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Sample records for myofunctional therapy

  1. Influence of orthodontic appliances on myofunctional therapy.

    PubMed

    Klocke, A; Korbmacher, H; Kahl-Nieke, B

    2000-01-01

    Various removable and fixed orthodontic appliances were rated by interview and questionnaire by 42 myofunctional therapists in the Hamburg area with respect to their influence during myofunctional therapy. The Nance holding arch was given the most negative rating of all appliances covering the palate area. For the active plate, marking the rest position of the tongue by roughening the acrylic surface or by reproducing the palatal relief was considered beneficial. The quadhelix expansion device and Hyrax palatal expander were rated as unfavorable because of their positioning in the palatal area. Among the functional appliances, Fränkel's function regulator was given the best rating. Regular fixed appliances (brackets, bands) were not considered a disturbance. Habit reminders (plates and spurs) were given a very negative rating by ca. 80% of the therapists because they disturbed the myofunctional exercises and led to adaptive dysfunctions. Since many patients with dysfunction of the orofacial musculature undergo simultaneous myofunctional and orthodontic therapy, treatment planning and choice of orthodontic appliances should be carefully coordinated.

  2. Myofunctional therapy in patients with orofacial dysfunctions affecting speech.

    PubMed

    Bigenzahn, W; Fischman, L; Mayrhofer-Krammel, U

    1992-01-01

    Tongue thrusting, deviate swallowing, mouth breathing, orofacial muscle imbalance, deviate mandibular movement and malocclusion are the most important orofacial dysfunctions underlying disorders of articulation. Their development is linked to early bottle feeding and sucking habits. The phoniatrician is charged with the early detection of orofacial dysfunctions affecting speech. Early correction of habits and retraining by speech therapy are important preventive measures. Case histories, phoniatric and myofunctional diagnoses and dental/orthodontic findings were compiled for a total of 103 patients aged 3-30 years (11 +/- 4 years). Forty-five patients have completed a regimen of myofunctional therapy. For these patients highly significant improvements in lip strength, lip closure, breathing and tongue placement as well as in the swallowing pattern and orofacial muscle balance have been observed. Concomitantly, two thirds of the patients (66%) attained normal articulation. Speech defects were resistant to therapy in only 2 cases. In dental/orthodontic practice myofunctional therapy is used for retraining abnormal positions and functions of the orofacial muscles so as to create a normal occlusal relationship. The results of this study show that myofunctional therapy is highly instrumental also in phoniatrics as a special form of treatment for disorders of articulation.

  3. Effects of orofacial myofunctional therapy on temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    de Felício, Cláudia Maria; de Oliveira, Melchior Melissa; da Silva, Marco Antonio Moreira Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of the current study were to analyze the effects of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) on the treatment of subjects with associated articular and muscular temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Thirty subjects with associated articular and muscular TMD, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD), were randomly divided into groups: 10 were treated with OMT (T group), 10 with an occlusal splint (OS group), and 10 untreated control group with TMD (SC). Ten subjects without TMD represented the asymptomatic group (AC). All subjects had a clinical examination and were interviewed to determine Helkimo's Indexes (Di and Ai), the frequency and severity of signs and symptoms, and orofacial myofunctional evaluation. During the diagnostic phase, there were significant differences between groups T and AC. There were no significant differences between group T and OC and SC groups. During the final phase, groups T and OS presented significant improvement, however, the group T presented better results and differed significantly from group OS regarding the number of subjects classified as Aill; the severity of muscular pain and TMJ pain; the frequency of headache and the muscles and stomatognathic functions. The group T differed significantly from the SC group but no longer differed significantly from the AC group. OMT favored a significant reduction of pain sensitivity to palpation of all muscles studied but not for the TMJs; an increased measure of mandibular range of motion; reduced Helkimo's Di and Ai scores; reduced frequency and severity of signs and symptoms; and increased scores for orofacial myofunctional conditions.

  4. Management of Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding Difficulties in the Newborn: Breastfeeding Sessions, Myofunctional Therapy, and Frenotomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The problems of suction in newborns give rise to multiple consequences for both the mother and the newborn. The objective of this paper is to present a case of ankyloglossia (“tongue-tie”) and the suction problems that were treated by a multidisciplinary team. The subject is a 17-day-old male patient, with ankyloglossia and suction problems during breastfeeding (pain in the breastfeeding mother, poor weight gain, and long breastfeeds). The patient followed the circuit established in our centre between the services of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Breastfeeding and Speech Therapy and Orofacial Rehabilitation (CELERE). The evolution following the breastfeeding sessions, the myofunctional stimulation, and the lingual frenotomy was very favourable, thereby solving the suction problems that the newborn presented. All our patients receive breastfeeding sessions and myofunctional therapy as treatment. We know that a frenotomy is not always necessary and we believe that the stimulation of sucking before and after the surgical intervention is important in order to improve the final result. PMID:27688921

  5. The effects of orofacial myofunctional therapy combined with an occlusal splint on signs and symptoms in a man with TMD-hypermobility: case study.

    PubMed

    de Félicio, Cláudia Maria; Freitas, Rosana Luiza Rodrigues Gomes; Bataglion, César

    2007-11-01

    Exercise therapy has been indicated for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), but few reports are available about the effect of orofacial myofunctional therapy, which includes working with stomatognathic functions, in patients with TMD. A 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of TMD-hypermobility and orofacial myofunctional disorders received combined treatment with orofacial myofunctional therapy and an occlusal splint. Clinical evaluation and the scale of symptom severity after 9 treatment sessions and during follow-up compared to the phase before treatment suggested that treatment was of great benefit. We conclude that the combination of orofacial myofunctional therapy and an occlusal splint can be beneficial for patients with TMD-hypermobility. However, since this was a single case, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  6. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with unilateral orofacial muscle dysfunction: The efficacy of myofunctional therapy on the treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yasuyo; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi; Kamioka, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    The orofacial muscle is an important factor in the harmony of the occlusion, and its dysfunction significantly influences a patient's occlusion after craniofacial growth and development. In this case report, we describe the successful orthodontic treatment of a patient with unilateral orofacial muscle dysfunction. A boy, 10 years 0 months of age, with a chief complaint of anterior open bite, was diagnosed with a Class III malocclusion with facial musculoskeletal asymmetry. His maxillomandibular relationships were unstable, and he was unable to lift the right corner of his mouth upon smiling because of weak right orofacial muscles. A satisfactory occlusion and a balanced smile were achieved after orthodontic treatment combined with orofacial myofunctional therapy, including muscle exercises. An acceptable occlusion and facial proportion were maintained after a 2-year retention period. These results suggest that orthodontic treatment with orofacial myofunctional therapy is an effective option for a patient with orofacial muscle dysfunction.

  7. Effectiveness of orofacial myofunctional therapy in orthodontic patients: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Homem, Márcio Alexandre; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the existence of scientific evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) as an adjuvant to orthodontic treatment in individuals with orofacial disorders. A further aim was to assess the methodological quality of the studies included in the review. Methods An electronic search was performed in eight databases (Medline, BBO, LILACS, Web of Science, EMBASE, BIREME, Cochrane Library and SciELO) for papers published between January 1965 and March 2011, with no language restrictions. Selection of articles and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers. The quality of the selected articles was also assessed. Results Search strategy resulted in the retrieval of 355 publications, only four of which fulfilled the eligibility criteria and qualified for final analysis. All papers selected had a high risk of bias. Conclusions The findings of the present systematic review demonstrate the scarcity of consistent studies and scientific evidence supporting the use of OMT in combination with orthodontic treatment to achieve better results in the correction of dentofacial disorders in individuals with orofacial abnormalities. PMID:25279527

  8. A one-page orofacial myofunctional assessment form: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Paskay, Licia Coceani

    2012-11-01

    The author presents her own proposal of a one-page orofacial myofunctional assessment and for each item on the list a brief rationale is provided. The protocol is an easy but comprehensive form that can be faxed or emailed to referral sources as needed. As science provides more objective assessment and evaluation tools, this one-page form can be easily modified.

  9. Validity and reliability of a protocol of orofacial myofunctional evaluation for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Folha, Gislaine A; Valera, Fabiana C P; de Felício, Cláudia M

    2015-06-01

    There is no standardized protocol for the clinical evaluation of orofacial components and functions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and psychometric properties of the Expanded Protocol of Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES-expanded) in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea and control subjects were evaluated, and the validity of OMES-expanded was tested by construct validity (i.e. the ability to discriminate orofacial status between apneic and control subjects) and criterion validity (i.e. correlation between OMES-expanded and a reference instrument). Construct validity was adequate; the apneic group showed significantly worse orofacial status than did control subjects. Criterion validity of OMES-expanded was good, as was its reliability. The OMES-expanded is valid and reliable for evaluating orofacial myofunctional disorders of patients with obstructive sleep apnea, with adequate psychometric properties. It may be useful to plan a therapeutic strategy and to determine whether the effects of therapy are related to improved muscle and orofacial functions.

  10. Pacifier-sucking habit duration and frequency on occlusal and myofunctional alterations in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Nihi, Valdeane Simone Cenci; Maciel, Sandra Mara; Jarrus, Marta Essuane; Nihi, Fábio Mitugui; Salles, Carlos Luiz Fernando de; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Fujimaki, Mitsue

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of pacifier-sucking habit with occlusal and oral myofunctional alterations in preschool children. Eighty-four 2- to 5-year-old children participated in the study. Data on duration and frequency of pacifier use were collected from parents or guardians. Occlusal and oral myofunctional characteristics were examined by a dentist and a speech therapist, respectively. Chi-square tests and Poisson regression were used to analyze the data. The occlusal characteristics that were significantly associated with a pacifier-sucking habit were anterior open bite, altered canine relation, posterior crossbite, increased overjet, and malocclusion. The oral myofunctional characteristics that were significantly associated with a pacifier-sucking habit were resting lip position, resting tongue position, shape of the hard palate, and swallowing pattern. The strongest associations were for anterior open bite (prevalence ratio [PR] = 11.33), malocclusion ( PR = 2 .33), altered shape of the hard palate ( PR = 1.29), and altered swallowing pattern (PR = 1.27). Both duration and frequency of pacifier-sucking habit were associated with occlusal and oral myofunctional alterations. These results emphasize the need for pediatric dentists to advise parents and caregivers about the risks of prolonged pacifier use and refer children to professionals for multidisciplinary assistance to minimize these risks whenever necessary.

  11. ORAL MYOFUNCTIONAL AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE ORBICULARIS ORIS AND MENTALIS MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS II/1 MALOCCLUSION SUBMITTED TO FIRST PREMOLAR EXTRACTION

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Denize Ramirez; Semeghini, Tatiana Adamov; Kroll, Lucio Benedito; Berzin, Fausto

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the presence of oral myofunctional alterations before and after first premolar extraction in Class II/1 malocclusion patients that could endanger the long-term dental arch stability. Material and Methods: The study was performed by means of morphological, functional and electromyographic analyses in 17 Class II/1 malocclusion patients (group T) and 17 Class I malocclusion patients (group C -control), both groups with 12-30-year age range (mean age: 20.93 ± 4.94 years). Results: Data analyzed statistically by Student's t-test showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the maxillary and mandibular dental arch perimeters after orthodontic treatment, but lip posture at rest did not present statistically significant differences after treatment (p>0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test analyzed data from lip posture (orbicularis oris muscle) at rest and during swallowing, as well as the mentalis muscle behavior during the above-mentioned function, not showing statistically significant differences (p>0.05) after treatment (groups T1 and T2). However, group T differed significantly from group C (p<0.05). Lip posture during swallowing showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) for subjects submitted to orthodontic therapy when compared to data acquired before the treatment. The electromyographic analysis confirmed these data. Conclusions: Found myofunctional alterations observed after the orthodontic treatment in Class II/1 malocclusion seemed to jeopardize the long-term orthodontic stability, making recurrence possible. PMID:19089223

  12. [The theoretical substantiation of myofunctional correction of sagittal occlusion abnormalities and temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Danilova, M A; Ishmurzin, P V; Zakharov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Simulation in 3D-model of skeletal forms of sagittal malocclusion revealed tendency in tonus' modification of muscles of mastication in formation of distal and mesial occlusion. It's shown that distal occlusion is characterized by hypotonic condition of muscles of mastication, except posterior fibers of temporal muscle. Mesial occlusion is characterized by complex combination of muscle tone with prevalence of hypotonic condition of anterior fibers of temporal muscle, superficial portion of masseter muscle and medial pterygoid muscle. We have detected that using of myofunctional devices in treatment of sagittal malocclusion, temporomandibular joint dysfunction promotes of tone increasing of muscles of mastication.

  13. Effect of orofacial myofunctional exercise on the improvement of dysphagia patients' orofacial muscle strength and diadochokinetic rate.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Measurement of the diadochokinetic rate can provide useful information on swallowing rehabilitation in the oral phase by elucidating the speed and regularity of movement of muscles related to the lips, tongue, and chin. This study investigated the effect of a three-week period of orofacial myofunctional exercise on the improvement of cheek, tongue, and lip muscle strength and diadochokinetic rate in dysphagia patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study employed a pretest-posttest control group design. Both orofacial myofunctional exercise and the temperature-tactile stimulation technique were applied to the experimental group (n=23), while only the temperature-tactile stimulation technique was applied to the control group (n=25). [Results] Tongue elevation, tongue protrusion, cheek compression, lip compression, and alternating motion rate were more significantly improved in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Orofacial myofunctional exercise is effective in the rehabilitation of swallowing function in the oral phase in dysphagia patients by improving orofacial muscle strength and response rate.

  14. Effect of orofacial myofunctional exercise on the improvement of dysphagia patients’ orofacial muscle strength and diadochokinetic rate

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Measurement of the diadochokinetic rate can provide useful information on swallowing rehabilitation in the oral phase by elucidating the speed and regularity of movement of muscles related to the lips, tongue, and chin. This study investigated the effect of a three-week period of orofacial myofunctional exercise on the improvement of cheek, tongue, and lip muscle strength and diadochokinetic rate in dysphagia patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study employed a pretest-posttest control group design. Both orofacial myofunctional exercise and the temperature-tactile stimulation technique were applied to the experimental group (n=23), while only the temperature-tactile stimulation technique was applied to the control group (n=25). [Results] Tongue elevation, tongue protrusion, cheek compression, lip compression, and alternating motion rate were more significantly improved in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Orofacial myofunctional exercise is effective in the rehabilitation of swallowing function in the oral phase in dysphagia patients by improving orofacial muscle strength and response rate. PMID:27799705

  15. Case history: improved maxillary growth and development following digit sucking elimination and orofacial myofunctional therapy.

    PubMed

    Green, Shari

    2013-11-01

    Orofacial myologists are frequently called upon to address retained oral habit concerns. During this process, current I.A.O.M. recommended treatment includes addressing tongue, lip, and jaw rest posture concerns. Following digit sucking remediation, we may also be called upon to address these rest posture issues, and tongue thrust more aggressively together. In this process, facial growth and development and jaw structure may coincidentally improve as a result of 'nature taking its course' by addressing both swallow AND rest posture. In a select subset of clients, dramatic improvements may occur if the timing is right. This article discusses one such case that appears to have yielded a significant improvement in oral postures influencing improved facial and oral growth and development.

  16. Occlusal and orofacial myofunctional evaluation in children with primary dentition, anterior open bite and pacifier sucking habit.

    PubMed

    Verrastro, Anna Paula; Stefani, Fabiane Miron; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate occlusal and orofacial myofunctional characteristics in children three to five years of age with anterior open bite related to a pacifier sucking habit. Sixty-nine children participated in this study: 35 with anterior open bite (Anterior Open Bite Group - AOBG) and 34 with normal occlusion (Control Group - CG). In AOBG, the mean anterior open bite was 2.96 mm, the mean overjet was 4.1 mm and the mean upper intercanine distance was 28.7 mm. In the CG, the mean overjet was 2.6 mm and the upper intercanine distance was 30.3 mm. The mean overjet was greater (p=0.001) in AOBG than in CG, and the mean upper intercanine distance was smaller (p<0.001) in AOBG. The number of children with a canine Class II relationship was greater in AOBG than in CG (p<0.001). Simple logistic regression analysis showed that greater overjet, smaller upper intercanine distance and Class II canine relationship coexisted with anterior open bite. In AOBG, the number of children with incompetent lips, inadequate lip tonus, lack of proper tongue rest position, inadequate cheek tonus, anterior tongue interposition during swallowing and speech was greater (p<0.05) than in CG. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified anterior tongue interposition during swallow and speech, as well as incompetent lips, as the main orofacial myofunctional characteristics in children with anterior open bite.

  17. Occlusal and orofacial myofunctional evaluation in children with anterior open bite before and after removal of pacifier sucking habit.

    PubMed

    Verrastro, Anna Paula; Stefani, Fabiane Miron; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate occlusal and orofacial myofunctional characteristics in children with primary dentition and anterior open bite, before and after removal of pacifier sucking habit. A dentist checked anterior open bite, overjet and upper intercanine distance and a speech therapist evaluated posture and tonus of lips and tongue, cheek tonus, swallowing, breathing and speech of twenty-seven 3-5 year-old children at baseline and 3 months later. Habit removal propitiated a mean reduction of 1.97 mm on anterior open bite (P < .001), promoted improvement of lip posture (P = .03), favored nasal breathing (P =. 008) and reduced the occurrence of tongue interposition during swallowing (P = .008). Lack of proper tongue rest posture was capable of preventing spontaneous correction of anterior open bite (odds ratio 17.50).

  18. Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a result of OMD. OMD most often causes sounds like /s/,/z/, "sh", "zh", "ch" and "j" to ... tonsils or adenoids or from allergies) that may cause forward tongue posture. SLPs ... errors swallowing disorders SLPs develop a treatment plan ...

  19. Promoting health literacy with orofacial myofunctional patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Hope C

    2007-11-01

    The definition of health literacy is provided along with information substantiating its importance. Focused initiatives, the consequences of poor health literacy, and at-risk populations are briefly discussed. The focus of this article is the application of health literacy principles to the discipline of orofacial myology and how the promotion of health literacy facilitates positive growth for patients, orfacial myologists, and the professions. The article concludes with a vision for a health literate society.

  20. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Family therapy By Mayo Clinic Staff Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided ...

  1. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Teens > Radiation Therapy A A ... how to cope with side effects. What Is Radiation Therapy? Cancer is a disease that causes cells ...

  2. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) Proton therapy is another kind of radiation used to ... than using x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  3. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  4. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize—the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases. PMID:21103141

  5. What Is Music Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  6. Psychosexual therapy.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P

    Sexual problems are more likely to originate from psychological or relationship difficulties rather than 'mechanical failure'. Here Peter Gregory reveals the often closed world of psychosexual therapy.

  7. Electroconvulsive therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Shock treatment; Shock therapy; ECT; Depression - ECT; Bipolar - ECT ... ECT is a highly effective treatment for depression, most commonly ... who: Are having delusions or other psychotic symptoms with ...

  8. Sweat Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  9. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  10. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Breast Esophagus Rectum Skull base sarcomas Pediatric brain tumors Head and neck - see the Head and Neck Cancer page Eye ... Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer ... related to Proton Therapy Videos related ...

  11. Poetry Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  12. Antiparasitic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, Shanthi; Singh, Upinder; Blackburn, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect more than 2 billion people globally and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly among the world's poorest people. This overview focuses on the treatment of the major protozoan and helminth infections in humans. Recent developments in antiparasitic therapy include the expansion of artemisinin-based therapies for malaria, new drugs for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, expansion of the indications for antiparasitic drug treatment in patients with Chagas disease, and the use of combination therapy for leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21628620

  13. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Proton Therapy SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Treatments Listen ... a nucleus, which holds two types of particles—protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons. ...

  14. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  15. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of the treatment. top of page What equipment is used? Proton beam therapy uses special machines, ... tumor cells. top of page Who operates the equipment? With backgrounds in mechanical, electrical, software, hardware and ...

  16. Hand Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  17. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  18. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  19. Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Hans

    1977-01-01

    The current status of antiviral therapy is reviewed, including discussion of older approaches together with more recently developed chemotherapy. Following the introduction dealing with pathophysiological aspects of virus disease, the different approaches to antiviral therapy are presented. The reasons for the slow progress in antiviral therapy are discussed. These include: 1. the necessity of intracellular penetration of drugs acting on viral replication; 2. the severe toxicity of most antiviral drugs; 3. the narrow antiviral spectrum of most of these agents; 4. the difficulty of making a rapid etiological diagnosis in view of the necessity of starting (specific?) treatment early in the course of the disease; 5. the difficult evaluation of beneficial as compared with deleterious effects of antiviral therapy. After a detailed review of clinically tested substances, including immunoglobulins, synthetic antiviral drugs (amantadine, nucleoside analogs, thiosemicarbazones and photodynamic dyes) and interferon, a guide concerning indications and application of specific antiviral therapy is presented. Although at present there are few indications, clinicians should be aware of the (present and future) possibilities of antiviral therapy. PMID:341538

  20. [Testosterone therapy].

    PubMed

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency.

  1. Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Teitel, Jerome M.

    1984-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic diseases are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in Canada. Agents which interfere with the coagulation mechanism are highly effective in treating these disorders, but at the potentially high cost of serious hemorrhagic complications. The optimal prevention of both serious outcomes and complications of therapy can be achieved by prophylactic treatment of high risk patients. Heparin and vitamin K antagonists remain the mainstays of antithrombotic therapy. The pharmacology of these agents is reviewed, and a rational approach to their clinical use is presented. PMID:21279098

  2. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can watch you during the procedure. As you go through radiation treatment, you may feel like you're all ... treatment. Avoid exposing the treated area to the sun during the weeks you're getting radiation therapy. And when the treatment's over, wear sunscreen ...

  3. Dance Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  4. Gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B

    1982-07-29

    Gene therapy is not yet possible, but may become feasible soon, particularly for well understood gene defects. Although treatment of a patient raises no ethical problems once it can be done well, changing the genes of an early embryo is more difficult, controversial and unlikely to be required clinically.

  5. Sex Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective for individuals of any age, sex or sexual orientation. Sex therapy is usually provided by psychologists, social workers, physicians or licensed therapists who have special training in issues related to sex ... do not have sexual contact with clients, in the office or anywhere ...

  6. Pet Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  7. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... them from spreading. About half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  8. Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your DNA — the code that controls much of your body's form and function, from making you grow taller to regulating your body systems. Genes that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds ...

  9. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  10. Anecdotal therapies.

    PubMed

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  11. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  12. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  13. Gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Drugan, A; Miller, O J; Evans, M I

    1987-01-01

    Severe genetic disorders are potentially correctable by the addition of a normal gene into tissues. Although the technical problems involving integration, stable expression, and insertional damage to the treated cell are not yet fully solved, enough scientific progress has already been made to consider somatic cell gene therapy acceptable from both the ethical and scientific viewpoints. The resolutions to problems evolving from somatic cell gene therapy will help to overcome the technical difficulties encountered presently with germ line gene manipulation. This procedure would then become morally permissible as it will cause, in time, a reduction in the pool of abnormal genes in the population. Enhancement genetic engineering is technically feasible but morally unacceptable. Eugenic genetic engineering is not technically possible or ethically permissible in the foreseeable future.

  14. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from art therapy? Art therapy is practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational, forensic, wellness, private practice and community settings with diverse client populations in ...

  15. Digoxin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, J. K.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    1 Recommendations for correct therapy with digoxin from twenty-five sources are reviewed. 2 Some recommendations may be unsuitable for use with high bioavailability tablets; some are accompanied by insufficient data relating to factors affecting both the response to digoxin and its handling by the body. 3 Guidelines based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles are suggested to help decide optimal digoxin treatment schedules in the presence and absence of non-cardiac disease. PMID:22216507

  16. Cancer Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The patient shown is undergoing cancer radiation treatment in a hospital-like atmosphere but he is not in a hospital. The treatment room is at NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. It is a converted portion of the Center's cyclotron facility, originally designed for radiation studies related to nuclear propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Under an agreement between the Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the 50 million volt cyclotron is now being used to evaluate the effectiveness of "fast neutron" therapy in the treatment of cancerous tumors.

  17. [Gestalt therapy.].

    PubMed

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  18. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  19. Laser therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  20. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  1. American Art Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... more My AATA Collaborate Types & Benefits Local Chapters Education Art Therapy Education ...Read more Educational Standards Approved Art Therapy Master’s ... Art Therapy Credentials Board (ATCB) Institute for Continuing Education (ICE) Ethics Multicultural Conference Conference Information ...Read more ...

  2. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Who's Who in the Hospital Speech-Language Therapy Managing Home Health Care Physical Therapy Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Word! Occupational Therapist Word! Occupational Therapy Wheelchairs Going to an Occupational ...

  3. [Physical therapy].

    PubMed

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  4. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  5. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  6. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  7. Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; Heil, Emily L; Hayes, Bryan D

    2017-02-01

    Prescribing antibiotics is an essential component of initial therapy in sepsis. Early antibiotics are an important component of therapy, but speed of administration should not overshadow the patient-specific characteristics that determine the optimal breadth of antimicrobial therapy. Cultures should be drawn before antibiotic therapy if it does not significantly delay administration. Combination antibiotic therapy against gram-negative infections is not routinely required, and combination therapy involving vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam is associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Emergency practitioners should be aware of special considerations in the administration and dosing of antibiotics in order to deliver optimal care to septic patients.

  8. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  9. Gene therapy for blindness.

    PubMed

    Sahel, José-Alain; Roska, Botond

    2013-07-08

    Sight-restoring therapy for the visually impaired and blind is a major unmet medical need. Ocular gene therapy is a rational choice for restoring vision or preventing the loss of vision because most blinding diseases originate in cellular components of the eye, a compartment that is optimally suited for the delivery of genes, and many of these diseases have a genetic origin or genetic component. In recent years we have witnessed major advances in the field of ocular gene therapy, and proof-of-concept studies are under way to evaluate the safety and efficacy of human gene therapies. Here we discuss the concepts and recent advances in gene therapy in the retina. Our review discusses traditional approaches such as gene replacement and neuroprotection and also new avenues such as optogenetic therapies. We conjecture that advances in gene therapy in the retina will pave the way for gene therapies in other parts of the brain.

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002375.htm Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  11. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Considering testosterone therapy to help you feel younger and more vigorous as you age? ... 01, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/testosterone-therapy/art-20045728 . ...

  12. Targeted Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. Learn how targeted therapy works against cancer and about side effects that may occur.

  13. Myocardial gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isner, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy is proving likely to be a viable alternative to conventional therapies in coronary artery disease and heart failure. Phase 1 clinical trials indicate high levels of safety and clinical benefits with gene therapy using angiogenic growth factors in myocardial ischaemia. Although gene therapy for heart failure is still at the pre-clinical stage, experimental data indicate that therapeutic angiogenesis using short-term gene expression may elicit functional improvement in affected individuals.

  14. Bronchial hygiene therapy.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, W T; Smith, B

    1995-01-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is useful and effective in the presence of careful patient evaluation, clear definition of therapeutic goals, and application of appropriate modalities. This article defines the variable bronchial hygiene modalities and discusses their indications, contraindications, and applications. Prophylactic and therapeutic bronchial hygiene modalities, diagnostic methods associated with bronchial hygiene therapy, inhaled antibiotic therapy, and therapist driven protocols are also addressed.

  15. Musings on Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Antonio G.; Stauffer, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques various definitions of adventure therapy, then suggests that adventure therapy is any intentional, facilitated use of adventure tools and techniques to guide personal change toward desired therapeutic goals. Reflects on the nature of adventure therapy through a discussion of the application of this definition and its implications for…

  16. The physical therapy prescription.

    PubMed

    Onks, Cayce A; Wawrzyniak, John

    2014-07-01

    Physical therapy was first noted in the time of Hippocrates. The physical therapy visit includes a complete history, physical examination, and development of a treatment plan. Health care providers usually initiate a referral based on physical examination, symptoms, or a specific diagnosis. Physical therapy has been shown to be particularly helpful for musculoskeletal ailments, and has a growing body of evidence for use.

  17. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  18. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengrove, Edward

    1971-01-01

    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  19. Family Therapy and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; Ysern, Eduardo

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the family and the enterprise of family therapy are social systems and under the influence of the ideology particular to a given society. The strategic family therapy treatment of a family with a drug-addicted member serves as an example to clarify the ideological themes of contemporary family therapy. (Author/BL)

  20. Neutron therapy of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.; Nellans, H. N.; Shaw, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Reports relate applications of neutrons to the problem of cancer therapy. The biochemical and biophysical aspects of fast-neutron therapy, neutron-capture and neutron-conversion therapy with intermediate-range neutrons are presented. Also included is a computer program for neutron-gamma radiobiology.

  1. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  2. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  3. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials.

  4. Gene therapy review.

    PubMed

    Moss, Joseph Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The use of genes to treat disease, more commonly known as gene therapy, is a valid and promising tool to manage and treat diseases that conventional drug therapies cannot cure. Gene therapy holds the potential to control a wide range of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and blood diseases. This review assesses the current status of gene therapy, highlighting therapeutic methodologies and applications, terminology, and imaging strategies. This article presents an overview of roadblocks associated with each therapeutic methodology, along with some of the scientific, social, and ethical issues associated with gene therapy.

  5. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... skills, improve reality orientation, reduce anxiety, and increase self-esteem. A goal in art therapy is to improve ... supports federal and state policies, legislation, regulations, judicial actions, and initiatives that encourage, promote, and support efforts ...

  6. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle pulls in class activities. Depending on a child’s medical status, therapy sessions should include the practice of age appropriate gross motor skills such as running, jumping, climbing, and pedaling ...

  7. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  8. [Physical therapy in osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Gnjidić, Zoja

    2010-01-01

    Physical therapy has an important role in treating rheumatic diseases; its goal is to reduced pain, swelling and to keep joints mobile. The properly manage osteoarthritis is nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Physical therapy applied as a remedy for osteoarthritis is a part of multimodal therapy. The basis for physical therapy management is determined by the recommendation of the physical therapeutic science and evidence-based medicine. When making a decision about application of different methods of treatment in physical therapy, it is important to correctly diagnose a structural transformation and functional problem. Systematic review of the scientific, evidence-based, international concensus recommendations for the management of the osteoarthritis published between 2000 and 2010 were identified high-quality evidence therapy practice that is efficient and effective in increasing movement capability function, and reduce pain, disability, medical intake and improved physical function for patients with osteoarthritis

  9. About Occupational Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how to use the new OT CPT® Evaluation codes correctly . Congressional Affairs AOTPAC Federal Regulatory Affairs Health ...

  10. American Occupational Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how to use the new OT CPT® Evaluation codes correctly . Congressional Affairs AOTPAC Federal Regulatory Affairs Health ...

  11. Therapy and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... trained in psychotherapy include professionals representing psychiatry, clinical psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and ...

  12. [Cognitive behavior therapy].

    PubMed

    Munezawa, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    Insomnia is one of the most frequently encountered disorders in general clinical practices. At present, the most commonly used therapy for insomnia is pharmacotherapy. There are some problems in pharmacotherapy such as side effects. Therefore nonpharmacological therapy for insomnia is needed. The cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a nonpharmacological therapy attracting attention most. CBT-I not only alleviates insomnia symptoms in patients but also enables them to reduce/discontinue the use of hypnotics. I reviewed a study about the effectiveness of CBT-I and commented the future directions of CBT-I.

  13. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to treat patients at an early stage of disease to reduce disease progression; moreover it is necessary to identify causes of therapy inefficacy in preventing joint damage in the axial subset.

  14. [Morita therapy over history].

    PubMed

    Usa, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    At Sansei Hospital in Kyoto we performed Morita Therapy not only for Japanese clients but also foreign clients from several countries, like Germany, Switzerland, U.S.A., China, Korea, India and Indonesia. We could treat those foreign clients using Morita Therapy with good success although they came from various cultural backgrounds. One of the characteristic Approaches of Morita Therapy was that it avoided the conceptualization of self-consciousness and self image as a subjective fiction established by abstract and logical thinking. Secondary Morita Therapy moves clients to deal with activities in real life. These 2 approaches help clients not to be involved in symptom development or fixation mechanisms and break through self-centeredness. At the first stage of Morita Therapy, namely in the bed rest period clients can experience his psychic state as if he were a just born baby. The founder of Gestalt Therapy, Frederick S. Perls experienced by himself Morita Therapy. During bed rest therapy he behaved as if he were a baby. This behavior came out not from conscious abstract and logical thinking but from spontaneous "pre-conscious" state of mind. Morita called this "Jun-na-kokoro" (Pure mind). Morita knew that neurotic symptoms come out from those abstract and logical thinking which could lead to fixation of symptoms so that therapy principle might be the de-centralization of self and the pure mind experience which is found in our daily life and also in daily life of foreign people from various cultural backgrounds.

  15. Cell and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rajesh C; Zacks, David N

    2014-01-01

    Replacement or repair of a dysfunctional gene combined with promoting cell survival is a two-pronged approach that addresses an unmet need in the therapy of retinal degenerative diseases. In this chapter, we discuss various strategies toward achieving both goals: transplantation of wild-type cells to replace degenerating cells and to rescue gene function, sequential gene and cell therapy, and in vivo reprogramming of rods to cones. These approaches highlight cutting-edge advances in cell and gene therapy, and cellular lineage conversion in order to devise new therapies for various retinal degenerative diseases.

  16. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviewed: February 2017 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Delayed Speech or Language Development Autism Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Cerebral Palsy Occupational Therapy ...

  17. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... alike, but remember that many kids treated with radiation therapy go on to live healthy, full lives. Don't hesitate to discuss your questions and concerns with the doctor. The more you know about how radiation therapy will affect and help your child, the ...

  18. Narrative Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  19. Therapy of Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  20. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  1. Update on acne therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1999-06-01

    Current therapy of acne vulgaris is very effective. It consists of a combination of topical comedolytic agents, antibacterial agents, and combinations of both. The use of systemic therapy with antibiotics, isotretinoin, and hormones is necessary for cystic acne. The management of patients with the various combinations of topical and systemic medications is discussed.

  2. Antiangiogenic Eye Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Corydon, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    The idea of treating disease in humans with genetic material was conceived over two decades ago and with that a promising journey involving development and efficacy studies in cells and animals of a large number of novel therapeutic reagents unfolded. In the footsteps of this process, successful gene therapy treatment of genetic conditions in humans has shown clear signs of efficacy. Notably, significant advancements using gene supplementation and silencing strategies have been made in the field of ocular gene therapy, thereby pinpointing ocular gene therapy as one of the compelling "actors" bringing gene therapy to the clinic. Most of all, this success has been facilitated because of (1) the fact that the eye is an effortlessly accessible, exceedingly compartmentalized, and immune-privileged organ offering a unique advantage as a gene therapy target, and (2) significant progress toward efficient, sustained transduction of cells within the retina having been achieved using nonintegrating vectors based on recombinant adeno-associated virus and nonintegrating lentivirus vectors. The results from in vivo experiments and trials suggest that treatment of inherited retinal dystrophies, ocular angiogenesis, and inflammation with gene therapy can be both safe and effective. Here, the progress of ocular gene therapy is examined with special emphasis on the potential use of RNAi- and protein-based antiangiogenic gene therapy to treat exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  3. History of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality.

  4. Targeted therapies for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... disables the cancer cells so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ways. They may: Turn off the process in cancer cells that causes them to grow and spread Trigger cancer cells to die on their own Kill cancer cells directly People ...

  5. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanney, Bryan L.

    1986-01-01

    When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)

  6. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  7. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  8. Massage Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  9. [Conservative Therapy of Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Krasselt, Marco; Baerwald, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The therapy of osteoarthritis is based on conservative therapeutic approaches, depending on the disease's severity. In this context, physical therapy and the use of sufficient analgesic regimes are of decisive importance. This article will discuss the current evidence based therapeutic concepts as well as promising new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  11. Therapy in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  12. Experiential Learning and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, Elaine

    This paper describes the experiential therapy program at the Bowling Green Adolescent Center (New Jersey). This model supports the view that the therapeutic process of addiction treatment is accelerated and enhanced by providing the patients with experiential interventions. Experiential therapy includes goal setting, hands-on participation,…

  13. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  14. [Gene therapy and ethics].

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Rehmann-Sutter, C

    1995-01-10

    Gene therapy represents a new strategy to treat human disorders. It was originally conceived as a cure for severe monogenetic disorders. Since its conception, the spectrum of possible application for gene therapy has been to include the treatment of acquired diseases, such as various forms of cancer and some viral infections, most notably human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus. Since somatic gene therapy does not cause substantially new ethical problems, it has gained broad approval. This is by no means the case with germ-line gene therapy. Practically all bodies who were evaluating the related ethical aspects wanted to ban its medical application on grounds of fundamental and pragmatic considerations. In this review, practical and ethical views concerning gene therapy are summarized which were presented at the "Junitagung 1994" of the Swiss Society for Biomedical Ethics in Basle.

  15. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies. PMID:19342881

  16. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  17. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Upper GI What is Radiation Therapy? Find a Radiation Oncologist Last Name: Facility: City: State: Zip Code: ... infections. This is refered to as immunotherapy . Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy given during surgery is called ...

  18. The oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Corsonello, A; Pedone, C; Scarlata, S; Zito, A; Laino, I; Antonelli-Incalzi, R

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen (O(2)) is a vital element. Shortage of O(2) results in deranged metabolism and important changes in vascular tone with opposite effects on the systemic and pulmonary circulation. During hypoxemia, oxidative stress exposes the organism to a sort of accelerated senescence as well as to several acute untoward effects. Thus, hypoxemia should be promptly recognized and treated, hopefully by measures tailored to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying hypoxemia. However, O(2) therapy remains the most common therapy of hypoxemia, but it must be carefully tailored to relieve hypoxemia without provoking hyperoxia or hypercarbia. Then, the individual response to O(2) as well as changing needs of O(2) during sleep or exercise must be evaluated to provide the best O(2) therapy. Hyperoxia, the effect of overcorrection of hypoxia, can dramatically impact the health status and threaten the survival of the newborn and, through different mechanisms and effects, the adult. A thorough knowledge of the pathophysiological bases of hypoxemia and O(2) storage and delivery devices is then mandatory to administer O(2) therapy guaranteeing for optimal correction of hypoxemia and minimizing the risk of hyperoxia. Consistent with this aim also is a careful scrutiny of instruments and procedures for monitoring the individual response to O(2) over time. Thus, at variance from classical pharmacological therapy, performing O(2) therapy requires a vast array of clinical and technical competences. The optimal integration of these competences is needed to optimize O(2) therapy on individual bases.

  19. Massage therapy research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research.

  20. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2010-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication has been shown to have a prophylactic effect against gastric cancer. According to several international guidelines, the first-line therapy for treating H. pylori infection consists of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate, with any two antibiotics among amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole, given for 7-14 days. However, even with these recommended regimens, H. pylori eradication failure is still seen in more than 20% of patients. The failure rate for first-line therapy may be higher in actual clinical practice, owing to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The recommended second-line therapy is a quadruple regimen composed of tetracycline, metronidazole, a bismuth salt and a PPI. The combination of PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin is a good option as second-line therapy. In the case of failure of second-line therapy, the patients should be evaluated using a case-by-case approach. European guidelines recommend culture before the selection of a third-line treatment based on the microbial antibiotic sensitivity. H. pylori isolates after two eradication failures are often resistant to both metronidazole and clarithromycin. The alternative candidates for third-line therapy are quinolones, tetracycline, rifabutin and furazolidone; high-dose PPI/amoxicillin therapy might also be promising.

  1. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Plöckinger, U.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs), dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided. PMID:22550484

  2. Radiation therapy in horses.

    PubMed

    Fidel, Janean L

    2010-04-01

    Although the diagnosis of cancer is relatively uncommon in horses, tumors do occur in this species. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are traditional cancer treatments in all species. In equine patients, surgery has often been the only treatment offered; however, not all tumors can be controlled with surgery alone. In small animal oncology, newer and better therapies are in demand and available. Radiation therapy is often used to control or palliate tumors locally, especially to satisfy clients who demand sophisticated treatments. The large size of equine patients can make radiation therapy difficult, but it is a valuable tool for treating cancer and should not be overlooked when treating horses.

  3. Collaboration in experiential therapy.

    PubMed

    Berdondini, Lucia; Elliott, Robert; Shearer, Joan

    2012-02-01

    We offer a view of the nature and role of client-therapist collaboration in experiential psychotherapy, focusing on Gestalt and emotion-focused therapy (EFT). We distinguish between the necessary condition of mutual trust (the emotional bond between client and therapist) and effective collaboration (regarding the goals and tasks of therapy). Using a case study of experiential therapy for social anxiety, we illustrate how the development of collaboration can be both complex and pivotal for therapeutic success, and how it can involve client and therapist encountering one another through taking risks by openly and nonjudgementally disclosing difficult experiences in order to enrich and advance the work.

  4. Community intravenous therapy provision.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Sue; McGrail, Pam; Hodgkins, Paul

    2017-03-08

    Many healthcare services that were once only available in acute settings are now common in the community. Intravenous (IV) therapy is increasingly available as a community service. Given the option, most patients would choose to receive their treatment in a community setting, rather than in hospital. This article describes several outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy services, including their advantages and disadvantages. It explores the ways one community NHS trust has developed its community IV therapy service over the past ten years and examines issues pertinent to effective service delivery.

  5. Parenteral iron therapy options.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Scott B; Rodgers, George M

    2004-05-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is occasionally necessary for patients intolerant or unresponsive to oral iron therapy, for receiving recombinant erythropoietin therapy, or for use in treating functional iron deficiency. There are now three parenteral iron products available: iron dextran, ferric gluconate, and iron sucrose. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each product, including risk of anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity, dosage regimens, and costs. The increased availability of multiple parenteral iron preparations should decrease the need to use red cell transfusions in patients with iron-deficiency anemia.

  6. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... being studied as potential radioprotectors. The use of carbon ion beams in radiation therapy is being investigated ... time, the use of these beams remains experimental. Carbon ion beams are available at only a few ...

  7. Magnetic therapy in physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Gail S.

    2000-03-01

    A critical thinking activity focused on students' understanding of magnets is described. The activity includes a short written paper about the validity of advertisements for alternative medical therapy devices based on magnets. It includes also self assessment through peer interaction.

  8. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly • Supplement is free of harmful contents like pesticides and heavy metals (such as lead, arsenic or ... 1-888-644-6226 http://nccam.nih.gov Natural Medicines Information on complementary therapies http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch. ...

  9. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes tissue death Nonhealing wounds, such as a diabetic foot ulcer Radiation injury Skin graft or skin flap ... hyperbaric oxygenation therapy in the management of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2013;88:166. Indications ...

  10. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius: Treatment & Therapy CPAP Titration Study This type of ...

  11. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary, it can be permanent. Sore Mouth and Tooth Decay The tissues of the mouth may be sore ... and there may be an increased risk of tooth decay if a child received radiation therapy to the ...

  12. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... PT for kids with: sports injuries developmental delays cerebral palsy genetic disorders orthopedic disabilities/injuries heart and lung ... or Language Development Autism Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Cerebral Palsy Occupational Therapy Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains Going ...

  13. [Physiotherapy as manual therapy].

    PubMed

    Torstensen, T A; Nielsen, L L; Jensen, R; Reginiussen, T; Wiesener, T; Kirkesola, G; Mengshoel, A M

    1999-05-30

    Manual therapy includes methods where the therapist's hands are used to stretch, mobilize or manipulate the spinal column, paravertebral structures or extremity joints. The aims of these methods are to relieve pain and improve function. In Norway only specially qualified physiotherapists and chiropractors are authorized to perform manipulation of joints (high velocity thrust techniques). To become a qualified manual therapist in Norway one must have a minimum of two years of clinical practice as physiotherapist followed by two year full time postgraduate training in manual therapy (a total of six years). Historically the Norwegian manual therapy system was developed in the 1950s by physiotherapists and medical doctors in England (James Cyriax and James Mennell) and Norway. As a result doctors allowed physiotherapists to use manipulation as a treatment method of both spinal and peripheral joints. In 1957 the Norwegian health authorities introduced reimbursement for manual therapy performed by physiotherapists.

  14. Therapy of autoinflammatory syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Hal M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapy of autoinflammatory syndromes is an excellent example of the power of translational research. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and immunologic basis of this newly identified classification of disease have allowed for the application of novel, effective, targeted treatments with life-changing effects on patients. Although colchicine and TNF-α inhibitors are important therapies for specific autoinflammatory syndromes, the novel IL-1–targeted drugs are particularly effective for many of these diseases. Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has adopted a strategy of confirming the efficacy of new targeted drugs in often-ignored patients with orphan diseases, and US Food and Drug Administration policies have allowed for accelerated approval of these drugs, creating a win-win situation for patients and industry. This article reviews the general approach to the therapy of autoinflammatory diseases, focusing on current approved therapies and novel approaches that might be used in the future. PMID:20004774

  15. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Your thyroid gland absorbs nearly all of the iodine in your body. When radioactive iodine (RAI), also ...

  16. American Music Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs; & follow up progress. Who Can Benefit from Music Therapy? Children, adolescents, adults, & the elderly with mental health needs, developmental & learning disabilities, Alzheimer's disease, aging related conditions, substance abuse problems, brain ...

  17. [Targeted therapies for melanoma].

    PubMed

    Leiter, U; Meier, F; Garbe, C

    2014-07-01

    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene and also stimulation of immune mediated antitumor response in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. This article addresses the latest developments of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling. In addition, the development of drugs to attack alternative mutations in melanoma, such as NRAS and KIT is described. Strategies for the management of BRAF inhibitor resistance, such as with combination therapy, are outlined. Antitumor immune therapies with monoclonal antibodies such as ipilimumab which acts by promoting T-cell activation or antibody blockade of programmed death-1 (PD-1) led to a long term response in metastatic melanoma. Results of latest clinical studies including the toxicity profile are described. Due to selective kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade, the therapy of unresectable metastatic melanoma has greatly improved and long-term survival of patients with metastatic melanoma seems a real possibility.

  18. Therapy of Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tejesh; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Pruritus is the predominant symptom of skin disease. Due to the poorly understood pathophysiology, the development of effective treatment modalities for pruritus has proven to be particularly difficult. At present, there is no universally accepted therapy for itch. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the treatment of pruritus. Areas covered in this review An overview of current, emerging and possible future therapies for pruritus is provided. What the reader will gain Insights into possible treatment regimes for pruritus in different clinical scenarios. Take home message The therapy of pruritus is challenging and currently takes on an individualistic approach. Recent advancements in the mechanisms that underlie this distressing symptom have identified novel targets for future therapy PMID:20426711

  19. Interactional Gestalt Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warehime, Robert G.

    1981-01-01

    Group gestalt therapy in which the leader facilitates the development of helping capacity in group members is described. The general characteristics of this approach are discussed and ground rules concerning leader and member behaviors are suggested. (RC)

  20. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  1. Drug therapy smartens up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  2. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to three years. If I choose surgery, will radiation treatment still be required? If your surgery is ... option with your physician team. If I choose radiation therapy, will surgical treatment still be an option? ...

  3. Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) Family Therapy: A Theoretical Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, J. A.; Ward Bailey, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    This case study presents a theoretical analysis of implementing mode deactivation therapy (MDT) (Apsche & Ward Bailey, 2003) family therapy with a 13 year old Caucasian male. MDT is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that combines the balance of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) (Linehan, 1993), the importance of perception from…

  4. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    OBTT consortium as the drug #2 for primary screening . Based on that same review , two doses were selected, namely 5000 or 10,000 IU/kg, by a single IV...in drug screening . This review article discusses a consortium called opera- tion brain trauma therapy (OBTT) that was recently established in attempt...consortium that identifies the most promising therapies and compares them across a spectrum of the state -of-the- art models and injury levels. The most

  5. Psoriasis treatment: traditional therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, M; Ting, P; Koo, J

    2005-01-01

    Even before the recent development of biological agents, a long list of effective treatments has been available for patients with psoriasis. Topical therapies such as corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues, and retinoids are used for localised disease. Phototherapy including broadband ultraviolet B (UVB), narrowband UVB, PUVA, and climatotherapy are effective for more extensive disease. Systemic therapies such as methotrexate, retinoids, and ciclosporin are effective for patients with refractory or extensive cutaneous disease. PMID:15708945

  6. Fluid therapy in shock.

    PubMed

    Mandell, D C; King, L G

    1998-05-01

    The goal of treatment for all types of shock is the improvement of tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The mainstay of therapy for hypovolemic and septic shock is the expansion of the intravascular volume by fluid administration, including crystalloids, colloids, and blood products. Frequent physical examinations and monitoring enable the clinician to determine the adequacy of tissue oxygenation and thus the success of the fluid therapy.

  7. Speech therapy with obturator.

    PubMed

    Shyammohan, A; Sreenivasulu, D

    2010-12-01

    Rehabilitation of speech is tantamount to closure of defect in cases with velopharyngeal insufficiency. Often the importance of speech therapy is sidelined during the fabrication of obturators. Usually the speech part is taken up only at a later stage and is relegated entirely to a speech therapist without the active involvement of the prosthodontist. The article suggests a protocol for speech therapy in such cases to be done in unison with a prosthodontist.

  8. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  9. Microenvironment and Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Michio; Itasaka, Satoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Dependency on tumor oxygenation is one of the major features of radiation therapy and this has led many radiation biologists and oncologists to focus on tumor hypoxia. The first approach to overcome tumor hypoxia was to improve tumor oxygenation by increasing oxygen delivery and a subsequent approach was the use of radiosensitizers in combination with radiation therapy. Clinical use of some of these approaches was promising, but they are not widely used due to several limitations. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated by hypoxia and induces the expression of various genes related to the adaptation of cellular metabolism to hypoxia, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells and angiogenesis, and so forth. HIF-1 is a potent target to enhance the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy. Another approach is antiangiogenic therapy. The combination with radiation therapy is promising, but several factors including surrogate markers, timing and duration, and so forth have to be optimized before introducing it into clinics. In this review, we examined how the tumor microenvironment influences the effects of radiation and how we can enhance the antitumor effects of radiation therapy by modifying the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23509762

  10. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa Hm; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression.

  11. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  12. Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, Arlene

    2003-09-10

    The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

  13. [Bright light therapy].

    PubMed

    Poirrier, R; Cambron, L

    2007-01-01

    Bright light therapy is a treatment that emerged in the eighties of the last century. It can be used in different pathologies such as seasonal affective disorders, major depressions, and many disorders of the wake-sleep rhythm, whether they are of primary or secondary origin. Important progress made at the basic neuroscience levels, allows today a sound understanding of the bright light mode of action. Moreover, the main indications are now the subject of consensus reports and meta-analyses which show good levels of evidence-based medicine. Bright light therapy constitutes a first choice indication in seasonal affective disorder. It is also perfectly possible to prescribe bright light therapy in the major depression disorders. It has been demonstrated that the effect size is the same as with antidepressants of reference. It is admitted nowadays that bright light therapy may be at least, an adjunct to pharmacotherapy, in order to accelerate the antidepressant effect onset, or to prolong this effect after withdrawal of the drug. Bright light therapy can also be viewed as an alternative to the pharmacological approach especially when this one is impossible, not tolerated or not accepted by the patient. The contraindications are rare.

  14. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  15. Human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, J S; Keating, A; Hozumi, N

    1997-01-01

    Human gene therapy and its application for the treatment of human genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, cancer, and other diseases, are discussed. Gene therapy is a technique in which a functioning gene is inserted into a human cell to correct a genetic error or to introduce a new function to the cell. Many methods, including retroviral vectors and non-viral vectors, have been developed for both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer into cells. Vectors need to be developed that efficiently transfer genes to target cells, and promoter systems are required that regulate gene expression according to physiologic needs of the host cell. There are several safety and ethical issues related to manipulating the human genome that need to be resolved. Current gene therapy efforts focus on gene insertion into somatic cells only. Gene therapy has potential for the effective treatment of genetic disorders, and gene transfer techniques are being used for basic research, for example, in cancer, to examine the underlying mechanism of disease. There are still many technical obstacles to be overcome before human gene therapy can become a routine procedure. The current human genome project provides the sequences of a vast number of human genes, leading to the identification, characterization, and understanding of genes that are responsible for many human diseases.

  16. [Dynamic flamingo therapy].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Keizo

    2008-11-01

    A long follow up study of one minute unipedal standing therapy 3 times in a day to prevent femoral neck osteoporosis that have started from 1993 was reported. The registration from July 1993 to March 2004 were 86 cases which measured the femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) according to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR 1000 and 2000) in a follow-up period. Average age at starting exercise was 67.9 years old. All cases were female who were registered in our university hospital. The result of unipedal exercise evaluated by the femoral neck BMD was described as follows : The increased cases of BMD were 15/24 (62.5%) post exercise 3 months, 15/37 (40.5%) post 6 months, and 12/21 (57.1%) post one year, 8/25 (32%) post 3 years, 7/13 (53.8%) post 5 years and 1/3 (33.3%) post 10 years. We have no fracture cases in which continued exercise in follow-up period. According to a randomized controlled study of unipedal standing balance therapy to clinically defined high-risk elderly individuals a therapy group reduced fall times by a significant difference than non-therapy group. We conclude that unipedal standing therapy is efficacious against femoral neck osteoporosis and fractures.

  17. Gene therapy for hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Chuah, M K; Evens, H; VandenDriessche, T

    2013-06-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked monogenic disorders resulting from deficiencies of factor VIII and FIX, respectively. Purified clotting factor concentrates are currently intravenously administered to treat hemophilia, but this treatment is non-curative. Therefore, gene-based therapies for hemophilia have been developed to achieve sustained high levels of clotting factor expression to correct the clinical phenotype. Over the past two decades, different types of viral and non-viral gene delivery systems have been explored for hemophilia gene therapy research with a variety of target cells, particularly hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, skeletal muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Lentiviral and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are among the most promising vectors for hemophilia gene therapy. In preclinical hemophilia A and B animal models, the bleeding phenotype was corrected with these vectors. Some of these promising preclinical results prompted clinical translation to patients suffering from a severe hemophilic phenotype. These patients receiving gene therapy with AAV vectors showed long-term expression of therapeutic FIX levels, which is a major step forwards in this field. Nevertheless, the levels were insufficient to prevent trauma or injury-induced bleeding episodes. Another challenge that remains is the possible immune destruction of gene-modified cells by effector T cells, which are directed against the AAV vector antigens. It is therefore important to continuously improve the current gene therapy approaches to ultimately establish a real cure for hemophilia.

  18. Cell Therapy in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  19. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  20. Nonpharmacologic therapies in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Reimold, Andreas M; Chandran, Vinod

    2014-10-01

    It is accepted that the optimal management of spondyloarthritis requires a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Non-pharmacologic therapy in spondyloarthritis has generally focused on the exercise regimens whose purpose is to maintain mobility and strength, relieve symptoms, prevent or decrease spinal deformity, contribute to long-term cardiopulmonary health, and improve overall function and quality of life. Exercise programs such as home exercise, group exercise, inpatient programs, and spa exercise have all been the subject of multiple reports that are reviewed here. Studies reviewed support the use of exercise, spa therapy, manual therapy, and electrotherapeutic modalities. Additional topics that are finding relevance in spondyloarthritis are the behavioral interventions that maximize knowledge, motivation for compliance, and healthy lifestyle choices including smoking cessation, weight management, diet, and probiotics. However, the quality and generalizability of the studies are limited.

  1. [Therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Keck, E

    2003-12-01

    The therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis is based on a few comprehensible assumptions. High bone resorption should be reduced by treatment with bisphosphonates, raloxifene or seldom with calcitonins. After reduction of high bone turnover and in low bone turnover situations, an osteoinductive combination therapy should be started, inducing collagen type I with parathyroid hormone or fluorides. This collagen can then be mineralized by calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin D metabolites. In addition, bone resorption should be reduced during menopause with estrogens and gestagens, in the case of a receptor-positive breast cancer with tamoxifen, and after menopause with raloxifene or a bisphosphonate. In elderly patients a depletion of vitamin D often induces an osteoporomalacia instead of an osteoporosis. In this situation, mineralization of the osteoid by calcium and vitamin D is sufficient for therapy. A daily osteoporosis gymnastic program is required and physical activity should be enhanced to increase muscle mass because bone adapts to the individual situation.

  2. [Behcet's disease therapy review].

    PubMed

    Vidaller Palacín, A; Robert Olalla, J; Sanuy Jiménez, B; Rufi Rigau, G; Folch Civit, J; Charte González, A

    2002-11-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory process of unknown origin, which usually presents with recurrent oral ulcers, genital aphthae, uveitis and cutaneous lesions. However, a wide variety of clinical manifestations have been reported, and virtually any organ system may be affected, showing central nervous system, joints, blood vessels or gastrointestinal tract involvement. Therapeutic approach remains complex, and varies in basis of the affected organs. Complex aphthosis may respond to topical therapy, colchicine and dapsone. If this therapy does not result in adequate disease control, thalidomide, oral prednisone and methotrexate may be useful. When severe ocular lesions or systemic manifestations are present, therapies tend to be more aggressive, usually combining corticosteroids with immunosuppressive agents as cyclosporin, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, interferon-alfa-2a, and chlorambucil.

  3. Parkinson's disease: gene therapies.

    PubMed

    Coune, Philippe G; Schneider, Bernard L; Aebischer, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    With the recent development of effective gene delivery systems, gene therapy for the central nervous system is finding novel applications. Here, we review existing viral vectors and discuss gene therapy strategies that have been proposed for Parkinson's disease. To date, most of the clinical trials were based on viral vectors to deliver therapeutic transgenes to neurons within the basal ganglia. Initial trials used genes to relieve the major motor symptoms caused by nigrostriatal degeneration. Although these new genetic approaches still need to prove more effective than existing symptomatic treatments, there is a need for disease-modifying strategies. The investigation of the genetic factors implicated in Parkinson's disease is providing precious insights in disease pathology that, combined with innovative gene delivery systems, will hopefully offer novel opportunities for gene therapy interventions to slow down, or even halt disease progression.

  4. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  5. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

  6. [Particle therapy: carbon ions].

    PubMed

    Pommier, Pascal; Hu, Yi; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Chapet, Olivier; Balosso, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiation therapy. It has been first proposed in the forties by Robert Wilson, however the first dedicated centres for human care have been build up only recently in Japan and Germany. The interest of carbon ion is twofold: 1) the very sharp targeting of the tumour with the so called spread out Bragg peak that delivers most of the beam energy in the tumour and nothing beyond it, sparing very efficiently the healthy tissues; 2) the higher relative biological efficiency compared to X rays or protons, able to kill radioresistant tumour cells. Both properties make carbon ions the elective therapy for non resectable radioresistant tumours loco-regionally threatening. The technical and clinical experience accumulated during the recent decades is summarized in this paper along with a detailed presentation of the elective indications. A short comparison between conventional radiotherapy and hadrontherapy is proposed for the indications which are considered as priority for carbon ions.

  7. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction.

  8. Psychodynamic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different psychodynamic therapy approaches (drive/structural, relational and integrative analytic models) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural, ‘third-wave’ CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25267905

  9. Alternative therapy in pruritus.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Because of its multitude of origins, the symptom complex of pruritus has a plethora of purported remedies and few therapeutic indications. Very few topical and systemic FDA approved medications have the indication of pruritus. Specific therapy still awaits a better definition of the exact physiologic events in chronic pruritus. Hence most medications actually focus on the central nervous system--the peripheral receptors--and the lack of specific physiologic targets has inhibited pharmacologic development. The resulting gap has opened the door to a variety of alternative therapies.

  10. Drug therapy in headache.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache.

  11. Art therapy for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Isabel; Aceituno, David; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-01-19

    Art therapy is used as a complementary treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness is not clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified five systematic reviews including 20 studies overall, of which four were randomized trials. We extracted data and prepared summary of findings tables using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear whether art therapy leads to clinical improvement in schizophrenia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  12. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  13. The ethics of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sarah; Harris, John

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments have progressed in areas of science that pertain to gene therapy and its ethical implications. This review discusses the current state of therapeutic gene technologies, including stem cell therapies and genetic modification, and identifies ethical issues of concern in relation to the science of gene therapy and its application, including the ethics of embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning, the risks associated with gene therapy, and the ethics of clinical research in developing new therapeutic technologies. Additionally, ethical issues relating to genetic modification itself are considered: the significance of the human genome, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, and concerns regarding gene therapy as a eugenic practice.

  14. Weekend therapy in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-05-01

    This article introduces the concept of "weekend therapy", which has now become reality in diabetes. It briefly describes injectable and oral drugs which are currently available, or are in advanced stages of development, for use in once weekly administration. These include dulaglutide, exenatide QW, semaglutide, omarigliptin and trelagliptin.

  15. Transpersonal Art Therapy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Michael; Farrelly-Hansen, Mimi; Marek, Bernie; Swan-Foster, Nora; Wallingford, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the task of training future art therapists through a unique branch of transpersonal psychology referred to as "contemplative education." Discusses contemplative practices, such as meditation, and their relationship to creating art. Offers a definition of transpersonal art therapy as well as a literature review. (Contains 80…

  16. Drama Therapies in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Judith; Prosperi, Mario

    1976-01-01

    Explores the use of drama as a therapeutic tool at various hospitals and records specific therapy groups dialogues. Available from: The Drama Review, 51 West 4th Street, Room 300, New York, N.Y. 10012. Subscription Rates: $12.50 per year. (MH)

  17. Sex Therapy and Mastectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Mildred Hope

    1975-01-01

    Because the emotional trauma associated with a mastectomy exceeds the physical trauma, the recovery of the woman is greatly affected by the response of her husband or lover. Sex therapy, therefore, involves the couple. The approach described is aimed at assisting the couple to confront and integrate the mastectomy experience. (Author)

  18. Diet Therapy Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…

  19. Antibody therapy for Ebola

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Ebola viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates with fatality rates up to 90%, and are identified as biosafety level 4 pathogens and CDC Category A Agents of Bioterrorism. To date, there are no approved therapies and vaccines available to treat these infections. Antibody therapy was estimated to be an effective and powerful treatment strategy against infectious pathogens in the late 19th, early 20th centuries but has fallen short to meet expectations to widely combat infectious diseases. Passive immunization for Ebola virus was successful in 2012, after over 15 years of failed attempts leading to skepticism that the approach would ever be of potential benefit. Currently, monoclonal antibody (mAbs)-based therapies are the most efficient at reversing the progression of a lethal Ebola virus infection in nonhuman primates, which recapitulate the human disease with the highest similarity. Novel combinations of mAbs can even fully cure lethally infected animals after clinical symptoms and circulating virus have been detected, days into the infection. These new developments have reopened the door for using antibody-based therapies for filovirus infections. Furthermore, they are reigniting hope that these strategies will contribute to better control the spread of other infectious agents and provide new tools against infectious diseases. PMID:24503566

  20. Therapy for Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmann, Michael R.

    A family therapy model, based on a conceptualization of the family as a behavioral system whose members interact adaptively so that an optimal level of functioning is maintained within the system, is described. The divergent roots of this conceptualization are discussed briefly, as are the treatment approaches based on it. The author's model,…

  1. Regulated Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Breger, Ludivine; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Quintino, Luis; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of monogenic and multifactorial neurological disorders. It can be used to replace a missing gene and mutated gene or downregulate a causal gene. Despite the versatility of gene therapy, one of the main limitations lies in the irreversibility of the process: once delivered to target cells, the gene of interest is constitutively expressed and cannot be removed. Therefore, efficient, safe and long-term gene modification requires a system allowing fine control of transgene expression.Different systems have been developed over the past decades to regulate transgene expression after in vivo delivery, either at transcriptional or post-translational levels. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on current regulatory system used in the context of gene therapy for neurological disorders. Systems using external regulation of transgenes using antibiotics are commonly used to control either gene expression using tetracycline-controlled transcription or protein levels using destabilizing domain technology. Alternatively, specific promoters of genes that are regulated by disease mechanisms, increasing expression as the disease progresses or decreasing expression as disease regresses, are also examined. Overall, this chapter discusses advantages and drawbacks of current molecular methods for regulated gene therapy in the central nervous system.

  2. Adventure Therapy with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Christine Lynn; Tucker, Anita; Russell, Keith C.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Gass, Michael A.; Gillis, H. L.; Behrens, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This state of knowledge article provides an overview of Adventure Therapy (AT) as it is practiced with adolescents in North America, presenting (a) current findings in AT research with adolescents, (b) critical issues in AT, (c) the need for training and professional development in AT, and (d) professionalization in AT. Implications of current…

  3. Customizing Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; Oxman, Elaine

    The group therapy context provides unparalleled opportunities for cost effective learning. However, within group meetings, therapists must strive to tailor psychological services to address the particular needs of individual patients. Creative means of customizing patients experiences within group are needed in order to address consumer needs…

  4. Photography as Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routh, Robert D.

    Image making, like writing and speaking, is a carrier of ideas. This paper presents photography as therapy, a useful concept for advocates of humanistic education. The paper shows that Western civilization, due to its preoccupation with science, technology, and commerce, enhances and promotes left-hemispheric brain functions (verbal, analytical,…

  5. Gene therapy for newborns.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D B; Parkman, R

    1997-07-01

    Application of gene therapy to treat genetic and infectious diseases may have several advantages if performed in newborns. Because of the minimal adverse effect of the underlying disease on cells of the newborn, the relatively small size of infants, and the large amount of future growth, gene therapy may be more successful in newborns than in older children or adults. The presence of umbilical cord blood from newborns provides a unique and susceptible target for the genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells. In our first trial of gene therapy in newborns, we inserted a normal adenosine deaminase gene into umbilical cord blood cells of three neonates with a congenital immune deficiency. The trial demonstrated the successful transduction and engraftment of stem cells, which continue to contribute to leukocyte production more than 3 years later. A similar approach may be taken to insert genes that inhibit replication of HIV-1 into umbilical cord blood cells of HIV-1-infected neonates. Many other metabolic and infectious disorders could be treated by gene therapy during the neonatal period if prenatal diagnoses are made and the appropriate technical and regulatory requirements have been met.

  6. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  7. Affect in Marital Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Leslie S.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1986-01-01

    Using a network theory of emotion, the role of the evocation of emotion in emotionally focused marital therapy to create intimacy and facilitate conflict resolution is discussed. Accessing underlying primary emotional responses in partners makes available adaptive action tendencies which promote problem solving and helps change self- and…

  8. Lasers in periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Passanezi, Euloir; Damante, Carla Andreotti; de Rezende, Maria L Rubo; Greghi, Sebastião L Aguiar

    2015-02-01

    About 50 years ago, lasers started to be used in periodontal treatment following evidence that wounds produced in animals healed more quickly after being irradiated with low-intensity lasers. Increased production of growth factors, stimulated mainly by red and infrared lasers, may participate in this process by influencing the behavior of various types of cells. High-intensity lasers have been used as an alternative to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in root biomodification and to reduce dentin hypersensivity; low-intensity lasers are frequently employed to improve tissue repair in regenerative procedures and in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Despite the abundance of promising data on the advantages of their use, there is still controversy regarding the real benefits of lasers and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in periodontal and peri-implant treatment. A huge variation in the parameters of laser application among studies makes comparisons very difficult. An overview of the current concepts and findings on lasers in periodontal therapy is presented with emphasis on data collected from Latin-American researchers.

  9. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Therapies.

    PubMed

    Chivu-Economescu, Mihaela; Rubach, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are recognized as a new way to treat various diseases and injuries, with a wide range of health benefits. The goal is to heal or replace diseased or destroyed organs or body parts with healthy new cells provided by stem cell transplantation. The current practical form of stem cell therapy is the hematopoietic stem cells transplant applied for the treatment of hematological disorders. There are over 2100 clinical studies in progress concerning hematopoietic stem cell therapies. All of them are using hematopoietic stem cells to treat various diseases like: cancers, leukemia, lymphoma, cardiac failure, neural disorders, auto-immune diseases, immunodeficiency, metabolic or genetic disorders. Several challenges are to be addressed prior to developing and applying large scale cell therapies: 1) to explain and control the mechanisms of differentiation and development toward a specific cell type needed to treat the disease, 2) to obtain a sufficient number of desired cell type for transplantation, 3) to overcome the immune rejection and 4) to show that transplanted cells fulfill their normal functions in vivo after transplants.

  10. Targeted α-Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2008-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become a viable strategy for the delivery of therapeutic, particle emitting radionuclides specifically to tumor cells to either augment anti-tumor action of the native antibodies or to solely take advantage of their action as targeting vectors. Proper and rational selection of radionuclide and antibody combinations is critical to making radioimmunotherapy (RIT) a standard therapeutic modality due to the fundamental and significant differences in the emission of either α- and β-particles. The α-particle has a short path length (50-80 μm) that is characterized by high linear energy transfer (∼100 keV/μm). Actively targeted α-therapy potentially offers a more specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to the surrounding normal tissues than ß-emitters. These properties make targeted α-therapy appropriate therapies to eliminate of minimal residual or micrometastatic disease. RIT using α-emitters such as 213Bi, 211At, 225Ac, and others has demonstrated significant activity in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Limited numbers of clinical trials have progressed to demonstrate safety, feasibility, and therapeutic activity of targeted α-therapy, despite having to traverse complex obstacles. Further advances may require more potent isotopes, additional sources and more efficient means of isotope production. Refinements in chelation and/or radiolabeling chemistry combined with rational improvements of isotope delivery, targeting vectors, molecular targets, and identification of appropriate clinical applications remains as active areas of research. Ultimately, randomized trials comparing targeted α-therapy combined with integration into existing standard of care treatment regimens will determine the clinical utility of this modality. PMID:17992276

  11. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function.

  12. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... types of therapy work best when you can go on an intensive schedule (i.e., every day ...

  13. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  14. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy rays (such as gamma rays or x-rays) or particles (such as electrons, protons, or neutrons) to destroy cancer cells or ...

  15. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  16. Gene Therapy for Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gorell, Emily; Nguyen, Ngon; Lane, Alfred; Siprashvili, Zurab

    2014-01-01

    The skin possesses qualities that make it desirable for gene therapy, and studies have focused on gene therapy for multiple cutaneous diseases. Gene therapy uses a vector to introduce genetic material into cells to alter gene expression, negating a pathological process. This can be accomplished with a variety of viral vectors or nonviral administrations. Although results are promising, there are several potential pitfalls that must be addressed to improve the safety profile to make gene therapy widely available clinically. PMID:24692191

  17. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated.

  18. Art Therapy in Theory & Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulman, Elinor, Ed.; Dachinger, Penny, Ed.

    The essays in this collection are grounded in theoretical underpinnings which range from Freud to Montessori. The focus encompasses educational and psychiatric concerns. Essays are organized in 4 parts. Part 1, "Theory of Art Therapy," includes: (1) "Art Therapy: Problems of Definition" (Elinor Ulman); (2) "Therapy is Not Enough: The Contribution…

  19. Brief Therapy: An Adolescent Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Article states that brief, effective therapy with adolescents can occur by integrating the structure of solution-focused approaches with expressive qualities of art therapy within the framework of adolescent development. The three fundamentals of successful adolescent therapy are addressed. (Author/JDM)

  20. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  1. Regeneration therapy for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Takashi

    2003-06-01

    Regeneration therapy can be classified into three categories. The first category, in vitro regeneration therapy, makes use of transplanted cultured cells, including embryonic stem (ES) cells, pancreatic precursor cells and beta-cell lines, in conjunction with immunosuppressive therapy or immunoisolation for the treatment of patients with Type 1 diabetes. In the second type of regeneration therapy, ex vivo regeneration therapy, a patient's own cells, such as bone marrow stem cells, are transiently removed and induced to differentiate into beta-cells in vitro. However, at the present time, insulin-producing cells cannot be generated from bone marrow stem cells. In vivo regeneration therapy, the third type of regeneration therapy, enables impaired tissue to regenerate from a patient's own cells in vivo. beta-Cell neogenesis from non-beta-cells, and beta-cell proliferation in vivo have been considered in particular as regeneration therapies for patients with Type 2 diabetes. Regeneration therapy for pancreatic beta-cells can be combined with various other therapeutic strategies, including islet transplantation, cell-based therapy, gene therapy and drug therapy, to promote beta-cell proliferation and neogenesis; it is hoped that these strategies will, in the future, provide a cure for diabetes.

  2. Brief therapy: focused solution development.

    PubMed

    De Shazer, S; Berg, I K; Lipchik, E; Nunnally, E; Molnar, A; Gingerich, W; Weiner-Davis, M

    1986-06-01

    This article describes the form of brief therapy developed at the Brief Family Therapy Center. We have chosen a title similar to Weakland, Fisch, Watzlawick, and Bodin's classic paper, "Brief Therapy: Focused Problem Resolution" (20) to emphasize our view that there is a conceptual relationship and a developmental connection between the points of view expressed in the two papers.

  3. Regenerative periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Hägi, Tobias T; Laugisch, Oliver; Ivanovic, Aleksandar; Sculean, Anton

    2014-03-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is to completely restore the tooth's supporting apparatus that has been lost due to inflammatory periodontal disease or injury. It is characterized by formation of new cementum with inserting collagen fibers, new periodontal ligament, and new alveolar bone. Indeed conventional, nonsurgical, and surgical periodontal therapy usually result in clinical improvements evidenced by probing depth reduction and clinical attachment gain, but the healing occurs predominantly through formation of a long junctional epithelium and no or only unpredictable periodontal regeneration. Therefore, there is an ongoing search for new materials and improved surgical techniques, with the aim of predictably promoting periodontal wound healing/regeneration and improving the clinical outcome. This article attempts to provide the clinician with an overview of the most important biologic events involved in periodontal wound healing/ regeneration and on the criteria on how to select the appropriate regenerative material and surgical technique in order to optimize the clinical outcomes.

  4. [Drug therapy for cough].

    PubMed

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered.

  5. Regenerative photonic therapy: Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman

    2012-09-01

    After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

  6. [Drug therapy for acromegaly].

    PubMed

    Góth, Miklós

    2013-09-29

    Prolonged overproduction of growth hormone, like insulin-like growth factor-1 hypersecretion leads to acromegaly in adults. This is associated with several co-morbidities and increased mortality. Despite typical clinical features and modern diagnostic tools, it often takes years to diagnose from the onset of the disease. The aims of the treatment are to reduce or control tumour growth, inhibit growth hormone hypersecretion, normalize insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, treat co-morbidities and, therefore, reduce mortality. There are three approaches for therapy: surgery, medical management (dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogues and growth hormone receptor antagonist), and radiotherapy. Efficient therapy of the disease is based on the appropriate multidisciplinary team management. The review provides a summary of medical treatment for acromegaly.

  7. [Photodynamic therapy vs imiquimod].

    PubMed

    Serra-Guillén, C; Nagore, E; Guillén, C

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy and imiquimod are highly regarded treatments dermatologists frequently prescribe for actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinoma, and Bowen disease. The scarcity of evidence from comparative trials prevents us from drawing well-founded conclusions about the efficacy, tolerance, and adverse effects of these therapeutic options or to recommend one over the other in any particular type of lesion or patient. On the other hand, in certain conditions (eg, actinic chelitis, immunosuppression, and basal cell carcinoma affecting the eyelids), there is evidence to support the use of photodynamic therapy or imiquimod even though they might initially seem contraindicated. We critically review and compare the use of these 2 treatments in order to suggest which is more appropriate in specific cases.

  8. Sex therapy and mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Witkin, M H

    1975-01-01

    Because the emotional trauma associated with a mastectomy exceeds the physical trauma, the recovery of the woman is greatly affected by the response of her husband or lover. Sex therapy, therefore, involves the couple. The approach described here is aimed at assisting the couple to confront and intergrate the mastectomy experience. The use of a prosthesis is discouraged during intercourse because it delays such confrontation; certain sex therapy exercises (body imagery and sensate focus) are usually recommended because they facilitate confrontation and acceptance. These, modified for the circumstances, are described. It is suggested that intercourse be attempted as early as possible, and that if physical weakness or psychological trepidation intervenes, the physical desire and caring of the husband be expressed nonetheless. The "professional" attitudes that psychotherapy is always indicated for mastectomy patients and that the proper role of the husband is matter-of-fact denial are rejected; emphasis is placed on the beneficial consequences of sharing of all emotions.

  9. Biological therapy and dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Radfar, Lida; Ahmadabadi, Roshanak E; Masood, Farah; Scofield, R Hal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a new class of drugs has revolutionized the treatment of autoimmune, allergic, infectious and many more diseases. These drugs are classified into three groups, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Biological drugs have less side effects compared to conventional drugs, and may target special damaged cells, but not all the cells. There may be side effects such as infection, hypersensitivity, hematological disorders, cancer, hepatotoxicity and neurological disorders, but there is not enough evidence or long term studies of the mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs. Patients on biological therapy may need some special consideration in dentistry. This paper is a review regarding the classification, mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs, and dental consideration for patients on biological therapy. PMID:26372436

  10. [Drug therapy of acne].

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, F R; Degitz, K

    2008-07-01

    Acne is treated according to the clinical picture and the pathophysiologically relevant mechanisms, such as seborrhea, follicular hyperkeratosis, P. acnes colonisation,and inflammation. In mild forms of acne, topical therapy is most appropriate. Comedonal acne can be treated with topical retinoids; papulopustular acne with a combination of retinoids and topical antimicrobial substances (benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, or azelaic acid). Moderate forms or those with extrafacial involvement can be treated with oral antibiotics combined with topical retinoids or benzoyl peroxide. Acne conglobata and other severe manifestations are treated with oral isotretinoin. Women are also treated with oral contraceptives containing anti-androgenic progestins. If inflammation is prominent, initial short term treatment with oral glucocorticoids is helpful. Second-line agents include oral zinc or dapsone. Following successful treatment, topical retinoids are suitable for maintenance therapy.

  11. Alphaviruses in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors present an attractive approach for gene therapy applications due to the rapid and simple recombinant virus particle production and their broad range of mammalian host cell transduction. Mainly three types of alphavirus vectors, namely naked RNA, recombinant particles and DNA/RNA layered vectors, have been subjected to preclinical studies with the goal of achieving prophylactic or therapeutic efficacy, particularly in oncology. In this context, immunization with alphavirus vectors has provided protection against challenges with tumor cells. Moreover, alphavirus intratumoral and systemic delivery has demonstrated substantial tumor regression and significant prolonged survival rates in various animal tumor models. Recent discoveries of the strong association of RNA interference and disease have accelerated gene therapy based approaches, where alphavirus-based gene delivery can play an important role. PMID:25961488

  12. [Immunological cell therapy].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiko; Gonda, Kenji; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Takenoshita, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    Recently there is a great advance in anti-colorectal cancer treatment. Several molecular targeting agents, mostly are antibody drugs, are playing an important role. It has recently been proven that new approaches using antibody to immunological checkpoints are effective against certain types of cancer. This is one of the reasons why cancer immunotherapy is now focused in the clinics. In this chapter, several effective immunotherapy against cancer are shown and discussed. Among several types of cancer immunotherapy, immunological cell therapy including lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), gamma delta T cell and dendritic cell therapies are reviewed. Major mechanisms that disturb cancer immunotherapy such as escape mechanisms are also discussed.

  13. Photodynamic therapy with fullerenes†

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Tegos, George P.; Gali, Hariprasad; Wharton, Tim; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Fullerenes are a class of closed-cage nanomaterials made exclusively from carbon atoms. A great deal of attention has been focused on developing medical uses of these unique molecules especially when they are derivatized with functional groups to make them soluble and therefore able to interact with biological systems. Due to their extended π-conjugation they absorb visible light, have a high triplet yield and can generate reactive oxygen species upon illumination, suggesting a possible role of fullerenes in photodynamic therapy. Depending on the functional groups introduced into the molecule, fullerenes can effectively photoinactivate either or both pathogenic microbial cells and malignant cancer cells. The mechanism appears to involve superoxide anion as well as singlet oxygen, and under the right conditions fullerenes may have advantages over clinically applied photosensitizers for mediating photodynamic therapy of certain diseases. PMID:17973044

  14. Virtual reality exposure therapy.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, B O; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer-generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first controlled study of virtual reality in treatment of a psychiatric disorder. A case study supported the efficacy of VR exposure therapy for the fear of flying. The potential for virtual reality exposure treatment for these and other disorders is explored, and therapeutic issues surrounding the delivery of VR exposure are discussed.

  15. Integrative therapies for menopause.

    PubMed

    McKee, Julie; Warber, Sara L

    2005-03-01

    Menopause is a transitional time for women. This gives practitioners an opportunity to focus on recommending healthy life-style changes. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been the mainstay of therapy for menopausal symptoms. With recent research findings, women and their physicians are seeking alternatives that do not carry the risks associated with HRT. Exercise has been shown to help some women with symptoms of hot flashes, as have relaxation techniques and deep breathing. Dietary changes to incorporate whole foods and soy are thought by some to help with menopausal symptoms, and are recommended because of a positive impact on heart disease and obesity; soy isoflavones may also help with menopausal symptoms. Botanicals such as black cohosh and red clover have been shown in some studies to decrease severity and frequency of hot flashes. We recommend that HRT be prescribed when other measures have failed to adequately control symptoms. Bioidentical hormones are preferred in our practice.

  16. Proton beam therapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. AFRICAN ABORIGINAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Philip A. E.

    1920-01-01

    No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265

  18. Vacuum bell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sesia, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background For specific therapy to correct pectus excavatum (PE), conservative treatment with the vacuum bell (VB) was introduced more than 10 years ago in addition to surgical repair. Preliminary results using the VB were encouraging. We report on our 13-year experience with the VB treatment including the intraoperative use during the Nuss procedure and present some technical innovations. Methods A VB with a patient-activated hand pump is used to create a vacuum at the anterior chest wall. Three different sizes of vacuum bells, as well as a model fitted for young women, exist. The appropriate size is selected according to the individual patient’s age and ventral surface. The device should be used at home for a minimum of 30 minutes (twice a day), and may be used up to a maximum of several hours daily. The intensity of the applied negative pressure can be evaluated with an integrated pressure gauge during follow-up visits. A prototype of an electronic model enables us to measure the correlation between the applied negative pressure and the elevation of the anterior chest wall. Results Since 2003, approx. 450 patients between 2 to 61 years of age started the VB therapy. Age and gender specific differences, depth of PE, symmetry or asymmetry, and concomitant malformations such as scoliosis and/or kyphosis influence the clinical course and success of VB therapy. According to our experience, we see three different groups of patients. Immediate elevation of the sternum was confirmed thoracoscopically during the Nuss procedure in every patient. Conclusions The VB therapy has been established as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients suffering from PE. The initial results up to now are encouraging, but long-term results comprising more than 15 years are so far lacking, and further evaluation and follow-up studies are necessary. PMID:27747177

  19. Immune Therapy for Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery rapidly occurring at 14 days after start of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma is a good prognostic factor. Conversely, lymphopenia is associated with significantly decreased sarcoma survival. Clearly, the immune system can contribute towards better survival from sarcoma. This chapter will describe treatment and host factors that influence immune function and how effective local control and systemic interventions of sarcoma therapy can cause inflammation and/or immune suppression but are currently the standard of care. Preclinical and clinical efforts to enhance immune function against sarcoma will be reviewed. Interventions to enhance immune function against sarcoma have included regional therapy (surgery, cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, electroporation, and radiotherapy), cytokines, macrophage activators (mifamurtide), vaccines, natural killer (NK) cells, T cell receptor (TCR) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, and efforts to decrease inflammation. The latter is particularly important because of new knowledge about factors influencing expression of checkpoint inhibitory molecules, PD1 and CTLA-4, in the tumor microenvironment. Since these molecules can now be blocked using anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, how to translate this knowledge into more effective immune therapies in the future as well as how to augment effectiveness of current interventions (e.g., radiotherapy) is a challenge. Barriers to implementing this knowledge include cost of agents that release immune checkpoint blockade and coordination of cost-effective outpatient sarcoma treatment. Information on how to research clinical trial eligibility criteria and how to access current immune therapy trials against sarcoma are shared, too.

  20. Emerging therapies in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Layton, Alison; Thiboutot, Diane

    2013-12-01

    Rosacea is a common skin disorder with multiple symptoms. The emergence of research that furthers understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms has created new targets for disease treatment. Specifically, there is a need for new treatments that address the various erythematic symptoms associated with rosacea. Systemic and topical therapies have both yielded positive results in treating rosacea with various medications. Subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline is one such promising treatment. Development of novel products in the near future should help achieve more satisfactory outcomes for patients.

  1. Endovascular Therapy in Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-23

    patients. The use of endovascu- lar techniques in trauma can be considered in three broad categories: (1) large- vessel repair (e.g. covered stent repair...2) mid- to small- vessel hemostasis (e.g. coils, plugs, and hemostatic agents), and (3) large- vessel balloon occlusion for resuscitation (e.g...a diagnostic contrast study (i.e. angiography), accomplish large- vessel occlusion, or render a therapy for vessel disruption and/or bleeding. Not

  2. [Xenon light therapy].

    PubMed

    Kanai, Akifumi

    2012-07-01

    The xenon light, generated by high-intensity electrical stimulation of xenon gas, is used to sterilize wounds, aid tissue repair, and relieve pain as a low-level light therapy. The light produced consists of non-coherent beams of multiple wavelengths in the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. This broad-band light can be emitted in a continuous wave or pulsed mode, with the wave band chosen and the energy distribution controlled for the purpose. Specifically, wavelengths in the 500-700 nm range are suitable for treating superficial tissue, and wavelengths between 800 and 1,000 nm are suitable for deeper-seated tissues, due to longer optical penetration distances through tissue. One of the most common benefits in the xenon light therapy is considered to be the wide and deep irradiation of optimal rays to living tissue. Research into the use of xenon light for tissue repair and pain reduction is restricted within open-label studies and case reports. The present review expounded the effects of xenon light therapy on the basis of the available evidence in vitro and in vivo studies using a laser beam of single wavelength.

  3. TARGETED THERAPY IN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Tsimberidou, Apostolia-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the emergence of targeted therapies that have led to significant breakthroughs in cancer therapy and completed or ongoing clinical trials of novel agents for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. Methods The literature was systematically reviewed, based on clinical experience and the use of technologies that improved our understanding of carcinogenesis. Results Genomics and model systems have enabled the validation of novel therapeutic strategies. Tumor molecular profiling has enabled the reclassification of cancer, and elucidated some mechanisms of disease progression or resistance to treatment, the heterogeneity between primary and metastatic tumors, and the dynamic changes of tumor molecular profiling over time. Despite the notable technologic advances, there is a gap between the plethora of preclinical data and the lack of effective therapies, which is attributed to suboptimal drug development for “driver” alterations of human cancer, the high cost of clinical trials and available drugs, and limited access of patients to clinical trials. Bioinformatic analyses of complex data to characterize tumor biology, function, and the dynamic tumor changes in time and space may improve cancer diagnosis. The application of discoveries in cancer biology in clinic holds the promise to improve the clinical outcomes in a large scale of patients with cancer. Increased harmonization between discoveries, policies, and practices will expedite the development of anticancer drugs and will accelerate the implementation of precision medicine. Conclusions Combinations of targeted, immunomodulating, antiangiogenic, or chemotherapeutic agents are in clinical development. Innovative adaptive study design is used to expedite effective drug development. PMID:26391154

  4. Therapy of acne.

    PubMed

    Olsen, T G

    1982-07-01

    Today acne vulgaris is a disease which can be well controlled using a combination of topical, systemic, and physical therapeutic modalities. However, successful acne management depends to a large extent on physician interest and the ability of the physician to apply therapy to the evolutionary stage of the disease and to the disturbed pathogenetic mechanisms. It is this author's opinion that grades I and II comedonal and papulopustular acne can be effectively treated solely with topical preparations, particularly the concurrent use of tretinoin with benzoyl peroxide or topical antibiotics. The majority of patients with grades III and IV inflammatory disease require oral antibiotics in addition to aggressive topical treatments. Intralesional steroids can be effective in all grades of acne when lesions develop an inflammatory nodulocystic quality. The physician should consider the use of estrogen (in females) or oral vitamin A in the small group of patients with grades III and IV inflammatory-cystic acne that has been unresponsive to conventional therapy. Combined systemic therapies of high-dose antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and sulfones clearly take precedence over topical preparations in conglobate acne and acne fulminans. Finally, oral isotretinoin, alone and perhaps in combination with more conventional modalities, should play an important role in the future management of severe inflammatory-cystic acne.

  5. Microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans

    1999-10-01

    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  6. Phage Therapy: Future Inquiries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sijia; Zachary, Elisabeth; Wells, Keenan; Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Western scientists have steadily been gaining interest in phage therapy since the mid-1980’s due to the rising problem of antibiotic resistance. Its introduction in the 20th century by Felix d’Herelle marked the beginning for the uses of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents. However, a lack in understanding phage biology, as well as the arrival of broad-spectrum antibiotics deprioritized using phage therapy to treat bacterial infections in the West. With the advent of molecular biology, we are now better able to understand the predator-prey relationships with which phage co-evolve with their hosts as well as the specificity of phage-host interactions which could lend itself into personalized treatments for infection. These discoveries give us greater insights on how to most effectively use bacteriophage as potential therapeutic agents. It is encouraging to note that bacteriophages are used as food additives in the U.S., suggesting that the FDA acknowledges the positive potential of bacteriophages for human applications. Unfortunately, there are only a few examples to date of bacteriophages used on humans in controlled clinical trials. Rigorous studies in-vitro and especially in-vivo are critically important to avoid the mishaps of our predecessors. Phage biologists must strive to meet regulatory standards and to design thorough, rugged studies in order to establish a substantiated need for phage therapy in health care.

  7. Cellular genetic therapy.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, F; Filareto, A; Spitalieri, P; Sangiuolo, F; Novelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Cellular genetic therapy is the ultimate frontier for those pathologies that are consequent to a specific nonfunctional cellular type. A viable cure for there kinds of diseases is the replacement of sick cells with healthy ones, which can be obtained from the same patient or a different donor. In fact, structures can be corrected and strengthened with the introduction of undifferentiated cells within specific target tissues, where they will specialize into the desired cellular types. Furthermore, consequent to the recent results obtained with the transdifferentiation experiments, a process that allows the in vitro differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells, it has also became clear that many advantages may be obtained from the use of stem cells to produce drugs, vaccines, and therapeutic molecules. Since stem cells can sustain lineage potentials, the capacity for differentiation, and better tolerance for the introduction of exogenous genes, they are also considered as feasible therapeutic vehicles for gene therapy. In fact, it is strongly believed that the combination of cellular genetic and gene therapy approaches will definitely allow the development of new therapeutic strategies as well as the production of totipotent cell lines to be used as experimental models for the cure of genetic disorders.

  8. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  9. Novel therapies for constipation.

    PubMed

    Thayalasekeran, Sreedhari; Ali, Hani; Tsai, Her-Hsin

    2013-12-07

    Constipation is a common medical problem and when standard laxatives fail it can be difficult to treat. Different aetiologies require tailored therapeutic approaches. Simple constipation may only require dietary manipulation while severe neurological or slow transit constipation may need pharmacologic intervention. Recently new drug therapies have been introduced. PubMed and Ovid were searched for reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analysis published since 2003 using the terms: constipation, prucalopride, linaclotide and lubiprostone. This review summarizes potential novel therapies identified as effective in the management of chronic constipation. Prucalopride is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist. The prucalopride study was in patients, largely women with idiopathic constipation showed improved spontaneous complete bowel movement (SCBM) at a dose of 2 mg a day with few adverse events reported. Linaclotide is a 14-amino acid peptide guanylate cyclase-C agonist. The linaclotide study was carried out in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, constipation group (IBS-C). There was significant improvement of bowel evacuation and symptom resolution in patients on the active treatment arm. Lubiprostone activates type-2 chloride channels, increasing intestinal fluid secretion. In the trials of this drug, the lubiprostone arms had a greater mean number of SCBM. The novel therapies, prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide had very different modes of action yet, all three have been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment dose for constipation.

  10. Antifungal Lock Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of intravascular devices, such as central venous and hemodialysis catheters, in the past 2 decades has paralleled the increasing incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). Candida albicans is the fourth leading cause of hospital-associated BSIs. The propensity of C. albicans to form biofilms on these catheters has made these infections difficult to treat due to multiple factors, including increased resistance to antifungal agents. Thus, curing CR-BSIs caused by Candida species usually requires catheter removal in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Alternatively, antimicrobial lock therapy has received significant interest and shown promise as a strategy to treat CR-BSIs due to Candida species. The existing in vitro, animal, and patient data for treatment of Candida-related CR-BSIs are reviewed. The most promising antifungal lock therapy (AfLT) strategies include use of amphotericin, ethanol, or echinocandins. Clinical trials are needed to further define the safety and efficacy of AfLT. PMID:23070153

  11. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy and ... by a "bad" gene. continue Two Types of Gene Therapy The two forms of gene therapy are: Somatic ...

  12. Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer: Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situation Bile Duct Cancer Treating Bile Duct Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bile Duct Cancer Radiation therapy uses ... of radiation for bile duct cancer. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) This type of radiation therapy uses ...

  13. Massage therapy and reflexology awareness.

    PubMed

    Mackey, B T

    2001-03-01

    Massage therapy and reflexology are manual therapeutic approaches used to facilitate healing and health and can be used by nurses in almost any setting. Information about massage therapy and reflexology is shared for the purpose of creating awareness about healing modalities and encouraging the use of basic techniques of these manual therapies. A review of a case study illustrates the safe and effective use of massage therapy and reflexology and familiarizes the nurse with the components of assessment and hands-on practice. Holistic nursing principles related to massage therapy and reflexology are woven throughout the text.

  14. Music therapy in palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, L M; Huston, M J; Nelson, K A; Walsh, D; Steele, A L

    2001-05-01

    A partnership between The Cleveland Clinic Foundation and The Cleveland Music School Settlement has resulted in music therapy becoming a standard part of the care in our palliative medicine inpatient unit. This paper describes a music therapy program and its impact on patients, their families, and staff. A service delivery model is suggested for implementation and integration of music therapy within palliative medicine. Specific music therapy interventions, evaluation and documentation techniques are also mentioned. A description of patient and family responses to music therapy, staff satisfaction, and effectiveness of interventions is presented.

  15. Hormone replacement therapy and longevity.

    PubMed

    Comhaire, F

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether hormone replacement therapy influences longevity, an analysis was made of published life tables allowing for the calculation of the relative benefit of hormone replacement therapy on longevity in men with late onset hypogonadism and in post-menopausal women. It was found that testosterone replacement therapy of men suffering from late onset hypogonadism increased survival rate by 9-10% in 5 years, similar to that of eugonadal, non-LOH men with normal endogenous testosterone secretion. Oestrogen replacement therapy resulted in increased survival by 2.6% in 5 years. It is concluded that hormone replacement therapy increases longevity.

  16. Family Therapy in a Women's Group: Integrating Marriage and Family Therapy and Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Hildy G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a family therapy perspective can be integrated into group as a treatment modality. Concepts from family therapy are illustrated through a description of a specific women's group and case study. Techniques from family therapy applied in group are derived from multigenerational, experiential/humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: Comparison of Individual Therapy, Group Therapy, and Telephone Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Celyne H.; Morin, Charles M.; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Blais, France C.; Bouchard, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    Forty-five adults with primary insomnia received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) implemented in a group therapy format, in individual face-to-face therapy or through brief individual telephone consultations. The results indicate that CBT was effective in improving sleep parameters with all 3 methods of treatment implementation, and there was no…

  18. Topical therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy D; Barthel, H Richard

    2011-07-09

    This review discusses the pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, salicylates and capsaicin for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Topical therapies present a valuable therapeutic option for OA pain management, with substantial evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs, but less robust support for capsaicin and salicylates. We define topical therapies as those intended to act locally, in contrast to transdermal therapies intended to act systemically. Oral therapies for patients with mild to moderate OA pain include paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs. Paracetamol has only weak efficacy at therapeutic doses and is hepatotoxic at doses >3.25 g/day. NSAIDs have demonstrated efficacy in patients with OA, but are associated with dose-, duration- and age-dependent risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, haematological and hepatic adverse events (AEs), as well as clinically meaningful drug interactions. To minimize AE risks, treatment guidelines for OA suggest minimizing NSAID exposure by prescribing the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time. Systemic NSAID exposure may also be limited by prescribing topical NSAIDs, particularly in patients with OA pain limited to a few superficial joints. Topical NSAIDs have been available in Europe for decades and were introduced to provide localized analgesia with minimal systemic NSAID exposure. Guidelines of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), Osteoarthritis Research Society International, and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) state that topical NSAIDs may be considered for patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee or hand, particularly in patients with few affected joints and/or a history of sensitivity to oral NSAIDs. In fact, the EULAR and NICE guidelines state that topical NSAIDs should be considered before oral therapies. Clinical trials of topical

  19. [Compression therapy in leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J; Protz, K; Reich-Schupke, S; Stücker, M; Kröger, K

    2016-04-01

    Compression therapy is well-tried treatment with only few side effects for most patients with leg ulcers and/or edema. Despite the very long tradition in German-speaking countries and good evidence for compression therapy in different indications, recent scientific findings indicate that the current situation in Germany is unsatisfactory. Today, compression therapy can be performed with very different materials and systems. In addition to the traditional bandaging with Unna Boot, short-stretch, long-stretch, or multicomponent bandage systems, medical compression ulcer stockings are available. Other very effective but far less common alternatives are velcro wrap systems. When planning compression therapy, it is also important to consider donning devices with the patient. In addition to compression therapy, intermittent pneumatic compression therapy can be used. Through these various treatment options, it is now possible to develop an individually accepted, geared to the needs of the patients, and functional therapy strategy for nearly all patients with leg ulcers.

  20. Introduction to Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martisikova, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Presently, ion beam therapy reaches an increasing interest within the field of radiation therapy, which is caused by the promising clinical results obtained in the last decades. Ion beams enable higher dose conformation to the tumor and increased sparing of the surrounding tissue in comparison to the standard therapy using high energy photons. Heavy ions, like carbon, offer in addition increased biological effectiveness, which makes them suitable for treatment of radioresistant tumors. This contribution gives an overview over the physical and biological properties of ion beams. Common fundamental principles of ion beam therapy are summarized and differences between standard therapy with high energy photons, proton and carbon ion therapy are discussed. The technologies used for the beam production and delivery are introduced, with emphasis to the differences between passive and active beam delivery systems. The last part concentrates on the quality assurance in ion therapy. Specialties of dosimetry in medical ion beams are discussed.

  1. [Therapy of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Tibor

    2009-03-01

    Dementia is one of the most important health problems in the aging populations. The most frequent cause of it is Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is characterized by intracellular neuro-fibrillary tangles (NFT) and the extracellular senile plaques. The NFTs are mainly formed by the hyperphosphorylated microtubule-binding protein, the tau, while the senile plaques are composed of beta-amyloid protein cleaved from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the beta- and gamma-secretases. The pharmacotherapy of AD consists of symptomatic and disease-modifying therapies. The most frequently used therapeutic agents are the nootropic drugs supported by personal rather evidence based experiences. The leading-edge therapy of AD at present is the inhibition of the acetylcholine-esterase enzyme (AChEI) with mainly cognitive symptomatic and weak disease-modifying effects; they are licensed in the mild and middle stages of AD (MMSE 26-10), but their effect is proved in the severe stage of the disease and they are effective in the management of the neuropsychiatric symptoms too. Memantine (which is an inhibitor of the N-metil-D-aspartate receptor) is used in the middle and severe stages of AD and it can be effectively combined with AChEIs. The future therapy of AD will possibly be a "causative" therapy. The most frequent directions are therapies aiming to decrease the production or the deposition of beta-amyloid peptide. The active vaccination study of AN-1792 was terminated because of immunological side-effects, but several active and passive immunisation therapies are in development nowadays. It is also possible to inhibit the aggregation of the beta-amyloid peptide with peptide fragments or with Cu2+ and Zn2+ ion chelators. A promising direction is the inhibition of the enzymes responsible for the production of the beta-amyloid peptide: beta-secretase inhibitors with low molecular weight and penetrability through the blood-brain barrier are developed while the inhibitors of the

  2. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Drisko, C H

    2001-01-01

    Regular home care by the patient in addition to professional removal of subgingival plaque is generally very effective in controlling most inflammatory periodontal diseases. When disease does recur, despite frequent recall, it can usually be attributed to lack of sufficient supragingival and subgingival plaque control or to other risk factors that influence host response, such as diabetes or smoking. Causative factors contributing to recurrent disease include deep inaccessible pockets, overhangs, poor crown margins and plaque-retentive calculus. In most cases, simply performing a thorough periodontal debridement under local anesthesia will stop disease progression and result in improvement in the clinical signs and symptoms of active disease. If however, clinical signs of disease activity persist following thorough mechanical therapy, such as increased pocket depths, loss of attachment and bleeding on probing, other pharmacotherapeutic therapies should be considered. Augmenting scaling and root planing or maintenance visits with adjunctive chemotherapeutic agents for controlling plaque and gingivitis could be as simple as placing the patient on an antimicrobial mouthrinse and/or toothpaste with agents such as fluorides, chlorhexidine or triclosan, to name a few. Since supragingival plaque reappears within hours or days after its removal, it is important that patients have access to effective alternative chemotherapeutic products that could help them achieve adequate supragingival plaque control. Recent studies, for example, have documented the positive effect of triclosan toothpaste on the long-term maintenance of both gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Daily irrigation with a powered irrigation device, with or without an antimicrobial agent, is also useful for decreasing the inflammation associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. Clinically significant changes in probing depths and attachment levels are not usually expected with irrigation alone. Recent

  3. Music therapy career aptitude test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Music Therapy Career Aptitude Test (MTCAT) was to measure the affective domain of music therapy students including their self-awareness as it relates to the music therapy career, value in human development, interest in general therapy, and aptitude for being a professional music therapist. The MTCAT was administered to 113 music therapy students who are currently freshman or sophomores in an undergraduate music therapy program or in the first year of a music therapy master's equivalency program. The results of analysis indicated that the MTCAT is normally distributed and that all 20 questions are significantly correlated with the total test score of the MTCAT. The reliability of the MTCAT was considerably high (Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha=0.8). The criterion-related validity was examined by comparing the MTCAT scores of music therapy students with the scores of 43 professional music therapists. The correlation between the scores of students and professionals was found to be statistically significant. The results suggests that normal distribution, internal consistency, homogeneity of construct, item discrimination, correlation analysis, content validity, and criterion-related validity in the MTCAT may be helpful in predicting music therapy career aptitude and may aid in the career decision making process of college music therapy students.

  4. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated.

  5. Targeted anti bacterial therapy.

    PubMed

    Yacoby, Iftach; Benhar, Itai

    2007-09-01

    The increasing development of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics has reached alarming levels, thus necessitating a strong need to develop new antimicrobial agents. These new antimicrobials should possess novel modes of action and/or different cellular targets compared with the existing antibiotics. As a result, new classes of compounds designed to avoid defined resistance mechanisms are undergoing pre clinical and clinical evaluation. Microbial and phage genomic sequencing are now being used to find previously unidentified genes and their corresponding proteins. In both traditional and newly developed antibiotics, the target selectivity lies in the drug itself, in its ability to affect a mechanism that is unique to prokaryotes. As a result, a vast number of potent agents that, due to low selectivity, in addition to the pathogen also affect the eukaryote host have been excluded from use as therapeutics. Such compounds could be re-considered for clinical use if applied as part of a targeted delivery platform where the drug selectivity is replaced by target-selectivity borne by the targeting moiety. With a large number of antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates already approved or near approval as cancer therapeutics, targeted therapy is becoming increasingly attractive and additional potential targeting moieties that are non-antibody based, such as peptides, non-antibody ligand-binding proteins and even carbohydrates are receiving increasing attention. Still, targeted therapy is mostly focused on cancer, with targeted anti bacterial therapies being suggested only very recently. This review will focus in the various methods of antimicrobial targeting, by systemic and local application of targeted antimicrobial substances.

  6. Immunosuppressive drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Hartono, Choli; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2013-09-01

    The first successful kidney transplantation between monozygotic identical twins did not require any immunosuppressive drugs. Clinical application of azathioprine and glucocorticosteroids allowed the transfer of organs between genetically disparate donors and recipients. Transplantation is now the standard of care, a life-saving procedure for patients with failed organs. Progress in our understanding of the immunobiology of rejection has been translated to the development of immunosuppressive agents targeting T cells, B cells, plasma cells, costimulatory signals, complement products, and antidonor antibodies. Modern immunopharmacologic interventions have contributed to the clinical success observed following transplantation but challenges remain in personalizing immunosuppressive therapy.

  7. Photodynamic therapy laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Qing; Wang, Feng; Shu, Chao; Wang, Jianhua

    2009-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment is a new treatment for tumour and Dermatology. With the successful development of the second-generation photosensitizer and the significant manifestations in clinics, PDT has shown a more extensive application potentials. To activate the photosensitizer, in this paper, we present a GaAs-based diode laser system with a wavelength of 635 nm. In this system, to prolong the working life-time of the diode lasers, we use specific feedback algorithm to control the current and the temperature of the diode laser with high precision. The clinic results show an excellent effect in the treatment of Condyloma combined with 5-ALA.

  8. Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve. PMID:25792807

  9. Goal directed fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E; Desai, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    The cornerstone of treating patients with shock remains as it has for decades, intravenous fluids. Surprisingly, dosing intravenous fluid during resuscitation of shock remains largely empirical. Recent data suggests that early aggressive resuscitation of critically ill patients may limit and/or reverse tissue hypoxia, progression to organ failure and improve outcome. However, overzealous fluid resuscitation has been associated with increased complications, increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and increased mortality. This review focuses on methods to assess fluid responsiveness and the application of these methods for goal directed fluid therapy in critically ill and peri-operative patients.

  10. [Arteriosclerosis and chelate therapy].

    PubMed

    Nissel, H

    1986-11-30

    Based on a case history the therapeutic value of an iv-chelate therapy in arteriosclerosis is discussed. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is used as a standard regime in the treatment of poisoning with heavy metals. The usefulness of EDTA in arteriosclerosis is doubtful: some authors suppose, that Ca-deposits are removed from arteriosclerotic lesions. This concept has not yet been proven by in-vivo experiments. Severe side effects such as hypocalcemia may cause the death of a patient under treatment. Therefore no real indications exist for treatment of arteriosclerosis with EDTA.

  11. [Acupuncture: an information therapy?].

    PubMed

    Nissel, H

    1998-01-01

    Even though modern medicine continues to be governed by the morphological point of view, cybernetics and systems theory are beginning to gain in importance. The concept of "Infomedicine" serves as the basis for a discussion of regulation and the information mechanisms necessary for this to occur. Some of the new insights being made in physics, such as the theory of relativity, quantum physics, and chaos theory provide many valuable explanations. Acupuncture represents a regulation and information therapy, and many parallels can be drawn between traditional Chinese medicine and the discoveries being made in today's physics.

  12. Parenteral iron dextran therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J; Holland, E G

    1990-02-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is indicated in patients with iron-deficiency anemia associated with conditions that interfere with the ingestion or absorption of oral iron. Replacement doses of iron required to replenish iron stores are based on body weight and the observed hemoglobin value. Methods of administering iron dextran are reviewed, including intramuscular and intravenous injections of the undiluted drug, intravenous infusion of a diluted preparation, and as an addition to parenteral nutrition solutions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions associated with the parenteral administration of iron is low, but the potential for an anaphylactic reaction requires that an initial test dose be given followed by careful patient observation.

  13. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  14. Physical Therapy Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Loredan Biomedical, Inc.'s LIDO, a computerized physical therapy system, was purchased by NASA in 1985 for evaluation as a Space Station Freedom exercise program. In 1986, while involved in an ARC muscle conditioning project, Malcom Bond, Loredan's chairman, designed an advanced software package for NASA which became the basis for LIDOSOFT software used in the commercially available system. The system employs a "proprioceptive" software program which perceives internal body conditions, induces perturbations to muscular effort and evaluates the response. Biofeedback on a screen allows a patient to observe his own performance.

  15. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  16. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  17. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  18. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  19. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  20. Indian contribution to behavior therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.

    2010-01-01

    Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708

  1. A History of Manipulative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pettman, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice. PMID:19066664

  2. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  3. Electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Fajardo, Humberto; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Llorens-Arenas, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Bermudez, Jesús; Ruiz-Chow, Ángel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for the management of depression and/or psychosis refractory to drug therapy in patients with Parkinson disease.Methods A retrospective study was carried out including patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy during the period between 2002 and 2013. A review of the literature was performed.Results A total of 27 patients were included. In regards to the neuropsychiatric diagnosis, 14 patients had major depression, 12 patients had both psychosis and depression, and only one patient had isolated psychosis. The mean number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions was 12 ± 2.8. After electroconvulsive therapy, all patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (reduction of 52% points) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (reduction of 50% points) independent of the presence of psychosis, depression or both.Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy is effective for the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  4. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed.

  5. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  6. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  7. Vedic principles of therapy.

    PubMed

    Boyer, R W

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces Vedic principles of therapy as a holistic integration of healing and human development. The most integrative aspect is a "consciousness-based" approach in which the bottom line of the mind is consciousness itself, accessed by transcending mental activity to its simplest ground state. This directly contrasts with "unconscious-based" approaches that hold the basis of conscious mind is the unconscious, such as analytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Although not presented as a specific therapeutic approach, interventions associated with this Vedic approach have extensive support in the applied research literature. A brief review of experimental research toward a general model of mind-and cutting-edge developments in quantum physics toward nonlocal mind-shows a convergence on the ancient Vedic model of mind. Comparisons with contemporary therapies further show that the simplicity, subtlety, and holistic nature of the Vedic approach represent a significant advance over approaches which have overlooked the fundamental ground state of the mind.

  8. New therapies for hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Pipe, Steven W

    2016-12-02

    Individuals with severe hemophilia have benefitted from 5 decades of advances that have led to widespread availability of safe and efficacious factors VIII and IX, a multidisciplinary integrated care model through a network of specialized hemophilia treatment centers, and aggressive introduction of prophylactic replacement therapy to prevent bleeding and preserve joint health. Yet, there are remaining challenges and treatment gaps which have prevented complete abrogation of all joint bleeding, and progressive joint deterioration may continue in some affected individuals over the course of a lifetime. Some of these challenges can now be addressed with recombinant clotting factors with extended half-life that may improve adherence to prophylaxis regimens through more convenient infusion schedules, maintain higher plasma levels for longer when clinically necessary, and allow for better adaptation to individual phenotypic and pharmacokinetic variability. Real-world case studies will be presented that illustrate practical application of these newly approved therapies in clinical practice and the clinical trial data that have demonstrated the potential for improved clinical outcomes by implementing these strategies.

  9. Cytokine therapy for craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Mark P; Moursi, Amr M; Opperman, Lynne A; Siegel, Michael I

    2004-03-01

    The birth prevalence of craniosynostosis (premature suture fusion) is 300-500 per 1,000,000 live births. Surgical management involves the release of the synostosed suture. In many cases, however, the suturectomy site rapidly reossifies, further restricts the growing brain and alters craniofacial growth. This resynostosis requires additional surgery, which increases patient morbidity and mortality. New findings in bone biology and molecular pathways involved with suture fusion, combined with novel tissue engineering techniques, may allow the design of targeted and complementary therapies to decrease complications inherent in high-risk surgical procedures. This paper selectively reviews recent advances in i) identifying genetic mutations and the aetiopathogenesis of a number of craniosynostotic conditions; ii) cranial suture biology and molecular biochemical pathways involved in suture fusion; and iii) the design, development and application of various vehicles and tissue engineered constructs to deliver cytokines and genes to cranial sutures. Such biologically based therapies may be used as surgical adjuncts to rescue fusing sutures or help manage postoperative resynostosis.

  10. nanosheets for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  11. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  12. Targeted therapy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kudchadkar, Ragini R; Smalley, Keiran S M; Glass, L Frank; Trimble, James S; Sondak, Vernon K

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. We review the latest developments in our understanding of the role of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling in melanoma, and the development of inhibitors of this pathway. We also explore alternative mutations seen in melanoma, such as NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11, and the drug development that is ongoing based on this biology. Strategies for the management of the vexing clinical problem of BRAF inhibitor resistance, primarily via combination therapy, are outlined. With the recent approval of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib for stage IV metastatic melanoma, use of this agent is expanding in the United States. Thus, management of the skin toxicities of this agent, such as squamous cell carcinomas, "acneiform" eruptions, hand-foot syndrome, and panniculitis, will be a growing problem facing dermatologists today. We discuss the toxicities of targeted agents in use for melanoma, in particular the dermatologic effects and the management of these skin toxicities.

  13. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ceburkov, O; Gollnick, H

    2000-01-01

    Application of non-ionising radiation with or without photosensitizers is rather common in dermatology. Though the method itself was described in ancient times, its routine use in medicine based on scientific research started in the second half of the 20th century. Light can be used in three different patterns: phototherapy (UV-A or UV-B light), photochemotherapy (combination of psoralens with UV-A light) and photodynamic therapy (combination of photosensitizers with UV- and/or visible light). The following article deals with the photodynamic therapy or PDT. Using PDT implies the understanding of light dosimetry and calculation of light dose using different light sources and photosensitizers. The number of PDT sensitisers under investigation is rapidly increasing. The PDT itself, being a relatively new modality, quickly spreads its list of applications covering new indications in different areas of medicine. Though the main part of this list is made up of dermatological conditions, the use of PDT in other disciplines is also discussed to make dermatologists familiar with different aspects of the issue. PDT, like any treatment modality, has its benefits and adverse effects. The future of PDT is closely related to teamwork in physical, biochemical and clinical research which could provide better understanding of underlying mechanisms and help to create protocols for higher therapeutic efficacy.

  14. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Burcu; Ozpolat, Bulent; Sood, Anil K.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and advanced techniques for therapy are urgently needed. The development of novel nanomaterials and nanocarriers has allowed a major drive to improve drug delivery in cancer. The major aim of most nanocarrier applications has been to protect the drug from rapid degradation after systemic delivery and allowing it to reach tumor site at therapeutic concentrations, meanwhile avoiding drug delivery to normal sites as much as possible to reduce adverse effects. These nanocarriers are formulated to deliver drugs either by passive targeting, taking advantage of leaky tumor vasculature or by active targeting using ligands that increase tumoral uptake potentially resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy, thus achieving a net improvement in therapeutic index. The rational design of nanoparticles plays a critical role since structural and physical characteristics, such as size, charge, shape, and surface characteristics determine the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, internalization and safety of the drugs. In this review, we focus on several novel and improved strategies in nanocarrier design for cancer therapy. PMID:24079419

  15. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-12-05

    The research project entitled,” Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  16. Transtracheal oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Kent L; Schwartz, Michael D

    2011-02-01

    Transtracheal oxygen therapy (TTO) has been used for long-term oxygen therapy for nearly 30 years. Numerous investigators have explored the potential benefits of TTO. Those results are reviewed in this article. TTO is best viewed not as a catheter but as a program for care. This article discusses patient selection for TTO. Publications evaluating complications are reviewed. In the past, a modified Seldinger technique (MST) was used for the creation of the tracheocutaneous fistula. The rather long program required for tract maturation with MST was labor-intensive and required substantial patient education and monitoring, particularly during the immature tract phase. Minor complications were not infrequent. More recently, the Lipkin method has been used to create a surgical tract under conscious sedation with topical anesthesia. The procedure is safe and well tolerated. Transtracheal oxygen is initiated the day following the procedure. Similarly, the tract matures in 7 to 10 days rather than the 6 to 8 weeks with MST. More rapid healing time and superior tract characteristics substantially reduce complications. The TTO program tailored for the Lipkin procedure is shortened, streamlined, and much less labor-intensive. Optimal outcomes with the TTO program require a committed pulmonologist, respiratory therapist, nurse, and surgeon (for the Lipkin procedure). This article discusses new directions in the use of transtracheal gas delivery, including the management of obstructive sleep apnea. Preliminary investigations regarding transtracheal augmented ventilation are presented. These include nocturnal use in severe chronic lung disease and liberation from prolonged mechanical ventilation.

  17. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    breast cancers is whether an aromatase inhibitor, e.g., letrozole (LET) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy . Unfortunately...response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies , e.g., -40% of tumors...effective treatment for hormone receptor positive invasive breast cancer. Such therapy includes antiestrogens (tamoxifen, fulvestrant ) and aromatase

  18. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy . Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than...when these agents are given as first line therapies , e.g., ~40% of tumors show cross resistance to TAM or an aromatase inhibitor on crossover. Only...effective treatment for hormone receptor positive invasive breast cancer. Such therapy includes antiestrogens (tamoxifen, fulvestrant ) and aromatase

  19. [Music therapy and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Tromeur, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy and Alzheimer's dementia. Dementia such as Alzheimer's leads to the deterioration of the patient's global capacities. The cognitive disorders associated with it are disabling and affect every area of the patient's life. Every therapy's session undertaken with and by patients can act as a mirror of the progress of their disease and help to feel better, as described in this article on music therapy.

  20. Antithrombotic Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    You, John J.; Singer, Daniel E.; Howard, Patricia A.; Lane, Deirdre A.; Eckman, Mark H.; Fang, Margaret C.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Schulman, Sam; Go, Alan S.; Hughes, Michael; Spencer, Frederick A.; Manning, Warren J.; Halperin, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The risk of stroke varies considerably across different groups of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Antithrombotic prophylaxis for stroke is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. We provide recommendations for antithrombotic treatment based on net clinical benefit for patients with AF at varying levels of stroke risk and in a number of common clinical scenarios. Methods: We used the methods described in the Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines article of this supplement. Results: For patients with nonrheumatic AF, including those with paroxysmal AF, who are (1) at low risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack] score of 0), we suggest no therapy rather than antithrombotic therapy, and for patients choosing antithrombotic therapy, we suggest aspirin rather than oral anticoagulation or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel; (2) at intermediate risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 score of 1), we recommend oral anticoagulation rather than no therapy, and we suggest oral anticoagulation rather than aspirin or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel; and (3) at high risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 score of ≥ 2), we recommend oral anticoagulation rather than no therapy, aspirin, or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Where we recommend or suggest in favor of oral anticoagulation, we suggest dabigatran 150 mg bid rather than adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist therapy. Conclusions: Oral anticoagulation is the optimal choice of antithrombotic therapy for patients with AF at high risk of stroke (CHADS2 score of ≥ 2). At lower levels of stroke risk, antithrombotic treatment decisions will require a more individualized

  1. Compression therapy for venous disease.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Robert R; Ochoa Chaar, Cassius I

    2017-03-01

    For centuries, compression therapy has been utilized to treat venous disease. To date it remains the mainstay of therapy, particularly in more severe forms such as venous ulceration. In addition to mechanisms of benefit, we discuss the evidence behind compression therapy, particularly hosiery, in various forms of venous disease of the lower extremities. We review compression data for stand-alone therapy, post-intervention, as DVT prevention, post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulcer disease. We also review the data comparing compression modalities as well as the use of compression in mixed arteriovenous disease.

  2. Carbon nanotubes in hyperthermia therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravi; Torti, Suzy V

    2013-12-01

    Thermal tumor ablation therapies are being developed with a variety of nanomaterials, including single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted interest due to their potential for simultaneous imaging and therapy. In this review, we highlight in vivo applications of carbon nanotube-mediated thermal therapy (CNMTT) and examine the rationale for use of this treatment in recurrent tumors or those resistant to conventional cancer therapies. Additionally, we discuss strategies to localize and enhance the cancer selectivity of this treatment and briefly examine issues relating the toxicity and long term fate of CNTs.

  3. Fluid Therapy in Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Elizabeth; Lynch, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Fluid therapy is the cornerstone of supportive care in veterinary medicine. In dogs and cats with preexisting confirmed or suspected pulmonary disease, concerns may exist that the fluid therapy may impair gas exchange, either through increases in hydrostatic pressures or extravasation. Colloidal therapy is more likely to magnify lung injury compared with isotonic crystalloids. Radiographic evidence of fluid overload is a late-stage finding, whereas point-of-care ultrasound may provide earlier information that can also be assessed periodically at the patient side. Cases should be evaluated individually, but generally a conservative fluid therapy plan is preferred with close monitoring of its tolerance.

  4. Contrasting strategic and Milan therapies.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, L

    1983-12-01

    Three related models of therapy are often grouped together as the strategic therapies. These are brief therapy model associated with the Mental Research Institute, approaches developed by Jay Haley and Cloë Madanes, and the model developed by the Milan associates. Controversy exists, however, as to whether the Milan model should be included as a strategic therapy. It appears that the similarities among the three models can mask deeper differences, thus confounding the confusion. This paper contrast the models in their development, theory, and practice.

  5. The physics of proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-21

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  6. Complementary therapies for cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Cassileth, Barrie; Trevisan, Carrie; Gubili, Jyothirmai

    2007-08-01

    Pharmacologic treatment of pain does not always meet patients' needs and may produce difficult side effects. Complementary therapies, which are safe, noninvasive, and generally considered to be relatively free of toxicity, may be used adjunctively with standard pain management techniques to improve outcome and reduce the need for prescription medication. Approaches such as acupuncture, massage therapy, mind-body interventions, and music therapy effectively reduce pain, enhance quality of life, and provide patients with the opportunity to participate in their own care. Such therapies have an important role in modern pain management.

  7. Evolving applications of light therapy.

    PubMed

    Terman, Michael

    2007-12-01

    The psychiatric intervention, light therapy, grew from an intensive 25-year research focus on seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Dosing and timing strategies have been honed to optimize the antidepressant effect, and efficacy relative to placebo has provided the evidence base for widespread implementation. A persistent question has been whether the model system for SAD has wider utility for psychiatric disturbance, even beyond depression. The circadian phase-shifting capacity of timed light exposure is universal, and chronobiological factors are at play across the disease spectrum. Recent promising initiatives extend to light treatment for nonseasonal major depressive disorder and bipolar depression, including drug- and electroconvulsive therapy-resistant cases. With light therapy, patients with antepartum depression may find an alternative to medication during pregnancy. Cognitive improvement under light therapy has been noted in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Motor function in Parkinson's disease has improved in parallel with the antidepressant effect of light therapy. The rest-activity disturbance of elderly dementia has been partially allayed under light therapy. In a new initiative, three major chronotherapeutic inventions-light therapy, sleep deprivation (wake therapy) and sleep time displacement (sleep phase advance therapy) are being combined to snap hospitalized patients out of deep depression and maintain long-term improvement.

  8. Carbon nanotubes in hyperthermia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravi; Torti, Suzy V.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal tumor ablation therapies are being developed with a variety of nanomaterials, including single-and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted interest due to their potential for simultaneous imaging and therapy. In this review, we highlight in vivo applications of carbon nanotube-mediated thermal therapy (CNMTT) and examine the rationale for use of this treatment in recurrent tumors or those resistant to conventional cancer therapies. Additionally, we discuss strategies to localize and enhance the cancer selectivity of this treatment and briefly examine issues relating the toxicity and long term fate of CNTs. PMID:23933617

  9. The physics of proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy. PMID:25803097

  10. Combined modality therapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2003-08-01

    Treatment approaches for esophageal cancer include primary treatment (surgical or nonsurgical) or adjuvant treatment (preoperative or postoperative). Primary treatments include surgery alone, radiation therapy alone, and radiation therapy plus chemotherapy (combined modality therapy). Adjuvant therapies include preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy, preoperative chemotherapy, and preoperative combined modality therapy. There is considerable controversy as to the ideal therapeutic approach. This review will examine the results of these approaches as well as combined modality therapy using novel regimens.

  11. The Educational Interaction between Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Kimberly K.; Howell, Dana M.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) program directors (n=123) to identify the prevalence of shared learning found that two-thirds shared some coursework; most OT and PT students do not have opportunities to practice interdisciplinary teamwork; and some perceived benefits of shared learning also posed barriers. (Contains…

  12. "Talking Pictures Therapy" as Brief Therapy in a School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Del

    2013-01-01

    This article presents "talking pictures therapy" as an approach to brief therapy, in which photographs are used in brief psychotherapy and counseling with the purpose of enabling clients to express and explore through photographs aspects of their lives they would like to talk about. The author presents case examples using "talking…

  13. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  14. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi Bonjar, Amir Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC) is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient’s body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient’s recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When

  15. [Indications for electroconvulsive therapy].

    PubMed

    Boiteux, J; Roubaud, L; Gandelet, N; Nezelof, S; Vittouris, N; Bonin, B; Sechter, D; Bizouard, P

    1997-06-01

    ECT, in which first experiments were made by the italian Cerletti more than half a century ago, underwent, in the seventies, a definite decline, as it was less and less applied to patients, a result of the influence of anti psychiatry. During the last fifteen years, there has been a legitimate renewal of the interest for this therapy; its indications seem now well codified and its techniques and practises have evolved considerably. Actually, in order to carry out ECT under general anaesthesia, it is necessary to have a pluridisciplinary team, assembling nurses, anaesthesists and psychiatrists that will use more and more effective appliances and adequate anaesthetics. Many of the parameters able to influence ECT's effectiveness are now well known and can be used and adapted according the individual characteristics of each patient. These parameters are: the lateralisation of the electrodes, the intensity of the electric current, the duration of the epileptic fit, the modification that appear in electroencephalography and the frequence of the sessions. According to different investigations, it seems that we must systematically question the medical treatments we associate to ECT. For instance, it is highly recommended not to prescribe with ECT benzodiazepines or antiepileptic mood stabilizers, while antidepressants or neuroleptics do not seem to exert any influence on the effectiveness of the treatment. Some authors think caffeine and triiodothyronin (T3) could have an interesting effect when combined with ECT. As to the indications of shock therapy, they can be now more and more precisely defined making of this treatment an indispensable instrument in the cure of depressive disorders. But ECT is also appropriate in maniac disorders once neuroleptic treatment has failed or else in the very beginning in highly acute cases, and mainly in mixed episodes for which medical treatment is often difficult to adapt. In schizophrenia, ECT can also be prescribed in definite

  16. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  17. Transdermal iron replenishment therapy.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Naresh; Shivakumar, H N; Kanni, K L Paranjothy; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major nutritional deficiency disorders. Iron deficiency anemia occurs due to decreased absorption of iron from diet, chronic blood loss and other associated diseases. The importance of iron and deleterious effects of iron deficiency anemia are discussed briefly in this review followed by the transdermal approaches to deliver iron. Transdermal delivery of iron would be able to overcome the side effects associated with conventional oral and parenteral iron therapy and improves the patient compliance. During preliminary investigations, ferric pyrophosphate and iron dextran were selected as iron sources for transdermal delivery. Different biophysical techniques were explored to assess their efficiency in delivering iron across the skin, and in vivo studies were carried out using anemic rat model. Transdermal iron delivery is a promising approach that could make a huge positive impact on patients suffering with iron deficiency.

  18. Antiparasitic therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Moon, Troy D; Oberhelman, Richard A

    2005-06-01

    Treatment of parasitic infections in children presents many challenges for the clinician. Although parasitic infections are ubiquitous on a worldwide basis, with an estimated 1 billion persons infected with intestinal helminthes alone, physicians in the United States and other developed countries are often unfamiliar with the management of these diseases. Children are traveling internationally in larger numbers than ever before, however, and emigration from developing countries to the United States and other Western countries is increasing, so clinicians in these countries are confronted more frequently with parasitic diseases from the tropics. This article describes current approaches to antiparasitic therapy. Drugs used in the treatment of more than one type of parasite are presented once in detail, with reference to the detailed description in subsequent sections.

  19. Antibody Therapy for Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Guimarães, Allan J.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic human pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is a major fungal pathogen with a broad variety of clinical presentations, ranging from mild, focal pulmonary disease to life-threatening systemic infections. Although azoles, such as itraconazole and voriconazole, and amphotericin B have significant activity against H. capsulatum, about 1 in 10 patients hospitalized due to histoplasmosis die. Hence, new approaches for managing disease are being sought. Over the past 10 years, studies have demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can modify the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. Disease has been shown to be impacted by mAbs targeting either fungal cell surface proteins or host co-stimulatory molecules. This review will detail our current knowledge regarding the impact of antibody therapy on histoplasmosis. PMID:22347215

  20. [Fibromyalgia and physical therapy].

    PubMed

    Tits, M

    2011-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain, present above and below the waist and the axial skeleton for a period of at least three months. Other symptoms are frequently present, intolerance to exercise, fatigue, trouble sleeping, morning stiffness, paresthesias, anxiety, headaches, etc. The exact etiology and pathophysiology of the disease are not clearly established. Currently, we primarily retain a bad handling of pain pathways. An understanding of these mechanisms is important as a basis for a global therapeutic program and the rehabilitation of patients with fibromyalgia. By the multiple nature of these symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, an accurate assessment of the patient will be a preamble to any optimal care. Current guidelines recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, however centers that offer this type of care are rare. In mono-disciplinary treatment, the physical therapy recommended is aerobic exercise and the strengthening of muscles associated with different manual techniques to decrease the nociceptive input.

  1. Nutraceutical therapies for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Joe W.E.; Ramji, Dipak P.

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory disease affecting large and medium arteries and is considered to be a major underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the development of pharmacotherapies to treat CVD has resulted in a decline in cardiac mortality in the past few decades, CVD is estimated to be the cause of one in three global deaths. Nutraceuticals are natural nutritional compounds that are beneficial for the prevention or treatment of disease and, therefore, represent a possible therapeutic avenue for the treatment of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this review is to highlight potential nutraceuticals for use as anti-atherogenic therapies, with evidence from in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and observational studies. PMID:27383080

  2. Current therapy of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Rein, M F

    1981-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is reliably treated with a single 2-g dose of metronidazole; however, with this regimen simultaneous treatment of sexual partners is particularly important. Trichomoniasis in pregnant women, who should not receive metronidazole, might be treated initially with clotrimazole vaginal suppositories, which appear to cure about 50% of cases. Topical antifungal agents of the imidazole class are superior to polyenes in treating vulvovaginal candidiasis. Boric acid powder applied intravaginally in gelatin capsules for 14 days appears as effective as imidazoles. Nonspecific vaginitis is now recognized as involving infection with anaerobic bacteria of the vaginal flora as well as Gardnerella vaginalis. The condition is most successfully treated with a seven-day course of metronidazole, which probably acts by eradicating the anaerobes. In addition, metabolites of metronidazole may act directly on G. vaginalis. Sulfanilamide-aminacrine-allantoin preparations are much less effective than specific therapies and have no role in the treatment of vulvovaginitis.

  3. Gene therapy in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Farjadnia, Mahgol; Naderan, Mohammad; Mohammadpour, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common ectasia of the cornea and is a common reason for corneal transplant. Therapeutic strategies that can arrest the progression of this disease and modify the underlying pathogenesis are getting more and more popularity among scientists. Cumulating data represent strong evidence of a genetic role in the pathogenesis of KC. Different loci have been identified, and certain mutations have also been mapped for this disease. Moreover, Biophysical properties of the cornea create an appropriate candidate of this tissue for gene therapy. Immune privilege, transparency and ex vivo stability are among these properties. Recent advantage in vectors, besides the ability to modulate the corneal milieu for accepting the target gene for a longer period and fruitful translation, make a big hope for stupendous results reasonable. PMID:25709266

  4. Gene therapy for hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geoffrey L; Herzog, Roland W

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors.

  5. [Immunological tumor therapy].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, K; Theobald, M

    2015-08-01

    Tumor cells could fundamentally be recognized and eliminated by the immune system but malignant cells are able to escape the immune surveillance system. The idea of immunotherapy of cancer is to activate, modulate and amplify the host immune response or to genetically equip the immune repertoire of patients with anti-tumor specificities and effectors. In recent years, a variety of promising immunotherapy strategies have been developed, such as bispecific, multispecific and immunoregulatory antibodies, gene-modified T lymphocytes and tumor vaccines. Some drugs have already been approved and others are available for patients in clinical trials. This article presents the current anti-tumor immune strategies and their molecular basis. Even though further research is needed in some areas, such as the establishment of biomarkers for targeted therapy, duration of therapeutic activity and compatibility of combined strategies, cancer immunotherapy is likely to be a key component in oncological treatment concepts in the very near future.

  6. Gene therapy for deafness.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, D C; Raphael, Y

    2013-12-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit in humans and can result from genetic, environmental or combined etiologies that prevent normal function of the cochlea, the peripheral sensory organ. Recent advances in understanding the genetic pathways that are critical for the development and maintenance of cochlear function, as well as the molecular mechanisms that underlie cell trauma and death, have provided exciting opportunities for modulating these pathways to correct genetic mutations, to enhance the endogenous protective pathways for hearing preservation and to regenerate lost sensory cells with the possibility of ameliorating hearing loss. A number of recent animal studies have used gene-based therapies in innovative ways toward realizing these goals. With further refinement, some of the protective and regenerative approaches reviewed here may become clinically applicable.

  7. Cognitive regulatory control therapies.

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive regulatory control processes play an essential but typically unappreciated role in maintaining mental health. The purpose of the current paper is to identify this role and demonstrate how cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can compensate for impairments. Impaired cognitive regulation contributes to the overly intense emotional states present in anxiety disorders, depression, and personality disorders; progression of adaptive hypomania to mania; expression of psychosis in the conscious and awake state; dominance of immature defense mechanisms in borderline and other personality disorders. A wide variety of standard (monitoring, reappraisal, response inhibition, relaxation training) and more novel (suppression therapy, willful detachment, cost-benefit analysis, normalization, mature defense mechanism training) cognitive-behavioral and related techniques can be applied to compensate for cognitive regulatory control impairments, and their success probably aligns with this capacity.

  8. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  9. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers).

  10. [Therapy in heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sáandor; Fürst, Zsuzsanna

    2014-09-01

    Heroin addiction is one of the most devastating and expensive of public health problems. The most effective treatment is opioid replacement therapy. Replacement of heroin, a short-acting euphoriant with methadone or other opioids that have significantly longer duration of action provides a number of therapeutic benefits. Opioid detoxification has a role in both preventing acute withdrawal and maintaining long-term abstinence. Opioid-based detoxification is based on the principle of cross-tolerance, in which one opioid is replaced with another one that is slowly tapered. For the treatment of heroin addicts a wide range of psychosocial and pharmacotherapeutic treatments are available; of these, methadone maintenance therapy has the most evidence of benefit. Methadone maintenance reduces and/or eliminates the use of heroin, reduces the death rate and criminality associated with heroin use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity. In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with heroin injection, such as hepatitis and HIV. The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with heroin. There is growing interest in expanding treatment into primary care, allowing opioid addiction to be managed like other chronic illnesses. Buprenorphine which is a long-acting partial agonist was also approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence. Opioid antagonists can reduce heroin self-administration and opioid craving in detoxified addicts. Naltrexone, which is a long-acting competitive antagonist at the opioid receptors, blocks the subjective and objective responses produced by intravenous opioids. Naltrexone is employed to accelerate opioid detoxification by displacing heroin and as a maintenance agent for detoxified formerly heroin-dependent patients who want to

  11. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as

  12. Ablation and Other Local Therapy for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... m Having Trouble Logging In/Staying Logged In Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music ...

  14. Combining Clozapine and Talk Therapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Kevin

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper reviews articles concerning clozapine therapy. It considers its benefits and dangers in various situations, and how it can be successfully combined with talk therapies. Studies are reviewed concerning patients in outpatient clinics, partial hospitalization…

  15. Family Therapy and Psychosomatic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the use of family therapy in dealing with illnesses such as childhood diabetes, asthma, pain, and anorexia nervosa. Marital and family therapy may be effective in treating some psychosomatic problems. Family assessment is helpful in the management of all psychosomatic problems. (Author/JAC)

  16. [Basic principles of gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Vieweg, J

    1996-09-01

    The rapid development of recombinant DNA technology and our enhanced understanding of the genetic basis of human disease has facilitated the development of new molecular therapeutic modalities, termed gene therapy. Gene therapy involves the transfer of functional genes into somatic cells and their expression in target tissues in order to replace absent genes, correct defective genes, or induce antitumoral activity in the tumor-bearing host. Currently, an increasing number of gene therapy strategies are being investigated in experimental and clinical trials. Despite substantial progress, a number of technical and logistical hurdles must still be overcome before gene therapy can be safety and effectively applied in the human patient. Since gene therapy involves complex cell processing and can be time consuming and costly, simplifications or even alternative approaches will be necessary in order to establish this therapy as suitable for clinical use. This report reviews various gene therapy strategies and gene delivery techniques currently under clinical or experimental investigation. Special emphasis is given to cytokine gene therapy using gene-modified tumor vaccines for cancer treatment.

  17. Art Therapy with Laryngectomy Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Susan Ainlay; Anand, Vinod K.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the experiences of patients with laryngeal cancer who used art therapy. Drawing on 14 years of experience and 109 laryngeal cancer patients, describes treatment results and the case material substantiating the distinct role of art therapy. Provides an overview of the special medical and therapeutic needs of this group. (RJM)

  18. Novel Therapies for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Leonardo; Bilezikian, John P

    2017-03-01

    Recently discovered mechanisms have assisted in developing new therapies for osteoporosis. New classes of drugs have been developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although there have been numerous advances over the past 2 decades, the search for newer therapies continues.

  19. Striding Towards Better Physical Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on a new rehabilitative device that promises to improve physical therapy for patients working to regain the ability to walk after facing traumatic injuries or a degenerative illness. Produced by Enduro Medical Technology, of East Hartford, Connecticut, the Secure Ambulation Module (S.A.M.) creates a stable and secure environment for patients as they stand during ambulation therapy.

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  1. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  2. [Music therapy and child care].

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan

    2005-12-01

    Music therapy was shown many years ago to have positive effects in various age groups of patients in the Western world. Music can produce physiological and psychological effects, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety, improvements in the immune system, decreases in cortisol levels, the reduction of stress and the promotion of well-being. Music therapy is an inexpensive and effective intervention for nurses to apply to patients. The application of such therapy to children, however, is different from that to adults due to their limited cognitive and language development. In Taiwan, nurses' knowledge of music therapy is limited, and it is rarely used in child care. This article introduces music therapy and its effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, handicapped children, and children receiving surgery. Music therapy is often used as an assisted intervention for patient care in clinical settings. Health care professionals can perform some of the music therapy activities for patients appropriately even if they have not been trained in music. This article aims to improve nurses' knowledge of music therapy and to provide a useful reference for those involved in child care.

  3. Responsive Therapy: An Integrational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Sterling K.

    Responsive therapy is an integrative model that uses a variety of intervention models, each in its own theory-pure context. This article addresses some major misdirections in the counseling profession and discusses ways that responsive therapy can help correct these misdirections. For at least two generations, counseling has professed that the…

  4. Gene therapy in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Xue; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Zhong, Ying-Qiang

    2014-10-07

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease and notoriously difficult to treat. Only a small proportion of PC patients are eligible for surgical resection, whilst conventional chemoradiotherapy only has a modest effect with substantial toxicity. Gene therapy has become a new widely investigated therapeutic approach for PC. This article reviews the basic rationale, gene delivery methods, therapeutic targets and developments of laboratory research and clinical trials in gene therapy of PC by searching the literature published in English using the PubMed database and analyzing clinical trials registered on the Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website (http://www. wiley.co.uk/genmed/ clinical). Viral vectors are main gene delivery tools in gene therapy of cancer, and especially, oncolytic virus shows brighter prospect due to its tumor-targeting property. Efficient therapeutic targets for gene therapy include tumor suppressor gene p53, mutant oncogene K-ras, anti-angiogenesis gene VEGFR, suicide gene HSK-TK, cytosine deaminase and cytochrome p450, multiple cytokine genes and so on. Combining different targets or combination strategies with traditional chemoradiotherapy may be a more effective approach to improve the efficacy of cancer gene therapy. Cancer gene therapy is not yet applied in clinical practice, but basic and clinical studies have demonstrated its safety and clinical benefits. Gene therapy will be a new and promising field for the treatment of PC.

  5. Novel therapies for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Joan J; Cole, Craig Emmitt; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2002-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) continues to evade cure by conventional therapies, increasing the urgency for new, biologically based treatments. Reviewed in this discussion are novel chemotherapies under clinical trial that capitalize upon greater comprehension of tumor pathophysiology. In targeting tumor biology, these therapies serve as a model of treatment with great potential for improving outcomes in patients with MM.

  6. Thrombolytic therapy in neurointensive care.

    PubMed

    Jichici, D; Frank, J I

    1997-01-01

    Thrombolytic therapy has been studied in acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and sagittal sinus thrombosis. This form of therapy has an evolving role in contemporary neurologic practice, and increased investigational fervor will ensure more exacting therapeutic alternatives for stroke victims in the future.

  7. The Virtual Art Therapy Studio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiff, Shaun

    1999-01-01

    The image-making properties of digital art can enhance many art therapy techniques while introducing new elements to practice. However, there are things that digital media cannot do in art therapy. Unconditional support for one medium or idea limits the full spectrum of possibilities. Computer art will never replace the three-dimensional presence…

  8. A Feminist Family Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Leora; Piercy, Fred P.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on development and psychometric properties of Feminist Family Therapy Scale (FFTS), a 17-item instrument intended to reflect degree to which family therapists conceptualize process of family therapy from feminist-informed perspective. Found that the instrument discriminated between self-identified feminists and nonfeminists, women and men,…

  9. Learning theory and gestalt therapy.

    PubMed

    Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.

  10. The Reality-Therapy Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strear, Sally

    1977-01-01

    Describes a weight-loss program for 40 obese junior high school students who were divided into five groups, two using reality therapy, two using conventional counseling, and one control group. Reality therapy was shown to be the more effective method of treatment. (Author)

  11. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  12. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshuk, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems.

  13. Current therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes☆

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Amer M.; Linhares, Yuliya; Gore, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    After being a neglected and poorly-understood disorder for many years, there has been a recent explosion of data regarding the complex pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). On the therapeutic front, the approval of azacitidine, decitabine, and lenalidomide in the last decade was a major breakthrough. Nonetheless, the responses to these agents are limited and most patients progress within 2 years. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the only potentially curative therapy, but it is associated with significant toxicity and limited efficacy. Lack or loss of response after standard therapies is associated with dismal outcomes. Many unanswered questions remain regarding the optimal use of current therapies including patient selection, response prediction, therapy sequencing and combinations, and management of resistance. It is hoped that the improved understanding of the underpinnings of the complex mechanisms of pathogenesis will be translated into novel therapeutic approaches and better prognostic/predictive tools that would facilitate accurate risk-adaptive therapy. PMID:23954262

  14. [The history of reorientation therapy].

    PubMed

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2013-06-16

    Most scientists today agree that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive, and biological factors. In past decades in the United States there has been a big discourse as to the necessity and effectiveness of changing same-sex attraction. Researchers disagree on whether same-sex attraction can be changed. Position statements of the major mental health organizations state that there is not enough scientific evidence to support the reorientation therapy. In addition, there is some evidence to indicate that some individuals experienced harm or believed they had been harmed by these interventions. The aim of this article is to give a historic overview of the reorientation therapies, to review the efficacy of the therapies, motivations for seeking therapy, arguments for and against the therapy, and to overview the actual mainstream organizations' statements.

  15. Gene Therapy for Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shang-An; Wang, Jinjun; Tao, Mi-Hua; Leung, Patrick S C

    2015-10-01

    Advances in understanding the immunological and molecular basis of autoimmune diseases have made gene therapy a promising approach to treat the affected patients. Gene therapy for autoimmune diseases aims to regulate the levels of proinflammatory cytokines or molecules and the infiltration of lymphocytes to the effected sites through successful delivery and expression of therapeutic genes in appropriate cells. The ultimate goal of gene therapy is to restore and maintain the immune tolerance to the relevant autoantigens and improve clinical outcomes for patients. Here, we summarize the recent progress in identifying genes responsible for autoimmune diseases and present examples where gene therapy has been applied as treatments or prevention in autoimmune diseases both in animal models and the clinical trials. Discussion on the advantages and pitfalls of gene therapy strategies employed is provided. The intent of this review is to inspire further studies toward the development of new strategies for successful treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  16. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco

    2012-04-15

    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  17. Art, dance, and music therapy.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    2004-11-01

    Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century.

  18. Gene therapy for malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Okura, Hidehiro; Smith, Christian A; Rutka, James T

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and devastating primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current treatment modalities, such as surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, only modest improvements in median survival have been achieved. Frequent recurrence and invasiveness of GBM are likely due to the resistance of glioma stem cells to conventional treatments; therefore, novel alternative treatment strategies are desperately needed. Recent advancements in molecular biology and gene technology have provided attractive novel treatment possibilities for patients with GBM. Gene therapy is defined as a technology that aims to modify the genetic complement of cells to obtain therapeutic benefit. To date, gene therapy for the treatment of GBM has demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in pre-clinical studies and promising safety profiles in clinical studies. However, while this approach is obviously promising, concerns still exist regarding issues associated with transduction efficiency, viral delivery, the pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Tumor development and progression involve alterations in a wide spectrum of genes, therefore a variety of gene therapy approaches for GBM have been proposed. Improved viral vectors are being evaluated, and the potential use of gene therapy alone or in synergy with other treatments against GBM are being studied. In this review, we will discuss the most commonly studied gene therapy approaches for the treatment of GBM in preclinical and clinical studies including: prodrug/suicide gene therapy; oncolytic gene therapy; cytokine mediated gene therapy; and tumor suppressor gene therapy. In addition, we review the principles and mechanisms of current gene therapy strategies as well as advantages and disadvantages of each.

  19. Comparison microbial killing efficacy between sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drantantiyas, Nike Dwi Grevika; Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Biofilm is a way used by bacteria to survive from their environmental conditions by forming colony of bacteria. Specific characteristic in biofilm formation is the availability of matrix layer, known as extracellular polymer substance. Treatment using antibiotics may lead bacteria to be to resistant. Other treatments to reduce microbial, like biofilm, can be performed by using photodynamic therapy. Successful of this kind of therapy is induced by penetration of light and photosensitizer into target cells. The sonodynamic therapy offers greater penetrating capability into tissues. This research aimed to use sonodynamic therapy in reducing biofilm. Moreover, it compares also the killing efficacy of photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, and the combination of both therapeutic schemes (known as sono-photodynamic) to achieve higher microbial killing efficacy. Samples used are Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Treatments were divided into 4 groups, i.e. group under ultrasound treatment with variation of 5 power levels, group of light treatment with exposure of 75s, group of combined ultrasound-light with variation of ultrasound power levels, and group of combined lightultrasound with variation of ultrasound power levels. Results obtained for each treatment, expressed in % efficacy of log CFU/mL, showed that the treatment of photo-sonodynamic provides greater killing efficacy in comparison to either sonodynamic and sono-photodynamic. The photo-sonodynamic shows also greater efficacy to photodynamic. So combination of light-ultrasound (photo-sonodynamic) can effectively kill microbial biofilm. The combined therapy will provide even better efficacy using exogenous photosensitizer.

  20. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient

  1. Buffer Therapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes C; Silva, Ariosto S.; Bailey, Kate M.; Kumar, Nagi B.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. Effectiveness of buffer therapy is likely to be affected by diet, which could contribute or interfere with the therapeutic alkalinizing effect. Little data on food pH buffering capacity was available. This study evaluated the pH and buffering capacity of different foods to guide prospective trials and test the effect of the same buffer (lysine) at two different ionization states. Food groups were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Foods were blended and pH titrated with acid from initial pH values until 4.0 to determine “buffering score”, in mmol H+/pH unit. A “buffering score” was derived as the mEq H+ consumed per serving size to lower from initial to a pH 4.0, the postprandial pH of the distal duodenum. To differentiate buffering effect from any metabolic byproduct effects, we compared the effects of oral lysine buffers prepared at either pH 10.0 or 8.4, which contain 2 and 1 free base amines, respectively. The effect of these on experimental metastases formation in mice following tail vein injection of PC-3M prostate cancer cells were monitored with in vivo bioluminescence. Carbohydrates and dairy products’ buffering score varied between 0.5 and 19. Fruits and vegetables showed a low to zero buffering score. The score of meats varied between 6 and 22. Wine and juices had negative scores. Among supplements, sodium bicarbonate and Tums® had the highest buffering capacities, with scores of 11 and 20 per serving size, respectively. The “de-buffered” lysine had a less pronounced effect of prevention of metastases compared to lysine at pH 10. This study has demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of buffer therapy and suggests foods that can contribute to or compete with this approach to manage cancer. PMID:24371544

  2. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  3. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... insulin therapy can help you achieve desired blood sugar control and what intensive insulin therapy requires of ... aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy requires close monitoring of ...

  4. Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID:16457646

  5. QT Dispersion after Thrombolytic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oni Heris, Saeed; Rahimi, Behzad; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Hajahmadi, Mojgan; Sayyadi, Hojjat; Naghipour, Bahman

    2014-01-01

    Background: QT dispersion (QTd) is equal to longer QTc minus shorter QTc measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). QTd reflects inhomogeneity in repolarization of ventricular myocardium and because of easy and fast measurement of QTd, it can be used to predict high-risk patients for dysrhythmia after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of thrombolytic therapy on QTd before and 1 hour and 4 days after beginning of thrombolytic therapy. Patients and Methods: The patients with chest pain and ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) that underwent thrombolytic therapy were enrolled into this study. Streptokinase was the thrombolytic agent in all the patients. Standard 12-lead (ECG) was evaluated before beginning of thrombolytic therapy (QTd 1) and 1 hour (QTd2) and 4 days (QTd3) after thrombolytic therapy. First, ECG was magnified × 10 for exact calculation of QT and QTd. After all, the variables were compared using one–way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Besides, P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: This study was conducted on 160 patients. The results revealed no significant differences among QTd 1, QTd 2, and QTd 3 (P > 0.05). At inferior AMI, however, a significant difference was observed among QTd1, QTd2, and QTd3 (P = 0.031). Conclusions: Thrombolytic therapy had no significant effects on QTd. Thus, thrombolytic therapy does not increase the risk of arrhythmia. PMID:25614860

  6. [Therapy of tic disorders].

    PubMed

    Roessner, Veit; Schoenefeld, Katia; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2012-07-01

    Tremendous progress has taken place in the last 8 years since the publication of our review on «Therapy of Tic Disorders» in the Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie. Several steps in treatment have been specified. For example, consensus-based indications for treatment have been published, and a detailed manual for a so-called habit-reversal training program has been developed and evaluated. In addition, new treatment options such as aripiprazole and deep-brain stimulation have been implemented. Increasing attention is being given to the disabling consequences of the commonly co-occurring psychiatric conditions known as ADHD or OCD. Nevertheless, there is still much to be learned about the treatment of tic disorders; standardized and sufficiently large drug trials in patients with tic disorders fulfilling evidence-based medicine standards are still scarce. The same is true for direct comparisons of different agents as well as of medication versus behavioral treatment. Finally, the question of how to predict the individual course of tics and how best to deal with the problems of waxing and waning of tics in this context still limits evidence base for treatment decisions. Large clinical experience is still a pre-requisite for making optimal decisions for the treatment of individual patients suffering from a tic disorder.

  7. Antiretroviral therapy: Shifting sands

    PubMed Central

    Sashindran, V.K.; Chauhan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been an extremely difficult pandemic to control. However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV has now been transformed into a chronic illness in patients who have continued treatment access and excellent long-term adherence. Existing indications for ART initiation in asymptomatic patients were based on CD4 levels; however, recent evidence has broken the shackles of CD4 levels. Early initiation of ART in HIV patients irrespective of CD4 counts can have profound positive impact on morbidity and mortality. Early initiation of ART has been found not only beneficial for patients but also to community as it reduces the risk of transmission. There have been few financial concerns about providing ART to all HIV-positive people but various studies have proven that early initiation of ART not only proves to be cost-effective but also contributes to economic and social growth of community. A novel multidisciplinary approach with early initiation and availability of ART at its heart can turn the tide in our favor in future. Effective preexposure prophylaxis and postexposure prophylaxis can also lower transmission risk of HIV in community. New understanding of HIV pathogenesis is opening new vistas to cure and prevention. Various promising candidate vaccines and drugs are undergoing aggressive clinical trials, raising optimism for an ever-elusive cure for HIV. This review describes various facets of tectonic shift in management of HIV. PMID:26900224

  8. Cell therapy of pseudarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bastos Filho, Ricardo; Lermontov, Simone; Borojevic, Radovan; Schott, Paulo Cezar; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficiency of cell therapy for pseudarthrosis. Implant of the bone marrow aspirate was compared to mononuclear cells purified extemporaneously using the Sepax® equipment. Methods Six patients with nonunion of the tibia or femur were treated. Four received a percutaneous infusion of autologous bone marrow aspirated from the iliac crest, and two received autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells separated from the aspirate with the Sepax®. The primary fixation method was unchanged, and the nonunion focus was not exposed. Physical examination and radiographies were performed 2, 4 and 6 months after the treatment by the same physician. After consolidation of the fracture the satisfaction of the patients was estimated using the adapted QALY scale. Results No complications occurred as a result of the referred procedures. Bone consolidation was obtained in all cases within 3 to 24 weeks. The degree of patient satisfaction before and after bone consolidation was assessed, with the average value increasing from two to nine (p=0.0156). Conclusion We conclude that the proposed method is effective and safe for the treatment of nonunion of long bones regardless of the stabilization method used. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study PMID:24453616

  9. Complications of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dalinka, M.K.; Mazzeo, V.P. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The skeletal effects of radiation are dependent upon many variables, but the pathologic features are consistent. Radiation may cause immediate or delayed cell death, cellular injury with recovery, arrest of cellular division, or abnormal repair with neoplasia. Radiation necrosis and radiation-induced neoplasm still occur despite the use of supervoltage therapy. Complications of radiotherapy are well known and have led to more judicious use of this therapeutic modality. With few exceptions, benign bone tumors are no longer treated with irradiation. Radiation necrosis may be difficult to differentiate from sarcoma arising in irradiated bone. They both occur within the field of irradiation. Radiation necrosis often has a long latent period which is, of course, the rule in radiation-induced neoplasia. A soft tissue mass favors the diagnosis of neoplasia, while its absence suggests radiation necrosis. Lack of pain favors necrosis. Calcification may occur in radiation necrosis and does not indicate neoplasia. A lack of progression on serial roentgenograms also favors radiation necrosis. 76 references.

  10. Dietary therapies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome) specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  11. Feline pyoderma therapy.

    PubMed

    Wildermuth, Brett E; Griffin, Craig E; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S

    2006-08-01

    Feline pyoderma is a disease entity more prevalent than previously described. Diagnosis is made by finding bacteria in the presence of inflammatory cells or bacterial phagocytosis on routine cytological examination. Diseases leading to secondary bacterial pyoderma include allergic and inflammatory skin diseases, parasitosis, feline chin acne, and others. Lesions of feline pyoderma are variable and include crusted and eroded papules, pustules, furuncles, eroded to ulcerated plaques with variable exudation and crusting, and linear to nodular ulcerative granulomatous lesions. Three cases of feline pyoderma responsive to antimicrobial therapy are discussed: case 1, a 10.5-year-old male neutered domestic short hair with eosinophilic lip ulcer, case 2, a 7-year-old male neutered domestic short hair with multiple cutaneous eosinophilic plaques, and case 3, an 8-month-old male neutered domestic short hair cat with Pseudomonas dermatitis, vasculitis, and panniculitis. Antibiotic selection for treatment of feline pyoderma should be based on cytological examination, and culture and sensitivity in unresponsive cases.

  12. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  13. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT∕CT and PET∕CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  14. Antimetabolites: established cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manjul

    2012-01-01

    Cell death has been divided into two main types: programmed cell death, in which the cell plays an active role, and passive (necrotic) cell death. Senescence arrest, accelerated senescence and differentiation are also responses that can be induced in response to DNA-damaging agents. Apoptosis may occur as a primary event following chemotherapy, in which genes that regulate apoptosis will influence the outcome of therapy or, alternatively, as an event secondary to the induction of lethal damage that involves the subsequent processing of cellular damage. The particular type of response induced is highly dependent on the agent and dose employed, the type of DNA damage induced as well as the genetic and cellular phenotypes. It has been proposed that apoptosis may play a lesser role in tumor response to radiation in comparison with the induction of cell death through mitotic catastrophe or a senescence-like irreversible growth arrest. However, in comparison with the induction of apoptosis, there is a lack of as much definitive information on other cell death processes that occur in cancer cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents, including antimetabolites. This article reviews what is known about these processes at the present time in response to experimental or clinically used agents that are analogs of 5-fluorouracil, cytidine or purines, hydroxyurea, or that belong to the family of folate antagonists.

  15. Targeting complement in therapy.

    PubMed

    Kirschfink, M

    2001-04-01

    With increasing evidence that complement activation significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of a large number of inflammatory diseases, strategies that interfere with its deleterious action have become a major focus in pharmacological research. Endogenous soluble complement inhibitors (C1 inhibitor, recombinant soluble complement receptor 1, antibodies) blocking key proteins of the cascade reaction, neutralizing the action of the complement-derived anaphylatoxin C5a, or interfering with complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD18/11b)-mediated adhesion of inflammatory cells to the vascular endothelium have successfully been tested in various animal models over the past years. Promising results consequently led to clinical trials. Furthermore, incorporation of membrane-bound complement regulators (decay-accelerating factor (CD55), membrane co-factor protein (CD46), CD59) in transgenic animals has provided a major step forward in protecting xenografts from hyperacute rejection. At the same time, the poor contribution of complement to the antitumor response, which is caused by multiple resistance mechanisms that hamper the efficacy of antibody-based tumor therapy, is increasingly recognized and requires pharmacologic intervention. First attempts have now been made to interfere with the resistance mechanisms, thereby improving complement-mediated tumor cell destruction.

  16. Aesthetic ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, Peter G.; Slayton, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound provides key benefits in aesthetic surgery compared to laser and RF based energy sources. We present results of research, development, pre-clinical and clinical studies, regulatory clearance and commercialization of a revolutionary non-invasive aesthetic ultrasound imaging and therapy system. Clinical applications for this platform include non-invasive face-lifts, brow-lifts, and neck-lifts achieved through fractionated treatment of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and subcutaneous tissue. Treatment consists of placing a grid of micro-coagulative lesions on the order of 1 mm3 at depths in skin of 1 to 6 mm, source energy levels of 0.1 to 3 J, and spacing on the order of 1.5 mm, from 4 to 10 MHz dual-mode image/treat transducers. System details are described, as well as a regulatory pathway consisting of acoustic and bioheat simulations, source characterization (hydrophone, radiation force, and Schlieren), pre-clinical studies (porcine skin ex vivo, in vivo, and human cadaver), human safety studies (treat and resect) and efficacy trials which culminated in FDA clearance (2009) under a new device classification and world-wide usage. Clinical before and after photographs are presented which validate the clinical approach.

  17. Medical therapy for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, S B

    2000-07-01

    Last year was not a banner year for developments in medical therapy for ulcerative colitis. In contrast to the expansion of therapies for Crohn disease, treatment for ulcerative colitis was evolutionary, at best, leading many patients to seek alternative medical approaches. Nevertheless, there have been advances in the application of aminosalicylates and immune modifiers for ulcerative colitis. Additional, nonconventional approaches include nicotine, probiotics, dietary therapies, and heparins. Several novel approaches have arisen from animal models, including additional means of inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB and targeting of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  18. Gene therapy: proceed with caution.

    PubMed

    Grobstein, C; Flower, M

    1984-04-01

    On 6 February 1984 the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health approved a recommendation that the committee provide prior review of research protocols involving human gene therapy. Grobstein and Flower trace the development of public policy in response to concerns about the dangers of gene therapy, especially as it applies to germ line alteration. They offer guidelines and propose principles for an oversight body to confront the immediate and long term technical, social, and ethical implications of human genetic modification. An accompanying article presents a plea for the development of gene therapy by the mother of three children who have sickle cell anemia.

  19. [Laser radiations in medical therapy].

    PubMed

    Richand, P; Boulnois, J L

    1983-06-30

    The therapeutic effects of various types of laser beams and the various techniques employed are studied. Clinical and experimental research has shown that Helio-Neon laser beams are most effective as biological stimulants and in reducing inflammation. For this reasons they are best used in dermatological surgery cases (varicose ulcers, decubital and surgical wounds, keloid scars, etc.). Infrared diode laser beams have been shown to be highly effective painkillers especially in painful pathologies like postherpetic neuritis. The various applications of laser therapy in acupuncture, the treatment of reflex dermatologia and optic fibre endocavital therapy are presented. The neurophysiological bases of this therapy are also briefly described.

  20. Future therapies for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M.; Mousallem, Talal; Burks, A. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy affects 3.9% of US children and is increasing in prevalence. The current standard of care involves avoidance of the triggering food and treatment for accidental ingestions. While there is no current curative treatment, there are a number of therapeutic strategies under investigation. Allergen specific therapies include oral and sublingual immunotherapy with native food protein as well as recombinant food proteins. Allergen non-specific therapies include a Chinese herbal formula (FAHF-2) and the use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy. Although none of these treatments are ready for clinical use, these therapeutic strategies present promising options for the future of food allergy. PMID:22894951

  1. Antimicrobial therapy for skin infections.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, Jan V

    2007-06-01

    The most common skin infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes), or the normal skin flora. An antistaphylococcal oral antibiotic is the preferred treatment for nonbullous and bullous impetigo, and a therapeutic agent that is effective against both S aureus and streptococci is appropriate for most cases of cellulitis. For furuncles, carbuncles, cutaneous abscesses, and inflamed epidermal cysts, the most important therapy is incision and drainage, and in most cases there is no need for antimicrobial therapy. Patients with venous ulcers and atopic eczema do not benefit from systemic antimicrobial therapy unless obvious infection is present, as indicated by clinical features such as fever, cellulitis, and lymphangitis.

  2. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M

    2017-01-04

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.

  3. Therapy of the burnout syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Korczak, Dieter; Wastian, Monika; Schneider, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence, diagnostics and therapy of the burnout syndrome are increasingly discussed in the public. The unclear definition and diagnostics of the burnout syndrome are scientifically criticized. There are several therapies with unclear evidence for the treatment of burnout in existence. Objectives The health technology assessment (HTA) report deals with the question of usage and efficacy of different burnout therapies. Methods For the years 2006 to 2011, a systematic literature research was done in 31 electronic databases (e.g. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO). Important inclusion criteria are burnout, therapeutic intervention and treatment outcome. Results 17 studies meet the inclusion criteria and are regarded for the HTA report. The studies are very heterogeneous (sample size, type of intervention, measuring method, level of evidence). Due to their study design (e.g. four reviews, eight randomized controlled trials) the studies have a comparable high evidence: three times 1A, five times 1B, one time 2A, two times 2B and six times 4. 13 of the 17 studies are dealing with the efficacy of psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions for the reduction of burnout (partly in combination with other techniques). Cognitive behaviour therapy leads to the improvement of emotional exhaustion in the majority of the studies. The evidence is inconsistent for the efficacy of stress management and music therapy. Two studies regarding the efficacy of Qigong therapy do not deliver a distinct result. One study proves the efficacy of roots of Rhodiola rosea (evidence level 1B). Physical therapy is only in one study separately examined and does not show a better result than standard therapy. Discussion Despite the number of studies with high evidence the results for the efficacy of burnout therapies are preliminary and do have only limited reach. The authors of the studies complain about the low number of skilled studies for the therapy of burnout. Furthermore, they point

  4. Gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy--contrasts or complementarities?

    PubMed

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James; Sonne, Mikael

    2010-12-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued that gestalt therapy, defined as a field-theoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual and contextual aspects of therapeutic change processes, toward different levels of memory involved in these processes, and toward the relationship between basic needs, sensation and cognition in therapeutic work. Further, a dialogue between the two approaches will pave the way for addressing the connection between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined.

  5. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid.

  6. Concurrent vs. Conjoint Marital Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefner, Charles W.; Prochaska, James O.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated couples (N=27) randomly assigned to conjoint or concurrent therapy to compare treatment effectiveness with regard to intrapersonal and interpersonal problems. Results showed no differences between the two treatments on any of the outcome measures. (LLL)

  7. Human germline gene therapy reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B; Langer, P J

    2001-07-20

    This paper reevaluates the notion of human germline gene therapy (HGLGT) in light of developments in biomedicine, biotechnology, and ethical and policy analysis. The essay makes the following key points. First, because the distinction among "therapy," "prevention," and "enhancement" is not clear in human genetics, "gene therapy" is an inadequate descriptor of the process and goals of germline genetic alterations. The alternate use of the phrase "human germline genome modification" (HGLGM) could avoid a misleading label. Second, procedures that could be construed as genetic "enhancement" may not be as morally problematic as some have supposed, once one understands that the boundaries between therapy, prevention, and enhancement are not obvious in genetic medicine. Third, HGLGM might be the medically and morally most appropriate way of avoiding the birth of a child with a genetic disease in only a small range of cases. Fourth, there are still many ethical and scientific problems relating to the safety and efficacy of HGLGM.

  8. Intraperitoneal therapy for peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ze; Wang, Jie; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S

    2011-01-01

    Cancers originating from organs in the peritoneal cavity (e.g., ovarian, pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and liver) account for approximately 250,000 new cancer cases annually in the USA. Peritoneal metastases are common owing to locoregional spread and distant metastases of extraperitoneal cancers. A logical treatment is intraperitoneal therapy, as multiple studies have shown significant targeting advantage for this treatment, including significant survival benefits in stage III, surgically debulked ovarian cancer patients. However, the clinical use of intraperitoneal therapy has been limited, in part, by toxicity, owing to the use of indwelling catheters or high drug exposure, by inadequate drug penetration into bulky tumors (>1 cm) and by the lack of products specifically designed and approved for intraperitoneal treatments. This article provides an overview on the background of peritoneal metastasis, clinical research on intraperitoneal therapy, the pharmacokinetic basis of drug delivery in intraperitoneal therapy and our development of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles. PMID:21062160

  9. Clear Thinking about Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... industry, with corporations both large and small vigorously marketing their products. 5 | Clear Thinking about Alternative Therapies ... Once the FDA has cleared the product for marketing, people are protected by disclosure requirements such as ...

  10. Update in rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim-Howard, Xana R; Staudt, Leslie; James, Judith A

    2005-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by polyarticular symmetrical arthritis. Inflammatory mediators targeting joint structures produce joint inflammation with pain, functional loss, joint destruction and permanent deformity. Currently, no cure for RA exists but the increasing use of combination therapy and immunomodulatory agents has led to improved quality of life and long-term outlook for many of these patients. While traditionally employed therapies have provided limited disease suppression, advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of RA have resulted in new therapies targeting very specific components of the inflammatory process. These new treatments have shown very promising results with improved efficacy and an overall decreased toxicity profile. This review provides an overview for practicing clinicians of the current immunosuppressive therapies in RA with an emphasis on newer biological agents regarding their mechanisms of action, efficacy, side effects and monitoring recommendations. Developing therapeutics will be briefly discussed.

  11. Nanoparticles for Retinal Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Shannon M.; Naash, Muna I.

    2010-01-01

    Ocular gene therapy is becoming a well-established field. Viral gene therapies for the treatment of Leber’s congentinal amaurosis (LCA) are in clinical trials, and many other gene therapy approaches are being rapidly developed for application to diverse ophthalmic pathologies. Of late, development of non-viral gene therapies has been an area of intense focus and one technology, polymer-compacted DNA nanoparticles, is especially promising. However, development of pharmaceutically and clinically viable therapeutics depends not only on having an effective and safe vector but also on a practical treatment strategy. Inherited retinal pathologies are caused by mutations in over 220 genes, some of which contain over 200 individual disease-causing mutations, which are individually very rare. This review will focus on both the progress and future of nanoparticles and also on what will be required to make them relevant ocular pharmaceutics. PMID:20452457

  12. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  13. Hadron therapy: history, status, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenov, G. I.; Khoroshkov, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    A brief historical review is given of external radiation therapy (RT), one of the main cancer treatment methods along with surgery and chemotherapy. Cellular mechanisms of radiation damage are described. Special attention is paid to hadron (proton and ion) therapy, its history, results, problems, challenges, current trends, and prospects. Undeniably great contributions to proton therapy have been made by Russian researchers, notably at the experimental centers that have operated since the mid-20th century at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, the A I Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), and the B P Konstantinov Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics. A quarter of the global clinical experience was accumulated by 1990 at the world's largest ITEP-hosted multicabin proton therapy center.

  14. [Psychosomatic therapies in primary headaches].

    PubMed

    Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro

    2009-09-01

    Many previous studies have reported that primary headaches such as tension-type headache and migraine are influenced by psychosocial factors including stressful life events and daily hassles. In addition, noncompliance and nonadherence with medical regimens represent a major challenge to the treatment of primary headaches including medication-overuse headache. Therefore, non-pharmacological therapies such as relaxation, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and biofeedback have become important and their efficacy has been reported. In the present review, I would like to introduce the importance of psychosocial factors in primary headaches and psychosomatic therapies by reviewing previous studies on the association between psychosocial factors and primary headaches and on the efficacy of non-pharmacological therapies and by showing a representative case.

  15. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mood swings Depression Loss of interest in sex Drug Side Effects The side effects of hormone therapy depend on the drug. Common side effects include hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness . ...

  16. History of hadron therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-06-01

    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed.

  17. Vaccine Therapy for Unresectable Chordoma

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase II clinical trial, adult patients with inoperable chordoma who are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to receive a yeast-based vaccine that targets a protein called brachyury or a placebo injection.

  18. Proton therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rutenberg, Michael S; Flampouri, Stella; Hoppe, Bradford S

    2014-09-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma has gone from an incurable disease to one for which the majority of patients will be cured. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy achieves the best disease control rates and results in many long-term survivors. As a result, a majority of long-term Hodgkin lymphoma survivors live to experience severe late treatment-related complications, especially cardiovascular disease and second malignancies. The focus of research and treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma is to maintain the current high rates of disease control while reducing treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Efforts to reduce late treatment complications focus on improvements in both systemic therapies and radiotherapy. Herein we review the basis for the benefits of proton therapy over conventional X-ray therapy. We review outcomes of Hodgkin lymphoma treated with proton therapy, and discuss the ability of protons to reduce radiation dose to organs at risk and the impact on the most significant late complications related to the treatment.

  19. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes ... your fluid intake. • Treat the skin exposed to radiation with special care. Stay out of the sun, ...

  20. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... than in African-Americans. TYPES OF SKIN CANCER Basal cell carcinoma: This is the most common form of skin ... epidermis ). Radiation therapy is very effective for treating basal cell cancers that have not spread elsewhere. Other common treatments ...

  1. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Why Give to PCF? Featured Blue Jacket Fashion Show Featured Donate Contact Us Menu Close Donate ... Featured Why Give to PCF? Featured Blue Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Side Effects of Hormone Therapy ...

  2. Intravesical therapy for overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert J

    2005-11-01

    Overactive bladder and urgency incontinence are common conditions generally treated with oral anticholinergic therapy. Despite the development of new antimuscarinic agents, many patients do not tolerate or fail to respond to oral therapy. Intravesical instillation therapy can provide an alternative method of managing bladder overactivity. Intravesical instillation of anticholinergics such as oxybutynin and atropine can achieve cholinergic blockade without producing systemic side effects. Botulinum A toxin injected directly into the detrusor has been shown in preliminary studies to increase bladder capacity and decrease uncontrolled bladder contractility for up to 6 months. Intravesical local anesthetics such as lidocaine and bupivacaine block the conduction of unmyelinated C fibers and when administered into the bladder, lead to an increase in functional bladder capacity. Intravesical capsaicin and resiniferatoxin also affect afferent innervation by blocking C-fiber afferents, leading to decreased bladder contractility and increased bladder capacity. Intravesical instillation therapy can provide an alternative treatment for the management of overactive bladder.

  3. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  4. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer, surgery has been the standard. However, in patients medically not able to tolerate surgery, focused radiation, called stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a good treatment option. For large ...

  5. Colorectal hepatic metastasis: Evolving therapies

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Makarawo, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    The approach for colorectal hepatic metastasis has advanced tremendously over the past decade. Multidrug chemotherapy regimens have been successfully introduced with improved outcomes. Concurrently, adjunct multimodal therapies have improved survival rates, and increased the number of patients eligible for curative liver resection. Herein, we described major advancements of surgical and oncologic management of such lesions, thereby discussing modern chemotherapeutic regimens, adjunct therapies and surgical aspects of liver resection. PMID:25067997

  6. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  7. Combined Therapy for Postirradiation Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    weeks after ex- posure to ionizing radiation. Antibiotics alone do not provide adequate the- rapy for induced infections in neutropenic mice. Because... Antibiotics alone do not assure cure of infec- effect of TDM against different challenge doses tions or survival of irradiated animals of K. pneumoniae...Treated with Combined Therapy of TDM and Ceftriaxone. LD50/30 Antibiotic % Survival? .pneumoniae Therapy TDM/o TDM/s Saline Oil 5000 ceftriaxone 100 88 69

  8. Gene Therapy for Childhood Neurofibromatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0101 TITLE: Gene Therapy for Childhood ...May 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gene Therapy for Childhood Neurofibromatosis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0101 5c...technology. This approach still represents a plausible and very different way to treat childhood neurofibromatosis, as well as other solid tumors

  9. Gene therapy in metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sevin, C; Cartier-Lacave, N; Aubourg, P

    2009-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A. Deficiency of this enzyme results in intralysosomal storage of sphingolipid cerebroside 3-sulfates (sulfatides), which are abundant in myelin and neurons. A pathological hallmark of MLD is demyelination and neurodegeneration, causing various and ultimately lethal neurological symptoms. This review discusses the potential therapeutic application of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy and intracerebral gene transfer (brain gene therapy) in patients with MLD.

  10. Radiation therapy in the horse.

    PubMed

    Théon, A P

    1998-12-01

    This article covers the principles and applications of radiation therapy in horses. The goal in treating tumors by irradiation is tumor control with minimum treatment complications. Various treatment techniques are available to achieve this goal. The prognosis depends on many factors such as the extent and location of the tumor, tumor type and tumor cell proliferation. Radiation therapy is a very effective treatment modality for equine tumors but logistical reasons limit its impact in equine oncology.

  11. PANCHAKARMA THERAPY IN SHOOLA ROGA

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    Shoola roga has been described in Ayurvedic Classics as a painful abdominal disease associated with other clinical features but without any obvious localized swelling. The various remedies described by the Ayurvedic authorities are mainly to normalize the Vata dosha in all types of shoola roga. Panchakarma therapy always plays an important role in normalizing the Vata dosha, Although every panchakarma procedure is not indicated for each type of shoola still panchakarma therapy is good for shoola roga treatment. PMID:22557031

  12. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  13. Proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Bradford; Henderson, Randal; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, Romaine C; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2011-06-01

    Proton therapy has been used in the treatment of cancer for over 50 years. Due to its unique dose distribution with its spread-out Bragg peak, proton therapy can deliver highly conformal radiation to cancers located adjacent to critical normal structures. One of the important applications of its use is in prostate cancer, since the prostate is located adjacent to the rectum and bladder. Over 30 years of data have been published on the use of proton therapy in prostate cancer; these data have demonstrated high rates of local and biochemical control as well as low rates of urinary and rectal toxicity. Although before 2000 proton therapy was available at only a couple of centers in the United States, several new proton centers have been built in the last decade. With the increased availability of proton therapy, research on its use for prostate cancer has accelerated rapidly. Current research includes explorations of dose escalation, hypofractionation, and patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes. Early results from these studies are promising and will likely help make proton therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer more cost-effective.

  14. Gene Therapy in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Anthony S; Katz, Michael G; Bridges, Charles R; Hajjar, Roger J

    2016-10-28

    Heart failure is a significant burden to the global healthcare system and represents an underserved market for new pharmacologic strategies, especially therapies which can address root cause myocyte dysfunction. Modern drugs, surgeries, and state-of-the-art interventions are costly and do not improve survival outcome measures. Gene therapy is an attractive strategy, whereby selected gene targets and their associated regulatory mechanisms can be permanently managed therapeutically in a single treatment. This in theory could be sustainable for the patient's life. Despite the promise, however, gene therapy has numerous challenges that must be addressed together as a treatment plan comprising these key elements: myocyte physiologic target validation, gene target manipulation strategy, vector selection for the correct level of manipulation, and carefully utilizing an efficient delivery route that can be implemented in the clinic to efficiently transfer the therapy within safety limits. This chapter summarizes the key developments in cardiac gene therapy from the perspective of understanding each of these components of the treatment plan. The latest pharmacologic gene targets, gene therapy vectors, delivery routes, and strategies are reviewed.

  15. Emerging Therapies for Scar Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Block, Lisa; Gosain, Ankush; King, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: There are ∼12 million traumatic lacerations treated in the United States emergency rooms each year, 250 million surgical incisions created worldwide every year, and 11 million burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment worldwide. In the United States, over $20 billion dollars per year are spent on the treatment and management of scars. Recent Advances: Investigations into the management of scar therapies over the last decade have advanced our understanding related to the care of cutaneous scars. Scar treatment methods are presented including topical, intralesional, and mechanical therapies in addition to cryotherapy, radiotherapy, and laser therapy. Critical Issues: Current treatment options for scars have significant limitations. This review presents the current and emerging therapies available for scar management and the scientific evidence for scar management is discussed. Future Directions: Based upon our new understanding of scar formation, innovative scar therapies are being developed. Additional research on the basic science of scar formation will lead to additional advances and novel therapies for the treatment of cutaneous scars. PMID:26487979

  16. Immunotherapy and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    The Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy meeting of the Academy of Medical Sciences reviewed the state-of-the-art and translational prospects for therapeutic interventions aimed at killing tumor cells, correcting genetic defects and developing vaccines for chronic infections. Crucial basic science concepts and information about dendritic cells, the structure and function of T-cell receptors, and manipulation of the immune response by cytokine antagonists and peptides were presented. This information underpins vaccine design and delivery, as well as attempts to immunomodulate autoimmune disease. Results from studies using anticancer DNA vaccines, which include appropriate signals for both the innate and adaptive immune response, were presented in several talks. The vaccines incorporated helper epitopes and cancer target epitopes such as immunoglobulin idiotypes (for lymphomas and myelomas), melanoma-associated antigens (for melanoma and other solid tumors) and minor histocompatibility antigens (for leukemia). The results of using vaccines employing similar principles and designed to reduce viral load in HIV/AIDS patients were also presented. The introduction of suicide genes incorporating the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase gene (ntr) targeted at tumor cells prior to administration of the prodrug CB-1954, converted by ntr into a toxic alkylating agent, was discussed against the background of clinical trials and improved suicide gene design. The introduction into hematopoietic stem cells of missing genes for the common gamma-chain, deficiency of which causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), used similar retroviral transduction. The outcome of treating six SCID patients in the UK, and ten in France was successful immune reconstitution in the majority of patients, but in two of the French cases a complication of lymphoproliferative disease due to insertional mutagenesis was observed. The adoptive transfer of T-cells specific for minor histocompatibility antigens (for

  17. Targeted Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    From the studies performed during the last one year, we determined the effects of AAV-mediated anti-angiogenic gene therapy as a combination therapy...angiogenic gene therapy in combination with chemotherapy. In the next year, we will determine whether such a combination therapy would provide regression of established tumors.

  18. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  19. The Use of Color in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on the separate fields of art therapy and color therapy, synthesizing them in a proposed use of color within art therapy. Specific techniques focusing on use of color in a nonrepresentational expressive form are suggested as a way to extend the therapeutic benefits of art therapy. The intention of this…

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Nahand, Javid Sadri; Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  1. Update: Therapie der Necrobiosis lipoidica.

    PubMed

    Peckruhn, Melanie; Tittelbach, Jörg; Elsner, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Die Necrobiosis lipoidica ist eine seltene granulomatöse Erkrankung von bisher unzureichend geklärter Ätiologie. Häufig stellt die bei Diabetikern gehäuft zu beobachtende und zur Ulzeration neigende Dermatose eine starke Belastung für die Patienten dar. Bezüglich der Therapie existieren aktuell keine deutschen oder europäischen Leitlinien. Gleichzeitig lässt sich unter der aktuellen Standardtherapie, der lokalen oder intraläsionalen Anwendung von Glukokortikoiden, nicht immer ein zufriedenstellendes Ansprechen beobachten. Daher wurde untersucht, ob seit dem Jahr 2000 publizierte Therapiemodalitäten das Therapiespektrum relevant und erfolgversprechend erweitern. Es erfolgte eine Betrachtung aller Arbeiten im oben genannten Zeitraum, bei denen mehr als ein Einzelfallbericht je Therapiemodalität publiziert wurde. Insgesamt wurden in einem systematischen Review die Daten von 16 verschiedenen, seit 2000 publizierten Therapieverfahren in 49 Publikationen analysiert. Im Ergebnis zeigte sich, dass die meisten Erfahrungen bezüglich der topischen PUVA-Therapie, der photodynamischen Therapie (PDT) und der systemischen Therapie mit Fumarsäureestern vorliegen. Allerdings ist auffällig, dass mit steigender Zahl der pro Behandlungsmodalität behandelten Patienten der Anteil der Patienten, bei denen eine Abheilung bzw. eine teilweise Abheilung berichtet wurde, sinkt. Wir interpretieren diese Beobachtung als Publikationsbias. Daher kann für keines der besprochenen Verfahren eine klare Empfehlung als Therapie der zweiten Wahl nach Versagen der lokalen bzw. intraläsionalen Steroidtherapie gegeben werden.

  2. Gene therapy on the move

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Büning, Hildegard; Galy, Anne; Schambach, Axel; Grez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The first gene therapy clinical trials were initiated more than two decades ago. In the early days, gene therapy shared the fate of many experimental medicine approaches and was impeded by the occurrence of severe side effects in a few treated patients. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to treatment- and/or vector-associated setbacks has resulted in the development of highly sophisticated gene transfer tools with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy. Employing these advanced tools, a series of Phase I/II trials were started in the past few years with excellent clinical results and no side effects reported so far. Moreover, highly efficient gene targeting strategies and site-directed gene editing technologies have been developed and applied clinically. With more than 1900 clinical trials to date, gene therapy has moved from a vision to clinical reality. This review focuses on the application of gene therapy for the correction of inherited diseases, the limitations and drawbacks encountered in some of the early clinical trials and the revival of gene therapy as a powerful treatment option for the correction of monogenic disorders. PMID:24106209

  3. Cancer, unproven therapies, and magic.

    PubMed

    Wein, S

    2000-09-01

    Commonly used by cancer patients, unproven therapies are treatments that the practitioner claims can alter the disease process although there is no proof to support the claim. The reasons for the popularity of unproven therapies fall into two categories--practical considerations and fundamental mechanisms. Research has implicated the following practical factors: a pragmatic search for relief of symptoms, expression of a philosophical view, a need to reestablish a sense of control in life, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine. Fundamental mechanisms include traditional magic, the heroic individual, and a delusional pattern of thinking. Underpinning and generating these factors is the fear of death. Particularly in patients with cancer, this is not only a fear of nonexistence, but of loneliness, the unknown, pain, loss of control, and emptiness. The popularity of unproven therapies poses a challenge to the medical system at large, and oncologists, psycho-oncologists, and palliative-care physicians, in particular. The essence of the challenge is to understand the reasons for the use of unproven therapies, to analyze our own behavior, and conclude what if anything our response should be. Unproven therapies (as with magic, a sense of heroism, and delusional thinking) fulfill the function of resolving the inexplicable and the psychologically painful--i.e., relieving the anxiety associated with cancer.

  4. [Cell therapy for Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Shin-ichi

    2009-11-01

    Advances in the field of stem cell research have raised hopes of creating novel cell replacement therapies for Parkinson disease (PD), although double-blinded clinical trials have met with controversial success in patients implanted with fetal midbrain tissue and autopsy results have shown that some of the grafted fetal neurons displayed pathological changes typical of PD. Dopaminergic neurons have been efficiently derived from stem cells using various methods, and beneficial effects after transplantation have been demonstrated in animal models of PD. Some obstacles remain to be overcome before stem cell therapy can be routinely and safely used to treat PD in humans. A widely used prodrug/suicide gene therapy would be applied to stem cells to reduce risk of tumor formation. Since grafts were transplanted ectopically into the striatum instead of the substantia nigra in most current protocols, surviving dopaminergic neurons would not have to be the same subtype as the nigral cells. If the main mechanism underlying any functional recovery achieved by cell therapies is restoration of dopaminergic neurotransmission, then viral vector-mediated gene delivery of dopamine-synthesizing enzymes represents a more straightforward approach. Future targets for cell therapy should include some types of Parkinsonism with degeneration of striatal neurons.

  5. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  6. Clinical Reasoning in Massage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    LeMoon, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning has long been a valuable tool for health care practitioners, but it has been under-researched in the field of massage therapy. Case reports have been a useful method for exploring the clinical reasoning process in various fields of manual therapy and can provide a model for similar research in the field of massage therapy. A diagnostically challenging case concerning a client with low back pain serves as a guideline for examining the clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist. Methods: A two-part methodology was employed: Client profileReflective inquiry The inquiry included questions pertaining to beliefs about health problems; beliefs about the mechanisms of pain; medical conditions that could explain the client’s symptoms; knowledge of the client’s anatomy, assessment, and treatment choices; observations made during treatment; extent of experience in treating similar problems; and ability to recognize clinical patterns. Results: The clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist contributed to a differential diagnosis, which provided an explanation for the client’s symptoms and led to a satisfactory treatment resolution. Conclusion: The present report serves as an example of the value of clinical reasoning in the field of massage therapy, and the need for expanded research into its methods and applications. The results of such research could be beneficial in teaching the clinical reasoning process at both the introductory and the advanced levels of massage therapy education. PMID:21589814

  7. Gene Therapy in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Vinge, Leif Erik; Raake, Philip W.; Koch, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    With increasing knowledge of basic molecular mechanisms governing the development of heart failure (HF), the possibility of specifically targeting key pathological players is evolving. Technology allowing for efficient in vivo transduction of myocardial tissue with long-term expression of a transgene enables translation of basic mechanistic knowledge into potential gene therapy approaches. Gene therapy in HF is in its infancy clinically with the predominant amount of experience being from animal models. Nevertheless, this challenging and promising field is gaining momentum as recent preclinical studies in larger animals have been carried out and, importantly, there are 2 newly initiated phase I clinical trials for HF gene therapy. To put it simply, 2 parameters are needed for achieving success with HF gene therapy: (1) clearly identified detrimental/beneficial molecular targets; and (2) the means to manipulate these targets at a molecular level in a sufficient number of cardiac cells. However, several obstacles do exist on our way to efficient and safe gene transfer to human myocardium. Some of these obstacles are discussed in this review; however, it primarily focuses on the molecular target systems that have been subjected to intense investigation over the last decade in an attempt to make gene therapy for human HF a reality. PMID:18566312

  8. Nicotine therapy for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L D

    1996-09-01

    Smoking has been associated with a decreased frequency of UC. Currently, the role of nicotine for the treatment of UC is not established. Several studies have evaluated nicotine gum and transdermal patches as supplemental therapy for stable UC, but nicotine has not been compared with other treatment modalities. Nicotine dosages in the studies have varied from 5 to 30 mg/d without apparent dose-related therapeutic effects, and many patients have found relief from placebo treatment. Patients often do not tolerate nicotine therapy's adverse effects, which can include nausea, light-headedness, and headache. Due to the cyclic disease course of UC and the potential addictiveness of nicotine, further large studies are warranted to assess the benefits of nicotine therapy for UC. These studies should be conducted using a randomized, double-blind design with an extensive follow-up period. Until further trials are conducted, nicotine should generally not be recommended for UC treatment.

  9. Behavioral Therapy Across the Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been introduced, including computerized cognitive–behavioral treatments, Web-based guided self-change, and mindfulness-based approaches. Although a wide variety of behavioral approaches have been shown to have good efficacy, choosing the treatment most appropriate for a given patient remains a challenge. PMID:23580016

  10. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Steen, Katie; Narang, Puneet; Lippmann, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature search regarding the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Literature review was conducted via PubMed databases. Of the cases we reviewed, most subjects with multiple sclerosis reported significant psychiatric symptom relief, with only a handful reporting neurologic deterioration. There was some evidence that active white matter lesions may be predictive of neurologic deterioration when electroconvulsive therapy is used in patients with multiple sclerosis. A brief description of the pathophysiology and effects of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis is also provided. Although no clinical recommendations or meaningful conclusions can be drawn without further investigation, the literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of psychiatric illnesses in patients with multiple sclerosis is safe and efficacious.

  11. Radiation therapy in cholangiocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas B; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma can arise in all parts of the biliary tract and this has implications for therapy. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy however local relapse is a major problem. Therefore, adjuvant treatment with chemoradiotherapy was tested in trials. The SWOG-S0809 trial regimen of chemoradiotherapy which was tested in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and in gallbladder cancer can currently be regarded as highest level of evidence for this indication. In contrast to adjuvant therapy where only conventionally fractionated radiotherapy plays a role, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) today has become a powerful alternative to chemoradiotherapy for definitive treatment due to the ability to administer higher doses of radiotherapy to improve local control. Sequential combinations with chemotherapy are also frequently employed. Nevertheless, in general cholangiocarcinoma is an orphan disease and future clinical trials will have to improve the available level of evidence.

  12. Endoscopic laser therapy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H

    1992-07-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy.

  13. Endoscopic laser therapy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed Central

    Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy. Images PMID:1413743

  14. New facets of antifungal therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Lin; Yu, Shang-Jie; Heitman, Joseph; Wellington, Melanie; Chen, Ying-Lien

    2017-02-17

    Invasive fungal infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, and such infections are a substantial burden to healthcare systems around the world. However, the clinically available armamentarium for invasive fungal diseases is limited to 3 main classes (i.e., polyenes, triazoles, and echinocandins), and each has defined limitations related to spectrum of activity, development of resistance, and toxicity. Further, current antifungal therapies are hampered by limited clinical efficacy, high rates of toxicity, and significant variability in pharmacokinetic properties. New antifungal agents, new formulations, and novel combination regimens may improve the care of patients in the future by providing improved strategies to combat challenges associated with currently available antifungal agents. Likewise, therapeutic drug monitoring may be helpful, but its present use remains controversial due to the lack of available data. This article discusses new facets of antifungal therapy with a focus on new antifungal formulations and the synergistic effects between drugs used in combination therapy.

  15. [What's new in dermatological therapy?].

    PubMed

    Paul, C

    2007-12-01

    A review of the medical literature and of the regulatory agencies website was performed to identify new information about dermatological therapy from October 2006 to October 2007. Care was taken to prioritize results from randomized controlled trials and epidemiological studies of acceptable methodology. In the last year, significant advances have been made in the field of psoriasis, pemphigus, prevention of infection with oncogenic papillomaviruses, leg ulcers, evaluation of lasers and photodynamic therapy. The availability of biological agents for the treatment of psoriasis, auto-immune disease and skin cancer will certainly induce major changes in our therapeutic strategies in the near future. The dermatologist needs to keep-up with new therapies in order to address the therapeutic needs of patients with skin diseases.

  16. Medical therapy for spermatogenic failure

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Stahl, Peter J; Schlegel, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    Medical treatment of men with primary spermatogenic failure remains largely ineffective in contrast to those with secondary testicular failure. Treatment has been attempted with a multitude of agents ranging from hormones to nutritional supplements (antioxidants). While some studies have demonstrated benefit to some treatments, no treatments have consistently demonstrated efficacy nor has it been possible to reliably identify patients likely to benefit. Idiopathic spermatogenic failure likely results from multiple discrete defects in sperm production that are as yet unidentified. A better understanding of these defects will yield more effective treatment options and appropriate triage of patients to specific therapeutic regimens. This review focuses on the rationale and current evidence for hormonal and antioxidant therapy in medical treatment of male infertility, spermatogenic failure in particular. Although empiric medical therapy for spermatogenic failure has been largely replaced by assisted reproductive techniques, both treatment modalities could play a role, perhaps as combination therapy. PMID:22179517

  17. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  18. [Photodynamic therapy for actinic cheilitis].

    PubMed

    Castaño, E; Comunión, A; Arias, D; Miñano, R; Romero, A; Borbujo, J

    2009-12-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a subtype of actinic keratosis that mainly affects the lower lip and has a higher risk of malignant transformation. Its location on the labial mucosa influences the therapeutic approach. Vermilionectomy requires local or general anesthetic and is associated with a risk of an unsightly scar, and the treatment with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod lasts for several weeks and the inflammatory reaction can be very intense. A number of authors have used photodynamic therapy as an alternative to the usual treatments. We present 3 patients with histologically confirmed actinic cheilitis treated using photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinic acid as the photosensitizer and red light at 630 nm. The clinical response was good, with no recurrences after 3 to 6 months of follow-up. Our experience supports the use of photodynamic therapy as a good alternative for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.

  19. Cardiovascular risks of antiretroviral therapies.

    PubMed

    Mondy, Kristin; Tebas, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in sustained reductions in mortality from HIV infection. In recent years, HAART has also been associated with metabolic complications that may increase patients' cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies have begun to support a more complex interaction between HAART, HIV infection itself, and other traditional social and immunologic factors that may predispose patients to premature cardiovascular disease. Substantial progress has been made in the development of newer antiretroviral therapies that have a better metabolic profile with respect to dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and lipodystrophy. Optimal selection of metabolically neutral antiretroviral therapies, together with aggressive management of other modifiable coronary risk factors, may improve cardiovascular disease risk in the long term.

  20. Gene Therapy in Corneal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Yureeda; Hamrah, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed organ transplantation. Immune privilege of the cornea is widely recognized, partly because of the relatively favorable outcome of corneal grafts. The first-time recipient of corneal allografts in an avascular, low-risk setting can expect a 90% success rate without systemic immunosuppressive agents and histocompatibility matching. However, immunologic rejection remains the major cause of graft failure, particularly in patients with a high risk for rejection. Corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy for the prevention and treatment of immune rejection. However, current pharmacological measures are limited in their side-effect profiles, repeated application, lack of targeted response, and short duration of action. Experimental ocular gene therapy may thus present new horizons in immunomodulation. From efficient viral vectors to sustainable alternative splicing, we discuss the progress of gene therapy in promoting graft survival and postulate further avenues for gene-mediated prevention of allogeneic graft rejection. PMID:24138037

  1. Cognitive therapy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Stress-vulnerability models are increasingly viewed as plausible explanations of recurrence in severe affective disorders. This has promoted greater interest in the application of evidence-based psychological treatments, such as cognitive therapy, as an adjunct to medication for patients with bipolar disorder. This paper reviews the results from outcome studies of combined treatment approaches. Preliminary findings indicate that cognitive therapy reduces symptoms, enhances social adjustment and functioning and reduces relapses and hospitalizations in patients with bipolar disorder. However, the lack of published data from large scale randomized controlled trials and the absence of an adequate psychological model of manic relapse means that the role of cognitive therapy in bipolar disorders will be the subject of intense debate for some time to come.

  2. Transarterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Ezio; Donadon, Matteo; Poretti, Dario; Pedicini, Vittorio; Tramarin, Marco; Roncalli, Massimo; Rhee, Hyungjin; Park, Young Nyun; Torzilli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a major health issue because of its increasing incidence and because of the complexity of its management. Transarterial embolization (TAE) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) are two widely used locoregional therapies in the treatment of HCC, especially for unresectable intermediate and advanced HCCs. Summary The modern use of TAE and TACE opens new scenarios for the treatment of unresectable HCC and has yielded interesting results. The present work describes the role of transarterial therapies for HCC and focuses on the different Western and Eastern approaches to the study of response predictors. Key Messages Recent refinements in interventional radiology techniques and in HCC patient selection have facilitated better local control of the disease. The molecular profiling of HCC to predict the response to TACE and TAE will greatly help clinicians identify the optimum therapy. PMID:27995085

  3. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  4. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated.

  5. Antithrombotic therapy for pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Paulien G; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although an association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss has been observed in many studies, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this association. Considering the association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy for women with pregnancy loss (with or without thrombophilia) has been studied for the past 30 years. METHODS We performed a comprehensive review of the literature on the strength of the association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, the pathophysiological mechanisms and the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy to increase the chance of live birth. RESULTS The association between pregnancy loss and thrombophilia varies according to the type of thrombophilia (e.g. antiphospholipid syndrome versus forms of inherited thrombophilia) and according to the type of pregnancy loss (single versus recurrent pregnancy loss and early versus late pregnancy loss). Thrombophilia may induce thrombosis in decidual vessels or impair placentation through hypercoagulability and inflammation, but these hypotheses need further verification. For women with antiphospholipid syndrome, evidence from small-sized trials suggests a beneficial effect of antithrombotic therapy but additional randomized controlled trials are essential to confirm this. Whether antithrombotic therapy increases the chance of live birth in women with inherited thrombophilia is unknown. Recent randomized controlled trials have consistently shown that antithrombotic therapy does not increase the chance of live birth in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. CONCLUSIONS There are large gaps in knowledge and a lack of evidence for treatment of women with pregnancy loss with thrombophilia. To provide a solid base for clinical practice, further studies on the role of coagulation in reproduction, as well as international collaborations in randomized controlled trials of antithrombotic therapy in women with pregnancy

  6. Antithrombotic Therapy for VTE Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kearon, Clive; Comerota, Anthony J.; Prandoni, Paolo; Bounameaux, Henri; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Nelson, Michael E.; Wells, Philip S.; Gould, Michael K.; Dentali, Francesco; Crowther, Mark; Kahn, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article addresses the treatment of VTE disease. Methods: We generated strong (Grade 1) and weak (Grade 2) recommendations based on high-quality (Grade A), moderate-quality (Grade B), and low-quality (Grade C) evidence. Results: For acute DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE), we recommend initial parenteral anticoagulant therapy (Grade 1B) or anticoagulation with rivaroxaban. We suggest low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux over IV unfractionated heparin (Grade 2C) or subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (Grade 2B). We suggest thrombolytic therapy for PE with hypotension (Grade 2C). For proximal DVT or PE, we recommend treatment of 3 months over shorter periods (Grade 1B). For a first proximal DVT or PE that is provoked by surgery or by a nonsurgical transient risk factor, we recommend 3 months of therapy (Grade 1B; Grade 2B if provoked by a nonsurgical risk factor and low or moderate bleeding risk); that is unprovoked, we suggest extended therapy if bleeding risk is low or moderate (Grade 2B) and recommend 3 months of therapy if bleeding risk is high (Grade 1B); and that is associated with active cancer, we recommend extended therapy (Grade 1B; Grade 2B if high bleeding risk) and suggest LMWH over vitamin K antagonists (Grade 2B). We suggest vitamin K antagonists or LMWH over dabigatran or rivaroxaban (Grade 2B). We suggest compression stockings to prevent the postthrombotic syndrome (Grade 2B). For extensive superficial vein thrombosis, we suggest prophylactic-dose fondaparinux or LMWH over no anticoagulation (Grade 2B), and suggest fondaparinux over LMWH (Grade 2C). Conclusion: Strong recommendations apply to most patients, whereas weak recommendations are sensitive to differences among patients, including their preferences. PMID:22315268

  7. Perspectives of choroidal neovascularization therapy.

    PubMed

    Caputo, M; Zirpoli, H; Di Benedetto, R; De Nadai, K; Tecce, M F

    2011-02-01

    Vision loss secondary to Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) is becoming a major disease condition in developed world. CNV is typically secondary to Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and these conditions are major, and also substantially increasing, causes of blindness among aged people. Several therapeutic options are currently available to treat CNV with variable efficacy on disease progress. Among existing treatments there are laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapies, local corticosteroids and, more recently, the use of anti-angiogenic factors. Although by these treatments very effective results are obtained and their further improvement is still possible, it is also reasonable and necessary to look for more successful and definitive alternatives. The research in this direction is already very active and it can be expected that applications of the more recent molecular technologies will bring important advances also for CNV. These will likely regard the use of gene therapy and of new target specific factors. Gene therapies methodologies are rapidly becoming closer to current clinical use and, since the eye is a particularly favourable organ for drug delivery, their ocular use is probably going to be among the first successful applications of these techniques. In addition to its specific technology, gene therapy requires the knowledge of specific genes to be modulated to adequately affect pathogenesis and progression of the disease in which has to be applied. This will also be true for the use of novel target specific drugs such as antibodies and other molecules able to affect cellular factors and pathways also related to disease development. For this reason, a major direction of future CNV therapies will be the identification of specific gene, gene products, metabolic pathways and metabolites related to the disease. This information, in addition to be suitable for gene and target specific therapies, will also allow the development of new procedures to

  8. [Physical therapy for parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Hubert, M

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurologic and progressive incapacitating disease. Parkinson's disease severely threatens the quality of live and the number of patients worldwide is expected to rise considerably in the coming decade due to aging of the population. Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients are faced with progressively increasing impairments (e.g. in speech, mental and movement related functions), and restrictions in participation (e.g. domestic life and social activities). Physical therapy is often prescribed next to medical treatment but there is a lack of uniform treatment. A systematic literature search for guidelines, systematic reviews, trials, and expert opinions lead to a better understanding. The key question: Is physiotherapy able to optimally treat the Parkinson's disease symptoms? In which way, how and on which scientific bases can the physiotherapist participate to improve autonomy and to help them living independently and avoid, as long as possible, institutionalization? This article has integrated clinical research findings to provide clinicians with an overview to physical therapist management of disorders in people with Parkinson's disease. An Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Guideline providing practice recommendations was developed by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF). Evidence from research was supplemented with clinical expertise and patients values. Randomized clinical trials reflect specific core areas of physical therapy, that is, transfer, posture, balance, reaching and grasping, gait and physical condition. Another aspect is that of educating patients (as well as their partners and family) about the disease process and the benefits of exercise therapy. Alternative therapies can be helpful like Tai Chi, virtual games, dancing, yoga, ball games for example.

  9. Muslim families and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Daneshpour, M

    1998-07-01

    Muslim immigrant families living in the United States may well come to the attention of mental health professionals. This article examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The most significant differences in value systems between the Muslim and Anglo-American cultures is Muslim families' preference for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Systemic thinking, which deals with the pattern of relationships, is valid for all families regardless of cultural differences. However, the preferred directions of change for Muslim families need to be integrated into the assessment and goals for family therapy.

  10. [Differential therapy of heart insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Gilfrich, H J

    1982-11-18

    During the last years as a result of improved diagnostic methods and new developed drugs with different mechanism of action the therapy of congestive heart failure has become more differentiated. Digitalis and diuretics constitute conventional therapy, but systemic vasodilators offer an innovative approach in acute and chronic heart failure. The vasodilators produce disparate modifications of cardiac function depending upon their differing alterations of preload and afterload. Nitrates principally cause vasodilation, nitroprusside, phentolamine and prazosin produce balanced arterial and venous dilation, whereas hydralazine predominantly causes arteriolar dilation. New positive inotropic agents like dopamine and dobutamine are still restricted to parenteral use.

  11. Testosterone Therapy and Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Emily; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Changes in understanding regarding the relationship of androgens and prostate cancer have led to changes in the use of testosterone therapy. The evidence supports a finite ability of androgens to stimulate prostate cancer growth, with a maximum achieved at low testosterone concentrations, called the saturation model. The saturation point corresponds with maximal androgenic stimulation at 250 ng/dL. Evidence is reviewed herein regarding the relationship of testosterone to prostate cancer and the relatively new practice of offering testosterone therapy to men with a history of prostate cancer. Although no prospective controlled trials have been performed, results have been reassuring.

  12. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha; Grover, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy. PMID:23559912

  13. Medical therapy for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Jani, Niraj; Regueiro, Miguel D

    2002-03-01

    Although newer therapeutic agents are being developed for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, aminosalicylates and corticosteroids remain the mainstay of treatment for UC (Tables 2-5). Patients who do not respond to these agents or become steroid dependent require immunomodulatory therapy or curative surgery. Cyclosporine represents the greatest treatment advance for UC in 10 years. The role of nicotine, heparin, antibiotics, probiotics, and SCFA in the treatment of UC is less clear, but these agents may offer an alternative therapeutic approach for patients intolerant or nonresponsive to standard therapy.

  14. Acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Xian

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac injury is the most serious adverse event in acupuncture therapy. The causes include needling chest points near the heart, the cardiac enlargement and pericardial effusion that will enlarge the projected area on the body surface and make the proper depth of needling shorter, and the incorrect needling method of the points. Therefore, acupuncture practitioners must be familiar with the points of the heart projected area on the chest and the correct needling methods in order to reduce the risk of acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

  15. Nonsteroidal, nonimmunosuppressive therapies for pruritus.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus, or itch, is defined as "a sensation that, if sufficiently strong, will provoke scratching or the desire to scratch." Pruritus is a symptom associated with a wide variety of causes and treatment options. Topical therapy is becoming the new target for the treatment of pruritus. The treatment of pruritus in the dog must be approached in a systematic manner and should include the search and resolution of the primary causes. Identifying and treating the primary cause of pruritus greatly increases the success rate of any therapy for pruritus.

  16. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Women.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on the outcomes of patients with heart failure are unquestionable. Women are under-represented in all CRT studies. Most of the available data show that CRT produces a greater clinical benefit in women than men. In several studies, women have left bundle branch block more frequently than men. Women have a remarkably high (90%) CRT response over a wide range of QRS lengths (130-175 milliseconds). Use of a QRS duration of 150 milliseconds as the threshold for CRT prescription may deny a life-saving therapy to many women likely to benefit from CRT.

  17. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Women.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa

    2015-12-01

    The benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on the outcomes of patients with heart failure are unquestionable. Women are under-represented in all CRT studies. Most of the available data show that CRT produces a greater clinical benefit in women than men. In several studies, women have left bundle branch block more frequently than men. Women have a remarkably high (90%) CRT response over a wide range of QRS lengths (130-175 milliseconds). Use of a QRS duration of 150 milliseconds as the threshold for CRT prescription may deny a life-saving therapy to many women likely to benefit from CRT.

  18. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha; Grover, Deepak

    2012-09-01

    Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy.

  19. Maggot debridement therapy for laminitis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Scott

    2010-08-01

    Maggot debridement therapy is a nontraumatic, minimally invasive method to treat infections in a foot compromised by chronic laminitis. A mechanical strategy must first be in place to address the instability of the distal phalanx and hoof capsule. Adverse reactions to maggot debridement therapy are uncommon and the only side effect observed has been irritation or hypersensitivity at the site. Chronic laminitic cases of sepsis/necrosis within the hoof benefit from this procedure due to the noninvasive, continuous debridement and healing properties provided by the larvae.

  20. Carrier-Mediated Antiviral Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    encapsulat- ed nbavirin (3 mg per mouse) on days 0 and 2. " %.. - V % % CARRIER- MEDIATED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY 245 Table 2. Effect or MTP-PE Treatment on the...illustrates the effect of IV MTP-PE on the survival of mice injected int’a- .. - ,.,.,.. nasally with HSV- 1 . A small but significant enhancement of...dosage of interferon was marginally effective when given in %%’. CARRIER- MEDIATED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY 251 only two or three injections (on days I and 6 or

  1. Targeted therapies for cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kee, Damien; McArthur, Grant

    2014-06-01

    Melanoma is resistant to cytotoxic therapy, and treatment options for advanced disease have been limited historically. However, improved understanding of melanoma driver mutations, particularly those involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, has led to the development of targeted therapies that are effective in this previously treatment-refractory disease. In cutaneous melanomas with BRAF V600 mutations the selective RAF inhibitors, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, and the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, have demonstrated survival benefits. Early signals of efficacy have also been demonstrated with MEK inhibitors in melanomas with NRAS mutations, and KIT inhibitors offer promise in melanomas driven through activation of their target receptor.

  2. [Historical development of photodynamic therapy].

    PubMed

    Kick, G; Messer, G; Plewig, G

    1996-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is based on the accumulation of photosensitizing drugs in tumours and subsequent activation by visible light, leading to the release of singlet oxygen in photochemical reactions. Besides the treatment of precancerous lesions and malignant tumours in superficial sites, new experimental indications, such as psoriasis, are being investigated. The development of new photosensitizing agents for topical application and appropriate light sources has led to increasing interest in this promising treatment modality among dermatologists. This historical review deals with the scientific investigations of photodynamic therapy and diagnosis that started with the experiments of Oscar Raab at the end of the nineteenth century.

  3. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  4. Empirically supported religious and spiritual therapies.

    PubMed

    Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Davis, Don E; Jennings, David J; Gartner, Aubrey L; Hook, Jan P

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the efficacy status of religious and spiritual (R/S) therapies for mental health problems, including treatments for depression, anxiety, unforgiveness, eating disorders, schizophrenia, alcoholism, anger, and marital issues. Religions represented included Christianity, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Some studies incorporated a generic spirituality. Several R/S therapies were found to be helpful for clients, supporting the further use and research on these therapies. There was limited evidence that R/S therapies outperformed established secular therapies, thus the decision to use an R/S therapy may be an issue of client preference and therapist comfort.

  5. Adjuvant therapy of resectable rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2002-08-01

    The two conventional treatments for clinically resectable rectal cancer are surgery followed by postoperative combined modality therapy and preoperative combined modality therapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. Preoperative therapy (most commonly combined modality therapy) has gained acceptance as a standard adjuvant therapy. The potential advantages of the preoperative approach include decreased tumor seeding, less acute toxicity, increased radiosensitivity due to more oxygenated cells, and enhanced sphincter preservation. There are a number of new chemotherapeutic agents that have been developed for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Phase I/II trials examining the use of new chemotherapeutic agents in combination with pelvic radiation therapy are in progress.

  6. Muslim Families and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshpour, Manijeh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The differences in value systems are the Muslim families' preferences for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Suggests that directions for change for Muslims need to…

  7. Clinical aspects of phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Borysowski, Jan; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Pawełczyk, Zdzisław; Rogóż, Paweł; Kłak, Marlena; Wojtasik, Elżbieta; Górski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy (PT) is a unique method of treatment of bacterial infections using bacteriophages (phages)-viruses that specifically kill bacteria, including their antibiotic-resistant strains. Over the last decade a marked increase in interest in the therapeutic use of phages has been observed, which has resulted from a substantial rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of bacteria, coupled with an inadequate number of new antibiotics. The first, and so far the only, center of PT in the European Union is the Phage Therapy Unit (PTU) established at the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wrocław, Poland in 2005. This center continues the rich tradition of PT in Poland, which dates from the early 1920s. The main objective of this chapter is to present a detailed retrospective analysis of the results of PT of 153 patients with a wide range of infections resistant to antibiotic therapy admitted for treatment at the PTU between January 2008 and December 2010. Analysis includes the evaluation of both the efficacy and the safety of PT. In general, data suggest that PT can provide good clinical results in a significant cohort of patients with otherwise untreatable chronic bacterial infections and is essentially well tolerated. In addition, the whole complex procedure employed to obtain and characterize therapeutic phage preparations, as well as ethical aspects of PT, is discussed.

  8. Couples Therapy: An Adlerian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Roy M.; And Others

    This book provides therapists with a theoretical base from which to view the dynamics of couples' relationships and the therapeutic process. The book's eight chapters are organized into three parts: "Adlerian Theory and Process"; "Therapeutic Interventions"; and "Special Issues in Marital Therapy." Chapter 1, Adlerian…

  9. Health Instruction Packages: Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavich, Margot; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach respiratory therapy students a variety of job-related skills. The first module, "Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Controls of Respiration" by Margot Lavich, describes the functions of the five centers of the brain that control respiration and…

  10. Cell Therapy in Joint Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Counsel, Peter D.; Bates, Daniel; Boyd, Richard; Connell, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Articular cartilage possesses poor natural healing mechanisms, and a variety of non-cell-based and cell-based treatments aim to promote regeneration of hyaline cartilage. Data Sources: A review of the literature to December 2013 using PubMed with search criteria including the keywords stem cell, cell therapy, cell transplantation, cartilage, chondral, and chondrogenic. Study Selection: Forty-five articles were identified that employed local mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for joint disorders in humans. Nine comparative studies were identified, consisting of 3 randomized trials, 5 cohort studies, and 1 case-control study. Study Type: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: Studies were assessed for stem cell source, method of implantation, comparison groups, and concurrent surgical techniques. Results: Two studies comparing MSC treatment to autologous chondrocyte implantation found similar efficacy. Three studies reported clinical benefits with intra-articular MSC injection over non-MSC controls for cases undergoing debridement with or without marrow stimulation, although a randomized study found no significant clinical difference at 2-year follow-up but reported better 18-month magnetic resonance imaging and histologic scores in the MSC group. No human studies have compared intra-articular MSC therapy to non-MSC techniques for osteoarthritis in the absence of surgery. Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cell–based therapies appear safe and effective for joint disorders in large animal preclinical models. Evidence for use in humans, particularly, comparison with more established treatments such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and microfracture, is limited. PMID:25553210

  11. Alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wewers, Mark D; Crystal, Ronald G

    2013-03-01

    The therapy of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an example of a medical triumph over a common hereditary disease. Based on the understanding of the pathogens of the disease as a deficiency in liver production of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) resulting from inherited genetic variation in both parental AAT genes, the knowledge that A1AT functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE), and the observation that NE instilled into the lung of experimental animals resulted in emphysema, the concept evolved that the pulmonary manifestations of the disease could be halted by intermittent intravenous infusions of AAT purified from pooled human plasma. Following preliminary clinical studies in the academic community, and then pharmaceutical company development of large scale purification of human AAT, the FDA approved the use of weekly AAT augmentation therapy for AATD following a clinical trial which demonstrated that weekly infusions would raise to normal plasma and lung epithelial fluid levels of AAT in AAT-deficient individuals. The therapy is now used worldwide to treat AATD, the only pulmonary genetic disease with effective therapy for all affected individuals.

  12. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a respiratory therapy technology program. The guide contains four sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining the purpose and objectives, a program…

  13. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should redevelop the evidence of cell-based cardiovascular regeneration therapy, focusing on targets (disease, patient’s status, cardiac function), materials (cells, cytokines, genes), and methodology (transplantation route, implantation technology, tissue engineering). Meanwhile, establishment of the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is an extremely innovative technology which should be proposed as embryonic stem (ES) cellularization of post natal somatic cells, and this application have also showed the milestones of the direct conversion to reconstruct cardiomyocyte from the various somatic cells, which does not need the acquisition of the re-pluripotency. This review discusses the new advance in cardiovascular regeneration therapy from cardiac regeneration to cardiac re-organization, which is involved in recent progress of on-going clinical trials, basic research in cardiovascular regeneration, and the possibility of tissue engineering technology. PMID:23825492

  14. Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Dianne L.; Gillis, Martha M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, and social phobia. Sees CBT as consistently more effective than waiting-list and placebo control groups. Notes that cognitive change may be strong predictor of treatment outcome but that such change may be produced…

  15. Music Therapy in Pediatric Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Sheri, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Music therapy is an established health care and human services profession that is dedicated to the implementation of controlled research studies to determine the underlying mechanisms in music that are responsible for therapeutic change, as well as clinical research to direct and guide the work of the music therapist. This growing body of research…

  16. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy.

  17. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  18. Evaluating Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal therapies and dietary products often act like drugs in your body and cause side effects. Before giving a dietary or herbal product to a child, talk with his or her pediatric oncologist. A child's body uses drugs and nutrients differently and needs different doses than ...

  19. Immune therapy for hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Khan, Md Sakilur Islam; Raihan, Ruksana; Shrestha, Ananta

    2016-09-01

    Although several antiviral drugs are now available for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), sustained off-treatment clinical responses and containment of CHB-related complications are not achieved in majority of CHB patients by antiviral therapy. In addition, use of these drugs is endowed with substantial long term risk of viral resistance and drug toxicity. The infinite treatment regimens of antiviral drugs for CHB patients are also costly and usually unbearable by most patients of developing and resource-constrained countries. Taken together, there is a pressing need to develop new and innovative therapeutic approaches for CHB patients. Immune therapy seems to be an alternate therapeutic approach for CHB patients because impaired or distorted or diminished immune responses have been detected in most of these patients. Also, investigators have shown that restoration or induction of proper types of immune responses may have therapeutic implications in CHB. Various immunomodulatory agents have been used to treat patients with CHB around the world and the outcomes of these clinical trials show that the properties of immune modulators and nature and designing of immune therapeutic regimens seem to be highly relevant in the context of treatment of CHB patients. In this review, the general properties and specific features of immune therapy for CHB have been discussed for developing the guidelines of effective regimens of immune therapy for CHB.

  20. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  1. The Mitochondrial Replacement 'Therapy' Myth.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Tina

    2016-12-30

    This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pro-nuclear transfer (PNT), are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, 'Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,' by Wrigley, Wilkinson, and Appleby, who argue that PNT is morally favorable to MST due to the Non-Identity Problem. Wrigley et al. claim that PNT, since it occurs post-conception, preserves the identity of the resulting child, whereas MST, since it occurs pre-conception, is an identity-altering technique. As such, a child born with mitochondrial disease could complain that her parents failed to use PNT, but not MST. The present article argues that the authors are mistaken: both MST and PNT are identity-affecting techniques. But this is of little matter, for we should be cautious in drawing any moral conclusions from the application of the Non-Identity Problem to cases. The article then argues that the authors are mistaken in inferring that PNT is a type of embryonic cure or therapy for children with mitochondrial disease. The article cautions against the mistaken life-saving rhetoric that is common in bioethics discussions of MRTs.

  2. Maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mewawalla, Prerna; Chilkulwar, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Induction therapy followed by autologous transplantation has become the standard of care. The idea of maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma is not new. Starting with chemotherapy in 1975, to interferon in 1998, to novel agents recently, a multitude of agents have been explored in patients with multiple myeloma. In spite of the novel agents, multiple myeloma continues to be an incurable disease with the progression-free survival after autologous transplant rarely exceeding 3 years. The goal of using maintenance therapy has been to improve the outcomes following autologous transplantation by increasing the progression-free survival, deepening remissions and perhaps increasing overall survival. It has been shown that patients with a stringent complete response (CR) have a better outcome [Kapoor et al. 2013]. It is becoming increasingly common to check minimal residual disease (MRD) as a means of assessing depth of response. It has also been shown that patients with no MRD have not only a better progression-free survival but also a better overall survival compared with patients who are MRD positive. This makes it even more important to find agents for maintenance therapy, which can further deepen and maintain responses. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the agents studied as maintenance for multiple myeloma and their efficacy, both in terms of overall survival, progression-free survival and toxicity. PMID:28203343

  3. Ethics of Gene Therapy Debated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stu

    1991-01-01

    Presented are the highlights of a press conference featuring biomedical ethicist LeRoy Walters of Georgetown University and attorney Andrew Kimbrell of the Foundation on Economic Trends. The opposing points of view of these two speakers serve to outline the pros and cons of the gene therapy issue. (CW)

  4. [Complications caused by intravenous therapy].

    PubMed

    Quirós Luque, José María; Gago Fornells, Manuel

    2005-11-01

    Nursing professionals must know everything related to complications caused by intravenous therapy including the ways to prevent and solve these complications. We need not forget that nurses are the ones mainly responsible for the insertion, manipulation, removal and care of catheters.

  5. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, Teresa C.; Castro, Wanda; Shah, Anjali; Courtney, Ardith; Ortstadt, Jeffrey; Davis, Scott L.; Logan, Diana; Abraham, Thomas; Abraham, Jaspreet; Remington, Gina; Treadaway, Katherine; Graves, Donna; Hart, John; Stuve, Olaf; Lemack, Gary; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disease of young adults. The ability to impact the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis should not only incorporate therapies that are disease modifying, but should also include a course of action for the global multidisciplinary management focused on quality of life and functional capabilities. PMID:21694806

  6. Interferon α-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Hironari; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies to various cellular components. Although many of therapies have shown great efficacy, they often associate with adverse effects. The development of safer therapies for SLE has led to recent emphasis on targeting selected pathways that can be important in the inflammatory process in SLE. The cytokine family of type I interferons (IFNs), and especially the IFNα subtypes, are implicated in pathogenesis of SLE. Genetic polymorphisms of several components of the IFN signaling pathway have been associated with an increased risk of SLE. Therefore, IFNα subtypes have been identified as a potential target for drug development in SLE. There have been developed three agents, IFNα-targeted therapy, Sifalimumab, Rontalizumab and NNC 0152-0000-0001. They are anti-IFNα monoclonal antibodies that bind to and specifically neutralizes most IFNα subtypes, preventing signaling through the type I IFN receptor. The safety and dose-proportional pharmacokinetics of those agents were demonstrated. A larger study is currently ongoing, further safety profile will be evaluated. This review provides an update on the ongoing clinical trials of anti-IFNα therapy and the promise and obstacles in the use of biologics in SLE.

  7. [Art therapy and "art brut"].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Emese; Simon, Lajos

    2010-01-01

    The authors in this article explor the most important steps of the development of the research on the psychopathology of expression. They introduce the development of Art Brut and it's place in art history. They deal with the characteristics of art therapy.

  8. Respiratory Therapy Assistant. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Judy A.

    This manual is one in a new series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in training with the allied health field. It includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of respiratory therapy assistance. Intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision of an…

  9. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  10. Laser therapy in children's oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. A.; Masenko, Ya. L.; Soldatov, Anatoly N.

    2000-04-01

    Results of treatment and prophylaxis of complications in children with malignant and benign tumors subjected to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, combined therapy, and surgery are presented. The efficiency of treating the patients with external irradiation by a low-intensity pulsed copper vapor laser is estimated. The immediate and long-term results of treating 252 children are analyzed.

  11. Medical complex for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Anatoly N.; Domanov, Michail S.; Lyabin, Nikolay A.; Chursin, Alexandr D.; Mirza, Sergey Y.; Sukhanov, Viktor B.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Ivanov, Aleksandr I.; Kirilov, Anatoly E.; Rubanov, Sergey N.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental results of initial testing dye-laser 'MLK-02' pumped by a copper vapor laser 'Kulon-10' are presented. Output parameters obtained are the following: average power - 1 and 1.5 W, efficiency - 17.6 and 18.7% at the wavelengths of 670 and 725 nm, respectively. The laser apparatus is supposed to be used for methods of photodynamic therapy.

  12. Genetic therapies to lower cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the state-of-the-art in genetic therapies for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), caused most commonly by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. FH manifests as highly elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and consequently accelerated atherosclerosis. Modern pharmacological therapies for FH are insufficiently efficacious to prevent premature cardiovascular disease, can cause significant adverse effects and can be expensive. Genetic therapies for FH have been mooted since the mid 1990s but gene replacement strategies using viral vectors have so far been unsuccessful. Other strategies involve knocking down the expression of Apolipoprotein B100 (APOB100) and the protease PCSK9 which designates LDLR for degradation. The antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen, which knocks down APOB100, is currently marketed (with restrictions) in the USA, but is not approved in Europe due to its adverse effects. To address this problem, we have devised a novel therapeutic concept, APO-skip, which is based on modulation of APOB splicing, and which has the potential to deliver a cost-effective, efficacious and safe therapy for FH.

  13. Gestalt therapy: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, A

    Gestalt therapy, a particular type of psychotherapy, draws on existential and various Eastern philosophies, and aims to enable the individual to seek his or her own solutions to personal problems. Literally translated as 'whole', Gestalt focuses the individual to appreciate and experience the present. This article examines the Gestalt theory and considers its application to a terminally ill client and his wife.

  14. Gestalt Therapy and the Cousellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavy, R. Vance

    1973-01-01

    The article briefly describes the principal values in Gestalt Therapy and outlines some of the practices commonly employed in Gestalt work. Implications for counsellors are suggested--both as a mode of counsellor training and as an approach to be used by counsellors. (Author)

  15. Phage therapy: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikova, S. G.; Tulyakova, E. N.; Moiseeva, I. Y.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, bacteriophages are known to have become an effective alternative to antibiotic drugs. The article describes the current and potential applications of bacteriophages and phage endolysins. Also of interest is the devastating effect of phages on biofilms. The development of phage resistance is touched upon as well. Furthermore, the authors discuss the issue of laying down the rules of rational phage therapy.

  16. Art Therapy and Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how art therapy helped a woman address her identity and memory difficulties while she managed her daily activities. The process helped her validate traumatic events in her history and provided a starting point for addressing internal conflicts. The client's artwork helped the therapist learn about the client's unconscious states. (MKA)

  17. Wither Couple/Family Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Michael F.; Gurman, Alan S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is called to disturbing developments in insurance reimbursement that threaten the practice of therapy involving more than one person. This can be seen as part of the movement to marginalize psychotherapy as first-line treatment and replace it with the inappropriate and excessive (and often exclusive) use of medication.

  18. [Combination therapy for invasive aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    The frequency of invasive fungal infections, and specifically invasive aspergillosis, has increased in the last few decades. Despite the development of new antifungal agents, these infections are associated with high mortality, ranging from 40% to 80%, depending on the patient and the localization of the infection. To reduce these figures, several therapeutic strategies have been proposed, including combination therapy. Most of the available data on the efficacy of these combinations are from experimental models, in vitro data and retrospective observational studies or studies with a small number of patients that have included both patients in first-line treatment and those receiving rescue therapy; in addition there are many patients with possible forms of aspergillosis and few with demonstrated or probable forms. To date, there is no evidence that combination therapy has significantly higher efficacy than monotherapy; however, combination therapy could be indicated in severe forms of aspergillosis, or forms with central nervous involvement or extensive pulmonary involvement with respiratory insufficiency, etc. Among the combinations, the association of an echinocandin--the group that includes micafungin--with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B seems to show synergy. These combinations are those most extensively studied in clinical trials and therefore, although the grade of evidence is low, are recommended by the various scientific societies.

  19. Emerging targets for antidepressant therapies

    PubMed Central

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-01-01

    Despite adequate antidepressant monotherapy, the majority of depressed patients do not achieve remission. Even optimal and aggressive therapy leads to a substantial number of patients who show minimal and often only transient improvement. In order to address this substantial problem of treatment-resistant depression, a number of novel targets for antidepressant therapy have emerged as a consequence of major advances in the neurobiology of depression. Three major approaches to uncover novel therapeutic interventions are: first, optimizing the modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission; second, developing medications that act upon neurotransmitter systems other than monoaminergic circuits; and third, using focal brain stimulation to directly modulate neuronal activity. We review the most recent data on novel therapeutic compounds and their antidepressant potential. These include triple monoamine reuptake inhibitors, atypical antipsychotic augmentation, and dopamine receptor agonists. Compounds affecting extra-monoamine neurotransmitter systems include CRF1 receptor antagonists, glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, substance P receptor antagonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, nemifitide, omega-3 fatty acids, and melatonin receptor agonists. Focal brain stimulation therapies include vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS). PMID:19501541

  20. Cell Therapy Regulation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Chuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2017-03-13

    Cell therapy is not only a novel medical practice but also a medicinal product [cell therapy product (CTP)]. More and more CTPs are being approved for marketing globally because of the rapid development of biomedicine in cell culture, preservation, and preparation. However, regulation is the most important criterion for the development of CTPs. Regulations must be flexible to expedite the process of marketing for new CTPs. Recently, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) updated the related regulations such as regulation of development, current regulatory framework and process, and the application and evaluation processes. When the quality of CTPs has been improved significantly, their safety and efficacy are further ensured. The treatment protocol, a new design for adaptive licensing to current clinical practice, is a rapid process for patients with life-threatening diseases or serious conditions for which there are no suitable drugs, medical devices, or other therapeutic methods available. The hospital can submit the treatment protocol to apply for cell therapy as a medical practice, which may result in easier and faster cell therapy development, and personalized treatment for individual patients will evolve quickly.

  1. [Enthesopathies--diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Sprott, H; Hein, G; Domke, D; Künzel, N; Uhlemann, C; Wollina, U; Stein, G

    1997-01-01

    Problems are frequently encountered regarding the terminology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and therapy of diseases of thes tendons insertion point (enthesis): Terms such as tendinosis, tenopathy, tendinitis, tendovaginitis, tendoperiostitis, insertions tenopathy, tendomyosis, etc. often are used interchangeably even through they describe anatomically and pathophysiologically different conditions. The term enthesiopathy is used as a generic term in this overview article irrespective of the causality.

  2. Art Therapy: A Transdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Historically, art therapy has struggled to clearly define itself as a profession while simultaneously embracing the range of perspectives and knowledge that contribute to clinical practices. In this brief report the author suggests that by shifting the conceptualization of the field from "interdisciplinary" to…

  3. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  4. Marital therapy: issues and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S M

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines the advances made in the field of marital therapy in the last decade. The present status of clinical intervention, empirical research and theoretical conceptualization is reviewed. In addition, the challenges the field now faces are outlined, and proposals made for future directions, which would enable marital intervention to become a more comprehensive and systematic endeavor. PMID:1958653

  5. Art Education/Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John R., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The special issue presents 13 articles dealing with art education and art therapy for special groups. Included are the following titles and authors: "Art Education for Special Groups: The Emotionally Disturbed" (E. Ulman); "You Are The Early Warning System" (C. Stember); "School Art Therapist Rationale for DPI Certification" (V. Minar); "Art…

  6. Child-Centered Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFleet, Rise; Sywulak, Andrea E.; Sniscak, Cynthia Caparosa

    2010-01-01

    Highly practical, instructive, and authoritative, this book vividly describes how to conduct child-centered play therapy. The authors are master clinicians who explain core therapeutic principles and techniques, using rich case material to illustrate treatment of a wide range of difficulties. The focus is on nondirective interventions that allow…

  7. Proton therapy in the clinic.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The clinical advantage for proton radiotherapy over photon approaches is the marked reduction in integral dose to the patient, due to the absence of exit dose beyond the proton Bragg peak. The integral dose with protons is approximately 60% lower than that with any external beam photon technique. Pediatric patients, because of their developing normal tissues and anticipated length of remaining life, are likely to have the maximum clinical gain with the use of protons. Proton therapy may also allow treatment of some adult tumors to much more effective doses, because of normal tissue sparing distal to the tumor. Currently, the most commonly available proton treatment technology uses 3D conformal approaches based on (a) distal range modulation, (b) passive scattering of the proton beam in its x- and y-axes, and (c) lateral beam-shaping. It is anticipated that magnetic pencil beam scanning will become the dominant mode of proton delivery in the future, which will lower neutron scatter associated with passively scattered beam lines, reduce the need for expensive beam-shaping devices, and allow intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy. Proton treatment plans are more sensitive to variations in tumor size and normal tissue changes over the course of treatment than photon plans, and it is expected that adaptive radiation therapy will be increasingly important for proton therapy as well. While impressive treatment results have been reported with protons, their cost is higher than for photon IMRT. Hence, protons should ideally be employed for anatomic sites and tumors not well treated with photons. While protons appear cost-effective for pediatric tumors, their cost-effectiveness for treatment of some adult tumors, such as prostate cancer, is uncertain. Comparative studies have been proposed or are in progress to more rigorously assess their value for a variety of sites. The utility of proton therapy will be enhanced by technological developments that reduce its cost

  8. Proton therapy - Present and future.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Radhe; Grosshans, David

    2017-01-15

    In principle, proton therapy offers a substantial clinical advantage over conventional photon therapy. This is because of the unique depth-dose characteristics of protons, which can be exploited to achieve significant reductions in normal tissue doses proximal and distal to the target volume. These may, in turn, allow escalation of tumor doses and greater sparing of normal tissues, thus potentially improving local control and survival while at the same time reducing toxicity and improving quality of life. Protons, accelerated to therapeutic energies ranging from 70 to 250MeV, typically with a cyclotron or a synchrotron, are transported to the treatment room where they enter the treatment head mounted on a rotating gantry. The initial thin beams of protons are spread laterally and longitudinally and shaped appropriately to deliver treatments. Spreading and shaping can be achieved by electro-mechanical means to treat the patients with "passively-scattered proton therapy" (PSPT) or using magnetic scanning of thin "beamlets" of protons of a sequence of initial energies. The latter technique can be used to treat patients with optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), the most powerful proton modality. Despite the high potential of proton therapy, the clinical evidence supporting the broad use of protons is mixed. It is generally acknowledged that proton therapy is safe, effective and recommended for many types of pediatric cancers, ocular melanomas, chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Although promising results have been and continue to be reported for many other types of cancers, they are based on small studies. Considering the high cost of establishing and operating proton therapy centers, questions have been raised about their cost effectiveness. General consensus is that there is a need to conduct randomized trials and/or collect outcomes data in multi-institutional registries to unequivocally demonstrate the advantage of protons. Treatment planning and plan

  9. Gene therapy for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jeffrey; Sun, Michael H; Kang, Quan; Peng, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Luu, Hue H; Luo, Qing; Park, Jae Yoon; Li, Yien; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan

    2005-04-01

    Efficacious bone regeneration could revolutionize the clinical management of many bone and musculoskeletal disorders. Bone has the unique ability to regenerate and continuously remodel itself throughout life. However, clinical situations arise when bone is unable to heal itself, as with segmental bone loss, fracture non-union, and failed spinal fusion. This leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Current attempts at improved bone healing have been met with limited success, fueling the development of improved techniques. Gene therapy in many ways represents an ideal approach for augmenting bone regeneration. Gene therapy allows specific gene products to be delivered to a precise anatomic location. In addition, the level of transgene expression as well as the duration of expression can be regulated with current techniques. For bone regeneration, the gene of interest should be delivered to the fracture site, expressed at appropriate levels, and then deactivated once the fracture has healed. Delivery of biological factors, mostly bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), has yielded promising results both in animal and clinical studies. There has also been tremendous work on discovering new growth factors and exploring previously defined ones. Finally, significant advances are being made in the delivery systems of the genes, ranging from viral and non-viral vectors to tissue engineering scaffolds. Despite some public hesitation to gene therapy, its use has great potential to expand our ability to treat a variety of human bone and musculoskeletal disorders. It is conceivable that in the near future gene therapy can be utilized to induce bone formation in virtually any region of the body in a minimally invasive manner. As bone biology and gene therapy research progresses, the goal of successful human gene transfer for augmentation of bone regeneration draws nearer.

  10. Low-cost periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Slots, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8 days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500 mg of each, twice daily for 8 days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent

  11. Immunomodulatory gene therapy in lysosomal storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Koeberl, D.D.; Kishnani, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Significant advances in therapy for lysosomal storage disorders have occurred with an accelerating pace over the past decade. Although enzyme replacement therapy has improved the outcome of lysosomal storage disorders, antibody responses have occurred and sometimes prevented efficacy, especially in cross-reacting immune material negative patients with Pompe disease. Preclinical gene therapy experiments have revealed the relevance of immune responses to long-term efficacy. The choice of regulatory cassette played a critical role in evading humoral and cellular immune responses to gene therapy in knockout mouse models, at least in adult animals. Liver-specific regulatory cassettes prevented antibody formation and enhanced the efficacy of gene therapy. Regulatory T cells prevented transgene directed immune responses, as shown by adoptive transfer of antigen-specific immune tolerance to enzyme therapy. Immunomodulatory gene therapy with a very low vector dose could enhance the efficacy of enzyme therapy in Pompe disease and other lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:19807648

  12. Immunomodulatory gene therapy in lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Dwight D; Kishnani, Priya S

    2009-12-01

    Significant advances in therapy for lysosomal storage disorders have occurred with an accelerating pace over the past decade. Although enzyme replacement therapy has improved the outcome of lysosomal storage disorders, antibody responses have occurred and sometimes prevented efficacy, especially in cross-reacting immune material negative patients with Pompe disease. Preclinical gene therapy experiments have revealed the relevance of immune responses to long-term efficacy. The choice of regulatory cassette played a critical role in evading humoral and cellular immune responses to gene therapy in knockout mouse models, at least in adult animals. Liver-specific regulatory cassettes prevented antibody formation and enhanced the efficacy of gene therapy. Regulatory T cells prevented transgene directed immune responses, as shown by adoptive transfer of antigen-specific immune tolerance to enzyme therapy. Immunomodulatory gene therapy with a very low vector dose could enhance the efficacy of enzyme therapy in Pompe disease and other lysosomal storage disorders.

  13. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  14. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Initiative Grant Finder Therapy Acceleration Program Academic Concierge Biotechnology Accelerator Clinical Trials Division Special Projects Beat AML ... Initiative Grant Finder Therapy Acceleration Program Academic Concierge Biotechnology Accelerator Clinical Trials Division Special Projects Beat AML ...

  15. [Adjuvant dermato-cosmetic acne therapy].

    PubMed

    Bayerl, Christiane; Degitz, Klaus; Meigel, Eva; Kerscher, Martina

    2010-03-01

    Adjuvant dermato-cosmetic therapy in acne is an essential part of the concept of treating acne after initiation and during maintenance therapy. Those are mechanical peeling, chemical peeling and its combination. It needs supervision by an experienced dermatologist.

  16. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  17. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear ... and after this procedure? What is Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and how is it used? Intensity-modulated ...

  18. Historical Research in Music Therapy. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Alan L., Ed.; Davis, William B., Ed.; Heller, George N., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography, produced by the American Music Therapy Association, represents a collection of research articles and publications over the past 50 years of music therapy's history. It is organized by author.

  19. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  20. Radiation therapy - questions to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about radiation therapy ... National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people with cancer. Cancer.gov. www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/radiationttherapy.pdf . Updated May 2007. ...