Longmei; Ma, Lanxiang; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Hui; Ke, Xiao; Gu, Yuchun

    2016-01-01

    Puerarin, a known isoflavone, is commonly found as a Chinese herb medicine. It is widely used in China to treat cardiac diseases such as angina, cardiac infarction and arrhythmia. However, its cardioprotective mechanism remains unclear. In this study, puerarin significantly prolonged ventricular action potential duration (APD) with a dosage dependent manner in the micromolar range on isolated rat ventricular myocytes. However, submicromolar puerarin had no effect on resting membrane potential (RMP), action potential amplitude (APA) and maximal velocity of depolarization (Vmax) of action potential. Only above the concentration of 10 mM, puerarin exhibited more aggressive effect on action potential, and shifted RMP to the positive direction. Millimolar concentrations of puerarin significantly inhibited inward rectified K+ channels in a dosage dependent manner, and exhibited bigger effects upon Kir2.1 vs Kir2.3 in transfected HEK293 cells. As low as micromolar range concentrations of puerarin significantly inhibited Kv7.1 and IKs. These inhibitory effects may due to the direct inhibition of puerarin upon channels not via the PKA-dependent pathway. These results provided direct preclinical evidence that puerarin prolonged APD via its inhibitory effect upon Kv7.1 and IKs, contributing to a better understanding the mechanism of puerarin cardioprotection in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27762288

  11. Comparison of Detailed and Simplified Models of Human Atrial Myocytes to Recapitulate Patient Specific Properties

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Flavio H.; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Computer studies are often used to study mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF). A crucial component in these studies is the electrophysiological model that describes the membrane potential of myocytes. The models vary from detailed, describing numerous ion channels, to simplified, grouping ionic channels into a minimal set of variables. The parameters of these models, however, are determined across different experiments in varied species. Furthermore, a single set of parameters may not describe variations across patients, and models have rarely been shown to recapitulate critical features of AF in a given patient. In this study we develop physiologically accurate computational human atrial models by fitting parameters of a detailed and of a simplified model to clinical data for five patients undergoing ablation therapy. Parameters were simultaneously fitted to action potential (AP) morphology, action potential duration (APD) restitution and conduction velocity (CV) restitution curves in these patients. For both models, our fitting procedure generated parameter sets that accurately reproduced clinical data, but differed markedly from published sets and between patients, emphasizing the need for patient-specific adjustment. Both models produced two-dimensional spiral wave dynamics for that were similar for each patient. These results show that simplified, computationally efficient models are an attractive choice for simulations of human atrial electrophysiology in spatially extended domains. This study motivates the development and validation of patient-specific model-based mechanistic studies to target therapy. PMID:27494252

  12. A factor from Trypanosoma cruzi induces repetitive cytosolic free Ca2+ transients in isolated primary canine cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, S C; Han, W; Andrews, N W; Lopez, J W; Ball, B A; Pannabecker, T L; Gilmour, R F

    1996-01-01

    An unusual 120-kDa alkaline peptidase contained in a trypomastigote soluble fraction (TSF) of Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with the induction of repetitive Ca2+ transients and subsequent invasion by the parasite of a number of mammalian cell lines, including tissue culture L6E2 myoblasts (B. A. Burleigh and N. W. Andrews, J. Biol. Chem. 270:5172-5180, 1995; S. N. J. Moreno, J. Silva, A. E. Vercesi, and R. Docampo, J. Exp. Med. 180:1535-1540, 1994; A. Rodríguez, M. G. Rioult, A. Ora, and N. W. Andrews, J. Cell Biol. 129:1263-1273, 1995; I. Tardieux, M. H. Nathanson, and N. W. Andrews, J. Exp. Med. 179:1017-1022, 1994). Using single cell spectrofluorometry and whole-cell patch clamping, we show that TSF produces rapid repetitive cytosolic Ca2+ transients (each associated with cell contraction) in primary cardiac myocytes isolated from dogs. The response of myocytes to TSF was dose dependent in that increasing numbers of cells responded to increasing concentrations of TSF. The TSF-induced Ca2+ transients could be obliterated when TSF was heated or treated with trypsin or the protease inhibitor leupeptin. Aprotinin, pepstatin A, and E-64 did not affect TSF activity. The TSF-induced Ca2+ transients and trypomastigote cell invasion could not be inhibited by alpha (prazosin)- or beta (propanolol)-adrenergic blockers or L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (verapamil, nisoldipine, or cadmium) or by removal of extracellular Ca2+. However, inhibition of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (with thapsigargin or ryanodine) prevented the TSF-induced Ca2+ transients and cell invasion by trypomastigotes. These data suggested that cardiac myocyte pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins are associated with the regulation of TSF-induced Ca2+ transients and myocyte invasion by trypomastigotes but are independent of Ca2+ entry into the cytosol via L-type Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ transients are dependent on release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic

  13. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in myocytes and chromaffin cells of the heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T H; Helle, K B; Saetersdal, T

    1994-07-01

    The heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, was examined for immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) as markers for hormone secreting myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively. Specific antibodies raised against rat alpha-ANP and rat D beta H were used for immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. D beta H-immunoreactive cells were restricted to subendocardial areas of the atrium whereas ANP immunoreactivity occurred throughout both the atrial and the ventricular myocardium, showing particularly strong staining intensity in the atrial myocytes. The granular ANP immunostaining in the atrial myocytes was frequently accumulated in the sarcoplasm. In the ventricular myocytes ANP immunoreactivity occurred as scattered granular staining throughout the sarcoplasm. ANP and D beta H immunofluorescence staining coincided with the presence of immunoreactive specific granules and secretory vesicles in the cardiac myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively, as revealed by electron microscopy. The number of ANP-containing specific granules was generally high in the atrial myocytes, and they were frequently observed in clusters in subsarcolemmal areas. Granular frequency was considerably lower and the mean granular diameter was smaller (0.142 +/- 0.045 micron versus 0.213 +/- 0.049 micron) in the ventricular than in the atrial myocytes. The present results indicate that ANP and D beta H are phylogenetically highly conserved proteins from the dipnoi to the rat. The large amounts of ANP and of specific granules are consistent with an endocrine myocardium in the Protopterus heart. The presence of D beta H and secretory vesicles in the subendocardial chromaffin cells of the atrium suggests a local production of catecholamines from dopamine in the heart of this dipnoan. PMID:7926645

  14. Nitric oxide: a regulator of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinases.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lingying; Heim, Rachel A; Wu, Shiyong

    2011-06-15

    Generation of nitric oxide (NO(•)) can upstream induce and downstream mediate the kinases that phosphorylate the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), which plays a critical role in regulating gene expression. There are four known eIF2α kinases (EIF2AKs), and NO(•) affects each one uniquely. Whereas NO(•) directly activates EIF2AK1 (HRI), it indirectly activates EIF2AK3 (PERK). EIF2AK4 (GCN2) is activated by depletion of l-arginine, which is used by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during the production of NO(•). Finally EIF2AK2 (PKR), which can mediate inducible NOS expression and therefore NO(•) production, can also be activated by NO(•). The production of NO(•) and activation of EIF2AKs coordinately regulate physiological and pathological events such as innate immune response and cell apoptosis. PMID:21463677

  15. The regulation of runt-related transcription factor 2 by fibroblast growth factor-2 and connexin43 requires the inositol polyphosphate/protein kinase Cδ cascade.

    PubMed

    Niger, Corinne; Luciotti, Maria A; Buo, Atum M; Hebert, Carla; Ma, Vy; Stains, Joseph P

    2013-06-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) plays a critical role in osteoblast function and bone mass accrual, yet the identity of the second messengers communicated by Cx43 gap junctions, the targets of these second messengers and how they regulate osteoblast function remain largely unknown. We have shown that alterations of Cx43 expression in osteoblasts can impact the responsiveness to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), by modulating the transcriptional activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In this study, we examined the contribution of the phospholipase Cγ1/inositol polyphosphate/protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) cascade to the Cx43-dependent transcriptional response of MC3T3 osteoblasts to FGF2. Knockdown of expression and/or inhibition of function of phospholipase Cγ1, inositol polyphosphate multikinase, which generates inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (InsP₄) and InsP₅, and inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1/2, which generates inositol pyrophosphates, prevented the ability of Cx43 to potentiate FGF2-induced signaling through Runx2. Conversely, overexpression of phospholipase Cγ1 and inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1/2 enhanced FGF2 activation of Runx2 and the effect of Cx43 overexpression on this response. Disruption of these pathways blocked the nuclear accumulation of PKCδ and the FGF2-dependent interaction of PKCδ and Runx2, reducing Runx2 transcriptional activity. These data reveal that FGF2-signaling involves the inositol polyphosphate cascade, including inositol hexakisphosphate kinase (IP6K), and demonstrate that IP6K regulates Runx2 and osteoblast gene expression. Additionally, these data implicate the water-soluble inositol polyphosphates as mediators of the Cx43-dependent amplification of the osteoblast response to FGF2, and suggest that these low molecular weight second messengers may be biologically relevant mediators of osteoblast function that are communicated by Cx43-gap junctions.

  16. Enhanced effect of fibroblast growth factor-2-containing dalteparin/protamine nanoparticles on hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Takabayashi, Yuki; Nambu, Masaki; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kuwabara, Masahiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Hattori, Hidemi; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although treatments for alopecia are in high demand, not all treatments are safe and reliable. Dalteparin/protamine nanoparticles (D/P NPs) can effectively carry growth factors (GFs) such as fibroblast GF (FGF)-2. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of FGF-2-containing D/P NPs (FGF-2&D/P NPs) on hair growth. Patients and methods In this study, the participants were 12 volunteers with thin hair. One milliliter of FGF-2 (100 ng/mL) and D/P NPs (56 μg/mL) was applied and massaged on the skin of the scalp by the participants twice a day. They were evaluated for 6 months. Participants were photographed using a digital camera for general observation and a hair diagnosis system for measuring hair diameter. Results The mean diameter of the hairs was significantly higher following the application of FGF-2&D/P NPs for 6 months. Objective improvements in thin hair were observed in two cases. Nine participants experienced greater bounce and hair resilience. Conclusion The transdermal application of FGF-2&D/P NPs to the scalp can be used as a new treatment for alopecia. PMID:27274299

  17. Control of the SOST Bone Enhancer by PTH Using MEF2 Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Leupin, Olivier; Kramer, Ina; Collette, Nicole M; Loots, Gabriela G; Natt, François; Kneissel, Michaela; Keller, Hansjoerg

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the osteocyte-derived bone formation inhibitor sclerostin in adult bone requires a distant enhancer. We show that MEF2 transcription factors control this enhancer and mediate inhibition of sclerostin expression by PTH. Introduction Sclerostin encoded by the SOST gene is a key regulator of bone formation. Lack of SOST expression is the cause for the progressive bone overgrowth disorders sclerosteosis and Van Buchem disease. We have previously identified a distant enhancer within the 52-kb Van Buchem disease deletion downstream of the SOST gene that is essential for its expression in adult bone. Furthermore, we and others have reported that SOST expression is suppressed by PTH. The aim of this study was to identify transcription factors involved in SOST bone enhancer activity and mediating PTH responsiveness. Materials and Methods Regulation of the SOST enhancer and promoter was studied by luciferase reporter gene assays. Transcription factor binding sites were mapped by footprint analysis and functional mutation analyses using transient transfections of osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells that exhibit endogenous SOST expression. Specific transcription factor binding was predicted by sequence analysis and shown by gel retardation assays and antibody-induced supershifts. Expression of myocyte enhancer factors 2 (MEF2) was detected by in situ hybridization, quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), and immunohistochemistry. The role of MEF2s in SOST expression was assessed by reporter gene assays and siRNA-mediated RNA knockdown. Results PTH completely suppressed the transcriptional activity of the SOST bone enhancer but did not affect the SOST promoter. A MEF2 response element was identified in the bone enhancer. It was essential for transcriptional activation, bound MEF2 transcription factors, and mediated PTH responsiveness. Expression of MEF2s in bone was shown by qPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. MEF2s and sclerostin co-localized in osteocytes

  18. Phophatidylinositol-3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K regulates contractile protein accumulation in airway myocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Halayko, Andrew J; Kartha, Sreedharan; Stelmack, Gerald L; McConville, John; Tam, John; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Forsythe, Sean M; Hershenson, Marc B; Solway, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle in airway remodeling results from myocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Skeletal and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy is induced by phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI(3) kinase) via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6 kinase (p70S6K). We tested the hypothesis that this pathway regulates contractile protein accumulation in cultured canine airway myocytes acquiring an elongated contractile phenotype in serum-free culture. In vitro assays revealed a sustained activation of PI(3) kinase and p70S6K during serum deprivation up to 12 d, with concomitant accumulation of SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) proteins. Immunocytochemistry revealed that activation of PI3K/mTOR/p70S6K occurred almost exclusively in myocytes that acquire the contractile phenotype. Inhibition of PI(3) kinase or mTOR with LY294002 or rapamycin blocked p70S6K activation, prevented formation of large elongated contractile phenotype myocytes, and blocked accumulation of SM22 and smMHC. Inhibition of MEK had no effect. Steady-state mRNA abundance for SM22 and smMHC was unaffected by blocking p70S6K activation. These studies provide primary evidence that PI(3) kinase and mTOR activate p70S6K in airway myocytes leading to the accumulation of contractile apparatus proteins, differentiation, and growth of large, elongated contractile phenotype airway smooth muscle cells. PMID:15105162

  19. Differential regulation of Krüppel-like factor family transcription factor expression in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes: effects of endothelin-1, oxidative stress and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Timothy E; Butler, Matthew J; Marshall, Andrew K; Tham, El Li; Sugden, Peter H; Clerk, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Krüppel-like transcription factors (Klfs) modulate fundamental cell processes. Cardiac myocytes are terminally-differentiated, but hypertrophy in response to stimuli such as endothelin-1. H2O2 or cytokines promote myocyte apoptosis. Microarray studies of neonatal rat myocytes identified several Klfs as endothelin-1-responsive genes. We used quantitative PCR for further analysis of Klf expression in neonatal rat myocytes. In response to endothelin-1, Klf2 mRNA expression was rapidly increased ( approximately 9-fold; 15-30 min) with later increases in expression of Klf4 and Klf6 ( approximately 5-fold; 30-60 min). All were regulated as immediate early genes (cycloheximide did not inhibit the increases in expression). Klf5 expression was increased at 1-2 h ( approximately 13-fold) as a second phase response (cycloheximide inhibited the increase). These increases were transient and attenuated by U0126. H2O2 increased expression of Klf2, Klf4 and Klf6, but interleukin-1beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha downregulated Klf2 expression with no effect on Klf4 or Klf6. Of the Klfs which repress transcription, endothelin-1 rapidly downregulated expression of Klf3, Klf11 and Klf15. The dynamic regulation of expression of multiple Klf family members in cardiac myocytes suggests that, as a family, they are actively involved in regulating phenotypic responses (hypertrophy and apoptosis) to extracellular stimuli.

  20. Transient outward currents and action potential alterations in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kawano, S; Hiraoka, M

    1991-06-01

    To clarify ionic mechanisms underlying successive changes in action potential repolarization upon sudden increase in driving rate or initiation of rapid drive after a rest, membrane potentials and currents were recorded from isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes using the suction-pipette whole-cell clamp method. When 20 action potentials were elicited with a stimulus frequency of 2.0 Hz after a rest period of 20 s, the plateau and action potential duration showed complex changes in successive beats, whereas they were nearly constant with stimulation at 0.1 Hz. There were only weak correlations between changes in action potential parameters and preceding diastolic intervals. The changes were prominent in the first 10 beats but subsided gradually thereafter, attaining nearly steady configurations of action potentials. When depolarizing pulses were applied at a fast rate, under the voltage clamp, the amplitudes of the initial inward current in the presence of tetrodotoxin changed greatly depending on the pulse numbers and diastolic intervals, whereas the delayed outward K+ current changed little. Variations of the initial inward current in successive pulses were caused by different degrees of activation and recovery from inactivation in the Ca2+ current, the Ca(2+)-sensitive and -insensitive transient outward current. While inhibition of either one or two current components decreased the action potential alterations, blocking the three components completely abolished them. These results indicate that alterations of the Ca(2+)-sensitive and -insensitive transient outward current together with the Ca2+ current contribute to the action potential alterations after initiation of rapid drive or an increase in driving rates.

  1. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J; Lutfi, Esmail; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA) to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates the importance of

  2. Microfluidic systems to examine intercellular coupling of pairs of cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we describe a microfluidic environment that enables us to explore cell-to-cell signalling between longitudinally linked primary heart cells. We have chosen to use pairs (or doublets) of cardiac myocyte as a model system, not only because of the importance of cell-cell signalling in the study of heart disease but also because the single cardiomyocytes are both mechanically and electrically active and their synchronous activation due to the intercellular coupling within the doublet can be readily monitored on optical and electrical recordings. Such doublets have specialised intercellular contact structures in the form of the intercalated discs, comprising the adhesive junction (fascia adherens and macula adherens or desmosome) and the connecting junction (known as gap junction). The latter structure enables adjacent heart cells to share ions, second messengers and small metabolites (<1 kDa) between them and thus provides the structural basis for the synchronous (syncytical) behaviour of connected cardiomyocytes. Using the unique environment provided by the microfluidic system, described in this paper, we explore the local ionic conditions that enable the propagation of Ca(2+) waves between two heart cells. We observe that the ability of intracellular Ca(2+) waves to traverse the intercalated discs is dependent on the relative concentrations of diastolic Ca(2+) in the two adjacent cells. These experiments rely upon our ability to independently control both the electrical stimulation of each of the cells (using integrated microelectrodes) and to rapidly change (or switch) the local concentrations of ions and drugs in the extracellular buffer within the microfluidic channel (using a nanopipetting system). Using this platform, it is also possible to make simultaneous optical recordings (including fluorescence and cell contraction) to explore the effect of drugs on one or both cells, within the doublet.

  3. Volatile anaesthetic effects on Na+-Ca2+ exchange in rat cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seckin, Inanc; Sieck, Gary C; Prakash, Y S

    2001-01-01

    We examined the influence of two clinically relevant concentrations (1 and 2 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration)) of halothane and sevoflurane on both efflux and reverse modes of Na+-Ca2+ exchange (NCX) in enzymatically dissociated adult rat cardiac myocytes. We hypothesised that a volatile anaesthetic-induced decrease in myocardial contractility is mediated by a reduction in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) via inhibition of NCX. Cells were exposed to cyclopiazonic acid and zero extracellular Na+ and Ca2+ to block sacroplasmic reticulum (SR) re-uptake and NCX efflux, respectively. As [Ca2+]i increased under these conditions, extracellular Na+ was rapidly (< 300 ms) reintroduced in the presence or absence of a volatile anaesthetic to selectively promote Ca2+ efflux via NCX. Other cells exposed to cyclopiazonic acid and ryanodine to inhibit SR Ca2+ re-uptake and release were Na+ loaded in zero extracellular Ca2+. The reintroduction of extracellular Ca2+ was used to selectively activate Ca2+ influx via NCX. Compared to controls, both 1 and 2 MAC halothane as well as sevoflurane reduced NCX-mediated efflux. The reduction in NCX-mediated influx was concentration dependent, but comparable between the two anaesthetics. Both anaesthetics at each concentration also shifted the relationship between extracellular Na+ (or extent of Na+ loading) and NCX-mediated efflux (or influx) to the right. These data indicate that despite inhibition of NCX-mediated Ca2+ efflux, volatile anaesthetics produce myocardial depression. However, the inhibition of NCX-mediated Ca2+ influx may contribute to decreased cardiac contractility. The overall effect of volatile anaesthetics on the [Ca2+]i profile is likely to be determined by the relative contributions of influx vs. efflux via NCX during each cardiac cycle. PMID:11283227

  4. Cardiac intercellular communication: are myocytes and fibroblasts fair-weather friends?

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa L; Blaxall, Burns C

    2012-12-01

    The cardiac fibroblast (CF) has historically been thought of as a quiescent cell of the heart, passively maintaining the extracellular environment for the cardiomyocytes (CM), the functional cardiac cell type. The increasingly appreciated role of the CF, however, extends well beyond matrix production, governing many aspects of cardiac function including cardiac electrophysiology and contractility. Importantly, its contributions to cardiac pathophysiology and pathologic remodeling have created a shift in the field's focus from the CM to the CF as a therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiac diseases. In response to cardiac injury, the CF undergoes a pathologic phenotypic transition into a myofibroblast, characterized by contractile smooth muscle proteins and upregulation of collagens, matrix proteins, and adhesion molecules. Further, the myofibroblast upregulates expression and secretion of a variety of pro-inflammatory, profibrotic mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. These mediators act in both an autocrine fashion to further activate CFs, as well as in a paracrine manner on both CMs and circulating inflammatory cells to induce myocyte dysfunction and chronic inflammation, respectively. Together, cell-specific cytokine-induced effects exacerbate pathologic remodeling and progression to HF. A better understanding of this dynamic intercellular communication will lead to novel targets for the attenuation of cardiac remodeling. Current strategies aimed at targeting cytokines have been largely unsuccessful in clinical trials, lending insights into ways that such intercellular cross talk can be more effectively attenuated. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding CF functions in the heart and will discuss the regulation and signaling behind CF-mediated cytokine production and function. We will then highlight clinical trials that have exploited cytokine cross talk in the treatment of heart failure and provide novel

  5. Analysis of Cav1.2 and Ryanodine Receptor Clusters in Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scriven, David R.L.; Asghari, Parisa; Schulson, Meredith N.; Moore, Edwin D.W.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of ryanodine receptor (RyR) and Cav1.2 clusters in adult rat ventricular myocytes using three-dimensional object-based colocalization metrics. We found that ∼75% of the Cav1.2 clusters and 65% of the RyR clusters were within couplons, and both were roughly two and a half times larger than their extradyadic counterparts. Within a couplon, Cav1.2 was concentrated near the center of the underlying RyR cluster and accounted for ∼67% of its size. These data, together with previous findings from binding studies, enable us to estimate that a couplon contains 74 RyR tetramers and 10 copies of the α-subunit of Cav1.2. Extradyadic clusters of RyR contained ∼30 tetramers, whereas the extradyadic Cav1.2 clusters contained, on average, only four channels. Between 80% and 85% of both RyR and Cav1.2 molecules are within couplons. RyR clusters were in the closest proximity, with a median nearest-neighbor distance of 552 nm; comparable values for Cav1.2 clusters and couplons were 619 nm and 735 nm, respectively. Extradyadic RyR clusters were significantly closer together (624 nm) and closer to the couplons (674 nm) than the couplons were to each other. In contrast, the extradyadic clusters of Cav1.2 showed no preferential localization and were broadly distributed. These results provide a wealth of morphometric data that are essential for understanding intracellular Ca2+ regulation and modeling Ca2+ dynamics. PMID:21156134

  6. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J.; Lutfi, Esmail; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA) to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates the importance of

  7. Effects of trimebutine maleate on delayed rectifier K+ currents in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, T; Hasegawa, J; Tanabe, K; Watanabe, A; Kitano, M; Kishimoto, Y

    2000-04-01

    The effects of trimebutine maleate, a drug commonly used to regulate motility in the gastrointestinal tract, on the delayed rectifier K+ current (I(K)) were evaluated in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes to determine whether the drug has a proarrhythmic effect through blockade of I(K). Trimebutine decreased I(K) in a concentration-dependent manner. To investigate the effects of trimebutine on two components of I(K) (I(Kr) and I(Ks); rapidly activated and slowly activated components, respectively), we performed the envelope-of-tails test. Trimebutine-sensitive I(K) was determined by digital subtraction of I(K) during exposure to trimebutine from control I(K) for each duration of the test pulse over the range 50 ms-2 s. The ratio of deltaI(K,tail)/deltaI(K) plotted against pulse duration for trimebutine-sensitive I(K) gradually decreased to a steady-state value as the duration of the test pulse was lengthened. This finding suggested a weak inhibitory effect of trimebutine on both I(Kr) and I(Ks). The effects of trimebutine on the inward rectifier K+ current (I(K1)) responsible for the resting potential and final repolarization phase of the action potential were investigated by applying voltage clamp ramps over a broad range of potentials. No significant effects were observed at 10 or 100 microM. We next investigated the effects of the drug on the L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)). Significant inhibition of I(Ca) was observed at trimebutine concentrations greater than 10 microM. These results suggested that trimebutine maleate has weak inhibitory effects on I(Kr), I(Ks) and I(Ca) at concentrations much higher than those in clinical use. PMID:10813550

  8. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Mediated Electrical Remodeling in Mouse Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeremy; Gao, Junyuan; Cohen, Ira S; Mathias, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    We recently characterized an autocrine renin angiotensin system (RAS) in canine heart. Activation of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors (AT1Rs) induced electrical remodeling, including inhibition of the transient outward potassium current Ito, prolongation of the action potential (AP), increased calcium entry and increased contractility. Electrical properties of the mouse heart are very different from those of dog heart, but if a similar system existed in mouse, it could be uniquely studied through genetic manipulations. To investigate the presence of a RAS in mouse, we measured APs and Ito in isolated myocytes. Application of angiotensin II (A2) for 2 or more hours reduced Ito magnitude, without affecting voltage dependence, and prolonged APs in a dose-dependent manner. Based on dose-inhibition curves, the fast and slow components of Ito (Ito,fast and IK,slow) appeared to be coherently regulated by [A2], with 50% inhibition at an A2 concentration of about 400 nM. This very high K0.5 is inconsistent with systemic A2 effects, but is consistent with an autocrine RAS in mouse heart. Pre-application of the microtubule destabilizing agent colchicine eliminated A2 effects on Ito and AP duration, suggesting these effects depend on intracellular trafficking. Application of the biased agonist SII ([Sar1-Ile4-Ile8]A2), which stimulates receptor internalization without G protein activation, caused Ito reduction and AP prolongation similar to A2-induced changes. These data demonstrate AT1R mediated regulation of Ito in mouse heart. Moreover, all measured properties parallel those measured in dog heart, suggesting an autocrine RAS may be a fundamental feedback system that is present across species. PMID:26430746

  9. Carbon nanotubes instruct physiological growth and functionally mature syncytia: nongenetic engineering of cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Valentina; Cellot, Giada; Toma, Francesca Maria; Long, Carlin S; Caldwell, John H; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Turco, Antonio; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura; Mestroni, Luisa

    2013-07-23

    Myocardial tissue engineering currently represents one of the most realistic strategies for cardiac repair. We have recently discovered the ability of carbon nanotube scaffolds to promote cell division and maturation in cardiomyocytes. Here, we test the hypothesis that carbon nanotube scaffolds promote cardiomyocyte growth and maturation by altering the gene expression program, implementing the cell electrophysiological properties and improving networking and maturation of functional syncytia. In our study, we combine microscopy, biological and electrophysiological methodologies, and calcium imaging, to verify whether neonatal rat ventricular myocytes cultured on substrates of multiwall carbon nanotubes acquire a physiologically more mature phenotype compared to control (gelatin). We show that the carbon nanotube substrate stimulates the induction of a gene expression profile characteristic of terminal differentiation and physiological growth, with a 2-fold increase of α-myosin heavy chain (P < 0.001) and upregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2a. In contrast, markers of pathological hypertrophy remain unchanged (β-myosin heavy chain, skeletal α-actin, atrial natriuretic peptide). These modifications are paralleled by an increase of connexin-43 gene expression, gap junctions and functional syncytia. Moreover, carbon nanotubes appear to exert a protective effect against the pathologic stimulus of phenylephrine. Finally, cardiomyocytes on carbon nanotubes demonstrate a more mature electrophysiological phenotype of syncytia and intracellular calcium signaling. Thus, carbon nanotubes interacting with cardiomyocytes have the ability to promote physiological growth and functional maturation. These properties are unique in the current vexing field of tissue engineering, and offer unprecedented perspectives in the development of innovative therapies for cardiac repair.

  10. Altered ventricular torsion and transmural patterns of myocyte relaxation precede heart failure in aging F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart G; Haynes, Premi; Kelsey Snapp, W; Nava, Kristofer E; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explain changes in ventricular and cellular function that contribute to aging-associated cardiovascular disease in aging F344 rats. Three groups of female F344 rats, aged 6, 18, and 22 mo, were studied. Echocardiographic measurements in isoflurane-anesthetized animals showed an increase in peak left ventricular torsion between the 6- and the 18-mo-old groups that was partially reversed in the 22-mo-old animals (P < 0.05). Epicardial, midmyocardial, and endocardial myocytes were subsequently isolated from the left ventricles of each group of rats. Unloaded sarcomere shortening and Ca(2+) transients were then measured in these cells (n = >75 cells for each of the nine age-region groups). The decay time of the Ca(2+) transient and the time required for 50% length relaxation both increased with age but not uniformly across the three regions (P < 0.02). Further analysis revealed a significant shift in the transmural distribution of these properties between 18 and 22 mo of age, with the largest changes occurring in epicardial myocytes. Computational modeling suggested that these changes were due in part to slower Ca(2+) dissociation from troponin in aging epicardial myocytes. Subsequent biochemical assays revealed a >50% reduction in troponin I phosphoprotein content in 22-mo-old epicardium relative to the other regions. These data suggest that between 18 and 22 mo of age (before the onset of heart failure), F344 rats display epicardial-specific myofilament-level modifications that 1) break from the progression observed between 6 and 18 mo and 2) coincide with aberrant patterns of cardiac torsion.

  11. PGC-1{alpha} accelerates cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} clearance without disturbing Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Min; Wang, Yanru; Qu, Aijuan

    2010-06-11

    Energy metabolism and Ca{sup 2+} handling serve critical roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1{alpha}) is a multi-functional coactivator that is involved in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and cellular energy metabolism. However, the regulation of PGC-1{alpha} in cardiac Ca{sup 2+} signaling has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we combined confocal line-scan imaging with off-line imaging processing to characterize calcium signaling in cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes expressing PGC-1{alpha} via adenoviral transduction. Our data shows that overexpressing PGC-1{alpha} improved myocyte contractility without increasing the amplitude of Ca{sup 2+} transients, suggesting that myofilament sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} increased. Interestingly, the decay kinetics of global Ca{sup 2+} transients and Ca{sup 2+} waves accelerated in PGC-1{alpha}-expressing cells, but the decay rate of caffeine-elicited Ca{sup 2+} transients showed no significant change. This suggests that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA2a), but not Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange (NCX) contribute to PGC-1{alpha}-induced cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} clearance. Furthermore, PGC-1{alpha} induced the expression of SERCA2a in cultured cardiac myocytes. Importantly, overexpressing PGC-1{alpha} did not disturb cardiac Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, because SR Ca{sup 2+} load and the propensity for Ca{sup 2+} waves remained unchanged. These data suggest that PGC-1{alpha} can ameliorate cardiac Ca{sup 2+} cycling and improve cardiac work output in response to physiological stress. Unraveling the PGC-1{alpha}-calcium handing pathway sheds new light on the role of PGC-1{alpha} in the therapy of cardiac diseases.

  12. Efficacy and potency of class I antiarrhythmic drugs for suppression of Ca2+ waves in permeabilized myocytes lacking calsequestrin.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Eleonora Savio; Knollmann, Björn C

    2011-11-01

    Ca(2+) waves can trigger ventricular arrhythmias such as catecholaminergic-polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Drugs that prevent Ca(2+) waves may have antiarrhythmic properties. Here, we use permeabilized ventricular myocytes from a CPVT mouse model lacking calsequestrin (casq2) to screen all clinically available class I antiarrhythmic drugs and selected other antiarrhythmic agents for activity against Ca(2+) waves. Casq2-/- myocytes were imaged in line-scan mode and the following Ca(2+) wave parameters analyzed: wave incidence, amplitude, frequency, and propagation speed. IC(50) (potency) and maximum inhibition (efficacy) were calculated for each drug. Drugs fell into 3 distinct categories. Category 1 drugs (flecainide and R-propafenone) suppressed wave parameters with the highest potency (IC(50)<10 μM) and efficacy (>50% maximum wave inhibition). Category 2 drugs (encainide, quinidine, lidocaine, and verapamil) had intermediate potency (IC(50) 20-40 μM) and efficacy (20-40% maximum wave inhibition). Category 3 drugs (procainamide, disopyramide, mexiletine, cibenzoline, and ranolazine) had no significant effects on Ca(2+) waves at the highest concentration tested (100 μM). Propafenone was stereoselective, with R-propafenone suppressing waves more potently than S-propafenone (IC(50): R-propafenone 2 ± 0.2 μM vs. S-propafenone 54 ± 18 μM). Both flecainide and R-propafenone decreased Ca(2+) spark mass and converted propagated Ca(2+) waves into non-propagated wavelets and frequent sparks, suggesting that reduction in spark mass, not spark frequency, was responsible for wave suppression. Among all class I antiarrhythmic drugs, flecainide and R-propafenone inhibit Ca(2+) waves with the highest potency and efficacy. Permeabilized casq2-/- myocytes are a simple in-vitro assay for finding drugs with activity against Ca(2+) waves. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Possible Editorial'. PMID:21798265

  13. Influence of gender on ethanol-induced ventricular myocyte contractile depression in transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jinhong; Esberg, Lucy B; Ye, Gang; Borgerding, Anthony J; Ren, Bonnie H; Aberle, Nicholas S; Epstein, Paul N; Ren, Jun

    2003-03-01

    Acute ethanol exposure depresses ventricular contractility and contributes to alcoholic cardiomyopathy in both men and women chronically consuming ethanol. However, a gender-related difference in the severity of myopathy exists with female being more sensitive to ethanol-induced tissue damage. Acetaldehyde (ACA), the major oxidized product of ethanol, has been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis and gender-related difference of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, possibly due to its direct cardiac effect and interaction with estrogen. This study was designed to compare the effects of cardiac overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which converts ethanol into ACA, on the cardiac contractile response to ethanol in ventricular myocytes isolated from age-matched adult male and female transgenic (ADH) and wild-type (FVB) mice. Mechanical properties were measured with an IonOptix SoftEdge system. ACA production was assessed by gas chromatography. The ADH myocytes from both genders exhibited similar mechanical properties but a higher efficacy to produce ACA compared to FVB myocytes. Exposure to ethanol (80-640 mg/dl) for 60 min elicited concentration-dependent decrease of cell shortening in both FVB and ADH groups. The ethanol-induced depression on cell shortening was significantly augmented in female but not male ADH group. ADH transgene did not exacerbate the ethanol-induced inhibition of maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening in either gender. In addition, neither ethanol nor ADH transgene affect the duration of shortening and relengthening in male or female mice. These data suggest that females may be more sensitive to ACA-induced cardiac contractile depression than male, which may attribute to the gender-related difference of alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

  14. Urocortin2 prolongs action potential duration and modulates potassium currents in guinea pig myocytes and HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Zhen; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported that activation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2 by urocortin2 up-regulates both L-type Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in ventricular myocytes and plays an important role in cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenesis. This study goal was to further test the hypothesis that urocortin2 may modulate action potentials as well as rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents. With whole cell patch-clamp techniques, action potentials and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were recorded in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, respectively. And rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were tested in hERG-HEK293 cells. Urocortin2 produced a time- and concentration-dependent prolongation of action potential duration. The EC50 values of action potential duration and action potential duration at 90% of repolarization were 14.73 and 24.3nM respectively. The prolongation of action potential duration of urocortin2 was almost completely or partly abolished by H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor) or KB-R7943 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor) pretreatment respectively. And urocortin2 caused reduction of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents in hERG-HEK293 cells. In addition, urocortin2 slowed the rate of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel activation, and rightward shifted the threshold of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents to more positive potentials. Urocortin2 prolonged action potential duration via activation of protein kinase A and Na(+)/ Ca(2+) exchange in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. In hERG-HEK293 cells, urocortin2 reduced rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current density which may contribute to action potential duration prolongation.

  15. Quantitative determination of adenovirus-mediated gene delivery to rat cardiac myocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kass-Eisler, A; Falck-Pedersen, E; Alvira, M; Rivera, J; Buttrick, P M; Wittenberg, B A; Cipriani, L; Leinwand, L A

    1993-01-01

    To optimize the use of modified adenoviruses as vectors for gene delivery to the myocardium, we have characterized infection of cultured fetal and adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro and of adult cardiac myocytes in vivo by using a replication-defective adenovirus carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (AdCMVCATgD). In vitro, virtually all fetal or adult cardiocytes express the CAT gene when infected with 1 plaque-forming unit of virus per cell. CAT enzymatic activity can be detected in these cells as early as 4 hr after infection, reaching near-maximal levels at 48 hr. In fetal cells, CAT expression was maintained without a loss in activity for at least 1 week. Using in vitro studies as a guide, we introduced the AdCMVCATgD virus directly into adult rat myocardium and compared the expression results obtained from virus injection with those obtained by direct injection of pAdCMVCATgD plasmid DNA. The amount of CAT activity resulting from adenovirus infection of the myocardium was orders of magnitude higher than that seen from DNA injection and was proportional to the amount of input virus. Immunostaining for CAT protein in cardiac tissue sections following adenovirus injection demonstrated large numbers of positive cells, reaching nearly 100% of the myocytes in many regions of the heart. Expression of genes introduced by adenovirus peaked at 5 days but was still detectable 55 days following infection. Adenoviruses are therefore a very useful tool for high-efficiency gene transfer into the cardiovascular system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:8265580

  16. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kakudo, Natsuko . E-mail: kakudon@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Shimotsuma, Ayuko; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2007-07-27

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration.

  17. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  18. Mesenteric lymph from rats with trauma-hemorrhagic shock causes abnormal cardiac myocyte function and induces myocardial contractile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sambol, Justin T; Lee, Marlon A; Jiang, Mingshan; Dosi, Garima; Dong, Wei; Deitch, Edwin A; Yatani, Atsuko

    2011-09-01

    Myocardial contractile dysfunction develops following trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). We have previously shown that, in a rat fixed pressure model of T/HS (mean arterial pressure of 30-35 mmHg for 90 min), mesenteric lymph duct ligation before T/HS prevented T/HS-induced myocardial contractile depression. To determine whether T/HS lymph directly alters myocardial contractility, we examined the functional effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of mesenteric lymph collected from rats undergoing trauma-sham shock (T/SS) or T/HS on both isolated cardiac myocytes and Langendorff-perfused whole hearts. Acute application of T/HS lymph (0.1-2%), but not T/SS lymph, induced dual inotropic effects on myocytes with an immediate increase in the amplitude of cell shortening (1.4 ± 0.1-fold) followed by a complete block of contraction. Similarly, T/HS lymph caused dual, positive and negative effects on cellular Ca²⁺ transients. These effects were associated with changes in the electrophysiological properties of cardiac myocytes; T/HS lymph initially prolonged the action potential duration (action potential duration at 90% repolarization, 3.3 ± 0.4-fold), and this was followed by a decrease in the plateau potential and membrane depolarization. Furthermore, intravenous infusion of T/HS lymph, but not T/SS lymph, caused myocardial contractile dysfunction at 24 h after injection, which mimicked actual T/HS-induced changes; left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP rise and fall (±dP/dt(max)) were decreased and inotropic response to Ca²⁺ was blunted. However, the contractile responsiveness to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the T/HS lymph-infused hearts remained unchanged. These results suggest that T/HS lymph directly causes negative inotropic effects on the myocardium and that T/HS lymph-induced changes in myocyte function are likely to contribute to the development of T/HS-induced myocardial dysfunction.

  19. Mesenteric lymph from rats with trauma-hemorrhagic shock causes abnormal cardiac myocyte function and induces myocardial contractile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sambol, Justin T.; Lee, Marlon A.; Jiang, Mingshan; Dosi, Garima; Dong, Wei; Deitch, Edwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial contractile dysfunction develops following trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). We have previously shown that, in a rat fixed pressure model of T/HS (mean arterial pressure of 30–35 mmHg for 90 min), mesenteric lymph duct ligation before T/HS prevented T/HS-induced myocardial contractile depression. To determine whether T/HS lymph directly alters myocardial contractility, we examined the functional effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of mesenteric lymph collected from rats undergoing trauma-sham shock (T/SS) or T/HS on both isolated cardiac myocytes and Langendorff-perfused whole hearts. Acute application of T/HS lymph (0.1–2%), but not T/SS lymph, induced dual inotropic effects on myocytes with an immediate increase in the amplitude of cell shortening (1.4 ± 0.1-fold) followed by a complete block of contraction. Similarly, T/HS lymph caused dual, positive and negative effects on cellular Ca2+ transients. These effects were associated with changes in the electrophysiological properties of cardiac myocytes; T/HS lymph initially prolonged the action potential duration (action potential duration at 90% repolarization, 3.3 ± 0.4-fold), and this was followed by a decrease in the plateau potential and membrane depolarization. Furthermore, intravenous infusion of T/HS lymph, but not T/SS lymph, caused myocardial contractile dysfunction at 24 h after injection, which mimicked actual T/HS-induced changes; left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP rise and fall (±dP/dtmax) were decreased and inotropic response to Ca2+ was blunted. However, the contractile responsiveness to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the T/HS lymph-infused hearts remained unchanged. These results suggest that T/HS lymph directly causes negative inotropic effects on the myocardium and that T/HS lymph-induced changes in myocyte function are likely to contribute to the development of T/HS-induced myocardial dysfunction. PMID:21700891

  20. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  1. Role of phospholipase D and diacylglycerol in activating constitutive TRPC-like cation channels in rabbit ear artery myocytes.

    PubMed

    Albert, A P; Piper, A S; Large, W A

    2005-08-01

    Previously we have described a constitutively active Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel in freshly dispersed rabbit ear artery myocytes that has similar properties to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel proteins. In the present study we have investigated the transduction pathways responsible for stimulating constitutive channel activity in these myocytes. Application of the pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D (PC-PLD), butan-1-ol and C2 ceramide, produced marked inhibition of constitutive channel activity in cell-attached patches and also butan-1-ol produced pronounced suppression of resting membrane conductance measured with whole-cell recording whereas the inactive isomer butan-2-ol had no effect on constitutive whole-cell or channel activity. In addition butan-1-ol had no effect on channel activity evoked by the diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Inhibitors of PC-phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) had no effect on constitutive channel activity. Application of a purified PC-PLD enzyme and its metabolite phosphatidic acid to inside-out patches markedly increased channel activity. The phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) inhibitor dl-propranolol also inhibited constitutive and phosphatidic acid-induced increases in channel activity but had no effect on OAG-evoked responses. The DAG lipase and DAG kinase inhibitors, RHC80267 and R59949 respectively, which inhibit DAG metabolism, produced transient increases in channel activity which were mimicked by relatively high concentrations (40 microm) of OAG. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine did not prevent channel activation by OAG but blocked the secondary inhibitory response of OAG. It is proposed that endogenous DAG is involved in the activation of channel activity and that its effects on channel activity are concentration-dependent with higher concentrations of DAG also inhibiting channel

  2. Second-harmonic microscopy of unstained living cardiac myocytes: measurements of sarcomere length with 20-nm accuracy.

    PubMed

    Boulesteix, Thierry; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2004-09-01

    We extend second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to the measurement of sarcomere length in unstained living cardiac myocytes with 20-nm accuracy. We quantify individual sarcomere shortening in the presence of saxitoxin and find that it is in agreement with mechanical measurements of atrial tissue contracture. This functional application of SHG microscopy is generally applicable to quantify the physiological effects of drugs on contractile tissue. Our data also suggest that packed myosin heads in sarcomere thick filaments are responsible for the large second-harmonic endogenous signal in muscle tissue. PMID:15455770

  3. Role of phospholipase D and diacylglycerol in activating constitutive TRPC-like cation channels in rabbit ear artery myocytes.

    PubMed

    Albert, A P; Piper, A S; Large, W A

    2005-08-01

    Previously we have described a constitutively active Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel in freshly dispersed rabbit ear artery myocytes that has similar properties to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel proteins. In the present study we have investigated the transduction pathways responsible for stimulating constitutive channel activity in these myocytes. Application of the pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D (PC-PLD), butan-1-ol and C2 ceramide, produced marked inhibition of constitutive channel activity in cell-attached patches and also butan-1-ol produced pronounced suppression of resting membrane conductance measured with whole-cell recording whereas the inactive isomer butan-2-ol had no effect on constitutive whole-cell or channel activity. In addition butan-1-ol had no effect on channel activity evoked by the diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Inhibitors of PC-phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) had no effect on constitutive channel activity. Application of a purified PC-PLD enzyme and its metabolite phosphatidic acid to inside-out patches markedly increased channel activity. The phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) inhibitor dl-propranolol also inhibited constitutive and phosphatidic acid-induced increases in channel activity but had no effect on OAG-evoked responses. The DAG lipase and DAG kinase inhibitors, RHC80267 and R59949 respectively, which inhibit DAG metabolism, produced transient increases in channel activity which were mimicked by relatively high concentrations (40 microm) of OAG. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine did not prevent channel activation by OAG but blocked the secondary inhibitory response of OAG. It is proposed that endogenous DAG is involved in the activation of channel activity and that its effects on channel activity are concentration-dependent with higher concentrations of DAG also inhibiting channel

  4. [Na] and [K] dependence of the Na/K pump current-voltage relationship in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Na/K pump current was determined between -140 and +60 mV as steady- state, strophanthidin-sensitive, whole-cell current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, voltage-clamped and internally dialyzed via wide- tipped pipettes. Solutions were designed to minimize all other components of membrane current. A device for exchanging the solution inside the pipette permitted investigation of Na/K pump current-voltage (I-V) relationships at several levels of pipette [Na] [( Na]pip) in a single cell; the effects of changes in external [Na] [( Na]o) or external [K] [( K]o) were also studied. At 50 mM [Na]pip, 5.4 mM [K]o, and approximately 150 mM [Na]o, Na/K pump current was steeply voltage dependent at negative potentials but was approximately constant at positive potentials. Under those conditions, reduction of [Na]o enhanced pump current at negative potentials but had little effect at positive potentials: at zero [Na]o, pump current was only weakly voltage dependent. At 5.4 mM [K]o and approximately 150 mM [Na]o, reduction of [Na]pip from 50 mM scaled down the sigmoid pump I-V relationship and shifted it slightly to the right (toward more positive potentials). Pump current at 0 mV was activated by [Na]pip according to the Hill equation with best-fit K0.5 approximately equal to 11 mM and Hill coefficient nH approximately equal to 1.4. At zero [Na]o, reduction of [Na]pip seemed to simply scale down the relatively flat pump I-V relationship: Hill fit parameters for pump activation by [Na]pip at 0 mV were K0.5 approximately equal to 10 mM, nH approximately equal to 1.4. At 50 mM [Na]pip and high [Na]o, reduction of [K]o from 5.4 mM scaled down the sigmoid I-V relationship and shifted it slightly to the right: at 0 mV, K0.5 approximately equal to 1.5 mM and nH approximately equal to 1.0. At zero [Na]o, lowering [K]o simply scaled down the flat pump I-V relationships yielding, at 0 mV, K0.5 approximately equal to 0.2 mM, nH approximately equal to 1.1. The voltage

  5. Functional upregulation of system xc- by fibroblast growth factor-2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Resch, Jon; Rush, Travis; Lobner, Doug

    2012-02-01

    The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) is a Na(+)-independent amino acid transport system. Disruption of this system may lead to multiple effects in the CNS including decreased cellular glutathione. Since multiple neurological diseases involve glutathione depletion, and disruption of growth factor signaling has also been implicated in these diseases, it is possible that some growth factors effects are mediated by regulation of system xc-. We tested the growth factors fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), neuregulin-1 (NRG), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on system xc- mediated 14C-cystine uptake in mixed neuronal and glial cortical cultures. Only FGF-2 significantly increased cystine uptake. The effect was observed in astrocyte-enriched cultures, but not in cultures of neurons or microglia. The increase was blocked by the system xc- inhibitor (s)-4-carboxyphenylglycine, required at least 12 h FGF-2 treatment, and was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Kinetic analysis indicated FGF-2 treatment increased the V(max) for cystine uptake while the K(m) remained the same. Quantitative PCR showed an increase in mRNA for xCT, the functional subunit of system xc-, beginning at 3 h of FGF-2 treatment, with a dramatic increase after 12 h. Blocking FGFR1 with PD 166866 blocked the FGF-2 effect. Treatment with a PI3-kinase inhibitor (LY-294002) or a MEK/ERK inhibitor (U0126) for 1 h prior to and during the FGF-2 treatment, each partially blocked the increased cystine uptake. The upregulation of system xc- by FGF-2 may be responsible for some of the known physiological actions of FGF-2. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  6. Osteopontin-stimulated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes involves oxidative stress and mitochondrial death pathway: role of a pro-apoptotic protein BIK.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Suman; Zha, Qinqin; Singh, Mahipal; Singh, Krishna

    2016-07-01

    Increased osteopontin (OPN) expression in the heart, specifically in myocytes, associates with increased myocyte apoptosis and myocardial dysfunction. Recently, we provided evidence that OPN interacts with CD44 receptor, and induces myocyte apoptosis via the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial death pathways. Here we tested the hypothesis that OPN induces oxidative stress in myocytes and the heart via the involvement of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX-4). Treatment of adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs) with OPN (20 nM) increased oxidative stress as analyzed by protein carbonylation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as analyzed by ROS detection kit and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate staining. Pretreatment with NAC (antioxidant), apocynin (NOX inhibitor), MnTBAP (superoxide dismutase mimetic), and mitochondrial KATP channel blockers (glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate) decreased OPN-stimulated ROS production, cytosolic cytochrome c levels, and apoptosis. OPN increased NOX-4 expression, while decreasing SOD-2 expression. OPN decreased mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by JC-1 staining, and induced mitochondrial abnormalities including swelling and reorganization of cristae as observed using transmission electron microscopy. OPN increased expression of BIK, a pro-apoptotic protein involved in reorganization of mitochondrial cristae. Expression of dominant-negative BIK decreased OPN-stimulated apoptosis. In vivo, OPN expression in cardiac myocyte-specific manner associated with increased protein carbonylation, and expression of NOX-4 and BIK. Thus, OPN induces oxidative stress via the involvement of mitochondria and NOX-4. It may affect mitochondrial morphology and integrity, at least in part, via the involvement of BIK. PMID:27262843

  7. Pro-survival function of MEF2 in cardiomyocytes is enhanced by β-blockers

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, S; Salma, J; Wales, S; McDermott, JC

    2015-01-01

    β1-Adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) stimulation increases apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through activation of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins function as important regulators of myocardial gene expression. Previously, we reported that PKA signaling directly represses MEF2 activity. We determined whether (a) MEF2 has a pro-survival function in cardiomyocytes, and (b) whether β-adrenergic/PKA signaling modulates MEF2 function in cardiomyocytes. Initially, we observed that siRNA-mediated gene silencing of MEF2 induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis as indicated by flow cytometry. β1-AR activation by isoproterenol represses MEF2 activity and promotes apoptosis in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. Importantly, β1-AR mediated apoptosis was abrogated in cardiomyocytes expressing a PKA-resistant form of MEF2D (S121/190A). We also observed that a β1-blocker, Atenolol, antagonizes isoproterenol-induced apoptosis while concomitantly enhancing MEF2 transcriptional activity. β-AR stimulation modulated MEF2 cellular localization in cardiomyocytes and this effect was reversed by β-blocker treatment. Furthermore, Kruppel-like factor 6, a MEF2 target gene in the heart, functions as a downstream pro-survival factor in cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that (a) MEF2 has an important pro-survival role in cardiomyocytes, and (b) β-adrenergic signaling antagonizes the pro-survival function of MEF2 in cardiomyocytes and β-blockers promote it. These observations have important clinical implications that may contribute to novel strategies for preventing cardiomyocyte apoptosis associated with heart pathology. PMID:27551452

  8. Crystal structure of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mari; Nishimoto, Madoka; Hiyama, Takuya B; Higo, Toshiaki; Umehara, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Ito, Takuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2016-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells restrict protein synthesis under various stress conditions, by inhibiting the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, a heterotrimeric G protein consisting of α-, β- and γ-subunits. eIF2B exchanges GDP for GTP on the γ-subunit of eIF2 (eIF2γ), and is inhibited by stress-induced phosphorylation of eIF2α. eIF2B is a heterodecameric complex of two copies each of the α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ε-subunits; its α-, β- and δ-subunits constitute the regulatory subcomplex, while the γ- and ε-subunits form the catalytic subcomplex. The three-dimensional structure of the entire eIF2B complex has not been determined. Here we present the crystal structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe eIF2B with an unprecedented subunit arrangement, in which the α2β2δ2 hexameric regulatory subcomplex binds two γε dimeric catalytic subcomplexes on its opposite sides. A structure-based in vitro analysis by a surface-scanning site-directed photo-cross-linking method identified the eIF2α-binding and eIF2γ-binding interfaces, located far apart on the regulatory and catalytic subcomplexes, respectively. The eIF2γ-binding interface is located close to the conserved 'NF motif', which is important for nucleotide exchange. A structural model was constructed for the complex of eIF2B with phosphorylated eIF2α, which binds to eIF2B more strongly than the unphosphorylated form. These results indicate that the eIF2α phosphorylation generates the 'nonproductive' eIF2-eIF2B complex, which prevents nucleotide exchange on eIF2γ, and thus provide a structural framework for the eIF2B-mediated mechanism of stress-induced translational control.

  9. Signaling responses after exposure to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone or 17 beta-estradiol in norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Koshman, Yevgeniya E; Piano, Mariann R; Russell, Brenda; Schwertz, Dorie W

    2010-03-01

    Androgens appear to enhance, whereas estrogens mitigate, cardiac hypertrophy. However, signaling pathways in cells for short (3 min) and longer term (48 h) treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E2) or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are understudied. We compared the effect of adrenergic stimulation by norepinephrine (NE; 1 microM) alone or in combination with DHT (10 nM) or E2 (10 nM) treatment in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) by cell area, protein synthesis, sarcomeric structure, gene expression, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated (ERK), and focal adhesion kinases (FAK), and phospho-FAK nuclear localization. NE alone elicited the expected hypertrophy and strong sarcomeric organization, and DHT alone gave a similar but more modest response, whereas E2 did not alter cell size. Effects of NE dominated when used with either E2 or DHT with all combinations. Both sex hormones alone rapidly activated FAK but not ERK. Long-term or brief exposure to E2 attenuated NE-induced FAK phosphorylation, whereas DHT had no effect. Neither hormone altered NE-elicited ERK activation. Longer term exposure to E2 alone reduced FAK phosphorylation and reduced nuclear phospho-FAK, whereas its elevation was seen in the presence of NE with both sex hormones. The mitigating effects of E2 on the NE-elicited increase in cell size and the hypertrophic effect of DHT in NRVMs are in accordance with results observed in whole animal models. This is the first report of rapid, nongenomic sex hormone signaling via FAK activation and altered FAK trafficking to the nucleus in heart cells. PMID:20044473

  10. The vasodilator papaverine stimulates L-type Ca(2+) current in rat tail artery myocytes via a PKA-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Fabio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Durante, Miriam; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Saponara, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Papaverine is an opium alkaloid, primarily used as an antispasmodic drug and as a cerebral and coronary vasodilator. Its phosphodiesterase inhibitory activity promotes increase of cAMP levels mainly in the cytosol. As cAMP is known to modulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, here we tested the proposition that papaverine could affect vascular channel function. An in-depth analysis of the effect of papaverine on Ba(2+) or Ca(2+) current through L-type Ca(2+) channel [IBa(L) or ICa(L)], performed in rat tail artery myocytes using either the whole-cell or the perforated patch-clamp method, was accompanied by a functional study on rat aorta rings. Papaverine increased current amplitude under both the perforated or whole-cell configuration. Stimulation of the current by papaverine was concentration-, Vh-, frequency-, and charge carrier-dependent, and fully reverted by drug washout. The PKA inhibitor H89, but not the PKG inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cGMPS, antagonised papaverine- as well as IBMX- (another phosphodiesterase inhibitor) induced IBa(L) stimulation. In cells pre-treated with IBMX, application of papaverine failed to increase current amplitude. Papaverine sped up the inactivation kinetics of IBa(L), though only at concentrations ≥ 30 μM, and shifted the voltage dependence of the inactivation curve to more negative potentials. In rings, the vasorelaxing activity of papaverine was enhanced by previous treatment with nifedipine. In conclusion, papaverine stimulates vascular L-type Ca(2+) channel via a PKA-dependent mechanism, thus antagonising its main vasodilating activity. PMID:26586313

  11. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.

  12. A statistical analysis of acetylcholine receptor activation in Xenopus myocytes: stepwise versus concerted models of gating.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, A

    1993-01-01

    1. The kinetic properties of single channel currents from fetal-type acetylcholine receptors in embryonic Xenopus myocytes (60 h old) have been analysed by a maximum-likelihood method. 2. At very high acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations (up to 5 mM) the effective opening rate appears to saturate at approximately 30,000 s-1. 3. The kinetics were analysed according to the standard concerted scheme that postulates a single channel-opening conformational change after two agonists are bound, and a rarely invoked stepwise scheme that postulates semi-independent conformational changes in two distinct gating domains. Both models assume that agonist cannot escape from a channel (or domain) that is in its activated conformation. 4. With either activation scheme the kinetic analyses indicate that ACh binds at a rate of approximately 2 x 10(8) s-1 M-1 and dissociates from doubly liganded receptors at a rate of approximately 28,000 s-1, and that the activation process is asymmetric, i.e. the binding (concerted model) or gating (stepwise model) transitions are not equal and independent. 5. In eighteen of twenty-seven file-by-file comparisons, the likelihood of the stepwise model was greater than that of the concerted model. In seven such comparisons, the likelihood of the concerted model was greater than that of the stepwise model, and in two there was no difference. Log likelihood ratio distributions were obtained from three files (those with the most events) by multiple cycles of resampling and fitting. The means of these distributions were significantly greater than zero, indicating that the stepwise scheme was as good as, or better than, the concerted scheme in describing receptor activation. 6. According to the stepwise view, two binding sites must be occupied and two 'gates' activated for conduction to occur. Although equivalent binding is not an essential aspect of stepwise activation, the binding sites can be identical and have a low affinity for ACh (Kd approximately 130

  13. Calcium and IP3 dynamics in cardiac myocytes: experimental and computational perspectives and approaches.

    PubMed

    Hohendanner, Felix; McCulloch, Andrew D; Blatter, Lothar A; Michailova, Anushka P

    2014-01-01

    lays in quantitative differences of local [Ca(2+)] in the nuclear and cytosolic compartment. In this review, we discuss the state of knowledge regarding the origin and the physiological implications of nuclear Ca(2+) transients in different cardiac cell types (adult atrial and ventricular myocytes) as well as experimental and mathematical approaches to study Ca(2+) and IP3 signaling in the cytosol and nucleus. In particular, we focus on the concept that highly localized Ca(2+) signals are required to translocate and activate Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factors (e.g., nuclear factor of activated T-cells, NFAT; histone deacetylase, HDAC) through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes. PMID:24639654

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose metabolism in human myocytes.

    PubMed

    Luque, M A; González, N; Márquez, L; Acitores, A; Redondo, A; Morales, M; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    2002-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to have insulin-like effects upon the metabolism of glucose in rat liver, muscle and fat, and on that of lipids in rat and human adipocytes. These actions seem to be exerted through specific receptors which, unlike that of the pancreas, are not - at least in liver and muscle - cAMP-associated. Here we have investigated the effect, its characteristics, and possible second messengers of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism of human skeletal muscle, in tissue strips and primary cultured myocytes. In muscle strips, GLP-1, like insulin, stimulated glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase a activity, and glucose oxidation and utilization, and inhibited glycogen phosphorylase a activity, all of this at physiological concentrations of the peptide. In cultured myotubes, GLP-1 exerted, from 10(-13) mol/l, a dose-related increase of the D-[U-(14)C]glucose incorporation into glycogen, with the same potency as insulin, together with an activation of glycogen synthase a; the effect of 10(-11) mol/l GLP-1 on both parameters was additive to that induced by the equimolar amount of insulin. Synthase a was still activated in cells after 2 days of exposure to GLP-1, as compared with myotubes maintained in the absence of peptide. In human muscle cells, exendin-4 and its truncated form 9-39 amide (Ex-9) are both agonists of the GLP-1 effect on glycogen synthesis and synthase a activity; but while neither GLP-1 nor exendin-4 affected the cellular cAMP content after 5-min incubation in the absence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine (IBMX), an increase was detected with Ex-9. GLP-1, exendin-4, Ex-9 and insulin all induced the prompt hydrolysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs). This work shows a potent stimulatory effect of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism of human skeletal muscle, and supports the long-term therapeutic value of the peptide. Further evidence for a GLP-1 receptor in this tissue, different from that of the pancreas, is also illustrated

  15. Computational analysis of the regulation of Ca2+ dynamics in rat ventricular myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugenhagen, Scott M.; Beard, Daniel A.

    2015-10-01

    Force-frequency relationships of isolated cardiac myocytes show complex behaviors that are thought to be specific to both the species and the conditions associated with the experimental preparation. Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in shaping the force-frequency relationship, and understanding the properties of the force-frequency relationship in vivo requires an understanding of Ca2+ dynamics under physiologically relevant conditions. Ca2+ signaling is itself a complicated process that is best understood on a quantitative level via biophysically based computational simulation. Although a large number of models are available in the literature, the models are often a conglomeration of components parameterized to data of incompatible species and/or experimental conditions. In addition, few models account for modulation of Ca2+ dynamics via β-adrenergic and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathways even though they are hypothesized to play an important regulatory role in vivo. Both protein-kinase-A and CaMKII are known to phosphorylate a variety of targets known to be involved in Ca2+ signaling, but the effects of these pathways on the frequency- and inotrope-dependence of Ca2+ dynamics are not currently well understood. In order to better understand Ca2+ dynamics under physiological conditions relevant to rat, a previous computational model is adapted and re-parameterized to a self-consistent dataset obtained under physiological temperature and pacing frequency and updated to include β-adrenergic and CaMKII regulatory pathways. The necessity of specific effector mechanisms of these pathways in capturing inotrope- and frequency-dependence of the data is tested by attempting to fit the data while including and/or excluding those effector components. We find that: (1) β-adrenergic-mediated phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel (LCC) (and not of phospholamban (PLB)) is sufficient to explain the inotrope-dependence; and (2) that

  16. Modulation of the muscarinic K+ channel by P2-purinoceptors in guinea-pig atrial myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, H; Ehara, T

    1996-01-01

    1. Activation of muscarinic K+ (KACh) channels by P2-purinergic agonists, such as ATP, decreases monotonically in the continued presence of agonist. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this process of decline in guinea-pig atrial myocytes using the patch-clamp technique. 2. External ATP reversibly depressed the acetylcholine (ACh, 5.5-11 microM)-induced KACh current in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5.4 microM. 3. External ATP irreversibly reduced guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S)-induced KACh current both in control and pertussis toxin (PTX)-pretreated cells, suggesting (i) that the ATP-induced inhibition of KACh current occurred at some step(s) downstream from the activation of the PTX-sensitive G protein, GK, and (ii) that a PTX-insensitive G protein was involved in the signal transduction pathway. 4. The potency order of ATP analogues in reducing KACh current was ATP > or = 2-methylthio-ATP > or = alpha, beta-methylene-ATP, indicating involvement of a P2Y-type purinoceptor. 5. In the cell-attached patch recording, ATP (100 microM) applied to the bath solution reduced the activity of the KACh channels activated by ACh in the pipette, in two out of eight experiments, suggesting the possible involvement of cytosolic second messengers in the inhibition of KACh channels. 6. The ATP-induced reduction of KACh current was not affected by a protein kinase C inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H-7), suggesting that this response was not mediated by the activation of protein kinase C. 7. These results demonstrate that, in addition to the membrane-delimited activation through GK, external ATP causes an inhibition of the KACh channel probably by activating a PTX-insensitive G protein and cytosolic second messenger(s), which may underlie the monotonic decrease of the ATP-activated KACh current. PMID:8961182

  17. Minocycline protects cardiac myocytes against simulated ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rong; Kim, Sun Hee; Honbo, Norman; Karliner, Joel S.; Alano, Conrad C.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in cardiomyocytes during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. This leads to oxidative DNA damage and activation of nuclear repair enzymes such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 activation promotes DNA repair under normal conditions. However, excessive activation of PARP-1 leads to cell death. Here we report that PARP-1 enzymatic activity is directly inhibited by minocycline, and we propose that one mechanism of minocycline cardioprotection is due to PARP-1 inhibition. Using cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes, we evaluated the mechanism of minocycline protection in which PARP-1 activation was induced by simulated ischemia/reperfusion (sI/R) injury using oxygen-glucose deprivation. We found an increase in reactive oxygen species production, PARP-1 activation, and PARP-1-mediated cell death after sI/R. Cell death was significantly reduced by the PARP inhibitors DPQ (10 μM) and PJ-34 (500 nM), or by minocycline (500 nM). Cellular NAD+ depletion and poly(ADP-ribose) formation, which are biochemical markers of PARP-1 activation, were also blocked by minocycline. Finally, sI/R led to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which was prevented by minocycline. Therefore, we propose that the protective effect of minocycline on cardiac myocyte survival is due to inhibition of PARP-1 activity. PMID:20881608

  18. Generation and Use of Trophoblast Stem Cells and Uterine Myocytes to Study the Role of Connexins for Pregnancy and Labor.

    PubMed

    Kibschull, Mark; Lye, Stephen J; Shynlova, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models have demonstrated critical roles for gap junctions in establishing a successful pregnancy. To study the cellular and molecular mechanisms, the use of cell culture systems is essential to discriminate between the effects of different connexin isoforms expressed in individual cells or tissues of the developing conceptus or in maternal reproductive tissues. The generation and analysis of gene-deficient trophoblast stem cell lines from mice clearly revealed the functions of connexins in regulating placental development. This chapter focuses on the use of connexin gene-deficient trophoblast stem cell cultures to reveal the individual role of gap junctions in regulating trophoblast differentiation and proliferation in vitro under controlled conditions. In addition, cultures of primary uterine myocytes, isolated from mice or rats, allow studying the effects of mechanical stretch or ovarian hormones on regulating connexin expression, and thus, to model the molecular mechanisms of uterine growth and development during pregnancy. Here, we describe the derivation of primary uterine myocyte cultures and their use in in vitro stretch experiments to study the mechanisms of myometrial remodeling essential to accommodate the growing fetus throughout gestation. PMID:27207288

  19. Abnormal Ca2+ Cycling in Failing Ventricular Myocytes: Role of NOS1-Mediated Nitroso-Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Heart failure (HF) results from poor heart function and is the leading cause of death in Western society. Abnormalities of Ca2+ handling at the level of the ventricular myocyte are largely responsible for much of the poor heart function. Recent Advances: Although studies have unraveled numerous mechanisms for the abnormal Ca2+ handling, investigations over the past decade have indicated that much of the contractile dysfunction and adverse remodeling that occurs in HF involves oxidative stress. Critical Issues: Regrettably, antioxidant therapy has been an immense disappointment in clinical trials. Thus, redox signaling is being reassessed to elucidate why antioxidants failed to treat HF. Future Directions: A recently identified aspect of redox signaling (specifically the superoxide anion radical) is its interaction with nitric oxide, known as the nitroso-redox balance. There is a large nitroso-redox imbalance with HF, and we suggest that correcting this imbalance may be able to restore myocyte contraction and improve heart function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2044–2059. PMID:24801117

  20. Influence of Thromboxane A2 on the Regulation of Adenosine Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels in Mouse Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, In Seok; Cho, Hwa Jin; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Kim, Sang Hyung; Na, Kook Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play an important role in myocardial protection. We examined the effects of thromboxane A2 on the regulation of KATP channel activity in single ventricular myocytes. Subjects and Methods Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of adult Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by enzymatic digestion. Single channel activity was recorded by excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp configurations at −60 mV holding potential during the perfusion of an ATP-free K-5 solution. Results In the excised inside-out patches, the thromboxane A2 analog, U46619, decreased the KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner; however, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548, did not significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of U46619. In the cell-attached patches, U46619 inhibited dinitrophenol (DNP)-induced KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner, and SQ29548 attenuated the inhibitory effects of U46619 on DNP-induced KATP channel activity. Conclusion Thromboxane A2 may inhibit KATP channel activity, and may have a harmful effect on ischemic myocardium. PMID:27482267

  1. Insulin-like growth factor 2 reverses memory and synaptic deficits in APP transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Lucas, Maria; Viana da Silva, Silvia; Di Scala, Marianna; Garcia-Barroso, Carolina; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Mulle, Christophe; Alberini, Cristina M; Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar; Garcia-Osta, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) was recently found to play a critical role in memory consolidation in rats and mice, and hippocampal or systemic administration of recombinant IGF2 enhances memory. Here, using a gene therapy-based approach with adeno-associated virus (AAV), we show that IGF2 overexpression in the hippocampus of aged wild-type mice enhances memory and promotes dendritic spine formation. Furthermore, we report that IGF2 expression decreases in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease, and this leads us to hypothesize that increased IGF2 levels may be beneficial for treating the disease. Thus, we used the AAV system to deliver IGF2 or IGF1 into the hippocampus of the APP mouse model Tg2576 and demonstrate that IGF2 and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) rescue behavioural deficits, promote dendritic spine formation and restore normal hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission. The brains of Tg2576 mice that overexpress IGF2 but not IGF1 also show a significant reduction in amyloid levels. This reduction probably occurs through an interaction with the IGF2 receptor (IGF2R). Hence, IGF2 and, to a lesser extent, IGF1 may be effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25100745

  2. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart.

  3. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, and leucine on protein turnover and pathways that regulate ubiquitin ligase expression in rainbow trout primary myocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin, and leucine on protein turnover and pathways that regulate proteolytic gene expression and protein polyubiquitination were investigated in primary cultures of four day old rainbow trout myocytes. Supplementing media with 100 nM IGF-I inc...

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Cinobufagin on L-Type Ca2+ Currents, Contractility, and Ca2+ Homeostasis of Isolated Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pinya; Song, Qiongtao; Liu, Tao; Wu, Zhonglin; Chu, Xi; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Cinobufagin (CBG), a major bioactive ingredient of the bufanolide steroid compounds of Chan Su, has been widely used to treat coronary heart disease. At present, the effect of CBG on the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa-L) of ventricular myocytes remains undefined. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of CBG on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) handling and cell contractility in rat ventricular myocytes. CBG was investigated by determining its influence on ICa-L, Ca2+ transient, and contractility in rat ventricular myocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and video-based edge-detection and dual-excitation fluorescence photomultiplier systems. The dose of CBG (10−8 M) decreased the maximal inhibition of CBG by 47.93%. CBG reduced ICa-L in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 4 × 10−10 M, upshifted the current-voltage curve of ICa-L, and shifted the activation and inactivation curves of ICa-L leftward. Moreover, CBG diminished the amplitude of the cell shortening and Ca2+ transients with a decrease in the time to peak (Tp) and the time to 50% of the baseline (Tr). CBG inhibited L-type Ca2+ channels, and reduced [Ca2+]i and contractility in adult rat ventricular myocytes. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cardioprotective efficacy of CBG. PMID:24977199

  5. Exogenous superoxide dismutase and catalase promote recovery of function in isolated rat heart after regional ischemia and may be transported from capillaries into myocytes.

    PubMed

    Koke, J R; Christodoulides, N J; Chudej, L L; Bittar, N

    1990-08-10

    The effects of infusing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) into the coronary circulation were investigated in isolated, working rat hearts prior to and during a 15 minute episode of regional ischemia followed by 30 minutes reperfusion. Aortic output, left ventricular pressure and dP/dT were recorded. Compared to untreated hearts, SOD and CAT significantly improved function during reperfusion, but had no effect during the pre-ischemic or the ischemic period. To investigate possible transport of SOD and CAT into rat myocytes, cryotome sections of isolated, Langendorff perfused rat hearts were exposed to rabbit antibody prepared against the exogenous SOD and CAT. Bound antibody was detected by the indirect-fluorescent antibody test. The interior of myocytes from rat hearts exposed to SOD and CAT bound antibodies prepared against these enzymes, whereas myocytes from rat hearts not exposed to exogenous SOD and CAT only bound the CAT antibodies. This indicates the anti-SOD we prepared is specific for exogenous SOD, and also suggests exogenous SOD can gain access to the cytoplasm of myocytes from the coronary circulation. PMID:2274050

  6. Differential effects of pertussis toxin on insulin-stimulated phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and glycerolipid synthesis de novo. Studies in BC3H-1 myocytes and rat adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.; Standaert, M.L.; Nair, G.P.; Farese, R.V. )

    1991-04-02

    Insulin-induced increases in diacylglycerol (DAG) have been suggested to result from stimulation of de novo phosphatidic acid (PA) synthesis and phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis. Presently, the authors found that insulin decreased PC levels of BC3H-1 myocytes and rat adipocytes by approximately 10-25% within 30 s. These decreases were rapidly reversed in both cell types, apparently because of increased PC synthesis de novo. In BC3H-1 myocytes, pertussis toxin inhibited PC resynthesis and insulin effects on the pathway of de novo PA-DAG-PC synthesis, as evidenced by changes in ({sup 3}H)glycerol incorporation, but did not inhibit insulin-stimulated PC hydrolysis. Pertussis toxin also blocked the later, but not the initial, increase in DAG production in the myocytes. Phorbol esters activated PC hydrolysis in both myocytes and adipocytes, but insulin-induced stimulation of PC hydrolysis was not dependent upon activation of PKC, since this hydrolysis was not inhibited by 500 {mu}M sangivamycin, an effective PKC inhibitor. The results indicate that insulin increases DAG by pertussis toxin sensitive and insensitive (PC hydrolysis) mechanisms, which are mechanistically separate, but functionally interdependent and integrated. PC hydrolysis may contribute importantly to initial increases in DAG, but later sustained increases are apparently largely dependent on insulin-induced stimulation of the pathway of de novo phospholipid synthesis.

  7. Measurement of Strain in Cardiac Myocytes at Micrometer Scale Based on Rapid Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Non-Rigid Image Registration.

    PubMed

    Lichter, J; Li, Hui; Sachse, Frank B

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of cell shortening is an important technique for assessment of physiology and pathophysiology of cardiac myocytes. Many types of heart disease are associated with decreased myocyte shortening, which is commonly caused by structural and functional remodeling. Here, we present a new approach for local measurement of 2-dimensional strain within cells at high spatial resolution. The approach applies non-rigid image registration to quantify local displacements and Cauchy strain in images of cells undergoing contraction. We extensively evaluated the approach using synthetic cell images and image sequences from rapid scanning confocal microscopy of fluorescently labeled isolated myocytes from the left ventricle of normal and diseased canine heart. Application of the approach yielded a comprehensive description of cellular strain including novel measurements of transverse strain and spatial heterogeneity of strain. Quantitative comparison with manual measurements of strain in image sequences indicated reliability of the developed approach. We suggest that the developed approach provides researchers with a novel tool to investigate contractility of cardiac myocytes at subcellular scale. In contrast to previously introduced methods for measuring cell shorting, the developed approach provides comprehensive information on the spatio-temporal distribution of 2-dimensional strain at micrometer scale.

  8. Sarcoplasmic reticulum and L-type Ca²⁺ channel activity regulate the beat-to-beat stability of calcium handling in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Llach, Anna; Molina, Cristina E; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Padró, Josep; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2011-07-01

    Irregularities in intracellular calcium on a beat-to-beat basis can precede cardiac arrhythmia, but the mechanisms inducing such irregularities remain elusive. This study tested the hypothesis that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and L-type calcium channel activity determine the beat-to-beat response and its rate dependency. For this purpose, patch-clamp technique and confocal calcium imaging was used to record L-type calcium current (ICa) and visualize calcium in human atrial myocytes subjected to increasing stimulation frequencies (from 0.2 to 2 Hz). The beat-to-beat response was heterogeneous among a population of 133 myocytes, with 30 myocytes responding uniformly at all frequencies, while alternating and irregular responses were induced in 78 and 25 myocytes, respectively. Myocytes with uniform responses had the lowest frequency of calcium wave-induced transient inward currents (ITI; 0.4 ± 0.2 min⁻¹), ICa density (1.8 ± 0.3 pA pF⁻¹) and caffeine-releasable calcium load (6.2 ± 0.5 amol pF⁻¹), while those with alternating responses had the highest ITI frequency (1.8 ± 0.3 min⁻¹,P =0.003) and ICa density (2.4 ± 0.2 pA pF⁻¹, P =0.04). In contrast, the calcium load was highest in myocytes with irregular responses (8.5 ± 0.7 amol pF⁻¹, P =0.01). Accordingly, partial ICa inhibition reduced the incidence (from 78 to 44%, P <0.05) and increased the threshold frequency for beat-to-beat alternation (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.2 Hz, P <0.05). Partial inhibition of SR calcium release reduced the ITI frequency, increased calcium loading and favoured induction of irregular responses, while complete inhibition abolished beat-to-beat alternation at all frequencies. In conclusion, the beat-to-beat response was heterogeneous among human atrial myocytes subjected to increasing stimulation frequencies, and the nature and stability of the response were determined by the SR and L-type calcium channel activities, suggesting that these mechanisms are key to

  9. Role of transiently altered sarcolemmal membrane permeability and basic fibroblast growth factor release in the hypertrophic response of adult rat ventricular myocytes to increased mechanical activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, D; Pimental, D; Prasad, S; Mäki, T; Berger, H J; McNeil, P L; Smith, T W; Kelly, R A

    1996-01-01

    One of the trophic factors that has been implicated in initiating or facilitating growth in response to increased mechanical stress in several tissues and cell types is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; FGF-2). Although mammalian cardiac muscle cells express bFGF, it is not known whether it plays a role in mediating cardiac adaptation to increased load, nor how release of the cytosolic 18-kD isoform of bFGF would be regulated in response to increased mechanical stress. To test the hypothesis that increased mechanical activity induces transient alterations in sarcolemmal permeability that allow cytosolic bFGF to be released and subsequently to act as an autocrine and paracrine growth stimulus, we examined primary isolates of adult rat ventricular myocytes maintained in serum-free, defined medium that were continually paced at 3 Hz for up to 5 d. Paced myocytes, but not nonpaced control cells, exhibited a "hypertrophic" response, which was characterized by increases in the rate of phenylalanine incorporation, total cellular protein content, and cell size. These changes could be mimicked in control cells by exogenous recombinant bFGF and could be blocked in continually paced cells by a specific neutralizing anti-bFGF antibody. In addition, medium conditioned by continually paced myocytes contained significantly more bFGF measured by ELISA and more mitogenic activity for 3T3 cells, activity that could be reduced by a neutralizing anti-bFGF antibody. The hypothesis that transient membrane disruptions sufficient to allow release of cytosolic bFGF occur in paced myocytes was examined by monitoring the rate of uptake into myocytes from the medium of 10-kD dextran linked to fluorescein. Paced myocytes exhibited a significantly higher rate of fluoresceinlabeled dextran uptake. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that nonlethal, transient alterations in sarcolemmal membrane permeability with release of cytosolic bFGF is one mechanism by which increased

  10. Hypoxia and glucose independently regulate the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Singh, K J; Honbo, N Y; Karliner, J S

    1991-01-01

    We explored the effects of two components of ischemia, hypoxia and glucose deprivation, on the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta AR)-adenylate cyclase system in a model of hypoxic injury in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. After 2 h of hypoxia in the presence of 5 mM glucose, cell surface beta AR density (3H-CGP-12177) decreased from 54.8 +/- 8.4 to 39 +/- 6.3 (SE) fmol/mg protein (n = 10, P less than 0.025), while cytosolic beta AR density (125I-iodocyanopindolol [ICYP]) increased by 74% (n = 5, P less than 0.05). Upon reexposure to oxygen cell surface beta AR density returned toward control levels. Cells exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation without glucose exhibited similar alterations in beta AR density. In hypoxic cells incubated with 5 mM glucose, the addition of 1 microM (-)-norepinephrine (NE) increased cAMP generation from 29.3 +/- 10.6 to 54.2 +/- 16.1 pmol/35 mm plate (n = 5, P less than 0.025); upon reoxygenation cAMP levels remained elevated above control (n = 5, P less than 0.05). In contrast, NE-stimulated cAMP content in glucose-deprived hypoxic myocytes fell by 31% (n = 5, P less than 0.05) and did not return to control levels with reoxygenation. beta AR-agonist affinity assessed by (-)-isoproterenol displacement curves was unaltered after 2 h of hypoxia irrespective of glucose content. Addition of forskolin (100 microM) to glucose-supplemented hypoxic cells increased cAMP generation by 60% (n = 5; P less than 0.05), but in the absence of glucose this effect was not seen. In cells incubated in glucose-containing medium, the decline in intracellular ATP levels was attenuated after 2 h of hypoxia (21 vs. 40%, P less than 0.05). Similarly, glucose supplementation prevented LDH release in hypoxic myocytes. We conclude that (a) oxygen and glucose independently regulate beta AR density and agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation; (b) hypoxia has no effect on beta AR-agonist or antagonist affinity; (c) 5 mM glucose attenuates the rate of decline in

  11. Intravenous Glial Growth Factor 2 (GGF2) Isoform of Neuregulin-1β Improves Left Ventricular Function, Gene and Protein Expression in Rats after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Abigail; Smith, Holly M.; Galindo, Cristi L.; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Lenneman, Carrie G.; Odiete, Oghenerukevwe; Friedman, David B.; Kronenberg, Marvin W.; Zheng, Siyuen; Zhao, Zhongming; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E.; Srinivas, Maya; Ganguly, Anindita; Iaci, Jennifer; Parry, Tom J.; Caggiano, Anthony O.; Sawyer, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Recombinant Neuregulin (NRG)-1β has multiple beneficial effects on cardiac myocytes in culture, and has potential as a clinical therapy for heart failure (HF). A number of factors may influence the effect of NRG-1β on cardiac function via ErbB receptor coupling and expression. We examined the effect of the NRG-1β isoform, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2), in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) and determined the impact of high-fat diet as well as chronicity of disease on GGF2 induced improvement in left ventricular systolic function. Potential mechanisms for GGF2 effects on the remote myocardium were explored using microarray and proteomic analysis. Methods and Results Rats with MI were randomized to receive vehicle, 0.625 mg/kg, or 3.25 mg/kg GGF2 in the presence and absence of high-fat feeding beginning at day 7 post-MI and continuing for 4 weeks. Residual left ventricular (LV) function was improved in both of the GGF2 treatment groups compared with the vehicle treated MI group at 4 weeks of treatment as assessed by echocardiography. High-fat diet did not prevent the effects of high dose GGF2. In experiments where treatment was delayed until 8 weeks after MI, high but not low dose GGF2 treatment was associated with improved systolic function. mRNA and protein expression analysis of remote left ventricular tissue revealed a number of changes in myocardial gene and protein expression altered by MI that were normalized by GGF2 treatment, many of which are involved in energy production. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in rats with MI induced systolic dysfunction, GGF2 treatment improves cardiac function. There are differences in sensitivity of the myocardium to GGF2 effects when administered early vs. late post-MI that may be important to consider in the development of GGF2 in humans. PMID:23437060

  12. Hrd1 and ER-Associated Protein Degradation, ERAD, Are Critical Elements of the Adaptive ER Stress Response in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Doroudgar, Shirin; Völkers, Mirko; Thuerauf, Donna J; Khan, Mohsin; Mohsin, Sadia; Respress, Jonathan L; Wang, Wei; Gude, Natalie; Müller, Oliver J; Wehrens, Xander HT; Sussman, Mark A; Glembotski, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Hrd1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been studied in yeast, where it contributes to ER protein quality control by ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins that accumulate during ER stress. Neither Hrd1 nor ERAD have been studied in the heart, or in cardiac myocytes, where protein quality control is critical for proper heart function. Objective The objectives of this study were to elucidate roles for Hrd1 in ER stress, ERAD, and viability in cultured cardiac myocytes and in the mouse heart, in vivo. Methods and Results The effects of siRNA-mediated Hrd1 knockdown were examined in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. The effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Hrd1 knockdown and overexpression were examined in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure-overload induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which challenges protein-folding capacity. In cardiac myocytes, the ER stressors, thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (TM) increased ERAD, as well as adaptive ER stress proteins, and minimally affected cell death. However, when Hrd1 was knocked down, TG and TM dramatically decreased ERAD, while increasing maladaptive ER stress proteins and cell death. In vivo, Hrd1 knockdown exacerbated cardiac dysfunction, and increased apoptosis and cardiac hypertrophy, while Hrd1 overexpression preserved cardiac function, and decreased apoptosis and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure-overload. Conclusions Hrd1 and ERAD are essential components of the adaptive ER stress response in cardiac myocytes. Hrd1 contributes to preserving heart structure and function in a mouse model of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26137860

  13. The number of cardiac myocytes in the hypertrophic and hypotrophic left ventricle of the obese and calorie-restricted mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    Schipke, Julia; Banmann, Ewgenija; Nikam, Sandeep; Voswinckel, Robert; Kohlstedt, Karin; Loot, Annemarieke E; Fleming, Ingrid; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Changes in body mass due to varying amounts of calorie intake occur frequently with obesity and anorexia/cachexia being at opposite sides of the scale. Here, we tested whether a high-fat diet or calorie restriction (CR) decreases the number of cardiac myocytes and affects their volume. Ten 6–8-week-old mice were randomly assigned to a normal (control group, n = 5) or high-fat diet (obesity group, n = 5) for 28 weeks. Ten 8-week-old mice were randomly assigned to a normal (control group, n = 5) or CR diet (CR group, n = 5) for 7 days. The left ventricles of the hearts were prepared for light and electron microscopy, and analysed by design-based stereology. In CR, neither the number of cardiac myocytes, the relationship between one- and multinucleate myocytes nor their mean volume were significantly different between the groups. In contrast, in the obese mice we observed a significant increase in cell size combined with a lower number of cardiomyocytes (P < 0.05 in the one-sided U-test) and an increase in the mean number of nuclei per myocyte. The mean volume of myofibrils and mitochondria per cardiac myocyte reflected the hypertrophic and hypotrophic remodelling in obesity and CR, respectively, but were only significant in the obese mice, indicating a more profound effect of the obesity protocol than in the CR experiments. Taken together, our data indicate that long-lasting obesity is associated with a loss of cardiomyocytes of the left ventricle, but that short-term CR does not alter the number of cardiomyocytes. PMID:25322944

  14. Metabolic Inhibition Strongly Inhibits Na+-Dependent Mg2+ Efflux in Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Michiko; Inoue, Hana; Konishi, Masato

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We measured intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) in rat ventricular myocytes using the fluorescent indicator furaptra (25°C). In normally energized cells loaded with Mg2+, the introduction of extracellular Na+ induced a rapid decrease in [Mg2+]i: the initial rate of decrease in [Mg2+]i (initial Δ[Mg2+]i/Δt) is thought to represent the rate of Na+-dependent Mg2+ efflux (putative Na+/Mg2+ exchange). To determine whether Mg2+ efflux depends directly on energy derived from cellular metabolism, in addition to the transmembrane Na+ gradient, we estimated the initial Δ[Mg2+]i/Δt after metabolic inhibition. In the absence of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+, treatment of the cells with 1 μM carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, an uncoupler of mitochondria, caused a large increase in [Mg2+]i from ∼0.9 mM to ∼2.5 mM in a period of 5–8 min (probably because of breakdown of MgATP and release of Mg2+) and cell shortening to ∼50% of the initial length (probably because of formation of rigor cross-bridges). Similar increases in [Mg2+]i and cell shortening were observed after application of 5 mM potassium cyanide (KCN) (an inhibitor of respiration) for ≥90 min. The initial Δ[Mg2+]i/Δt was diminished, on average, by 90% in carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone-treated cells and 92% in KCN-treated cells. When the cells were treated with 5 mM KCN for shorter times (59–85 min), a significant decrease in the initial Δ[Mg2+]i/Δt (on average by 59%) was observed with only a slight shortening of the cell length. Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) estimated with a Na+ indicator sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate was, on average, 5.0–10.5 mM during the time required for the initial Δ[Mg2+]i/Δt measurements, which is well below the [Na+]i level for half inhibition of the Mg2+ efflux (∼40 mM). Normalization of intracellular pH using 10 μM nigericin, a H+ ionophore, did not reverse the inhibition of the Mg2+ efflux

  15. The effect of oxygen free radicals on calcium current and dihydropyridine binding sites in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, L.; Cerbai, E.; Gessi, S.; Borea, P. A.; Mugelli, A.

    1996-01-01

    1. We used electrophysiological and binding techniques to determine the effects of oxygen free radicals (OFRs) generated by dihydroxyfumaric acid (DHF, 5 mM) on calcium current and dihydropyridine binding sites in guinea-pig isolated ventricular myocytes. 2. Binding of [3H]-PN200-110 to isolated ventricular myocytes revealed one population of binding sites with a KD of 0.11 +/- 0.01 nM and Bmax of 139.1 +/- 6.9 fmol mg-1 protein (n = 24). After 15 min of exposure to DHF, the density, but not the affinity of [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced to 35% of the control value (Bmax = 49.4 +/- 3.7 fmol mg-1 protein, KD = 0.11 +/- 0.01 nM, n = 15). In the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) the reduction in [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites was almost completely prevented (Bmax = 120.5 +/- 7.4 in control, n = 4 and 98.8 +/- 7.4 fmol mg-1 protein in DHF plus SOD and CAT, n = 4). KD values were not modified (0.08 +/- 0.01 in control and 0.09 +/- 0.01 nM in DHF plus SOD and CAT). 3. The time-course of the reduction of [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites by OFRs was paralleled by the decrease in L-type calcium current (Ica,L) measured in patch-clamped guinea-pig ventricular myocytes either in the absence or in the presence of EGTA in the patch pipette. In the former conditions OFRs induced the appearance of calcium-dependent alterations, i.e. the transient inward current, within 10 min. After 30 min of incubation with DHF, [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites were reduced to 25% of the control value. 4. In myocytes incubated with the antilipoperoxidant agent, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 microM), the decrease in [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites caused by DHF was partially prevented (Bmax values after 30 min exposure to DHF were 55.5 +/- 1.9 and 23.7 +/- 5.9 fmol mg-1 protein in the presence and in the absence of BHT respectively, P < 0.05). BHT did not affect the decrease in [3H]-PN200-110 binding sites during the first 15 min of exposure to

  16. Changes in myocardial cytoskeletal intermediate filaments and myocyte contractile dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy: an in vivo study in humans

    PubMed Central

    Di, S; Marotta, M; Salvatore, G; Cudemo, G; Cuda, G; De Vivo, F; Di, B; Ciaramella, F; Caputo, G; de Divitiis, O

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To investigate in vivo the intermediate cytoskeletal filaments desmin and vimentin in myocardial tissues from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and to determine whether alterations in these proteins are associated with impaired contractility.
METHODS—Endomyocardial biopsies were performed in 12 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and in 12 controls (six women with breast cancer before anthracycline chemotherapy and six male donors for heart transplantation). Biopsy specimens were analysed by light microscopy and immunochemistry (desmin, vimentin). Myocyte contractile protein function was evaluated by the actin-myosin in vitro motility assay. Left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed by echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography.
RESULTS—Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had a greater cardiomyocyte diameter than controls (p < 0.01). The increase in cell size was associated with a reduction in contractile function, as assessed by actin-myosin motility (r = −0.643; p < 0.01). Quantitative immunochemistry showed increased desmin and vimentin contents (p < 0.01), and the desmin distribution was disturbed in cardiomyopathy. There was a linear relation between desmin distribution and actin-myosin sliding in vitro (r = 0.853; p < 0.01) and an inverse correlation between desmin content and ejection fraction (r = −0.773; p < 0.02). Negative correlations were also found between myocardial vimentin content and the actin-myosin sliding rate (r = −0.74; p < 0.02) and left ventricular ejection fraction (r = −0.68; p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—Compared with normal individuals, the myocardial tissue of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy shows alterations of cytoskeletal intermediate filament distribution and content associated with reduced myocyte contraction.


Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy; desmin; vimentin; cardiac biopsy; actin-myosin PMID:11083750

  17. Differential beta-adrenergic regulation and phenotypic modulation of voltage-gated calcium currents in rat aortic myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Neveu, D; Quignard, J F; Fernandez, A; Richard, S; Nargeot, J

    1994-01-01

    1. We studied the beta-adrenergic regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel currents using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique (18-22 degrees C) in freshly isolated and in cultured (1-20 days) rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). These currents include a transient low-voltage-activated (LVA) current and two L-type-related high-voltage-activated currents (HVA1 and HVA2, respectively). 2. At 10 microM, the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoprenaline, increased the HVA2 current (65 +/- 30%, n = 10) but had no effect on LVA and HVA1 currents. This potentiation was dose dependent in the range 0.01-10 microM, developed with a slow time course and was mimicked by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP using the permeant analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP (100 microM). 3. In the well-differentiated freshly isolated myocytes, only the HVA1 current was recorded. In cultured cells, a predominant frequency of occurrence of LVA and HVA1 currents was observed in modulated and differentiated myocytes, respectively. The occurrence of the HVA2 current was stable during culture but this current disappeared when the cells were confluent. It was retrieved when the confluent cells were dispersed and subcultured. 4. In conclusion, we present evidence for a differential beta-adrenergic regulation of three types of Ca2+ channel current in adult rat aortic VSMCs. The differential expression of these currents, associated with marked changes in cell phenotypes in vitro, suggests that they serve distinct physiological functions. Images Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7799219

  18. /sup 3/H-ouabain binding and sodium-pump activity measured in myocytes isolated from guinea-pig heart

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmer, P.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the toxicity of millimolar ouabain, non-specific /sup 3/H-ouabain binding was assessed by monitoring the dissociation of the bound drug. Analysis of specific /sup 3/H-ouabain binding to myocytes yielded non-linear Scatchard plots. Nonlinearity appears to result from reduced /sup 3/H-ouabain binding due to low intracellular Na/sup 2/ concentration. Addition of 2 ..mu..M monensin, A Na/sup +/ ionophore, significantly increased /sup 3/H-ouabain binding. Incubation in Ca/sup 2 +/-free solution (0.25 mM EGTA) stimulated /sup 3/H-ouabain binding to a greater degree than monensin and caused Scatchard plots to have two distinct linear components. Monensin had no significant effects when /sup 3/H-ouabain binding occurred in Ca/sup 2 +/-free solution. Effects of Ca/sup 2 +/-free incubation to increase /sup 3/H-ouabain binding suggest that Ca/sup 2 +/ has a direct effect on /sup 3/H-ouabain binding. Alternatively, Ca/sup 2 +/-free incubation may increase Na/sup +/ permeability of the sarcolemma. Isoproterenol, phenylephrine, TPA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate), La/sup 3 +/, and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore A23187 failed to cause significant changes in /sup 3/H-ouabain binding when myocytes were incubated in a solution containing 0.5 or 2.5 ..mu..M /sup 3/H-ouabain, 0.1 mM Ca/sup 2 +/ and 1 mM K/sup +/.

  19. Effects of the venom of the spider Ornithoctonus hainana on neonatal rat ventricular myocytes cellular and ionic electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiya; Liu, Jinyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Meichi; Wang, Jing; Lu, Shanshan; Zhu, Li; Zeng, Xiongzhi; Liang, Songping

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac ion channels are membrane-spanning proteins that allow the passive movement of ions across the cell membrane along its electrochemical gradient, which regulates the resting membrane potential as well as the shape and duration of the cardiac action potential. Additionally, they have been recognized as potential targets for the actions of neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs of cardiac diseases. Spider venoms contain high abundant of toxins that target diverse ion channels and have been considered as a potential resource of new constituents with specific pharmacological properties. However, few peptides from spider venoms were detected as cardiac channel antagonists. In order to explore the effects of the venom of Ornithoctonus hainana on the action potential and ionic currents of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record action potential duration (APD), sodium current (INa), L calcium current (ICaL), rapidly activating and inactivating transient outward currents (Ito1), rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components of the delayed rectifier currents and the inward rectifier currents (IK1). Our results showed that 100 μg/mL venom obviously prolonged APDs. Significantly, the venom could inhibit INa and ICaL effectively, while no evident inhibitory effects on cardiac K(+) channels (Ito1, Iks, Ikr and Ik1) were observed, suggesting that the venom represented a multifaceted pharmacological profile. The effect of venom on Na(+) and Ca(2+) currents of ventricular myocytes revealed that the hainan venom as a rich resource of cardiac channel antagonists might be valuable tools for the investigation of both channels and drug development.

  20. Facilitation of cytosolic calcium wave propagation by local calcium uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Joshua T; Blatter, Lothar A

    2012-12-01

    The widely accepted paradigm for cytosolic Ca(2+) wave propagation postulates a 'fire-diffuse-fire' mechanism where local Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels diffuses towards and activates neighbouring release sites, resulting in a propagating Ca(2+) wave. A recent challenge to this paradigm proposed the requirement for an intra-SR 'sensitization' Ca(2+) wave that precedes the cytosolic Ca(2+) wave and primes RyRs from the luminal side to CICR. Here, we tested this hypothesis experimentally with direct simultaneous measurements of cytosolic ([Ca(2+)](i); rhod-2) and intra-SR ([Ca(2+)](SR); fluo-5N) calcium signals during wave propagation in rabbit ventricular myocytes, using high resolution fluorescence confocal imaging. The increase in [Ca(2+)](i) at the wave front preceded depletion of the SR at each point along the calcium wave front, while during this latency period a transient increase of [Ca(2+)](SR) was observed. This transient elevation of [Ca(2+)](SR) could be identified at individual release junctions and depended on the activity of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). Increased SERCA activity (β-adrenergic stimulation with 1 μM isoproterenol (isoprenaline)) decreased the latency period and increased the amplitude of the transient elevation of [Ca(2+)](SR), whereas inhibition of SERCA (3 μM cyclopiazonic acid) had the opposite effect. In conclusion, the data provide experimental evidence that local Ca(2+) uptake by SERCA into the SR facilitates the propagation of cytosolic Ca(2+) waves via luminal sensitization of the RyR, and supports a novel paradigm of a 'fire-diffuse-uptake-fire' mechanism for Ca(2+) wave propagation in cardiac myocytes.

  1. NOS1AP modulates intracellular Ca2+ in cardiac myocytes and is up-regulated in dystrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Treuer, Adriana V; Gonzalez, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    NOS1AP gene (nitric oxide synthase 1-adaptor protein) is strongly associated with abnormalities in the QT interval of the electrocardiogram and with sudden cardiac death. To determine the role of NOS1AP in the physiology of the cardiac myocyte, we assessed the impact of silencing NOS1AP, using siRNA, on [Ca2+]i transients in neonatal cardiomyocytes. In addition, we examined the co-localization of NOS1AP with cardiac ion channels, and finally, evaluated the expression of NOS1AP in a mouse model of dystrophic cardiomyopathy. Using siRNA, NOS1AP levels were reduced to ~30% of the control levels (p<0.05). NOS1AP silencing in cardiac myocytes reduced significantly the amplitude of electrically evoked calcium transients (p<0.05) and the degree of S-nitrosylation of the cells (p<0.05). Using confocal microscopy, we evaluated NOS1AP subcellular location and interactions with other proteins by co-localization analysis. NOS1AP showed a high degree of co-localization with the L-type calcium channel and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir3.1, a low degree of co-localization with the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and alfa-sarcomeric actin and no co-localization with connexin 43, suggesting functionally relevant interactions with the ion channels that regulate the action potential duration. Finally, using immunofluorescence and Western blotting, we observed that in mice with dystrophic cardiomyopathy, NOS1AP was significantly up-regulated (p<0.05). These results suggest for a role of NOS1AP on cardiac arrhythmias, acting on the L-type calcium channel, and potassium channels, probably through S-nitrosylation. PMID:24665357

  2. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside stimulates the Na+-K+ pump in isolated rabbit cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    William, Maged; Vien, Jimmy; Hamilton, Elisha; Garcia, Alvaro; Bundgaard, Henning; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2005-06-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) affects the membrane Na(+)-K(+) pump in a tissue-dependent manner. Stimulation of intrinsic pump activity, stimulation secondary to NO-induced Na(+) influx into cells or inhibition has been reported. We used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to measure electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (I(p)) in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Myocytes were voltage clamped with wide-tipped patch pipettes to achieve optimal perfusion of the intracellular compartment, and I(p) was identified as the shift in holding current induced by 100 microm ouabain. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in concentrations of 1, 10, 50 or 100 microm induced a significant increase in I(p) when the intracellular compartment was perfused with pipette solutions containing 10 mm Na(+), a concentration near physiological levels. SNP had no effect when the pump was near-maximally activated by 80 mm Na(+) in pipette solutions. Stimulation persisted in the absence of extracellular Na(+), indicating its independence of transmembrane Na(+) influx. The SNP-induced pump stimulation was abolished by inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, by inhibition of protein kinase G (PKG) with KT-5823 or by inhibition of protein phosphatase with okadaic acid. Inclusion of the non-hydrolysable cGMP analogue 8pCPT-cGMP, activated recombinant PKG or the sGC-activator YC-1 in patch pipette filling solutions reproduced the SNP-induced pump stimulation. Pump stimulation induced by YC-1 was dependent on the Na(+) concentration but not the K(+) concentration in pipette filling solutions, suggesting an altered sensitivity of the Na(+)-K(+) pump to intracellular Na(+). PMID:15817632

  3. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and NADPH Redox Regulates Cardiac Myocyte L-Type Calcium Channel Activity and Myocardial Contractile Function

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Dhwajbahadur K.; Hecker, Peter; Watanabe, Makino; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Levy, Richard J.; Okada, Takao; Edwards, John G.; Gupte, Sachin A.

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a 17-ketosteroid, epiandrosterone, attenuates L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa-L) in cardiac myocytes and inhibits myocardial contractility. Because 17-ketosteroids are known to inhibit glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, and to reduce intracellular NADPH levels, we hypothesized that inhibition of G6PD could be a novel signaling mechanism which inhibit ICa-L and, therefore, cardiac contractile function. We tested this idea by examining myocardial function in isolated hearts and Ca2+ channel activity in isolated cardiac myocytes. Myocardial function was tested in Langendorff perfused hearts and ICa-L were recorded in the whole-cell patch configuration by applying double pulses from a holding potential of −80 mV and then normalized to the peak amplitudes of control currents. 6-Aminonicotinamide, a competitive inhibitor of G6PD, increased pCO2 and decreased pH. Additionally, 6-aminonicotinamide inhibited G6PD activity, reduced NADPH levels, attenuated peak ICa-L amplitudes, and decreased left ventricular developed pressure and ±dp/dt. Finally, dialyzing NADPH into cells from the patch pipette solution attenuated the suppression of ICa-L by 6-aminonicotinamide. Likewise, in G6PD-deficient mice, G6PD insufficiency in the heart decreased GSH-to-GSSG ratio, superoxide, cholesterol and acetyl CoA. In these mice, M-mode echocardiographic findings showed increased diastolic volume and end-diastolic diameter without changes in the fraction shortening. Taken together, these findings suggest that inhibiting G6PD activity and reducing NADPH levels alters metabolism and leads to inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channel activity. Notably, this pathway may be involved in modulating myocardial contractility under physiological and pathophysiological conditions during which the pentose phosphate pathway-derived NADPH redox is modulated (e.g., ischemia-reperfusion and heart failure). PMID:23071515

  4. Simulation of the effect of rogue ryanodine receptors on a calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Luyao; Xia, Ling; Ye, Xuesong; Cheng, Heping

    2010-06-01

    Calcium homeostasis is considered to be one of the most important factors for the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle. However, under some pathological conditions, such as heart failure (HF), calcium homeostasis is disordered, and spontaneous waves may occur. In this study, we developed a mathematical model of formation and propagation of a calcium wave based upon a governing system of diffusion-reaction equations presented by Izu et al (2001 Biophys. J. 80 103-20) and integrated non-clustered or 'rogue' ryanodine receptors (rogue RyRs) into a two-dimensional (2D) model of ventricular myocytes isolated from failing hearts in which sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pools are partially unloaded. The model was then used to simulate the effect of rogue RyRs on initiation and propagation of the calcium wave in ventricular myocytes with HF. Our simulation results show that rogue RyRs can amplify the diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in the form of Ca2+ quarks, increase the probability of occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ waves even with smaller SR Ca2+ stores, accelerate Ca2+ wave propagation, and hence lead to delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and cardiac arrhythmia in the diseased heart. This investigation suggests that incorporating rogue RyRs in the Ca2+ wave model under HF conditions provides a new view of Ca2+ dynamics that could not be mimicked by adjusting traditional parameters involved in Ca2+ release units and other ion channels, and contributes to understanding the underlying mechanism of HF.

  5. Actin dynamics tune the integrated stress response by regulating eukaryotic initiation factor 2α dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Joseph E; Dalton, Lucy E; Clarke, Hanna J; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S; Patel, Vruti; Moorhead, Greg; Ron, David; Marciniak, Stefan J

    2015-01-01

    Four stress-sensing kinases phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) to activate the integrated stress response (ISR). In animals, the ISR is antagonised by selective eIF2α phosphatases comprising a catalytic protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) subunit in complex with a PPP1R15-type regulatory subunit. An unbiased search for additional conserved components of the PPP1R15-PP1 phosphatase identified monomeric G-actin. Like PP1, G-actin associated with the functional core of PPP1R15 family members and G-actin depletion, by the marine toxin jasplakinolide, destabilised the endogenous PPP1R15A-PP1 complex. The abundance of the ternary PPP1R15-PP1-G-actin complex was responsive to global changes in the polymeric status of actin, as was its eIF2α-directed phosphatase activity, while localised G-actin depletion at sites enriched for PPP1R15 enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation and the downstream ISR. G-actin's role as a stabilizer of the PPP1R15-containing holophosphatase provides a mechanism for integrating signals regulating actin dynamics with stresses that trigger the ISR. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04872.001 PMID:25774599

  6. Cytoprotection by pre-emptive conditional phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Phoebe D; Jousse, Céline; Marciniak, Stefan J; Zhang, Yuhong; Novoa, Isabel; Scheuner, Donalyn; Kaufman, Randal J; Ron, David; Harding, Heather P

    2004-01-01

    Transient phosphorylation of the α-subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) represses translation and activates select gene expression under diverse stressful conditions. Defects in the eIF2α phosphorylation-dependent integrated stress response impair resistance to accumulation of malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), to oxidative stress and to nutrient deprivations. To study the hypothesized protective role of eIF2α phosphorylation in isolation of parallel stress signaling pathways, we fused the kinase domain of pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), an ER stress-inducible eIF2α kinase that is normally activated by dimerization, to a protein module that binds a small dimerizer molecule. The activity of this artificial eIF2α kinase, Fv2E-PERK, is subordinate to the dimerizer and is uncoupled from upstream stress signaling. Fv2E-PERK activation enhanced the expression of numerous stress-induced genes and protected cells from the lethal effects of oxidants, peroxynitrite donors and ER stress. Our findings indicate that eIF2α phosphorylation can initiate signaling in a cytoprotective gene expression pathway independently of other parallel stress-induced signals and that activation of this pathway can single-handedly promote a stress-resistant preconditioned state. PMID:14713949

  7. Actin dynamics tune the integrated stress response by regulating eukaryotic initiation factor 2α dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Joseph E; Dalton, Lucy E; Clarke, Hanna J; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S; Patel, Vruti; Moorhead, Greg; Ron, David; Marciniak, Stefan J

    2015-01-01

    Four stress-sensing kinases phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) to activate the integrated stress response (ISR). In animals, the ISR is antagonised by selective eIF2α phosphatases comprising a catalytic protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) subunit in complex with a PPP1R15-type regulatory subunit. An unbiased search for additional conserved components of the PPP1R15-PP1 phosphatase identified monomeric G-actin. Like PP1, G-actin associated with the functional core of PPP1R15 family members and G-actin depletion, by the marine toxin jasplakinolide, destabilised the endogenous PPP1R15A-PP1 complex. The abundance of the ternary PPP1R15-PP1-G-actin complex was responsive to global changes in the polymeric status of actin, as was its eIF2α-directed phosphatase activity, while localised G-actin depletion at sites enriched for PPP1R15 enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation and the downstream ISR. G-actin's role as a stabilizer of the PPP1R15-containing holophosphatase provides a mechanism for integrating signals regulating actin dynamics with stresses that trigger the ISR.

  8. Noncovalent PEGylation by polyanion complexation as a means to stabilize keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2).

    PubMed

    Khondee, Supang; Olsen, Christopher M; Zeng, Yuhong; Middaugh, C Russell; Berkland, Cory

    2011-11-14

    Repifermin, a truncated form of fibroblast growth factor-10 (FGF-10) also known as keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), is a heparin-binding protein with potent regenerative properties. The protein unfolds and aggregates at relatively low temperature (~37 °C). Electrostatic interactions between polyanions and several FGFs have been reported to enhance the thermal stability of these proteins. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was grafted to the polyanions pentosan polysulfate (PPS) and dextran sulfate (DS) as an alternative means to stabilize and noncovalently PEGylate KGF-2. Physical characteristics of KGF-2:polyanion-PEG complexes were examined using a variety of methods including circular dichroism (CD), intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic light scattering. When compared to KGF-2 alone, subtle changes in CD spectra and fluorescence emission maxima were found when KGF-2 was formulated with the synthetic PEG-polyanions. Highly PEGylated polyanions (DS-PEG5) did not bind KGF-2 as well as conjugates with fewer PEG chains. The molecular weight of PEG did not have a noticeable effect on KGF-2 binding to the various PEG-polyanion conjugates. At optimal molar ratios, PPS-PEG and DS-PEG conjugates were able to stabilize KGF-2 by increasing the melting temperature by approximately 9-17 °C. Thus, polyanion-PEG conjugates improved the stability of KGF-2 and also offered a new electrostatic PEGylation scheme that may be extrapolated to other heparin-binding proteins.

  9. Trefoil factor 2 negatively regulates Type 1 immunity against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    McBerry, Cortez; Egan, Charlotte E.; Rani, Reena; Yang, Yanfen; Wu, David; Boespflug, Nicholas; Boon, Louis; Butcher, Barbara; Mirpuri, Julie; Hogan, Simon P.; Denkers, Eric Y.; Aliberti, Julio; Herbert, De’Broski R.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12)-mediated Type 1 inflammation confers host-protection against the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. However, production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), another Type 1 inflammatory cytokine, also drives lethality from excessive injury to the intestinal epithelium. As mechanisms that restore epithelial barrier function following infection remain poorly understood, this study investigated the role of Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2), a well-established regulator of mucosal tissue repair. Paradoxically, TFF2 antagonized IL-12 release from DC’s and macrophages, which protected TFF2 deficient mice (TFF2−/−) from T. gondii pathogenesis. Dysregulated intestinal homeostasis in naïve TFF2−/− mice correlated with increased IL-12/23p40 levels and enhanced T cell recruitment at baseline. Infected TFF2−/− mice displayed low rates of parasite replication and reduced gut immunopathology, whereas WT mice experienced disseminated infection and lethal ileitis. p38 MAPK activation and IL-12p70 production was more robust from TFF2−/− CD8+ DC compared to WT CD8+ DC and treatment of WT DC with rTFF2 suppressed TLR-induced IL-12/23p40 production. Neutralization of IFN-γ and IL-12 in TFF2−/− animals abrogated resistance shown by enhanced parasite replication and infection-induced morbidity. Hence, TFF2 regulated intestinal barrier function and Type 1 cytokine release from myeloid phagocytes, which dictated the outcome of oral T. gondii infection in mice. PMID:22896633

  10. Rapid Responses and Mechanism of Action for Low-Dose Bisphenol S on ex Vivo Rat Hearts and Isolated Myocytes: Evidence of Female-Specific Proarrhythmic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Ma, Jianyong; Chen, Yamei

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphenol S (BPS) has increasingly been used as a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA) in some “BPA-free” consumer goods and in thermal papers. Wide human exposure to BPS has been reported; however, the biological and potential toxic effects of BPS are poorly understood. Objective In this study, we sought to elucidate the sex-specific rapid effect of BPS in rat hearts and its underlying mechanism. Methods We examined the rapid effects of BPS in rat hearts using electrophysiology, confocal and conventional fluorescence imaging, and immunoblotting. Treatment was administered via acute perfusion of excised hearts or isolated cardiac myocytes. Results In female rat hearts acutely exposed to 10–9 M BPS, the heart rate was increased; in the presence of catecholamine-induced stress, the frequency of ventricular arrhythmia events was markedly increased. BPS-exposed hearts showed increased incidence of arrhythmogenic-triggered activities in female ventricular myocytes and altered myocyte Ca2+ handling, particularly spontaneous Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The dose responses of BPS actions were inverted U-shaped. The impact of BPS on myocyte Ca2+ handling was mediated by estrogen receptor β signaling and by rapid increases in the phosphorylation of key Ca2+ handling proteins, including ryanodine receptor and phospholamban. The proarrhythmic effects of BPS were female specific; male rat hearts were not affected by BPS at the organ, myocyte, or protein levels. Conclusion Rapid exposure to low-dose BPS showed proarrhythmic impact on female rat hearts; these effects at the organ, cellular, and molecular levels are remarkably similar to those reported for BPA. Evaluation of the bioactivity and safety of BPS and other BPA analogs is necessary before they are used as BPA alternatives in consumer products. Citation Gao X, Ma J, Chen Y, Wang HS. 2015. Rapid responses and mechanism of action for low-dose bisphenol S on ex vivo rat hearts and isolated

  11. Types of variation in the cell population are similar to those in the populations of organisms. Developmental biology of cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, V.Ya.

    1994-09-01

    We review the studies of polyploidy in the heart muscle and changes in the abundance of myocytes during ontogenesis. Variation in the number and ploidy of muscle cells has been observed in the normal heart muscle. The types of genomic variation are similar to populational variations of organisms, i.e., hereditary and modificational variation. In studies of changes of the myocyte genome, we have found that growth of the heart has some additional reserve capacity, which may be realized under abnormal conditions when the heart muscle undergoes hypertrophy. This additional reserve capacity depends on the level of polyploidy in the cells of the heart muscle which is established during early postnatal embryogenesis. 30 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Use of 5-Bromodeoxyuridine and irradiation for the estimation of the myoblast and myocyte content of primary rat heart cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, M.J.O.; Harary, I.

    1980-11-01

    A method for killing dividing cells was adapted for the elimination of dividing heart muscle cells (myoblasts) in cultures. We have used this method to demonstrate their presence and to estimate their number as well as the number of nondividing heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the neo-natal rat heart. Cells were cultivated in BUdR (5-bromodeoxyuridine) 10/sup -4/ M for 3 days and then irradiated with long uv light. The selective elimination of dividing cells led to a loss of myosin Ca/sup 2 +/-activated ATPase in the cultures. The percent of ATPase left after irradiation was 32% of the control in cultures derived from 1-day postnatal rats and 48% in cultures from 4-day postnatal rats. This reflects an in vivo shift of myoblasts to myocytes in the muscle cell population as the rat ages.

  13. Calcium release near L-type calcium channels promotes beat-to-beat variability in ventricular myocytes from the chronic AV block dog.

    PubMed

    Antoons, Gudrun; Johnson, Daniel M; Dries, Eef; Santiago, Demetrio J; Ozdemir, Semir; Lenaerts, Ilse; Beekman, Jet D M; Houtman, Marien J C; Sipido, Karin R; Vos, Marc A

    2015-12-01

    Beat-to-beat variability of ventricular repolarization (BVR) has been proposed as a strong predictor of Torsades de Pointes (TdP). BVR is also observed at the myocyte level, and a number of studies have shown the importance of calcium handling in influencing this parameter. The chronic AV block (CAVB) dog is a model of TdP arrhythmia in cardiac hypertrophy, and myocytes from these animals show extensive remodeling, including of Ca(2+) handling. This remodeling process also leads to increased BVR. We aimed to determine the role that (local) Ca(2+) handling plays in BVR. In isolated LV myocytes an exponential relationship was observed between BVR magnitude and action potential duration (APD) at baseline. Inhibition of Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with thapsigargin resulted in a reduction of [Ca(2+)]i, and of both BVR and APD. Increasing ICaL in the presence of thapsigargin restored APD but BVR remained low. In contrast, increasing ICaL with preserved Ca(2+) release increased both APD and BVR. Inhibition of Ca(2+) release with caffeine, as with thapsigargin, reduced BVR despite maintained APD. Simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange and ICaL decreased APD and BVR to similar degrees, whilst increasing diastolic Ca(2+). Buffering of Ca(2+) transients with BAPTA reduced BVR for a given APD to a greater extent than buffering with EGTA, suggesting subsarcolemmal Ca(2+) transients modulated BVR to a larger extent than the cytosolic Ca(2+) transient. In conclusion, BVR in hypertrophied dog myocytes, at any APD, is strongly dependent on SR Ca(2+) release, which may act through modulation of the l-type Ca(2+) current in a subsarcolemmal microdomain.

  14. Relationship between calcium loading and impaired energy metabolism during Na+, K+ pump inhibition and metabolic inhibition in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.C.; Hagler, H.K.; Willerson, J.T.; Buja, L.M.

    1989-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the initiating mechanism is a major determinant of the response to calcium (Ca) accumulation in myocardium. Cultured neonatal rat ventriculocytes were exposed to Na+, K+ pump inhibition with 1 mM ouabain and metabolic inhibition with 20 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 1 mM cyanide (DOG-CN) for up to 2 h. Microspectrofluorometry of myocytes loaded with fura-2 showed that ouabain resulted in a relatively rapid increase in (Ca2+)i up to 2-3 microM (two to threefold above peak systolic level) and that DOG-CN produced an initial decrease and then a relatively slow increase in (Ca2+)i up to peak systolic level. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis (EPMA) showed prominent increases in Na and Ca and decreases in K and Mg in cytoplasm and mitochondria with both interventions, although the increases in Ca were greater with ouabain than DOG-CN. ATP was reduced by 58% after 1 and 2 h of ouabain and by 70 and 90% after 1 and 2 h of DOG-CN, respectively. Thus, ouabain produced greater calcium accumulation and less ATP reduction than DOG-CN. Upon return to normal medium for 30 min, myocytes showed recovery of most electrolyte alterations and resumption of normal Ca2+ transients after 1 h exposure to either ouabain or DOG-CN; however, recovery was less after 2 h of either treatment, with elevated (Ca2+)i maintained in many myocytes. We conclude that the severity of myocyte injury is influenced by the magnitude and duration of both ATP reduction and calcium accumulation.

  15. G alpha(q)-mediated activation of GRK2 by mechanical stretch in cardiac myocytes: the role of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Ricky; D'Souza, Karen M; Staron, Michelle L; Birukov, Konstantin G; Bodi, Ilona; Akhter, Shahab A

    2010-04-30

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) is a critical regulator of beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) signaling and cardiac function. We studied the effects of mechanical stretch, a potent stimulus for cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, on GRK2 activity and beta-AR signaling. To eliminate neurohormonal influences, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were subjected to cyclical equi-biaxial stretch. A hypertrophic response was confirmed by "fetal" gene up-regulation. GRK2 activity in cardiac myocytes was increased 4.2-fold at 48 h of stretch versus unstretched controls. Adenylyl cyclase activity was blunted in sarcolemmal membranes after stretch, demonstrating beta-AR desensitization. The hypertrophic response to mechanical stretch is mediated primarily through the G alpha(q)-coupled angiotensin II AT(1) receptor leading to activation of protein kinase C (PKC). PKC is known to phosphorylate GRK2 at the N-terminal serine 29 residue, leading to kinase activation. Overexpression of a mini-gene that inhibits receptor-G alpha(q) coupling blunted stretch-induced hypertrophy and GRK2 activation. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of PKC alpha also significantly attenuated stretch-induced GRK2 activation. Overexpression of a GRK2 mutant (S29A) in cardiac myocytes inhibited phosphorylation of GRK2 by PKC, abolished stretch-induced GRK2 activation, and restored adenylyl cyclase activity. Cardiac-specific activation of PKC alpha in transgenic mice led to impaired beta-agonist-stimulated ventricular function, blunted cyclase activity, and increased GRK2 phosphorylation and activity. Phosphorylation of GRK2 by PKC appears to be the primary mechanism of increased GRK2 activity and impaired beta-AR signaling after mechanical stretch. Cross-talk between hypertrophic signaling at the level of PKC and beta-AR signaling regulated by GRK2 may be an important mechanism in the transition from compensatory ventricular hypertrophy to heart failure.

  16. Opposing functional effects of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP may act through protein phosphorylation in rabbit cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Lee, H; Huang, M W; Scholz, P M; Weiss, H R

    2000-04-01

    1. We tested the hypothesis that the negative functional effects of cyclic GMP (cGMP) oppose the positive effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in cardiac myocytes through interaction at the level of their respective protein kinases. 2. Cell shortening was studied using a video-edge detector. The O2 consumption of a suspension of rabbit ventricular myocytes was measured using O2 electrodes. Protein phosphorylation was measured autoradiographically following SDS-PAGE. Data were collected with: (1) 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) 10(-7) or 10(-5) M; (2) 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) 10(-7) or 10(-5) M; (3) 8-Br-cAMP 10(-5) M followed by 8-Br-cGMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M; (4) 8-Br-cGMP 10(-5) M followed by 8-Br-cAMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M; (5) 8-Br-cGMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M followed by KT 5720 (cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor) or KT 5823 (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor) 10(-6) M; and (6) 8-Br-cAMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M followed by KT 5720 or KT 5823 10(-6) M. 3. 8-Br-cGMP 10(-5) M decreased percent shortening (Pcs) from 6.3+/-0.6 to 3.6+/-0.4% and rate of shortening (Rs) from 66.7+/-4.4 to 41.8+/-4.2 microm s(-1). 8-Br-cAMP 10(-5) M increased Pcs (from 3.7+/-0.2 to 4.8+/-0.2) and Rs (from 50.0+/-3.0 to 60.0+/-3.1). With 8-Br-cAMP 10(-5) M, 8-Br-cGMP 10(-5) M decreased Pcs and Rs less. The positive functional effects of 8-Br-cAMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M were also diminished with 8-Br-cGMP 10(-5) M. Following 8-Br-cGMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M, KT 5720 10(-6) M further decreased Pcs to 2.5+/-0.3 and Rs to 30.0+/-4.1. KT 5823 10(-6) M returned Pcs to 4.7+/-0.4 and Rs to 61.3+/-5.3. Following 8-Br-cAMP 10(-7) or 10(-5) M, KT 5720 decreased the elevated Pcs and Rs significantly and KT 5823 10(-6) M further increased these parameters. 4. cGMP and cAMP phosphorylated the same five protein bands. With KT 5720 or KT 5823, all of the bands were lighter at the same concentration of 8-Br-cAMP and 8-Br-cGMP. 5. We conclude that, in rabbit ventricular myocytes, the opposing functional effects of cGMP and c

  17. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and ionized Ca/sup 2 +/ on /sup 45/Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bukoski, R.D.; Xue, H.; McCarron, D.A.

    1987-08-14

    The effect of several regulators of whole animal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis on /sup 45/Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was examined. Exposure of confluent cells to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.50 mM ionized Ca/sup 2 +/ in serum-free medium for seven days resulted in increased /sup 45/Ca uptake at the higher concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ in cells of the SHR but not the WKY. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (1 ng/ml) for 7 days caused enhanced influx in cells from both the SHR and WKY while parathyroid hormone (1-34) (1 ng/ml) was without effect. The data indicate that humoral factors that serve to regulate whole animal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis may also play a role in the regulation of Ca/sup 2 +/ metabolism of the vascular smooth muscle cell.

  18. P2X4 receptor–eNOS signaling pathway in cardiac myocytes as a novel protective mechanism in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ronghua; Beqiri, Dardan; Shen, Jian-Bing; Redden, John M.; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Liang, Bruce T.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated using immunoprecipitation and immunostaining a novel physical association of the P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a ligand-gated ion channel, with the cardioprotective, calcium-dependent enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Treatment of murine ventricular myocytes with the P2XR agonist 2-methylthioATP (2-meSATP) to induce a current (mainly Na+) increased the formation of nitric oxide (NO), as measured using a fluorescent probe. Possible candidates for downstream effectors mediating eNOS activity include cyclic GMP and PKG or cellular protein nitrosylation. A cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpressing mouse line was protected from heart failure (HF) with improved cardiac function and survival in post-infarct, pressure overload, and calsequestrin (CSQ) overexpression models of HF. Although the role of the P2X4R in other tissues such as the endothelium and monocytes awaits characterization in tissue-specific KO, cardiac-specific activation of eNOS may be more cardioprotective than an increased activity of global systemic eNOS. The intra-myocyte formation of NO may be more advantageous over NO derived externally from a donor. A small molecule drug stimulating this sarcolemmal pathway or gene therapy-mediated overexpression of the P2X4R in cardiac myocytes may represent a new therapy for both ischemic and pressure overloaded HF. PMID:25750695

  19. The antiarrhythmic peptide rotigaptide (ZP123) increases gap junction intercellular communication in cardiac myocytes and HeLa cells expressing connexin 43

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Thomas C; Thomas, Dafydd; Petersen, Jørgen S; Evans, W Howard; Martin, Patricia E M

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rotigaptide (ZP123), a stable hexapeptide with antiarrhythmic properties, on gap junction mediated intercellular communication in contracting rat neonatal cardiac myocytes, HL-1 cells derived from cardiac atrium and in HeLa cells transfected with cDNA encoding Cx43-GFP, Cx32-GFP, Cx26-GFP, wild-type Cx43 or wild-type Cx26. Intercellular communication was monitored before and after treatment with rotigaptide following microinjection of small fluorescent dyes (MW<1 kDa). The communication-modifying effect of rotigaptide was confined to cells expressing Cx43 since the peptide had no effect on dye transfer in HeLa cells expressing Cx32-GFP, Cx26-GFP or wild-type Cx26. In contrast, HeLa cells expressing Cx43-GFP exposed to 50 nM rotigaptide for 5 h showed a 40% increase in gap junction mediated communication. Rotigaptide (50 nM) increased intercellular dye transfer in myocytes and atrial HL-1 cells, where Cx43 is the dominant connexin. However, it caused no change in cell beating rates of cardiac myocytes. Western blot analysis showed that rotigaptide did not modify the overall level of Cx43 expression and changes in the phosphorylation status of the protein were not observed. We conclude that the effects of rotigaptide were confined to cells expressing Cx43. PMID:16415913

  20. Effects of total flavones from Acanthopanax senticosus on L-type calcium channels, calcium transient and contractility in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shengjiang; Ma, Juanjuan; Chu, Xi; Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Fenghua; Liu, Zhenyi; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2015-04-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms (AS), a traditional herbal medicine, has been widely used to treat ischemic heart disease. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of its benefits to cardiac function remain unclear. The present study examined the effects of total flavones from AS (TFAS) on L-type Ca(2+) channel currents (ICa-L ) using the whole cell patch-clamp technique and on intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) handling and cell contractility in rat ventricular myocytes with the aid of a video-based edge-detection system. Exposure to TFAS resulted in a concentration- and voltage-dependent blockade of ICa-L , with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 283.12 µg/mL and the maximal inhibitory effect of 36.49 ± 1.95%. Moreover, TFAS not only increased the maximum current in the current-voltage relationship but also shifted the activation and inactivation curves of ICa-L toward the hyperpolarizing direction. Meanwhile, TFAS significantly reduced amplitudes of myocyte shortening and [Ca(2+) ]i with an increase in the time to 10% of the peak (Tp) and a decrease in the time to 10% of the baseline (Tr). Thus, the cardioprotective effects of TFAS may be attributed mainly to the attenuation of [Ca(2+) ]i through the direct inhibition of ICa-L in rat ventricular myocytes and consequent negative effect on myocardial contractility. PMID:25586009

  1. Characterization and agonist regulation of muscarinic ([3H]N-methyl scopolamine) receptors in isolated ventricular myocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Horackova, M; Robinson, B; Wilkinson, M

    1990-11-01

    Cell surface muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been characterized and quantified for the first time, in intact, isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The cells were previously established as functionally fully compatible with cellular responses in intact cardiac tissue. The specific binding of the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]-NMS, (N-methyl-[3H]-scopolamine methylchloride) was found to be stereo-specific, saturable, reversible and of high affinity. Binding of [3H]-NMS demonstrated appropriate drug specificity and was positively correlated with increasing cell concentrations. Bmax for [3H]-NMS binding to ventricular myocytes, enzymatically dissociated from adult male rats, was 15.8 +/- 1.03 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells (at 4 degrees C) and KD was 0.27 +/- 0.05 nM (n = 14). Binding assays performed at a higher incubation temperature (30 degrees C) yielded a higher Bmax value (22.1 +/- 1.6 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells; n = 11; P less than 0.005 vs. Bmax at 4 degrees C) but an unchanged KD (0.23 +/- 0.06 nM). Pretreatment of myocytes with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) at 37 degrees C resulted in a reduction (down-regulation) in specific binding of the hydrophilic ligand [3H]-NMS. The magnitude of this reduction and its rate of recovery were dependent on the time of the exposure to carbachol. Exposures of 30-60 min elicited down-regulated by 35% (Bmax = 14.29 +/- 1.66 changed to 9.5 +/- 1.79 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells, without change in KD P less than 0.01, n = 4). The down-regulation of the muscarinic receptors by carbachol was insensitive to application of bacitracin - an inhibitor of endocytosis. On the other hand preincubation with 10(-9)M atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, hindered the agonist-induced receptor "loss" from the cell surface confirming the muscarinic nature of these receptors. We conclude that our preparation of intact, isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is ideally suited for the study of cell surface muscarinic receptor regulation under physiological and

  2. VCP746, a novel A1 adenosine receptor biased agonist, reduces hypertrophy in a rat neonatal cardiac myocyte model.

    PubMed

    Chuo, Chung H; Devine, Shane M; Scammells, Peter J; Krum, Henry; Christopoulos, Arthur; May, Lauren T; White, Paul J; Wang, Bing H

    2016-10-01

    VCP746 is a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 AR) biased agonist previously shown to be cytoprotective with no effect on heart rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential anti-hypertrophic effect of VCP746 in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCM). NCM hypertrophy was stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β (10 ng/mL), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α (10 ng/mL) or Ang II (100 nmol/L) and was assessed by (3) H-leucine incorporation assay. VCP746 significantly inhibited IL-1β-, TNF-α- and Ang II-stimulated NCM hypertrophy as determined by (3) H-leucine incorporation. The anti-hypertrophic effect of VCP746 was also more potent than that of the prototypical A1 AR agonist, N(6) -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Further investigation with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay showed that neither CPA nor VCP746 had any effect on cell viability, confirming that the reduction in (3) H-leucine incorporation mediated by CPA and VCP746 was not due to a reduction in cell viability. IL-1β, TNF-α and Ang II were also shown to increase the mRNA expression of hypertrophy biomarkers, ANP, β-MHC and α-SKA in NCM. Treatment with VCP746 at concentrations as low as 1 nmol/L suppressed mRNA expression of ANP, β-MHC and α-SKA stimulated by IL-1β, TNF-α or Ang II, demonstrating the broad mechanistic basis of the potent anti-hypertrophic effect of VCP746. This study has shown that the novel A1 AR agonist, VCP746, is able to attenuate cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. As such, VCP746 is potentially useful as a pharmacological agent in attenuating cardiac remodelling, especially in the post-myocardial infarction setting, given its previously established cytoprotective properties.

  3. Characterization and agonist regulation of muscarinic ([3H]N-methyl scopolamine) receptors in isolated ventricular myocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Horackova, M; Robinson, B; Wilkinson, M

    1990-11-01

    Cell surface muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been characterized and quantified for the first time, in intact, isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The cells were previously established as functionally fully compatible with cellular responses in intact cardiac tissue. The specific binding of the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]-NMS, (N-methyl-[3H]-scopolamine methylchloride) was found to be stereo-specific, saturable, reversible and of high affinity. Binding of [3H]-NMS demonstrated appropriate drug specificity and was positively correlated with increasing cell concentrations. Bmax for [3H]-NMS binding to ventricular myocytes, enzymatically dissociated from adult male rats, was 15.8 +/- 1.03 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells (at 4 degrees C) and KD was 0.27 +/- 0.05 nM (n = 14). Binding assays performed at a higher incubation temperature (30 degrees C) yielded a higher Bmax value (22.1 +/- 1.6 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells; n = 11; P less than 0.005 vs. Bmax at 4 degrees C) but an unchanged KD (0.23 +/- 0.06 nM). Pretreatment of myocytes with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) at 37 degrees C resulted in a reduction (down-regulation) in specific binding of the hydrophilic ligand [3H]-NMS. The magnitude of this reduction and its rate of recovery were dependent on the time of the exposure to carbachol. Exposures of 30-60 min elicited down-regulated by 35% (Bmax = 14.29 +/- 1.66 changed to 9.5 +/- 1.79 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells, without change in KD P less than 0.01, n = 4). The down-regulation of the muscarinic receptors by carbachol was insensitive to application of bacitracin - an inhibitor of endocytosis. On the other hand preincubation with 10(-9)M atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, hindered the agonist-induced receptor "loss" from the cell surface confirming the muscarinic nature of these receptors. We conclude that our preparation of intact, isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is ideally suited for the study of cell surface muscarinic receptor regulation under physiological and

  4. Functional diversity of electrogenic Na+–HCO3− cotransport in ventricular myocytes from rat, rabbit and guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Taku; Swietach, Pawel; Rossini, Alessandra; Loh, Shih-Hurng; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Spitzer, Kenneth W

    2005-01-01

    The Na+–HCO3− cotransporter (NBC) is an important sarcolemmal acid extruder in cardiac muscle. The characteristics of NBC expressed functionally in heart are controversial, with reports suggesting electroneutral (NBCn; 1HCO3− : 1Na+; coupling coefficient n = 1) or electrogenic forms of the transporter (NBCe; equivalent to 2HCO3− : 1Na+; n = 2). We have used voltage-clamp and epifluorescence techniques to compare NBC activity in isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbit, rat and guinea pig. Depolarization (by voltage clamp or hyperkalaemia) reversibly increased steady-state pHi while hyperpolarization decreased it, effects seen only in CO2/HCO3−-buffered solutions, and blocked by S0859 (cardiac NBC inhibitor). Species differences in amplitude of these pHi changes were rat > guinea pig ≈ rabbit. Tonic depolarization (−140 mV to −0 mV) accelerated NBC-mediated pHi recovery from an intracellular acid load. At 0 mV, NBC-mediated outward current at resting pHi was +0.52 ± 0.05 pA pF−1 (rat, n = 5), +0.26 ± 0.05 pA pF−1 (guinea pig, n = 5) and +0.10 ± 0.03 pA pF−1 (rabbit, n = 9), with reversal potentials near −100 mV, consistent with n = 2. The above results indicate a functionally active voltage-sensitive NBCe in these species. Voltage-clamp hyperpolarization negative to the reversal potential for NBCe failed, however, to terminate or reverse NBC-mediated pHi-recovery from an acid load although it was slowed significantly, suggesting electroneutral NBC may also be operational. NBC-mediated pHi recovery was associated with a rise of [Na+]i at a rate ∼25% of that mediated via NHE, and consistent with an apparent NBC stoichiometry between n = 1 and n = 2. In conclusion, NBCe in the ventricular myocyte displays considerable functional variation among the three species tested (greatest in rat, least in rabbit) and may coexist with some NBCn activity. PMID:15550467

  5. CaMKII-dependent SR Ca leak contributes to doxorubicin-induced impaired Ca handling in isolated cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sag, Can M.; Köhler, Anne C.; Anderson, Mark E.; Backs, Johannes; Maier, Lars S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, but cardiotoxicity limits DOX therapy. Although the mechanisms are not entirely understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to be involved in DOX cardiotoxicity. Ca/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) can be activated by ROS through oxidation and is known to contribute to myocardial dysfunction through Ca leakage from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Rationale We hypothesized that CaMKII contributes to DOX-induced defects in intracellular Ca ([Ca]i) handling. Methods Cardiac myocytes were isolated from wild-type (WT) adult rat hearts and from mouse hearts lacking the predominant myocardial CaMKII isoform (CaMKIIδ−/−, KO) vs. WT. Isolated cardiomyocytes were investigated 30 min after DOX (10 µmol/L) superfusion, using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. Intracellular ROS-generation ([ROS]i) and [Ca]i handling properties were assessed. In a subset of experiments, KN-93 or AIP (each 1 µmol/L) were used to inhibit CaMKII. Melatonin (Mel, 100 µmol/L) served as ROS-scavenger. Western blots were performed to determine the amount of CaMKII phosphorylation and oxidation. Results DOX increased [ROS]i and led to significant diastolic [Ca]i overload in rat myocytes. This was associated with reduced [Ca]i transients, a 5.8-fold increased diastolic SR Ca leak and diminished SR Ca content. ROS-scavenging partially rescued Ca handling. Western blots revealed increased CaMKII phosphorylation, but not CaMKII oxidation after DOX. Pharmacological CaMKII inhibition attenuated diastolic [Ca]i overload after DOX superfusion and led to partially restored [Ca]i transients and SR Ca content, presumably due to reduced Ca spark frequency. In line with this concept, isoform-specific CaMKIIδ-KO attenuated diastolic [Ca]i overload and Ca spark frequency. Conclusions DOX exposure induces CaMKII-dependent SR Ca leakage, which partially contributes to impaired cellular [Ca]i homeostasis

  6. Stromal cell-derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C; Sessa, William C

    2015-08-18

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell-derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(1177), a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser(1177) in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. PMID:26286023

  7. Stromal cell–derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation

    PubMed Central

    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C.; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell–derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser1177 in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. PMID:26286023

  8. A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm modulates in vitro fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tapon-Bretaudière, Jacqueline; Chabut, Delphine; Zierer, Maximiliano; Matou, Sabine; Helley, Dominique; Bros, Andrée; Mourão, Paulo A S; Fischer, Anne-Marie

    2002-12-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a glycosaminoglycan obtained from sea cucumber, has the same structure as mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. This new polysaccharide has a more favorable effect than heparin on vascular cell growth. It inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation as heparin, and it has a potent enhancing effect on endothelial cell proliferation and migration in the presence of heparin-binding growth factors. We now extend our studies to the effect of this glycosaminoglycan on endothelial cells to an in vitro angiogenesis model on Matrigel. FucCS, in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), strongly increases the capacity of endothelial cells to form vascular tubes on Matrigel with a well-organized capillary-like network and typical closed structures. Comparison between the activity of native and chemically modified chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber reveals that the sulfated fucose branches are the structural motif for the proangiogenic activity. Heparin does not induce angiogenesis in this experimental model. We also have evidence for the proposition that endothelial cell proliferation is not the sole event involved in the in vitro FGF-2-induced angiogenesis. It implies a variety of other modifications of the endothelial cells and of their interaction with the extracellular matrix, such as integrin expression and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Finally, the proangiogenic effect of FucCS, concomitant with its capacity to prevent venous and arterial thrombosis, in animal models makes this new glycosaminoglycan a promising molecule with possible beneficial effects in pathological conditions affecting blood vessels such as the neovascularization of ischemic areas.

  9. Prostaglandin A2 enhances cellular insulin sensitivity via a mechanism that involves the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Walton, R G; Tian, L; Luo, N; Ho, S-R; Fu, Y; Garvey, W T

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that members of the NR4A family of orphan nuclear receptors can augment insulin's ability to stimulate glucose transport in adipocytes. In the current study, we endeavored to test for an insulin-sensitizing effect in muscle cells and to identify a potential transactivator. Lentiviral constructs were used to engineer both hyperexpression and shRNA silencing of NR4A3 in C2C12 myocytes. The NR4A3 hyper-expression construct led to a significant increase in glucose transport rates in the presence of maximal insulin while the NR4A3 knock-down exhibited a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport rates. Consistently, insulin-mediated AKT phosphorylation was increased by NR4A3 hyperexpression and decreased following shRNA NR4A3 suppression. Then, we examined effects of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) on insulin action and NR4A3 transactivation. PGA2 augmented insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myocytes and AKT phosphorylation after 12-h treatment, without significant effects on basal transport or basal AKT phosphorylation. More importantly, we demonstrated that PGA2 led to a greater improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose rates in NR4A3 overexpressing C2C12 myocytes, when compared with Lac-Z controls stimulated with insulin and PGA2. Moreover, the sensitizing effect of PGA2 was significantly diminished in NR4A3 knockdown myocytes compared to scramble controls. These results show for the first time that: (i) PGA2 augments insulin action in myocytes as manifested by enhanced stimulation of glucose transport and AKT phosphorylation; and (ii) the insulin sensitizing effect is dependent upon the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3. PMID:23104421

  10. Modulation of the transient outward current (Ito) in rat cardiac myocytes and human Kv4.3 channels by mefloquine.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cortes, E J; Islas, A A; Arevalo, J P; Mancilla, C; Monjaraz, E; Salinas-Stefanon, E M

    2015-10-15

    The antimalarial drug mefloquine, is known to be a potassium channel blocker, although its mechanism of action has not being elucidated and its effects on the transient outward current (Ito) and the molecular correlate, the Kv4.3 channel has not being studied. Here, we describe the mefloquine-induced inhibition of the rat ventricular Ito and of CHO cells co-transfected with human Kv4.3 and its accessory subunit hKChIP2C by whole-cell voltage-clamp. Mefloquine inhibited rat Ito and hKv4.3+KChIP2C currents in a concentration-dependent manner with a limited voltage dependence and similar potencies (IC50=8.9μM and 10.5μM for cardiac myocytes and Kv4.3 channels, respectively). In addition, mefloquine did not affect the activation of either current but significantly modified the hKv4.3 steady-state inactivation and recovery from inactivation. The effects of this drug was compared with that of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a well-known potassium channel blocker and its binding site does not seem to overlap with that of 4-AP.

  11. ATP-sensitive K+ channels in rat ventricular myocytes are blocked and inactivated by internal divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Findlay, I

    1987-10-01

    K+ currents were recorded from ATP-sensitive channels in inside-out patches from isolated rat ventricular myocytes. In the absence of internal divalent cations the current voltage relationship could be described by constant-field assumptions with a permeability of 1.25 X 10(-13) cm2/s; outward currents saturated under a high driving force for K+ movement. Internal 0.1-5.0 mM Mg2+, 0.1 microM Ca2+ and 10 mM Na+ each depressed the flux of K+ ions moving outwards through open channels. Internal 0.1-5.0 mM Mg2+, 0.1-1.0 microM Ca2+ and 1-10 microM Ba2+ and Sr2+ blocked K+ channel activity in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner. Run-down channels could be reactivated by Mg-ATP, but not by AMP-PNP, ATP gamma S or Mg-free ATP which suggested that phosphorylation of the channels was involved in their activity. Ca2+ (greater than = 1 microM) and Sr2+ (1 mM) markedly inactivated K+ ATP channels, millimolar Ba2+ or Mg2+ were less effective. This suggested that the run down of the channels was a Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylation of the K+ channel protein.

  12. Alteration of the L-type calcium current in guinea-pig single ventricular myocytes by heptaminol hydrochloride.

    PubMed Central

    Peineau, N.; Mongo, K. G.; Le Guennec, J. Y.; Garnier, D.; Argibay, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of heptaminol on calcium current amplitude and characteristics were studied in single ventricular myocytes of guinea-pig by use of the whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique. 2. A concentration-dependent decrease in ICa amplitude was observed. At heptaminol concentration as low as 10(-6) M, this effect was observed in only two cells (n = 6). At 10(-5) M the reduction of ICa was of 30 +/- 15% (n = 11). 3. The current recovery from inactivation at -40 mV holding potential (HP) seemed less sensitive to perfusion with heptaminol (greater than 10(-6) M). However, at -80 mV HP the overshoot of the recovery curve was decreased by heptaminol. 4. Both at -40 mV and -80 mV HP, heptaminol (10(-5) M) significantly increased the steady state inactivation of ICa. 5. As previously proposed by others to explain the effects of membrane active substances, the effects of heptaminol may result from alterations in cell membrane properties and possibly from an increase in intracellular free calcium ion concentration. PMID:1422567