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Sample records for myofunctional therapy

  1. Myofunctional therapy applied to upper airway resistance syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    The literature presents publications on the treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by myofunctional therapy, but there are no reports of this approach to patients with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). The objective was to verify the effect of myofunctional therapy in a case of UARS in relation to morphological and functional aspects of the stomatognathic system, anthropometric data, and quality of sleep. Patient, aged 61 years, diagnosed with UARS, underwent 12 sessions of myofunctional therapy for 3 months with exercises aimed at the suprahyoid, the tongue, and the soft palate muscles. Evaluations were performed before the start of the therapeutic process, right after the end, as well as 1, 2, 4, and 10 months after the completion of the treatment, considering: tonicity and mobility of the suprahyoid muscles, the tongue, and the soft palate; modified Mallampati grade; neck circumference; body mass index; and parameters of sleep quality. After the therapeutic process, there was a decrease in scores related to the tonus of the suprahyoid muscles, mobility, and tonus of the tongue and of the soft palate. The Mallampati grade was IV in the initial evaluation, and III in subsequent assessment. There was a reduction of 2 cm in neck circumference and BMI remained similar over time. In analyzing the three parameters of sleep quality, improvement was observed in all evaluations after discharge. Therefore, the effect of myofunctional therapy in a case of UARS was positive for all parameters. PMID:26691626

  2. Myofunctional therapy applied to upper airway resistance syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    The literature presents publications on the treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by myofunctional therapy, but there are no reports of this approach to patients with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). The objective was to verify the effect of myofunctional therapy in a case of UARS in relation to morphological and functional aspects of the stomatognathic system, anthropometric data, and quality of sleep. Patient, aged 61 years, diagnosed with UARS, underwent 12 sessions of myofunctional therapy for 3 months with exercises aimed at the suprahyoid, the tongue, and the soft palate muscles. Evaluations were performed before the start of the therapeutic process, right after the end, as well as 1, 2, 4, and 10 months after the completion of the treatment, considering: tonicity and mobility of the suprahyoid muscles, the tongue, and the soft palate; modified Mallampati grade; neck circumference; body mass index; and parameters of sleep quality. After the therapeutic process, there was a decrease in scores related to the tonus of the suprahyoid muscles, mobility, and tonus of the tongue and of the soft palate. The Mallampati grade was IV in the initial evaluation, and III in subsequent assessment. There was a reduction of 2 cm in neck circumference and BMI remained similar over time. In analyzing the three parameters of sleep quality, improvement was observed in all evaluations after discharge. Therefore, the effect of myofunctional therapy in a case of UARS was positive for all parameters.

  3. Myofunctional Therapy to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Certal, Victor; Abdullatif, Jose; Zaghi, Soroush; Ruoff, Chad M.; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature for articles evaluating myofunctional therapy (MT) as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children and adults and to perform a meta-analysis on the polysomnographic, snoring, and sleepiness data. Data Sources: Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, and The Cochrane Library. Review Methods: The searches were performed through June 18, 2014. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement was followed. Results: Nine adult studies (120 patients) reported polysomnography, snoring, and/or sleepiness outcomes. The pre- and post-MT apneahypopnea indices (AHI) decreased from a mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD) of 24.5 ± 14.3/h to 12.3 ± 11.8/h, mean difference (MD) −14.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) −20.98, −7.54], P < 0.0001. Lowest oxygen saturations improved from 83.9 ± 6.0% to 86.6 ± 7.3%, MD 4.19 (95% CI 1.85, 6.54), P = 0.0005. Polysomnography snoring decreased from 14.05 ± 4.89% to 3.87 ± 4.12% of total sleep time, P < 0.001, and snoring decreased in all three studies reporting subjective outcomes. Epworth Sleepiness Scale decreased from 14.8 ± 3.5 to 8.2 ± 4.1. Two pediatric studies (25 patients) reported outcomes. In the first study of 14 children, the AHI decreased from 4.87 ± 3.0/h to 1.84 ± 3.2/h, P = 0.004. The second study evaluated children who were cured of OSA after adenotonsillectomy and palatal expansion, and found that 11 patients who continued MT remained cured (AHI 0.5 ± 0.4/h), whereas 13 controls had recurrent OSA (AHI 5.3 ± 1.5/h) after 4 y. Conclusion: Current literature demonstrates that myofunctional therapy decreases apnea-hypopnea index by approximately 50% in adults and 62% in children. Lowest oxygen saturations, snoring, and sleepiness outcomes improve in adults. Myofunctional therapy could serve as an adjunct to other obstructive sleep apnea treatments. Citation: Camacho M, Certal V, Abdullatif J, Zaghi S, Ruoff CM

  4. Management of Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding Difficulties in the Newborn: Breastfeeding Sessions, Myofunctional Therapy, and Frenotomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The problems of suction in newborns give rise to multiple consequences for both the mother and the newborn. The objective of this paper is to present a case of ankyloglossia (“tongue-tie”) and the suction problems that were treated by a multidisciplinary team. The subject is a 17-day-old male patient, with ankyloglossia and suction problems during breastfeeding (pain in the breastfeeding mother, poor weight gain, and long breastfeeds). The patient followed the circuit established in our centre between the services of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Breastfeeding and Speech Therapy and Orofacial Rehabilitation (CELERE). The evolution following the breastfeeding sessions, the myofunctional stimulation, and the lingual frenotomy was very favourable, thereby solving the suction problems that the newborn presented. All our patients receive breastfeeding sessions and myofunctional therapy as treatment. We know that a frenotomy is not always necessary and we believe that the stimulation of sucking before and after the surgical intervention is important in order to improve the final result.

  5. Simple Myofunctional Therapy Using Ready-made 
Mouthpiece Device before and after Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Aoi; Otsuka, Takero; Kawata, Toshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes myofunctional therapy using a ready-made training device, the T4A, in patients with permanent dentition and its effect on the prevention of relapse. The buccinator mechanism maintains the inner pressure of the tongue muscle equivalent to the outer pressure of the perioral soft tissues, such as the orbicular muscles, including the cephalopharyngeus and buccinator muscles. Training is performed so that patients learn to place their tongue and lips in the appropriate resting positions. The shape of the T4A and tongue guard supports the tongue from the bottom, allowing formation of the correct resting tongue position. However, the use of T4A for a long period of time may cause the teeth movement; therefore, caution is required. Use of the T4A is effective for the correction of oral habits, myofunctional therapy and for teaching the correct resting tongue position during the daytime and for the correction of oral habits, teaching correct resting tongue position during sleep.

  6. Management of Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding Difficulties in the Newborn: Breastfeeding Sessions, Myofunctional Therapy, and Frenotomy.

    PubMed

    Ferrés-Amat, Elvira; Pastor-Vera, Tomasa; Rodríguez-Alessi, Paula; Ferrés-Amat, Eduard; Mareque-Bueno, Javier; Ferrés-Padró, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The problems of suction in newborns give rise to multiple consequences for both the mother and the newborn. The objective of this paper is to present a case of ankyloglossia ("tongue-tie") and the suction problems that were treated by a multidisciplinary team. The subject is a 17-day-old male patient, with ankyloglossia and suction problems during breastfeeding (pain in the breastfeeding mother, poor weight gain, and long breastfeeds). The patient followed the circuit established in our centre between the services of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Breastfeeding and Speech Therapy and Orofacial Rehabilitation (CELERE). The evolution following the breastfeeding sessions, the myofunctional stimulation, and the lingual frenotomy was very favourable, thereby solving the suction problems that the newborn presented. All our patients receive breastfeeding sessions and myofunctional therapy as treatment. We know that a frenotomy is not always necessary and we believe that the stimulation of sucking before and after the surgical intervention is important in order to improve the final result. PMID:27688921

  7. Simple Myofunctional Therapy Using Ready-made 
Mouthpiece Device before and after Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Aoi; Otsuka, Takero; Kawata, Toshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes myofunctional therapy using a ready-made training device, the T4A, in patients with permanent dentition and its effect on the prevention of relapse. The buccinator mechanism maintains the inner pressure of the tongue muscle equivalent to the outer pressure of the perioral soft tissues, such as the orbicular muscles, including the cephalopharyngeus and buccinator muscles. Training is performed so that patients learn to place their tongue and lips in the appropriate resting positions. The shape of the T4A and tongue guard supports the tongue from the bottom, allowing formation of the correct resting tongue position. However, the use of T4A for a long period of time may cause the teeth movement; therefore, caution is required. Use of the T4A is effective for the correction of oral habits, myofunctional therapy and for teaching the correct resting tongue position during the daytime and for the correction of oral habits, teaching correct resting tongue position during sleep. PMID:27622220

  8. Management of Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding Difficulties in the Newborn: Breastfeeding Sessions, Myofunctional Therapy, and Frenotomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The problems of suction in newborns give rise to multiple consequences for both the mother and the newborn. The objective of this paper is to present a case of ankyloglossia (“tongue-tie”) and the suction problems that were treated by a multidisciplinary team. The subject is a 17-day-old male patient, with ankyloglossia and suction problems during breastfeeding (pain in the breastfeeding mother, poor weight gain, and long breastfeeds). The patient followed the circuit established in our centre between the services of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Breastfeeding and Speech Therapy and Orofacial Rehabilitation (CELERE). The evolution following the breastfeeding sessions, the myofunctional stimulation, and the lingual frenotomy was very favourable, thereby solving the suction problems that the newborn presented. All our patients receive breastfeeding sessions and myofunctional therapy as treatment. We know that a frenotomy is not always necessary and we believe that the stimulation of sucking before and after the surgical intervention is important in order to improve the final result. PMID:27688921

  9. The effects of orofacial myofunctional therapy combined with an occlusal splint on signs and symptoms in a man with TMD-hypermobility: case study.

    PubMed

    de Félicio, Cláudia Maria; Freitas, Rosana Luiza Rodrigues Gomes; Bataglion, César

    2007-11-01

    Exercise therapy has been indicated for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), but few reports are available about the effect of orofacial myofunctional therapy, which includes working with stomatognathic functions, in patients with TMD. A 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of TMD-hypermobility and orofacial myofunctional disorders received combined treatment with orofacial myofunctional therapy and an occlusal splint. Clinical evaluation and the scale of symptom severity after 9 treatment sessions and during follow-up compared to the phase before treatment suggested that treatment was of great benefit. We conclude that the combination of orofacial myofunctional therapy and an occlusal splint can be beneficial for patients with TMD-hypermobility. However, since this was a single case, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:18942478

  10. Effectiveness of orofacial myofunctional therapy in orthodontic patients: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Homem, Márcio Alexandre; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the existence of scientific evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) as an adjuvant to orthodontic treatment in individuals with orofacial disorders. A further aim was to assess the methodological quality of the studies included in the review. Methods An electronic search was performed in eight databases (Medline, BBO, LILACS, Web of Science, EMBASE, BIREME, Cochrane Library and SciELO) for papers published between January 1965 and March 2011, with no language restrictions. Selection of articles and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers. The quality of the selected articles was also assessed. Results Search strategy resulted in the retrieval of 355 publications, only four of which fulfilled the eligibility criteria and qualified for final analysis. All papers selected had a high risk of bias. Conclusions The findings of the present systematic review demonstrate the scarcity of consistent studies and scientific evidence supporting the use of OMT in combination with orthodontic treatment to achieve better results in the correction of dentofacial disorders in individuals with orofacial abnormalities. PMID:25279527

  11. Mastication in the oral myofunctional disorders.

    PubMed

    Bacha, S M; Ríspoli, C de F

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this article is to show two ways of clinical work with mastication in Oral Myofunctional Disorders. Consideration is given to limitations that make direct treatment impossible: symptoms/signs of temporo-mandibular joint, occlusions alterations, types of orthodontics or orthopedics appliances and loosing teeth. The procedures suggested are named procedures WITH and WITHOUT LIMITATIONS.

  12. ORAL MYOFUNCTIONAL AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE ORBICULARIS ORIS AND MENTALIS MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS II/1 MALOCCLUSION SUBMITTED TO FIRST PREMOLAR EXTRACTION

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Denize Ramirez; Semeghini, Tatiana Adamov; Kroll, Lucio Benedito; Berzin, Fausto

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the presence of oral myofunctional alterations before and after first premolar extraction in Class II/1 malocclusion patients that could endanger the long-term dental arch stability. Material and Methods: The study was performed by means of morphological, functional and electromyographic analyses in 17 Class II/1 malocclusion patients (group T) and 17 Class I malocclusion patients (group C -control), both groups with 12-30-year age range (mean age: 20.93 ± 4.94 years). Results: Data analyzed statistically by Student's t-test showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the maxillary and mandibular dental arch perimeters after orthodontic treatment, but lip posture at rest did not present statistically significant differences after treatment (p>0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test analyzed data from lip posture (orbicularis oris muscle) at rest and during swallowing, as well as the mentalis muscle behavior during the above-mentioned function, not showing statistically significant differences (p>0.05) after treatment (groups T1 and T2). However, group T differed significantly from group C (p<0.05). Lip posture during swallowing showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) for subjects submitted to orthodontic therapy when compared to data acquired before the treatment. The electromyographic analysis confirmed these data. Conclusions: Found myofunctional alterations observed after the orthodontic treatment in Class II/1 malocclusion seemed to jeopardize the long-term orthodontic stability, making recurrence possible. PMID:19089223

  13. SISL (ScreeningsInstrument Schisis Leuven): assessment of cleft palate speech, resonance and myofunction.

    PubMed

    Breuls, M; Sell, D; Manders, E; Boulet, E; Vander Poorten, V

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment protocol for the evaluation and description of speech, resonance and myofunctional characteristics commonly associated with cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction. The protocol is partly based on the GOS.SP.ASS'98 and adapted to Flemish. It focuses on the relevant aspects of cleft type speech necessary to facilitate assessment, adequate diagnosis and management planning in a multi-disciplinary setting of cleft team care.

  14. Effect of orofacial myofunctional exercise on the improvement of dysphagia patients’ orofacial muscle strength and diadochokinetic rate

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Measurement of the diadochokinetic rate can provide useful information on swallowing rehabilitation in the oral phase by elucidating the speed and regularity of movement of muscles related to the lips, tongue, and chin. This study investigated the effect of a three-week period of orofacial myofunctional exercise on the improvement of cheek, tongue, and lip muscle strength and diadochokinetic rate in dysphagia patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study employed a pretest-posttest control group design. Both orofacial myofunctional exercise and the temperature-tactile stimulation technique were applied to the experimental group (n=23), while only the temperature-tactile stimulation technique was applied to the control group (n=25). [Results] Tongue elevation, tongue protrusion, cheek compression, lip compression, and alternating motion rate were more significantly improved in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Orofacial myofunctional exercise is effective in the rehabilitation of swallowing function in the oral phase in dysphagia patients by improving orofacial muscle strength and response rate. PMID:27799705

  15. Case history: improved maxillary growth and development following digit sucking elimination and orofacial myofunctional therapy.

    PubMed

    Green, Shari

    2013-11-01

    Orofacial myologists are frequently called upon to address retained oral habit concerns. During this process, current I.A.O.M. recommended treatment includes addressing tongue, lip, and jaw rest posture concerns. Following digit sucking remediation, we may also be called upon to address these rest posture issues, and tongue thrust more aggressively together. In this process, facial growth and development and jaw structure may coincidentally improve as a result of 'nature taking its course' by addressing both swallow AND rest posture. In a select subset of clients, dramatic improvements may occur if the timing is right. This article discusses one such case that appears to have yielded a significant improvement in oral postures influencing improved facial and oral growth and development.

  16. Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... their appearance. What effect does OMD have on speech? Some children produce sounds incorrectly as a result ... tongue, mouth, and facial muscles. What does a speech-language pathologist do when working with individuals with ...

  17. Effects of oral motor exercises and laser therapy on chronic temporomandibular disorders: a randomized study with follow-up.

    PubMed

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Mazzetto, Marcelo Oliveira; Da Silva, Marco Antonio M Rodrigues; de Felício, Cláudia Maria

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of combining low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with oral motor exercises (OM-exercises) for rehabilitation of patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Eighty-two patients with chronic TMD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) participated in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups: GI (LLLT + OM exercises), GII (orofacial myofunctional therapy-OMT-which contains pain relief strategies and OM-exercises), and GIII (LLLT placebo + OM-exercises) and GIV (LLLT). LLLT (AsGaAl; 780-nm wavelength; average power of 60 mW, 40 s, and 60 ± 1.0 J/cm²) was used to promote analgesia, while OM-exercises were used to reestablish the orofacial functions. Evaluations at baseline (T1), after treatment immediate (T2), and at follow-up (T3) were muscle and joint tenderness to palpation, TMD severity, and orofacial myofunctional status. There was a significant improvement in outcome measures in all treated groups with stability at follow-up (Friedman test, P < 0.05), but GIV did not show difference in orofacial functions after LLLT (P > 0.05). Intergroup comparisons showed that all treated groups had no difference in tenderness to palpation of temporal muscle compared to GC at follow-up (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.01). Moreover, GI, GII, and GIII showed no difference from GC in orofacial functional condition (T2 and T3) while they differed significantly from GIV (P < 0.01). In conclusion, LLLT combined with OM-exercises was more effective in promoting TMD rehabilitation than LLLT alone was. Similar treatment results were verified with the OMT protocol. PMID:27085322

  18. Promoting health literacy with orofacial myofunctional patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Hope C

    2007-11-01

    The definition of health literacy is provided along with information substantiating its importance. Focused initiatives, the consequences of poor health literacy, and at-risk populations are briefly discussed. The focus of this article is the application of health literacy principles to the discipline of orofacial myology and how the promotion of health literacy facilitates positive growth for patients, orfacial myologists, and the professions. The article concludes with a vision for a health literate society. PMID:18942479

  19. Treating orofacial dyskinesia with functional physiotherapy in the case of frontal open bite.

    PubMed

    Daglio, S D; Schwitzer, R; Wüthrich, J; Kallivroussis, G

    1993-11-01

    Oral myofunctional therapy was found to be successful, in a group of 75 patients, ages six to 22 all with anterior open bites. Seventeen of 19 who lisped before therapy eliminated the lisp. Upper respiratory system allergies were eliminated in nine of 11 patients. A combination of myofunctional therapy and orthodontic treatment was more successful in correcting lip resting posture than was therapy alone. Lip and tongue resting postures, along with swallowing patterns, were corrected to a highly significant degree. PMID:9601227

  20. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  1. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have radiation therapy may feel more tired than usual, not feel hungry, or lose their ... of radiation therapy include: Fatigue. Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common side effect of radiation ...

  2. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Because radiation is most harmful to quickly growing cells, radiation therapy damages cancer cells more than normal cells. ... cells from growing and dividing, and leads to cell death. Radiation therapy is used to fight many types of ...

  3. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb ... in your home. A different kind of oxygen therapy is called hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It uses oxygen ...

  4. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize—the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases. PMID:21103141

  5. Electroconvulsive therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Shock treatment; Shock therapy; ECT; Depression - ECT; Bipolar - ECT ... ECT is a highly effective treatment for depression, most commonly ... who: Are having delusions or other psychotic symptoms with ...

  6. Sweat Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  7. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  8. Poetry Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  9. Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases. PMID:24372817

  10. Antiparasitic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, Shanthi; Singh, Upinder; Blackburn, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect more than 2 billion people globally and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly among the world's poorest people. This overview focuses on the treatment of the major protozoan and helminth infections in humans. Recent developments in antiparasitic therapy include the expansion of artemisinin-based therapies for malaria, new drugs for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, expansion of the indications for antiparasitic drug treatment in patients with Chagas disease, and the use of combination therapy for leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21628620

  11. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  12. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy works, it helps to understand how your respiratory system works. This system is a group of organs and tissues that help you breathe. The respiratory system includes the airways and lungs. The airways carry ...

  13. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nucleus is surrounded by electrons. In proton therapy, beams of fast-moving protons are used to destroy ... atoms to release proton, neutron, and helium ion beams. In this highly specialized form of radiosurgery , proton ...

  14. Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaščáková, Slávka; Giuliani, Alexandre; Jamme, Frédéric; Refregiers, Matthieu

    Treatments based on absorption of electromagnetic radiation may be categorized according to the photon wavelength range. On the one hand, radiotherapy is based on X-rays delivery to tissues and is widely spread and recognized for cancer treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves low energy radiation in the visible and near infrared range in combination with a drug referred to as the photosensitizer. A short overview of conventional radiotherapy and accelerator-based therapy is first presented. Then PDT is introduced and its mechanisms are reviewed along with the factors affecting its outcome. The domains of application of this therapy are presented through a discussion of the most used photosentizers. Finally we present new developments in the field that would permit the combination of potentialized radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

  15. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a much more confined way than conventional photon therapy thus allowing the radiation oncologist to use ... charge. Just as x-rays (also known as photons) are used to treat both benign and malignant ...

  16. Proton therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... direction of the tumor. A machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron creates and speeds up the protons. ... redness in the radiation area, and temporary hair loss. AFTER THE PROCEDURE Following proton therapy, you should ...

  17. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  18. [Gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fragoso, L

    1997-01-01

    In the last years there has been much progress in our understanding of molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of disease. In this review we provide an overview of gene therapy, its most actualized techniques for gene delivery, and we give specific examples of laboratory and clinical achievements to date. The development of methods for delivering genes to mammalian cells has stimulated great interest in the possibility of treating human disease by gene-based therapies. As a result, concepts and methods that would have been considered purely science fiction 50 years ago are now used in the treatment of diseases. The widespread application of gene therapy technology to many diseases is already breaking down the traditional boundaries of modern medicine. However, despite its progress, several key technical drawbacks need to be overcome before gene therapy can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings. Technological developments, particularly in the areas of gene delivery and cell transplantation, will be critical for the successful practice of gene therapy.

  19. Animal therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed. PMID:9110848

  20. Anabolic therapies.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nancy E; Silverman, Stuart L

    2010-03-01

    The striking clinical benefits of intermittent parathyroid hormone in osteoporosis have begun a new era of skeletal anabolic agents. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) (1-34) is the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved anabolic therapy. Its use has been limited by the need for subcutaneous injection. Newer delivery systems include transdermal and oral preparations. Newer anabolic therapies include monoclonal antibody to sclerostin, a potent inhibitor of osteoblastogenesis; and use of bone morphogenetic proteins and parathyroid hormone-related protein PTHrP, a calcium-regulating hormone similar to PTH. PMID:20425087

  1. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    PubMed

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  2. What Is Music Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is the ...

  3. Intravenous therapy

    PubMed Central

    Waitt, C; Waitt, P; Pirmohamed, M

    2004-01-01

    Intravenous administration of fluids, drugs, and nutrition is very common in hospitals. Although insertion of peripheral and central cannulae and subsequent intravenous therapy are usually well tolerated, complications that prolong hospitalisation, and in some cases cause death, can arise on occasions. Additionally, many cannulae are inserted unnecessarily. This article seeks to review this area and to outline good medical practice. PMID:14760169

  4. Multimodal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    The multimodal therapy (MMT) approach provides a framework that facilitates systematic treatment selection in a broad-based, comprehensive and yet highly focused manner. It respects science, and data driven findings, and endeavors to use empirically supported methods when possible. Nevertheless, it recognizes that many issues still fall into the…

  5. Pet Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  6. Constant Therapy.

    PubMed

    2016-09-28

    Designed by scientists at Boston University, this speech therapy app aims to improve everyday skills, such as speech, memory and focus, for patients recovering from a traumatic brain injury or who have aphasia, dementia or a speech-language disorder. PMID:27682560

  7. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

  8. Anecdotal therapies.

    PubMed

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  9. Did you know? A question and answer dialogue for the orofacial myologist.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert M; Role, Ellen B

    2009-11-01

    This article addresses selected concepts and procedures related to orofacial myology in a question and answer format. Topics include tongue-tip placement for swallowing; a masseter-contraction swallow; temporary anchorage devices utilized in orthodontic treatment; relapse following orthodontic treatment; some advantages and disadvantages of fixed and removable orthodontic appliances; the extraction of teeth in orthodontic treatment; posterior and anterior crossbite considerations; and the importance of recasting the emphasis and focus of myofunctional therapy to orofacial rest posture therapy. In addition, this article promotes projects that orofacial myologists and orthodontists can mutually undertake to assist in advancing the data base regarding orofacial myofunctional disorders, thereby serving to enhance the reputation and value of orofacial myofunctional therapy within the dental profession. PMID:20572434

  10. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  11. Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  12. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A A ... many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from X- ...

  13. Esophagus Cancer: Palliative Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor about cancer of the esophagus? Palliative therapy for cancer of the esophagus Palliative therapy is ... therapy Electrocoagulation Laser ablation Argon plasma coagulation Radiation therapy External-beam radiation can often help relieve some ...

  14. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, ... grateful I chose a career as rewarding as music therapy. I love what I do each day!” Where ...

  15. Nutritional Therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted.

  16. Cancer Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The patient shown is undergoing cancer radiation treatment in a hospital-like atmosphere but he is not in a hospital. The treatment room is at NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. It is a converted portion of the Center's cyclotron facility, originally designed for radiation studies related to nuclear propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Under an agreement between the Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the 50 million volt cyclotron is now being used to evaluate the effectiveness of "fast neutron" therapy in the treatment of cancerous tumors.

  17. [Aerosol therapy].

    PubMed

    Wildhaber, J H

    1998-08-15

    Aerosol therapy plays a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of various lung diseases. The aim of inhalation therapy is to deposit a reproducible and adequate dose of a specific drug to the airways, in order to achieve a high, local, clinical effect while avoiding serious systemic side effects. To achieve this goal, it is therefore important to have an efficient inhalation device to deliver different medications. However, the currently available therapeutic inhalation devices (nebuliser, pressurised metered-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler) are not very efficient in aerosol delivery and have several disadvantages. Inhalation devices can be assessed by in vitro studies, filter studies and radiolabelled deposition studies. Several radiolabelled deposition studies have shown that nebulisers and pressurised metered-dose inhalers are not very efficient in aerosol delivery. In children, before 1997, only 0.5% to 15% of the total nebulised or actuated dose from a nebuliser or pressurised metered-dose inhaler actually reached the lungs. These numbers were somewhat improved in adults, 30% of the total nebulised or actuated dose reaching the airways. Aerosol therapy with dry powder inhalers was the most efficient before 1997, 30% of the total dose being deposited in the lungs of adults and children. In 1997, new developments in pressurised metered-dose inhalers much improved their efficiency in aerosol delivery. Lung deposition can be increased by up to 60% with use of a non-electrostatic holding chamber and/or a pressurised metered-dose inhaler with a hydrofluoroalkane propellant possessing superior aerosol characteristics. Several studies comparing the clinical efficiency of different inhalation devices have shown that the choice of an optimal inhalation device is crucial. In addition to the aerosol characteristics, ventilation parameters and airway morphology have an important bearing on deposition patterns. These parameters may be greatly influenced by the

  18. Intrapleural therapy.

    PubMed

    Huggins, J Terrill; Doelken, Peter; Sahn, Steven A

    2011-08-01

    Numerous intrapleural therapies have been adopted to treat a vast array of pleural diseases. The first intrapleural therapies proposed focused on the use of fibrinolytics and DNase to promote fluid drainage in empyema. Numerous case series and five randomized controlled trials have been published to determine the outcomes of fibrinolytics in empyema treatment. In the largest randomized trial, the use of streptokinase had no reduction in mortality, decortication rates or hospital days compared with placebo in the treatment of empyema. Criticism over study design and patient selection may have potentially affected the outcomes in this study. The development of dyspnoea is common in the setting of malignant pleural effusions. Pleural fluid evacuation followed by pleurodesis is often attempted. Numerous sclerosing agents have been studied, with talc emerging as the most effective agent. Small particle size of talc should be avoided because of increased systemic absorption potentiating toxicity, such as acute lung injury. Over the past several years, the use of chronic indwelling pleural catheters have emerged as the preferred modality in the treating a symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. For patients with malignant-related lung entrapment, pleurodesis often fails due to the presence of visceral pleural restriction; however, chronic indwelling pleural catheters are effective in palliation of dyspnoea. Finally, the use of staphylococcal superantigens has been proposed as a therapeutic model for the treatment of non-small lung cancer. Intrapleural instillation of staphylococcal superantigens increased median survival by 5 months in patients with non-small cell lung cancer with a malignant pleural effusion. PMID:21672085

  19. The creative arts therapies as "real therapies".

    PubMed

    Zwerling, I

    1979-12-01

    Elements of a standard definition of psychotherapy are used to support the argument that the creative arts therapies should not be characterized as adjunctive therapies, or discredited as not being "real therapies." Two concepts widely acknowledged as important in the application of the creative arts therapies are discussed: first, that the nonverbal media employed by creative arts therapists tap emotional rather than cognitive processes and evoke responses more directly and immediately than traditional verbal therapies, and, second, that creative arts therapies are reality-based and provide a more immediate and real link to a patient's experience than something he can portray only verbally.

  20. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

  1. Targeted therapies for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000902.htm Targeted therapies for cancer To use the sharing features on ... cells so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few ...

  2. American Art Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welcome Board of Directors National Staff Financial Information Strategic Plan Local Chapters About Art Therapy What is Art ... Sheet MEDIA About Us About AATA President's Welcome Strategic Plan About Art Therapy What is Art Therapy Fact ...

  3. Types of hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ... Menopause symptoms include: Hot flashes Night sweats Sleep problems Vaginal dryness Anxiety Moodiness Less interest in sex ...

  4. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  5. Nicotine replacement therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Bullen C, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Nov 14;11: ...

  6. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  7. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  8. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  9. Family Play Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  10. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  11. Sexual Counseling and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Zwi

    1976-01-01

    The Ob/Gyn Department of Rambam University, Haifa, Israel, recently established a Center for Sexual Counseling, Therapy and Education. The Center's concept and format of therapy, and some preliminary observations, are presented. (Author)

  12. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  13. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is radiation therapy? Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to shrink tumors and kill cancer cells ( ... is a measure of the amount of radiation energy absorbed by 1 kilogram of human tissue. Different ...

  14. Laser therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Compared to surgery, laser therapy has some benefits. Laser therapy: Takes less time Is more precise and causes less damage to tissues Leads to less pain, bleeding, infections, and scarring Can often be done ...

  15. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  16. Gene therapy for radioprotection.

    PubMed

    Everett, W H; Curiel, D T

    2015-03-01

    Radiation therapy is a critical component of cancer treatment with over half of patients receiving radiation during their treatment. Despite advances in image-guided therapy and dose fractionation, patients receiving radiation therapy are still at risk for side effects due to off-target radiation damage of normal tissues. To reduce normal tissue damage, researchers have sought radioprotectors, which are agents capable of protecting tissue against radiation by preventing radiation damage from occurring or by decreasing cell death in the presence of radiation damage. Although much early research focused on small-molecule radioprotectors, there has been a growing interest in gene therapy for radioprotection. The amenability of gene therapy vectors to targeting, as well as the flexibility of gene therapy to accomplish ablation or augmentation of biologically relevant genes, makes gene therapy an excellent strategy for radioprotection. Future improvements to vector targeting and delivery should greatly enhance radioprotection through gene therapy.

  17. Adlerian Marriage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon; Dinkmeyer, Don, Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the assumptions, processes, and techniques used in Alderian marriage therapy. Describes purpose of therapy as assessing current beliefs and behaviors while educating the couple in new procedures that can help the couple establish new goals. (Author/ABL)

  18. Myocardial gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isner, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy is proving likely to be a viable alternative to conventional therapies in coronary artery disease and heart failure. Phase 1 clinical trials indicate high levels of safety and clinical benefits with gene therapy using angiogenic growth factors in myocardial ischaemia. Although gene therapy for heart failure is still at the pre-clinical stage, experimental data indicate that therapeutic angiogenesis using short-term gene expression may elicit functional improvement in affected individuals.

  19. Neutron therapy of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.; Nellans, H. N.; Shaw, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Reports relate applications of neutrons to the problem of cancer therapy. The biochemical and biophysical aspects of fast-neutron therapy, neutron-capture and neutron-conversion therapy with intermediate-range neutrons are presented. Also included is a computer program for neutron-gamma radiobiology.

  20. The physical therapy prescription.

    PubMed

    Onks, Cayce A; Wawrzyniak, John

    2014-07-01

    Physical therapy was first noted in the time of Hippocrates. The physical therapy visit includes a complete history, physical examination, and development of a treatment plan. Health care providers usually initiate a referral based on physical examination, symptoms, or a specific diagnosis. Physical therapy has been shown to be particularly helpful for musculoskeletal ailments, and has a growing body of evidence for use.

  1. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  2. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengrove, Edward

    1971-01-01

    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  3. Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies are increasingly used by many pregnant women in the United States; however, limited research is available on many therapies. The number of studies should increase with the establishment of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the National Institutes of Health. This column reviews recent studies of both herbal medicines and alternative therapies used in pregnancy. PMID:17273285

  4. Filial Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Brandy

    Filial therapy is an alternative method for treating emotionally disturbed children in which the parent is used as an ally in the therapeutic process. Filial therapy teaches the parent a new way of interacting with their child, thus improving the parent-child relationship. Additionally, filial therapy provides focused attention to the child from a…

  5. Contextual Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Catherine

    1984-01-01

    Examines the major principles and goals of contextual therapy and methods employed in its clinical application. A second article presents an interview with Dr. Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy, who developed contextual family therapy. The interview ranges from Dr. Nagy's early training to the theoretical and clinical foundations of contextual family therapy.…

  6. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  7. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is refered to as immunotherapy . Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy given during surgery is called intraoperative ... external beam therapy or as brachytherapy . Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  8. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  9. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  10. The physical therapy prescription.

    PubMed

    Onks, Cayce A; Wawrzyniak, John

    2014-07-01

    Physical therapy was first noted in the time of Hippocrates. The physical therapy visit includes a complete history, physical examination, and development of a treatment plan. Health care providers usually initiate a referral based on physical examination, symptoms, or a specific diagnosis. Physical therapy has been shown to be particularly helpful for musculoskeletal ailments, and has a growing body of evidence for use. PMID:24994057

  11. [Morita therapy over history].

    PubMed

    Usa, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    At Sansei Hospital in Kyoto we performed Morita Therapy not only for Japanese clients but also foreign clients from several countries, like Germany, Switzerland, U.S.A., China, Korea, India and Indonesia. We could treat those foreign clients using Morita Therapy with good success although they came from various cultural backgrounds. One of the characteristic Approaches of Morita Therapy was that it avoided the conceptualization of self-consciousness and self image as a subjective fiction established by abstract and logical thinking. Secondary Morita Therapy moves clients to deal with activities in real life. These 2 approaches help clients not to be involved in symptom development or fixation mechanisms and break through self-centeredness. At the first stage of Morita Therapy, namely in the bed rest period clients can experience his psychic state as if he were a just born baby. The founder of Gestalt Therapy, Frederick S. Perls experienced by himself Morita Therapy. During bed rest therapy he behaved as if he were a baby. This behavior came out not from conscious abstract and logical thinking but from spontaneous "pre-conscious" state of mind. Morita called this "Jun-na-kokoro" (Pure mind). Morita knew that neurotic symptoms come out from those abstract and logical thinking which could lead to fixation of symptoms so that therapy principle might be the de-centralization of self and the pure mind experience which is found in our daily life and also in daily life of foreign people from various cultural backgrounds. PMID:12875225

  12. Therapy and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the following areas among others: psychiatry, clinical psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family ... Cognitive Therapy for Depression by SJ Rupke, M.D., ...

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Enhancement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sarah S; Schoenfelder, Erin; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui

    2016-10-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely recognized as the preferred treatment of psychiatric disorders, less is known about the application of CBT to substance use disorders, particularly in adolescence. This article discusses how CBT conceptualizes substance use and how it is implemented as a treatment of adolescent substance abuse. The article draws on several manuals for CBT that implement it as a standalone treatment or in combination with motivational enhancement therapies. Also reviewed are several studies that examined the efficacy of CBT. Finally, the implications are discussed. Numerous starting resources are provided to help a clinician implement CBT.

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Enhancement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sarah S; Schoenfelder, Erin; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui

    2016-10-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely recognized as the preferred treatment of psychiatric disorders, less is known about the application of CBT to substance use disorders, particularly in adolescence. This article discusses how CBT conceptualizes substance use and how it is implemented as a treatment of adolescent substance abuse. The article draws on several manuals for CBT that implement it as a standalone treatment or in combination with motivational enhancement therapies. Also reviewed are several studies that examined the efficacy of CBT. Finally, the implications are discussed. Numerous starting resources are provided to help a clinician implement CBT. PMID:27613342

  15. THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF THE COM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND DISCUSSION.

    PubMed

    Frey, Lorraine; Green, Shari; Fabbie, Paula; Hockenbury, Dana; Foran, Marge; Elder, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    The origins of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy began in the early 1960's by orthodontists who recognized the importance of functional nasal breathing, proper swallowing, and more ideal oral rest postures. Re-patterning these functions through myofunctional therapy assisted with better orthodontic outcomes and improved stability. Experts in orofacial myology have concluded that improper oral rest postures and tongue thrusting may be the result of hypertrophy of the lymphatic tissues in the upper airway. Orthodontists are aware of the deleterious effects these habits have on the developing face and dentition. Sleep disordered breathing is a major health concern that affects people from infancy into adulthood. Physicians who treat sleep disorders are now referring patients for orofacial myofunctional therapy. Researchers have concluded that removal of tonsils and adenoids, along with expansion orthodontics, may not fully resolve the upper airway issues that continue to plague patients' health. Sleep researchers report that the presence of mouth breathing, along with hypotonia of the orofacial muscular complex, has been a persistent problem in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing. Orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMDs) coexist in a large population of people with sleep disordered breathing and sleep apnea. Advances in 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging offer the dental and medical communities the opportunity to identify, assess, and treat patients with abnormal growth patterns. These undesirable changes in oral structures can involve the upper airway, as well as functional breathing, chewing and swallowing. Leading researchers have advocated a multidisciplinary team approach. Sleep physicians, otolaryngologists, dentists, myofunctional therapists, and other healthcare professionals are working together to achieve these goals. The authors have compiled research articles that support incorporating the necessary education on sleep disordered

  16. Massage Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  17. Therapy of Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  18. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  19. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  20. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  1. What Is Wilderness Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Keith C.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the literature and recent research, an integrated, consistent definition of wilderness therapy is presented to differentiate it from other outdoor adventure programs and guide program design and research efforts. Trends in the outdoor industry are explored that suggest that wilderness therapy programs are searching for recognition by…

  2. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  3. Snares in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzoli, Mara Selvini; Prata, Giuliana

    1982-01-01

    Discusses ways to deal with four common problems in family therapy: phone calls in general; finding the identified patient in individual therapy; the offer of secret revelations; and the role of psychoactive drugs. Presents tactics which succeed in controlling these incidents. (RC)

  4. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanney, Bryan L.

    1986-01-01

    When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)

  5. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  6. Immune therapies for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C

    2009-05-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in four types of immune therapy-cytokine, vaccine, antibody and cellular therapy-to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies.

  7. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies. PMID:19342881

  8. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  9. Massage therapy research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. PMID:27502797

  10. Collaboration in experiential therapy.

    PubMed

    Berdondini, Lucia; Elliott, Robert; Shearer, Joan

    2012-02-01

    We offer a view of the nature and role of client-therapist collaboration in experiential psychotherapy, focusing on Gestalt and emotion-focused therapy (EFT). We distinguish between the necessary condition of mutual trust (the emotional bond between client and therapist) and effective collaboration (regarding the goals and tasks of therapy). Using a case study of experiential therapy for social anxiety, we illustrate how the development of collaboration can be both complex and pivotal for therapeutic success, and how it can involve client and therapist encountering one another through taking risks by openly and nonjudgementally disclosing difficult experiences in order to enrich and advance the work. PMID:23616296

  11. Cosmology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Hall, C M

    1986-12-01

    Sociological concepts are used to demonstrate applications of views of the cosmos to everyday living. Optimal recovery in therapy is defined as increased participation and increased life-satisfaction in family and society, with meaningful motivation and orientation to the universe.Cosmology and therapy concepts are applied to five different kinds of marital relationships in order to clarify possibilities and define contrasts. Family processes which evolve as shifts in views of the cosmos, beliefs, and behavior occur are described. Strengths and weaknesses of this therapy are discussed, and attention is paid to ways in which beliefs provide motivation, meaning, and direction for behavior. PMID:24301690

  12. Vitamin therapy in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating and poorly understood disease for which the only accepted therapy is nonspecific antipsychotic and anti-seizure medication. This article summarizes the evidence that certain vitamin deficiencies likely worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia, and the evidence that large doses of certain vitamins could improve the core metabolic abnormalities that predispose some people to develop it; it recounts the history of a controversial vitamin-based therapy for schizophrenia called orthomolecular psychiatry; and it concludes by advocating a process for discovering promising new schizophrenia therapies that involves small, carefully conducted clinical trials of nutrient combinations in appropriately selected patients. PMID:18587164

  13. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Plöckinger, U.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs), dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided. PMID:22550484

  14. [Possibilities of bacteriophage therapy].

    PubMed

    Skurnik, Mikael; Kiljunen, Saija

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens has increased, and new therapies are urgently needed. Bacteriophages (phages), viruses infecting and killing bacteria, are the most abundant organisms on earth. In nature there are several specific phages for every bacterium, controlling bacterial numbers and maintaining ecological balance. Phage therapy, i.e., treating bacterial infections with phages, offers an alternative complementary to antibiotics as phages infect and kill also multi-resistant bacteria. Phages possess narrow host specificity, each phage infecting only a few bacterial species or strains. Thereby phages do not harm the normal microbiota as antibiotics do. We aim to begin clinical trials of phage therapy in Finland. PMID:27244930

  15. Behavior therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sukhodolsky, D G; Tsytsarev, S V; Kassinove, H

    1995-06-01

    The development of behavior therapy in Russia is discussed within the context of the evolution of Russian psychology. The pre-revolutionary contributions of Sechenov, Grot, Pavlov, and Bekhterev to the conceptual foundation of behaviorism in Russia are examined. This is followed by a discussion of the marked impact of social and political influences on the development of therapeutic methods from 1917 onward. Major milestones in the development of behavior therapy are examined. Finally, it is noted that the current period of openness provides an expanded opportunity to teach behavior therapy which has so far been limited to major Russian cities.

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy revisited.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S D; Smith, C; Smith, E M; Miller, J M

    1991-05-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains an extremely valuable tool in the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders. Despite the sensationalism of the past decade, ECT is the treatment of choice in severe depression that is unresponsive to other therapies or in patients who are overtly suicidal. In addition, ECT is particularly valuable in the elderly population, who are at risk for serious complications from the side effects associated with drug therapy. This report describes a case of recurrent depression in which ECT was successfully used. PMID:2072186

  17. Interactional Gestalt Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warehime, Robert G.

    1981-01-01

    Group gestalt therapy in which the leader facilitates the development of helping capacity in group members is described. The general characteristics of this approach are discussed and ground rules concerning leader and member behaviors are suggested. (RC)

  18. [Physiotherapy as manual therapy].

    PubMed

    Torstensen, T A; Nielsen, L L; Jensen, R; Reginiussen, T; Wiesener, T; Kirkesola, G; Mengshoel, A M

    1999-05-30

    Manual therapy includes methods where the therapist's hands are used to stretch, mobilize or manipulate the spinal column, paravertebral structures or extremity joints. The aims of these methods are to relieve pain and improve function. In Norway only specially qualified physiotherapists and chiropractors are authorized to perform manipulation of joints (high velocity thrust techniques). To become a qualified manual therapist in Norway one must have a minimum of two years of clinical practice as physiotherapist followed by two year full time postgraduate training in manual therapy (a total of six years). Historically the Norwegian manual therapy system was developed in the 1950s by physiotherapists and medical doctors in England (James Cyriax and James Mennell) and Norway. As a result doctors allowed physiotherapists to use manipulation as a treatment method of both spinal and peripheral joints. In 1957 the Norwegian health authorities introduced reimbursement for manual therapy performed by physiotherapists.

  19. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly • Supplement is free of harmful contents like pesticides and heavy metals (such as lead, arsenic or ... 1-888-644-6226 http://nccam.nih.gov Natural Medicines Information on complementary therapies http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch. ...

  20. Therapy of Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tejesh; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Pruritus is the predominant symptom of skin disease. Due to the poorly understood pathophysiology, the development of effective treatment modalities for pruritus has proven to be particularly difficult. At present, there is no universally accepted therapy for itch. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the treatment of pruritus. Areas covered in this review An overview of current, emerging and possible future therapies for pruritus is provided. What the reader will gain Insights into possible treatment regimes for pruritus in different clinical scenarios. Take home message The therapy of pruritus is challenging and currently takes on an individualistic approach. Recent advancements in the mechanisms that underlie this distressing symptom have identified novel targets for future therapy PMID:20426711

  1. Alternative and Complementary Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... always designed to treat a particular illness: Some alternative therapies treat the whole person, not an illness. They might restore harmony, balance, or normal energy flow. Acupuncturists, for example, use the pulse to ...

  2. American Music Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Swedish Cancer Institute (SCI) and the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Center (MS Center). Continue Reading Monday, October 17, 2016 New AMTA-pro Podcast:Generalizing Music Therapy to Home Life In this AMTA-Pro podcast, ...

  3. Drug therapy smartens up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  4. Practical procedures: oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Olive, Sandra

    Knowing when to start patients on oxygen therapy can save lives, but ongoing assessment and evaluation must be carried out to ensure the treatment is safe and effective. This article outlines when oxygen therapy should be used and the procedures to follow. It also describes the delivery methods applicable to different patient groups, along with the appropriate target saturation ranges, and details relevant nurse competencies.

  5. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa Hm; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression.

  6. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa Hm; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809

  7. Cognitive behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Furukawa, Toshi A; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different CBT approaches (cognitive therapy, rational emotive behaviour therapy, problem-solving therapy, self-control therapy and Coping with Depression course) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all CBT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, third wave CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25411559

  8. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809

  9. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  10. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed. PMID:27024999

  11. Cellular therapy in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Parida, Shreemanta K; Madansein, Rajhmun; Singh, Nalini; Padayatchi, Nesri; Master, Iqbal; Naidu, Kantharuben; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs), as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy. PMID:25809753

  12. Gallbladder stones: shockwave therapy.

    PubMed

    Sackmann, M

    1992-11-01

    Within the past 7 years, gallbladder lithotripsy by shockwaves has been proven to be a safe and effective non-invasive therapy for selected patients with gallstone disease. While regulatory decisions prevent shockwave therapy from being used more frequently in the USA, the number of patients treated in Europe and Asia is increasing constantly. At our institution, a relatively constant number of about 250 new patients per year have been treated since 1988 (Figure 4). About 20% of patients with gallstones are suitable for shockwave therapy according to present criteria. The rate of evacuation of all fragments is determined by the initial stone number and stone size, the success at stone fragmentation, adjuvant bile acid dissolution therapy, and gallbladder contractility. In contrast to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Dubois et al, 1989; Perissat et al, 1989; Southern Surgeons Club, 1991), shockwave therapy does not require general anaesthesia. And in contrast to direct contact dissolution therapy of gallbladder stones using MTBE (Thistle et al, 1989), lithotripsy is non-invasive. In the majority of patients, complete fragment disappearance takes several months. Preliminary analyses of the cost-effectiveness of lithotripsy have revealed that lithotripsy, including retreatments and bile acid medication for recurrent stones, costs about as much as open cholecystectomy (Rothschild et al, 1990; Bass et al, 1991). The ideal patient for gallbladder lithotripsy has a single radiolucent stone < or = 20-25 mm in diameter in a functioning gallbladder (Figure 1). In patients with such stones, nearly all studies have confirmed a favourable outcome with rapid clearance of all fragments and a relatively low rate of stone recurrence. For carefully selected patients, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is therefore an attractive non-invasive therapy.

  13. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: dynamic MLC (DMLC) therapy, multisegment therapy and tomotherapy. An example of QA in DMLC therapy.

    PubMed

    Webb, S

    1998-10-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy will make a quantum leap in tumor control. It is the new radiation therapy for the new millennium. The major methods to achieve IMRT are: 1. dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) therapy, 2. multisegment therapy, and 3. tomotherapy. The principles of these 3 techniques are briefly reviewed. Each technique presents unique QA issues which are outlined. As an example this paper will present the results of a recent new study of an important QA concern in DMLC therapy.

  14. Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, Arlene

    2003-09-10

    The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

  15. 75 FR 50880 - TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB36 TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense. ACTION: Final... engage in referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy,...

  16. Incretin-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Neumiller, Joshua J

    2015-01-01

    Incretin-based therapies are steadily gaining clinical popularity, with many more products in the developmental pipeline. Current treatment recommendations incorporate GLP-1 RAs and DPP-4 inhibitors as important agents for consideration in the treatment of T2DM owing to their low hypoglycemia risk, ability to address postprandial hyperglycemia (DPP-4 inhibitors and short-acting GLP-1 RAs), and potential for weight reduction (GLP-1 RAs). These properties may likewise prove advantageous in older adults in whom hypoglycemia is particularly undesirable, although older adults may be more prone to the nausea and vomiting associated with GLP-1 RA therapy. Other safety issues for incretin-based therapies, such as pancreatitis, C-cell hyperplasia, and renal failure, should be considered when choosing an appropriate patient to receive such therapies. Ongoing CV outcome studies will further inform the health care community regarding the CV safety of incretin-based therapies. The availability of both short-acting and long-acting GLP-1 RAs currently allows practitioners to consider individualized blood glucose trends and therapeutic needs when choosing an optimal agent. PMID:25456646

  17. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  18. Evaluation of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Because children of mentally disordered parents have an increased risk of becoming subjects of mental disorder and psychological problems, adult psychiatry has increasingly paid attention to the patients' parental skills. This study includes 31 families with children younger than 18 years of age where the parents were admitted to family therapy in an open psychiatric ward. The average number of sessions was seven, and the diagnoses of severe stress and of adjustment disorder were the most common. The aim of the study was to measure changes in the family climate during the period of therapy. The instrument used was the Family Environment Scale (FES), a self-rating questionnaire that measures the parents' experience of family environment. The change of family environment is related to its influence on children's well-being and development. The study finds that family therapy has resulted in positive changes of the parents' experience of the family climate.

  19. [Systemic therapy of rosacea].

    PubMed

    Schaller, M; Belge, K

    2013-07-01

    The only medication which is authorized for therapy of rosacea is doxycycline. It is usually administered at a dose of 40-100 mg daily for 3-6 months. In case of a lack of efficacy or in case of contraindications (e.g. pregnancy, children below 8 years), azithromycin or metronidazole are alternative systemic therapies. Those forms of rosacea which involve hyperplasia of sebaceous glands respond well to retinoids such as isotretinoin. Dapsone has been successfully used for the treatment of granulomatous rosacea and rosacea fulminans. Erythema can be reduced by use of beta blockers. If patients do not respond to various therapies or if they are immunocompromised, the differential diagnosis of demodicosis should be considered; here the treatment is oral ivermectin. Some forms of rosacea (rosacea fulminans and granulomatous rosacea) may be treated initially with oral corticosteroids. Ophthalmic rosacea is treated topically as well as with tetracyclines or macrolides.

  20. Cell Therapy in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  1. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

  2. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  3. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  4. Audit of oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Gravil, J H; O'Neill, V J; Stevenson, R D

    1997-06-01

    We audited the use of oxygen in our hospital. Over three days we found 119 patients using oxygen, 21 wearing their mask incorrectly or not at all. The commonest indication was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Forty patients had no record of arterial gas analysis. Of those who had, 29 did not require oxygen and the average time from last arterial gas analysis was 5.7 days and only eight patients were being monitored with an oximeter. Taking into account the risk of exacerbating carbon dioxide retention and the problems that arise when discharging a patient who has been receiving oxygen therapy for the duration of their admission, we fee oxygen therapy should only be administered with the knowledge of the arterial gases and with frequent reassessment during therapy.

  5. [Therapy of thyroid nodules].

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent in Germany. In about every fourth person thyroid nodules can be detected. Most of them are benign. Signs for malignancy are hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, an unregular margin and increased blood perfusion. There is no strict indication for the treatment of benign nodules. In most cases iodine supplementation is sufficient. A combination therapy with levothyroxine and iodine is more efficient for the treatment of larger nodules. Subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by an adenoma does not necessarily need to be treated, whereas manifest hyperthyroidism needs to treated in most cases with antithyroid drug therapy. Radioiodine therapy is the classical indication for the treatment of unifocal autonomous adenomas. A largely increased thyroid gland with and without uni- / multifocal adenomas are often operated. PMID:25831118

  6. Therapy for neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti

    2004-01-01

    Therapy for neurocysticercosis has advanced during the last 20 years with the advent of albendazole (Zentel) and praziquantel (Cysticide). Albendazole is the current medication of choice for the treatment of neurocysticercosis and is recommended for symptomatic patients with multiple viable cysts in the brain parenchyma. Albendazole may also be useful in extraparenchymal cysticercosis, especially in the subarachnoid racemose form, when complete surgical resection of the cysts is usually impracticable. Currently, there is an intense debate over the value and safety of anticysticercal therapy. Causes for failure of anticysticercal therapy include high inter-individual variability in plasma concentration of albendazole sulfoxide and the complex interactions of several drugs with the albendazole metabolite. Furthermore, albendazole sulfoxide is an enantiomeric mixture of (+)- and (-)-albendazole sulfoxide with accumulation of the (+)-enantiomer in the cerebrospinal fluid. However, the question over which enantiomer is effective against cysticerci remains to be clarified.

  7. Engineered T cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Field, Anne-Christine; Qasim, Waseem

    2015-11-04

    Alongside advancements in gene therapy for inherited immune disorders, the need for effective alternative therapeutic options for other conditions has resulted in an expansion in the field of research for T cell gene therapy. T cells are easily obtained and can be induced to divide robustly ex vivo, a characteristic that allows them to be highly permissible to viral vector-mediated introduction of transgenes. Pioneering clinical trials targeting cancers and infectious diseases have provided safety and feasibility data and important information about persistence of engineered cells in vivo. Here, we review clinical experiences with γ-retroviral and lentiviral vectors and consider the potential of integrating transposon-based vectors as well as specific genome editing with designer nucleases in engineered T cell therapies.

  8. Vaginal gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia; Del Pozo-Rodríguez, Ana; Isla, Arantxazu; Solinís, María Angeles

    2015-09-15

    In the last years, vaginal gene therapy has gained increasing attention mainly for the treatment and control of sexually transmitted infections. DNA delivery has been also suggested to improve reproductive outcomes for women with deficiencies in the female reproductive tract. Although no product has reached clinical phase, preclinical investigations reveal the potential of the vaginal tract as an effective administration route for gene delivery. This review focuses on the main advantages and challenges of vaginal gene therapy, and on the most used nucleic acid delivery systems, including viral and non-viral vectors. Additionally, the advances in the application of vaginal gene therapy for the treatment and/or prevention of infectious diseases such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the human papillomavirus (HPV) or the herpes simplex virus (HSV) are presented.

  9. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness.

  10. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction.

  11. Psychodynamic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa Hm; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different psychodynamic therapy approaches (drive/structural, relational and integrative analytic models) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural, 'third-wave' CBT) for acute depression.

  12. Psychodynamic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Moore, Theresa HM; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different psychodynamic therapy approaches (drive/structural, relational and integrative analytic models) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all psychodynamic therapy approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural, ‘third-wave’ CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25267905

  13. [Photodynamic therapy of cholangiocarcinomas].

    PubMed

    Ulstrup, Thomas; Pedersen, Finn Møller

    2013-02-25

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) account for approximately 3% of all gastrointestinal cancers with an incidence of about three per 100,000. 70% of CC are perihilar lesions and can be classified according to the Bismuth-Corlette system. At the time of dia-gnosis less than 30% are candidates for complete resection. For nonresectable CC median survival is 4-6 months. Since biliary obstruction is the most common cause of death, biliary stenting has been the standard palliative therapy. Several studies have confirmed that administering photodynamic therapy to perihilar CC improves quality of life and increases median survival time. PMID:23608009

  14. Cancer Therapy with Antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Knudsen, Helge

    2005-10-26

    Starting in 2003 the AD-4/ACE collaboration has studied the biological effects of antiprotons annihilating in a human tissue like material on live V-79 Chinese Hamster cells. The main goal of the work is to prove the efficacy of antiprotons for cancer therapy. In this report we discuss a critical point to be considered carefully for all particle beam radiation therapies, namely the loss of primary particles from the beam on the way to a tumor seated some distance below the surface.

  15. Autologous Therapies in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sumir; Mahajan, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Amarbir

    2014-01-01

    Autologous therapy is a therapeutic intervention that uses an individual’s cells or tissues, which are processed outside the body, and reintroduced into the donor. This emerging field presently represents a mere tip of the iceberg with much knowledge and applications yet to be discovered. It, being free from risks of hypersensitivity reactions and transmission of infectious agents, has been explored in various fields, such as plastic surgery, orthopedics, and dermatology. This review article focuses on various forms of autologous therapies used in dermatology along with their applications and mechanisms of action. PMID:25584137

  16. Gene therapy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bansal, K; Engelhard, H H

    2000-09-01

    "Gene therapy" can be defined as the transfer of genetic material into a patient's cells for therapeutic purposes. To date, a diverse and creative assortment of treatment strategies utilizing gene therapy have been devised, including gene transfer for modulating the immune system, enzyme prodrug ("suicide gene") therapy, oncolytic therapy, replacement/therapeutic gene transfer, and antisense therapy. For malignant glioma, gene-directed prodrug therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was the first gene therapy attempted clinically. A variety of different strategies have now been pursued experimentally and in clinical trials. Although, to date, gene therapy for brain tumors has been found to be reasonably safe, concerns still exist regarding issues related to viral delivery, transduction efficiency, potential pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Improved viral vectors are being sought, and potential use of gene therapy in combination with other treatments is being investigated.

  17. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  18. Complementary therapies in health care.

    PubMed

    van der Riet, Pamela

    2011-03-01

    In the past two decades, complementary therapies have grown in popularity in Western countries. The interest in complementary therapies could be explained by a "new consciousness" and the shift to a postmodern society. These therapies, embracing holistic practice, are derived from traditions of Eastern healing. There are many advantages of the complementary therapies that are playing a therapeutic role in the health care of individuals and, through the use of such therapies, nursing is developing a richness in holistic care. However, there are still barriers to be overcome; namely, the reluctance to accept complementary therapies in many contemporary healthcare settings. Through research and education, these barriers can be overcome.

  19. Normalizing Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congdon, Kristin G.

    1990-01-01

    Contends that art therapy promotes mental health beyond diagnosing and treating illness. Outlines four overlapping ways that art contributes to mental health: (1) giving people a sense of identity and place; (2) conferring status; (3) expanding and directing thought processes; and (4) utilizing the security of the rhythmic "takeover" phenomenon.…

  20. Medical therapy of urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Micali, S; Grande, M; Sighinolfi, M C; De Carne, C; De Stefani, S; Bianchi, G

    2006-11-01

    Nephrolithiasis treatment has become easier and less invasive with the development of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) and endourologic techniques. However, medical therapy represents a well-established and complementary approach that can improve the efficacy of SWL and endourology. During recent decades, pharmacologic intervention has become more effective in stone disease: drugs can control the pain of renal colic, interfere at various levels in lithogenesis, and contribute to the expulsion of stones. It is well known that lithogenesis is a multifactorial process influenced by environmental-nutritional factors (low urinary volume, diet rich in animal protein, etc) and metabolic alterations; i.e., hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, and deficiency of stone-inhibiting factors (citrate, magnesium, glycosaminoglycans [GAGs]). Specific drugs such as citrate, allopurinol, and thiazide represent highly effective treatments for the promoting factors. Furthermore, recent findings suggest an interesting role for a phytotherapeutic agent, Phillantus niruri, and its inhibitory action on calcium oxalate crystallization related to the higher incorporation of GAGs into the calculi. Another step forward in medical management of stone disease is expulsive therapy. Many studies have proven the efficacy of medical expulsive therapy with nifedipine and alpha-blockers: their specific action on ureteral smooth muscle in association with anti-edema drugs accounts for their efficacy in expelling ureteral stones. In this paper, we provide an update on the medical treatment of stone disease, focusing our attention on what is known and what is new in renal colic and litholithic and expulsive medical therapy.

  1. Ivey's Developmental Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    Ivey's Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT) is an innovative and comprehensive approach to helping which views client functioning in terms of cognitive-developmental functioning. DCT approximates a metamodel of helping in which treatment strategies are logically derived from and integrated with the cognitive-developmental level of the…

  2. Adventure Therapy with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Christine Lynn; Tucker, Anita; Russell, Keith C.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Gass, Michael A.; Gillis, H. L.; Behrens, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This state of knowledge article provides an overview of Adventure Therapy (AT) as it is practiced with adolescents in North America, presenting (a) current findings in AT research with adolescents, (b) critical issues in AT, (c) the need for training and professional development in AT, and (d) professionalization in AT. Implications of current…

  3. Regulated Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Breger, Ludivine; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Quintino, Luis; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of monogenic and multifactorial neurological disorders. It can be used to replace a missing gene and mutated gene or downregulate a causal gene. Despite the versatility of gene therapy, one of the main limitations lies in the irreversibility of the process: once delivered to target cells, the gene of interest is constitutively expressed and cannot be removed. Therefore, efficient, safe and long-term gene modification requires a system allowing fine control of transgene expression.Different systems have been developed over the past decades to regulate transgene expression after in vivo delivery, either at transcriptional or post-translational levels. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on current regulatory system used in the context of gene therapy for neurological disorders. Systems using external regulation of transgenes using antibiotics are commonly used to control either gene expression using tetracycline-controlled transcription or protein levels using destabilizing domain technology. Alternatively, specific promoters of genes that are regulated by disease mechanisms, increasing expression as the disease progresses or decreasing expression as disease regresses, are also examined. Overall, this chapter discusses advantages and drawbacks of current molecular methods for regulated gene therapy in the central nervous system.

  4. Radionuclide therapy beyond radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Michael

    2012-10-01

    For decades, Iodine-131 has been used for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. In recent years, increasingly, other radiopharmaceuticals are in clinical use in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Although in principle these therapies-as in all applications of radionuclides-special radiation protection measures are required, a separate nuclear medicine therapy department is not necessary in many cases due to the lower or lack of gamma radiation. In the following article, four different radionuclide therapies are more closely presented which are emerging in the last years. One of them is the "Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy," the so-called PRRT in which radiolabeled somatostatin (SST)-receptor(R) ligands are used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20-positive cells, the so-called radioimmunotherapy is used in the treatment of certain forms of malignant lymphoma. In primary or secondary liver tumors, the (90)Y-labeled particles can be administered. Last but not the least, the palliative approach of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is noted in patients with painful bone metastases.

  5. Therapy for Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmann, Michael R.

    A family therapy model, based on a conceptualization of the family as a behavioral system whose members interact adaptively so that an optimal level of functioning is maintained within the system, is described. The divergent roots of this conceptualization are discussed briefly, as are the treatment approaches based on it. The author's model,…

  6. Vasculitis with Alcofenac Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Billings, R. A.; Burry, H. C.; Emslie, F. S.; Kerr, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Three patients developed a vasculitis while taking alclofenac. Two recovered with corticosteroid therapy, and the third, who had continued to take the drug for a further week despite epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematuria, and cutaneous vasculitis, developed a more persistent vasculitis with histological evidence of progressive renal involvement. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4279126

  7. [Insulin therapy of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Lechleitner, Monika; Roden, Michael; Weitgasser, Raimund; Ludvik, Bernhard; Fasching, Peter; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Schernthaner, Guntram; Prager, Rudolf; Wascher, Thomas C

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Thus, reaching treatment targets with regard to control of glycemia is a central goal in the therapy of diabetic patients. The present article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the practical use of insulin according to current scientific evidence and clinical studies. PMID:27052221

  8. Transpersonal Art Therapy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Michael; Farrelly-Hansen, Mimi; Marek, Bernie; Swan-Foster, Nora; Wallingford, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the task of training future art therapists through a unique branch of transpersonal psychology referred to as "contemplative education." Discusses contemplative practices, such as meditation, and their relationship to creating art. Offers a definition of transpersonal art therapy as well as a literature review. (Contains 80 references.)…

  9. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  10. Molecular therapy for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Karpati, G; Li, H; Nalbantoglu, J

    1999-10-01

    Glioblastoma (GB), the relatively frequent and most malignant form of primary brain tumor, is fatal within 1 to 2 years of onset of symptoms, despite conventional therapy. Molecular therapy promises to be an effective and possibly curative treatment. Several molecular strategies have been tested, either in animal models or clinical trials. These include: prodrug activating systems, introduction of tumor suppressor or cell-cycle-related genes, inhibition of growth factors and/or their receptors, inhibition of neovascularization, immunomodulatory maneuvers, oncolytic viruses and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases. Of special interest for the development of optimal molecular therapy of GB, is the choice of the most efficient and least toxic gene vectors (adenovirus, retrovirus, herpes simplex virus), the route of administration of the therapeutic agent (intratumoral with or without debulking and intracarotid), avoidance of collateral damage to the perineoplastic neuropil and adequate preclinical studies. The ultimate molecular therapy will probably involve the application of multiple simultaneous (combinatorial) therapeutic modalities. The safety and efficiency of these in humans can only be judged by properly controlled therapeutic trials. PMID:11249660

  11. Computers and occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    English, C B

    1975-01-01

    The benefits and applications of computer science for occupational therapy are explored and a basic, functional description of the computer and computer programming is presented. Potential problems and advantages of computer utilization are compared and examples of existing computer systems in health fields are cited. Methods for successfully introducing computers are discussed.

  12. Sex Therapy and Mastectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Mildred Hope

    1975-01-01

    Because the emotional trauma associated with a mastectomy exceeds the physical trauma, the recovery of the woman is greatly affected by the response of her husband or lover. Sex therapy, therefore, involves the couple. The approach described is aimed at assisting the couple to confront and integrate the mastectomy experience. (Author)

  13. Adlerian Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the competencies basic to Adlerian therapy--including influencing psychological movement, working with the family communication system, focusing on the real issue, aligning goals and dealing with resistance, stimulating social interest, encouragement, and tentative hypotheses, and antisuggestion. A specific process for helping the family…

  14. Research in Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    This series of papers was presented in a symposium on behavior therapy. Each paper represents a separate study focusing on one aspect of behavior modification. The issue of reinforcement is prominant with regard to its type and source. Methods of self-reinforcement and older-peer modeling are studied. The suggestion that subjects who reinforce…

  15. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function.

  16. [Manual therapy in general practice].

    PubMed

    Березуцкий, Владимир И

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to manual therapy practice for diagnostics and treatment of vertebrogenic pain syndrome in general practice. Analytical roundup of sources proves medical advantage of implementation of manual therapy basic methods by general practice specialists. PMID:27487550

  17. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  18. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... types of therapy work best when you can go on an intensive schedule (i.e., every day ...

  19. [Manual therapy in general practice].

    PubMed

    Березуцкий, Владимир И

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to manual therapy practice for diagnostics and treatment of vertebrogenic pain syndrome in general practice. Analytical roundup of sources proves medical advantage of implementation of manual therapy basic methods by general practice specialists.

  20. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  1. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy for testicular cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy rays (such as gamma rays ... machine outside the body is known as external beam radiation . The treatment is much like getting an ...

  2. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laser surgery Cancer cells are killed by laser beams.  Electrodessication The cancer is dried with an electric ... a chemical reaction that kills nearby cells. EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY External beam radiation therapy may be ...

  3. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  4. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work? Oxygen therapy provides you with ... pass through your nose or mouth like it does with the other delivery systems. A humidifier adds ...

  5. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  6. New Oral Therapies for Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien; Dong, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral therapies for psoriasis, including methotrexate, cyclosporine, and acitretin, have generally unfavorable safety profiles and are not ideal for long-standing use. Thus, new oral therapies are necessary for patients with more moderate disease, patients who prefer oral treatments to injectable biologies, and patients who failed conventional therapies. The authors review here the clinical and safety evidence of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, apremilast, janus kinase inhibitors, including tofacitinib, and fumarie acid esters as additional options in oral psoriasis therapy.

  7. New Oral Therapies for Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien; Dong, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral therapies for psoriasis, including methotrexate, cyclosporine, and acitretin, have generally unfavorable safety profiles and are not ideal for long-standing use. Thus, new oral therapies are necessary for patients with more moderate disease, patients who prefer oral treatments to injectable biologies, and patients who failed conventional therapies. The authors review here the clinical and safety evidence of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, apremilast, janus kinase inhibitors, including tofacitinib, and fumarie acid esters as additional options in oral psoriasis therapy. PMID:27672415

  8. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated.

  9. Palliative Therapy for Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... based on the extent of gallbladder cancer Palliative therapy for gallbladder cancer Palliative therapy is treatment given to help control or reduce ... to advance quickly, doctors try to use palliative therapies that are less likely to affect a person’s ...

  10. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  11. Ryodoraku therapy for migraine headache.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Sadove, M S; Kim, S I; Lee, M H; Cheng, D

    1975-01-01

    The authors discuss Ryodoraku electric acupuncture therapy in detail in Part I. The results of the treatment of migraine headache (20 cases) by Ryodoraku therapy were investigated in part II. In the present study 15 out of 20 patients achieved good to excellent responses to this type of therapy. PMID:1119438

  12. Schema Therapy in Sex Therapy: A Theoretical Conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Derby, Danny S; Peleg-Sagy, Tal; Doron, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Schema therapy is an integrative approach of psychotherapy developed by Jeffrey E. Young. Its aim is to help clients explore and understand their deep emotional needs and meet them in a healthy manner. It is suitable for complex pathologies, such as comorbidities and personality disorders. In sex therapy, schema therapy can serve as a method for a deep, evidence-based, integrative conceptualization of a client's difficulties and needs. However, its principles have never been demonstrated in sex therapy. In this paper, we briefly review schema therapy and introduce schema domains. We bring a case study of a couple undergoing sex therapy from the cognitive-behavioral perspective. We then return to the same case study, in order to demonstrate the usefulness of a schema therapy conceptualization.

  13. Experimental therapies: gene therapies and oncolytic viruses.

    PubMed

    Hulou, M Maher; Cho, Choi-Fong; Chiocca, E Antonio; Bjerkvig, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Over the past three decades, the overall survival time has only improved by a few months, therefore novel alternative treatment modalities are needed to improve clinical management strategies. Such strategies should ultimately extend patient survival. At present, the extensive insight into the molecular biology of gliomas, as well as into genetic engineering techniques, has led to better decision processes when it comes to modifying the genome to accommodate suicide genes, cytokine genes, and tumor suppressor genes that may kill cancer cells, and boost the host defensive immune system against neoantigenic cytoplasmic and nuclear targets. Both nonreplicative viral vectors and replicating oncolytic viruses have been developed for brain cancer treatment. Stem cells, microRNAs, nanoparticles, and viruses have also been designed. These have been armed with transgenes or peptides, and have been used both in laboratory-based experiments as well as in clinical trials, with the aim of improving selective killing of malignant glioma cells while sparing normal brain tissue. This chapter reviews the current status of gene therapies for malignant gliomas and highlights the most promising viral and cell-based strategies under development. PMID:26948355

  14. [Drug therapy of pain].

    PubMed

    Meier, P J; Ziegler, W H

    1989-08-01

    Pain represents the most frequent complaint for which patients ask for medical help. Successful treatment of acute and chronic pain syndromes largely depends on the knowledge and the therapy of the underlying disease process and on the rational use of analgesics, such as the nonnarcotic analgesic-antipyretics, the anti-inflammatory agents and the opioid analgesics. In addition, so-called 'adjuvant' analgesics of different chemical structures can be used in special clinical conditions to increase the efficacy of the common analgesics. For optimal therapy, the selection and dosing of a specific agent has to be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. For this purpose it is important to follow some general principles of pain management and to consider the relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the various analgesics. This overview summarizes the most important pharmacological properties of the widely used analgetic drugs, with special emphasis on their risk-benefit ratio in various clinical situations.

  15. Marketing occupational therapy services.

    PubMed

    Kautzmann, L N

    1985-01-01

    The ability to understand and appropriately apply business skills is a key component in the development of a successful private practice. Marketing is one of the business skills occupational therapists need to have in order to take full advantage of the opportunities available to entrepeneurs in the health care industry. The purpose of this article is to present a structured approach to marketing occupational therapy services through the use of a marketing plan. The four components of a marketing plan, a situation analysis, the identification of problems, opportunities, and target markets, the development of a marketing strategy for each targeted market, and a method to monitor the plan, are discussed. Applications to occupational therapy practice are suggested. The use of a marketing plan as a method for organizing and focusing marketing efforts is an effective means of supporting and enhancing the development of a private practice.

  16. [Nonpharmacological diabetes therapy].

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephan

    2006-12-15

    Insulin resistance caused by obesity and lack of physical activity plays a major role for the development of type 2 diabetes. If the reduced insulin action cannot be compensated by overproduction of insulin, glucose regulation disorder is developing. In addition, other trigger factors such as television viewing, sleep, alcohol or smoking are discussed. During the past years an intensification of pharmacological therapy was believed to be the major goal for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, now the value of nonpharmacological treatment improves. While in the past only nutrition was in the view of lifestyle research, recently a number of studies on the value of physical activity were published. In this paper an overview of recent studies showing the therapeutic potential of nonpharmacological therapies will be given. It will also be shown that these measures will not only optimize hyperglycaemia but also all other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:17171321

  17. Holistic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Magarey, C

    1983-01-01

    Medical technology has not reduced the death rate from cancer for 50 yrs, in spite of its physical and psychological morbidity. A broader approach is required and investigation of certain apparently successful unorthodox holistic cancer therapies suggests that the personality of the therapist is crucial. The spiritually convinced, charismatic healer has all the qualities of a meditator, and physiological measurement demonstrates that such a healer induces the state of meditation in his patients. Meditation is associated not only with physiological rest and stability, but also with the reduction of psychological stress and the development of a more positive attitude to life with an inner sense of calmness, strength and fulfilment. Holistic cancer therapy should include meditation, especially by the therapist; and psychosomatic research, like physics, should include the study of consciousness.

  18. [Drug therapy for cough].

    PubMed

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered. PMID:27089619

  19. Thiamine in nutrition therapy.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishnan; Manzanares, William; Joseph, Kimberly

    2012-02-01

    Clinicians involved with nutrition therapy traditionally concentrated on macronutrients and have generally neglected the importance of micronutrients, both vitamins and trace elements. Micronutrients, which work in unison, are important for fundamental biological processes and enzymatic reactions, and deficiencies may lead to disastrous consequences. This review concentrates on vitamin B(1), or thiamine. Alcoholism is not the only risk factor for thiamine deficiency, and thiamine deficiency is often not suspected in seemingly well-nourished or even overnourished patients. Deficiency of thiamine has historically been described as beriberi but may often be seen in current-day practice, manifesting as neurologic abnormalities, mental changes, congestive heart failure, unexplained metabolic acidosis, and so on. This review explains the importance of thiamine in nutrition therapy and offers practical tips on prevention and management of deficiency states.

  20. Collaboration in Family Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, Elena Hontoria; McCart, Michael R.; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes and illustrates the collaboration strategies used by several family therapies. The strategies used within multisystemic therapy (MST) are emphasized because it has demonstrated high rates of treatment completion and favorable outcomes in multiple clinical trials. Many of the collaboration strategies in family work are common to other forms of evidence-based psychotherapy (e.g., reflective listening, empathy, reframing, and displays of authenticity and flexibility); however, some strategies are unique to family systems treatments, such as the identification of strengths across multiple systems in the youth’s social ecology and the maintenance of a family (versus a child) focus during treatment. A case example illustrates collaboration and engagement in the context of MST. PMID:23616297

  1. [Drug therapy for acromegaly].

    PubMed

    Góth, Miklós

    2013-09-29

    Prolonged overproduction of growth hormone, like insulin-like growth factor-1 hypersecretion leads to acromegaly in adults. This is associated with several co-morbidities and increased mortality. Despite typical clinical features and modern diagnostic tools, it often takes years to diagnose from the onset of the disease. The aims of the treatment are to reduce or control tumour growth, inhibit growth hormone hypersecretion, normalize insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, treat co-morbidities and, therefore, reduce mortality. There are three approaches for therapy: surgery, medical management (dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogues and growth hormone receptor antagonist), and radiotherapy. Efficient therapy of the disease is based on the appropriate multidisciplinary team management. The review provides a summary of medical treatment for acromegaly. PMID:24058097

  2. [Drug therapy for cough].

    PubMed

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered.

  3. Photon activation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, R G; Bond, V P

    1984-12-01

    It is suggested here that significant advantages should accrue from the use of 40 keV photons from implanted sources of 145Sm. These energies should stimulate Auger electron cascades from IdUrd, as well as produce non-repairable damage from radiosensitization. The use of low dose rates (approximately 10 rd/hr) should allow repair in normal tissues exposed to the activating photons. Utilization of this technique with brain tumors should minimize problems associated with radiosensitization of normal tissues, as CNS tissues do not synthesize DNA. The deposition of high LET radiations selectively in tumor cells provides unique advantages not available to either conventional therapy or other forms of particle therapy (fast neutrons, protons, pions, heavy ions). PMID:6515666

  4. Acute oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Fazal; Campbell, Ian Allen

    2004-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is a central part of our clinical practice and is widely used in many pulmonary and non-pulmonary conditions worldwide but it is sometimes used unnecessarily and can be harmful. Optimum use is not only important for patient care but is also sound fiscally because of the expense of oxygen and the cost of devices utilised. This article is aimed both at reviewing available research and guidelines for the use of oxygen and providing knowledge of different administering and monitoring devices and equipment. Various hospital based audits have shown oxygen as being poorly prescribed and inappropriately administered and it is important for everyone involved in patient care to understand the basics of oxygen therapy before optimum practice can be implemented and followed. PMID:15225466

  5. Regenerative photonic therapy: Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman

    2012-09-01

    After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

  6. Restenosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Denes, Laszlo; Entz, Laszlo; Jancsik, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    The vascular disease involves imbalanced function of the blood vessels. Risk factors playing a role in development of impaired vessel functions will be briefly discussed. In ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), ischemic hypoxia is one of the cardinal risk factors of restenosis. Various insults are shown to initiate the phenotype switch of VSMCs. The pathological process, leading to activated inflammatory process, complement activation, and release of growth factors, initiate the proliferation of VSMCs in the media and cause luminal narrowing and impaired vascular function. The review summarizes the alteration process and demonstrates some of the clinical genetic background showing the role of complement and the genotypes of mannose-binding lectin (MBL2). Those could be useful markers of carotid restenosis after stent implantation. Gene therapy and therapeutic angiogenesis is proposed for therapy in restenosis. We suggest a drug candidate (iroxanadine), which ensures a noninvasive treatment by reverse regulation of the highly proliferating VSMCs and the disturbed function of ECs. PMID:22489270

  7. AFRICAN ABORIGINAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Philip A. E.

    1920-01-01

    No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265

  8. Complementary therapy in practice.

    PubMed

    Crowther, D

    Dorothy Crowther describes the evolution of the Wirral Holistic Care Services, a company dedicated to helping people cope with cancer. Based on a recognition that such patients want more than the standard NHS fare, initial evaluations suggest that the company is going some way to meeting the extra needs of this group. Available therapies include aromatherapy, kinesiology, reflexology and meditation, incorporating a model of care which endorses putting the patient first.

  9. Emerging therapies in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Layton, Alison; Thiboutot, Diane

    2013-12-01

    Rosacea is a common skin disorder with multiple symptoms. The emergence of research that furthers understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms has created new targets for disease treatment. Specifically, there is a need for new treatments that address the various erythematic symptoms associated with rosacea. Systemic and topical therapies have both yielded positive results in treating rosacea with various medications. Subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline is one such promising treatment. Development of novel products in the near future should help achieve more satisfactory outcomes for patients.

  10. Torticollis following radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Landan, I.; Cullis, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with adenocarcinoma in the apical portion of the lung producing a Pancoast's syndrome developed torticollis a few months after receiving a course of radiation therapy (5,040 rad) to his upper chest and neck. We describe this case, in which local radiation fibrosis of the neck muscles and perhaps segmental demyelination of the 11th cranial nerve resulted in peripheral nervous system lesion causing torticollis.

  11. Vacuum bell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sesia, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background For specific therapy to correct pectus excavatum (PE), conservative treatment with the vacuum bell (VB) was introduced more than 10 years ago in addition to surgical repair. Preliminary results using the VB were encouraging. We report on our 13-year experience with the VB treatment including the intraoperative use during the Nuss procedure and present some technical innovations. Methods A VB with a patient-activated hand pump is used to create a vacuum at the anterior chest wall. Three different sizes of vacuum bells, as well as a model fitted for young women, exist. The appropriate size is selected according to the individual patient’s age and ventral surface. The device should be used at home for a minimum of 30 minutes (twice a day), and may be used up to a maximum of several hours daily. The intensity of the applied negative pressure can be evaluated with an integrated pressure gauge during follow-up visits. A prototype of an electronic model enables us to measure the correlation between the applied negative pressure and the elevation of the anterior chest wall. Results Since 2003, approx. 450 patients between 2 to 61 years of age started the VB therapy. Age and gender specific differences, depth of PE, symmetry or asymmetry, and concomitant malformations such as scoliosis and/or kyphosis influence the clinical course and success of VB therapy. According to our experience, we see three different groups of patients. Immediate elevation of the sternum was confirmed thoracoscopically during the Nuss procedure in every patient. Conclusions The VB therapy has been established as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients suffering from PE. The initial results up to now are encouraging, but long-term results comprising more than 15 years are so far lacking, and further evaluation and follow-up studies are necessary. PMID:27747177

  12. [Therapy through film].

    PubMed

    Nicli, Pierrette

    2012-01-01

    For psychiatric patients, playing the role of their life, producing a film, editing it and presenting it to the public with the support of a group made up of patients and caregivers is a real form of self-distancing, a type of therapy. The video group from the Saint Ouen day hospital has been carrying out this creative and therapeutic work for several years. Screenings and exchanges between care centres are regularly organised.

  13. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pavlos, Rebecca; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual’s environment that may be dynamic over time]) information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care. PMID:23226059

  14. Proton beam therapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. [Antithrombotic therapy and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Chauleur, Céline; Raia, Tiphaine; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is about one event per 1000 pregnancies and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PC) occurred in 15%. Knowing the biological combined with clinical risk factors would help to prevent problems during the pregnancy. Several antithrombotic therapies exist, including very recent ones but LMWH and aspirin are still molecules of choice. The women should be assessed for VTE and PC risk in order to improve the outcome.

  16. Danazol therapy in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Heaton, D C; Wyld, P J; Conder, J L

    1986-03-26

    Three patients with severe haemophilia A and one patient with moderately severe Christmas disease were given danazol and placebo in a double blind cross over trial to study the effects on haemostatic variables and bleeding tendency. In each case there was a shortening of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) during danazol therapy but factor VIII and IX levels did not show any consistent change and there was no improvement in the bleeding tendency.

  17. Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... For example, some people combine yoga with meditation. Physical (body) therapies Physical, or body, therapies include such activities as ... with specific health problems. Complementary therapies can include physical therapies (such as yoga and acupuncture), relaxation techniques (such ...

  18. Type of Cancer Treatment: Targeted Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Information about the role that targeted therapies play in cancer treatment. Includes how targeted therapies work against cancer, who receives targeted therapies, common side effects, and what to expect when having targeted therapies.

  19. [Shockwave therapy of gallstones].

    PubMed

    Sackmann, M; Holl, J; Klüppelberg, U; von Ritter, C

    1993-09-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a helpful adjunct for those bile duct stones which cannot be extracted by routine endoscopic measures including mechanical lithotripsy. For very large or impacted stones in the bile duct or stones in the intrahepatic biliary tree, and also for stones located in proximity to a bile duct stenosis, shock-wave therapy has proven to be safe and successful. More than 85% of the patients become free of stones after this therapy; they otherwise would have had to undergo high-risk open bile duct surgery. For gallbladder calculi, the pivotal factor for complete fragment disappearance after shock-wave therapy is sufficient stone disintegration. Only if fragments not larger than 3 mm are achieved, complete expulsion and/or dissolution of these fragments may be expected in a high percentage of the patients. Optimal candidates include patients with a single, radiolucent stone in a well-contracting gallbladder. For this group, ESWL is a safe and effective noninvasive therapeutic alternative.

  20. Microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans

    1999-10-01

    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  1. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Konopka, K; Goslinski, T

    2007-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), also known as photoradiation therapy, phototherapy, or photochemotherapy, involves the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer) that is activated by exposure to light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. The transfer of energy from the activated photosensitizer to available oxygen results in the formation of toxic oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and free radicals. These very reactive chemical species can damage proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and other cellular components. Applications of PDT in dentistry are growing rapidly: the treatment of oral cancer, bacterial and fungal infection therapies, and the photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of the malignant transformation of oral lesions. PDT has shown potential in the treatment of oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, and head and neck cancer. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) has been efficacious in the treatment of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections. The absence of genotoxic and mutagenic effects of PDT is an important factor for long-term safety during treatment. PDT also represents a novel therapeutic approach in the management of oral biofilms. Disruption of plaque structure has important consequences for homeostasis within the biofilm. Studies are now leading toward selective photosensitizers, since killing the entire flora leaves patients open to opportunistic infections. Dentists deal with oral infections on a regular basis. The oral cavity is especially suitable for PACT, because it is relatively accessible to illumination. PMID:17652195

  2. [Topical therapy of rosacea].

    PubMed

    Schöfer, H

    2013-07-01

    Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control.

  3. [Complex decongestive therapy].

    PubMed

    Heinig, B; Wollina, U

    2015-11-01

    The amount of physical pressure plays an important role in complex decongestive therapy (CDT). As a function of pressure, microcirculation takes place between blood vessels and tissue. As part of the total lymphatic system, lymphatic vessels transport the lymphatic load from the interstitial space to the blood stream. The lymphatic vessel system, characterized by specific anatomical conditions like initial lymphatic vessels, precollectors, collectors, and lymphatic strains, is the therapeutic target of complex decongestive therapy. Components of CDT include manual lymphatic drainage, compression therapy, decongestive kinesitherapy, and good skin care, which increase the transport capacity of the lymphatic vessel system. Currently, CDT is acknowledged as the main conservative treatment of lymphedema of primary and secondary genesis, lipolymphedema, and phlebolymphedema. In clinical practice, we are increasingly confronted with edema of multifactorial genesis requiring a critical discussion and stocktaking of comprehensive clinical findings in terms of the indication for CDT. Therapeutic success depends on a joint application of all CDT components and patient compliance. To an increasing extent, medical research tries to combine successfully CDT with adjunct treatment options. PMID:26315101

  4. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  5. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  6. Obesity drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Baretić, M

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease, and it requires chronic therapy. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of mortality in the modern world. All of them are strongly linked to obesity. While treating obesity, those conditions are also managed. Obese patients should always be treated through lifestyle interventions, though the results of such interventions are modest. Pharmacotherapy is a second step in the treatment of obesity, approved only when weight loss targets were not reached through lifestyle intervention. During the history of antiobesity drugs, many of them were withdrawn because of their side effects. Various guidelines recommend prescribing drug therapy for obesity through consideration of the potential benefits and limitations. Orlistat deactivates intestinal lipase and inhibits intestinal fat lipolysis. It is actually the only drug on the European market approved for the treatment of obesity. Orlistat therapy reduces weight to a modest extent, but it reduces the incidence of diabetes beyond the result achieved with lifestyle changes. Recently, some effective antiobesity drugs like sibutramine and rimonabant have been removed from the market due to their side effects. The new combination of topimarate and fentermine is approved in the US but not in Europe. The cost effectiveness of long-term pharmacotherapy of obesity is still an unresolved question. PMID:24126545

  7. Sjogren's syndrome: evolving therapies.

    PubMed

    Fox, Robert I

    2003-02-01

    Sjogren's syndrome (keratoconjunctivis sicca) is a relatively common disorder with incidence of approximately 0.5% of adult women. It has both local (ocular and oral) features as well as systemic manifestations. There has been recent FDA approval of agents to stimulate salivation (pilocarpine and cevimeline) and studies are in progress to determine their role in the treatment of dry eye. New therapies are in clinical trials for ocular manifestations with the most interest focused on topical cyclosporin A and purinogenic receptor agonists. In oral therapy, topical human interferon has reported encouraging results in short-term studies. However, the high placebo response (probably reflecting the beneficial response of mechanical stimulation of the buccal mucosa by the lozenge) and the response to much cheaper therapies (such as acid maltose lozenges) may offer safer and cheaper alternatives. For systemic disease, there is interest in tumour necrosis factor inhibitors. However, the cost-effectiveness and safety of biological agents needs longer term follow up, as they appear much less dramatic in their effect on systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjogren's syndrome than in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:12556218

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: Comparison of Individual Therapy, Group Therapy, and Telephone Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Celyne H.; Morin, Charles M.; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Blais, France C.; Bouchard, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    Forty-five adults with primary insomnia received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) implemented in a group therapy format, in individual face-to-face therapy or through brief individual telephone consultations. The results indicate that CBT was effective in improving sleep parameters with all 3 methods of treatment implementation, and there was no…

  9. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    PubMed

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines.

  10. Introduction to Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martisikova, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Presently, ion beam therapy reaches an increasing interest within the field of radiation therapy, which is caused by the promising clinical results obtained in the last decades. Ion beams enable higher dose conformation to the tumor and increased sparing of the surrounding tissue in comparison to the standard therapy using high energy photons. Heavy ions, like carbon, offer in addition increased biological effectiveness, which makes them suitable for treatment of radioresistant tumors. This contribution gives an overview over the physical and biological properties of ion beams. Common fundamental principles of ion beam therapy are summarized and differences between standard therapy with high energy photons, proton and carbon ion therapy are discussed. The technologies used for the beam production and delivery are introduced, with emphasis to the differences between passive and active beam delivery systems. The last part concentrates on the quality assurance in ion therapy. Specialties of dosimetry in medical ion beams are discussed.

  11. Music therapy career aptitude test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Music Therapy Career Aptitude Test (MTCAT) was to measure the affective domain of music therapy students including their self-awareness as it relates to the music therapy career, value in human development, interest in general therapy, and aptitude for being a professional music therapist. The MTCAT was administered to 113 music therapy students who are currently freshman or sophomores in an undergraduate music therapy program or in the first year of a music therapy master's equivalency program. The results of analysis indicated that the MTCAT is normally distributed and that all 20 questions are significantly correlated with the total test score of the MTCAT. The reliability of the MTCAT was considerably high (Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha=0.8). The criterion-related validity was examined by comparing the MTCAT scores of music therapy students with the scores of 43 professional music therapists. The correlation between the scores of students and professionals was found to be statistically significant. The results suggests that normal distribution, internal consistency, homogeneity of construct, item discrimination, correlation analysis, content validity, and criterion-related validity in the MTCAT may be helpful in predicting music therapy career aptitude and may aid in the career decision making process of college music therapy students.

  12. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Costa, V; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  13. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated.

  14. [Biofeedback Therapy and Sweat].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoko

    2016-08-01

    Biofeedback training is a technique through which one can learn to control usually uncontrollable inner body functions, such as brain waves, heart rate or electrodermal activity (EDA). These 'hidden' biological signals are measured from a participant and fed back during the training, e.g., through visual and auditory changes on a computer screen. With practice, the participant learns to control this feedback, and ultimately to control their bodily responses without needing the feedback. In this article, the application of EDA biofeedback will be introduced as a therapy for specific neurological conditions. PMID:27503820

  15. Leaving therapy to chance.

    PubMed

    Marquis, D

    1983-08-01

    Marquis analyzes the design of randomized clinical trials of anticancer drugs and concludes that randomization is incompatible with the ethical obligations of the physician patient relationship. Statistical requirements and administrative complexities make it difficult to halt a trial before it has run its course, yet it is unethical to continue once there is evidence that one therapy is superior to another. Strategies for resolving the dilemma are proposed, but are shown to be ethically flawed upon closer examination. There appears to be no solution to the problem of reconciling the demonstrable benefits of randomized trials with inevitable violations of the therapeutic obligation.

  16. [Acupuncture: an information therapy?].

    PubMed

    Nissel, H

    1998-01-01

    Even though modern medicine continues to be governed by the morphological point of view, cybernetics and systems theory are beginning to gain in importance. The concept of "Infomedicine" serves as the basis for a discussion of regulation and the information mechanisms necessary for this to occur. Some of the new insights being made in physics, such as the theory of relativity, quantum physics, and chaos theory provide many valuable explanations. Acupuncture represents a regulation and information therapy, and many parallels can be drawn between traditional Chinese medicine and the discoveries being made in today's physics. PMID:10025040

  17. Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve. PMID:25792807

  18. Physical Therapy Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Loredan Biomedical, Inc.'s LIDO, a computerized physical therapy system, was purchased by NASA in 1985 for evaluation as a Space Station Freedom exercise program. In 1986, while involved in an ARC muscle conditioning project, Malcom Bond, Loredan's chairman, designed an advanced software package for NASA which became the basis for LIDOSOFT software used in the commercially available system. The system employs a "proprioceptive" software program which perceives internal body conditions, induces perturbations to muscular effort and evaluates the response. Biofeedback on a screen allows a patient to observe his own performance.

  19. Crystalloid and colloid therapy.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Langdon

    2014-08-01

    Fluid therapy is a cornerstone of emergency medicine, but equine practitioners should be aware of recent developments that have modified previous recommendations. First, new emphasis on the avoidance of hyperchloremia suggests that crystalloids with a lower chloride concentration may be more appropriate for use. Second, modifications to the understanding of the Starling equation suggest that the benefits of colloids may be more limited than previously thought. In addition, the negative effects of fluid overload on morbidity and mortality are becoming increasingly recognized. Although more specific research in horses is needed, these principles are likely to apply across all species.

  20. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  1. Immunosuppressive Therapy in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Allison, Terri L

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses immunosuppressive medications used in organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Induction, maintenance, and rescue therapy are administered throughout different periods during and after transplantation to modulate the immune system response in the recipient to prevent or treat rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Indications, dosing strategies, required monitoring, complications, adverse events, and concomitant drug interactions associated with immunosuppressive medications are presented. Classes of medications discussed include polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative agents, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and corticosteroids. Medications having significant interactions with immunosuppression are also examined.

  2. Behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Rachel; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa Hm; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2010-09-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all BT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different BT approaches (behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, social skills training and relaxation training) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all BT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural and third wave CBT) for acute depression.

  3. Behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Rachel; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Davies, Philippa; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all BT approaches compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depressionTo examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different BT approaches (behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, social skills training and relaxation training) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all BT approaches compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural and third wave CBT) for acute depression. PMID:25067905

  4. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  5. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  6. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  7. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  8. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy...

  9. A History of Manipulative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pettman, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice. PMID:19066664

  10. [Hormone therapy through changing times].

    PubMed

    Reuter, Miriam; Fassnacht, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Despite several studies in the last years, only women with menopausal symptoms who desire therapy are treated. There is still no recommendation for menopausale hormone therapy for primary prevention of diseases such as coronary artery disease, osteoporosis or depression. The risk of thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and stroke is elevated especially for elderly women with oral hormone therapy. Benefits may exceed risks in younger, early-menopausal women, for whom hormone therapy may be prescribed more liberally. Systemic hormone therapy is for vasomotor symptoms, local therapy for the genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Choice of formulation depends on the individual risk due to symptoms and favours of the patients. With moderate to high cardiovascular risk profile, a transdermal route of estrogen application - in women with an intact uterus in combination with micronized progesterone - seems to be the best option.

  11. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  12. Indian contribution to behavior therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.

    2010-01-01

    Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708

  13. Parathyroid hormone therapy for hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Natalie E; Rubin, Mishaela R; Bilezikian, John P

    2015-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disease characterized by hypocalcemia and insufficient parathyroid hormone (PTH). It is a rare disorder that has been given an orphan disease designation in the United States and European Union. Hypoparathyroidism is the only endocrine deficiency disease for which the missing hormone, PTH, is not yet an approved therapy. Conventional therapy includes calcium and active vitamin D supplementation, often in large doses. Although serum calcium can be controlled with conventional therapy, it can be a challenge and, moreover, does not address other aspects of the disease, such as abnormal skeletal features and reduced quality of life. This review focuses on PTH replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism, utilizing the full-length molecule PTH(1-84) as well as the fully active but truncated form PTH(1-34). PTH therapy addresses some aspects of the disease not ameliorated with conventional therapy.

  14. [Topical therapy in erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Floth, A

    2000-01-01

    All forms of pharmacological therapy result in a relaxation of the corporeal smooth muscle. Intracorporeal injection of vasoactive drugs was introduced around 15 years ago and still is the most effective therapy in erectile dysfunction. Resulting in a consistent success rate of 70-80% this form of therapy will find numerous applications, even after the introduction of effective oral agents such as sildenafil. Prostaglandin E1 and--less frequently used--the combination of papaverine and phentolamine are the mainstay of intracorporeal injection therapy. Intraurethral prostaglandin (MUSE) has recently become available and is somewhat less effective than injection therapy. Externally applied drugs (nitroglycerin paste on the penile shaft and minoxidil solution on the glans penis) have not succeeded in the long run. Vacuum erection devices represent a form of physical topical therapy that is very versatile and also effective but rather infrequently applied. PMID:10746290

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Fajardo, Humberto; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Llorens-Arenas, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Bermudez, Jesús; Ruiz-Chow, Ángel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for the management of depression and/or psychosis refractory to drug therapy in patients with Parkinson disease.Methods A retrospective study was carried out including patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy during the period between 2002 and 2013. A review of the literature was performed.Results A total of 27 patients were included. In regards to the neuropsychiatric diagnosis, 14 patients had major depression, 12 patients had both psychosis and depression, and only one patient had isolated psychosis. The mean number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions was 12 ± 2.8. After electroconvulsive therapy, all patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (reduction of 52% points) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (reduction of 50% points) independent of the presence of psychosis, depression or both.Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy is effective for the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  16. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kossmann, Beate; Ulle, Tanja; Kahl, Kai G.; Wasem, Jürgen; Aidelsburger, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two), six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the interventions of media alone

  17. [Therapy of myositis].

    PubMed

    Keck, A D; Walker, U A

    2013-04-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy consists of dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM). At all stages of myositis, physiotherapy is effective in improving muscle strength, endurance and in maintaining joint motion. In DM and PM the therapy is initiated with glucocorticosteroids. Steroid-sparing agents (azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclosporin A) are added to prevent Cushing's syndrome or an unsatisfactory response. Therapy can also be escalated with intravenous immunoglobulins. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) were effective in small case series. Cyclophosphamide is restricted to patients not responding to previous agents. For treatment intensification immunoglobulins can also be combined with MMF. There is not enough evidence to routinely recommend rituximab. The results with TNF-alpha inhibitors and plasmapheresis were negative or inconsistent. In DM skin involvement responds to sun blockers, antimalarials, topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. In NAM statins should be discontinued and treatment with prednisone and immunosuppressants initiated. In IBM a therapeutic trial with prednisone, methotrexate or azathioprine may be warranted, especially in cases in which the serum creatine kinase (CK) is elevated or an inflammatory infiltrate is present in the muscle biopsy.

  18. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  19. Adoptive cellular therapy.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Stephan A; June, Carl H

    2011-01-01

    Cell-based therapies with various lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells are promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. The transfusion of T lymphocytes, also called adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an effective treatment for viral infections, has induced regression of cancer in early stage clinical trials, and may be a particularly important and efficacious modality in the period following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Immune reconstitution post-SCT is often slow and incomplete, which in turn leads to an increased risk of infection and may impact relapse risk in patients with malignant disease. Immunization post-HSCT is frequently unsuccessful, due to the prolonged lymphopenia, especially of CD4 T cells, seen following transplant. ACT has the potential to enhance antitumor and overall immunity, and augment vaccine efficacy in the post-transplant setting. The ability to genetically engineer lymphocyte subsets has the further potential to improve the natural immune response, correct impaired immunity, and redirect T cells to an antitumor effector response. This chapter focuses on various applications of ACT for cancer immunotherapy, and we discuss some of the latest progress and hurdles in translating these technologies to the clinic.

  20. Photon-activation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable /sup 127/I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors. (ERB)

  1. Therapy in a fog.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1971-04-01

    Dr. Shephard reviews the current status of aerosol therapy with particular reference to the treatment of cystic fibrosis. The water deficit of the atmosphere, the composition and size of the aerosol particles and the mode of administration are shown to be important variables. The majority of aerosol generators create polydisperse clouds with a high mass median diameter (4-5 microns) and as much as 90 percent of the aerosol is deposited in the mouth and throat; in consequence, the volume of nebulized fluid reaching the bronchi is not more than 2-3 ml./hour.The importance of the dual blood supply to the lung is emphasized; if pharmacologically active aerosols are absorbed into the bronchial circulation, they may circulate as a "slug" and produce dangerous toxic effects. The influence of airflow turbulence upon the impaction of large particles, and a dead space upon the retention of small particles is considered. The main potential value of aerosol therapy lies in the application of high concentrations of active drugs to poorly vascularized areas of the lung. In order to realize this potential, better aerosol generators must be developed and much more must be discovered about the behavior of small particles in the airstream.

  2. Update on Hypercortisolism Therapy.

    PubMed

    Arnaldi, Giorgio; Trementino, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Treating Cushing's syndrome is very challenging and should be tailored to the patient. Surgery is considered the gold standard treatment for both pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenomas, ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors and adrenal tumors, as the chance to be successful is high, especially for adrenal tumors, when performed in specialized centers by expert surgeons. Pituitary radiotherapy represents a second-line treatment in patients not cured with surgery, or when medical treatment is not suitable/efficacious, although the rate of cure is largely variable and achieved only in the long term, and is associated with the risk of developing secondary hypopituitarism. Several drugs, acting at the pituitary, adrenal or peripheral tissue level, are available. Medical treatment is indicated as second-line therapy for patients unsuccessfully treated with pituitary surgery, or in those awaiting radiotherapy to become effective, or prior to adrenalectomy, and as the first-line approach to prepare patients for surgery, especially those with severe comorbidities, or in those not suitable/refusing surgery. The success rate of medical therapy is variable, depending on the cause and severity of hypercortisolism, and is often associated with important side effects. PMID:27210582

  3. Neutron capture therapies

    DOEpatents

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  4. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Burcu; Ozpolat, Bulent; Sood, Anil K.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and advanced techniques for therapy are urgently needed. The development of novel nanomaterials and nanocarriers has allowed a major drive to improve drug delivery in cancer. The major aim of most nanocarrier applications has been to protect the drug from rapid degradation after systemic delivery and allowing it to reach tumor site at therapeutic concentrations, meanwhile avoiding drug delivery to normal sites as much as possible to reduce adverse effects. These nanocarriers are formulated to deliver drugs either by passive targeting, taking advantage of leaky tumor vasculature or by active targeting using ligands that increase tumoral uptake potentially resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy, thus achieving a net improvement in therapeutic index. The rational design of nanoparticles plays a critical role since structural and physical characteristics, such as size, charge, shape, and surface characteristics determine the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, internalization and safety of the drugs. In this review, we focus on several novel and improved strategies in nanocarrier design for cancer therapy. PMID:24079419

  5. Novel therapies for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Biskobing, Diane M

    2003-04-01

    Osteoporosis remains a significant clinical problem despite effective therapies. Many patients cannot or will not take currently available therapies. For this reason research continues in search of more effective and more tolerable agents. Anabolic agents offer a unique mechanism of action. The anabolic agents parathyroid hormone and strontium will be discussed. The investigational bisphosphonates ibandronate, minodronate and zoledronic acid may offer the advantage of less frequent dosing. Arzoxifene, bazedoxifene, lasofoxifene, MDL-103,323 and ospemifene are investigational selective oestrogen receptor modulators shown to be effective in animal studies and are now in clinical studies. Tibolone is a tissue-specific steroid that is currently used in Europe for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Multiple studies have shown efficacy in improving bone mineral density, but no fracture studies have been conducted to date. While studies of the effect of isoflavones on bone mineral density have been encouraging, a large, multi-centre study in Europe showed no effect of isoflavones on fractures. The newly described agent osteoprotegerin has been shown in early studies to inhibit bone turnover. Other agents with unique mechanisms of action in early development include cathepsin K inhibitors, integrin receptor inhibitors, nitrosylated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and Src inhibitors. The efficacy of statins in bone continues to be debated with no prospective, randomised studies yet to confirm the suggestion of benefit seen in epidemiological studies. PMID:12665416

  6. Nontumor photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Hubert

    1997-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an approved treatment for different types of cancer in many countries over the last few years. As an example one might mention PDT of the early stages of bronchial or esophageal cancer which have been treated with only about 20% recurrence being observed over several years of follow-up. The low degree of invasion of PDT, as compared to most alternative treatments as well as minimal sided effects, and good repeatability, all speak for this treatment modality. Improved and cheap screening procedures, that are now being developed for the early stage disease, will lead to a more frequent application of PDT for these indications. Detailed studies of PDT showed that certain dyes, after systematic or topical application, could be taken up more in neoplastic tissue as compared to the surrounding normal tissue in the clinical context, thus leading to 'selective' or at least partially selective destruction of the tumor following light application. This selectivity of uptake of certain compounds in hyperproliferative tissue, as well as the observation that PDT can lead to blood vessel stasis, suggested that photodynamic therapy might be worth trying in non-tumor disease. Some of the diseases associated with hyperproliferation and/or neovascularization which are being considered for PDT are listed in table I.

  7. Airway gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jane C; Alton, Eric W F W

    2005-01-01

    Given both the accessibility and the genetic basis of several pulmonary diseases, the lungs and airways initially seemed ideal candidates for gene therapy. Several routes of access are available, many of which have been refined and optimized for nongene drug delivery. Two respiratory diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF) and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) deficiency, are relatively common; the single gene responsible has been identified and current treatment strategies are not curative. This type of inherited disease was the obvious initial target for gene therapy, but it has become clear that nongenetic and acquired diseases, including cancer, may also be amenable to this approach. The majority of preclinical and clinical studies in the airway have involved viral vectors, although for diseases such as CF, likely to require repeated application, non-viral delivery systems have clear advantages. However, with both approaches a range of barriers to gene expression have been identified that are limiting success in the airway and alveolar region. This chapter reviews these issues, strategies aimed at overcoming them, and progress into clinical trials with non-viral vectors in a variety of pulmonary diseases.

  8. Feminism and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Goldner, V

    1985-03-01

    Feminism has had a profound effect on contemporary culture and on thinking in most academic fields, including psychoanalysis. Interestingly, until very recently it had made virtually no impact on the theory and practice of family therapy. This paper proposes an explanation for this peculiar phenomenon and argues that family therapy has been considerably handicapped by its insularity from the feminist critique. Utilizing feminist scholarship in psychoanalysis, history, and sociology, the paper analyzes the structural contradictions in family life that family therapists have essentially ignored and then outlines their clinical implications. Key points in the discussion include the argument that systems theory is an inadequate explanatory matrix from which to build a theory of the family, that the archetypal "family case" of the overinvolved mother and peripheral father is best understood, not as a clinical problem, but as the product of a historical process two hundred years in the making, and that power relations between men and women in families function in terms of paradoxical, incongruous hierarchies that reflect the complex interpenetration between the structure of family relations and the world of work. This conceptual model then provides the basis for an analysis and critique of sexual politics as they emerge in the prototypical clinical situation.

  9. nanosheets for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  10. [Music therapy and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Tromeur, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy and Alzheimer's dementia. Dementia such as Alzheimer's leads to the deterioration of the patient's global capacities. The cognitive disorders associated with it are disabling and affect every area of the patient's life. Every therapy's session undertaken with and by patients can act as a mirror of the progress of their disease and help to feel better, as described in this article on music therapy. PMID:24908841

  11. Antithrombotic Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    You, John J.; Singer, Daniel E.; Howard, Patricia A.; Lane, Deirdre A.; Eckman, Mark H.; Fang, Margaret C.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Schulman, Sam; Go, Alan S.; Hughes, Michael; Spencer, Frederick A.; Manning, Warren J.; Halperin, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The risk of stroke varies considerably across different groups of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Antithrombotic prophylaxis for stroke is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. We provide recommendations for antithrombotic treatment based on net clinical benefit for patients with AF at varying levels of stroke risk and in a number of common clinical scenarios. Methods: We used the methods described in the Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines article of this supplement. Results: For patients with nonrheumatic AF, including those with paroxysmal AF, who are (1) at low risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack] score of 0), we suggest no therapy rather than antithrombotic therapy, and for patients choosing antithrombotic therapy, we suggest aspirin rather than oral anticoagulation or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel; (2) at intermediate risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 score of 1), we recommend oral anticoagulation rather than no therapy, and we suggest oral anticoagulation rather than aspirin or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel; and (3) at high risk of stroke (eg, CHADS2 score of ≥ 2), we recommend oral anticoagulation rather than no therapy, aspirin, or combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Where we recommend or suggest in favor of oral anticoagulation, we suggest dabigatran 150 mg bid rather than adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist therapy. Conclusions: Oral anticoagulation is the optimal choice of antithrombotic therapy for patients with AF at high risk of stroke (CHADS2 score of ≥ 2). At lower levels of stroke risk, antithrombotic treatment decisions will require a more individualized

  12. [Music therapy and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Tromeur, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy and Alzheimer's dementia. Dementia such as Alzheimer's leads to the deterioration of the patient's global capacities. The cognitive disorders associated with it are disabling and affect every area of the patient's life. Every therapy's session undertaken with and by patients can act as a mirror of the progress of their disease and help to feel better, as described in this article on music therapy.

  13. Physical Therapy For Rheumatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, C. M.

    1971-01-01

    Physical therapy remains an important tool in rheumatic disease treatment even though great strides have been made with chemotherapy. Much physical therapy is misused, however, and physicians should ensure that the exercises ordered for a patient do not contribute to joint deformity. Underwater exercise, heat therapy, traction, massage and splinting as well as a warm and sympathetic staff are all good aids in rehabilitating the rheumatic patient, but careful supervision is needed for maximum benefit. PMID:20468607

  14. Carbon nanotubes in hyperthermia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravi; Torti, Suzy V.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal tumor ablation therapies are being developed with a variety of nanomaterials, including single-and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted interest due to their potential for simultaneous imaging and therapy. In this review, we highlight in vivo applications of carbon nanotube-mediated thermal therapy (CNMTT) and examine the rationale for use of this treatment in recurrent tumors or those resistant to conventional cancer therapies. Additionally, we discuss strategies to localize and enhance the cancer selectivity of this treatment and briefly examine issues relating the toxicity and long term fate of CNTs. PMID:23933617

  15. Carbon nanotubes in hyperthermia therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravi; Torti, Suzy V

    2013-12-01

    Thermal tumor ablation therapies are being developed with a variety of nanomaterials, including single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted interest due to their potential for simultaneous imaging and therapy. In this review, we highlight in vivo applications of carbon nanotube-mediated thermal therapy (CNMTT) and examine the rationale for use of this treatment in recurrent tumors or those resistant to conventional cancer therapies. Additionally, we discuss strategies to localize and enhance the cancer selectivity of this treatment and briefly examine issues relating the toxicity and long term fate of CNTs.

  16. Contrasting strategic and Milan therapies.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, L

    1983-12-01

    Three related models of therapy are often grouped together as the strategic therapies. These are brief therapy model associated with the Mental Research Institute, approaches developed by Jay Haley and Cloë Madanes, and the model developed by the Milan associates. Controversy exists, however, as to whether the Milan model should be included as a strategic therapy. It appears that the similarities among the three models can mask deeper differences, thus confounding the confusion. This paper contrast the models in their development, theory, and practice.

  17. Evolving applications of light therapy.

    PubMed

    Terman, Michael

    2007-12-01

    The psychiatric intervention, light therapy, grew from an intensive 25-year research focus on seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Dosing and timing strategies have been honed to optimize the antidepressant effect, and efficacy relative to placebo has provided the evidence base for widespread implementation. A persistent question has been whether the model system for SAD has wider utility for psychiatric disturbance, even beyond depression. The circadian phase-shifting capacity of timed light exposure is universal, and chronobiological factors are at play across the disease spectrum. Recent promising initiatives extend to light treatment for nonseasonal major depressive disorder and bipolar depression, including drug- and electroconvulsive therapy-resistant cases. With light therapy, patients with antepartum depression may find an alternative to medication during pregnancy. Cognitive improvement under light therapy has been noted in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Motor function in Parkinson's disease has improved in parallel with the antidepressant effect of light therapy. The rest-activity disturbance of elderly dementia has been partially allayed under light therapy. In a new initiative, three major chronotherapeutic inventions-light therapy, sleep deprivation (wake therapy) and sleep time displacement (sleep phase advance therapy) are being combined to snap hospitalized patients out of deep depression and maintain long-term improvement.

  18. The physics of proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy. PMID:25803097

  19. [Breast cancer. Individualized therapy concepts].

    PubMed

    Harbeck, N; Wuerstlein, R

    2013-02-01

    Personalized medicine in the sense of individualized therapy concepts plays an important role in breast cancer. In early breast cancer the molecular subtypes luminal A and B and basal-like are important for planning adjuvant systemic therapy. Prognostic and predictive markers, such as hormone receptor status, HER2, Ki-67, uPA/PAI-1 or multiple gene tests, such as Oncotype DX® currently allow avoidance of an over therapy or under therapy. In early and also advanced breast cancer there are an increasing number of new targeted therapies which represent an augmentation of standard endocrine and chemotherapy and in the future could at least partially replace them. As a whole the therapy regimens for breast cancer have become more complex due to the inclusion of molecular information, new therapies and the withdrawal of conventional treatment concepts. Decisive for the future will be the confirmation of this development by modern study concepts contemporarily with adequate evidence. It could then be expected that a personalized therapy for early breast cancer and in particular adjuvant chemotherapy would only be used for those patients for whom it is really necessary. In advanced stage disease there is justified hope that the survival time in the sense of a chronic disease can be improved by the use of targeted therapy.

  20. Respiratory Therapy and Respiratory Therapy Technician. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of respiratory therapy and respiratory therapy technician programs. An occupational description and program content are presented. The curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content,…

  1. Rational-Emotive Therapy and Self-Help Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    Unsupervised do-it-yourself therapy constitutes an exceptionally important issue that calls for more empirical and scientific investigation of the validity of publications in this field. Rational-emotive therapy (RET), one of the most popular forms of self-help treatment, has led to several generalizations. (1) Cognitive and cognitive-behavior…

  2. "Talking Pictures Therapy" as Brief Therapy in a School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Del

    2013-01-01

    This article presents "talking pictures therapy" as an approach to brief therapy, in which photographs are used in brief psychotherapy and counseling with the purpose of enabling clients to express and explore through photographs aspects of their lives they would like to talk about. The author presents case examples using "talking pictures…

  3. The Educational Interaction between Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Kimberly K.; Howell, Dana M.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) program directors (n=123) to identify the prevalence of shared learning found that two-thirds shared some coursework; most OT and PT students do not have opportunities to practice interdisciplinary teamwork; and some perceived benefits of shared learning also posed barriers. (Contains…

  4. Intensity modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Kooy, H M; Grassberger, C

    2015-07-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed "pencil beams" of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak-the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range-combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose "painting" within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the highest level of

  5. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi Bonjar, Amir Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC) is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient’s body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient’s recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When

  6. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  7. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  8. Consensus conference. Electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    1985-10-18

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment for severe mental illness in which a brief application of electric stimulus is used to produce a generalized seizure. In the United States in the 1940s and 1950s, the treatment was often administered to the most severely disturbed patients residing in large mental institutions. As often occurs with new therapies, ECT was used for a variety of disorders, frequently in high doses and for long periods. Many of these efforts proved ineffective, and some even harmful. Moreover, its use as a means of managing unruly patients, for whom other treatments were not then available, contributed to the perception of ECT as an abusive instrument of behavioral control for patients in mental institutions for the chronically ill. With the introduction of effective psychopharmacologic medications and the development of judicial and regulatory restrictions, the use of ECT has waned. The treatment is now used primarily in general hospital psychiatric units and in psychiatric hospitals. A National Institute of Mental Health hospital survey estimated that 33,384 patients admitted to hospital psychiatric services during 1980 were treated with ECT, representing approximately 2.4% of all psychiatric admissions. Although ECT has been in use for more than 45 years, there is continuing controversy concerning the mental disorders for which ECT is indicated, its efficacy in their treatment, the optimal methods of administration, possible complications, and the extent of its usage in various settings. These issues have contributed to concerns about the potential for misuse and abuse of ECT and to desires to ensure the protection of patients' rights. At the same time, there is concern that the curtailment of ECT use in response to public opinion and regulation may deprive certain patients of a potentially effective treatment. In recent decades, researchers intensified efforts to establish the effectiveness of ECT and its indications, understand its

  9. [Bimatoprost therapy in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Călugăru, D; Călugăru, M

    2009-01-01

    Bimatoprost is a neutral lipid, a fatty acid amide that pharmacologically acts in both its paternal amide form and through its hydrolysis product (active free fatty acid of bimatoprost). Hypotensive ocular efficacy of bimatoprost is significantly superior to that of timolol and latanoprost. Mean ocular pressure decreases as well as percentages of reaching and sustaining the low targeting ocular pressures are higher comparing with travoprost. Conjunctival hyperemia produced by bimatoprost is statistically greater than that caused by timolol, latanoprost and travoprost; nevertheless it is well tolerated and mild in severity. Bimatoprost prostamide lowers ocular tension significantly and clinically relevant in patients uncontrolled with latanoprost; that is why bimatoprost can be used as additive or replacement therapy in patients who already receive maximal tolerated dose of latanoprost.

  10. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  11. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  12. [Metabolic therapy in neurology].

    PubMed

    Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Rashidov, N A; Bodrova, T V; Vorob'eva, M N

    2013-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of rheosorbilact, an original infusion drug based on polyalcohols, in the complex therapy of patients with brain ischemia and diabetic neuropathy. Reosorbilact was used intravenously indrops 200-400 ml in day - 20 days. The primary endpoint of the study was the improvement of quality of life assessed with the SF-36 scale after 1 month of treatment. Patients with brain ischemia underwent neuropsychological tests and ultrasound duplex scanning of the carotid and vertebral arteries. In the group of patients with diabetic neuropathy, we evaluated the intensity of pain syndrome with the NRS, blood glucose level and electroneuromyography parameters of low extremities nerves. Some characteristics of acid-base balance were studied in patients of both groups. The results obtained in the study indicate the significant clinical effect of reosorbilact in patients with brain ischemia and diabetic neuropathy. PMID:23994919

  13. Antibody Therapy for Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Guimarães, Allan J.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic human pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is a major fungal pathogen with a broad variety of clinical presentations, ranging from mild, focal pulmonary disease to life-threatening systemic infections. Although azoles, such as itraconazole and voriconazole, and amphotericin B have significant activity against H. capsulatum, about 1 in 10 patients hospitalized due to histoplasmosis die. Hence, new approaches for managing disease are being sought. Over the past 10 years, studies have demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can modify the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. Disease has been shown to be impacted by mAbs targeting either fungal cell surface proteins or host co-stimulatory molecules. This review will detail our current knowledge regarding the impact of antibody therapy on histoplasmosis. PMID:22347215

  14. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: Current therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, which is a rare primary malignancy, originates from the epithelial cells of the bile duct. Usually invading the periductal tissues and the lymph nodes, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is commonly diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease and has a dismal prognosis. Currently, complete hepatectomy is the primary therapy for curing this disease. Perioperative assessment and available surgical procedures can be considered for achieving a negative margin resection, which is associated with long-term survival and better quality of life. For patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, several palliative treatments have been demonstrated to produce a better outcome; and liver transplantation for selected patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is promising and desirable. However, the role of palliative treatments and liver transplantation was controversial and requires more evidence and substantial validity from multiple institutions. In this article, we summarize the data from multiple institutions and discuss the resectability, mortality, morbidity and outcome with different approaches. PMID:25133034

  15. [Dietary therapy for obesity].

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Katsuto; Furubayashi, Takayasu

    2013-02-01

    In the majority of obese patients adjustment of the diet will be required to reduce calorie intake. In general, diets containing 1,000 to 1,800 kcal/day should be selected for obese patients. VLCD (very low calorie diet) is below 600 kcal/day. VLCD should not be used routinely for weight loss therapy because they require special monitoring and supplementation. A diet should be integral part of any program aimed an achieving a weight loss of 5%. Protein is approximately 15-20%, carbohydrate 60%, fat is 20-25% of total calories. Low carbohydrate-high protein diets, used on a regular basis and without consideration of the nature of carbohydrates the source of proteins, are associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role the epidemic of obesity. PMID:23631213

  16. Hormonal therapy for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Scott J; Harden, Cynthia L

    2011-08-01

    In 2011, there are greater than 20 antiepileptic medications available. These medications work by modulating neuronal excitability. Reproductive hormones have been found to have a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of seizures by also altering neuronal excitability, especially in women with catamenial epilepsy. The female reproductive hormones have in general opposing effects on neuronal excitability; estrogens generally impart a proconvulsant neurophysiologic tone, whereas the progestogens have anticonvulsant effects. It follows then that fluctuations in the levels of serum progesterone and estrogen throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence based upon the serum estradiol/progesterone ratio. Therefore, using progesterone, its metabolite allopregnanolone, or other hormonal therapies have been explored in the treatment of patients with epilepsy. PMID:21451944

  17. Growth Attenuation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kerruish, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    The "Ashley treatment" has provoked much debate and remains ethically controversial. Given that more children are being referred for such treatment, there remains a need to provide advice to clinicians and ethics committees regarding how to respond to such requests. This article contends that there is one particularly important gap in the existing literature about growth attenuation therapy (GAT) (one aspect of the Ashley treatment): the views of parents of children with profound cognitive impairment (PCI) remain significantly underrepresented. The article attempts to redress this balance by analyzing published accounts both from parents of children who have received GAT and from parents who oppose treatment. Using these accounts, important points are illuminated regarding how parents characterize benefits and harms, and their responsibilities as surrogate decisionmakers. This analysis could contribute to decisionmaking about future requests for GAT and might also have wider relevance to healthcare decisionmaking for children with PCI. PMID:26788948

  18. Bioidentical hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Ko, Marcia G; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2011-07-01

    The change in hormonal milieu associated with perimenopause and menopause can lead to a variety of symptoms that can affect a woman's quality of life. Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these symptoms. However, combined HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been associated with an increased number of health risks when compared with conjugated equine estrogen alone or placebo. As a result, some women are turning to alternative hormonal formulations known as compounded bioidentical HT because they perceive them to be a safer alternative. This article defines compounded bioidentical HT and explores the similarities and differences between it and US Food and Drug Administration-approved HT. We will examine the major claims made by proponents of compounded bioidentical HT and recommend strategies for management of patients who request bioidentical HT from physicians.

  19. Fetal drug therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M I; Pryde, P G; Reichler, A; Bardicef, M; Johnson, M P

    1993-01-01

    Fetal drug therapy encompasses several areas, including the prevention of external genital masculinization in 21-hydroxylase deficiency syndrome (congenital adrenal hyperplasia), biochemical amelioration of methylmalonic acidemia, and biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. The correction of cardiac arrhythmias has become relatively commonplace, and a reduction in the risks of neural tube defects is now possible with the use of preconceptual and early conceptual folic acid. Similarly, fetal function can be altered by the induction of fetal lung maturity using a number of agents; corticosteroids are the most common fetal pharmaceutic agent, and a number of other agents have also been tried. The most common route of administering pharmaceutic agents is through the mother and the placenta, although the direct administration of certain agents is becoming more common. Images PMID:8236974

  20. Modern retinal laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Igor; Luttrull, Jeffrey K

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal lasers are a standard source of light to produce retinal tissue photocoagulation to treat retinovascular disease. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were large randomized clinical trials that have shown beneficial effect of retinal laser photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy and have dictated the standard of care for decades. However, current treatment protocols undergo modifications. Types of lasers used in treatment of retinal diseases include argon, diode, dye and multicolor lasers, micropulse lasers and lasers for photodynamic therapy. Delivery systems include contact lens slit-lamp laser delivery, indirect ophthalmocope based laser photocoagulation and camera based navigated retinal photocoagulation with retinal eye-tracking. Selective targeted photocoagulation could be a future alternative to panretinal photocoagulation. PMID:25892934

  1. Gene therapy for hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors. PMID:25553466

  2. [Therapy in heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sáandor; Fürst, Zsuzsanna

    2014-09-01

    Heroin addiction is one of the most devastating and expensive of public health problems. The most effective treatment is opioid replacement therapy. Replacement of heroin, a short-acting euphoriant with methadone or other opioids that have significantly longer duration of action provides a number of therapeutic benefits. Opioid detoxification has a role in both preventing acute withdrawal and maintaining long-term abstinence. Opioid-based detoxification is based on the principle of cross-tolerance, in which one opioid is replaced with another one that is slowly tapered. For the treatment of heroin addicts a wide range of psychosocial and pharmacotherapeutic treatments are available; of these, methadone maintenance therapy has the most evidence of benefit. Methadone maintenance reduces and/or eliminates the use of heroin, reduces the death rate and criminality associated with heroin use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity. In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with heroin injection, such as hepatitis and HIV. The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with heroin. There is growing interest in expanding treatment into primary care, allowing opioid addiction to be managed like other chronic illnesses. Buprenorphine which is a long-acting partial agonist was also approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence. Opioid antagonists can reduce heroin self-administration and opioid craving in detoxified addicts. Naltrexone, which is a long-acting competitive antagonist at the opioid receptors, blocks the subjective and objective responses produced by intravenous opioids. Naltrexone is employed to accelerate opioid detoxification by displacing heroin and as a maintenance agent for detoxified formerly heroin-dependent patients who want to

  3. Heavy ion tumour therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, M.

    2000-03-01

    Ion beams represent a promising radiotherapy modality for the treatment of deep seated tumours. Compared to conventional photon beams, in particular beams of heavier ions like e.g. carbon show several advantages which are related to their different physical and radiobiological properties: The dose increases with penetration depth and shows a sharp distal fall off at the end of the particle range, i.e., the depth dose profile is inverted compared to photon beams. They exhibit an increased biological effectiveness in particular at the end of their range and thus in the target volume. The spatial distribution of stopping particles can be monitored by means of PET-techniques making use of the small amount of radioactive projectile fragments. Ion beams were first used for medical applications in 1954 in Berkeley. Since then, several treatment facilities for tumour therapy have been established worldwide, and approximately 25 000 patients have been treated with protons and 3000 patients with heavier ions successfully. As an example, the specific advantages of the heavy ion therapy facility at GSI Darmstadt established in cooperation with the Radiological Clinics and DKFZ Heidelberg and FZ Rossendorf will be described. In contrast to most existing facilities, it is based on an active beam delivery system, using magnetic deflection of a pencil beam (raster scan) and accelerator energy variation to adjust the penetration depth. Thus, an optimal conformation of the dose to the target volume is achieved. PET-measurements allow for a quasi on-line monitoring of the 3D distribution of stopping particles and in particular of the position of the distal edge of the dose distribution. Furthermore, in the treatment planning procedure the radiobiological properties of ion beams are taken into account in great detail. In December 1997, patient treatments started at GSI, and up to now 42 patients were treated with carbon ions alone or in a mixed carbon/photon beam regime.

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... m Having Trouble Logging In/Staying Logged In Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music therapists ...

  5. The Strategic Systems Therapies: Measuring the Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, Michael

    As family therapy becomes a serious intellectual disipline, the relationships among its leading variations require closer examination. To examine similarities and differences among four closely related approaches (brief, problem-focused therapy; structural family therapy; strategic family therapy; and systemic family therapy) and to determine if…

  6. [Behavior therapy in sexual deviation].

    PubMed

    Schmieschek, H

    1977-12-01

    The author, after discussing theoretical aspects of the development and treatment of sexual deviations, describes methods of behavior therapy which when used in combination and by experienced clinicians will yield promising results. In addition, a number of cases are reported, and these indicate some special problems associated with the therapy of sexual deviations.

  7. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  8. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  9. Using Dreams in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Connie M.

    1997-01-01

    States that current literature suggests that dreams are seldom used by marriage and family therapists, yet dreams can be powerful tools in therapeutic treatment. Includes clinical examples that demonstrate the effective use of dreams in marriage and family therapy. Discusses the interface between dream interpretation and systems therapy. (MKA)

  10. An Overview of Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael G.

    Music therapy is the unique use of music in the accomplishment of therapeutic aims: the restoration, maintenance, and improvement of mental and physical health. A music therapist can help clients increase understanding of themselves and their environment through systematic involvement with music. The process of music therapy gives clients a…

  11. The Reality-Therapy Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strear, Sally

    1977-01-01

    Describes a weight-loss program for 40 obese junior high school students who were divided into five groups, two using reality therapy, two using conventional counseling, and one control group. Reality therapy was shown to be the more effective method of treatment. (Author)

  12. STUTTERING--THERAPY FOR CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LUPER, HAROLD L.; MULDER, ROBERT L.

    INTENDED FOR THERAPISTS, THE BOOK FOCUSES ON WAYS OF HELPING THE CHILD WHO STUTTERS TO MODIFY HIS BEHAVIOR. THE APPROACH, AN OPERATIONAL ONE, IS PRESENTED, AND THE NATURE AND CONDITIONS OF RESPONSIBLE THERAPY ARE DESCRIBED. DIAGNOSTIC AND EVALUATIVE PROCEDURES ARE PRESENTED. THERAPY IS ELABORATED FOR THE MODIFICATION OF INCIPIENT STUTTERING, THE…

  13. Family Therapy and Psychosomatic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the use of family therapy in dealing with illnesses such as childhood diabetes, asthma, pain, and anorexia nervosa. Marital and family therapy may be effective in treating some psychosomatic problems. Family assessment is helpful in the management of all psychosomatic problems. (Author/JAC)

  14. Nonsurgical therapy for hair loss.

    PubMed

    Nusbaum, Aron G; Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard P

    2013-08-01

    This article is an update of the currently available options for medical therapies to treat androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Emerging novel therapeutic modalities with potential for treating these patients are discussed. Because androgenetic alopecia is progressive in nature, stabilization of the process using medical therapy is an important adjunct to any surgical hair-restoration plan. PMID:24017975

  15. Striding Towards Better Physical Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on a new rehabilitative device that promises to improve physical therapy for patients working to regain the ability to walk after facing traumatic injuries or a degenerative illness. Produced by Enduro Medical Technology, of East Hartford, Connecticut, the Secure Ambulation Module (S.A.M.) creates a stable and secure environment for patients as they stand during ambulation therapy.

  16. Group Therapy with Senile Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Harry; Neuschatz, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Describes a group therapy program for nursing home residents suffering from senile dementia which concentrates on techniques that help individuals with impaired communication to interrelate successfully. Principles of ego-supportive group therapy sessions are discussed. A case study is included. (NRB)

  17. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  18. Combining Clozapine and Talk Therapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Kevin

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper reviews articles concerning clozapine therapy. It considers its benefits and dangers in various situations, and how it can be successfully combined with talk therapies. Studies are reviewed concerning patients in outpatient clinics, partial hospitalization…

  19. Couples Therapy: An Adlerian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Roy M.; And Others

    This book provides therapists with a theoretical base from which to view the dynamics of couples' relationships and the therapeutic process. The book's eight chapters are organized into three parts: "Adlerian Theory and Process"; "Therapeutic Interventions"; and "Special Issues in Marital Therapy." Chapter 1, Adlerian Marital Therapy: History,…

  20. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  1. Art Therapy with Laryngectomy Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Susan Ainlay; Anand, Vinod K.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the experiences of patients with laryngeal cancer who used art therapy. Drawing on 14 years of experience and 109 laryngeal cancer patients, describes treatment results and the case material substantiating the distinct role of art therapy. Provides an overview of the special medical and therapeutic needs of this group. (RJM)

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  3. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco

    2012-04-15

    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  4. Art, dance, and music therapy.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    2004-11-01

    Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century. PMID:15458755

  5. Biofield therapies and cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-02-01

    The public and healthcare professionals have become increasingly aware and accepting of the benefit in physical, psychological, social, and spiritual support for patients with cancer. Patients with cancer often seek nonpharmacologic interventions to complement conventional care and decrease the pain associated with cancer and its treatment. Most often referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these supportive therapies consist of a heterogeneous group of modalities used as adjuncts to allopathic health care. Biofield therapies are CAM modalities that involve the direction of healing energy through the hands to facilitate well-being by modifying the energy field of the body. This critical review of studies of biofield therapies emphasizes research using these modalities to decrease pain in patients with cancer. Although the therapies have demonstrated clinical efficacy, additional research is warranted. Oncology nurses should familiarize themselves with biofield therapies so they can offer informed recommendations to patients with cancer experiencing pain.

  6. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshuk, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems.

  7. 42 CFR 409.17 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech..., physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services must be furnished by.... (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech-language pathology services must be...

  8. 42 CFR 409.17 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech..., physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services must be furnished by.... (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech-language pathology services must be...

  9. 42 CFR 409.17 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech..., physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services must be furnished by.... (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech-language pathology services must be...

  10. 42 CFR 409.17 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech..., physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services must be furnished by.... (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech-language pathology services must be...

  11. 42 CFR 409.17 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech..., physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services must be furnished by.... (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy or speech-language pathology services must be...

  12. Treating Psoriasis: Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... or safe. Read more about herbal remedies » Mind/Body Therapies Mind-body techniques can help reduce your stress levels. Learn about mind/body therapies » Alternative Therapies Some psoriasis patients report hands- ...

  13. Buffer Therapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes C; Silva, Ariosto S.; Bailey, Kate M.; Kumar, Nagi B.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. Effectiveness of buffer therapy is likely to be affected by diet, which could contribute or interfere with the therapeutic alkalinizing effect. Little data on food pH buffering capacity was available. This study evaluated the pH and buffering capacity of different foods to guide prospective trials and test the effect of the same buffer (lysine) at two different ionization states. Food groups were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Foods were blended and pH titrated with acid from initial pH values until 4.0 to determine “buffering score”, in mmol H+/pH unit. A “buffering score” was derived as the mEq H+ consumed per serving size to lower from initial to a pH 4.0, the postprandial pH of the distal duodenum. To differentiate buffering effect from any metabolic byproduct effects, we compared the effects of oral lysine buffers prepared at either pH 10.0 or 8.4, which contain 2 and 1 free base amines, respectively. The effect of these on experimental metastases formation in mice following tail vein injection of PC-3M prostate cancer cells were monitored with in vivo bioluminescence. Carbohydrates and dairy products’ buffering score varied between 0.5 and 19. Fruits and vegetables showed a low to zero buffering score. The score of meats varied between 6 and 22. Wine and juices had negative scores. Among supplements, sodium bicarbonate and Tums® had the highest buffering capacities, with scores of 11 and 20 per serving size, respectively. The “de-buffered” lysine had a less pronounced effect of prevention of metastases compared to lysine at pH 10. This study has demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of buffer therapy and suggests foods that can contribute to or compete with this approach to manage cancer. PMID:24371544

  14. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient

  15. Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID:16457646

  16. Positive Pressure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mark H.; Montserrat, Josep M.; Farré, Ramon; Givelber, Rachel J.

    2008-01-01

    The sleep medicine community has increasingly recognized the necessity that clinical care be based on high-quality levels of evidence. Although research supports a favorable influence of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on risk for significant adverse outcomes in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea (OSAH), well-designed trials are still required to elucidate the effect of PAP on health, quality of life, and economic risks in patients with milder OSAH. Similarly, although there is strong evidence supporting various PAP titration strategies and PAP modalities in patients with severe OSAH without significant medical and psychiatric comorbidities, there is insufficient high-level evidence assessing and comparing the clinical efficacy and health care cost implications of various titration paradigms and various PAP modalities in individuals with milder OSAH and those with comorbid conditions. For ethical and other reasons, it may not be possible to apply a randomized controlled design to address all questions. However, whichever design is employed, it must be rigorously developed with attention to all potential confounders with adequate power to provide compelling, high-quality evidence. PMID:18250208

  17. Cell therapy of pseudarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bastos Filho, Ricardo; Lermontov, Simone; Borojevic, Radovan; Schott, Paulo Cezar; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficiency of cell therapy for pseudarthrosis. Implant of the bone marrow aspirate was compared to mononuclear cells purified extemporaneously using the Sepax® equipment. Methods Six patients with nonunion of the tibia or femur were treated. Four received a percutaneous infusion of autologous bone marrow aspirated from the iliac crest, and two received autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells separated from the aspirate with the Sepax®. The primary fixation method was unchanged, and the nonunion focus was not exposed. Physical examination and radiographies were performed 2, 4 and 6 months after the treatment by the same physician. After consolidation of the fracture the satisfaction of the patients was estimated using the adapted QALY scale. Results No complications occurred as a result of the referred procedures. Bone consolidation was obtained in all cases within 3 to 24 weeks. The degree of patient satisfaction before and after bone consolidation was assessed, with the average value increasing from two to nine (p=0.0156). Conclusion We conclude that the proposed method is effective and safe for the treatment of nonunion of long bones regardless of the stabilization method used. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study PMID:24453616

  18. Saporin suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zarovni, Natasa; Vago, Riccardo; Fabbrini, Maria Serena

    2009-01-01

    New genes useful in suicide gene therapy are those encoding toxins such as plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), which can irreversibly block protein synthesis, triggering apoptotic cell death. Plasmids expressing a cytosolic saporin (SAP) gene from common soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) are generated by placing the region encoding the mature plant toxin under the control of strong viral promoters and may be placed under tumor-specific promoters. The ability of the resulting constructs to inhibit protein synthesis is tested in cultured tumor cells co-transfected with a luciferase reporter gene. SAP expression driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (pCI-SAP) demonstrates that only 10 ng ofplasmid DNA per 1.6 x 10(4) B16 melanoma cells drastically reduces luciferase reporter activity to 18% of that in control cells (1). Direct intratumoral injections are performed in an aggressive melanoma model. B16 melanoma-bearing mice injected with pCI-SAP complexed with lipofectamine or N-(2,3-dioleoyloxy-1-propyl) trimethylammonium methyl sulfate (DOTAP) show a noteworthy attenuation in tumor growth, and this effect is significantly augmented by repeated administrations of the DNA complexes. Here, we describe in detail this cost-effective and safe suicide gene approach. PMID:19565907

  19. Androgen therapy in women.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2006-01-01

    Androgens in women either derive from direct ovarian production or from peripheral conversion of the adrenal sex steroid precursor, dehydroepiandrosterone, towards active androgens. Therefore, loss of adrenal or ovarian function, caused by Addison's disease or consequent to bilateral oophorectomy, results in severe androgen deficiency, clinically often associated with a loss of libido and energy. Importantly, physiological menopause does not necessarily lead to androgen deficiency, as androgen synthesis in the ovaries may persist despite the decline in estrogen production. However, the definition of female androgen deficiency, as recently provided by the Princeton consensus statement, is not precise enough and may lead to over-diagnosis due to the high prevalence of its diagnostic criteria: androgen levels below or within the lower quartile of the normal range and concurrent sexual dysfunction. Importantly, physiological menopause is not necessarily associated with androgen deficiency and therefore does not routinely require androgen therapy. Current replacement options include transdermal testosterone administration or dehydroepiandrosterone treatment, both of which have been shown to result in significant improvements, in particular in libido and mood, while effects on body composition and muscular function are not well documented. It is important to keep in mind that the number of randomized controlled trials is still limited and that currently none of the available preparations is officially approved for use in women. Currently, androgen replacement should be reserved for women with severe androgen deficiency due to an established cause and matching clinical signs and symptoms. PMID:16381985

  20. Aesthetic ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, Peter G.; Slayton, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound provides key benefits in aesthetic surgery compared to laser and RF based energy sources. We present results of research, development, pre-clinical and clinical studies, regulatory clearance and commercialization of a revolutionary non-invasive aesthetic ultrasound imaging and therapy system. Clinical applications for this platform include non-invasive face-lifts, brow-lifts, and neck-lifts achieved through fractionated treatment of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and subcutaneous tissue. Treatment consists of placing a grid of micro-coagulative lesions on the order of 1 mm3 at depths in skin of 1 to 6 mm, source energy levels of 0.1 to 3 J, and spacing on the order of 1.5 mm, from 4 to 10 MHz dual-mode image/treat transducers. System details are described, as well as a regulatory pathway consisting of acoustic and bioheat simulations, source characterization (hydrophone, radiation force, and Schlieren), pre-clinical studies (porcine skin ex vivo, in vivo, and human cadaver), human safety studies (treat and resect) and efficacy trials which culminated in FDA clearance (2009) under a new device classification and world-wide usage. Clinical before and after photographs are presented which validate the clinical approach.

  1. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it. PMID:27093325

  2. Anticoagulant therapy in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Dabbous, Mariam K.; Sakr, Fouad R.; Malaeb, Diana N.

    2014-01-01

    Thromboembolic episodes are disorders encountered in both children and adults, but relatively more common in adults. However, the occurrence of venous thromboembolism and use of anticoagulants in pediatrics are increasing. Unfractionated Heparin (UH) is used as a treatment and prevention of thrombosis in adults and critically ill children. Heparin utilization in pediatric is limited by many factors and the most important ones are Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) and anaphylaxis. However, Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) appears to be an effective and safe alternative treatment. Hence, it is preferred over than UH due to favorable pharmacokinetic and side effect profile. Direct Thrombin Inhibitors (DTI) is a promising class over the other anticoagulants since it offers potential advantages. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences between adult and pediatric thromboembolism and to review the current anticoagulants in terms of pharmacological action, doses, drug reactions, pharmacokinetics, interactions, and parameters. This review also highlights the differences between old and new anticoagulant therapy in pediatrics. PMID:25031496

  3. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it.

  4. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-07-15

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

  5. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT∕CT and PET∕CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  6. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  7. Meson radiobiology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, M M

    1975-01-01

    High-linear energy transfer radiation (neutrons, heavy ions, and pions) have a greater relative biological effectiveness than low-linear energy transfer radiation by depositing a high density of ionization in irradiated cells. This overcomes the protective effect of oxygen; decreases the variation in sensitivity among the several stages of the cell cycles; and, inhibits the repair of sublethal damage as compared to x-rays, gamma rays, electrons and protons. Negative pi mesons (pions), appear particularly suited for radiation therapy as their penetration and depth-dose profile lend themselves to shaping the high dose area to the tumor size and location. Preliminary biological experiments with pions produced at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility studied cell survival at various radiation depths and cell cycle sensitivity. Histologic study of data from the first human experiments indicated severe tumor cell destruction by pions as compared to x-rays in treating malignant melanoma skin nodules, without increased effects on dermal elements. PMID:1201774

  8. [Sepsis management -- antibiotic therapy].

    PubMed

    Welte, T

    2004-11-26

    Sepsis is one of the most frequent infectious problems at Intensive Care Units, and sepsis is associated with significant mortality. The latter could not be markedly reduced in the last years, despite a number of advances in the field of volume substitution, catecholamines, and endocrinologic therapy. The reason might be that important steps towards overcoming of sepsis are the surgical resection of infectious foci and an adequate antibiotic treatment. A critical role plays the growing resistance of pathogens against the common antibiotics. Since no major progress in the development of new antibiotics can be expected for the next years, sepsis treatment must be focused on prevention of infection, and on an optimised application of current antibiotic substances. The key factors are a broad and high dose initial treatment, a de-escalation strategy according to the clinical course, and -with exceptions- a limitation of treatment to 7 to 10 days. Rotation of antibiotics should be performed, if problems with resistances exist or no specialist for infectious diseases is available on the Intensive Care Unit.

  9. Novel Therapies for Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Brady L.; Cervantes, Francisco; Giles, Francis; Harrison, Claire N.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF), including primary, post-essential thrombocythemia and post-polycythemia vera MF, associates with a reduced quality of life and shortened life expectancy. Dysregulation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is prominent, even in the absence of the JAK2V617F mutation. Therefore, all symptomatic MF patients may potentially derive benefit from JAK inhibitors. Despite the efficacy of JAK inhibitors in controlling signs and symptoms of MF, they do not eradicate the disease. Therefore, JAK inhibitors are currently being tested in combination with other novel therapies, a strategy which may be more effective in reducing disease burden, either by overcoming JAK inhibitor resistance or targeting additional mechanisms of pathogenesis. Additional targets include modulators of epigenetic regulation, pathways that work downstream from JAK/STAT (i.e., mammalian target of rapamycin/AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase,) heat shock protein 90, hedgehog signaling, pro-fibrotic factors, abnormal megakaryocytes and telomerase. In this review, we discuss novel MF therapeutic strategies. PMID:25860240

  10. Adjuvant therapy of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, S S; Kirkwood, J M

    1998-06-01

    Patients with AJCC Stage IIB and III melanoma have a poor 5-year survival rate which has been the driving force behind attempts to find an effective adjuvant therapy for this stage of disease that would effectively reduce relapse and improve survival. Immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Corynebacterium parvum, and levamisole have not been successful in achieving this goal, nor have trials with chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting, including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation. The recent Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 1684 study showed significant improvement in relapse-free and overall survival with high doses of alpha interferon (IFNalpha) given for 1 year. Lower dosages of IFNalpha have to date been unsuccessful in impacting upon long-term survival. Recent data with vaccines have been encouraging, and the GM2-KLH vaccine is the focus of ongoing intergroup study comparing this treatment with IFNalpha in resected Stage IIB and III melanoma. The various regimens are reviewed in this article. PMID:9588723

  11. Nuclear medicine therapy of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagel, C A

    1999-12-01

    Specific targeting of radionuclides to neuroblastoma, a neural crest tumour occurring predominantly in young children and associated with a relatively poor prognosis, may be achieved via the metabolic route (MIBG), receptor binding (peptides) or immunological approach (antibodies). The clinical role of 131I-MIBG therapy and radioimmunotherapy in neuroblastoma is discussed. In recurrent or progressive metastatic disease after conventional treatment modalities have failed, 131I-MIBG therapy, with an overall objective response rate of 35%, is probably the best palliative treatment, as the invasiveness and toxicity of this therapy compare favourably with that of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. In patients presenting with inoperable stage III and IV neuroblastoma, 131I-MIBG therapy at diagnosis is at least as effective as combination chemotherapy but is associated with much less toxicity. In patients with recurrent disease 131I-MIBG therapy in combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy proved feasible and encouraging effects on survival have been observed. Attempts to intensify the treatment in relapsed patients by combination of 131I-MIBG therapy with high dose chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation have met with considerable toxicity. Developments in MIBG therapy aiming at improving the therapeutic index are mentioned. Early results of radioimmunotherapy using 131I-UJ13A or 131I-3F8 monoclonal antibodies have shown moderate objective response and considerable side effects in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma, who had relapsed or failed conventional therapy. New developments in radioimmunotherapy of neuroblastoma include the use of chimaeric antibodies, the enhancement of tumour uptake by modulation of antigen expression or by increasing the tumour perfusion/vascularity/permeability, the use of other labels and multistep targeting techniques, e.g. using bispecific monoclonal antibodies.

  12. Multimodality Therapy: Bone-Targeted Radioisotope Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Podoloff, Donald A.; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat prostate cancer bone metastasis and improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced prostate cancer. It remains to be elucidated whether radiopharmaceuticals enhance the disruption of the onco-niche or the eradication of micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow. The purpose of this review is to investigate the role of bone-targeted radioisotope therapy in the setting of multimodality therapy for advanced prostate cancer. We examine available data and evaluate whether dose escalation, newer generations, or repeated dosing of radiopharmaceuticals enhance their antitumor effects and whether their combination with hormone ablative therapy, chemotherapy, or novel targeted therapy can improve clinical efficacy. PMID:20551894

  13. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  14. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around. PMID:20069199

  15. Endoscopic therapy for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2013-10-01

    Endoscopic therapy is recommended as the first-line therapy for painful chronic pancreatitis with an obstacle on the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The clinical response should be evaluated at 6 to 8 weeks. Calcified stones that obstruct the MPD are first treated by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy; dominant MPD strictures are optimally treated with a single, large, plastic stent that should be exchanged within 1 year even in asymptomatic patients. Pancreatic pseudocysts for which therapy is indicated and are within endoscopic reach should be treated by endoscopy.

  16. [Laser radiations in medical therapy].

    PubMed

    Richand, P; Boulnois, J L

    1983-06-30

    The therapeutic effects of various types of laser beams and the various techniques employed are studied. Clinical and experimental research has shown that Helio-Neon laser beams are most effective as biological stimulants and in reducing inflammation. For this reasons they are best used in dermatological surgery cases (varicose ulcers, decubital and surgical wounds, keloid scars, etc.). Infrared diode laser beams have been shown to be highly effective painkillers especially in painful pathologies like postherpetic neuritis. The various applications of laser therapy in acupuncture, the treatment of reflex dermatologia and optic fibre endocavital therapy are presented. The neurophysiological bases of this therapy are also briefly described.

  17. Convergence insufficiency and vision therapy.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Mary Lou

    2014-06-01

    There is no standard meaning of the term "vision therapy", and for this reason it is often a controversial topic between some members of the ophthalmic and optometric community. Most pediatric ophthalmologists avoid using the term because it is nonspecific. Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a binocular visual problem that causes problems and symptoms with near fixation. There is consensus among eye care professionals that convergence therapy is effective in treating CI. Convergence therapy is not effective in treating learning disabilities, but can sometimes relieve symptoms that might be a barrier to reading.

  18. Gene therapy: proceed with caution.

    PubMed

    Grobstein, C; Flower, M

    1984-04-01

    On 6 February 1984 the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health approved a recommendation that the committee provide prior review of research protocols involving human gene therapy. Grobstein and Flower trace the development of public policy in response to concerns about the dangers of gene therapy, especially as it applies to germ line alteration. They offer guidelines and propose principles for an oversight body to confront the immediate and long term technical, social, and ethical implications of human genetic modification. An accompanying article presents a plea for the development of gene therapy by the mother of three children who have sickle cell anemia.

  19. Particle therapy for cancers: a new weapon in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2012-06-01

    Particle irradiation started to draw attention in the past decade and has now become a hotspot in the radiation oncology community. This article reviews the most advanced developments in particle irradiation, focusing on the characteristics of proton and carbon ions in radiation physics and radiobiology. The Bragg peak of physical dose distribution causes proton and carbon beams to optimally meet the requirement for cancer irradiation because the Bragg peak permits the accurate concentration of the dose on the tumor, thus sparing the adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, carbon ion has more radiobiological benefits than photon and proton beams. These benefits include stronger sterilization effects on intrinsic radio-resistant tumors and more effective killing of hypoxic, G(0), and S phase cells. Compared with the most advanced radiation techniques using photon, such as three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, proton therapy has yielded more promising outcomes in local control and survival for head and neck cancers, prostate carcinoma, and pediatric cancers. Carbon therapy in Japan showed even more promising results than proton therapy. The local controls and overall survivals were as good as that treated by surgery in early stages of non-small cell lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and head and neck cancers, especially for such highly resistant tumors as melanoma. The non-invasive nature of particle therapy affords more patients with chances to receive and benefit from treatment. Particle therapy is gradually getting attention from the oncology community. However, the cost of particle therapy facilities has limited the worldwide use of this technology.

  20. Gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy--contrasts or complementarities?

    PubMed

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James; Sonne, Mikael

    2010-12-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued that gestalt therapy, defined as a field-theoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual and contextual aspects of therapeutic change processes, toward different levels of memory involved in these processes, and toward the relationship between basic needs, sensation and cognition in therapeutic work. Further, a dialogue between the two approaches will pave the way for addressing the connection between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined. PMID:21198245

  1. [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy after conventional therapy for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagel, C A; Voûte, P A; De Kraker, J; Valdés Olmos, R A

    1991-01-01

    [131I]Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) is used for diagnostic scintigraphy and targeted therapy in a range of neural crest tumors, which exhibit an active uptake-1 mechanism at the cell membrane and cytoplasmatic storage in neurosecretory granules. A good and selective concentration and a long retention in the tumor, as is generally the case in neuroblastoma, are the basis for successful 131I-MIBG treatment. At The Netherlands Cancer Institute a phase II study was carried out in 53 patients with progressive recurrent disease after conventional therapy had failed. Despite the unfavorable basis for treatment, 131I-MIBG therapy induced 7 complete remissions, 23 partial remissions and arrest of disease (no change) in 10. Nine patients had progressive disease and one patient was lost to follow-up. The palliative effect of the treatment under these conditions was impressive. The duration of remissions varied from 2 to 38 months. The best results were obtained in patients with voluminous soft tissue disease. In general the treatment was well tolerated by children and the toxicity was mild, provided the bone marrow was not invaded by the disease. It is concluded that 131I-MIBG therapy has a definitive place in the treatment of neuroblastoma after conventional treatment has failed. As the invasiveness and toxicity of this therapy compare favorably with that of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy, 131I-MIBG therapy is the best palliative treatment for patients with advanced recurrent neuroblastoma.

  2. Gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy--contrasts or complementarities?

    PubMed

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James; Sonne, Mikael

    2010-12-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued that gestalt therapy, defined as a field-theoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual and contextual aspects of therapeutic change processes, toward different levels of memory involved in these processes, and toward the relationship between basic needs, sensation and cognition in therapeutic work. Further, a dialogue between the two approaches will pave the way for addressing the connection between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined.

  3. Insulin therapy and exercise.

    PubMed

    Kourtoglou, Georgios I

    2011-08-01

    Medical nutrition therapy and physical exercise are the cornerstones of the diabetes management. Patients with type 1 DM always need exogenous insulin administration, recently available in the form of insulin analogs. In type 2 DM, characterized by increased insulin resistance and progressive decline of the beta-cell function, various antidiabetic medications are used. Most of the subjects with type 2 DM will finally need insulin. The main site of insulin action is the skeletal muscle, while the liver is the main site of glucose storage in the form of glycogen. With the modern diabetes therapies it is possible to rapidly reach and maintain normoglycemia in both types of DM but with the cost of higher incidence of hypoglycemia, especially related to exercise. Regular physical exercise causes a lot of beneficial effects in healthy as well as diabetic subjects of all age groups. In type 1 DM physical exercise is a fundamental element for both physical and mental development. In type 2 DM it has a main role in diabetes control. The increased hepatic glucose production and the increased muscular glucose uptake during exercise are closely interrelated in all exercise intensities. In diabetes mellitus there is a disturbed energy substrate use during exercise leading to either hypo- or hyperglycemia. The influence of low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise on diabetes control has been well studied. The inappropriately high insulinemia combined with the low glucose levels can lead to severe hypoglycemia if proper measures are not taken. Prolonged exercise can also predispose to decreased glucose counter regulation. It is better for the type 1 diabetic subject to postpone the exercise session in very high (>300 mg/dl) or very low (<70 mg/dl) BG levels. Every insulin treated subject is recommended to be checked for any existing diabetic complication before the start of every exercise program. Glucose measurement with glucose meters or sometimes with Continuous Glucose

  4. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid.

  5. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid. PMID:27008448

  6. Photodynamic therapy for epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zusman, Edie; Sidhu, Manpreet; Coon, Valerie; Scott, Nicholas; Bisland, Stuart; Tsukamoto, Tara

    2006-02-01

    Epilepsy is surgically curable if the seizure focus can be localized and does not include areas of eloquent cortex. Because epileptic cells are indistinct from surrounding brain, resection typically includes normal tissue. Using the rat kindling model of epilepsy, we evaluated Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) as a super-selective lesioning technique. We present a series of pilot studies to evaluate: 1) Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, 2) the efficacy of PDT to raise seizure thresholds, 3) the safety of PDT using behavioral studies, and 4) histologic results. Bipolar electrodes were chronically implanted into the cortex and animals received successive low-level stimulation generating seizures of increasing severity. Following 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration, fully kindled rats received electrical stimulation to induce a generalized seizure. Animals were irradiated with laser light focused onto a temporal craniectomy. Our results show: 1) an increase in PpIX fluorescence in the seizure group, 2) PDT treated animals failed to demonstrate seizure activity following repeat stimulation, 3) no statistically significant difference between treated and control animals were observed on behavioral tests, 4) histology showed pyknotic hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA3 region without areas of obvious necrosis. In conclusion, this is the first report of heightened PpIX-mediated fluorescence in epileptic brain. The selective accumulation of PpIX with laser PDT may provide a less invasive and more precise technique for obliteration of epileptic foci. PDT warrants additional research to determine if this technique may augment or replace existing procedures for the surgical management of epilepsy.

  7. Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Carpenter, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy held September 14--17, 1992 in Columbus, Ohio. Individual papers were separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  8. Respiratory Resistance In Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Michael J.

    1975-01-01

    Patients' respiratory problems may interfere with their talking in therapy sessions. Interventions by the therapist must be based on an understanding of the underlying dynamics which produced the respiratory problem. (Author)

  9. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the respiratory therapy technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation; Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  10. Gene Therapy for Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Samiy, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy has a growing research potential particularly in the field of ophthalmic and retinal diseases owing to three main characteristics of the eye; accessibility in terms of injections and surgical interventions, its immune-privileged status facilitating the accommodation to the antigenicity of a viral vector, and tight blood-ocular barriers which save other organs from unwanted contamination. Gene therapy has tremendous potential for different ocular diseases. In fact, the perspective of gene therapy in the field of eye research does not confine to exclusive monogenic ophthalmic problems and it has the potential to include gene based pharmacotherapies for non-monogenic problems such as age related macular disease and diabetic retinopathy. The present article has focused on how gene transfer into the eye has been developed and used to treat retinal disorders with no available therapy at present. PMID:25709778

  11. Vaccine Therapy for Unresectable Chordoma

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase II clinical trial, adult patients with inoperable chordoma who are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to receive a yeast-based vaccine that targets a protein called brachyury or a placebo injection.

  12. Image-guided acoustic therapy.

    PubMed

    Vaezy, S; Andrew, M; Kaczkowski, P; Crum, L

    2001-01-01

    The potential role of therapeutic ultrasound in medicine is promising. Currently, medical devices are being developed that utilize high-intensity focused ultrasound as a noninvasive method to treat tumors and to stop bleeding (hemostasis). The primary advantage of ultrasound that lends the technique so readily to use in noninvasive therapy is its ability to penetrate deep into the body and deliver to a specific site thermal or mechanical energy with submillimeter accuracy. Realizing the full potential of acoustic therapy, however, requires precise targeting and monitoring. Fortunately, several imaging modalities can be utilized for this purpose, thus leading to the concept of image-guided acoustic therapy. This article presents a review of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy, including its mechanisms of action, the imaging modalities used for guidance and monitoring, some current applications, and the requirements and technology associated with this exciting and promising field.

  13. Topical Therapy Primer for Nondermatologists.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jolene R; Myers, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    A representative assortment of topical therapies is discussed here with the goal of emphasizing the most commonly encountered diagnoses and treatments for nondermatologists. When using topical therapies, carefully consider the proper active ingredient, potency, vehicle, and quantity of medication. If topical therapy is ineffective, question whether the medication is being used properly, whether the diagnosis is correct, and whether the topical may be contributing to the problem. Examples of the topical contributing to the problem include tinea incognito exacerbated by topical steroid use and allergic contact dermatitis to topical steroid excipients. For some patients, even maximum topical therapy is insufficient and systemic treatment is required. At this point, consultation with a dermatologist may be helpful.

  14. History of hadron therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-06-01

    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed.

  15. [Negative pressure therapy in traumatology].

    PubMed

    Ali, Mazen

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of complex wounds in traumatology is a source of concern for nurses. Negative pressure therapy constitutes a solution for difficult-to-treat situations in the framework of open fractures and loss of limb tissue.

  16. HIV gene therapy research advances.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M

    2013-02-28

    In this issue of Blood, Tebas et al report antiviral effects in a clinical trial of multiple infusions of lentiviral vector–modified autologous CD4T lymphocytes in 17 HIV-infected patients aviremic on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

  17. The biology of manual therapies.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brian C; Thomas, James S; Walkowski, Stevan A; Howell, John N

    2012-09-01

    Each year, more than 18 million adults in the United States receive manual therapies, at a total annual out-of-pocket cost of $3.9 billion. Although there is growing evidence supporting the efficacy of manual therapies, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these treatments. This lack of basic knowledge significantly limits the development of rational strategies for the use of these treatments and potentially hinders their acceptance by the wider scientific and health care communities. Many authors have hypothesized that manual therapies act by disrupting the pain-spasm-pain cycle, but relatively little experimental evidence has supported this hypothesis. The authors have tested this hypothesis and summarize their work on the biology of manual therapies.

  18. Boron-neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, A. M.; Moschini, G.; Valkovic, Vlado; Zafiropoulos, D.

    1995-03-01

    The final goal of any radiotherapy project is to expose the tumor as the target to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation, sparing thereby the surrounding healthy tissues to a maximum extent. Precise treatment is nevertheless essential for cure, since the danger exists that the tumor might re-establish itself if every cancer cell is not destroyed. The conventional therapy treatments existing to date, e.g., surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, have been successful in curing some kinds of cancers, but still there are many exceptions. In the following, the progress of a promising therapy tool, called the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), which has made its dynamic evolution in recent years, is briefly described. The approach towards clinical trials with BNCT is described in detail.

  19. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    PubMed

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  20. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether surgery will be helpful for you EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THER APY External beam radiation therapy is the safe delivery of high- ... your cancer. A linear accelerator focuses the radiation beam to a precise location in your body for ...

  1. Gene therapy for lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ennist, D L

    1999-06-01

    Gene therapy is a new field of medical research that has great potential to influence the course of treatment of human disease. The lung has been a particularly attractive target organ for gene therapy due to its accessibility and the identification of genetic deficits for a number of lung diseases. Several clinical trials have shown evidence of low levels of gene transfer and expression, but without any benefit to the patients involved. Thus, current studies are focusing on further research and technological improvements to the vectors. Gene therapy is now beginning to benefit from a shift in emphasis from clinical trials to the development of better tools and procedures to deliver gene therapy to the bedside.

  2. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  3. Colorectal hepatic metastasis: Evolving therapies

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Makarawo, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    The approach for colorectal hepatic metastasis has advanced tremendously over the past decade. Multidrug chemotherapy regimens have been successfully introduced with improved outcomes. Concurrently, adjunct multimodal therapies have improved survival rates, and increased the number of patients eligible for curative liver resection. Herein, we described major advancements of surgical and oncologic management of such lesions, thereby discussing modern chemotherapeutic regimens, adjunct therapies and surgical aspects of liver resection. PMID:25067997

  4. Gene therapy and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Alusi, G; Wang, Y

    2012-06-01

    In 2003, a non-replicating adenoviral gene therapy product received the world`s first government licence for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Two years later approval was granted to a replication-selective adenovirus for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This review introduces the reader to gene therapy as an emerging treatment modality, and outlines its application to the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by examining recent pre-clinical and clinical research.

  5. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  6. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT): PDT Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Ron R.

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light based therapy used to ablate tumors. As practiced in oncology a photosensitizing agent is applied and then activated by a specific wavelength and energy of light. This light energy in the presence of oxygen will lead to the creation of the photodynamic reaction which is cyto and vasculo toxic. This paper will review the mechanisms of action of PDT and how they may be manipulated to improve clinical outcome in cancer patients. PMID:23422955

  7. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  8. Emerging Therapies for Scar Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Block, Lisa; Gosain, Ankush; King, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: There are ∼12 million traumatic lacerations treated in the United States emergency rooms each year, 250 million surgical incisions created worldwide every year, and 11 million burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment worldwide. In the United States, over $20 billion dollars per year are spent on the treatment and management of scars. Recent Advances: Investigations into the management of scar therapies over the last decade have advanced our understanding related to the care of cutaneous scars. Scar treatment methods are presented including topical, intralesional, and mechanical therapies in addition to cryotherapy, radiotherapy, and laser therapy. Critical Issues: Current treatment options for scars have significant limitations. This review presents the current and emerging therapies available for scar management and the scientific evidence for scar management is discussed. Future Directions: Based upon our new understanding of scar formation, innovative scar therapies are being developed. Additional research on the basic science of scar formation will lead to additional advances and novel therapies for the treatment of cutaneous scars. PMID:26487979

  9. Antiviral therapy for human rabies.

    PubMed

    Appolinario, Camila M; Jackson, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Human rabies is virtually always fatal despite numerous attempts at aggressive therapy. Most survivors received one or more doses of rabies vaccine prior to the onset of the disease. The Milwaukee Protocol has proved to be ineffective for rabies and should no longer be used. New approaches are needed and an improved understanding of basic mechanisms responsible for the clinical disease in rabies may prove to be useful for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Antiviral therapy is thought to be an important component of combination therapy for the management of human rabies, and immunotherapy and neuroprotective therapy should also be strongly considered. There are many important issues for consideration regarding drug delivery to the central nervous system in rabies, which are in part related to the presence of the blood-brain barrier and also the blood-spinal cord barrier. Ribavirin and interferon-α have proved to be disappointing agents for the therapy of rabies. There is insufficient evidence to support the continued use of ketamine or amantadine for the therapy of rabies. Minocycline or corticosteroids should not be used because of concerns about aggravating the disease. A variety of new antiviral agents are under development and evaluation, including favipiravir, RNA interference (for example, small interfering [si]RNAs) and novel targeted approaches, including interference with viral capsid assembly and viral egress.

  10. Gene therapy for metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jonathan B; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Aubourg, Patrick; Crystal, Ronald G; Sondhi, Dolan

    2016-11-01

    Leukodystrophies (LDs) are rare, often devastating genetic disorders with neurologic symptoms. There are currently no disease-specific therapeutic approaches for these diseases. In this review we use metachromatic leukodystrophy as an example to outline in the brief the therapeutic approaches to MLD that have been tested in animal models and in clinical trials, such as enzyme-replacement therapy, bone marrow/umbilical cord blood transplants, ex vivo transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells, and gene therapy. These studies suggest that to be successful the ideal therapy for MLD must provide persistent and high level expression of the deficient gene, arylsulfatase A in the CNS. Gene therapy using adeno-associated viruses is therefore the ideal choice for clinical development as it provides the best balance of potential for efficacy with reduced safety risk. Here we have summarized the published preclinical data from our group and from others that support the use of a gene therapy with AAVrh.10 serotype for clinical development as a treatment for MLD, and as an example of the potential of gene therapy for LDs especially for Krabbe disease, which is the focus of this special issue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638601

  11. New anabolic therapies in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mishaela R; Bilezikian, John P

    2003-03-01

    Anabolic agents represent an important new advance in the therapy of osteoporosis. Their potential might be substantially greater than the anti-resorptives. Because the anti-resorptives and anabolic agents work by completely distinct mechanisms of action, it is possible that the combination of agents could be significantly more potent than either agent alone. Recent evidence suggests that a plateau in BMD might occur after prolonged exposure to PTH. Anti-resorptive therapy during or after anabolic therapy might prevent this skeletal adaptation. Protocols to consider anabolic agents as intermittent recycling therapy would be of interest. Of all the anabolics, PTH is the most promising. However, there are unanswered questions about PTH. More studies are needed to document an anabolic effect on cortical bone. More large-scale studies are needed to further determine the reduction in nonvertebral fractures with PTH, especially at the hip. In the future, PTH is likely to be modified for easier and more targeted delivery. Oral or transdermal delivery systems may become available. Recently, Gowen et al have described an oral calcilytic molecule that antagonizes the parathyroid cell calcium receptor, thus stimulating the endogenous release of PTH. This approach could represent a novel endogenous delivery system for intermittent PTH administration. Rising expectations that anabolic therapies for osteoporosis will soon play a major role in treating this disease are likely to fuel further studies and the development of even more novel approaches to therapy. PMID:12699304

  12. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  13. The Use of Color in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on the separate fields of art therapy and color therapy, synthesizing them in a proposed use of color within art therapy. Specific techniques focusing on use of color in a nonrepresentational expressive form are suggested as a way to extend the therapeutic benefits of art therapy. The intention of this…

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Nahand, Javid Sadri; Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer. PMID:27461603

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy: Moving toward targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Nahand, Javid Sadri; Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) occurs when a stable isotope, boton-10, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield stripped down helium-4 nuclei and lithium-7 nuclei. It is a binary therapy in the treatment of cancer in which a cytotoxic event is triggered when an atom placed in a cancer cell. Here, we provide an overview on the application of BNCT in cancer therapy as well as current preclinical and clinical evidence on the efficacy of BNCT in the treatment of melanoma, brain tumors, head and neck cancer, and thyroid cancer. Several studies have shown that BNCT is effective in patients who had been treated with a full dose of conventional radiotherapy, because of its selectivity. In addition, BNCT is dependent on the normal/tumor tissue ratio of boron distribution. Increasing evidence has shown that BNCT can be combined with different drug delivery systems to enhance the delivery of boron to cancer cells. The flexibility of BNCT to be used in combination with different tumor-targeting approaches has made this strategy a promising option for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the recent advances in the use of BNCT for targeted therapy of cancer.

  16. [Non-drug therapies for CRPS].

    PubMed

    Krämer, H H; Tanislav, C; Birklein, F

    2012-06-01

    State of the art CRPS therapy comprises medication, interventional therapies and non-pharmaceutical treatments like physiotherapy (PT), occupational therapy, PT with cognitive behavioural elements (mirror therapy, 'motor imagery', and 'graded exposure'), psychotherapeutic methods, local therapies and neurostimulation. These treatments are mostly as successful as medical or interventional treatment. These effects have been demonstrated in small but randomised controlled studies. Adjuvant therapies were shown to reduce pain and the severity of dysfunction in CRPS. Therefore, these non-drug therapies should be an essential part of any multimodal CRPS treatment. PMID:22833067

  17. Social anxiety disorder treatments: psychosocial therapies.

    PubMed

    Foa, Edna B

    2006-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have shown benefit with the use of medication and cognitive-behavioral therapies as well as incorporation of combined therapeutic modalities. This article briefly summarizes the literature on the outcome of group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for SAD and concludes that individual therapy is superior to group therapy. Finally, the article discusses comorbidity of depression and SAD and its implications for cognitive-behavioral therapy.

  18. [Organ replacement therapy - renal replacement therapy in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Kraus, Daniel; Wanner, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Critically ill patients who are treated in an intensive care unit are at increased risk of developing acute renal failure. Every episode of renal failure decreases life expectancy. However, acute renal failure is no longer an immediate cause of death because renal function can be substituted medically and mechanically, by the use of renal replacement therapy. Hemodialysis and hemofiltration are the 2 fundamental modalities of renal replacement therapy and may be performed intermittently or continuously. The decision for one particular therapy has to be made for each patient individually. Peritoneal dialysis is an alternative treatment for acute renal failure, but is not available for immediate use in most centers. Contrast media and rhabdomyolysis are 2 common causes of toxic renal failure in the intensive care unit. However, they cannot be prevented by hemodialysis. PMID:27631449

  19. Low Reactive Level Laser Therapy for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Ishihara, Miya

    2015-01-01

    Low reactive level laser therapy (LLLT) is mainly focused on the activation of intracellular or extracellular chromophore and the initiation of cellular signaling by using low power lasers. Over the past forty years, it was realized that the laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain and inflammation. In recent years, the term LLLT has become widely recognized in the field of regenerative medicine. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular level and introduce the application to mesenchymal stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) therapies. Finally, our recent research results that LLLT enhanced the MSCs differentiation to osteoblast will also be described. PMID:26273309

  20. Massage therapy for fibromyalgia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid

    2010-07-01

    Massage therapy is widely used by patients with fibromyalgia seeking symptom relief. We performed a review of all available studies with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials to determine whether massage therapy can be a viable treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. Extensive narrative review. PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, PEDro, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (inception-December 2009) were searched for the key words "massage", "massotherapy", "self-massage", "soft tissue manipulation", "soft tissue mobilization", "complementary medicine", "fibromyalgia" "fibrositis", and "myofascial pain". No language restrictions were imposed. The reference lists of all articles retrieved in full were also searched. The effects of massage on fibromyalgia symptoms have been examined in two single-arm studies and six randomized controlled trials. All reviewed studies showed short-term benefits of massage, and only one single-arm study demonstrated long-term benefits. All reviewed studies had methodological problems. The existing literature provides modest support for use of massage therapy in treating fibromyalgia. Additional rigorous research is needed in order to establish massage therapy as a safe and effective intervention for fibromyalgia. In massage therapy of fibromyalgia, we suggest that massage will be painless, its intensity should be increased gradually from session to session, in accordance with patient's symptoms; and the sessions should be performed at least 1-2 times a week.

  1. Systemic couple therapy for dysthymia.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Adrián; Feixas, Guillem; Muñoz, Dámaris; Compañ, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    We examined the effect of Systemic Couple Therapy on a patient diagnosed with dysthymic disorder and her partner. Marge and Peter, a middle-aged married couple, showed significant and meaningful changes in their pattern of interaction over the course of the therapy and, by the end of it, Marge no longer met the diagnostic criteria for dysthymic disorder. Her scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II) were in the clinical range before treatment and in the nonclinical one at the end of therapy. Although scores on Dyadic Adjustment Scale showed different patterns, both members reported significant improvement. The analysis of change in the alliance-related behaviors throughout the process concurred with change in couple's pattern of interaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Highlights in the therapy process showed the importance of relational mechanisms of change, such as broadening the therapeutic focus into the couple's pattern of interaction, reducing expressed emotion and resentment, as well as increasing positive exchanges. The results of this evidence-based case study should prompt further investigation of couple therapy for dysthymia disorder. Randomized clinical trial design is needed to reach an evidence-based treatment status.

  2. Gene therapy on the move

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Büning, Hildegard; Galy, Anne; Schambach, Axel; Grez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The first gene therapy clinical trials were initiated more than two decades ago. In the early days, gene therapy shared the fate of many experimental medicine approaches and was impeded by the occurrence of severe side effects in a few treated patients. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to treatment- and/or vector-associated setbacks has resulted in the development of highly sophisticated gene transfer tools with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy. Employing these advanced tools, a series of Phase I/II trials were started in the past few years with excellent clinical results and no side effects reported so far. Moreover, highly efficient gene targeting strategies and site-directed gene editing technologies have been developed and applied clinically. With more than 1900 clinical trials to date, gene therapy has moved from a vision to clinical reality. This review focuses on the application of gene therapy for the correction of inherited diseases, the limitations and drawbacks encountered in some of the early clinical trials and the revival of gene therapy as a powerful treatment option for the correction of monogenic disorders. PMID:24106209

  3. Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Bhudatt; Tewatia, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are major challenges for the radiotherapy patient dosimetry and delivery verification. Advanced techniques are less tolerant to poor implementation than are standard techniques. Mis-administrations are more difficult to detect and can possibly lead to poor outcomes for some patients. Instead of presenting a manual on quality assurance for radiation therapy, this manuscript provides an overview of dosimetry verification tools and a focused discussion on breath holding, respiratory gating and the applications of four-dimensional computed tomography in motion management. Some of the major challenges in the above areas are discussed. PMID:20098555

  4. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  5. [Cell therapy for Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Shin-ichi

    2009-11-01

    Advances in the field of stem cell research have raised hopes of creating novel cell replacement therapies for Parkinson disease (PD), although double-blinded clinical trials have met with controversial success in patients implanted with fetal midbrain tissue and autopsy results have shown that some of the grafted fetal neurons displayed pathological changes typical of PD. Dopaminergic neurons have been efficiently derived from stem cells using various methods, and beneficial effects after transplantation have been demonstrated in animal models of PD. Some obstacles remain to be overcome before stem cell therapy can be routinely and safely used to treat PD in humans. A widely used prodrug/suicide gene therapy would be applied to stem cells to reduce risk of tumor formation. Since grafts were transplanted ectopically into the striatum instead of the substantia nigra in most current protocols, surviving dopaminergic neurons would not have to be the same subtype as the nigral cells. If the main mechanism underlying any functional recovery achieved by cell therapies is restoration of dopaminergic neurotransmission, then viral vector-mediated gene delivery of dopamine-synthesizing enzymes represents a more straightforward approach. Future targets for cell therapy should include some types of Parkinsonism with degeneration of striatal neurons.

  6. Psychophysiological study on fasting therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Suzuki, J; Yamauchi, Y

    1979-01-01

    The Tohoku University method of fasting therapy was performed on 380 patients. The clinical results revealed an efficacy rate of 87%. With regard to psychosomatic diseases, irritable colon syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, mild diabetes mellitus, obesity and borderline hypertension were good indications for this therapy. In order to clarify the therapeutic mechanism, several clinical examinations were administered before, during and after therapy. EEG data was analysed according to the power spectral method. The peak frequency decreased as fasting progressed, while it increased as re-fed continued. Percent energy of alpha waves after fasting therapy was significantly higher than that of the pre-fasting stage. The dexamethasone suppression rate of urine 17-OHCS after fasting therapy was significantly lower than that of the pre-fasting stage. It seems that ketone nutrition may work as a strong stressor in the brain cell, temporarily placing all biological mechanisms in a stress state and then activating the natural healing power inherent to the human body, thereby bringing about homeostasis.

  7. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  8. Endoscopic laser therapy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed Central

    Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy. Images PMID:1413743

  9. Injectable therapy for Peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Chong, Weiliang; Tan, Ronny Ban Wei

    2016-06-01

    Peyronie's disease is a disfiguring and psychologically devastating disease, which continues to pose a significant clinical conundrum to the attending doctor. Many forms of therapy have been trialled but results have been inconsistent at best. Non-surgical therapy revolves around oral, intralesional and shockwave therapies. The focus of this paper is on intralesional agents, their evolution and efficacy of treatments. The mere fact that so many agents have been tried is a testament to the incomplete knowledge that we have with regards to the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Currently, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved agent that has shown fairly consistent results is Clostridium histiolyticum collagenase (Xiaflex(TM)), whereas calcium channel blockers and interferons (IFN) remain as off-label options.

  10. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated.

  11. Cell memory-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2015-11-01

    Current cell therapies, despite all of the progress in this field, still faces major ethical, technical and regulatory hurdles. Because these issues possibly stem from the current, restricted, stereotypical view of cell ultrastructure and function, we must think radically about the nature of the cell. In this regard, the author's theory of the cell memory disc offers 'memory-based therapy', which, with the help of immune system rejuvenation, nervous system control and microparticle-based biodrugs, may have substantial therapeutic potential. In addition to its potential value in the study and prevention of premature cell aging, age-related diseases and cell death, memory therapy may improve the treatment of diseases that are currently limited by genetic disorders, risk of tumour formation and the availability and immunocompatibility of tissue transplants. PMID:26256679

  12. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  13. The future of positive therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y Joel

    2006-01-01

    Responds to commentary by S. J. Lopez and B. A. Kerr (see record 2006-07640-002) on the current author's original article (see record 2006-07640-001). In their commentary on strength-centered therapy (ST), Lopez and Kerr (2006) called for an open-source approach to developing positive psychological practices. In this rejoinder, the author responds to their comments, provides clarifications on ST, and discusses the future of positive therapy. Specifically, the author calls for future scholarship to address (1) the contributions of social constructionist therapies, (2) positive systemic influences in psychotherapy, and (3) diverse conceptualizations of strengths and optimal human functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Gene therapy in corneal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Yureeda; Hamrah, Pedram

    2013-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed organ transplantation. Immune privilege of the cornea is widely recognized, partly because of the relatively favorable outcome of corneal grafts. The first-time recipient of corneal allografts in an avascular, low-risk setting can expect a 90% success rate without systemic immunosuppressive agents and histocompatibility matching. However, immunologic rejection remains the major cause of graft failure, particularly in patients with a high risk for rejection. Corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy for the prevention and treatment of immune rejection. However, current pharmacological measures are limited in their side-effect profiles, repeated application, lack of targeted response, and short duration of action. Experimental ocular gene therapy may thus present new horizons in immunomodulation. From efficient viral vectors to sustainable alternative splicing, we discuss the progress of gene therapy in promoting graft survival and postulate further avenues for gene-mediated prevention of allogeneic graft rejection.

  15. Apoptosis pathways in neuroblastoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Simone; Debatin, Klaus Michael

    2003-07-18

    Apoptosis, the cell's intrinsic death program, plays a crucial role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis, and an imbalance between cell death and proliferation may result in tumor formation. Also, killing of tumor cells by diverse cytotoxic approaches such as anticancer drugs, gamma-irradiation, suicide genes or immunotherapy, is predominantly mediated through induction of apoptosis. Failure to activate apoptotic pathways in response to drug treatment may lead to resistance of neuroblastoma cells to anticancer therapies. Understanding the molecular events that regulate apoptosis induced by cytotoxic therapies and how neuroblastoma cells evade apoptotic events may provide a new paradigm for neuroblastoma therapy. Thus, novel strategies targeting resistance of neuroblastoma cells will be based on insights into the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis as well as other forms of cell death.

  16. Immunomicelles for advancing personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Rupa R; Jhaveri, Aditi M; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-10-01

    Personalized medicine, which ultimately seeks to afford tailored therapeutic regimens for individual patients, is quickly emerging as a new paradigm in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The idea of casting aside generic treatments in favor of patient-centric therapies has become feasible owing to advances in nanotechnology and drug delivery coupled with an enhanced knowledge of genomics and an understanding of disease at the molecular level. This review highlights polymeric immunomicelles as a class of nanocarriers that have the potential to combine diagnosis, targeted drug therapy, as well as imaging and monitoring of therapeutic response, to render a personalized approach to the management of disease. Smart multi-functional immunomicelles, as the next generation of nanocarriers, are poised for facilitating personalized cancer treatment. This review provides an assessment of immunomicelles as tools for advancing personalized therapy of diseases, with cancer being the major focus. PMID:22917778

  17. Experimental therapies for yellow fever

    PubMed Central

    Julander, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  18. [Radiation therapy and redox imaging].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy kills cancer cells in part by flood of free radicals. Radiation ionizes and/or excites water molecules to create highly reactive species, i.e. free radicals and/or reactive oxygen species. Free radical chain reactions oxidize biologically important molecules and thereby disrupt their function. Tissue oxygen and/or redox status, which can influence the course of the free radical chain reaction, can affect the efficacy of radiation therapy. Prior observation of tissue oxygen and/or redox status is helpful for planning a safe and efficient course of radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance-based redox imaging techniques, which can estimate tissue redox status non-invasively, have been developed not only for diagnostic information but also for estimating the efficacy of treatment. Redox imaging is now spotlighted to achieve radiation theranostics. PMID:25948308

  19. [Radiation therapy and redox imaging].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy kills cancer cells in part by flood of free radicals. Radiation ionizes and/or excites water molecules to create highly reactive species, i.e. free radicals and/or reactive oxygen species. Free radical chain reactions oxidize biologically important molecules and thereby disrupt their function. Tissue oxygen and/or redox status, which can influence the course of the free radical chain reaction, can affect the efficacy of radiation therapy. Prior observation of tissue oxygen and/or redox status is helpful for planning a safe and efficient course of radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance-based redox imaging techniques, which can estimate tissue redox status non-invasively, have been developed not only for diagnostic information but also for estimating the efficacy of treatment. Redox imaging is now spotlighted to achieve radiation theranostics.

  20. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community. PMID:21282489

  1. Radiation therapy in cholangiocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas B; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma can arise in all parts of the biliary tract and this has implications for therapy. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy however local relapse is a major problem. Therefore, adjuvant treatment with chemoradiotherapy was tested in trials. The SWOG-S0809 trial regimen of chemoradiotherapy which was tested in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and in gallbladder cancer can currently be regarded as highest level of evidence for this indication. In contrast to adjuvant therapy where only conventionally fractionated radiotherapy plays a role, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) today has become a powerful alternative to chemoradiotherapy for definitive treatment due to the ability to administer higher doses of radiotherapy to improve local control. Sequential combinations with chemotherapy are also frequently employed. Nevertheless, in general cholangiocarcinoma is an orphan disease and future clinical trials will have to improve the available level of evidence. PMID:27644907

  2. Behavioral Therapy Across the Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been introduced, including computerized cognitive–behavioral treatments, Web-based guided self-change, and mindfulness-based approaches. Although a wide variety of behavioral approaches have been shown to have good efficacy, choosing the treatment most appropriate for a given patient remains a challenge. PMID:23580016

  3. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Steen, Katie; Narang, Puneet; Lippmann, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature search regarding the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Literature review was conducted via PubMed databases. Of the cases we reviewed, most subjects with multiple sclerosis reported significant psychiatric symptom relief, with only a handful reporting neurologic deterioration. There was some evidence that active white matter lesions may be predictive of neurologic deterioration when electroconvulsive therapy is used in patients with multiple sclerosis. A brief description of the pathophysiology and effects of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis is also provided. Although no clinical recommendations or meaningful conclusions can be drawn without further investigation, the literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of psychiatric illnesses in patients with multiple sclerosis is safe and efficacious.

  4. Behavioral therapy for chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling condition which affects a considerable proportion of patients. Several risk factors and lifestyle habits contribute to the transformation of migraine into a chronic form. Behavioral treatments, including relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavioral therapy reduce the risk of episodic into chronic migraine transformation, thus restraining the headache-related disability. The rationale of behavioral therapies is that a medical problem should be recognized and thoroughly examined by the patient to be successfully managed. Being aware of factors which precipitate or aggravate migraine allows patients to progressively modulate the frequency and duration of their attacks. Similarly, the acquisition of healthy habits improves the quality of life and the subjective well-being of patients and contributes to breaking the vicious cycle that leads to migraine chronification. The highest level of care is achieved when behavioral therapies are integrated with other treatments, including physical and pharmacological interventions.

  5. Antithrombotic Therapy for VTE Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kearon, Clive; Comerota, Anthony J.; Prandoni, Paolo; Bounameaux, Henri; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Nelson, Michael E.; Wells, Philip S.; Gould, Michael K.; Dentali, Francesco; Crowther, Mark; Kahn, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article addresses the treatment of VTE disease. Methods: We generated strong (Grade 1) and weak (Grade 2) recommendations based on high-quality (Grade A), moderate-quality (Grade B), and low-quality (Grade C) evidence. Results: For acute DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE), we recommend initial parenteral anticoagulant therapy (Grade 1B) or anticoagulation with rivaroxaban. We suggest low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux over IV unfractionated heparin (Grade 2C) or subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (Grade 2B). We suggest thrombolytic therapy for PE with hypotension (Grade 2C). For proximal DVT or PE, we recommend treatment of 3 months over shorter periods (Grade 1B). For a first proximal DVT or PE that is provoked by surgery or by a nonsurgical transient risk factor, we recommend 3 months of therapy (Grade 1B; Grade 2B if provoked by a nonsurgical risk factor and low or moderate bleeding risk); that is unprovoked, we suggest extended therapy if bleeding risk is low or moderate (Grade 2B) and recommend 3 months of therapy if bleeding risk is high (Grade 1B); and that is associated with active cancer, we recommend extended therapy (Grade 1B; Grade 2B if high bleeding risk) and suggest LMWH over vitamin K antagonists (Grade 2B). We suggest vitamin K antagonists or LMWH over dabigatran or rivaroxaban (Grade 2B). We suggest compression stockings to prevent the postthrombotic syndrome (Grade 2B). For extensive superficial vein thrombosis, we suggest prophylactic-dose fondaparinux or LMWH over no anticoagulation (Grade 2B), and suggest fondaparinux over LMWH (Grade 2C). Conclusion: Strong recommendations apply to most patients, whereas weak recommendations are sensitive to differences among patients, including their preferences. PMID:22315268

  6. [Physical therapy for parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Hubert, M

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurologic and progressive incapacitating disease. Parkinson's disease severely threatens the quality of live and the number of patients worldwide is expected to rise considerably in the coming decade due to aging of the population. Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients are faced with progressively increasing impairments (e.g. in speech, mental and movement related functions), and restrictions in participation (e.g. domestic life and social activities). Physical therapy is often prescribed next to medical treatment but there is a lack of uniform treatment. A systematic literature search for guidelines, systematic reviews, trials, and expert opinions lead to a better understanding. The key question: Is physiotherapy able to optimally treat the Parkinson's disease symptoms? In which way, how and on which scientific bases can the physiotherapist participate to improve autonomy and to help them living independently and avoid, as long as possible, institutionalization? This article has integrated clinical research findings to provide clinicians with an overview to physical therapist management of disorders in people with Parkinson's disease. An Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Guideline providing practice recommendations was developed by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF). Evidence from research was supplemented with clinical expertise and patients values. Randomized clinical trials reflect specific core areas of physical therapy, that is, transfer, posture, balance, reaching and grasping, gait and physical condition. Another aspect is that of educating patients (as well as their partners and family) about the disease process and the benefits of exercise therapy. Alternative therapies can be helpful like Tai Chi, virtual games, dancing, yoga, ball games for example. PMID:22034770

  7. Cytokine Therapies in Neurological Disease.

    PubMed

    Azodi, Shila; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Cytokines are a heterogeneous group of glycoproteins that coordinate physiological functions. Cytokine deregulation is observed in many neurological diseases. This article reviews current research focused on human clinical trials of cytokine and anticytokine therapies in the treatment of several neurological disease including stroke, neuromuscular diseases, neuroinfectious diseases, demyelinating diseases, and neurobehavioral diseases. This research suggests that cytokine therapy applications may play an important role in offering new strategies for disease modulation and treatment. Further, this research provides insights into the causal link between cytokine deregulation and neurological diseases. PMID:27388288

  8. Acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Xian

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac injury is the most serious adverse event in acupuncture therapy. The causes include needling chest points near the heart, the cardiac enlargement and pericardial effusion that will enlarge the projected area on the body surface and make the proper depth of needling shorter, and the incorrect needling method of the points. Therefore, acupuncture practitioners must be familiar with the points of the heart projected area on the chest and the correct needling methods in order to reduce the risk of acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

  9. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  10. Apoptosis pathways and neuroblastoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Fulda, S

    2009-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis, the cell's intrinsic death program, is a hallmark of human cancers including neuroblastoma. Also, failure to undergo apoptosis may cause treatment resistance, since the cytotoxic activity of anticancer therapies commonly used in the clinic, e.g. chemotherapy, gamma-irradiation or immunotherapy, is predominantly mediated by triggering apoptosis in tumor cells. Therefore, a better understanding of the signaling pathways and molecules that govern apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells is expected to open new avenues for the design of molecular targeted therapies for neuroblastoma.

  11. Gene therapy in clinical medicine

    PubMed Central

    Selkirk, S

    2004-01-01

    Although the field of gene therapy has experienced significant setbacks and limited success, it is one of the most promising and active research fields in medicine. Interest in this therapeutic modality is based on the potential for treatment and cure of some of the most malignant and devastating diseases affecting humans. Over the next decade, the relevance of gene therapy to medical practices will increase and it will become important for physicians to understand the basic principles and strategies that underlie the therapeutic intervention. This report reviews the history, basic strategies, tools, and several current clinical paradigms for application. PMID:15466989

  12. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha; Grover, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy. PMID:23559912

  13. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue.

  14. [Benign prostatic hyperplasia: medical therapy].

    PubMed

    Schlenker, B; Gratzke, C; Weidlich, P; Seitz, M; Reich, O; Stief, C G

    2007-08-16

    Primary aims of the medical therapy for BPH are improvement of subjective symptoms and quality of life as well as the prevention of long-term complications such as acute urinary retention and renal failure. Secondary goal is inhibition of disease progression. The medical therapy should be tailored to each patient according to the individual complaints and risk of progression. Plant extracts, alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors represent the most common prescribed substances. Recent data suggest beneficial effects for the use of antimuscarinic agents and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. PMID:17912863

  15. Maggot debridement therapy for laminitis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Scott

    2010-08-01

    Maggot debridement therapy is a nontraumatic, minimally invasive method to treat infections in a foot compromised by chronic laminitis. A mechanical strategy must first be in place to address the instability of the distal phalanx and hoof capsule. Adverse reactions to maggot debridement therapy are uncommon and the only side effect observed has been irritation or hypersensitivity at the site. Chronic laminitic cases of sepsis/necrosis within the hoof benefit from this procedure due to the noninvasive, continuous debridement and healing properties provided by the larvae.

  16. Proton and heavy ion therapy.

    PubMed

    Larsson, B

    1975-01-01

    Penetrating ion beams are considered interesting supplements to the types of radiation, mostly electrons and gamma rays, that have dominated in radiation research and radiotherapy during the last decades. Biomedical experimentations and clinical studies ar larger ion accelerators (100-1000 MeV/amu) are therefore undertaken in order to exploit their possible clinical use in cancer therapy. It is concluded that an accelerator that permits effective use of protons (ca. 200 MeV) and deutrons (ca. 50 MeV, for neutron therapy) located in a central hospital would represent a convenient tool for clinical investigations at a larger scale. PMID:1201773

  17. Molecular therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Plentz, R R; Manns, M P; Greten, T F

    2010-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The 5-year survival rate remains less than 5% and in contrast to other solid tumors, survial has changed only little in the last decade. Overall PDAC treatment shows only limited response to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Several trials on therapy are ongoing and new targeted agents are in development to improve the treatment outcome of this deadly disease. However, our review presents the current developments of molecular therapies, supports the translational PDAC research and encourage you to take part in further clinical studies. PMID:20386525

  18. Is Maintenance Therapy for Everyone?

    PubMed

    Nooka, Ajay K; Lonial, Sagar

    2016-08-01

    Although myeloma remains an incurable disease among majority of myeloma patients, the prognosis has significantly improved after the introduction of novel agents. While more agents are being explored for their anti-myeloma activity, the more familiar agents with a better tolerability profile have been tested in the maintenance arena. Lenalidomide and bortezomib so far have shown promise as effective maintenance agents in prolonging PFS, and also OS in some studies. The current review aims at describing the clinical data supporting various maintenance therapies and also at providing some clarity to a few concerns associated with maintenance therapies.

  19. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue. PMID:25377376

  20. Bacteria in gene therapy: bactofection versus alternative gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Pálffy, R; Gardlík, R; Hodosy, J; Behuliak, M; Resko, P; Radvánský, J; Celec, P

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in gene therapy can be attributed to improvements of gene delivery vectors. New viral and nonviral transport vehicles that considerably increase the efficiency of transfection have been prepared. However, these vectors still have many disadvantages that are difficult to overcome, thus, a new approach is needed. The approach of bacterial delivery could in the future be important for gene therapy applications. In this article we try to summarize the most important modifications that are used for the preparation of applied strains, difficulties that are related with bacterial gene delivery and the current use of bactofection in animal experiments and clinical trials. Important differences to the alternative gene therapy (AGT) are discussed. AGT resembles bacteria-mediated protein delivery, as the therapeutical proteins are produced not by host cells but by the bacteria in situ and the expression can be regulated exogenously. Although the procedure of bacterial gene delivery is far from being definitely solved, bactofection remains a promising technique for transfection in human gene therapy.

  1. 42 CFR 409.23 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care... for physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services as posthospital...

  2. 42 CFR 409.23 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care... for physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services as posthospital...

  3. 42 CFR 409.23 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care... for physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services as posthospital...

  4. 42 CFR 409.23 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care... for physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology services as posthospital...

  5. Electrophysical Therapies for the Equine Athlete.

    PubMed

    Schlachter, Carrie; Lewis, Courtney

    2016-04-01

    A good rehabilitation program takes into account the possible causes for the injury. Once the underlying cause of the injury is determined, a veterinarian can construct an appropriate rehabilitation plan and use the available electrophysical therapies to their greatest effect. Treating the horse correctly for the type and location of injury, and the stage of rehabilitation of the tissue, helps ensure full rehabilitation success. This article discusses when and how to use the most common electrophysical therapies in horses including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, functional electric stimulation, pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and vibration therapy.

  6. Play Therapy with Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper notes that therapists often feel unqualified to deal with special populations of children because of a lack of understanding of the universalness of play therapy. Suggestions are offered for beginning play therapists who may work with a number of special populations of children. It is recommended that the social learning approach to…

  7. Group Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet

    A variety of psychotherapeutic techniques have been used to treat anorexia nervosa with varying degrees of success. Group therapy has advantages to offer anorectic patients in the form of certain curative factors including consensual validation from other anorectic group members, models of coping, peer feedback, and active participation in the…

  8. Proton therapy for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dinesh Mayani, Devanshi

    2011-09-01

    Proton beam therapy is the latest advancement in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is a precise form of radiotherapy. It uses a beam of protons to target the cancer cells and destroys them. It scores high on precision and effectiveness when compared to other conventional cancer treatments like surgery, chemotherapy and xray radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy destroys the cancerous cells without harming the healthy cells. Thus it considerably reduces the side-effects that accompany conventional cancer treatments. Supporters say the technology allows physicians to treat a broad spectrum of cancers with few adverse effects, while more precisely targeting tumor cells with higher doses of radiation. Detractors say proton beam therapy is hugely expensive and has not been shown to be superior to conventional radiation treatment. With proton beam therapy, physicians use a cyclotron to accelerate protons and fire them directly into tumor cells with submillimeter precision. Because healthy tissue is largely spared, oncologists can, in theory, deliver much higher doses of radiation, while improving local control and reducing the risk for recurrence and morbidities.

  9. Gestalt Therapy and the Cousellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavy, R. Vance

    1973-01-01

    The article briefly describes the principal values in Gestalt Therapy and outlines some of the practices commonly employed in Gestalt work. Implications for counsellors are suggested--both as a mode of counsellor training and as an approach to be used by counsellors. (Author)

  10. BJN Awards 2016: IV therapy.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Claire

    2016-07-28

    Claire Rickard Professor of Nursing, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Centre of Research Excellence in Nursing, Griffith University, was awarded second place in the BJN Awards 2016 for IV Therapy Nurse of the Year. Here she talks about the she has done to be recognised in this field. PMID:27467655

  11. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  12. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bryan; Wiley, J Preston

    2002-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has been in use for the treatment of tendinopathies since the early 1990s. The exact mechanism by which ESWT relieves tendon-associated pain is not known; however, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that it can be an effective therapy for patients who have had repeated nonsurgical treatment failures. The highest strength of evidence is shown in randomised controlled trials, of which there are a small number. Reported results for tendinopathies of the shoulder, elbow and heel have shown consistent positive results in favour of ESWT over placebo ESWT in individuals who have failed conservative therapy. These studies provide strong evidence for ESWT as an effective therapy for the treatment of chronic treatment-resistant tendinopathies. There is still much debate over several issues surrounding ESWT that have not been adequately addressed by the literature: high- versus low-energy ESWT, shockwave dosage and number of sessions required for a therapeutic effect. Further research is needed to ascertain the most beneficial protocol for patient care.

  13. Art Therapy and Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how art therapy helped a woman address her identity and memory difficulties while she managed her daily activities. The process helped her validate traumatic events in her history and provided a starting point for addressing internal conflicts. The client's artwork helped the therapist learn about the client's unconscious states. (MKA)

  14. Therapy of polymyositis and dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Marie, Isabelle

    2011-04-01

    High-dose oral prednisone (at an initial dose of 1mg/kg/day) is the mainstay of therapy for PM/DM, and should be subsequently tapered slowly based on patients' clinical response. First-line combination of prednisone with intravenous immunoglobulins may be considered in patients with PM/DM-related severe systemic complications, especially in the subgroup exbititing life-threatening esophageal involvement. In patients who failed to respond to prednisone, the first-line immunosuppressive therapy includes methotrexate or azathioprine. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy should be considered in patients in whom those cytotoxic drugs are contraindicated. In patients who failed to respond to prednisone, methotrexate or azathioprine, there is no general clinical consensus, although the options more often include: combined therapy of methotrexate and azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab. To date, TNF-α antagonists should not be considered in PM/DM patients, as both efficacy and safety concerns have been markedly raised in anti-TNF-α agent-treated PM/DM patients.

  15. Clear Thinking about Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the kidneys. Chelation is accepted therapy for lead poisoning and a few very rare disorders involving heavy ... development of MS with mercury-based dental fillings. Poisoning with heavy metals, such as mercury, lead, or manganese, can damage the nervous system and ...

  16. Poetry Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Catherine J.

    Poetry therapy has been in use with adult psychiatric patients at Saint Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, D.C, for 10 years. The treatment used involves reading poetry, listening to recordings, studying poets, and writing poetry. The patients' choice of poems is not restricted by the staff, but different types of poetry appeal to different types of…

  17. Health Instruction Packages: Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavich, Margot; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach respiratory therapy students a variety of job-related skills. The first module, "Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Controls of Respiration" by Margot Lavich, describes the functions of the five centers of the brain that control respiration and identifies…

  18. [Combination therapy for invasive aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    The frequency of invasive fungal infections, and specifically invasive aspergillosis, has increased in the last few decades. Despite the development of new antifungal agents, these infections are associated with high mortality, ranging from 40% to 80%, depending on the patient and the localization of the infection. To reduce these figures, several therapeutic strategies have been proposed, including combination therapy. Most of the available data on the efficacy of these combinations are from experimental models, in vitro data and retrospective observational studies or studies with a small number of patients that have included both patients in first-line treatment and those receiving rescue therapy; in addition there are many patients with possible forms of aspergillosis and few with demonstrated or probable forms. To date, there is no evidence that combination therapy has significantly higher efficacy than monotherapy; however, combination therapy could be indicated in severe forms of aspergillosis, or forms with central nervous involvement or extensive pulmonary involvement with respiratory insufficiency, etc. Among the combinations, the association of an echinocandin--the group that includes micafungin--with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B seems to show synergy. These combinations are those most extensively studied in clinical trials and therefore, although the grade of evidence is low, are recommended by the various scientific societies. PMID:21420576

  19. Ethics of Gene Therapy Debated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stu

    1991-01-01

    Presented are the highlights of a press conference featuring biomedical ethicist LeRoy Walters of Georgetown University and attorney Andrew Kimbrell of the Foundation on Economic Trends. The opposing points of view of these two speakers serve to outline the pros and cons of the gene therapy issue. (CW)

  20. Muslim Families and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshpour, Manijeh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The differences in value systems are the Muslim families' preferences for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Suggests that directions for change for Muslims need to…

  1. [Behavior therapy and neurotic behavior].

    PubMed

    Ylieff, M

    1977-01-01

    The first part of the lecture presents three classical aspects of behavior therapy: therapeutic efficiency, utilisation of well defined methods, rapidity of treatment. Emphasis is brought to the importance of behavior analysis and to the dangers arisen from insufficient knowledge or ignorance of learning theories and fundamental principles of behavior analysis. One insists on experimental analysis which is the basis for methods of action having as consequence for the therapeut: controlling strategy of treatment and direct responsibility concerning success and failure. Then, actual limitations of behaviour therapy are described. The second part deals with one of the most important working hypothesis on human neurosis originating from laboratory and clinical research. Behavior therapy refuses to elaborate hypothetical deductive constructions, unless working hypotheses to be verified. Then the four essential clues to behavioural psychotherapy are formulated. The main methods of action presently utilized are presented: aversive methods, operational and systematic desensitization technics through reciprocal inhibition. Finally, some of the main criticism usually made on behaviour therapy are being discussed.

  2. Immune therapy for hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Khan, Md. Sakilur Islam; Raihan, Ruksana; Shrestha, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Although several antiviral drugs are now available for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), sustained off-treatment clinical responses and containment of CHB-related complications are not achieved in majority of CHB patients by antiviral therapy. In addition, use of these drugs is endowed with substantial long term risk of viral resistance and drug toxicity. The infinite treatment regimens of antiviral drugs for CHB patients are also costly and usually unbearable by most patients of developing and resource-constrained countries. Taken together, there is a pressing need to develop new and innovative therapeutic approaches for CHB patients. Immune therapy seems to be an alternate therapeutic approach for CHB patients because impaired or distorted or diminished immune responses have been detected in most of these patients. Also, investigators have shown that restoration or induction of proper types of immune responses may have therapeutic implications in CHB. Various immunomodulatory agents have been used to treat patients with CHB around the world and the outcomes of these clinical trials show that the properties of immune modulators and nature and designing of immune therapeutic regimens seem to be highly relevant in the context of treatment of CHB patients. In this review, the general properties and specific features of immune therapy for CHB have been discussed for developing the guidelines of effective regimens of immune therapy for CHB. PMID:27761439

  3. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should redevelop the evidence of cell-based cardiovascular regeneration therapy, focusing on targets (disease, patient’s status, cardiac function), materials (cells, cytokines, genes), and methodology (transplantation route, implantation technology, tissue engineering). Meanwhile, establishment of the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is an extremely innovative technology which should be proposed as embryonic stem (ES) cellularization of post natal somatic cells, and this application have also showed the milestones of the direct conversion to reconstruct cardiomyocyte from the various somatic cells, which does not need the acquisition of the re-pluripotency. This review discusses the new advance in cardiovascular regeneration therapy from cardiac regeneration to cardiac re-organization, which is involved in recent progress of on-going clinical trials, basic research in cardiovascular regeneration, and the possibility of tissue engineering technology. PMID:23825492

  4. Measuring Angles in Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Nansee; Offerman, Theresa Reardon

    1997-01-01

    Features articles about physical therapy and its history as related to geometry through measurement of body angles. Includes open-ended worksheets for mathematics activities that introduce students to angle measurement, data analysis, and mathematical tools. Activities include: (1) Making Your Own Goniometer; (2) Range of Motion; (3) Active versus…

  5. Neurotoxicity Associated With Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu Lee, Eva; Westcarth, Laurel

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic complications can result from direct or indirect effects of cancer therapy. Treatment toxicity may affect both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Early recognition of these toxicities plays an important role in the management of patients with cancer. PMID:25031923

  6. Art Education/Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John R., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The special issue presents 13 articles dealing with art education and art therapy for special groups. Included are the following titles and authors: "Art Education for Special Groups: The Emotionally Disturbed" (E. Ulman); "You Are The Early Warning System" (C. Stember); "School Art Therapist Rationale for DPI Certification" (V. Minar); "Art…

  7. Wilderness Therapy for Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Dawn Lorraine; Korell, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a wilderness weekend retreat for abused women facilitated by the authors. An overview of wilderness therapy, addressing its historical roots, key theoretical perspectives, as well as issues of emotional and physical safety, is presented. Special emphasis is placed on how to create a wilderness experience that is empowering to…

  8. Art Therapy: A Transdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Historically, art therapy has struggled to clearly define itself as a profession while simultaneously embracing the range of perspectives and knowledge that contribute to clinical practices. In this brief report the author suggests that by shifting the conceptualization of the field from "interdisciplinary" to…

  9. [Art therapy and "art brut"].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Emese; Simon, Lajos

    2010-01-01

    The authors in this article explor the most important steps of the development of the research on the psychopathology of expression. They introduce the development of Art Brut and it's place in art history. They deal with the characteristics of art therapy.

  10. Wither Couple/Family Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Michael F.; Gurman, Alan S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is called to disturbing developments in insurance reimbursement that threaten the practice of therapy involving more than one person. This can be seen as part of the movement to marginalize psychotherapy as first-line treatment and replace it with the inappropriate and excessive (and often exclusive) use of medication.

  11. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, Teresa C.; Castro, Wanda; Shah, Anjali; Courtney, Ardith; Ortstadt, Jeffrey; Davis, Scott L.; Logan, Diana; Abraham, Thomas; Abraham, Jaspreet; Remington, Gina; Treadaway, Katherine; Graves, Donna; Hart, John; Stuve, Olaf; Lemack, Gary; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disease of young adults. The ability to impact the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis should not only incorporate therapies that are disease modifying, but should also include a course of action for the global multidisciplinary management focused on quality of life and functional capabilities. PMID:21694806

  12. Cell Therapy in Joint Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Counsel, Peter D.; Bates, Daniel; Boyd, Richard; Connell, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Articular cartilage possesses poor natural healing mechanisms, and a variety of non-cell-based and cell-based treatments aim to promote regeneration of hyaline cartilage. Data Sources: A review of the literature to December 2013 using PubMed with search criteria including the keywords stem cell, cell therapy, cell transplantation, cartilage, chondral, and chondrogenic. Study Selection: Forty-five articles were identified that employed local mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for joint disorders in humans. Nine comparative studies were identified, consisting of 3 randomized trials, 5 cohort studies, and 1 case-control study. Study Type: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: Studies were assessed for stem cell source, method of implantation, comparison groups, and concurrent surgical techniques. Results: Two studies comparing MSC treatment to autologous chondrocyte implantation found similar efficacy. Three studies reported clinical benefits with intra-articular MSC injection over non-MSC controls for cases undergoing debridement with or without marrow stimulation, although a randomized study found no significant clinical difference at 2-year follow-up but reported better 18-month magnetic resonance imaging and histologic scores in the MSC group. No human studies have compared intra-articular MSC therapy to non-MSC techniques for osteoarthritis in the absence of surgery. Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cell–based therapies appear safe and effective for joint disorders in large animal preclinical models. Evidence for use in humans, particularly, comparison with more established treatments such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and microfracture, is limited. PMID:25553210

  13. [Pain management and music therapy].

    PubMed

    Hoareau, Sophie Gwenaelle; De Diego, Emmanuelle; Guétin, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The benefit of music in the treatment of pain is now recognised. The U sequence is a music therapy technique specifically developed for this purpose. It improves the overall management of pain and facilitates patient support. Its standardised use by caregivers has been made possible thanks to the development of a digital application.

  14. Hepatotoxicity of molecular targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sałek-Zań, Agata

    2014-01-01

    A constant increase in occurrence of neoplasms is observed; hence new methods of therapy are being intensively researched. One of the methods of antineoplastic treatment is molecular targeted therapy, which aims to influence individual processes occurring in cells. Using this type of medications is associated with unwanted effects resulting from the treatment. Liver damage is a major adverse effect diagnosed during targeted therapy. Drug-induced liver damage can occur as necrosis of hepatocytes, cholestatic liver damage and cirrhosis. Hepatotoxicity is evaluated on the basis of International Consensus Criteria. Susceptibility of the liver to injury is connected not only with toxicity of the used medications but also with metastasis, coexistence of viral infections or other chronic diseases as well as the patient's age. It has been proven that in most cases the liver injury is caused by treatment with multikinase inhibitors, in particular tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ordered the inclusion of additional labels – so-called “black box warnings” – indicating increased risk of liver injury when treating with pazopanib, sunitinib, lapatinib and regorafenib. A meta-analysis published in 2013 showed that treating neoplastic patients with tyrosine kinase inhibitors can increase the risk of drug-induced liver damage at least twofold. Below the mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury and hepatotoxic effects of molecular targeted therapy are described. PMID:26034384

  15. Genetic therapies to lower cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the state-of-the-art in genetic therapies for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), caused most commonly by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. FH manifests as highly elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and consequently accelerated atherosclerosis. Modern pharmacological therapies for FH are insufficiently efficacious to prevent premature cardiovascular disease, can cause significant adverse effects and can be expensive. Genetic therapies for FH have been mooted since the mid 1990s but gene replacement strategies using viral vectors have so far been unsuccessful. Other strategies involve knocking down the expression of Apolipoprotein B100 (APOB100) and the protease PCSK9 which designates LDLR for degradation. The antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen, which knocks down APOB100, is currently marketed (with restrictions) in the USA, but is not approved in Europe due to its adverse effects. To address this problem, we have devised a novel therapeutic concept, APO-skip, which is based on modulation of APOB splicing, and which has the potential to deliver a cost-effective, efficacious and safe therapy for FH.

  16. Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Dianne L.; Gillis, Martha M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, and social phobia. Sees CBT as consistently more effective than waiting-list and placebo control groups. Notes that cognitive change may be strong predictor of treatment outcome but that such change may be produced…

  17. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a respiratory therapy technology program. The guide contains four sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining the purpose and objectives, a program…

  18. [Complications caused by intravenous therapy].

    PubMed

    Quirós Luque, José María; Gago Fornells, Manuel

    2005-11-01

    Nursing professionals must know everything related to complications caused by intravenous therapy including the ways to prevent and solve these complications. We need not forget that nurses are the ones mainly responsible for the insertion, manipulation, removal and care of catheters.

  19. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  20. Emerging targets for antidepressant therapies

    PubMed Central

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2015-01-01

    Despite adequate antidepressant monotherapy, the majority of depressed patients do not achieve remission. Even optimal and aggressive therapy leads to a substantial number of patients who show minimal and often only transient improvement. In order to address this substantial problem of treatment-resistant depression, a number of novel targets for antidepressant therapy have emerged as a consequence of major advances in the neurobiology of depression. Three major approaches to uncover novel therapeutic interventions are: first, optimizing the modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission; second, developing medications that act upon neurotransmitter systems other than monoaminergic circuits; and third, using focal brain stimulation to directly modulate neuronal activity. We review the most recent data on novel therapeutic compounds and their antidepressant potential. These include triple monoamine reuptake inhibitors, atypical antipsychotic augmentation, and dopamine receptor agonists. Compounds affecting extra-monoamine neurotransmitter systems include CRF1 receptor antagonists, glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, substance P receptor antagonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, nemifitide, omega-3 fatty acids, and melatonin receptor agonists. Focal brain stimulation therapies include vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS). PMID:19501541

  1. [Pain management and music therapy].

    PubMed

    Hoareau, Sophie Gwenaelle; De Diego, Emmanuelle; Guétin, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The benefit of music in the treatment of pain is now recognised. The U sequence is a music therapy technique specifically developed for this purpose. It improves the overall management of pain and facilitates patient support. Its standardised use by caregivers has been made possible thanks to the development of a digital application. PMID:26743370

  2. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  3. Adjunctive therapies for Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anita J; Burns, Jane C

    2016-07-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries.(1,2) The primary goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery aneurysms (CAA). Between 10 and 20% of KD patients are resistant to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and have an almost nine-fold increased risk of developing CAA.(3) In addition, approximately 80-90% of patients who go on to develop CAA have abnormal coronary artery dimensions on their first echocardiogram and can therefore be identified as high-risk patients. These two subsets of KD patients are candidates for adjunctive therapy, in addition to IVIG. Understanding the mechanism of action of IVIG may provide insight into IVIG resistance and guidance for choosing adjunctive therapies in KD. Therapeutic options in the treatment of refractory KD and patients with early CAA include additional IVIG, glucocorticoids, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, calcineurin inhibitors and interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockers.(3-10) Animal studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of statins may also be beneficial in blocking CAA progression.(6) It is unlikely that these therapies will be studied in large, randomized controlled trials in the future due to required sample size and funding constraints. Thus, data from the research laboratory may be helpful in guiding selection of the most promising adjunctive therapies. PMID:27241708

  4. Respiratory Therapy Assistant. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Judy A.

    This manual is one in a new series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in training with the allied health field. It includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of respiratory therapy assistance. Intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision of an…

  5. Child-Centered Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFleet, Rise; Sywulak, Andrea E.; Sniscak, Cynthia Caparosa

    2010-01-01

    Highly practical, instructive, and authoritative, this book vividly describes how to conduct child-centered play therapy. The authors are master clinicians who explain core therapeutic principles and techniques, using rich case material to illustrate treatment of a wide range of difficulties. The focus is on nondirective interventions that allow…

  6. Music Therapy in Pediatric Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Sheri, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Music therapy is an established health care and human services profession that is dedicated to the implementation of controlled research studies to determine the underlying mechanisms in music that are responsible for therapeutic change, as well as clinical research to direct and guide the work of the music therapist. This growing body of research…

  7. Therapy-related Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Godley, Lucy A.; Larson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/t-AML) are thought to be the direct consequence of mutational events induced by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or a combination of these modalities, given for a pre-existing condition. The outcomes for these patients have been poor historically compared to people who develop de novo AML. The spectrum of cytogenetic abnormalities in t-AML is similar to de novo AML, but the frequency of unfavorable cytogenetics, such as a complex karyotype or deletion or loss of chromosomes 5 and/or 7, is considerably higher in t-AML. Survival varies according to cytogenetic risk group in t-AML patients, with better outcomes being observed in those with favorable-risk karyotypes. Treatment recommendations should be based on performance status and karyotype. A deeper understanding of the factors that predispose patients to the development of therapy-related myeloid leukemia would help clinicians monitor patients more carefully after treatment for a primary condition. Ultimately, this knowledge could influence initial treatment strategies with the goal of decreasing the incidence of this serious complication. PMID:18692692

  8. Proton therapy in the clinic.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The clinical advantage for proton radiotherapy over photon approaches is the marked reduction in integral dose to the patient, due to the absence of exit dose beyond the proton Bragg peak. The integral dose with protons is approximately 60% lower than that with any external beam photon technique. Pediatric patients, because of their developing normal tissues and anticipated length of remaining life, are likely to have the maximum clinical gain with the use of protons. Proton therapy may also allow treatment of some adult tumors to much more effective doses, because of normal tissue sparing distal to the tumor. Currently, the most commonly available proton treatment technology uses 3D conformal approaches based on (a) distal range modulation, (b) passive scattering of the proton beam in its x- and y-axes, and (c) lateral beam-shaping. It is anticipated that magnetic pencil beam scanning will become the dominant mode of proton delivery in the future, which will lower neutron scatter associated with passively scattered beam lines, reduce the need for expensive beam-shaping devices, and allow intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy. Proton treatment plans are more sensitive to variations in tumor size and normal tissue changes over the course of treatment than photon plans, and it is expected that adaptive radiation therapy will be increasingly important for proton therapy as well. While impressive treatment results have been reported with protons, their cost is higher than for photon IMRT. Hence, protons should ideally be employed for anatomic sites and tumors not well treated with photons. While protons appear cost-effective for pediatric tumors, their cost-effectiveness for treatment of some adult tumors, such as prostate cancer, is uncertain. Comparative studies have been proposed or are in progress to more rigorously assess their value for a variety of sites. The utility of proton therapy will be enhanced by technological developments that reduce its cost

  9. Targeted Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Augusto; Llovet, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most solid tumors, incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have increased in the US and Europe in the last decade. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages, so there is an urgent need for new systemic therapies. Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with HCC. Studies in patients with lung, breast, or colorectal cancers indicated that the genetic heterogeneity of cancer cells within a tumor affect its response to therapeutics designed to target specific molecules. When tumor progression requires alterations in specific oncogenes (oncogene addiction), drugs that selectively block their products might slow tumor growth. However, no specific oncogene alterations are yet known to be implicated in HCC progression, so it is important to improve our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis. There are currently many clinical trials evaluating TKIs for HCC, including those tested in combination with (e.g., erlotinib) or compared to (e.g., linifanib) sorafenib as a first-line therapy. For patients that do not respond or are intolerant to sorafenib, TKIs such as brivanib, everolimus, and monoclonal antibodies (e.g. ramucirumab) are being tested as second-line therapies. There are early-stage trials investigating the efficacy for up to 60 reagents for HCC. Together, these studies might change the management strategy for HCC, and combination therapies might be developed for patients with advanced HCC. Identification of oncogenes that mediate progression of HCC, and trials that monitor their products as biomarkers, might lead to personalized therapy; reagents that interfere with signaling pathways required for HCC progression might be used to treat selected populations, and thereby maximize the efficacy and cost-benefit. PMID:21406195

  10. Therapeutic Antibodies in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Martin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic arsenal in solid tumors comprises different anticancer strategies with diverse chemotherapeutic agents and a growing number of biological substances. Large clinical study-based chemotherapeutic protocols combined with biologicals have become an important component in (neo-) adjuvant therapy alongside surgery in solid cancers as well as radiation therapy in some instances. In recent years, monoclonal antibodies have entered the mainstream of cancer therapy. Their first use was as antagonists of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, but today monoclonal antibodies have emerged as long-sought vehicles for the targeted delivery of potent chemotherapeutic agents and as powerful tools to manipulate anticancer immune responses. There is a growing number of FDA approved monoclonal antibodies and small molecules targeting specific types of cancer suggestive of the clinical relevance of this approach.Targeted cancer therapies , also referred to as personalized medicine, are being studied for use alone, in combination with other targeted therapies, and in combination with chemotherapy. The use of monoclonal antibodies in colorectal and gastric cancer for example have shown best outcome when combined with chemotherapy, even though single agent anti-EGFR antibodies seem to be active in particular setting of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. However, it is not well defined whether the addition of anti-VEGF - and anti-EGFR strategies to chemotherapy could improve outcome in those patients susceptible to colorectal cancer-related metastases resection. Among the most promising approaches to activating therapeutic antitumor immunity is the blockade of immune checkpoints, exemplified by the recently FDA-approved agent, Ipilimumab, an antibody that blocks the coinhibitory receptor CTLA-4. Capitalizing on the success of Ipilimumab, agents that target a second coinhibitory receptor, PD-1, or its ligand, PD-L1, are in clinical development. This section attempts to

  11. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  12. Historical Research in Music Therapy. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Alan L., Ed.; Davis, William B., Ed.; Heller, George N., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography, produced by the American Music Therapy Association, represents a collection of research articles and publications over the past 50 years of music therapy's history. It is organized by author.

  13. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  14. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  15. Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monoclonal antibodies to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia Targeted therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia In recent years, new ... These drugs are often referred to as targeted therapy. Some of these drugs can be useful in ...

  16. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... screenings or other regular exams. previous continue The Future of Gene Therapy To cure genetic diseases, scientists ... Gene therapy's potential to revolutionize medicine in the future is exciting, and hopes are high for its ...

  17. Physical Therapy and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical Therapy & FSHD Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy A Guide for Patients & Physical Therapists Authors: Wendy M. King, P.T., ... expertise and patient preferences. The goals of any physical therapy plan of care are to assist patients to:  ...

  18. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  19. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  20. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear medicine treatment for an overactive thyroid, a condition ... locally overactive in producing too much thyroid hormone. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...