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Sample records for myogenic progenitor cell

  1. Muscle-Bound Primordial Stem Cells Give Rise to Myofiber-Associated Myogenic and Non-Myogenic Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Chapal-Ilani, Noa; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Horovitz, Inna; Reizel, Yitzhak; Benayahu, Dafna; Shapiro, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Myofiber cultures give rise to myogenic as well as to non-myogenic cells. Whether these myofiber-associated non-myogenic cells develop from resident stem cells that possess mesenchymal plasticity or from other stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unsolved. To address this question, we applied a method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations to MSCs and myogenic and non-myogenic cells from individual myofibers that were cultured at clonal density. Our analyses show that (i) in addition to myogenic progenitors, myofibers also harbor non-myogenic progenitors of a distinct, yet close, lineage; (ii) myofiber-associated non-myogenic and myogenic cells share the same muscle-bound primordial stem cells of a lineage distinct from bone marrow MSCs; (iii) these muscle-bound primordial stem-cells first part to individual muscles and then differentiate into myogenic and non-myogenic stem cells. PMID:22022423

  2. Cytoglobin modulates myogenic progenitor cell viability and muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvjeet; Canseco, Diana C; Manda, Shilpa M; Shelton, John M; Chirumamilla, Rajendra R; Goetsch, Sean C; Ye, Qiu; Gerard, Robert D; Schneider, Jay W; Richardson, James A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Mammen, Pradeep P A

    2014-01-07

    Mammalian skeletal muscle can remodel, repair, and regenerate itself by mobilizing satellite cells, a resident population of myogenic progenitor cells. Muscle injury and subsequent activation of myogenic progenitor cells is associated with oxidative stress. Cytoglobin is a hemoprotein expressed in response to oxidative stress in a variety of tissues, including striated muscle. In this study, we demonstrate that cytoglobin is up-regulated in activated myogenic progenitor cells, where it localizes to the nucleus and contributes to cell viability. siRNA-mediated depletion of cytoglobin from C2C12 myoblasts increased levels of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death both at baseline and in response to stress stimuli. Conversely, overexpression of cytoglobin reduced reactive oxygen species levels, caspase activity, and cell death. Mice in which cytoglobin was knocked out specifically in skeletal muscle were generated to examine the role of cytoglobin in vivo. Myogenic progenitor cells isolated from these mice were severely deficient in their ability to form myotubes as compared with myogenic progenitor cells from wild-type littermates. Consistent with this finding, the capacity for muscle regeneration was severely impaired in mice deficient for skeletal-muscle cytoglobin. Collectively, these data demonstrate that cytoglobin serves an important role in muscle repair and regeneration.

  3. Immortalization of human myogenic progenitor cell clone retaining multipotentiality

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naohiro . E-mail: nao@nils.go.jp; Kiyono, Tohru; Wada, Michiko R.; Shimizu, Shirabe; Yasumoto, Shigeru; Inagawa, Masayo

    2006-10-06

    Human myogenic cells have limited ability to proliferate in culture. Although forced expression of telomerase can immortalize some cell types, telomerase alone delays senescence of human primary cultured myogenic cells, but fails to immortalize them. In contrast, constitutive expression of both telomerase and the E7 gene from human papillomavirus type 16 immortalizes primary human myogenic cells. We have established an immortalized primary human myogenic cell line preserving multipotentiality by ectopic expression of telomerase and E7. The immortalized human myogenic cells exhibit the phenotypic characteristics of their primary parent, including an ability to undergo myogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic terminal differentiation under appropriate culture conditions. The immortalized cells will be useful for both basic and applied studies aimed at human muscle disorders. Furthermore, immortalization by transduction of telomerase and E7 represents a useful method by which to expand human myogenic cells in vitro without compromising their ability to differentiate.

  4. Oral mucosal progenitor cell clones resist in vitro myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Locke, Matthew; Davies, Lindsay C; Stephens, Phil

    2016-10-01

    Progenitor cells derived from the oral mucosa lamina propria (OMLP-PCs) demonstrate an ability to differentiate into tissue lineages removed from their anatomical origin. This clonally derived population of neural-crest cells have demonstrated potential to differentiate along mesenchymal and neuronal cell lineages.

  5. Myogenic capacity of muscle progenitor cells from head and limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M; Torensma, Ruurd; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2012-02-01

    The restoration of muscles in the soft palate of patients with cleft lip and/or palate is accompanied by fibrosis, which leads to speech and feeding problems. Treatment strategies that improve muscle regeneration have only been tested in limb muscles. Therefore, in the present study the myogenic potential of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) isolated from head muscles was compared with that of limb muscles. Muscle progenitor cells were isolated from the head muscles and limb muscles of rats and cultured. The proliferation of MPCs was analysed by DNA quantification. The differentiation capacity was analysed by quantifying the numbers of fused cells, and by measuring the mRNA levels of differentiation markers. Muscle progenitor cells were stained to quantify the expression of paired box protein Pax 7 (Pax-7), myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD), and myogenin. Proliferation was similar in the head MPCs and the limb MPCs. Differentiating head and limb MPCs showed a comparable number of fused cells and mRNA expression levels of myosin-1 (Myh1), myosin-3 (Myh3), and myosin-4 (Myh4). During proliferation and differentiation, the number of Pax-7(+), MyoD(+), and myogenin(+) cells in head and limb MPCs was equal. It was concluded that head and limb MPCs show similar myogenic capacities in vitro. Therefore, in vivo myogenic differences between those muscles might rely on the local microenvironment. Thus, regenerative strategies for limb muscles might also be used for head muscles.

  6. Engraftment of embryonic stem cell-derived myogenic progenitors in a dominant model of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Radbod; Baik, June; Clee, Mark; Kyba, Michael; Tupler, Rossella; Perlingeiro, Rita C R

    2009-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) consist of a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, recessive or dominant, characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakening. To date, no effective treatment is available. Experimental strategies pursuing muscle regeneration through the transplantation of stem cell preparations have brought hope to patients affected by this disorder. Efficacy has been demonstrated in recessive MD models through contribution of wild-type nuclei to the muscle fiber heterokaryon; however, to date, there has been no study investigating the efficacy of a cell therapy in a dominant model of MD. We have recently demonstrated that Pax3-induced embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived myogenic progenitors are able to engraft and improve muscle function in mdx mice, a recessive mouse model for Duchenne MD. To assess whether this therapeutic effect can be extended to a dominant type of muscle disorder, here we transplanted these cells into FRG1 transgenic mice, a dominant model that has been associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Our results show that Pax3-induced ES-derived myogenic progenitors are capable of significant engraftment after intramuscular or systemic transplantation into Frg1 mice. Analyses of contractile parameters revealed functional improvement in treated muscles of male mice, but not females, which are less severely affected. This study is the first to use Frg1 transgenic mice to assess muscle regeneration as well as to support the use of a cell-based therapy for autosomal dominant types of MD.

  7. Engraftment of embryonic stem cell-derived myogenic progenitors in a dominant model of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Radbod; Baik, June; Clee, Mark; Kyba, Michael; Tupler, Rossella; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) consist of a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, recessive or dominant, characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakening. To date, no effective treatment is available. Experimental strategies pursuing muscle regeneration through the transplantation of stem cell preparations have brought hope to patients affected by this disorder. Efficacy has been demonstrated in recessive MD models through contribution of wild-type nuclei to the muscle fiber heterokaryon, however to date, there has been no study investigating the efficacy of a cell therapy in a dominant model of MD. We have recently demonstrated that Pax3-induced embryonic stem (ES) cell- derived myogenic progenitors are able to engraft and improve muscle function in mdx mice, a recessive mouse model for Duchenne MD. To assess whether this therapeutic effect can be extended to a dominant type of muscle disorder, here we transplanted these cells into FRG1 transgenic mice, a dominant model that has been associated with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Our results show that Pax3-induced ES-derived myogenic progenitors are capable of significant engraftment after intramuscular or systemic transplantation into Frg1 mice. Analyses of contractile parameters revealed functional improvement in treated muscles of male mice, but not females, which are less severely affected. This study is the first to use Frg1 transgenic mice to assess muscle regeneration as well as to support the use of a cell-based therapy for autosomal dominant types of MD. PMID:19682990

  8. Long-term engraftment of myogenic progenitors from adipose-derived stem cells and muscle regeneration in dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Yuling; Li, Yaqin; Cao, Jiqing; Zhang, Huili; Chen, Menglong; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising approach for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, its application is hindered by poor cell engraftment. There have been no reports to date describing the efficient generation of myogenic progenitors from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) that can contribute to muscle regeneration. In this study, we examined the in vivo myogenic potential of progenitors differentiated from ADSCs using forskolin, basic fibroblast growth factor, the glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime as well as the supernatant of ADSC cultures. The results indicate that a proliferative population of myogenic progenitors can be derived from ADSCs that have characteristics similar to muscle satellite cells and are capable of terminal differentiation into multinucleated myotubes. When transplanted into DMD model mdx mice either by intramuscular injection or systemic delivery, progenitors were successfully engrafted in skeletal muscle for up to 12 weeks, and generated new muscle fibers, restored dystrophin expression and contributed to the satellite cell compartment. These findings highlight the potential application of myogenic progenitors derived from ADSCs to the treatment of muscular dystrophy.

  9. MAPK signaling pathways and HDAC3 activity are disrupted during differentiation of emerin-null myogenic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Collins, Carol M; Ellis, Joseph A; Holaska, James M

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). Emerin is an integral inner nuclear membrane protein and a component of the nuclear lamina. EDMD is characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, cardiac conduction defects and tendon contractures. The failure to regenerate skeletal muscle is predicted to contribute to the skeletal muscle pathology of EDMD. We hypothesize that muscle regeneration defects are caused by impaired muscle stem cell differentiation. Myogenic progenitors derived from emerin-null mice were used to confirm their impaired differentiation and analyze selected myogenic molecular pathways. Emerin-null progenitors were delayed in their cell cycle exit, had decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression and formed fewer myotubes. Emerin binds to and activates histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3). Here, we show that theophylline, an HDAC3-specific activator, improved myotube formation in emerin-null cells. Addition of the HDAC3-specific inhibitor RGFP966 blocked myotube formation and MyHC expression in wild-type and emerin-null myogenic progenitors, but did not affect cell cycle exit. Downregulation of emerin was previously shown to affect the p38 MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways in C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Using a pure population of myogenic progenitors completely lacking emerin expression, we show that these pathways are also disrupted. ERK inhibition improved MyHC expression in emerin-null cells, but failed to rescue myotube formation or cell cycle exit. Inhibition of p38 MAPK prevented differentiation in both wild-type and emerin-null progenitors. These results show that each of these molecular pathways specifically regulates a particular stage of myogenic differentiation in an emerin-dependent manner. Thus, pharmacological targeting of multiple pathways acting at specific differentiation stages may be a better therapeutic approach in the future to rescue muscle regeneration in vivo.

  10. Myogenic progenitors and imaging single-cell flow analysis: a model to study commitment of adult muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trapecar, Martin; Kelc, Robi; Gradisnik, Lidija; Vogrin, Matjaz; Rupnik, Marjan Slak

    2014-12-01

    Research on skeletal muscles suffers from a lack of appropriate human models to study muscle formation and regeneration on the regulatory level of single cells. This hampers both basic understanding and the development of new therapeutic approaches. The use of imaging multicolour flow cytometry and myogenic stem cells can help fill this void by allowing researchers to visualize and quantify the reaction of individual cultured cells to bioactives or other physiological impulses. As proof of concept, we subjected human CD56+ satellite cells to reference bioactives follistatin and Malva sylvestris extracts and then used imaging multicolor flow cytometry to visualize the stepwise activation of myogenic factors MyoD and myogenin in individual cells. This approach enabled us to evaluate the potency of these bioactives to stimulate muscle commitment. To validate this method, we used multi-photon confocal microscopy to confirm the potential of bioactives to stimulate muscle differentiation and expression of desmin. Imaging multicolor flow cytometry revealed statistically significant differences between treated and untreated groups of myogenic progenitors and we propose the utilization of this concept as an integral part of future muscle research strategies.

  11. Hierarchization of myogenic and adipogenic progenitors within human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Didier F; Clement, Noémie; Loubat, Agnès; Plaisant, Magali; Sacconi, Sabrina; Kurzenne, Jean-Yves; Desnuelle, Claude; Dani, Christian; Dechesne, Claude A

    2010-12-01

    Skeletal muscle cells constitute a heterogeneous population that maintains muscle integrity through a high myogenic regenerative capacity. More unexpectedly, this population is also endowed with an adipogenic potential, even in humans, and intramuscular adipocytes have been found to be present in several disorders. We tested the distribution of myogenic and adipogenic commitments in human muscle-derived cells to decipher the cellular basis of the myoadipogenic balance. Clonal analysis showed that adipogenic progenitors can be separated from myogenic progenitors and, interestingly, from myoadipogenic bipotent progenitors. These progenitors were isolated in the CD34(+) population on the basis of the expression of CD56 and CD15 cell surface markers. In vivo, these different cell types have been found in the interstitial compartment of human muscle. In vitro, we show that the proliferation of bipotent myoadipogenic CD56(+)CD15(+) progenitors gives rise to myogenic CD56(+)CD15(-) progenitors and adipogenic CD56(-)CD15(+) progenitors. A cellular hierarchy of muscle and fat progenitors thus occurs within human muscle. These results provide cellular bases for adipogenic differentiation in human skeletal muscle, which may explain the fat development encountered in different muscle pathological situations.

  12. TGF-β mediated FGF10 signaling in cranial neural crest cells controls development of myogenic progenitor cells through tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Ryoichi; Oka, Kyoko; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Iwata, Junichi; Urata, Mark; Xu, Xun; Bringas, Pablo; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Chai, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are formed from two cell lineages, myogenic and fibroblastic. Mesoderm-derived myogenic progenitors form muscle cells whereas fibroblastic cells give rise to the supportive connective tissue of skeletal muscles, such as the tendons and perimysium. It remains unknown how myogenic and fibroblastic cell-cell interactions affect cell fate determination and the organization of skeletal muscle. In the present study, we investigated the functional significance of cell-cell interactions in regulating skeletal muscle development. Our study shows that cranial neural crest (CNC) cells give rise to the fibroblastic cells of the tongue skeletal muscle in mice. Loss of Tgfbr2 in CNC cells (Wnt1-Cre;Tgfbr2flox/flox) results in microglossia with reduced Scleraxis and Fgf10 expression as well as decreased myogenic cell proliferation, reduced cell number and disorganized tongue muscles. Furthermore, TGF-β2 beads induced the expression of Scleraxis in tongue explant cultures. The addition of FGF10 rescued the muscle cell number in Wnt1-Cre;Tgfbr2flox/flox mice. Thus, TGF-β induced FGF10 signaling has a critical function in regulating tissue-tissue interaction during tongue skeletal muscle development. PMID:20193675

  13. Low-dose benzo(a)pyrene and its epoxide metabolite inhibit myogenic differentiation in human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Yen, Yuan-Peng; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    The risk of low birth weights is elevated in prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are ubiquitous environmental pollutants generated from combustion of organic compounds, including cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a member of PAHs existing in cigarette smoke, may affect the myogenesis to cause low birth weights. We investigated the effects of BaP and its main metabolite, benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), on the myogenic differentiation of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells (HSMPCs). HSMPCs were isolated by a modified preplate technique and cultured in myogenic differentiation media with or without BaP and BPDE (0.25 and 0.5 μM) for 4 days. The multinucleated myotube formation was morphologically analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expressions of myogenic differentiation markers and related signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting. Both BaP and BPDE at the submicromolar concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 μM) dose-dependently repressed HSMPCs myogenic differentiation without obvious cell toxicity. Both BaP and BPDE inhibited the muscle-specific protein expressions (myogenin and myosin heavy chain) and phosphorylation of Akt (a known modulator in myogenesis), which could be significantly reversed by the inhibitors for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), estrogen receptor (ER), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. BaP- and BPDE-activated NF-κB-p65 protein phosphorylation could also be attenuated by both AhR and ER inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of BaP and BPDE on myogenesis were reversed after withdrawing BaP exposure, but not after BPDE withdrawal. These results suggest that both BaP and BPDE are capable of inhibiting myogenesis via an AhR- or/and ER-regulated NF-κB/Akt signaling pathway.

  14. Modeling Stem Cell Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Rajiv S.; Spector, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    The process of stem cell myogenesis (transformation into skeletal muscle cells) includes several stages characterized by the expression of certain combinations of myogenic factors. The first part of this process is accompanied by cell division, while the second part is mainly associated with direct differentiation. The mechanical cues are known to enhance stem cell myogenesis, and the paper focuses on the stem cell differentiation under the condition of externally applied strain. The process of stem cell myogenic differentiation is interpreted as the interplay among transcription factors, targeted proteins and strain-generated signaling molecule, and it is described by a kinetic multi-stage model. The model parameters are optimally adjusted by using the available data from the experiment with adipose-derived stem cells subjected to the application of cyclic uniaxial strains of the magnitude of 10%. The modeling results predict the kinetics of the process of myogenic differentiation, including the number of cells in each stage of differentiation and the rates of differentiation from one stage to another for different strains from 4% to 16%. The developed model can help better understand the process of myogenic differentiation and the effects of mechanical cues on stem cell use in muscle therapies. PMID:28106095

  15. Myogenic progenitors contribute to open but not closed fracture repair

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bone repair is dependent on the presence of osteocompetent progenitors that are able to differentiate and generate new bone. Muscle is found in close association with orthopaedic injury, however its capacity to make a cellular contribution to bone repair remains ambiguous. We hypothesized that myogenic cells of the MyoD-lineage are able to contribute to bone repair. Methods We employed a MyoD-Cre+:Z/AP+ conditional reporter mouse in which all cells of the MyoD-lineage are permanently labeled with a human alkaline phosphatase (hAP) reporter. We tracked the contribution of MyoD-lineage cells in mouse models of tibial bone healing. Results In the absence of musculoskeletal trauma, MyoD-expressing cells are limited to skeletal muscle and the presence of reporter-positive cells in non-muscle tissues is negligible. In a closed tibial fracture model, there was no significant contribution of hAP+ cells to the healing callus. In contrast, open tibial fractures featuring periosteal stripping and muscle fenestration had up to 50% of hAP+ cells detected in the open fracture callus. At early stages of repair, many hAP+ cells exhibited a chondrocyte morphology, with lesser numbers of osteoblast-like hAP+ cells present at the later stages. Serial sections stained for hAP and type II and type I collagen showed that MyoD-lineage cells were surrounded by cartilaginous or bony matrix, suggestive of a functional role in the repair process. To exclude the prospect that osteoprogenitors spontaneously express MyoD during bone repair, we created a metaphyseal drill hole defect in the tibia. No hAP+ staining was observed in this model suggesting that the expression of MyoD is not a normal event for endogenous osteoprogenitors. Conclusions These data document for the first time that muscle cells can play a significant secondary role in bone repair and this knowledge may lead to important translational applications in orthopaedic surgery. Please see related article: http

  16. Myogenic potential of human alveolar mucosa derived cells.

    PubMed

    Zorin, Vadim L; Pulin, Andrey A; Eremin, Ilya I; Korsakov, Ivan N; Zorina, Alla I; Khromova, Natalia V; Sokova, Olga I; Kotenko, Konstantin V; Kopnin, Pavel B

    2017-03-19

    Difficulties related to the obtainment of stem/progenitor cells from skeletal muscle tissue make the search for new sources of myogenic cells highly relevant. Alveolar mucosa might be considered as a perspective candidate due to availability and high proliferative capacity of its cells. Human alveolar mucosa cells (AMC) were obtained from gingival biopsy samples collected from 10 healthy donors and cultured up to 10 passages. AMC matched the generally accepted multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells criteria and possess population doubling time, caryotype and immunophenotype stability during long-term cultivation. The single myogenic induction of primary cell cultures resulted in differentiation of AMC into multinucleated myotubes. The myogenic differentiation was associated with expression of skeletal muscle markers: skeletal myosin, skeletal actin, myogenin and MyoD1. Efficiency of myogenic differentiation in AMC cultures was similar to that in skeletal muscle cells. Furthermore, some of differentiated myotubes exhibited contractions in vitro. Our data confirms the sufficiently high myogenic potential and proliferative capacity of AMC and their ability to maintain in vitro proliferation-competent myogenic precursor cells regardless of the passage number.

  17. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  18. Necdin enhances muscle reconstitution of dystrophic muscle by vessel-associated progenitors, by promoting cell survival and myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Conti, V; Tonlorenzi, R; Touvier, T; Meneveri, R; Cossu, G; Brunelli, S

    2012-05-01

    Improving stem cell therapy is a major goal for the treatment of muscle diseases, where physiological muscle regeneration is progressively exhausted. Vessel-associated stem cells, such as mesoangioblasts (MABs), appear to be the most promising cell type for the cell therapy for muscular dystrophies and have been shown to significantly contribute to restoration of muscle structure and function in different muscular dystrophy models. Here, we report that melanoma antigen-encoding gene (MAGE) protein necdin enhances muscle differentiation and regeneration by MABs. When necdin is constitutively overexpressed, it accelerates their differentiation and fusion in vitro and it increases their efficacy in reconstituting regenerating myofibres in the α-sarcoglycan dystrophic mouse. Moreover, necdin enhances survival when MABs are exposed to cytotoxic stimuli that mimic the inflammatory dystrophic environment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that overexpression of necdin may be a crucial tool to boost therapeutic applications of MABs in dystrophic muscle.

  19. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa, Michiko; Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke; Song, Si-Yong; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  20. Development of Bipotent Cardiac/Skeletal Myogenic Progenitors from MESP1+ Mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sunny Sun-Kin; Hagen, Hannah R; Swanson, Scott A; Stewart, Ron; Boll, Karly A; Aho, Joy; Thomson, James A; Kyba, Michael

    2016-01-12

    The branchiomeric skeletal muscles co-evolved with new chambers of the heart to enable predatory feeding in chordates. These co-evolved tissues develop from a common population in anterior splanchnic mesoderm, referred to as cardiopharyngeal mesoderm (CPM). The regulation and development of CPM are poorly understood. We describe an embryonic stem cell-based system in which MESP1 drives a PDGFRA+ population with dual cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation potential, and gene expression resembling CPM. Using this system, we investigate the regulation of these bipotent progenitors, and find that cardiac specification is governed by an antagonistic TGFβ-BMP axis, while skeletal muscle specification is enhanced by Rho kinase inhibition. We define transcriptional signatures of the first committed CPM-derived cardiac and skeletal myogenic progenitors, and discover surface markers to distinguish cardiac (PODXL+) from the skeletal muscle (CDH4+) CPM derivatives. These tools open an accessible window on this developmentally and evolutionarily important population.

  1. Nitric Oxide Donor Molsidomine Positively Modulates Myogenic Differentiation of Embryonic Endothelial Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Tirone, Mario; Conti, Valentina; Manenti, Fabio; Nicolosi, Pier Andrea; D’Orlando, Cristina; Azzoni, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic VE-Cadherin-expressing progenitors (eVE-Cad+), including hemogenic endothelium, have been shown to generate hematopoietic stem cells and a variety of other progenitors, including mesoangioblasts, or MABs. MABs are vessel-associated progenitors with multilineage mesodermal differentiation potential that can physiologically contribute to skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and have been used in an ex vivo cell therapy setting for the treatment of muscular dystrophy. There is currently a therapeutic need for molecules that could improve the efficacy of cell therapy protocols; one such good candidate is nitric oxide. Several studies in animal models of muscle dystrophy have demonstrated that nitric oxide donors provide several beneficial effects, including modulation of the activity of endogenous cell populations involved in muscle repair and the delay of muscle degeneration. Here we used a genetic lineage tracing approach to investigate whether the therapeutic effect of nitric oxide in muscle repair could derive from an improvement in the myogenic differentiation of eVE-Cad+ progenitors during embryogenesis. We show that early in vivo treatment with the nitric oxide donor molsidomine enhances eVE-Cad+ contribution to embryonic and fetal myogenesis, and that this effect could originate from a modulation of the properties of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium. PMID:27760216

  2. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    PubMed

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  3. Spontaneous myogenic differentiation of Flk-1-positive cells from adult pancreas and other nonmuscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Tritarelli, Alessandra; Toietta, Gabriele; Gatto, Ilaria; Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Pagani, Francesca; Mangoni, Antonella; Straino, Stefania; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2008-02-01

    At the embryonic or fetal stages, autonomously myogenic cells (AMCs), i.e., cells able to spontaneously differentiate into skeletal myotubes, have been identified from several different sites other than skeletal muscle, including the vascular compartment. However, in the adult animal, AMCs from skeletal muscle-devoid tissues have been described in only two cases. One is represented by thymic myoid cells, a restricted population of committed myogenic progenitors of unknown derivation present in the thymic medulla; the other is represented by a small subset of adipose tissue-associated cells, which we recently identified. In the present study we report, for the first time, the presence of spontaneously differentiating myogenic precursors in the pancreas and in other skeletal muscle-devoid organs such as spleen and stomach, as well as in the periaortic tissue of adult mice. Immunomagnetic selection procedures indicate that AMCs derive from Flk-1(+) progenitors. Individual clones of myogenic cells from nonmuscle organs are morphologically and functionally indistinguishable from skeletal muscle-derived primary myoblasts. Moreover, they can be induced to proliferate in vitro and are able to participate in muscle regeneration in vivo. Thus, we provide evidence that fully competent myogenic progenitors can be derived from the Flk-1(+) compartment of several adult tissues that are embryologically unrelated to skeletal muscle.

  4. Fetal muscle contains different CD34+ cell subsets that distinctly differentiate into adipogenic, angiogenic and myogenic lineages.

    PubMed

    Dupas, Tanaelle; Rouaud, Thierry; Rouger, Karl; Lieubeau, Blandine; Cario-Toumaniantz, Chrystelle; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane; Gardahaut, Marie-France; Auda-Boucher, Gwenola

    2011-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that CD34(+) cells isolated from fetal mouse muscles are an interesting source of myogenic progenitors. In the present work, we pinpoint the tissue location of these CD34(+) cells using cell surface and phenotype markers. In order to identify the myogenic population, we next purified different CD34(+) subsets, determined their expression of relevant lineage-related genes, and analyzed their differentiation capacities in vitro and in vivo. The CD34(+) population comprised a CD31(+)/CD45(-) cell subset exhibiting endothelial characteristics and only capable of forming microvessels in vivo. The CD34(+)/CD31(-)/CD45(-)/Sca1(+) subpopulation, which is restricted to the muscle epimysium, displayed adipogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. CD34(+)/CD31(-)/CD45(-)/Sca1(-) cells, localized in the muscle interstitium, transcribed myogenic genes, but did not display the characteristics of adult satellite cells. These cells were distinct from pericytes and fibroblasts. They were myogenic in vitro, and efficiently contributed to skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo, although their myogenic potential was lower than that of the unfractionated CD34(+) cell population. Our results indicate that angiogenic and adipogenic cells grafted with myogenic cells enhance their contribution to myogenic regeneration, highlighting the fundamental role of the microenvironment on the fate of transplanted cells.

  5. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Sphincter Regeneration: Role of Laminin Isoforms upon Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Tanja; Hart, Melanie; Patarroyo, Manuel; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Klein, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are well known for their tri-lineage potential and ability to differentiate in vitro into osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic lineages. By selecting appropriate conditions MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into the myogenic lineage and are therefore a promising option for cell-based regeneration of muscle tissue such as an aged or damaged sphincter muscle. For the differentiation into the myogenic lineage there is still a need to evaluate the effects of extracellular matrix proteins such as laminins (LM) which are crucial for different stem cell types and for normal muscle function. The laminin family consists of 16 functionally different isoforms with LM-211 being the most abundant isoform of adult muscle tissues. In the sphincter tissue a strong expression of the isoforms LM-211/221, LM-411/421 and LM-511/521 can be detected in the different cell layers. Bone marrow-derived MSCs in culture, however, mainly express the isoforms LM-411 and LM-511, but not LM-211. Even after myogenic differentiation, LM-211 can hardly be detected. All laminin isoforms tested (LM-211, LM-411, LM-511 and LM-521) showed a significant inhibition of the proliferation of undifferentiated MSCs but, with the exception of LM-521, they had no influence on the proliferation of MSCs cultivated in myogenic medium. The strongest cellular adhesion of MSCs was to LM-511 and LM-521, whereas LM-211 was only a weakly-adhesive substrate for MSCs. Myogenic differentiation of MSCs even reduced the interaction with LM-211, but it did not affect the interaction with LM-511 and LM-521. Since during normal myogenesis the latter two isoforms are the major laminins surrounding developing myogenic progenitors, α5 chain-containing laminins are recommended for further improvements of myogenic differentiation protocols of MSCs into smooth muscle cells. PMID:26406476

  6. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Sphincter Regeneration: Role of Laminin Isoforms upon Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Tanja; Hart, Melanie; Patarroyo, Manuel; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Klein, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are well known for their tri-lineage potential and ability to differentiate in vitro into osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic lineages. By selecting appropriate conditions MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into the myogenic lineage and are therefore a promising option for cell-based regeneration of muscle tissue such as an aged or damaged sphincter muscle. For the differentiation into the myogenic lineage there is still a need to evaluate the effects of extracellular matrix proteins such as laminins (LM) which are crucial for different stem cell types and for normal muscle function. The laminin family consists of 16 functionally different isoforms with LM-211 being the most abundant isoform of adult muscle tissues. In the sphincter tissue a strong expression of the isoforms LM-211/221, LM-411/421 and LM-511/521 can be detected in the different cell layers. Bone marrow-derived MSCs in culture, however, mainly express the isoforms LM-411 and LM-511, but not LM-211. Even after myogenic differentiation, LM-211 can hardly be detected. All laminin isoforms tested (LM-211, LM-411, LM-511 and LM-521) showed a significant inhibition of the proliferation of undifferentiated MSCs but, with the exception of LM-521, they had no influence on the proliferation of MSCs cultivated in myogenic medium. The strongest cellular adhesion of MSCs was to LM-511 and LM-521, whereas LM-211 was only a weakly-adhesive substrate for MSCs. Myogenic differentiation of MSCs even reduced the interaction with LM-211, but it did not affect the interaction with LM-511 and LM-521. Since during normal myogenesis the latter two isoforms are the major laminins surrounding developing myogenic progenitors, α5 chain-containing laminins are recommended for further improvements of myogenic differentiation protocols of MSCs into smooth muscle cells.

  7. Decorin expression in quiescent myogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takanori Nozu, Kenjiro; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Akihito

    2008-06-06

    Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. When satellite cells are activated by myotrauma, they proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and ultimately fuse to existing myofibers. The remainder of these cells do not differentiate, but instead return to quiescence and remain in a quiescent state until activation begins the process again. This ability to maintain their own population is important for skeletal muscle to maintain the capability to repair during postnatal life. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells return to quiescence and maintain the quiescent state are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that decorin mRNA expression was high in cell cultures containing a higher ratio of quiescent satellite cells when satellite cells were stimulated with various concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor. This result suggests that quiescent satellite cells express decorin at a high level compared to activated satellite cells. Furthermore, we examined the expression of decorin in reserve cells, which were undifferentiated myoblasts remaining after induction of differentiation by serum-deprivation. Decorin mRNA levels in reserve cells were higher than those in differentiated myotubes and growing myoblasts. These results suggest that decorin participates in the quiescence of myogenic cells.

  8. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts, but not myogenic cells, readily undergo adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Agley, Chibeza C; Rowlerson, Anthea M; Velloso, Cristiana P; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2013-12-15

    We characterised the adherent cell types isolated from human skeletal muscle by enzymatic digestion, and demonstrated that even at 72 hours after isolation these cultures consisted predominantly of myogenic cells (CD56(+), desmin(+)) and fibroblasts (TE-7(+), collagen VI(+), PDGFRα(+), vimentin(+), fibronectin(+)). To evaluate the behaviour of the cell types obtained, we optimised a double immuno-magnetic cell-sorting method for the separation of myogenic cells from fibroblasts. This procedure gave purities of >96% for myogenic (CD56(+), desmin(+)) cells. The CD56(-) fraction obtained from the first sort was highly enriched in TE-7(+) fibroblasts. Using quantitative analysis of immunofluorescent staining for lipid content, lineage markers and transcription factors, we tested if the purified cell populations could differentiate into adipocytes in response to treatment with either fatty acids or adipocyte-inducing medium. Both treatments caused the fibroblasts to differentiate into adipocytes, as shown by loss of intracellular TE-7, upregulation of the adipogenic transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα, and adoption of a lipid-laden adipocyte morphology. By contrast, myogenic cells did not undergo adipogenesis and showed differential regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα in response to these adipogenic treatments. Our results show that human skeletal muscle fibroblasts are at least bipotent progenitors that can remain as extracellular-matrix-producing cells or differentiate into adipocytes.

  9. Pax3/Pax7 mark a novel population of primitive myogenic cells during development

    PubMed Central

    Kassar-Duchossoy, Lina; Giacone, Ellen; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Jory, Aurélie; Gomès, Danielle; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle serves as a paradigm for the acquisition of cell fate, yet the relationship between primitive cell populations and emerging myoblasts has remained elusive. We identify a novel population of resident Pax3+/Pax7+, muscle marker-negative cells throughout development. Using mouse mutants that uncouple myogenic progression, we show that these Pax+ cells give rise to muscle progenitors. In the absence of skeletal muscle, they apoptose after down-regulation of Pax7. Furthermore, they mark the emergence of satellite cells during fetal development, and do not require Pax3 function. These findings identify critical cell populations during lineage restriction, and provide a framework for defining myogenic cell states for therapeutic studies. PMID:15964993

  10. Pax3/Pax7 mark a novel population of primitive myogenic cells during development.

    PubMed

    Kassar-Duchossoy, Lina; Giacone, Ellen; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Jory, Aurélie; Gomès, Danielle; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2005-06-15

    Skeletal muscle serves as a paradigm for the acquisition of cell fate, yet the relationship between primitive cell populations and emerging myoblasts has remained elusive. We identify a novel population of resident Pax3+/Pax7+, muscle marker-negative cells throughout development. Using mouse mutants that uncouple myogenic progression, we show that these Pax+ cells give rise to muscle progenitors. In the absence of skeletal muscle, they apoptose after down-regulation of Pax7. Furthermore, they mark the emergence of satellite cells during fetal development, and do not require Pax3 function. These findings identify critical cell populations during lineage restriction, and provide a framework for defining myogenic cell states for therapeutic studies.

  11. Establishment of bipotent progenitor cell clone from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yousuke; Yada, Erica; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation, cloning and characterization of adipogenic progenitor cells from rat skeletal muscle. Among the obtained 10 clones, the most highly adipogenic progenitor, 2G11 cells, were further characterized. In addition to their adipogenicity, 2G11 cells retain myogenic potential as revealed by formation of multinucleated myotubes when co-cultured with myoblasts. 2G11 cells were resistant to an inhibitory effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on adipogenesis, while adipogenesis of widely used preadipogenic cell line, 3T3-L1 cells, was suppressed almost completely by the same treatment. In vivo transplantation experiments revealed that 2G11 cells are able to possess both adipogenicity and myogenicity in vivo. These results indicate the presence of bipotent progenitor cells in rat skeletal muscle, and suggest that such cells may contribute to ectopic fat formation in skeletal muscle.

  12. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-15

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells.

  13. A Twist2-dependent progenitor cell contributes to adult skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Garry, Glynnis A; Li, Stephen; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Chen, Beibei; Shelton, John M; Jaichander, Priscilla; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable regenerative potential due to satellite cells, an injury-responsive stem cell population located beneath the muscle basal lamina that expresses Pax7. By lineage tracing of progenitor cells expressing the Twist2 (Tw2) transcription factor in mice, we discovered a myogenic lineage that resides outside the basal lamina of adult skeletal muscle. Tw2(+) progenitors are molecularly and anatomically distinct from satellite cells, are highly myogenic in vitro, and can fuse with themselves and with satellite cells. Tw2(+) progenitors contribute specifically to type IIb/x myofibres during adulthood and muscle regeneration, and their genetic ablation causes wasting of type IIb myofibres. We show that Tw2 expression maintains progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state that is poised to initiate myogenesis in response to appropriate cues that extinguish Tw2 expression. Tw2-expressing myogenic progenitors represent a previously unrecognized, fibre-type-specific stem cell involved in postnatal muscle growth and regeneration.

  14. Resident vascular progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Torsney, Evelyn; Xu, Qingbo

    2011-02-01

    Homeostasis of the vessel wall is essential for maintaining its function, including blood pressure and patency of the lumen. In physiological conditions, the turnover rate of vascular cells, i.e. endothelial and smooth muscle cells, is low, but markedly increased in diseased situations, e.g. vascular injury after angioplasty. It is believed that mature vascular cells have an ability to proliferate to replace lost cells normally. On the other hand, recent evidence indicates stem/progenitor cells may participate in vascular repair and the formation of neointimal lesions in severely damaged vessels. It was found that all three layers of the vessels, the intima, media and adventitia, contain resident progenitor cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, Sca-1+ and CD34+ cells. Data also demonstrated that these resident progenitor cells could differentiate into a variety of cell types in response to different culture conditions. However, collective data were obtained mostly from in vitro culture assays and phenotypic marker studies. There are many unanswered questions concerning the mechanism of cell differentiation and the functional role of these cells in vascular repair and the pathogenesis of vascular disease. In the present review, we aim to summarize the data showing the presence of the resident progenitor cells, to highlight possible signal pathways orchestrating cell differentiation toward endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and to discuss the data limitations, challenges and controversial issues related to the role of progenitors. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  15. Colonization of the satellite cell niche by skeletal muscle progenitor cells depends on Notch signals.

    PubMed

    Bröhl, Dominique; Vasyutina, Elena; Czajkowski, Maciej T; Griger, Joscha; Rassek, Claudia; Rahn, Hans-Peter; Purfürst, Bettina; Wende, Hagen; Birchmeier, Carmen

    2012-09-11

    Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration rely on myogenic progenitor and satellite cells, the stem cells of postnatal muscle. Elimination of Notch signals during mouse development results in premature differentiation of myogenic progenitors and formation of very small muscle groups. Here we show that this drastic effect is rescued by mutation of the muscle differentiation factor MyoD. However, rescued myogenic progenitors do not assume a satellite cell position and contribute poorly to myofiber growth. The disrupted homing is due to a deficit in basal lamina assembly around emerging satellite cells and to their impaired adhesion to myofibers. On a molecular level, emerging satellite cells deregulate the expression of basal lamina components and adhesion molecules like integrin α7, collagen XVIIIα1, Megf10, and Mcam. We conclude that Notch signals control homing of satellite cells, stimulating them to contribute to their own microenvironment and to adhere to myofibers.

  16. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Wada, Eiji; Zammit, Peter S.; Shiozuka, Masataka; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  17. Establishment of clonal myogenic cell lines from severely affected dystrophic muscles - CDK4 maintains the myogenic population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A hallmark of muscular dystrophies is the replacement of muscle by connective tissue. Muscle biopsies from patients severely affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) may contain few myogenic cells. Because the chromosomal contraction at 4q35 linked to FSHD is thought to cause a defect within myogenic cells, it is important to study this particular cell type, rather than the fibroblasts and adipocytes of the endomysial fibrosis, to understand the mechanism leading to myopathy. Results We present a protocol to establish clonal myogenic cell lines from even severely dystrophic muscle that has been replaced mostly by fat, using overexpression of CDK4 and the catalytic component of telomerase (human telomerase reverse transcriptase; hTERT), and a subsequent cloning step. hTERT is necessary to compensate for telomere loss during in vitro cultivation, while CDK4 prevents a telomere-independent growth arrest affecting CD56+ myogenic cells, but not their CD56- counterpart, in vitro. Conclusions These immortal cell lines are valuable tools to reproducibly study the effect of the FSHD mutation within myoblasts isolated from muscles that have been severely affected by the disease, without the confounding influence of variable amounts of contaminating connective-tissue cells. PMID:21798090

  18. Myogenic skeletal muscle satellite cells communicate by tunnelling nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tavi, Pasi; Korhonen, Topi; Hänninen, Sandra L; Bruton, Joseph D; Lööf, Sara; Simon, Andras; Westerblad, Håkan

    2010-05-01

    Quiescent satellite cells sit on the surface of the muscle fibres under the basal lamina and are activated by a variety of stimuli to disengage, divide and differentiate into myoblasts that can regenerate or repair muscle fibres. Satellite cells adopt their parent's fibre type and must have some means of communication with the parent fibre. The mechanisms behind this communication are not known. We show here that satellite cells form dynamic connections with muscle fibres and other satellite cells by F-actin based tunnelling nanotubes (TNTs). Our results show that TNTs readily develop between satellite cells and muscle fibres. Once developed, TNTs permit transport of intracellular material, and even cellular organelles such as mitochondria between the muscle fibre and satellite cells. The onset of satellite cell differentiation markers Pax-7 and MyoD expression was slower in satellite cells cultured in the absence than in the presence of muscle cells. Furthermore physical contact between myofibre and satellite cell progeny is required to maintain subtype identity. Our data establish that TNTs constitute an integral part of myogenic cell communication and that physical cellular interaction control myogenic cell fate determination.

  19. GREG cells, a dysferlin-deficient myogenic mouse cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Glen W.; Mekhedov, Elena; Blank, Paul S.; Morree, Antoine de; Pekkurnaz, Gulcin; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2012-01-15

    The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large ({approx} 200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by laser wounding in the presence of FM1-43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority ({approx} 66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.

  20. Expression of Transthyretin during bovine myogenic satellite cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Smritee; Kamli, Majid Rasool; Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Malik, Adeel; Lee, Eun Ju; Choi, Inho

    2014-09-01

    Adult myogenesis responsible for the maintenance and repair of muscle tissue is mainly under the control of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and a few other genes. Transthyretin gene (TTR), codes for a carrier protein for thyroxin (T4) and retinol binding protein bound with retinol in blood plasma, plays a critical role during the early stages of myogenesis. Herein, we investigated the relationship of TTR with other muscle-specific genes and report their expression in muscle satellite cells (MSCs), and increased messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of TTR during MSCs differentiation. Silencing of TTR resulted in decreased myotube formation and decreased expression of myosin light chain (MYL2), myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3), matrix gla protein (MGP), and voltage-dependent L type calcium channel (Cav1.1) genes. Increased mRNA expression observed in TTR and other myogenic genes with the addition of T4 decreased significantly following TTR knockdown, indicating the critical role of TTR in T4 transportation. Similarly, decreased expression of MGP and Cav1.1 following TTR knockdown signifies the dual role of TTR in controlling muscle myogenesis via regulation of T4 and calcium channel. Our computational and experimental evidences indicate that TTR has a relationship with MRFs and may act on calcium channel and related genes.

  1. Circulating Progenitor Cells and Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a disease of unknown origins that involves tissue ischemia and fibrosis in the skin and internal organs such as the lungs. The tissue ischemia is due to a lack of functional blood vessels and an inability to form new blood vessels. Bone marrow–derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells play a key role in blood vessel repair and neovascularization. Scleroderma patients appear to have defects in the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. Scleroderma patients also develop fibrotic lesions, possibly as the result of tissue ischemia. Fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes that differentiate from a different pool of bone marrow–derived circulating progenitor cells seem to be involved in this process. Manipulating the production, function, and differentiation of circulating progenitor cells represents an exciting new possibility for treating scleroderma. PMID:18638425

  2. Activation of Pax7-positive cells in a non-contractile tissue contributes to regeneration of myogenic tissues in the electric fish S. macrurus.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christopher M; Martindale, Mark Q; Tapscott, Stephen J; Unguez, Graciela A

    2012-01-01

    The ability to regenerate tissues is shared across many metazoan taxa, yet the type and extent to which multiple cellular mechanisms come into play can differ across species. For example, urodele amphibians can completely regenerate all lost tissues, including skeletal muscles after limb amputation. This remarkable ability of urodeles to restore entire limbs has been largely linked to a dedifferentiation-dependent mechanism of regeneration. However, whether cell dedifferentiation is the fundamental factor that triggers a robust regeneration capacity, and whether the loss or inhibition of this process explains the limited regeneration potential in other vertebrates is not known. Here, we studied the cellular mechanisms underlying the repetitive regeneration of myogenic tissues in the electric fish S. macrurus. Our in vivo microinjection studies of high molecular weight cell lineage tracers into single identified adult myogenic cells (muscle or noncontractile muscle-derived electrocytes) revealed no fragmentation or cellularization proximal to the amputation plane. In contrast, ultrastructural and immunolabeling studies verified the presence of myogenic stem cells that express the satellite cell marker Pax7 in mature muscle fibers and electrocytes of S. macrurus. These data provide the first example of Pax-7 positive muscle stem cells localized within a non-contractile electrogenic tissue. Moreover, upon amputation, Pax-7 positive cells underwent a robust replication and were detected exclusively in regions that give rise to myogenic cells and dorsal spinal cord components revealing a regeneration process in S. macrurus that is dependent on the activation of myogenic stem cells for the renewal of both skeletal muscle and the muscle-derived electric organ. These data are consistent with the emergent concept in vertebrate regeneration that different tissues provide a distinct progenitor cell population to the regeneration blastema, and these progenitor cells

  3. In vitro myogenic and adipogenic differentiation model of genetically engineered bovine embryonic fibroblast cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jinlong; Jin, Xun; Beck, Samuel; Kang, Dong Ho; Hong, Zhongshan; Li, Zhehu; Jin, Yongcheng; Zhang, Qiankun; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Kim, Sung-Chan; Kim, Hyunggee

    2010-02-01

    Our current understanding of muscle and adipose tissue development has been largely restricted to the study of murine myogenic and adipogenic cell lines, since attempts to establish these cell lines from other species have met with only limited success. Here we report that a spontaneously immortalized bovine embryonic fibroblast cell line (BEFS) undergoes differentiation into adipogenic or myogenic lineages when ectopically transduced with PPARgamma2 (an adipogenic lineage determinant) or MyoD (a myogenic lineage determinant) and grown in adipogenic and myogenic differentiation culture media (ADCM and MDCM, respectively). We also found that PPARgamma2-overexpressing BEFS cells (BEFS-PPARgamma2) grown in ADCM with or without the PPARgamma2 ligand, troglitazone, preferentially differentiate into adipogenic cells in the presence of ectopic MyoD expression. Ectopic expression of PPARgamma2 in the inducible MyoD-overepxressing BEFS cells (BEFS-TetOn-MyoD) completely suppresses myogenic differentiation and leads to a significant increase in adipogenic differentiation, suggesting that the adipogenic differentiation program might be dominant. Therefore, BEFS, BEFS-PPARgamma2, and BEFS-TetOn-MyoD would be a valuable biological model for understanding a fundamental principle underlying myogenic and adipogenic development, and for isolating various genetic and chemical factors that enable muscle and adipocyte differentiation.

  4. ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1) controls proliferation and myogenic differentiation of muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Figeac, Nicolas; Serralbo, Olivier; Marcelle, Christophe; Zammit, Peter S

    2014-02-01

    Satellite cells are resident stem cells of skeletal muscle, supplying myoblasts for post-natal muscle growth, hypertrophy and repair. Many regulatory networks control satellite cell function, which includes EGF signalling via the ErbB family of receptors. Here we investigated the role of ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1) in regulation of myogenic stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Ebp1 is a well-conserved DNA/RNA binding protein that is implicated in cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation in many cell types. Of the two main Ebp1 isoforms, only p48 was expressed in satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts. Although not present in quiescent satellite cells, p48 was strongly induced during activation, remaining at high levels during proliferation and differentiation. While retroviral-mediated over-expression of Ebp1 had only minor effects, siRNA-mediated Ebp1 knockdown inhibited both proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts, with a clear failure of myotube formation. Ebp1-knockdown significantly reduced ErbB3 receptor levels, yet over-expression of ErbB3 in Ebp1 knockdown cells did not rescue differentiation. Ebp1 was also expressed by muscle cells during developmental myogenesis in mouse. Since Ebp1 is well-conserved between mouse and chick, we switched to chick to examine its role in muscle formation. In chick embryo, Ebp1 was expressed in the dermomyotome, and myogenic differentiation of muscle progenitors was inhibited by specific Ebp1 down-regulation using shRNA electroporation. These observations demonstrate a conserved function of Ebp1 in the regulation of embryonic muscle progenitors and adult muscle stem cells, which likely operates independently of ErbB3 signaling.

  5. Activation of non-myogenic mesenchymal stem cells during the disease progression in dystrophic dystrophin/utrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jihee; Lu, Aiping; Tang, Ying; Wang, Bing; Huard, Johnny

    2015-07-01

    Ectopic calcification as well as fatty and fibrotic tissue accumulation occurs in skeletal muscle during the disease progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a degenerative muscle disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The cellular origin and the environmental cues responsible for this ectopic calcification, fatty and fibrotic infiltration during the disease progression, however, remain unknown. Based on a previously published preplate technique, we isolated two distinct populations of muscle-derived cells from skeletal muscle: (i) a rapidly adhering cell population, which is non-myogenic, Pax7(-) and express the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha; hence, we termed this population of cells non-myogenic MSCs (nmMSCs); and (ii) a slowly adhering cell population which is Pax7(+) and highly myogenic, termed muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). Previously, we demonstrated that the rapid progression of skeletal muscle histopathologies in dystrophin/utrophin knockout (dys(-/-) utro(-/-) dKO) mice is closely associated with a rapid depletion of the MPC population pool. In the current study, we showed that in contrast to the MPCs, the nmMSCs become activated during the disease progression in dKO mice, displaying increased proliferation and differentiation potentials (adipogenesis, osteogenesis and fibrogenesis). We also found that after co-culturing the dKO-nmMSCs with dKO-MPCs, the myogenic differentiation potential of the dKO-MPCs was reduced. This effect was found to be potentially mediated by the secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 by the dKO-nmMSCs. We therefore posit that the rapid occurrence of fibrosis, ectopic calcification and fat accumulation, in dKO mice, is not only attributable to the rapid depletion of the MPC pool, but is also the consequence of nmMSC activation. Results from this study suggest that approaches to alleviate muscle weakness and wasting in DMD patients should not only

  6. A myogenic factor from sea urchin embryos capable of programming muscle differentiation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, J M; Goldberg, L; Chakraborty, T; Olson, E N; Klein, W H

    1991-01-01

    Using the basic helix-loop-helix domain of the myogenic factor myogenin as a probe, we identified a clone from a sea urchin cDNA library with considerable sequence similarity to the vertebrate myogenic factors. This cDNA, sea urchin myogenic factor 1 (SUM-1), transactivated a muscle creatine kinase-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in 10T1/2 fibroblasts to a level comparable to that of the vertebrate myogenic factors. In addition, bacterially expressed beta-galactosidase-SUM-1 fusion protein interacted directly with the kappa E-2 site in the muscle creatine kinase enhancer core as assayed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Stably transfected SUM-1 activated the muscle differentiation program and converted 10T1/2 cells from fibroblasts to myotubes. In sea urchin embryos, SUM-1 RNA was not detected before gastrulation. It accumulated to its highest levels during the prism stage when myoblasts were first detected by myosin immunostaining and then diminished as myocytes differentiated. SUM-1 protein was localized in secondary mesenchyme cells when they could first be identified as muscle cells by myosin immunostaining. These results implicate SUM-1 as a regulatory factor involved in the early decision of a pluripotent secondary mesenchyme cell to convert to a myogenic fate. SUM-1 is an example of an invertebrate myogenic factor that is capable of functioning in mammalian cells. Images PMID:2068103

  7. Distinct and overlapping sarcoma subtypes initiated from muscle stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Blum, Jordan M; Añó, Leonor; Li, Zhizhong; Van Mater, David; Bennett, Brian D; Sachdeva, Mohit; Lagutina, Irina; Zhang, Minsi; Mito, Jeffrey K; Dodd, Leslie G; Cardona, Diana M; Dodd, Rebecca D; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Lepper, Christoph; Linardic, Corinne M; Mukherjee, Sayan; Grosveld, Gerard C; Fan, Chen-Ming; Kirsch, David G

    2013-11-27

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, whereas undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in adults. To investigate the myogenic cell(s) of origin of these sarcomas, we used Pax7-CreER and MyoD-CreER mice to transform Pax7(+) and MyoD(+) myogenic progenitors by expressing oncogenic Kras(G12D) and deleting Trp53 in vivo. Pax7-CreER mice developed RMS and UPS, whereas MyoD-CreER mice developed UPS. Using gene set enrichment analysis, RMS and UPS each clustered specifically within their human counterparts. These results suggest that RMS and UPS have distinct and overlapping cells of origin within the muscle lineage. Taking them together, we have established mouse models of soft tissue sarcoma from muscle stem and progenitor cells.

  8. miR-206 represses hypertrophy of myogenic cells but not muscle fibers via inhibition of HDAC4.

    PubMed

    Winbanks, Catherine E; Beyer, Claudia; Hagg, Adam; Qian, Hongwei; Sepulveda, Patricio V; Gregorevic, Paul

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs regulate the development of myogenic progenitors, and the formation of skeletal muscle fibers. However, the role miRNAs play in controlling the growth and adaptation of post-mitotic musculature is less clear. Here, we show that inhibition of the established pro-myogenic regulator miR-206 can promote hypertrophy and increased protein synthesis in post-mitotic cells of the myogenic lineage. We have previously demonstrated that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a target of miR-206 in the regulation of myogenic differentiation. We confirmed that inhibition of miR-206 de-repressed HDAC4 accumulation in cultured myotubes. Importantly, inhibition of HDAC4 activity by valproic acid or sodium butyrate prevented hypertrophy of myogenic cells otherwise induced by inhibition of miR-206. To test the significance of miRNA-206 as a regulator of skeletal muscle mass in vivo, we designed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV6 vectors) expressing miR-206, or a miR-206 "sponge," featuring repeats of a validated miR-206 target sequence. We observed that over-expression or inhibition of miR-206 in the muscles of mice decreased or increased endogenous HDAC4 levels respectively, but did not alter muscle mass or myofiber size. We subsequently manipulated miR-206 levels in muscles undergoing follistatin-induced hypertrophy or denervation-induced atrophy (models of muscle adaptation where endogenous miR-206 expression is altered). Vector-mediated manipulation of miR-206 activity in these models of cell growth and wasting did not alter gain or loss of muscle mass respectively. Our data demonstrate that although the miR-206/HDAC4 axis operates in skeletal muscle, the post-natal expression of miR-206 is not a key regulator of basal skeletal muscle mass or specific modes of muscle growth and wasting. These studies support a context-dependent role of miR-206 in regulating hypertrophy that may be dispensable for maintaining or modifying the adult skeletal muscle phenotype

  9. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    PubMed

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  10. A potential regulatory network underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenjuan; He, Ting; Qin, Chunfu; Qiu, Kai; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Defa; Yin, Jingdong

    2017-01-01

    Mechanism controlling myo-adipogenic balance in skeletal muscle is of great significance for human skeletal muscle dysfunction and myopathies as well as livestock meat quality. In the present study, two cell subpopulations with particular potency of adipogenic or myogenic differentiation were isolated from neonatal porcine longissimus dorsi using the preplate method to detect mechanisms underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle. Both cells share a common surface expression profile of CD29+CD31−CD34−CD90+CD105+, verifying their mesenchymal origin. A total of 448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05 and |log2 FC| ≥ 1) between two distinct cells were identified via RNA-seq, including 358 up-regulated and 90 down-regulated genes in myogenic cells compared with adipogenic cells. The results of functional annotation and enrichment showed that 42 DEGs were implicated in cell differentiation, among them PDGFRα, ITGA3, ITGB6, MLCK and MLC acted as hubs between environment information processing and cellular process, indicating that the interaction of the two categories exerts an important role in distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells. Particularly, we are first to show that up-regulation of intracellular Ca2+-MLCK and Rho-DMPK, and subsequently elevated MLC, may contribute to the distinct commitment of myogenic and adipogenic lineages via mediating cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:28276486

  11. A potential regulatory network underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjuan; He, Ting; Qin, Chunfu; Qiu, Kai; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Defa; Yin, Jingdong

    2017-03-09

    Mechanism controlling myo-adipogenic balance in skeletal muscle is of great significance for human skeletal muscle dysfunction and myopathies as well as livestock meat quality. In the present study, two cell subpopulations with particular potency of adipogenic or myogenic differentiation were isolated from neonatal porcine longissimus dorsi using the preplate method to detect mechanisms underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle. Both cells share a common surface expression profile of CD29(+)CD31(-)CD34(-)CD90(+)CD105(+), verifying their mesenchymal origin. A total of 448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05 and |log2 FC| ≥ 1) between two distinct cells were identified via RNA-seq, including 358 up-regulated and 90 down-regulated genes in myogenic cells compared with adipogenic cells. The results of functional annotation and enrichment showed that 42 DEGs were implicated in cell differentiation, among them PDGFRα, ITGA3, ITGB6, MLCK and MLC acted as hubs between environment information processing and cellular process, indicating that the interaction of the two categories exerts an important role in distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells. Particularly, we are first to show that up-regulation of intracellular Ca(2+)-MLCK and Rho-DMPK, and subsequently elevated MLC, may contribute to the distinct commitment of myogenic and adipogenic lineages via mediating cytoskeleton dynamics.

  12. Sorting single satellite cells from individual myofibers reveals heterogeneity in cell-surface markers and myogenic capacity.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Matthew R; Balakrishnan, Karthik R; Li, Ju; Conboy, Michael J; Huang, Haiyan; Mohanty, Swomitra K; Jabart, Eric; Hack, James; Conboy, Irina M; Sohn, Lydia L

    2013-04-01

    Traditional cell-screening techniques such as FACS and MACS are better suited for large numbers of cells isolated from bulk tissue and cannot easily screen stem or progenitor cells from minute populations found in their physiological niches. Furthermore, these techniques rely upon irreversible antibody binding, potentially altering cell properties, including gene expression and regenerative capacity. To address these challenges, we have developed a novel, label-free stem-cell analysis and sorting platform capable of quantifying cell-surface marker expression of single functional organ stem cells directly isolated from their micro-anatomical niche. Using our unique platform, we have discovered a remarkable heterogeneity in both the regenerative capacity and expression of CXCR4, β1-integrin, Sca-1, M-cadherin, Syndecan-4, and Notch-1 in freshly isolated muscle stem (satellite) cells residing on different, single myofibers and have identified a small population of Sca-1(+)/Myf5(+) myogenic satellite cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of our single-cell platform for uncovering and functionally characterizing stem-cell heterogeneity in the organ microniche.

  13. Dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to fusion competence of myogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Atsushi; Kurisaki, Tomohiro; Sato, Satoshi B.; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kondoh, Gen; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2009-10-15

    Recent research indicates that the leading edge of lamellipodia of myogenic cells (myoblasts and myotubes) contains presumptive fusion sites, yet the mechanisms that render the plasma membrane fusion-competent remain largely unknown. Here we show that dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to both cell adhesion and plasma membrane union during myogenic cell fusion. Adhesion-complex proteins including M-cadherin, {beta}-catenin, and p120-catenin accumulated at the leading edge of lamellipodia, which contains the presumptive fusion sites of the plasma membrane, in a lipid raft-dependent fashion prior to cell contact. In addition, disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion directly prevented the membrane union of myogenic cell fusion. Time-lapse recording showed that lipid rafts were laterally dispersed from the center of the lamellipodia prior to membrane fusion. Adhesion proteins that had accumulated at lipid rafts were also removed from the presumptive fusion sites when lipid rafts were laterally dispersed. The resultant lipid raft- and adhesion complex-free area at the leading edge fused with the opposing plasma membrane. These results demonstrate a key role for dynamic clustering/dispersion of lipid rafts in establishing fusion-competent sites of the myogenic cell membrane, providing a novel mechanistic insight into the regulation of myogenic cell fusion.

  14. Caspase-3, myogenic transcription factors and cell cycle inhibitors are regulated by leukemia inhibitory factor to mediate inhibition of myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is known to inhibit myogenic differentiation as well as to inhibit apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in non-differentiating myoblasts. In addition caspase-3 activity is required for myogenic differentiation. Therefore the aim of this study was to further investigate mechanisms of the differentiation suppressing effect of LIF in particular the possibility of a caspase-3 mediated inhibition of differentiation. Results LIF dependent inhibition of differentiation appeared to involve several mechanisms. Differentiating myoblasts that were exposed to LIF displayed increased transcripts for c-fos. Transcripts for the cell cycle inhibitor p21 as well as muscle regulatory factors myoD and myogenin were decreased with LIF exposure. However, LIF did not directly induce a proliferative effect under differentiation conditions, but did prevent the proportion of myoblasts that were proliferating from decreasing as differentiation proceeded. LIF stimulation decreased the percentage of cells positive for active caspase-3 occurring during differentiation. Both the effect of LIF inhibiting caspase-3 activation and differentiation appeared dependent on mitogen activated protein kinase and extracellular signal regulated kinase kinase (MEK) signalling. The role of LIF in myogenic differentiation was further refined to demonstrate that myoblasts are unlikely to secrete LIF endogenously. Conclusions Altogether this study provides a more comprehensive view of the role of LIF in myogenic differentiation including LIF and receptor regulation in myoblasts and myotubes, mechanisms of inhibition of differentiation and the link between caspase-3 activation, apoptosis and myogenic differentiation. PMID:21798094

  15. MyoD-expressing progenitors are essential for skeletal myogenesis and satellite cell development

    PubMed Central

    Wood, William M.; Etemad, Shervin; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Goldhamer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal myogenesis in the embryo is regulated by the coordinated expression of the MyoD family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs). MyoD and Myf-5, which are the primary muscle lineage-determining factors, function in a partially redundant manner to establish muscle progenitor cell identity. Previous diphtheria toxin (DTA)-mediated ablation studies showed that MyoD+ progenitors rescue myogenesis in embryos in which Myf-5-expressing cells were targeted for ablation, raising the possibility that the regulative behavior of distinct, MRF-expressing populations explains the functional compensatory activities of these MRFs. Using MyoDiCre mice, we show that DTA-mediated ablation of MyoD-expressing cells results in the cessation of myogenesis by embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), as assayed by myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and Myogenin staining. Importantly, MyoDiCre/+;R26DTA/+ embryos exhibited a concomitant loss of Myf-5+ progenitors, indicating that the vast majority of Myf-5+ progenitors express MyoD, a conclusion consistent with immunofluorescence analysis of Myf-5 protein expression in MyoDiCre lineage-labeled embryos. Surprisingly, staining for the paired box transcription factor, Pax7, which functions genetically upstream of MyoD in the trunk and is a marker for fetal myoblasts and satellite cell progenitors, was also lost by E12.5. Specific ablation of differentiating skeletal muscle in ACTA1Cre;R26DTA/+ embryos resulted in comparatively minor effects on MyoD+, Myf-5+ and Pax7+ progenitors, indicating that cell non-autonomous effects are unlikely to explain the rapid loss of myogenic progenitors in MyoDiCre/+;R26DTA/+ embryos. We conclude that the vast majority of myogenic populations transit through a MyoD+ state, and that MyoD+ progenitors are essential for myogenesis and stem cell development. PMID:24055173

  16. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium endows myogenic cells with enhanced muscle stem cell functions via epigenetic modulation of Sca-1 and Pw1 promoters.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Piera; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Masciarelli, Silvia; Madaro, Luca; Iosue, Ilaria; Marrocco, Valeria; Relaix, Frédéric; Fazi, Francesco; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A; Bouché, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the regulation of the stem cell fate is fundamental for designing novel regenerative medicine strategies. Previous studies have suggested that pharmacological treatments with small molecules provide a robust and reversible regulation of the stem cell program. Previously, we showed that treatment with a vanadium compound influences muscle cell fatein vitro In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with the phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium (BpV) drives primary muscle cells to a poised stem cell stage, with enhanced function in muscle regenerationin vivofollowing transplantation into injured muscles. Importantly, BpV-treated cells displayed increased self-renewal potentialin vivoand replenished the niche in both satellite and interstitial cell compartments. Moreover, we found that BpV treatment induces specific activating chromatin modifications at the promoter regions of genes associated with stem cell fate, includingSca-1andPw1 Thus, our findings indicate that BpV resets the cell fate program by specific epigenetic regulations, such that the committed myogenic cell fate is redirected to an earlier progenitor cell fate stage, which leads to an enhanced regenerative stem cell potential.-Smeriglio, P., Alonso-Martin, S., Masciarelli, S., Madaro, L., Iosue, I., Marrocco, V., Relaix, F., Fazi, F., Marazzi, G., Sassoon, D. A., Bouché, M. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium endows myogenic cells with enhanced muscle stem cell functionsviaepigenetic modulation of Sca-1 and Pw1 promoters.

  17. In vivo myogenic potential of human CD133+ muscle-derived stem cells: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Elisa; Riederer, Ingo; Chaouch, Soraya; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Di Santo, James; Torrente, Yvan; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Mouly, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, numerous reports have identified in mouse different sources of myogenic cells distinct from satellite cells that exhibited a variable myogenic potential in vivo. Myogenic stem cells have also been described in humans, although their regenerative potential has rarely been quantified. In this study, we have investigated the myogenic potential of human muscle-derived cells based on the expression of the stem cell marker CD133 as compared to bona fide satellite cells already used in clinical trials. The efficiency of these cells to participate in muscle regeneration and contribute to the renewal of the satellite cell pool, when injected intramuscularly, has been evaluated in the Rag2(-/-) gammaC(-/-) C5(-/-) mouse in which muscle degeneration is induced by cryoinjury. We demonstrate that human muscle-derived CD133+ cells showed a much greater regenerative capacity when compared to human myoblasts. The number of fibers expressing human proteins and the number of human cells in a satellite cell position are all dramatically increased when compared to those observed after injection of human myoblasts. In addition, CD133+/CD34+ cells exhibited a better dispersion in the host muscle when compared to human myoblasts. We propose that muscle-derived CD133+ cells could be an attractive candidate for cellular therapy.

  18. In Vivo Myogenic Potential of Human CD133+ Muscle-derived Stem Cells: A Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Elisa; Riederer, Ingo; Chaouch, Soraya; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Di Santo, James; Torrente, Yvan; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Mouly, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, numerous reports have identified in mouse different sources of myogenic cells distinct from satellite cells that exhibited a variable myogenic potential in vivo. Myogenic stem cells have also been described in humans, although their regenerative potential has rarely been quantified. In this study, we have investigated the myogenic potential of human muscle–derived cells based on the expression of the stem cell marker CD133 as compared to bona fide satellite cells already used in clinical trials. The efficiency of these cells to participate in muscle regeneration and contribute to the renewal of the satellite cell pool, when injected intramuscularly, has been evaluated in the Rag2−/− γC−/− C5−/− mouse in which muscle degeneration is induced by cryoinjury. We demonstrate that human muscle–derived CD133+ cells showed a much greater regenerative capacity when compared to human myoblasts. The number of fibers expressing human proteins and the number of human cells in a satellite cell position are all dramatically increased when compared to those observed after injection of human myoblasts. In addition, CD133+/CD34+ cells exhibited a better dispersion in the host muscle when compared to human myoblasts. We propose that muscle-derived CD133+ cells could be an attractive candidate for cellular therapy. PMID:19623164

  19. Invited Review: Extrinsic regulation of domestic animal-derived myogenic satellite cells II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of myogenic satellite cells was reported some forty-seven years ago, and, since that time, satellite cell research has flourished. So much new information is generated (daily) on these cells that it can be difficult for individuals to keep abreast of important issues related to the act...

  20. MicroRNA regulation of myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Harding, Rachel L; Velleman, Sandra G

    2016-01-01

    Myogenic satellite cells are stem cells responsible for muscle growth and regeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in regulating numerous cellular processes. Two genes essential to satellite cell function are syndecan-4 and glypican-1. To determine if miRNAs influence myogenic satellite cell function, one miRNA predicted to bind syndecan-4 (miR-128) and two predicted to bind glypican-1 (miR-24 and miR-16) were inhibited in vitro by transfection of inhibitors targeting each miRNA. Inhibition of these miRNAs differentially affected the expression of syndecan-4, glypican-1, and myogenic regulatory factors myoD and myogenin. Inhibition of miR-16 reduced proliferation of satellite cells at 72 h. Inhibition of miR-128 and miR-24 did not affect proliferation. Inhibition of miRNAs reduced differentiation of satellite cells into myotubes at 48 and 72 h except for miR-16, which only affected differentiation at 72 h. Inhibition of all three miRNAs decreased myotube width at 24 h of differentiation and increased myotube width at 48 h of differentiation. Inhibiting these miRNAs also increased the number of nuclei per myotube at 72 h of differentiation. These data demonstrate individual miRNAs regulate genes essential for myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

  1. Isolation and Quantitative Immunocytochemical Characterization of Primary Myogenic Cells and Fibroblasts from Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Agley, Chibeza C.; Rowlerson, Anthea M.; Velloso, Cristiana P.; Lazarus, Norman L.; Harridge, Stephen D. R.

    2015-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the action of satellite cells, which are the resident muscle stem cells. These can be isolated from human muscle biopsy samples using enzymatic digestion and their myogenic properties studied in culture. Quantitatively, the two main adherent cell types obtained from enzymatic digestion are: (i) the satellite cells (termed myogenic cells or muscle precursor cells), identified initially as CD56+ and later as CD56+/desmin+ cells and (ii) muscle-derived fibroblasts, identified as CD56– and TE-7+. Fibroblasts proliferate very efficiently in culture and in mixed cell populations these cells may overrun myogenic cells to dominate the culture. The isolation and purification of different cell types from human muscle is thus an important methodological consideration when trying to investigate the innate behavior of either cell type in culture. Here we describe a system of sorting based on the gentle enzymatic digestion of cells using collagenase and dispase followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) which gives both a high purity (>95% myogenic cells) and good yield (~2.8 x 106 ± 8.87 x 105 cells/g tissue after 7 days in vitro) for experiments in culture. This approach is based on incubating the mixed muscle-derived cell population with magnetic microbeads beads conjugated to an antibody against CD56 and then passing cells though a magnetic field. CD56+ cells bound to microbeads are retained by the field whereas CD56– cells pass unimpeded through the column. Cell suspensions from any stage of the sorting process can be plated and cultured. Following a given intervention, cell morphology, and the expression and localization of proteins including nuclear transcription factors can be quantified using immunofluorescent labeling with specific antibodies and an image processing and analysis package. PMID:25650991

  2. Myogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response by regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sunyoung; Lim, Hyun Ju; Jackson, John D; Atala, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Cell therapy for patients who have intractable muscle disorders may require highly regenerative cells from young, healthy allogeneic donors. Mesenchymal stem cells are currently under clinical investigation because they are known to induce muscle regeneration and believed to be immune privileged, thus making them suitable for allogeneic applications. However, it is unclear whether allogeneic and myogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells retain their immunomodulatory characteristics. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation on the immune characteristics of cells in vitro. We investigated the immunologic properties of mesenchymal stem cells after myogenic induction. Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from C57BL/6 mice and the C3H/10T1/2 murine mesenchymal stem cell line. Two different 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine doses (0.5 and 3 µM) were evaluated for their effects on mesenchymal stem cell skeletal myogenic differentiation potential, immune antigen expression, and mixed lymphocytic reactions. Using a mixed lymphocytic reaction, we determined the optimal splenocyte proliferation inhibition dose. The induction of regulatory T cells was markedly increased by the addition of 3 µM 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine–treated mesenchymal stem cells. Myogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells do not elicit alloreactive lymphocyte proliferative responses and are able to modulate immune responses. These findings support the hypothesis that myogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells may be transplantable across allogeneic barriers. PMID:24555015

  3. Autophagy induction in the skeletal myogenic differentiation of human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Saeyoung; Choi, Yoonyoung; Jung, Namhee; Kim, Jieun; Oh, Seiyoon; Yu, Yeonsil; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck; Jo, Inho; Choi, Byung-Ok; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation and are thus a valuable source for the replacement of diseased or damaged organs. Previously, we reported that the tonsils can be an excellent reservoir of MSCs for the regeneration of skeletal muscle (SKM) damage. However, the mechanisms involved in the differentiation from tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) to myocytes via myoblasts remain unclear. To clarify these mechanisms, we analyzed gene expression profiles of T-MSCs during differentiation into myocytes compared with human skeletal muscle cells (hSKMCs). Total RNA was extracted from T-MSCs, T-MSC-derived myoblasts and myocytes, and hSKMCs and was subjected to analysis using a microarray. Microarray analysis of the three phases of myogenic differentiation identified candidate genes associated with myogenic differentiation. The expression pattern of undifferentiated T-MSCs was distinguishable from the myogenic differentiated T-MSCs and hSKMCs. In particular, we selected FNBP1L, which among the upregulated genes is essential for antibacterial autophagy, since autophagy is related to SKM metabolism and myogenesis. T-MSCs differentiated toward myoblasts and skeletal myocytes sequentially, as evidenced by increased expression of autophagy-related markers (including Beclin-1, LC3B and Atg5) and decreased expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, we reconfirmed that autophagy has an effect on the mechanism of skeletal myogenic differentiation derived from T-MSCs by treatment with 5-azacytidine and bafilomycin A1. These data suggest that the transcriptome of the T-MSC-derived myocytes is similar to that of hSKMCs, and that autophagy has an important role in the mechanism of myogenic differentiation of T-MSCs. PMID:28259927

  4. Autophagy induction in the skeletal myogenic differentiation of human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Saeyoung; Choi, Yoonyoung; Jung, Namhee; Kim, Jieun; Oh, Seiyoon; Yu, Yeonsil; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck; Jo, Inho; Choi, Byung-Ok; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2017-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation and are thus a valuable source for the replacement of diseased or damaged organs. Previously, we reported that the tonsils can be an excellent reservoir of MSCs for the regeneration of skeletal muscle (SKM) damage. However, the mechanisms involved in the differentiation from tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) to myocytes via myoblasts remain unclear. To clarify these mechanisms, we analyzed gene expression profiles of T-MSCs during differentiation into myocytes compared with human skeletal muscle cells (hSKMCs). Total RNA was extracted from T-MSCs, T-MSC-derived myoblasts and myocytes, and hSKMCs and was subjected to analysis using a microarray. Microarray analysis of the three phases of myogenic differentiation identified candidate genes associated with myogenic differentiation. The expression pattern of undifferentiated T-MSCs was distinguishable from the myogenic differentiated T-MSCs and hSKMCs. In particular, we selected FNBP1L, which among the upregulated genes is essential for antibacterial autophagy, since autophagy is related to SKM metabolism and myogenesis. T-MSCs differentiated toward myoblasts and skeletal myocytes sequentially, as evidenced by increased expression of autophagy-related markers (including Beclin-1, LC3B and Atg5) and decreased expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, we reconfirmed that autophagy has an effect on the mechanism of skeletal myogenic differentiation derived from T-MSCs by treatment with 5-azacytidine and bafilomycin A1. These data suggest that the transcriptome of the T-MSC-derived myocytes is similar to that of hSKMCs, and that autophagy has an important role in the mechanism of myogenic differentiation of T-MSCs.

  5. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRedloxP/loxPCripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury. PMID:26052513

  6. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRed (loxP/loxP) Cripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury.

  7. Lkb1 deletion promotes ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle progenitor cells and mature muscles.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Zhang, Pengpeng; Bi, Pengpeng; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-05-01

    Excessive intramyocellular triglycerides (muscle lipids) are associated with reduced contractile function, insulin resistance, and Type 2 diabetes, but what governs lipid accumulation in muscle is unclear. Here we report a role of Lkb1 in regulating lipid metabolism in muscle stem cells and their descendent mature muscles. We used Myod(Cre) and Lkb1(flox/flox) mice to specifically delete Lkb1 in myogenic cells including stem and differentiated cells, and examined the lipid accumulation and gene expression of myoblasts cultured from muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Genetic deletion of Lkb1 in myogenic progenitors led to elevated expression of lipogenic genes and ectopic lipid accumulation in proliferating myoblasts. Interestingly, the Lkb1-deficient myoblasts differentiated into adipocyte-like cells upon adipogenic induction. However, these adipocyte-like cells maintained myogenic gene expression with reduced ability to form myotubes efficiently. Activation of AMPK by AICAR prevented ectopic lipid formation in the Lkb1-null myoblasts. Notably, Lkb1-deficient muscles accumulated excessive lipids in vivo in response to high-fat diet feeding. These results demonstrate that Lkb1 acts through AMPK to limit lipid deposition in muscle stem cells and their derivative mature muscles, and point to the possibility of controlling muscle lipid content using AMPK activating drugs.

  8. miR-127 enhances myogenic cell differentiation by targeting S1PR3.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lili; Wu, Rimao; Han, Wanhong; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Dahai

    2017-03-30

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been implicated in muscle stem cell function. miR-127 is known to be predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, but its roles in myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration are unknown. Here, we show that miR-127 is upregulated during C2C12 and satellite cell (SC) differentiation and, by establishing C2C12 cells stably expressing miR-127, demonstrate that overexpression of miR-127 in C2C12 cells enhances myogenic cell differentiation. To investigate the function of miR-127 during muscle development and regeneration in vivo, we generated miR-127 transgenic mice. These mice exhibited remarkably accelerated muscle regeneration compared with wild-type mice by promoting SC differentiation. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that the gene encoding sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3), a G-protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate, is a target of miR-127 required for its function in promoting myogenic cell differentiation. Importantly, overexpression of miR-127 in muscular dystrophy model mdx mice considerably ameliorated the disease phenotype. Thus, our findings suggest that miR-127 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of skeletal muscle disease in humans.

  9. Interleukin-4 improves the migration of human myogenic precursor cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, J.F.; Mills, P.; Bouchentouf, M.; Tremblay, J.P. . E-mail: Jacques-P.Tremblay@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2006-04-15

    Different molecules are available to recruit new neighboring myogenic cells to the site of regeneration. Formerly called B cell stimulatory factor-1, IL-4 can now be included in the list of motogenic factors. The present report demonstrates that human IL-4 is not required for fusion between mononucleated myoblasts but is required for myotube maturation. In identifying IL-4 as a pro-migratory agent for myogenic cells, these results provide a mechanism which partly explains IL-4 demonstrated activity during differentiation. Among the different mechanisms by which IL-4 might enhance myoblast migration processes, our results indicate that there are implications of some integrins and of three major components of the fibrinolytic system. Indeed, increases in the amount of active urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor were observed following an IL-4 treatment, while the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 decreased. Finally, IL-4 did not modify the amount of cell surface {alpha}5 integrin but increased the presence of {beta}3 and {beta}1 integrins. This integrin modulation might favor myogenic cell migration and its interaction with newly formed myotubes. Therefore, IL-4 co-injection with transplanted myoblasts might be an approach to enhance the migration of transplanted cells for the treatment of a damaged myocardium or of a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patient.

  10. Insulin acts as a myogenic differentiation signal for neural stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud; Kendall, Stephen E; Moore, Daniel P; Bellum, Stephen; Cowling, Rebecca A; Nikopoulos, George N; Kubu, Chris J; Vary, Calvin; Verdi, Joseph M

    2004-09-01

    Reports of non-neural differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) have been challenged by alternative explanations for expanded differentiation potentials. In an attempt to demonstrate the plasticity of NSC, neurospheres were generated from single retrovirally labeled embryonic cortical precursors. In a defined serum-free insulin-containing media, 40% of the neurospheres contained both myogenic and neurogenic differentiated progeny. The number of NSCs displaying multilineage differentiation potential declines through gestation but does exist in the adult animal. In this system, insulin appears to function as a survival and dose-dependent myogenic differentiation signal for multilineage NSCs (MLNSC). MLNSC-derived cardiomyocytes contract synchronously, respond to sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, and regenerate injured heart tissues. These studies provide support for the hypothesis that MLNSCs exist throughout the lifetime of the animal, and potentially provide a population of stem cells for cell-based regenerative medicine strategies inside and outside of the nervous system.

  11. Circulating Vascular Progenitor Cells in Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyun-Seung; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Various approaches have been attempted in translational moyamoya disease research. One promising material for modeling and treating this disease is vascular progenitor cells, which can be acquired and expanded from patient peripheral blood. These cells may provide a novel experimental model and enable us to obtain insights regarding moyamoya disease pathogenesis. We briefly present the recent accomplishments in regard to the studies of vascular progenitor cells in moyamoya disease. PMID:26180610

  12. Time-lapse microscopy and classification of 2D human mesenchymal stem cells based on cell shape picks up myogenic from osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christof; Gazdhar, Amiq; Reyes, Mauricio; Benneker, Lorin M; Geiser, Thomas; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Gantenbein-Ritter, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Current methods to characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are limited to CD marker expression, plastic adherence and their ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors. It seems evident that stem cells undergoing differentiation should differ in many aspects, such as morphology and possibly also behaviour; however, such a correlation has not yet been exploited for fate prediction of MSCs. Primary human MSCs from bone marrow were expanded and pelleted to form high-density cultures and were then randomly divided into four groups to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic chondrogenic and myogenic progenitor cells. The cells were expanded as heterogeneous and tracked with time-lapse microscopy to record cell shape, using phase-contrast microscopy. The cells were segmented using a custom-made image-processing pipeline. Seven morphological features were extracted for each of the segmented cells. Statistical analysis was performed on the seven-dimensional feature vectors, using a tree-like classification method. Differentiation of cells was monitored with key marker genes and histology. Cells in differentiation media were expressing the key genes for each of the three pathways after 21 days, i.e. adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic, which was also confirmed by histological staining. Time-lapse microscopy data were obtained and contained new evidence that two cell shape features, eccentricity and filopodia (= 'fingers') are highly informative to classify myogenic differentiation from all others. However, no robust classifiers could be identified for the other cell differentiation paths. The results suggest that non-invasive automated time-lapse microscopy could potentially be used to predict the stem cell fate of hMSCs for clinical application, based on morphology for earlier time-points. The classification is challenged by cell density, proliferation and possible unknown donor-specific factors, which affect the performance of

  13. FGFR4 and its novel splice form in myogenic cells: Interplay of glycosylation and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Boguslaw A; Kirillova, Irina; Richard, Robert E; Israeli, David; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2008-06-01

    The family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) is encoded by four distinct genes. FGFR1 and FGFR4 are both expressed during myogenesis, but whereas the function of FGFR1 in myoblast proliferation has been documented, the role of FGFR4 remains unknown. Here, we report on a new splice form of FGFR4 cloned from primary cultures of mouse satellite cells. This form, named FGFR4(-16), lacks the entire exon 16, resulting in a deletion within the FGFR kinase domain. Expression of FGFR4(-16) coincided with that of wild-type FGFR4 in all FGFR4-expressing tissues examined. Moreover, expression of both FGFR4 forms correlated with the onset of myogenic differentiation, as determined in mouse C2C12 cells and in the inducible myogenic system of 10T(1/2)-MyoD-ER cell line. Both endogenous and overexpressed forms of FGFR4 exhibited N-glycosylation. In contrast to FGFR1, induced homodimerization of FGFR4 proteins did not result in receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Surprisingly, coexpression of FGFR4 forms and a chimeric FGFR1 protein resulted in FGFR4 tyrosine phosphorylation, raising the possibility that FGFR4 phosphorylation might be enabled by a heterologous tyrosine kinase activity. Collectively, the present study reveals novel characteristics of mouse FGFR4 gene products and delineates their expression pattern during myogenesis. Our findings suggest that FGFR4 functions in a distinctly different manner than the prototype FGFR during myogenic differentiation.

  14. Preparation of Primary Myogenic Precursor Cell/Myoblast Cultures from Basal Vertebrate Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Seiliez, Iban; Gabillard, Jean-Charles; Biga, Peggy R.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the inherent difficulty and time involved with studying the myogenic program in vivo, primary culture systems derived from the resident adult stem cells of skeletal muscle, the myogenic precursor cells (MPCs), have proven indispensible to our understanding of mammalian skeletal muscle development and growth. Particularly among the basal taxa of Vertebrata, however, data are limited describing the molecular mechanisms controlling the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of MPCs. Of particular interest are potential mechanisms that underlie the ability of basal vertebrates to undergo considerable postlarval skeletal myofiber hyperplasia (i.e. teleost fish) and full regeneration following appendage loss (i.e. urodele amphibians). Additionally, the use of cultured myoblasts could aid in the understanding of regeneration and the recapitulation of the myogenic program and the differences between them. To this end, we describe in detail a robust and efficient protocol (and variations therein) for isolating and maintaining MPCs and their progeny, myoblasts and immature myotubes, in cell culture as a platform for understanding the evolution of the myogenic program, beginning with the more basal vertebrates. Capitalizing on the model organism status of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), we report on the application of this protocol to small fishes of the cyprinid clade Danioninae. In tandem, this protocol can be utilized to realize a broader comparative approach by isolating MPCs from the Mexican axolotl (Ambystomamexicanum) and even laboratory rodents. This protocol is now widely used in studying myogenesis in several fish species, including rainbow trout, salmon, and sea bream1-4. PMID:24835774

  15. Making Skeletal Muscle from Progenitor and Stem Cells: Development versus Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lydia; Rozo, Michelle E.; Lepper, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    For locomotion, vertebrate animals use the force generated by contractile skeletal muscles. These muscles form an actin/myosin-based bio-machinery that is attached to skeletal elements to effect body movement and maintain posture. The mechanics, physiology, and homeostasis of skeletal muscles in normal and disease states are of significant clinical interest. How muscles originate from progenitors during embryogenesis has attracted considerable attention from developmental biologists. How skeletal muscles regenerate and repair themselves after injury by the use of stem cells is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis throughout lifetime. In recent years, much progress has been made towards uncovering the origins of myogenic progenitors and stem cells as well as the regulation of these cells during development and regeneration. PMID:22737183

  16. Vitamin D induces myogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Braga, Melissa; Simmons, Zena; Norris, Keith C; Ferrini, Monica G; Artaza, Jorge N

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a serious disorder associated with health conditions such as aging, chronic kidney disease and AIDS. Vitamin D is most widely recognized for its regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis in relation to bone development and maintenance. Recently, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve muscle performance and reduce the risk of falls in vitamin D deficient older adults. However, little is known of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) or the role it plays in myogenic differentiation. We examined the effect of 1,25-D3 on myogenic cell differentiation in skeletal muscle derived stem cells. Primary cultures of skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated from the tibialis anterior, soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of 8-week-old C57/BL6 male mice and then treated with 1,25-D3 The efficiency of satellite cells isolation determined by PAX7+ cells was 81%, and they expressed VDR. Incubation of satellite cells with 1,25-D3 induces increased expression of: (i) MYOD, (ii) MYOG, (iii) MYC2, (iv) skeletal muscle fast troponin I and T, (v) MYH1, (vi) IGF1 and 2, (vii) FGF1 and 2, (viii) BMP4, (ix) MMP9 and (x) FST. It also promotes myotube formation and decreases the expression of MSTN. In conclusion, 1,25-D3 promoted a robust myogenic effect on satellite cells responsible for the regeneration of muscle after injury or muscle waste. This study provides a mechanistic justification for vitamin D supplementation in conditions characterized by loss of muscle mass and also in vitamin D deficient older adults with reduced muscle mass and strength, and increased risk of falls.

  17. The effect of nutritional status and myogenic satellite cell age on turkey satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and expression of myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors and heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Laura B; McFarland, Douglas C; Velleman, Sandra G

    2014-01-01

    Posthatch satellite cell mitotic activity is a critical component of muscle development and growth. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be induced by nutrition to follow other cellular developmental pathways, and whose mitotic activity declines with age. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of restricting protein synthesis on the proliferation and differentiation, expression of myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, and myogenic regulatory factor 4, and expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1 in satellite cells isolated from 1-d-, 7-wk-, and 16-wk-old turkey pectoralis major muscle (1 d, 7 wk, and 16 wk cells, respectively) by using variable concentrations of Met and Cys. Four Met concentrations-30 (control), 7.5, 3, or 0 mg/L with 3.2 mg/L of Cys per 1 mg/L of Met-were used for culture of satellite cells to determine the effect of nutrition and age on satellite cell behavior during proliferation and differentiation. Proliferation was reduced by lower Met and Cys concentrations in all ages at 96 h of proliferation. Differentiation was increased in the 1 d Met-restricted cells, whereas the 7 wk cells treated with 3 mg/L of Met had decreased differentiation. Reduced Met and Cys levels from the control did not significantly affect the 16 wk cells at 72 h of differentiation. However, medium with no Met or Cys suppressed differentiation at all ages. The expression of myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor 4, syndecan-4, and glypican-1 was differentially affected by age and Met or Cys treatment. These data demonstrate the age-specific manner in which turkey pectoralis major muscle satellite cells respond to nutritional availability and the importance of defining optimal nutrition to maximize satellite cell proliferation and differentiation for subsequent muscle mass accretion.

  18. Derivation of a continuous myogenic cell culture from an embryo of common killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Sarah J; Vo, Nguyen T K; Mikhaeil, Michael S; Alexander, J Andrew N; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Schulte, Patricia M; Lee, Lucy E J

    2014-09-01

    The common killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an estuarine teleost increasingly used in comparative physiology, toxicology and embryology. Their ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions and ease of maintenance has made them popular aquatic research organisms. Scientific advances with most popular model organisms have been assisted with the availability of continuous cell lines; however, cell lines from F. heteroclitus appear to be unavailable. The development of a killifish cell line, KFE-5, derived from the mid trunk region of a late stage embryo is described here. KFE-5 grows well in Leibovitz's L-15 media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been passaged over 60 times in a span of three years, and cells at various passages have been successfully cryopreserved and thawed. The cells are mostly fibroblastic but contain myogenic cells that differentiate into mono-, bi- and multi-nucleated striated myocytes. Immunofluorescence detection of muscle specific antigens such as α-actinin, desmin, and myosin confirms KFE-5 as a myogenic cell line. KFE-5 has a temperature preference for 26-28°C and has been shown to withstand temperatures up to 37°C. The cell line responds to chemical signals including growth factors, hormones and extracellular matrix components. KFE-5 could thus be useful not only for mummichog's thermobiology but also for studies in fish muscle physiology and development.

  19. The migration of myogenic cells from the somites at the wing level in avian embryos.

    PubMed

    Solursh, M; Drake, C; Meier, S

    1987-06-01

    This study is concerned with establishing a morphological basis for the initiation of migration of putative myogenic cells from the somites into the presumptive wing bud in avian embryos. At the 22 somite stage (stage 14) vasculogenesis is a prevalent activity. By use of a quail specific monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial cells, vascular cells are recognized in the lateral plate, on the intermediate mesoderm, and on somite surfaces. Cells that are found between the lateral plate mesoderm and somites are shown to be vascular endothelial cells. The lateral body folds progressively bring the lateral plate mesoderm close to the lateral margin of the somites and vascular elements disappear from surface view. It is not until the 24 somite stage (stage 15) that some cells in the ventral lateral margin of somites at the wing level can be seen in scanning electron micrographs to extend basal cell processes toward adjacent vascular tubes. These results provide a morphological basis for the early migratory behavior of myogenic cells and demonstrate their close proximity to the prepatterned vascular network.

  20. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

  1. Smad4 restricts differentiation to promote expansion of satellite cell derived progenitors during skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Nicole D; Soroka, Andrew; Klose, Alanna; Liu, Wenxuan; Chakkalakal, Joe V

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regenerative potential declines with age, in part due to deficiencies in resident stem cells (satellite cells, SCs) and derived myogenic progenitors (MPs); however, the factors responsible for this decline remain obscure. TGFβ superfamily signaling is an inhibitor of myogenic differentiation, with elevated activity in aged skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, we find reduced expression of Smad4, the downstream cofactor for canonical TGFβ superfamily signaling, and the target Id1 in aged SCs and MPs during regeneration. Specific deletion of Smad4 in adult mouse SCs led to increased propensity for terminal myogenic commitment connected to impaired proliferative potential. Furthermore, SC-specific Smad4 disruption compromised adult skeletal muscle regeneration. Finally, loss of Smad4 in aged SCs did not promote aged skeletal muscle regeneration. Therefore, SC-specific reduction of Smad4 is a feature of aged regenerating skeletal muscle and Smad4 is a critical regulator of SC and MP amplification during skeletal muscle regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19484.001 PMID:27855784

  2. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) marks adult myogenic cells committed to differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Capkovic, Katie L.; Stevenson, Severin; Johnson, Marc C.; Thelen, Jay J.; Cornelison, D.D.W.

    2008-04-15

    Although recent advances in broad-scale gene expression analysis have dramatically increased our knowledge of the repertoire of mRNAs present in multiple cell types, it has become increasingly clear that examination of the expression, localization, and associations of the encoded proteins will be critical for determining their functional significance. In particular, many signaling receptors, transducers, and effectors have been proposed to act in higher-order complexes associated with physically distinct areas of the plasma membrane. Adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells) must, upon injury, respond appropriately to a wide range of extracellular stimuli: the role of such signaling scaffolds is therefore a potentially important area of inquiry. To address this question, we first isolated detergent-resistant membrane fractions from primary satellite cells, then analyzed their component proteins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Transmembrane and juxtamembrane components of adhesion-mediated signaling pathways made up the largest group of identified proteins; in particular, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a multifunctional cell-surface protein that has previously been associated with muscle regeneration, was significant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that not only is NCAM localized to discrete areas of the plasma membrane, it is also a very early marker of commitment to terminal differentiation. Using flow cytometry, we have sorted physically homogeneous myogenic cultures into proliferating and differentiating fractions based solely upon NCAM expression.

  3. A case of small round cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region with myogenic and neurogenic elements.

    PubMed

    Goji, J; Sano, K; Murakami, R; Nakamura, H; Ninomiya, M; Ito, H

    1992-02-01

    We here report a unique case of a young boy with an intrathoracic tumor which consisted of neurogenic and myogenic elements. The initial pathological diagnosis was alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. The tumor tissue from surgical resection was composed of three parts, each showing a different histological appearance, i.e. a monotonous small cell area, an alveolar area, and an area consisting of pleomorphic rhabdomyoblasts. The small round cells in the monotonous area were immunoreactive with the antibodies for Leu7, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), neurofilament proteins (NFP), and beta 2 microglobulin, but not with the antibody for desmin. These cells also had dense core granules. The tumor cells in the alveolar area were immunoreactive with the antibodies for Leu7 and desmin, but not with the antibody for NFP. Pleomorphic rhabdomyoblasts were immunoreactive with the antibody for desmin, but not with the antibodies for Leu7 and NFP. These findings imply that this tumor consisted of neurogenic and myogenic elements and is considered to be a special type of rhabdomyosarcoma.

  4. Restricted maternal nutrition alters myogenic regulatory factor expression in satellite cells of ovine offspring.

    PubMed

    Raja, J S; Hoffman, M L; Govoni, K E; Zinn, S A; Reed, S A

    2016-07-01

    Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development and postnatal muscle growth. Satellite cells are myogenic precursor cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth, and their activity can be evaluated by the expression of several transcription factors. Paired-box (Pax)7 is expressed in quiescent and active satellite cells. MyoD is expressed in activated and proliferating satellite cells and myogenin is expressed in terminally differentiating cells. Disruption in the expression pattern or timing of expression of myogenic regulatory factors negatively affects muscle development and growth. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition during gestation would alter the in vitro temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin in satellite cells from offspring at birth and 3 months of age. Ewes were fed 100% or 60% of NRC requirements from day 31±1.3 of gestation. Lambs from control-fed (CON) or restricted-fed (RES) ewes were euthanized within 24 h of birth (birth; n=5) or were fed a control diet until 3 months of age (n=5). Satellite cells isolated from the semitendinosus muscle were used for gene expression analysis or cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h and immunostained for Pax7, MyoD or myogenin. Fusion index was calculated from a subset of cells allowed to differentiate. Compared with CON, temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin was altered in cultured satellite cells isolated from RES lambs at birth. The percent of cells expressing MyoD was greater in RES than CON (P=0.03) after 24 h in culture. After 48 h of culture, there was a greater percent of cells expressing myogenin in RES compared with CON (P0.05). In satellite cells from RES lambs at 3 months of age, the percent of cells expressing MyoD and myogenin were greater than CON after 72 h in culture (P<0.05). Fusion index was reduced in RES lambs at 3 months of age compared with CON (P<0.001). Restricted nutrition during gestation alters the temporal expression of myogenic regulatory factors in satellite cells of the

  5. Roles of adherent myogenic cells and dynamic culture in engineered muscle function and maintenance of satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2014-11-01

    Highly functional engineered skeletal muscle constructs could serve as physiological models of muscle function and regeneration and have utility in therapeutic replacement of damaged or diseased muscle tissue. In this study, we examined the roles of different myogenic cell fractions and culturing conditions in the generation of highly functional engineered muscle. Fibrin-based muscle bundles were fabricated using either freshly-isolated myogenic cells or their adherent fraction pre-cultured for 36 h. Muscle bundles made of these cells were cultured in both static and dynamic conditions and systematically characterized with respect to early myogenic events and contractile function. Following 2 weeks of culture, we observed both individual and synergistic benefits of using the adherent cell fraction and dynamic culture on muscle formation and function. In particular, optimal culture conditions resulted in significant increase in the total cross-sectional muscle area (- 3-fold), myofiber size (- 1.6-fold), myonuclei density (- 1.2-fold), and force generation (- 9-fold) compared to traditional use of freshly-isolated cells and static culture. Curiously, we observed that only a simultaneous use of the adherent cell fraction and dynamic culture resulted in accelerated formation of differentiated myofibers which were critical for providing a niche-like environment for maintenance of a satellite cell pool early during culture. Our study identifies key parameters for engineering large-size, highly functional skeletal muscle tissues with improved ability for retention of functional satellite cells.

  6. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90

  7. Discovery of progenitor cell signatures by time-series synexpression analysis during Drosophila embryonic cell immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Dequéant, Mary-Lee; Fagegaltier, Delphine; Hu, Yanhui; Spirohn, Kerstin; Simcox, Amanda; Hannon, Gregory J.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The use of time series profiling to identify groups of functionally related genes (synexpression groups) is a powerful approach for the discovery of gene function. Here we apply this strategy during RasV12 immortalization of Drosophila embryonic cells, a phenomenon not well characterized. Using high-resolution transcriptional time-series datasets, we generated a gene network based on temporal expression profile similarities. This analysis revealed that common immortalized cells are related to adult muscle precursors (AMPs), a stem cell-like population contributing to adult muscles and sharing properties with vertebrate satellite cells. Remarkably, the immortalized cells retained the capacity for myogenic differentiation when treated with the steroid hormone ecdysone. Further, we validated in vivo the transcription factor CG9650, the ortholog of mammalian Bcl11a/b, as a regulator of AMP proliferation predicted by our analysis. Our study demonstrates the power of time series synexpression analysis to characterize Drosophila embryonic progenitor lines and identify stem/progenitor cell regulators. PMID:26438832

  8. Induction of myogenic differentiation in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line by phenylacetate.

    PubMed

    Cinatl, J; Cinatl, J; Herneiz, P; Rabenau, H; Hovak, M; Benda, R; Gümbel, H O; Kornhuber, B; Doerr, H W

    1994-04-01

    Sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) at concentrations ranging from 2 to 10 mM promoted myogenic differentiation of the human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell line KFR. These concentrations inhibited DNA synthesis of the cells in a dose-dependent manner without significant effect on cell viability. The morphological differentiation of small mononuclear elements to terminal, elongated multinuclear structures resembling myotubes was accompanied by the expression of skeletal muscle myosin. The proportion of differentiated myosin-positive cells which was around 0.8-1.7% in control cultures 12 days after seeding was increased by NaPA treatment up to 47%. In the cytoplasm of differentiated cells, features of sarcomerogenesis were observed. These results suggest that NaPA is an effective inducer of rhabdomyosarcoma cell differentiation at concentrations that have been achieved in humans with no significant adverse effects.

  9. Fibromodulin: a master regulator of myostatin controlling progression of satellite cells through a myogenic program.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kim, Yong-Woon; Park, So-Young; Choi, Inho

    2016-08-01

    Differentiation of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) involves interaction of the proteins present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with MSCs to regulate their activity, and therefore phenotype. Herein, we report fibromodulin (FMOD), a member of the proteoglycan family participating in the assembly of ECM, as a novel regulator of myostatin (MSTN) during myoblast differentiation. In addition to having a pronounced effect on the expression of myogenic marker genes [myogenin (MYOG) and myosin light chain 2 (MYL2)], FMOD was found to maintain the transcriptional activity of MSTN Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation and in silico studies performed to investigate the interaction of FMOD helped confirm that it antagonizes MSTN function by distorting its folding and preventing its binding to activin receptor type IIB. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed that FMOD plays an active role in healing by increasing satellite cell recruitment to sites of injury. Together, these findings disclose a hitherto unrecognized regulatory role for FMOD in MSCs and highlight new mechanisms whereby FMOD circumvents the inhibitory effects of MSTN and triggers myoblast differentiation. These findings offer a basis for the design of novel MSTN inhibitors that promote muscle regeneration after injury or for the development of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of different muscle atrophies.-Lee, E. J., Jan, A. T., Baig, M. H., Ashraf, J. M., Nahm, S.-S., Kim, Y.-W., Park, S.-Y., Choi, I. Fibromodulin: a master regulator of myostatin controlling progression of satellite cells through a myogenic program.

  10. Overexpression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy region gene 1 causes primary defects in myogenic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xynos, Alexandros; Neguembor, Maria Victoria; Caccia, Roberta; Licastro, Danilo; Nonis, Alessandro; Di Serio, Clelia; Stupka, Elia; Gabellini, Davide

    2013-05-15

    Overexpression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy region gene 1 (FRG1) in mice, frogs and worms leads to muscular and vascular abnormalities. Nevertheless, the mechanism that follows FRG1 overexpression and finally leads to muscular defects is currently unknown. Here, we show that the earliest phenotype displayed by mice overexpressing FRG1 is a postnatal muscle-growth defect. Long before the development of muscular dystrophy, FRG1 mice also exhibit a muscle regeneration impairment. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments revealed that FRG1 overexpression causes myogenic stem cell activation and proliferative, clonogenic and differentiation defects. A comparative gene expression profiling of muscles from young pre-dystrophic wild-type and FRG1 mice identified differentially expressed genes in several gene categories and networks that could explain the emerging tissue and myogenic stem cell defects. Overall, our study provides new insights into the pathways regulated by FRG1 and suggests that muscle stem cell defects could contribute to the pathology of FRG1 mice.

  11. Distinct and Overlapping Sarcoma Subtypes Initiated from Muscle Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Jordan M.; Añó, Leonor; Li, Zhizhong; Van Mater, David; Bennett, Brian D.; Sachdeva, Mohit; Lagutina, Irina; Zhang, Minsi; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Dodd, Leslie G.; Cardona, Diana M.; Dodd, Rebecca D.; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Lepper, Christoph; Linardic, Corinne M.; Mukherjee, Sayan; Grosveld, Gerard C.; Fan, Chen-Ming; Kirsch, David G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, while undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in adults. To investigate the myogenic cell(s) of origin of these sarcomas, we used Pax7-CreER and MyoD-CreER mice to transform Pax7+ and MyoD+ myogenic progenitors by expressing oncogenic KrasG12D and deleting p53 in vivo. Pax7-CreER mice developed RMS and UPS, while MyoD-CreER mice developed UPS. Using gene set enrichment analysis, RMS and UPS each clustered specifically within their human counterparts. These results suggest that RMS and UPS have distinct and overlapping cells of origin within the muscle lineage. Taken together, we have established novel mouse models of soft tissue sarcoma from muscle stem and progenitor cells. SIGNIFICANCE Although muscle stem cells have been presumed to be a cell of origin for RMS, studies with constitutive Cre drivers expressed in Myf6-expressing cells or adipocyte P2-expressing cells suggest that cells of origin for RMS can be differentiated myofibers or adipogenic precursors, respectively. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Myf6 is expressed in muscle stem cell precursors, revealing a potential limitation of utilizing constitutive Cre drivers for cell of origin studies. Here, using inducible CreER mice, we mutate genes relevant to human RMS specifically in Pax7-expressing or MyoD-expressing cells. Our results suggest that RMS can be initiated in muscle stem cells, while UPS can be initiated in activated (Pax7+MyoD+) satellite cells. PMID:24239359

  12. Progenitor Cell Fate Decisions in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    luminal progenitors contributing to transformation of ER- luminal and basal cells and development of treatment resistant breast cancer . We previously...proliferate and metastasize. Decreased DNA damage repair or altered epigenetic marks can dramatically affect the cellular composition of these tumors

  13. Preparation and Culture of Myogenic Precursor Cells/Primary Myoblasts from Skeletal Muscle of Adult and Aged Humans.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Arroquia, Ana; Clegg, Peter D; Molloy, Andrew P; Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna

    2017-02-16

    Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on muscle growth (hypertrophy), atrophy and regeneration. During ageing and in several diseases, muscle wasting occurs. Loss of muscle mass and function is associated with muscle fiber type atrophy, fiber type switching, defective muscle regeneration associated with dysfunction of satellite cells, muscle stem cells, and other pathophysiological processes. These changes are associated with changes in intracellular as well as local and systemic niches. In addition to most commonly used rodent models of muscle ageing, there is a need to study muscle homeostasis and wasting using human models, which due to ethical implications, consist predominantly of in vitro cultures. Despite the wide use of human Myogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs) and primary myoblasts in myogenesis, there is limited data on using human primary myoblast and myotube cultures to study molecular mechanisms regulating different aspects of age-associated muscle wasting, aiding in the validation of mechanisms of ageing proposed in rodent muscle. The use of human MPCs, primary myoblasts and myotubes isolated from adult and aged people, provides a physiologically relevant model of molecular mechanisms of processes associated with muscle growth, atrophy and regeneration. Here we describe in detail a robust, inexpensive, reproducible and efficient protocol for the isolation and maintenance of human MPCs and their progeny - myoblasts and myotubes from human muscle samples using enzymatic digestion. Furthermore, we have determined the passage number at which primary myoblasts from adult and aged people undergo senescence in an in vitro culture. Finally, we show the ability to transfect these myoblasts and the ability to characterize their proliferative and differentiation capacity and propose their suitability for performing functional studies of molecular mechanisms of myogenesis and muscle wasting in vitro.

  14. Human progenitor cells for bone engineering applications.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, G M; Thomsen, P; Karlsson, C; Strehl, R; Lindahl, A; Hyllner, J

    2013-06-01

    In this report, the authors review the human skeleton and the increasing burden of bone deficiencies, the limitations encountered with the current treatments and the opportunities provided by the emerging field of cell-based bone engineering. Special emphasis is placed on different sources of human progenitor cells, as well as their pros and cons in relation to their utilization for the large-scale construction of functional bone-engineered substitutes for clinical applications. It is concluded that, human pluripotent stem cells represent a valuable source for the derivation of progenitor cells, which combine the advantages of both embryonic and adult stem cells, and indeed display high potential for the construction of functional substitutes for bone replacement therapies.

  15. Grp94 acts as a mediator of curcumin-induced antioxidant defence in myogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Paola; Scapin, Cristina; Vitadello, Maurizio; Florean, Cristina; Gorza, Luisa

    2010-04-01

    Curcumin is a non-toxic polyphenol with pleiotropic activities and limited bioavailability. We investigated whether a brief exposure to low doses of curcumin would induce in the myogenic C2C12 cell line an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and protect against oxidative stress. A 3-hr curcumin administration (5-10 microM) increased protein levels of the ER chaperone Grp94, without affecting those of Grp78, calreticulin and haeme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide 24 hrs after the curcumin treatment decreased caspase-12 activation, total protein oxidation and translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus, compared with untreated cells. Grp94 overexpression, achieved by means of either stable or transient trasfection, induced comparable cytoprotective effects to hydrogen peroxide. The delayed cytoprotection induced by curcumin acted through Grp94, because the curcumin-induced increase in Grp94 expression was hampered by either stable or transient transfection with antisense cDNA; in these latter cells, the extent of total protein oxidation, as well as the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus, and the percentage of apoptotic cells were comparable to those observed in both curcumin-untreated wild-type and empty vector transfected cells. Defining the mechanism(s) by which Grp94 exerts its antioxidant defence, the determination of cytosolic calcium levels in C2C12 cells by fura-2 showed a significantly reduced amount of releasable calcium from intracellular stores, both in conditions of Grp94 overexpression and after curcumin pre-treatment. Therefore, a brief exposure to curcumin induces a delayed cytoprotection against oxidative stress in myogenic cells by increasing Grp94 protein level, which acts as a regulator of calcium homeostasis.

  16. Skeletal myogenic differentiation of human urine-derived cells as a potential source for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Xie, Minkai; Yang, Bin; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Song, Lujie; Liu, Guihua; Yi, Shanhong; Ye, Gang; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2017-02-01

    Stem cells are regarded as possible cell therapy candidates for skeletal muscle regeneration. However, invasive harvesting of those cells can cause potential harvest-site morbidity. The goal of this study was to assess whether human urine-derived stem cells (USCs), obtained through non-invasive procedures, can differentiate into skeletal muscle linage cells (Sk-MCs) and potentially be used for skeletal muscle regeneration. In this study, USCs were harvested from six healthy individuals aged 25-55. Expression profiles of cell-surface markers were assessed by flow cytometry. To optimize the myogenic differentiation medium, we selected two from four different types of myogenic differentiation media to induce the USCs. Differentiated USCs were identified with myogenic markers by gene and protein expression. USCs were implanted into the tibialis anterior muscles of nude mice for 1 month. The results showed that USCs displayed surface markers with positive staining for CD24, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD117, CD133, CD146, SSEA-4 and STRO-1, and negative staining for CD14, CD31, CD34 and CD45. After myogenic differentiation, a change in morphology was observed from 'rice-grain'-like cells to spindle-shaped cells. The USCs expressed specific Sk-MC transcripts and protein markers (myf5, myoD, myosin, and desmin) after being induced with different myogenic culture media. Implanted cells expressed Sk-MC markers stably in vivo. Our findings suggest that USCs are able to differentiate into the Sk-MC lineage in vitro and after being implanted in vivo. Thus, they might be a potential source for cell injection therapy in the use of skeletal muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Progenitor endothelial cell involvement in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-05-01

    There is compelling evidence that endothelial cells of the brain and periphery are dysfunctional in Alzheimer's Disease. There is evidence for a fundamental defect in, or abnormal aging of, endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis. The possibility that endothelial cell defects are a primary cause for Alzheimer's Disease or other dementias can be researched by molecular and cell biology studies as well as cell trafficking studies using recently demonstrated molecular imaging methods. The evidence for abnormal endothelial function and the methods to explore this hypothesis are presented.

  18. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Min Sun; Mun, Ji-Young; Kwon, Ohsuk; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method.

  19. Repairing skeletal muscle: regenerative potential of skeletal muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dellavalle, Arianna; Diaz-Manera, Jordi; Messina, Graziella; Cossu, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle damaged by injury or by degenerative diseases such as muscular dystrophy is able to regenerate new muscle fibers. Regeneration mainly depends upon satellite cells, myogenic progenitors localized between the basal lamina and the muscle fiber membrane. However, other cell types outside the basal lamina, such as pericytes, also have myogenic potency. Here, we discuss the main properties of satellite cells and other myogenic progenitors as well as recent efforts to obtain myogenic cells from pluripotent stem cells for patient-tailored cell therapy. Clinical trials utilizing these cells to treat muscular dystrophies, heart failure, and stress urinary incontinence are also briefly outlined. PMID:20051632

  20. Isolation and myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for urologic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongpei; Liu, Guihua; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based tissue engineering is one of the most promising areas in biotechnology for restoring tissues and organ function in the urinary tract. Current strategies for bladder tissue engineering require a competent biological scaffold that is seeded in vitro with the patient's own bladder cells. This use of autologous cells avoids graft rejection and the long-term use of immunosuppressive medications usually required after allogeneic transplantation. However, suitable bladder cells from the patient are sometimes limited or unobtainable. When suitable cells are unavailable for seeding due to bladder exstrophy, malignancy, or other reasons, the use of other cell types originating from the patient may be an alternative. A suitable alternative to autologous bladder cells could be mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC reside primarily in the bone marrow, although they exist in other sites as well, including adipose tissue, peripheral and cord blood, liver tissue, and fetal tissues. Bone marrow-derived stromal cell populations contain few MSC (one MSC in 10(4)-5 × 10(7) marrow cells), with the exact number depending on the age of the patient. Despite their limited numbers, MSC possess both the ability to self-renew for extended periods of time and the potential to differentiate into several different specialized cell types under the appropriate conditions. MSC are capable of expansion and tissue-specific differentiation in vitro based on external signals and/or the environment. There are different methodologies for induction and maintenance of a differentiated cell phenotype from MSC. For example, MSC can differentiate into a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype in vitro when exposed to stimuli such as conditioned medium derived from SMC cultures or specific myogenic growth factors (PDGF-BB, HGF, TGF-β). These differential cells can migrate to a scaffold for differentiation into smooth muscle-like cells in vivo. Furthermore, stem cell-seeded scaffolds that are implanted into

  1. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: a myogenic precursor cell hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kallestad, Kristen M; Hebert, Sadie L; McDonald, Abby A; Daniel, Mark L; Cu, Sharon R; McLoon, Linda K

    2011-04-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin(-/-) (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a subpopulation

  2. Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: A myogenic precursor cell hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kallestad, Kristen M.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McDonald, Abby A.; Daniel, Mark L.; Cu, Sharon R.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2011-04-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin{sup -/-} (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a

  3. Progenitor Cell Dysfunctions Underlie Some Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Melanie; Wong, Victor W.; Rennert, Robert C.; Davis, Christopher R.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells and progenitor cells are integral to tissue homeostasis and repair. They contribute to health through their ability to self-renew and commit to specialized effector cells. Recently, defects in a variety of progenitor cell populations have been described in both preclinical and human diabetes. These deficits affect multiple aspects of stem cell biology, including quiescence, renewal, and differentiation, as well as homing, cytokine production, and neovascularization, through mechanisms that are still unclear. More important, stem cell aberrations resulting from diabetes have direct implications on tissue function and seem to persist even after return to normoglycemia. Understanding how diabetes alters stem cell signaling and homeostasis is critical for understanding the complex pathophysiology of many diabetic complications. Moreover, the success of cell-based therapies will depend on a more comprehensive understanding of these deficiencies. This review has three goals: to analyze stem cell pathways dysregulated during diabetes, to highlight the effects of hyperglycemic memory on stem cells, and to define ways of using stem cell therapy to overcome diabetic complications. PMID:26079815

  4. Stem/Progenitor cells in vascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-06-01

    A series of studies has been presented in the search for proof of circulating and resident vascular progenitor cells, which can differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and pericytes in animal and human studies. In terms of pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, iPS, and partial-iPS cells, they display a great potential for vascular lineage differentiation. Development of stem cell therapy for treatment of vascular and ischemic diseases remains a major challenging research field. At the present, there is a clear expansion of research into mechanisms of stem cell differentiation into vascular lineages that are tested in animal models. Although there are several clinical trials ongoing that primarily focus on determining the benefits of stem cell transplantation in ischemic heart or peripheral ischemic tissues, intensive investigation for translational aspects of stem cell therapy would be needed. It is a hope that stem cell therapy for vascular diseases could be developed for clinic application in the future.

  5. Lacrimal Gland Repair Using Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Gromova, Anastasia; Voronov, Dmitry A; Yoshida, Miya; Thotakura, Suharika; Meech, Robyn; Dartt, Darlene A; Makarenkova, Helen P

    2017-01-01

    In humans, the lacrimal gland (LG) is the primary contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. Production of tears in insufficient quantity or of inadequate quality may lead to aqueous-deficiency dry eye (ADDE). Currently there is no cure for ADDE. The development of strategies to reliably isolate LG stem/progenitor cells from the LG tissue brings great promise for the design of cell replacement therapies for patients with ADDE. We analyzed the therapeutic potential of epithelial progenitor cells (EPCPs) isolated from adult wild-type mouse LGs by transplanting them into the LGs of TSP -1(-/-) mice, which represent a novel mouse model for ADDE. TSP-1(-/-) mice are normal at birth but progressively develop a chronic form of ocular surface disease, characterized by deterioration, inflammation, and secretory dysfunction of the lacrimal gland. Our study shows that, among c-kit-positive epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM(+) ) populations sorted from mouse LGs, the c-kit(+) dim/EpCAM(+) /Sca1 (-) /CD34 (-) /CD45 (-) cells have the hallmarks of an epithelial cell progenitor population. Isolated EPCPs express pluripotency factors and markers of the epithelial cell lineage Runx1 and EpCAM, and they form acini and ducts when grown in reaggregated three-dimensional cultures. Moreover, when transplanted into injured or "diseased" LGs, they engraft into acinar and ductal compartments. EPCP-injected TSP-1(-/-) LGs showed reduction of cell infiltration, differentiation of the donor EPCPs within secretory acini, and substantial improvement in LG structural integrity and function. This study provides the first evidence for the effective use of adult EPCP cell transplantation to rescue LG dysfunction in a model system. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:88-98.

  6. The effect of nutritional status on myogenic gene expression of satellite cells derived from different muscle types.

    PubMed

    Powell, D J; McFarland, D C; Cowieson, A J; Muir, W I; Velleman, S G

    2014-09-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are a multipotential stem cell population responsible for facilitating posthatch muscle fiber hypertrophy. The proliferation and differentiation of SC is sensitive to nutritional regimen, and the SC response to nutrition varies depending upon their muscle type of origin. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of altering protein synthesis on the expression of several key genes regulating SC activity and the effect of muscle type. Satellite cells isolated from the fast glycolytic pectoralis major and the fast oxidative and glycolytic biceps femoris were studied. These genes included the myogenic regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD) and myogenin, the cell-membrane associated proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1, the extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin, and the transcription factor paired box 7. Protein synthesis potential varied by the concentration of the sulfur amino acids Met and Cys during SC proliferation and differentiation. The SC were cultured and treated with 1 of 6 Met/Cys concentrations: 60/192, 30/96 (control), 7.5/24, 3.0/9.6, 1.0/3.2, or 0/0 mg/L. A consistent pattern of gene expression emerged following Met/Cys manipulation as increasing reductions in mRNA expression for all genes were observed as Met/Cys concentration decreased, whereas increased Met/Cys concentration caused either no change or had a small negative effect on mRNA expression. Reduced paired box 7 expression would limit myogenic specification of SC, whereas decreased myogenic regulatory factor expression would affect subsequent myogenic development of the SC. Decreased levels of decorin affect SC response to growth factors like myostatin and transforming growth factor β, and extracellular matrix organization. These data highlight the importance of nutrition on the expression of genes critical for satellite cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, and growth factor signal transduction.

  7. Pitx genes are redeployed in adult myogenesis where they can act to promote myogenic differentiation in muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Paul; Figeac, Nicolas; Fortier, Mathieu; Moyle, Louise; Zammit, Peter S

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal muscle retains a resident stem cell population called satellite cells. Although mitotically quiescent in mature muscle, satellite cells can be activated to produce myoblast progeny to generate myonuclei for skeletal muscle homoeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. Regulation of satellite cell function in adult requires redeployment of many of the regulatory networks fundamental to developmental myogenesis. Involved in such control of muscle stem cell fate in embryos are members of the Pitx gene family of bicoid-class homeodomain proteins. Here, we investigated the expression and function of all three Pitx genes in muscle satellite cells of adult mice. Endogenous Pitx1 was undetectable, whilst Pitx2a, Pitx2b and Pitx2c were at low levels in proliferating satellite cells, but increased during the early stages of myogenic differentiation. By contrast, proliferating satellite cells expressed robust amounts of Pitx3, with levels then decreasing as cells differentiated, although Pitx3 remained expressed in unfused myoblasts. To examine the role of Pitx genes in satellite cell function, retroviral-mediated expression of Pitx1, all Pitx2 isoforms or Pitx3, was used. Constitutive expression of any Pitx isoform suppressed satellite cell proliferation, with the cells undergoing enhanced myogenic differentiation. Conversely, myogenic differentiation into multinucleated myotubes was decreased when Pitx2 or Pitx3 levels were reduced using siRNA. Together, our results show that Pitx genes play a role in regulating satellite cell function during myogenesis in adult.

  8. A FINE-STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE FUSION OF MYOGENIC CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Bruce H.; Konigsberg, Irwin R.

    1972-01-01

    The fusion of myogenic cells has been examined on the fine-structural level in muscle cell cultures of embryonic Japanese Coturnix quail. Cells, selected by light microscopy, were serially sectioned normal to their long axis. In this plane, oblique sections of cell membranes are rare and plasmalemmal profiles are more easily traced between adjacent cells. In seven cases, pairs of cells, apparently fixed in the process of fusion, are joined by a single cytoplasmic bridge. Since obliquely sectioned membranes often suggest cytoplasmic confluence, tilting stage analysis was employed to resolve cell membranes in suspect cases. In contrast to such artifacts of superposition, however, the observed intercommunicating pores are contained within a pair of culs-de-sac formed by the fused membranes of both cells. These blind pouches can be traced back between the cells to the external space. The confluent regions are clearly demarcated and they are not simply areas between vesicular profiles. The results of this analysis suggest that (a) at no time is there any loss of integrity of the cellular envelope, and (b) fusion is most probably initiated at single sites between pairs of cells, the pore enlarging, leaving first vestiges and eventually no trace of the original intervening membranes. PMID:4554365

  9. Lacrimal Gland Repair Using Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Gromova, Anastasia; Voronov, Dmitry A; Yoshida, Miya; Thotakura, Suharika; Meech, Robyn; Dartt, Darlene A; Makarenkova, Helen P

    2016-08-15

    : In humans, the lacrimal gland (LG) is the primary contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. Production of tears in insufficient quantity or of inadequate quality may lead to aqueous-deficiency dry eye (ADDE). Currently there is no cure for ADDE. The development of strategies to reliably isolate LG stem/progenitor cells from the LG tissue brings great promise for the design of cell replacement therapies for patients with ADDE. We analyzed the therapeutic potential of epithelial progenitor cells (EPCPs) isolated from adult wild-type mouse LGs by transplanting them into the LGs of TSP-1(-/-) mice, which represent a novel mouse model for ADDE. TSP-1(-/-) mice are normal at birth but progressively develop a chronic form of ocular surface disease, characterized by deterioration, inflammation, and secretory dysfunction of the lacrimal gland. Our study shows that, among c-kit-positive epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM(+)) populations sorted from mouse LGs, the c-kit(+)dim/EpCAM(+)/Sca1(-)/CD34(-)/CD45(-) cells have the hallmarks of an epithelial cell progenitor population. Isolated EPCPs express pluripotency factors and markers of the epithelial cell lineage Runx1 and EpCAM, and they form acini and ducts when grown in reaggregated three-dimensional cultures. Moreover, when transplanted into injured or "diseased" LGs, they engraft into acinar and ductal compartments. EPCP-injected TSP-1(-/-) LGs showed reduction of cell infiltration, differentiation of the donor EPCPs within secretory acini, and substantial improvement in LG structural integrity and function. This study provides the first evidence for the effective use of adult EPCP cell transplantation to rescue LG dysfunction in a model system.

  10. Origin of hemopoietic stromal progenitor cells in chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, J.L.; Drize, N.J.; Gurevitch, O.A.; Samoylova, R.S.

    1985-12-01

    Intravenously injected bone marrow cells do not participate in the regeneration of hemopoietic stromal progenitors in irradiated mice, nor in the curetted parts of the recipient's marrow. The hemopoietic stromal progenitors in allogeneic chimeras are of recipient origin. The adherent cell layer (ACL) of long-term cultures of allogeneic chimera bone marrow contains only recipient hemopoietic stromal progenitors. However, in ectopic hemopoietic foci produced by marrow implantation under the renal capsule and repopulated by the recipient hemopoietic cells after irradiation and reconstitution by syngeneic hemopoietic cells, the stromal progenitors were of implant donor origin, as were stromal progenitors of the ACL in long-term cultures of hemopoietic cells from ectopic foci. Our results confirm that the stromal and hemopoietic progenitors differ in origin and that hemopoietic stromal progenitors are not transplantable by the intravenous route in mice.

  11. Adrenomedullary progenitor cells: Isolation and characterization of a multi-potent progenitor cell population.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rubin de Celis, Maria Fernandez; Pellegata, Natalia S; Bornstein, Stefan R; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2015-06-15

    The adrenal is a highly plastic organ with the ability to adjust to physiological needs by adapting hormone production but also by generating and regenerating both adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tissue. It is now apparent that many adult tissues maintain stem and progenitor cells that contribute to their maintenance and adaptation. Research from the last years has proven the existence of stem and progenitor cells also in the adult adrenal medulla throughout life. These cells maintain some neural crest properties and have the potential to differentiate to the endocrine and neural lineages. In this article, we discuss the evidence for the existence of adrenomedullary multi potent progenitor cells, their isolation and characterization, their differentiation potential as well as their clinical potential in transplantation therapies but also in pathophysiology.

  12. Comparison of chromosome centromere topology in differentiating cells with myogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Bartosz; Wiland, Ewa; Rozwadowska, Natalia; Rucinski, Marek; Mietkiewski, Tomasz; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome territories (CT's) constitute the critical element of the intranuclear architecture. Position of these compartmentalized structures plays an important role in functioning of entire genome. Present study was to examine whether the centromeres position of chromosomes 4, X and Y can be changed during differentiation from myoblasts to myotubes. Topological analysis of these centromeres was based on two-dimensional fluorescent hybridization in situ (2D-FISH). During differentiation process the majority of X chromosome centromeres analyzed shifted to the peripheral part of a nucleus and similar phenomenon was observed with one of the chromosome 4 centromeres. Completely different tendency was noticed when investigating the location of the chromosome Y centromeres. Centromeres of this chromosome migrated to the centre of a nucleus. The results obtained demonstrated visible changes in chromosome topology along the myogenic stem cells differentiation.

  13. Transfusion Support for ABO-Incompatible Progenitor Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kopko, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary ABO-incompatible transplants comprise up to 50% of allogeneic progenitor cell transplants. Major, minor and bidirectional ABO-incompatible transplants each have unique complications that can occur, including hemolysis at the time of progenitor cell infusion, hemolysis during donor engraftment, passenger lymphocyte syndrome, delayed red blood cell engraftment, and pure red cell aplasia. Appropriate transfusion support during the different phases of the allogeneic progenitor cell transplant process is an important part of ABO-incompatible transplantation. PMID:27022318

  14. Nutritional regulation of stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jiwon; Gururaja-Rao, Shubha; Banerjee, Utpal

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells and their progenitors are maintained within a microenvironment, termed the niche, through local cell-cell communication. Systemic signals originating outside the niche also affect stem cell and progenitor behavior. This review summarizes studies that pertain to nutritional effects on stem and progenitor cell maintenance and proliferation in Drosophila. Multiple tissue types are discussed that utilize the insulin-related signaling pathway to convey nutritional information either directly to these progenitors or via other cell types within the niche. The concept of systemic control of these cell types is not limited to Drosophila and may be functional in vertebrate systems, including mammals. PMID:24255094

  15. Dose-dependent Effect of Boric Acid on Myogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells (hADSCs).

    PubMed

    Apdik, Hüseyin; Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Aydın, Safa; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-06-01

    Boron, a vital micronutrient for plant metabolism, is not fully elucidated for embryonic and adult body development, and tissue regeneration. Although optimized amount of boron supplement has been shown to be essential for normal gestational development in zebrafish and frog and beneficial for bone regeneration in higher animals, effects of boron on myogenesis and myo-regeneration remains to be solved. In the current study, we investigated dose-dependent activity of boric acid on myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) using immunocytochemical, gene, and protein expression analysis. The results revealed that while low- (81.9 μM) and high-dose (819.6 μM) boron treatment increased myogenic gene expression levels such as myosin heavy chain (MYH), MyoD, myogenin, and desmin at day 4 of differentiation, high-dose treatment decreased myogenic-related gene and protein levels at day 21 of differentiation, confirmed by immunocytochemical analysis. The findings of the study present not only an understanding of boron's effect on myogenic differentiation but also an opportunity for the development of scaffolds to be used in skeletal tissue engineering and supplements for embryonic muscle growth. However, fine dose tuning and treatment period arranging are highly warranted as boron treatment over required concentrations and time might result in detrimental outcomes to myogenesis and myo-regeneration.

  16. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase-1 on the myogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhenyang; Leng, Yan; Zhou, Chen; Ma, Zhenyu; Zhong, Zhigang; Shi, Xing-Ming; Zhang, Weixi

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 is a member of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 has no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 can promote the myogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MyoD and desmin were chosen as myogenic markers in this study. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is a member of the family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading extracellular matrix (ECM) and certain non-matrix proteins. It has been shown that MMP-1 can enhance muscle regeneration by improving the differentiation and migration of myoblasts. However, it is still not known whether MMP-1 can promote the myogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To address this question, we isolated BMSCs from C57BL/6J mice and investigated the effects of MMP-1 on their proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Our results showed that MMP-1 treatment, which had no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs, increased the mRNA and protein levels of MyoD and desmin in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that MMP-1 promoted myogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. These results suggest that BMSCs may have a therapeutic potential for treating muscular disorders.

  17. Stem Cell Differentiation Toward the Myogenic Lineage for Muscle Tissue Regeneration: A Focus on Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Shi, Xuetao; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Salehi, Sahar; Fujie, Toshinori; Bae, Hojae; Ramalingam, Murugan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is one of the important ways for regenerating functionally defective muscles. Among the myopathies, the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive disease due to mutations of the dystrophin gene leading to progressive myofiber degeneration with severe symptoms. Although current therapies in muscular dystrophy are still very challenging, important progress has been made in materials science and in cellular technologies with the use of stem cells. It is therefore useful to review these advances and the results obtained in a clinical point of view. This article focuses on the differentiation of stem cells into myoblasts, and their application in muscular dystrophy. After an overview of the different stem cells that can be induced to differentiate into the myogenic lineage, we introduce scaffolding materials used for muscular tissue engineering. We then described some widely used methods to differentiate different types of stem cell into myoblasts. We highlight recent insights obtained in therapies for muscular dystrophy. Finally, we conclude with a discussion on stem cell technology. We discussed in parallel the benefits brought by the evolution of the materials and by the expansion of cell sources which can differentiate into myoblasts. We also discussed on future challenges for clinical applications and how to accelerate the translation from the research to the clinic in the frame of DMD.

  18. Developmental origin of postnatal cardiomyogenic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Hung; Lai, Ling-Ping; Huang, Shih-Yun; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Chou, Chih-Jen; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To trace the cell origin of the cells involved in postnatal cardiomyogenesis. Materials & methods: Nkx2.5 enhancer-eGFP (Nkx2.5 enh-eGFP) mice were used to test the cardiomyogenic potential of Nkx2.5 enhancer-expressing cells. By analyzing Cre excision of activated Nkx2.5-eGFP+ cells from different lineage-Cre/Nkx2.5 enh-eGFP/ROSA26 reporter mice, we traced the developmental origin of Nkx2.5 enhancer-expressing cells. Results: Nkx2.5 enhancer-expressing cells could differentiate into striated cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Nkx2.5-eGFP+ cells increased remarkably after experimental myocardial infarction (MI). The post-MI Nkx2.5-eGFP+ cells originated from the embryonic epicardial cells, not from the pre-existing cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, cardiac neural crest cells or perinatal/postnatal epicardial cells. Conclusion: Postnatal Nkx2.5 enhancer-expressing cells are cardiomyogenic progenitor cells and originate from embryonic epicardium-derived cells. PMID:28031967

  19. Progenitor Cells in Proximal Airway Epithelial Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Thomas J.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple distinct epithelial domains are found throughout the airway that are distinguishable by location, structure, function, and cell-type composition. Several progenitor cell populations in the proximal airway have been identified to reside in confined microenvironmental niches including the submucosal glands (SMGs), which are embedded in the tracheal connective tissue between the surface epithelium and cartilage, and basal cells that reside within the surface airway epithelium (SAE). Current research suggests that regulatory pathways that coordinate development of the proximal airway and establishment of progenitor cell niches may overlap with pathways that control progenitor cell responses during airway regeneration following injury. SMGs have been shown to harbor epithelial progenitor cells, and this niche is dysregulated in diseases such as cystic fibrosis. However, mechanisms that regulate progenitor cell proliferation and maintenance within this glandular niche are not completely understood. Here we discuss glandular progenitor cells during development and regeneration of the proximal airway and compare properties of glandular progenitors to those of basal cell progenitors in the SAE. Further investigation into glandular progenitor cell control will provide a direction for interrogating therapeutic interventions to correct aberrant conditions affecting the SMGs in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. PMID:24818588

  20. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  1. Mesodermal iPSC–derived progenitor cells functionally regenerate cardiac and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocelli, Mattia; Swinnen, Melissa; Giacomazzi, Giorgia; Camps, Jordi; Barthélemy, Ines; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Caluwé, Ellen; Grosemans, Hanne; Thorrez, Lieven; Pelizzo, Gloria; Muijtjens, Manja; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Blot, Stephane; Janssens, Stefan; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as muscular dystrophies (MDs) that affect both cardiac and skeletal muscles would benefit from therapeutic strategies that enable regeneration of both of these striated muscle types. Protocols have been developed to promote induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate toward cardiac or skeletal muscle; however, there are currently no strategies to simultaneously target both muscle types. Tissues exhibit specific epigenetic alterations; therefore, source-related lineage biases have the potential to improve iPSC-driven multilineage differentiation. Here, we determined that differential myogenic propensity influences the commitment of isogenic iPSCs and a specifically isolated pool of mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitors (MiPs) toward the striated muscle lineages. Differential myogenic propensity did not influence pluripotency, but did selectively enhance chimerism of MiP-derived tissue in both fetal and adult skeletal muscle. When injected into dystrophic mice, MiPs engrafted and repaired both skeletal and cardiac muscle, reducing functional defects. Similarly, engraftment into dystrophic mice of canine MiPs from dystrophic dogs that had undergone TALEN-mediated correction of the MD-associated mutation also resulted in functional striatal muscle regeneration. Moreover, human MiPs exhibited the same capacity for the dual differentiation observed in murine and canine MiPs. The findings of this study suggest that MiPs should be further explored for combined therapy of cardiac and skeletal muscles. PMID:26571398

  2. Rapid depletion of muscle progenitor cells in dystrophic mdx/utrophin-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Aiping; Poddar, Minakshi; Tang, Ying; Proto, Jonathan D; Sohn, Jihee; Mu, Xiaodong; Oyster, Nicholas; Wang, Bing; Huard, Johnny

    2014-09-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients lack dystrophin from birth; however, muscle weakness becomes apparent only at 3-5 years of age, which happens to coincide with the depletion of the muscle progenitor cell (MPC) pools. Indeed, MPCs isolated from older DMD patients demonstrate impairments in myogenic potential. To determine whether the progression of muscular dystrophy is a consequence of the decline in functional MPCs, we investigated two animal models of DMD: (i) dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, the most commonly utilized model of DMD, which has a relatively mild dystrophic phenotype and (ii) dystrophin/utrophin double knock-out (dKO) mice, which display a similar histopathologic phenotype to DMD patients. In contrast to age-matched mdx mice, we observed that both the number and regeneration potential of dKO MPCs rapidly declines during disease progression. This occurred in MPCs at both early and late stages of myogenic commitment. In fact, early MPCs isolated from 6-week-old dKO mice have reductions in proliferation, resistance to oxidative stress and multilineage differentiation capacities compared with age-matched mdx MPCs. This effect may potentially be mediated by fibroblast growth factor overexpression and/or a reduction in telomerase activity. Our results demonstrate that the rapid disease progression in the dKO model is associated, at least in part, with MPC depletion. Therefore, alleviating MPC depletion could represent an approach to delay the onset of the histopathologies associated with DMD patients.

  3. Time course and side-by-side analysis of mesodermal, pre-myogenic, myogenic and differentiated cell markers in the chicken model for skeletal muscle formation

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Federica; Nogueira, Júlia Meireles; Wöhrle, Svenja; Sobreira, Débora Rodrigues; Hawrot, Katarzyna; Dietrich, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The chicken is a well-established model for amniote (including human) skeletal muscle formation because the developmental anatomy of chicken skeletal muscle matches that of mammals. The accessibility of the chicken in the egg as well as the sequencing of its genome and novel molecular techniques have raised the profile of this model. Over the years, a number of regulatory and marker genes have been identified that are suited to monitor the progress of skeletal myogenesis both in wildtype and in experimental embryos. However, in the various studies, differing markers at different stages of development have been used. Moreover, contradictory results on the hierarchy of regulatory factors are now emerging, and clearly, factors need to be able to cooperate. Thus, a reference paper describing in detail and side-by-side the time course of marker gene expression during avian myogenesis is needed. We comparatively analysed onset and expression patterns of the key markers for the chicken immature paraxial mesoderm, for muscle-competent cells, for cells committed to myogenesis and for cells entering terminal differentiation. We performed this analysis from stages when the first paraxial mesoderm is being laid down to the stage when mesoderm formation comes to a conclusion. Our data show that, although the sequence of marker gene expression is the same at the various stages of development, the timing of the expression onset is quite different. Moreover, marker gene expression in myogenic cells being deployed from the dorsomedial and ventrolateral lips of the dermomyotome is different from those being deployed from the rostrocaudal lips, suggesting different molecular programs. Furthermore, expression of Myosin Heavy Chain genes is overlapping but different along the length of a myotube. Finally, Mef2c is the most likely partner of Mrf proteins, and, in contrast to the mouse and more alike frog and zebrafish fish, chicken Mrf4 is co-expressed with MyoG as cells enter terminal

  4. L1 Retrotransposition in Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Muotri, Alysson R

    2016-01-01

    Long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a family of non-LTR retrotransposons that can replicate and reintegrate into the host genome. L1s have considerably influenced mammalian genome evolution by retrotransposing during germ cell development or early embryogenesis, leading to massive genome expansion. For many years, L1 retrotransposons were viewed as a selfish DNA parasite that had no contribution in somatic cells. Historically, L1s were thought to only retrotranspose during gametogenesis and in neoplastic processes, but recent studies have shown that L1s are extremely active in the mouse, rat, and human neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). These de novo L1 insertions can impact neuronal transcriptional expression, creating unique transcriptomes of individual neurons, possibly contributing to the uniqueness of the individual cognition and mental disorders in humans.

  5. Defining human dendritic cell progenitors by multiparametric flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Gaëlle; Lee, Jaeyop; Liu, Kang; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2015-01-01

    Human dendritic cells (DCs) develop from progressively restricted bone marrow (BM) progenitors: these progenitor cells include granulocyte, monocyte and DC progenitor (GMDP) cells; monocyte and DC progenitor (MDP) cells; and common DC progenitor (CDP) and DC precursor (pre-DC) cells. These four DC progenitors can be defined on the basis of the expression of surface markers such as CD34 and hematopoietin receptors. In this protocol, we describe five multiparametric flow cytometry panels that can be used as a tool (i) to simultaneously detect or phenotype the four DC progenitors, (ii) to isolate DC progenitors to enable in vitro differentiation or (iii) to assess the in vitro differentiation and proliferation of DC progenitors. The entire procedure from isolation of cells to flow cytometry can be completed in 3–7 h. This protocol provides optimized antibody panels, as well as gating strategies, for immunostaining of BM and cord blood specimens to study human DC hematopoiesis in health, disease and vaccine settings. PMID:26292072

  6. Mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gehling, Ursula M; Willems, Marc; Schlagner, Kathleen; Benndorf, Ralf A; Dandri, Maura; Petersen, Jörg; Sterneck, Martina; Pollok, Joerg-Matthias; Hossfeld, Dieter K; Rogiers, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that liver cirrhosis is associated with mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from 72 patients with liver cirrhosis of varying etiology were analyzed by flow cytometry. Identified progenitor cell subsets were immunoselected and used for functional assays in vitro. Plasma levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Progenitor cells with a CD133+/CD45+/CD14+ phenotype were observed in 61% of the patients. Between 1% and 26% of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) displayed this phenotype. Furthermore, a distinct population of c-kit+ progenitor cells (between 1% and 38 % of the MNCs) could be detected in 91% of the patients. Additionally, 18% of the patients showed a population of progenitor cells (between 1% and 68% of the MNCs) that was characterized by expression of breast cancer resistance protein-1. Further phenotypic analysis disclosed that the circulating precursors expressed CXC chemokine receptor 4, the receptor for SDF-1. In line with this finding, elevated plasma levels of SDF-1 were present in all patients and were found to correlate with the number of mobilized CD133+ progenitor cells. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that in humans, liver cirrhosis leads to recruitment of various populations of hematopoietic progenitor cells that display markers of intrahepatic progenitor cells. PMID:20066741

  7. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases.

  8. Regulation of turkey myogenic satellite cell migration by MicroRNAs miR-128 and miR-24.

    PubMed

    Velleman, S G; Harding, R L

    2016-12-05

    Myogenic satellite cells are an adult stem cell responsible for all post-hatch muscle growth in poultry. As a stem cell population, satellite cells are highly heterogeneous, but the origin of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Heterogeneity is, in part, regulated by gene expression. One method of endogenous gene regulation that may contribute to heterogeneity is microRNAs (miRNAs). Two miRNAs previously shown to regulate poultry myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, miR-128 and miR-24, were studied to determine if they also affected satellite cell migration. Satellite cell migration is an essential step for both proliferation and differentiation. During proliferation, satellite cells will migrate and align to form new myofibers or donate their nuclei to existing myofibers leading to muscle fiber hypertrophy or regeneration. Transient transfection of miRNA specific mimics to each miRNA reduced migration of satellite cells following a cell culture scratch at 72 h of proliferation when the cultures were 90 to 100% confluent. However, only the migration in cells transfected with miR-24 mimics at 24 and 30 h following the scratch was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to around 70% of the distance migrated by controls. Alternately, transfection with inhibitors specific to miR-128 or miR-24 significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased migration between 147 and 252% compared to their controls between 24 and 48 h following the scratch. These data demonstrate that miR-128 and miR-24 play a role in myogenic satellite cell migration, which will impact muscle development and growth.

  9. Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (Tet2) Is Involved in Myogenic Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblast Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xia; Wang, Qian-Qian; Li, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Mei; An, Xiao-Rong; Hou, Jian

    2017-03-08

    Muscle cell differentiation is a complex process that is principally governed by related myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). DNA methylation is considered to play an important role on the expression of MRF genes and on muscle cell differentiation. However, the roles of enzymes specifically in myogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Tet2, a ten-eleven translocation (Tet) methylcytosine dioxygenase, exerts a role during skeletal myoblast differentiation. By using an immunostaining method, we found that the levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) were much higher in differentiated myotubes than in undifferentiated C2C12 myoblasts. Both Tet1 and Tet2 expression were upregulated after differentiation induction of C2C12 myoblasts. Knockdown of Tet2, but not Tet1, significantly reduced the expression of myogenin as well as Myf6 and myomaker, and impaired myoblast differentiation. DNA demethylation of myogenin and myomaker promoters was negatively influenced by Tet2 knockdown as detected by bisulfite sequencing analysis. Furthermore, although vitamin C could promote genomic 5hmC generation, myogenic gene expression and myoblast differentiation, its effect was significantly attenuated by Tet2 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that Tet2 is involved in myoblast differentiation through promoting DNA demethylation and myogenic gene expression.

  10. Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (Tet2) Is Involved in Myogenic Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblast Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xia; Wang, Qian-Qian; Li, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Mei; An, Xiao-Rong; Hou, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Muscle cell differentiation is a complex process that is principally governed by related myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). DNA methylation is considered to play an important role on the expression of MRF genes and on muscle cell differentiation. However, the roles of enzymes specifically in myogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Tet2, a ten-eleven translocation (Tet) methylcytosine dioxygenase, exerts a role during skeletal myoblast differentiation. By using an immunostaining method, we found that the levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) were much higher in differentiated myotubes than in undifferentiated C2C12 myoblasts. Both Tet1 and Tet2 expression were upregulated after differentiation induction of C2C12 myoblasts. Knockdown of Tet2, but not Tet1, significantly reduced the expression of myogenin as well as Myf6 and myomaker, and impaired myoblast differentiation. DNA demethylation of myogenin and myomaker promoters was negatively influenced by Tet2 knockdown as detected by bisulfite sequencing analysis. Furthermore, although vitamin C could promote genomic 5hmC generation, myogenic gene expression and myoblast differentiation, its effect was significantly attenuated by Tet2 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that Tet2 is involved in myoblast differentiation through promoting DNA demethylation and myogenic gene expression. PMID:28272491

  11. Murine Mueller cells are progenitor cells for neuronal cells and fibrous tissue cells

    SciTech Connect

    Florian, Christian; Langmann, Thomas; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Morsczeck, Christian

    2008-09-19

    Mammalian Mueller cells have been reported to possess retinal progenitor cell properties and generate new neurons after injury. This study investigates murine Mueller cells under in vitro conditions for their capability of dedifferentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Mueller cells were isolated from mouse retina, and proliferating cells were expanded in serum-containing medium. For dedifferentiation, the cultured cells were transferred to serum-replacement medium (SRM) at different points in time after their isolation. Interestingly, early cell passages produced fibrous tissue in which extracellular matrix proteins and connective tissue markers were differentially expressed. In contrast, aged Mueller cell cultures formed neurospheres in SRM that are characteristic for neuronal progenitor cells. These neurospheres differentiated into neuron-like cells after cultivation on laminin/ornithine cell culture substrate. Here, we report for the first time that murine Mueller cells can be progenitors for both, fibrous tissue cells and neuronal cells, depending on the age of the cell culture.

  12. Progenitors for Ly-1 B cells are distinct from progenitors for other B cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Data from previous multiparameter fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis and sorting studies define a subset of murine B cells that expresses the Ly-1 surface determinant in conjunction with IgM, IgD, Ia, and other typical B cell markers. These Ly-1 B cells are physically and functionally distinct. They express more IgM and less IgD than most other B cells; they are not normally found in lymph node or bone marrow; they are always present at low frequencies (1-5%) in normal spleens, and, as we show here, they comprise about half of the B cells (10-20% of total cells) recovered from the peritoneal cavity in normal mice. Furthermore, most of the commonly studied IgM autoantibodies in normal and autoimmune mice are produced by these Ly-1 B cells, even though they seldom produce antibodies to exogenous antigens such as trinitrophenyl-Ficoll or trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Cell transfer studies presented here demonstrate that the progenitors of Ly-1 B cells are different from the progenitors of the predominant B cell populations in spleen and lymph node. In these studies, we used FACS analysis and functional assays to characterize donor-derived (allotype-marked) B cells present in lethally irradiated recipients 1-2 mo after transfer. Surprisingly, adult bone marrow cells typically used to reconstitute B cells in irradiated recipients selectively failed to reconstitute the Ly-1 B subset. Liver, spleen, and bone marrow cells from young mice, in contrast, reconstituted all B cells (including Ly-1 B), and peritoneal "washout" cells (PerC) from adult mice uniquely reconstituted Ly-1 B. Bone marrow did not block Ly- 1 B development, since PerC and newborn liver still gave rise to Ly-1 B when jointly transferred with marrow. These findings tentatively assign Ly-1 B to a distinct developmental lineage originating from progenitors that inhabit the same locations as other B cell progenitors in young animals, but move to unique location(s) in adults. PMID

  13. IL-12 involvement in myogenic differentiation of C2C12 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Morishima, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to be critical for the correct differentiation of stem cells to specific tissues. Many factors, including physical (e.g. biomaterial stiffness and topography) and biological (as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines) components, cooperate to create an ideal microenvironment for muscle stem cells, with many of these factors having been widely investigated. We previously demonstrated that the use of non-proliferating muscle-specific and unrelated cells as feeder layers for skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation resulted in significant differences in the ability to form myotubes, suggesting the importance of biological factors in myogenic differentiation. In this study, we investigated the biological factors involved in this process, analyzing the expression profile of 84 genes coding for cytokines and chemokines. We successfully identified a novel role for the cytokine IL-12 in the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Experiments involving the overexpression or silencing of the IL-12 gene in C2C12 showed that IL-12 enhanced the myogenic differentiation process. Moreover, when IL-12 was overexpressed in non-biologically related feeder cells, the new co-culture system was able to improve myogenic differentiation of C2C12 seeded on top. Although IL-12 is known to be a cytokine involved in inflammatory responses, it also appears to be involved in the myogenic differentiation process, acting as a positive regulator of this mechanism. This fact is expected to prove to be important for the development of functional biomaterials.

  14. Progenitor cells in arteriosclerosis: good or bad guys?

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Paola; Wong, Mei Mei; Xu, Qingbo

    2011-08-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the mobilization and recruitment of circulating or tissue-resident progenitor cells that give rise to endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can participate in atherosclerosis, neointima hyperplasia after arterial injury, and transplant arteriosclerosis. It is believed that endothelial progenitor cells do exist and can repair and rejuvenate the arteries under physiologic conditions; however, they may also contribute to lesion formation by influencing plaque stability in advanced atherosclerotic plaque under specific pathologic conditions. At the same time, smooth muscle progenitors, despite their capacity to expedite lesion formation during restenosis, may serve to promote atherosclerotic plaque stabilization by producing extracellular matrix proteins. This profound evidence provides support to the hypothesis that both endothelial and smooth muscle progenitors may act as a double-edged sword in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the understanding of the regulatory networks that control endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor differentiation is undoubtedly fundamental both for basic research and for improving current therapeutic avenues for atherosclerosis. We update the progress in progenitor cell study related to the development of arteriosclerosis, focusing specifically on the role of progenitor cells in lesion formation and discuss the controversial issues that regard the origins, frequency, and impact of the progenitors in the disease.

  15. Pannexin 1 regulates postnatal neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pannexin 1 forms ion and metabolite permeable hexameric channels and is abundantly expressed in the brain. After discovering pannexin 1 expression in postnatal neural stem and progenitor cells we sought to elucidate its functional role in neuronal development. Results We detected pannexin 1 in neural stem and progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo. We manipulated pannexin 1 expression and activity in Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells and primary postnatal neurosphere cultures to demonstrate that pannexin 1 regulates neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation likely through the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Conclusions Permeable to ATP, a potent autocrine/paracine signaling metabolite, pannexin 1 channels are ideally suited to influence the behavior of neural stem and progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate they play a robust role in the regulation of neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation. Endogenous postnatal neural stem and progenitor cells are crucial for normal brain health, and their numbers decline with age. Furthermore, these special cells are highly responsive to neurological injury and disease, and are gaining attention as putative targets for brain repair. Therefore, understanding the fundamental role of pannexin 1 channels in neural stem and progenitor cells is of critical importance for brain health and disease. PMID:22458943

  16. Identification of functional progenitor cells in the pulmonary vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X. -J.

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary vasculature comprises a complex network of branching arteries and veins all functioning to reoxygenate the blood for circulation around the body. The cell types of the pulmonary artery are able to respond to changes in oxygen tension in order to match ventilation to perfusion. Stem and progenitor cells in the pulmonary vasculature are also involved, be it in angiogenesis, endothelial dysfunction or formation of vascular lesions. Stem and progenitor cells may be circulating around the body, residing in the pulmonary artery wall or stimulated for release from a central niche like the bone marrow and home to the pulmonary vasculature along a chemotactic gradient. There may currently be some controversy over the pathogenic versus therapeutic roles of stem and progenitor cells and, indeed, it is likely both chains of evidence are correct due to the specific influence of the immediate environmental niche a progenitor cell may be in. Due to their great plasticity and a lack of specific markers for stem and progenitor cells, they can be difficult to precisely identify. This review discusses the methodological approaches used to validate the presence of and subtype of progenitors cells in the pulmonary vasculature while putting it in context of the current knowledge of the therapeutic and pathogenic roles for such progenitor cells. PMID:22558524

  17. Effect of acyclovir and interferon on human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, L M; Lipton, J M; Binder, N; Crawford, E L; Kudisch, M; Levin, M J

    1982-01-01

    Continuous in vitro exposure of human bone marrow cells to acyclovir (approximately 200 microM) or human leukocyte interferon (approximately 250 U/ml) caused 50% inhibition of granulocyte colony-forming cell differentiation. Colonies expressed in the presence of either agent were reduced both in size and number. Erythroid progenitors were more resistant than granulocyte progenitors to the antiproliferative effects of acyclovir. Progenitor cells of patients recovering from cytotoxic chemotherapy were no more sensitive to the effects of acyclovir or interferon than were cells obtained from patients before chemotherapy. PMID:6177284

  18. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Margaret F; Tracy, Russell P; Parikh, Megha A; Hoffman, Eric A; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H M; Smith, Benjamin M; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50-79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema.

  19. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  20. Expression of inducible stress protein 70 in rat heart myogenic cells confers protection against simulated ischemia-induced injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mestril, R; Chi, S H; Sayen, M R; O'Reilly, K; Dillmann, W H

    1994-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia markedly increases the expression of several members of the stress/heat shock protein (HSP) family, especially the inducible HSP70 isoforms. Increased expression of HSP70 has been shown to exert a protective effect against a lethal heat shock. We have examined the possibility of using this resistance to a lethal heat shock as a protective effect against an ischemic-like stress in vitro using a rat embryonic heart-derived cell line H9c2 (2-1). Myogenic cells in which the heat shock proteins have been induced by a previous heat shock are found to become resistant to a subsequent simulated ischemic stress. In addition, to address the question of how much does the presence of the HSP70 contribute to this protective effect, we have generated stably transfected cell lines overexpressing the human-inducible HSP70. Embryonal rat heart-derived H9c2(2-1) cells were used for this purpose. This stably transfected cell line was found to be significantly more resistant to an ischemic-like stress than control myogenic cells only expressing the selectable marker (neomycin) or the parental cell line H9c2(2-1). This finding implicates the inducible HSP70 protein as playing a major role in protecting cardiac cells against ischemic injury. Images PMID:8113409

  1. Cyclic AMP-modulated phosphorylation of intermediate filament proteins in cultured avian myogenic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gard, D L; Lazarides, E

    1982-01-01

    The intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin and the muscle tropomyosins were the major protein phosphate acceptors in 8-day-old myotubes incubated for 4 h in medium containing radiolabeled phosphate. The addition of isoproterenol or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (BrcAMP) resulted in a two- to threefold increase in incorporation of 32PO4 into both desmin and vimentin, whereas no changes in the incorporation of 32PO4 into tropomyosin or other cellular proteins were observed. The BrcAMP- or hormonally induced increase in 32PO4 incorporation into desmin and vimentin was independent of protein synthesis and was not caused by stimulation of protein phosphate turnover. In addition, BrcAMP did not induce significant changes in the specific activity of the cellular ATP pool. These data suggest that the observed increase in 32PO4 incorporation represented an actual increase in phosphorylation of the intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin. Two-dimensional tryptic analysis of desmin from 8-day-old myotubes revealed five phosphopeptides of which two showed a 7- to 10-fold increase in 32PO4 incorporation in BrcAMP-treated myotubes. Four of the phosphopeptides identified in desmin labeled in vivo were also observed in desmin phosphorylated in vitro by bovine heart cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Although phosphorylation of desmin and vimentin was apparent in myogenic cells at all stages of differentiation, BrcAMP- and isoproterenol-induced increases in phosphorylation of these proteins were restricted to mature myotubes. These data strongly suggest that in vivo phosphorylation of the intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin is catalyzed by the cAMP-dependent protein kinases and that such phosphorylation may be regulated during muscle differentiation. Images PMID:6294504

  2. Origin and hierarchy of basal lamina-forming and -non-forming myogenic cells in mouse skeletal muscle in relation to adhesive capacity and Pax7 expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Tono, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Okada, Yoshinori; Masuda, Maki; Soeda, Shuichi; Nitta, Masahiro; Akatsuka, Akira

    2011-04-01

    As a novel approach to distinguish skeletal myogenic cell populations, basal lamina (BL) formation of myogenic cells was examined in the mouse compensatory enlarged plantaris muscles in vivo and in fiber-bundle cultures in vitro. MyoD(+) myogenic cells located inside the regenerative muscle fiber BL were laminin(-) but interstitial MyoD(+) cells were laminin(+). This was also confirmed by electron microscopy as structural BL formation. Similar trends were observed in the fiber-bundle cultures including satellite cells and interstitial myogenic cells and laminin(+) myogenic cells predominantly showed non-adhesive (non-Ad) behavior with Pax7(-), whereas laminin(-) cells were adhesive (Ad) with Pax7(+). Moreover, non-Ad/laminin(+) and Ad/laminin(-) myotubes were also observed and the former type showed spontaneous contractions, while the latter type did not. The origin and hierarchy of Ad/Pax7(+)/laminin(-) and non-Ad/Pax7(-)/laminin(+) myogenic cells were also examined using skeletal muscle interstitium-derived CD34(+)/45(-) (Sk-34) and CD34(-)/45(-) (Sk-DN) multipotent stem cells, which were composed of non-committed myogenic cells with a few (<1%) Pax7(+) cells in the Sk-DN cells at fresh isolation. Both cell types were separated by Ad/non-Ad capacity in repetitive culture. As expected, both Ad/Pax7(+)/laminin(-) and non-Ad/Pax7(-)/laminin(+) myogenic cells consistently appeared in the Ad and non-Ad cell culture. However, Ad/Pax7(+)/laminin(-) cells were repeatedly detected in the non-Ad cell culture, while the opposite phenomenon did not occur. This indicates that the source of non-Ad/ Pax7(-)/laminin(+) myogenic cells was present in the Sk-34 and Sk-DN stem cells and they were able to produce Ad/ Pax7(+)/ laminin(-) myogenic cells during myogenesis as primary myoblasts and situated hierarchically upstream of the latter cells.

  3. Skeletal Myogenic Differentiation of Urine-Derived Stem Cells and Angiogenesis Using Microbeads Loaded with Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guihua; Pareta, Rajesh A; Wu, Rongpei; Shi, Yingai; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Deng, Chunhua; Sun, Xiangzhou; Atala, Anthony; Opara, Emmanuel C; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    To provide site-specific delivery and targeted release of growth factors to implanted urine-derived stem cells (USCs), we prepared microbeads of alginate containing growth factors. The growth factors included VEGF, IGF-1, FGF-1, PDGF, HGF and NGF. Radiolabeled growth factors were loaded separately and used to access the in vitro release from the microbeads with a gamma counter over 4 weeks. In vitro endothelial differentiation of USCs by the released VEGF from the microbeads in a separate experiment confirmed that the released growth factors from the microbeads were bioactive. USCs and microbeads were mixed with the collagen gel type 1 (2 mg/ml) and used for in vivo studies through subcutaneous injection into nude mice. Four weeks after subcutaneous injection, we found that grafted cell survival was improved and more cells expressed myogenic and endothelial cell transcripts and markers compared to controls. More vessel formation and innervations were observed in USCs combined with six growth factors cocktail incorporated in microbeads compared to controls. In conclusion, a combination of growth factors released locally from the alginate microbeads induced USCs to differentiate into a myogenic lineage, enhanced revascularization and innervation, and stimulated resident cell growth in vivo. This approach could potentially be used for cell therapy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. PMID:23137393

  4. TGF-{beta}'s delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-02-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-{beta} on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-{beta} increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta} promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner.

  5. The histone demethylase KDM4B interacts with MyoD to regulate myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Song, Young Joon; Lee, Hansol

    2015-01-24

    Enzymes that mediate posttranslational modifications of histone and nonhistone proteins have been implicated in regulation of skeletal muscle differentiation. However, functions of histone demethylases that could counter the actions of H3-K9 specific histone methyltransferases remain still obscure. Here we present evidences that KDM4B histone demethylase regulates expression of myogenic regulators such as MyoD and thereby controls myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells. We demonstrate that expression of KDM4B gradually increases during myogenic differentiation and depletion of KDM4B using shRNA results in inhibition of differentiation in C2C12 myoblast cells, which is correlated with decreased expression of MyoD and myogenin. In addition, we find that KDM4B shRNA represses expression of MyoD promoter-driven luciferase reporter and exogenous expression of MyoD rescues myogenic potential in KDM4B-depleted myoblast cells. We further show that KDM4B interacts with MyoD, binds to MyoD and myogenin promoters in vivo, and finally, is involved in demethylation of tri-methylated H3-K9 on promoters of MyoD and myogenin. Taken together, our data suggest that KDM4B plays key roles in myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells, presumably by its function as a H3-K9 specific histone demethylase.

  6. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 expression impacts myogenic C2C12 cell commitment via the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Der Vartanian, Audrey; Audfray, Aymeric; Al Jaam, Bilal; Janot, Mathilde; Legardinier, Sébastien; Maftah, Abderrahman; Germot, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a crucial role in skeletal muscle regeneration in mammals by controlling the transition of satellite cells from quiescence to an activated state, their proliferation, and their commitment toward myotubes or self-renewal. O-fucosylation on Notch receptor epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats is catalyzed by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) and primarily controls Notch interaction with its ligands. To approach the role of O-fucosylation in myogenesis, we analyzed a murine myoblastic C2C12 cell line downregulated for Pofut1 expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibition during the time course of differentiation. Knockdown of Pofut1 affected the signaling pathway activation by a reduction of the amount of cleaved Notch intracellular domain and a decrease in downstream Notch target gene expression. Depletion in Pax7(+)/MyoD(-) cells and earlier myogenic program entrance were observed, leading to an increase in myotube quantity with a small number of nuclei, reflecting fusion defects. The rescue of Pofut1 expression in knockdown cells restored Notch signaling activation and a normal course in C2C12 differentiation. Our results establish the critical role of Pofut1 on Notch pathway activation during myogenic differentiation.

  7. Dual Function of Sox1 in Telencephalic Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Lixin; Jalali, Ali; Zhao, Li-Ru; Zhou, Xiaojing; McGuire, Tammy; Kazanis, Ilias; Episkopou, Vasso; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Kessler, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor, Sox1 has been implicated in the maintenance of neural progenitor cell status, but accumulating evidence suggests that this is only part of its function. This study examined the role of Sox1 expression in proliferation, lineage commitment, and differentiation by telencephalic neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo, and further clarified the pattern of Sox1 expression in postnatal and adult mouse brain. Telencephalic neural progenitor cells isolated from Sox1 null embryos formed neurospheres normally, but were specifically deficient in neuronal differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of Sox1 in the embryonic telencephalon in vivo both expanded the progenitor pool and biased neural progenitor cells towards neuronal lineage commitment. Sox1 mRNA and protein were found to be persistently expressed in the postnatal and adult brain in both differentiated and neurogenic regions. Importantly, in differentiated regions Sox1 co-labeled only with neuronal markers. These observations, coupled with previous studies, suggest that Sox1 expression by early embryonic progenitor cells initially helps to maintain the cells in cell cycle, but that continued expression subsequently promotes neuronal lineage commitment. PMID:17719572

  8. MicroRNA-199a is induced in dystrophic muscle and affects WNT signaling, cell proliferation, and myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, M S; Kawahara, G; Motohashi, N; Casar, J C; Eisenberg, I; Myers, J A; Gasperini, M J; Estrella, E A; Kho, A T; Mitsuhashi, S; Shapiro, F; Kang, P B; Kunkel, L M

    2013-01-01

    In patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the absence of a functional dystrophin protein results in sarcolemmal instability, abnormal calcium signaling, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal muscle degeneration. Using the dystrophin-deficient sapje zebrafish model, we have identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that, in comparison to our previous findings in human DMD muscle biopsies, are uniquely dysregulated in dystrophic muscle across vertebrate species. MiR-199a-5p is dysregulated in dystrophin-deficient zebrafish, mdx5cv mice, and human muscle biopsies. MiR-199a-5p mature miRNA sequences are transcribed from stem loop precursor miRNAs that are found within the introns of the dynamin-2 and dynamin-3 loci. The miR-199a-2 stem loop precursor transcript that gives rise to the miR-199a-5p mature transcript was found to be elevated in human dystrophic muscle. The levels of expression of miR-199a-5p are regulated in a serum response factor (SRF)-dependent manner along with myocardin-related transcription factors. Inhibition of SRF-signaling reduces miR-199a-5p transcript levels during myogenic differentiation. Manipulation of miR-199a-5p expression in human primary myoblasts and myotubes resulted in dramatic changes in cellular size, proliferation, and differentiation. MiR-199a-5p targets several myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation regulatory factors within the WNT signaling pathway, including FZD4, JAG1, and WNT2. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p in the muscles of transgenic zebrafish resulted in abnormal myofiber disruption and sarcolemmal membrane detachment, pericardial edema, and lethality. Together, these studies identify miR-199a-5p as a potential regulator of myogenesis through suppression of WNT-signaling factors that act to balance myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23764775

  9. MicroRNA-199a is induced in dystrophic muscle and affects WNT signaling, cell proliferation, and myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M S; Kawahara, G; Motohashi, N; Casar, J C; Eisenberg, I; Myers, J A; Gasperini, M J; Estrella, E A; Kho, A T; Mitsuhashi, S; Shapiro, F; Kang, P B; Kunkel, L M

    2013-09-01

    In patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the absence of a functional dystrophin protein results in sarcolemmal instability, abnormal calcium signaling, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal muscle degeneration. Using the dystrophin-deficient sapje zebrafish model, we have identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that, in comparison to our previous findings in human DMD muscle biopsies, are uniquely dysregulated in dystrophic muscle across vertebrate species. MiR-199a-5p is dysregulated in dystrophin-deficient zebrafish, mdx(5cv) mice, and human muscle biopsies. MiR-199a-5p mature miRNA sequences are transcribed from stem loop precursor miRNAs that are found within the introns of the dynamin-2 and dynamin-3 loci. The miR-199a-2 stem loop precursor transcript that gives rise to the miR-199a-5p mature transcript was found to be elevated in human dystrophic muscle. The levels of expression of miR-199a-5p are regulated in a serum response factor (SRF)-dependent manner along with myocardin-related transcription factors. Inhibition of SRF-signaling reduces miR-199a-5p transcript levels during myogenic differentiation. Manipulation of miR-199a-5p expression in human primary myoblasts and myotubes resulted in dramatic changes in cellular size, proliferation, and differentiation. MiR-199a-5p targets several myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation regulatory factors within the WNT signaling pathway, including FZD4, JAG1, and WNT2. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p in the muscles of transgenic zebrafish resulted in abnormal myofiber disruption and sarcolemmal membrane detachment, pericardial edema, and lethality. Together, these studies identify miR-199a-5p as a potential regulator of myogenesis through suppression of WNT-signaling factors that act to balance myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation.

  10. Stem and progenitor cell dysfunction in human trisomies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Binbin; Filippi, Sarah; Roy, Anindita; Roberts, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Trisomy 21, the commonest constitutional aneuploidy in humans, causes profound perturbation of stem and progenitor cell growth, which is both cell context dependent and developmental stage specific and mediated by complex genetic mechanisms beyond increased Hsa21 gene dosage. While proliferation of fetal hematopoietic and testicular stem/progenitors is increased and may underlie increased susceptibility to childhood leukemia and testicular cancer, fetal stem/progenitor proliferation in other tissues is markedly impaired leading to the characteristic craniofacial, neurocognitive and cardiac features in individuals with Down syndrome. After birth, trisomy 21-mediated premature aging of stem/progenitor cells may contribute to the progressive multi-system deterioration, including development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25520324

  11. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-11-21

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.

  12. Stem and progenitor cells: the premature desertion of rigorous definitions.

    PubMed

    Seaberg, Raewyn M; van der Kooy, Derek

    2003-03-01

    A current disturbing trend in stem cell biology is the abandonment of rigorous definitions of stem and progenitor cells in favor of more ambiguous, all-encompassing concepts. However, recent studies suggest that there are consistent, functional differences in the biology of these two cell types. Admittedly, it can be difficult to harmonize the in vivo and in vitro functional differences between stem and progenitor cells. Nonetheless, these distinctions between cell types should be emphasized rather than ignored, as they can be used to test specific hypotheses in neural stem cell biology.

  13. [Characterization of hematopoietic progenitor cells during the human embryonic development].

    PubMed

    Coulombel, L; Huyhn, A; Izac, B

    1995-01-01

    In a search for assays that might facilitate identification of pluripotent stem cells with extended potentialities, we analysed the properties of hematopoietic progenitor cells detected in the extraembryonic yolk sac and in the intraembryonic part of human embryos between approximately 28 and 45 days of development. Cells from the yolk sac, the liver rudiment and the remainder of the embryo were plated in semi solid methylcellulose colony-assays supplemented with combinations of cytokines. Large BFU-E-derived colonies as well as granulocytic colonies were detected in every yolk sac sample. Interestingly, progenitor cells were also detected in the intraembryonic part, outside the liver and a subclass of these progenitors were detected that generated large granulomacrophagic colonies capable of generating secondary colonies when replated. These were preferentially located in the embryo. Colony-assays initiated with CD34+ cells sorted from the different tissues confirmed these data. These results first indicate that embryonic progenitors exhibit unique phenotypic features, and second, analysis of the distribution of progenitors between the different tissues may suggest the existence of other sites of hematopoietic production. More detailed analysis of the potentialities of these progenitors should now be assessed in vitro in cocultures assays and in vivo by reconstituting immunodeficient mice.

  14. The role of Pitx2 in maintaining the phenotype of myogenic precursor cells in the extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Sadie L; Daniel, Mark L; McLoon, Linda K

    2013-01-01

    Many differences exist between extraocular muscles (EOM) and non-cranial skeletal muscles. One striking difference is the sparing of EOM in various muscular dystrophies compared to non-cranial skeletal muscles. EOM undergo continuous myonuclear remodeling in normal, uninjured adults, and distinct transcription factors are required for the early determination, development, and maintenance of EOM compared to limb skeletal muscle. Pitx2, a bicoid-like homeobox transcription factor, is required for the development of EOM and the maintenance of characteristic properties of the adult EOM phenotype, but is not required for the development of limb muscle. We hypothesize that these unique properties of EOM contribute to the constitutive differences between EOM and non-craniofacial skeletal muscles. Using flow cytometry, CD34(+)/Sca1(-/)CD45(-/)CD31(-) cells (EECD34 cells) were isolated from extraocular and limb skeletal muscle and in vitro, EOM EECD34 cells proliferated faster than limb muscle EECD34 cells. To further define these myogenic precursor cells from EOM and limb skeletal muscle, they were analyzed for their expression of Pitx2. Western blotting and immunohistochemical data demonstrated that EOM express higher levels of Pitx2 than limb muscle, and 80% of the EECD34 cells expressed Pitx2. siRNA knockdown of Pitx2 expression in EECD34 cells in vitro decreased proliferation rates and impaired the ability of EECD34 cells to fuse into multinucleated myotubes. High levels of Pitx2 were retained in dystrophic and aging mouse EOM and the EOM EECD34 cells compared to limb muscle. The differential expression of Pitx2 between EOM and limb skeletal muscle along with the functional changes in response to lower levels of Pitx2 expression in the myogenic precursor cells suggest a role for Pitx2 in the maintenance of constitutive differences between EOM and limb skeletal muscle that may contribute to the sparing of EOM in muscular dystrophies.

  15. Dendritic cell potentials of early lymphoid and myeloid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Manz, M G; Traver, D; Miyamoto, T; Weissman, I L; Akashi, K

    2001-06-01

    It has been proposed that there are at least 2 classes of dendritic cells (DCs), CD8alpha(+) DCs derived from the lymphoid lineage and CD8alpha(-) DCs derived from the myeloid lineage. Here, the abilities of lymphoid- and myeloid-restricted progenitors to generate DCs are compared, and their overall contributions to the DC compartment are evaluated. It has previously been shown that primitive myeloid-committed progenitors (common myeloid progenitors [CMPs]) are efficient precursors of both CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs in vivo. Here it is shown that the earliest lymphoid-committed progenitors (common lymphoid progenitors [CLPs]) and CMPs and their progeny granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) can give rise to functional DCs in vitro and in vivo. CLPs are more efficient in generating DCs than their T-lineage descendants, the early thymocyte progenitors and pro-T cells, and CMPs are more efficient DC precursors than the descendant GMPs, whereas pro-B cells and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors are incapable of generating DCs. Thus, DC developmental potential is preserved during T- but not B-lymphoid differentiation from CLP and during granulocyte-macrophage but not megakaryocyte-erythrocyte development from CMP. In vivo reconstitution experiments show that CLPs and CMPs can reconstitute CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) DCs with similar efficiency on a per cell basis. However, CMPs are 10-fold more numerous than CLPs, suggesting that at steady state, CLPs provide only a minority of splenic DCs and approximately half the DCs in thymus, whereas most DCs, including CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) subtypes, are of myeloid origin. (Blood. 2001;97:3333-3341)

  16. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 affects endothelial progenitor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Colleselli, Daniela; Bijuklic, Klaudija; Mosheimer, Birgit A.; Kaehler, Christian M. . E-mail: C.M.Kaehler@uibk.ac.at

    2006-09-10

    Growing evidence indicates that inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders and various types of cancer. Endothelial progenitor cells recruited from the bone marrow have been shown to be involved in the formation of new vessels in malignancies and discussed for being a key point in tumour progression and metastasis. However, until now, nothing is known about an interaction between COX and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 was detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Proliferation kinetics, cell cycle distribution and rate of apoptosis were analysed by MTT test and FACS analysis. Further analyses revealed an implication of Akt phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Both COX-1 and COX-2 expression can be found in bone-marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. COX-2 inhibition leads to a significant reduction in proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells by an increase in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. COX-2 inhibition leads further to an increased cleavage of caspase-3 protein and inversely to inhibition of Akt activation. Highly proliferating endothelial progenitor cells can be targeted by selective COX-2 inhibition in vitro. These results indicate that upcoming therapy strategies in cancer patients targeting COX-2 may be effective in inhibiting tumour vasculogenesis as well as angiogenic processes.

  17. Myogenic Differentiation Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Fetal Bovine Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Lucas Hidenori; Cordero, Paloma; Palomino, Jaime; Parraguez, Victor Hugo; Torres, Cristian Gabriel; Peralta, Oscar Alejandro

    2017-03-07

    The myogenic potential of bovine fetal MSC (bfMSC) derived from bone marrow (BM) remains unknown; despite its potential application for the study of myogenesis and its implications for livestock production. In the present study, three protocols for in vitro myogenic differentiation of bfMSC based on the use of DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), myoblast-secreted factor Galectin-1 (Gal-1), and myoblast culture medium SkGM-2 BulletKit were used. Plastic-adherent bfMSC were isolated from fetal BM collected from abattoir-derived fetuses. Post-thaw viability analyses detected 85.6% bfMSC negative for propidium iodine (PI). Levels of muscle regulatory factors (MRF) MYF5, MYF6, MYOD, and DES mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) in bfMSC cultured under 100 µM of 5-Aza compared to 1 and 10 µM. Treatment of bfMSC with 10 µM of 5-Aza resulted in down-regulation of MYOD mRNA (Days 7 to 21) and up-regulation of MYF6 (Day 7), MYF5, and DES mRNA (Day 21). Gal-1 and SkGM-2 BulletKit induced sequential down-regulation of early MRF (MYF5) and up-regulation of intermediate (MYOD) and late MRF (DES) mRNA. Moreover, DES and MYF5 were immunodetected in differentiated bfMSC. In conclusion, protocols evaluated in bfMSC induced progress into myogenic differentiation until certain extent evidenced by changes in MRF gene expression.

  18. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  19. Telomerase extends a helping hand to progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Sridaran

    2005-01-01

    The idea of a cell-based regeneration therapy for controlling or curing chronic human diseases is highly attractive. However, realization of this idea in the clinic has been hampered by the safety concerns associated with the transplantation of immortalized cells into human patients. An elegant study done by Roy and colleagues shows that neural progenitor cells immortalized by the ectopic expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) can give rise to specific types of functionally competent neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the immortalized progenitors maintained their phenotype with no evidence of transformation even several months after transplantation in mouse disease models. Although the potential use of telomerase-immortalized cells in the clinic remains controversial, Roy and colleagues work provides a compelling reason to seriously evaluate the potential use of telomerase-immortalized progenitor cells to treat neurodegenerative and other chronic human illnesses.

  20. Cell trafficking of endothelial progenitor cells in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    de la Puente, Pilar; Muz, Barbara; Azab, Feda; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2013-07-01

    Blood vessel formation plays an essential role in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including normal tissue growth and healing, as well as tumor progression. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a subtype of stem cells with high proliferative potential that are capable of differentiating into mature endothelial cells, thus contributing to neovascularization in tumors. In response to tumor-secreted cytokines, EPCs mobilize from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood, home to the tumor site, and differentiate to mature endothelial cells and secrete proangiogenic factors to facilitate vascularization of tumors. In this review, we summarize the expression of surface markers, cytokines, receptors, adhesion molecules, proteases, and cell signaling mechanisms involved in the different steps (mobilization, homing, and differentiation) of EPC trafficking from the bone marrow to the tumor site. Understanding the biologic mechanisms of EPC cell trafficking opens a window for new therapeutic targets in cancer.

  1. A Pitx2-MicroRNA Pathway Modulates Cell Proliferation in Myoblasts and Skeletal-Muscle Satellite Cells and Promotes Their Commitment to a Myogenic Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Velasco, Estefanía; Vallejo, Daniel; Esteban, Francisco J; Doherty, Chris; Hernández-Torres, Francisco; Franco, Diego; Aránega, Amelia Eva

    2015-09-01

    The acquisition of a proliferating-cell status from a quiescent state as well as the shift between proliferation and differentiation are key developmental steps in skeletal-muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to provide proper muscle regeneration. However, how satellite cell proliferation is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we report that the c-isoform of the transcription factor Pitx2 increases cell proliferation in myoblasts by downregulating microRNA 15b (miR-15b), miR-23b, miR-106b, and miR-503. This Pitx2c-microRNA (miRNA) pathway also regulates cell proliferation in early-activated satellite cells, enhancing Myf5(+) satellite cells and thereby promoting their commitment to a myogenic cell fate. This study reveals unknown functions of several miRNAs in myoblast and satellite cell behavior and thus may have future applications in regenerative medicine.

  2. Interleukin-1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Vela, José M; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Arévalo-Martín, Angel; Almazán, Guillermina; Guaza, Carmen

    2002-07-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed during normal CNS development and in inflammatory demyelinating diseases, but remarkably little is known about its effect on oligodendroglial cells. In this study we explored the role of IL-1beta in oligodendrocyte progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes. The effects of IL-1beta were compared to those of IL-1 receptor antagonist, the specific inhibitor of IL-1 activity, since progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes produce IL-1beta and express IL-1 receptors. Unlike other proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha and IFNgamma), IL-1beta was not toxic for oligodendrocyte lineage cells. However, this cytokine inhibited proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the presence of growth factors (PDGF plus bFGF). This was evidenced by a significant decrease in both cells incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (45%) and total cell numbers (57%) after 6 days of treatment. Interestingly, IL-1beta blocked proliferation at the late progenitor/prooligodendrocyte (O4+) stage but did not affect proliferation of early progenitors (A2B5+). Inhibition of proliferation paralleled with promotion of differentiation, as revealed by the increased percentage of R-mab+ cells (6.7-fold). Moreover, when oligodendrocyte progenitors were allowed to differentiate in the absence of growth factors, treatment with IL-1beta promoted maturation to the MBP+ stage (4.2-fold) and survival of differentiating oligodendrocytes (2.1-fold). Regarding intracellular signaling, IL-1beta activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not the p42/p44 MAPK and, when combined with growth factors, intensified p38 activation but inhibited the growth-factor-induced p42/p44 activation. IL-1beta also induced a time-dependent inhibition of PFGF-Ralpha gene expression. These results support a role for IL-1beta in promoting mitotic arrest and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors as well as maturation and survival of differentiating

  3. A new pro-migratory activity on human myogenic precursor cells for a synthetic peptide within the E domain of the mechano growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Philippe; Lafreniere, Jean-Francois; Benabdallah, Basma Fattouma; El Fahime, El Mostafa; Tremblay, Jacques-P. . E-mail: Jacques-P.Tremblay@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2007-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited disease that leads to progressive muscle wasting. Myogenic precursor cell transplantation is an approach that can introduce the normal dystrophin gene in the muscle fibers of the patients. Unfortunately, these myogenic precursor cells do not migrate well in the muscle and thus many injections have to be done to enable a good graft success. Recent reports have shown that there is extensive splicing of the IGF-1 gene in muscles. The MGF isoform contains a C-terminal 24 amino acids peptide in the E domain (MGF-Ct24E) that has intrinsic properties. It can promote the proliferation while delaying the differentiation of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells. Here, we demonstrated that this synthetic peptide is a motogenic factor for human precursor myogenic cells in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, MGF-Ct24E peptide can modulate members of the fibrinolytic and metalloproteinase systems, which are implicated in the migration of myogenic cells. MGF-Ct24E peptide enhances the expression of u-PA, u-PAR and MMP-7 while reducing PAI-1 activity. Moreover, it has no effect on the gelatinases MMP-2 and -9. Those combined effects can favour cell migration. Finally, we present some results suggesting that the MGF-Ct24E peptide induces these cell responses through a mechanism that does not involve the IGF-1 receptor. Thus, this MGF-Ct24E peptide has a new pro-migratory activity on human myogenic precursor cells that may be helpful in the treatment of DMD. Those results reinforce the possibility that the IGF-1Ec isoform may produce an E domain peptide that can act as a cytokine.

  4. Impaired DNA replication within progenitor cell pools promotes leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bilousova, Ganna; Marusyk, Andriy; Porter, Christopher C; Cardiff, Robert D; DeGregori, James

    2005-12-01

    Impaired cell cycle progression can be paradoxically associated with increased rates of malignancies. Using retroviral transduction of bone marrow progenitors followed by transplantation into mice, we demonstrate that inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation impairs competition, promoting the expansion of progenitors that acquire oncogenic mutations which restore cell cycle progression. Conditions that impair DNA replication dramatically enhance the proliferative advantage provided by the expression of Bcr-Abl or mutant p53, which provide no apparent competitive advantage under conditions of healthy replication. Furthermore, for the Bcr-Abl oncogene the competitive advantage in contexts of impaired DNA replication dramatically increases leukemogenesis. Impaired replication within hematopoietic progenitor cell pools can select for oncogenic events and thereby promote leukemia, demonstrating the importance of replicative competence in the prevention of tumorigenesis. The demonstration that replication-impaired, poorly competitive progenitor cell pools can promote tumorigenesis provides a new rationale for links between tumorigenesis and common human conditions of impaired DNA replication such as dietary folate deficiency, chemotherapeutics targeting dNTP synthesis, and polymorphisms in genes important for DNA metabolism.

  5. Association of 17-β Estradiol with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: New Strategy to Produce Functional Myogenic Differentiated Cells with a Nano-Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chunxiang; Hu, Jinqian; Liu, Chang; Liu, Shiliang; Liao, Guiying; Song, Linjie

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in postmenopausal women has been proposed to be associated with a reduction in the level of 17-β estradiol (E2). E2 has also been shown to enhance the multi-differentiation ability of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. However, studies on the potential value of E2 for tissue engineering in SUI treatment are rare. In the present study, we successfully fabricated myogenically differentiated ASCs (MD-ASCs), which were seeded onto a Poly(l-lactide)/Poly(e-caprolactone) electrospinning nano-scaffold, and incorporated E2 into the system, with the aim of improving the proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs. ASCs were collected from the inguinal subcutaneous fat of rats. The proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs, as well as the nano-scaffold biocompatibility of MD-ASCs, with or without E2 supplementation, were investigated. We demonstrated that E2 incorporation enhanced the proliferation of ASCs in vitro, and the most optimal concentration was 10−9 M. E2 also led to modulation of the MD-ASCs phenotype toward a concentrated type with smooth muscle-inductive medium. The expression of early (alpha-smooth muscle actin), mid (calponin), and late-stage (myosin heavy chain) contractile markers in MD-ASCs was enhanced by E2 during the different differentiation stages. Furthermore, the nano-scaffold was biocompatible with MD-ASCs, and cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by E2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that E2 can enhance the proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ASCs and can be used to construct a biocompatible cell/nano-scaffold. These scaffolds with desirable differentiation cells show promising applications for tissue engineering. PMID:27783699

  6. Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Endothelial and Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goligorsky, M.S.; Hirschi, K.

    2016-01-01

    This brief overview of premature senescence of dysfunctional endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells provides information on endothelial cell differentiation and specialization, their ontogeny, and controversies related to endothelial stem and progenitor cells. Stressors responsible for the dysfunction of endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells, as well as cellular mechanisms and consequences of endothelial cell dysfunction are presented. Metabolic signatures of dysfunctional endothelial cells and senescence pathways are described. Emerging strategies to rejuvenate endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells conclude the review. PMID:27451101

  7. Hormonal induction of an immediate-early gene response in myogenic cell lines--a paradigm for heart growth.

    PubMed

    Maass, A; Grohé, C; Kubisch, C; Wollnik, B; Vetter, H; Neyses, L

    1995-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by growth of myocardial cells without proliferation. Many endo- paracrine stimuli such as angiotensin II, endothelin, alpha 1-adrenergic agonists, and insulin have been shown to be able to induce cardiac hypertrophy either in vivo or in vitro. We have used the myoblast model of differentiation and proliferation to determine nuclear signal transduction mechanisms in muscle and (by analogy) cardiac growth. The first nuclear event known to occur when a growth stimulus acts upon a cell is induction of a family of immediate-early genes. Our group focused on the role of one of these genes, the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1). We have shown that this gene is induced in isolated adult cardiac myocytes in the presence of endothelin. An anti-sense oligonucleotide complementary to the first six codons of the Egr-1 mRNA abolishes the stimulation of protein synthesis induced by endothelin. In the present study we further characterized paracrine growth stimuli in the myogenic cell line Sol8, which was used as a paradigm to further investigate mechanisms of paracrine growth induction. We demonstrated that a variety of candidate endo- paracrine stimuli for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy induced the Egr-1 messenger RNA in the myogenic cell line Sol8. Among these are endothelin, insulin, basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB). We conclude: (1) In analogy to the myocardium, these growth factors act upon myoblasts. (2) This line appears to be a suitable model for the molecular characterization of Egr-1 target genes.

  8. Large volume leukapheresis maximizes the progenitor cell yield for allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor donation.

    PubMed

    Kobbe, G; Soehngen, D; Heyll, A; Fischer, J; Thiele, K P; Aul, C; Wernet, P

    1997-04-01

    We have investigated the efficiency and safety of large volume leukapheresis (LVL) for the collection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) from healthy donors. In six apheresis sessions in four healthy individuals on a COBE-BCT Spectra cell separator (median processed volume 3.5 X total blood volume, TBV, range 3.3-4.4 X TBV), harvested cells were collected sequentially into three single bags. The collection bags were changed after processing 33%, 66%, and 100% of the prospective apheresis volume, allowing analysis of PBPCs collected at different periods during one harvest. Mononuclear cells (MNCs), CD34+ cells, CD34+ subsets, and lymphocyte subsets were determined in each bag. Substantially more PBPCs were harvested than were in the circulation before G-CSF administration preceding LVL (median 171%, range 69-267%), reflecting progenitor release during the procedure. In donors 1 and 3, the CD34+ cell yields decreased in the third bag to 53% and 42% of that collected in the first bag, whereas the progenitor cell yields in donors 2 and 4 were stable or rose during the procedure, achieving in the third bag 157% and 105% of the number of CD34+ cells collected in the first bag. Minor changes were found in the subsets of CD34+ cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes collected at different periods during a single harvest. LVL was well tolerated. Reversible thombocytopenia developed in all cases. No late effects attributable to LVL or G-CSF were found in the 4 donors and 16 other healthy individuals who have undergone LVL in our institution. We conclude that LVL is safe and maximizes PBPC yields for allogeneic transplantation.

  9. Effect of Reishi polysaccharides on human stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wong, Chi-Huey; Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi

    2010-12-15

    The polysaccharide fraction of Ganoderma lucidum (F3) was found to benefit our health in many ways by influencing the activity of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, F3 was found to promote the adipose tissue MSCs' aggregation and chondrosphere formation, with the increase of CAM (N-CAM, I-CAM) expressions and autokine (BMP-2, IL-11, and aggrecan) secretions, in an in vitro chondrogenesis assay. In a stem cell expansion culture, it possesses the thrombopoietin (TPO) and GM-CSF like functions to enhance the survival/renewal abilities of primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs). F3 was found to promote the dendrite growth of blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the expression of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of immature dendritic cells (DC). On the other hand, F3 exhibited inhibitory effects on blood endothelial progenitor (EPC) colony formation, with concomitant reduction of cell surface endoglin (CD105) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) marker expressions, in the presence of angiogenic factors. A further cytokine array analysis revealed that F3 indeed inhibited the angiogenin synthesis and enhanced IL-1, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES, and GRO productions in the blood EPC derivation culture. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the polysaccharide fraction of G. lucidum F3 exhibits cytokine and chemokine like functions which are beneficial to human tissue stem/progenitor cells by modulating their CAM expressions and biological activities. These findings provide us a better the observation that F3 glycopolysaccharides indeed possesses anti-angiogenic and immune-modulating functions and promotes hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homing for better human tissue protection, reducing disease progression and health.

  10. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

    PubMed

    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  11. Human fetal hepatic progenitor cells are distinct from, but closely related to, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfeng; Khoury, Maroun; Limmon, Gino; Choolani, Mahesh; Chan, Jerry K Y; Chen, Jianzhu

    2013-06-01

    Much controversy surrounds the identity and origin of human hepatic stem and progenitor cells in part because of a lack of small animal models in which the developmental potential of isolated candidate cell populations can be functionally evaluated. We show here that adoptive transfer of CD34(+) cells from human fetal liver into sublethally irradiated NOD-SCID Il2rg(-/-) (NSG) mice leads to an efficient development of not only human hematopoietic cells but also human hepatocyte-like cells in the liver of the recipient mice. Using this simple in vivo assay in combination with cell fractionation, we show that CD34(+) fetal liver cells can be separated into three distinct subpopulations: CD34(hi) CD133(hi), CD34(lo) CD133(lo), and CD34(hi) CD133(neg). The CD34(hi) CD133(hi) population contains hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) as they give rise to T cells, B cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages in NSG mice and colony-forming unit (CFU)-GEMM cells in vitro. The CD34(lo) CD133(lo) population does not give rise to hematopoietic cells, but reproducibly generates hepatocyte-like cells in NSG mice and in vitro. The CD34(hi) CD133(neg) population only gives rise to CFU-GM and burst-forming unit-erythroid in vitro. Furthermore, we show that the CD34(lo) CD133(lo) cells express hematopoietic, hepatic, and mesenchymal markers, including CD34, CD133, CD117, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, CD73, albumin, α-fetal protein, and vimentin and transcriptionally are more closely related to HSPCs than to mature hepatocytes. These results show that CD34(lo) CD133(lo) fetal liver cells possess the hepatic progenitor cell properties and that human hepatic and hematopoietic progenitor cells are distinct, although they may originate from the same precursors in the fetal liver.

  12. Role of PRDM16 and its PR domain in the epigenetic regulation of myogenic and adipogenic genes during transdifferentiation of C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Jinquan; Jiang, Zheng; Guo, Feng; Soloway, Paul D; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-10-10

    The positive regulatory domain containing 16 (PRDM16) is commonly regarded as a "switch" controlling the transdifferentiation of myoblasts to brown adipocytes. The N-positive regulatory (PR) domain, which is highly homologous to SET domain, is a characteristic structure for the PRDM family. Many SET domain containing proteins and several PRDM members have been found to possess histone methyltransferase activity, yet the role of PRDM16 and its PR domain in the epigenetic regulation of myogenic and adipogenic genes during myoblasts/adipocytes transdifferentiation remains unexplored. In this study, we transfected C2C12 myoblasts to stably express PRDM16 and observed the repression of myogenic genes and activation of adipogenic genes at both proliferation and differentiation stages. Ectopic PRDM16-induced reprogramming of myogenic and adipogenic genes was associated with the hypermethylation on some CpG sites in the enhancer or promoter of MyoD and myogenin, but the methylation status of PPARγ promoter was not affected. C2C12 cells expressing truncated PRDM16 lacking PR domain (ΔPR-PRDM16) demonstrated attenuation of both adipogenic and myogenic potentials, indicated by PPARγ inactivation and decreased triglyceride deposition, as well as a downregulation of MyoD, MyHC and MCK genes, as compared with C2C12 cells expressing intact PRDM16. Furthermore, C2C12 cells expressing ΔPR-PRDM16 exhibited significant differences in histone modifications on the promoters of MyoD and PPARγ genes. Taken together, PRDM16-induced C2C12 transdifferentiation is associated with alterations in CpG methylation of myogenic factors, and PR domain affects both myogenesis and adipogenesis with modified histone methylation marks on MyoD and PPARγ promoters.

  13. Engineering Retina from Human Retinal Progenitors (Cell Lines)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Retinal degeneration resulting in the loss of photoreceptors is the leading cause of blindness. Several therapeutic protocols are under consideration for treatment of this disease. Tissue replacement is one such strategy currently being explored. However, availability of tissues for transplant poses a major obstacle. Another strategy with great potential is the use of adult stem cells, which could be expanded in culture and then utilized to engineer retinal tissue. In this study, we have explored a spontaneously immortalized human retinal progenitor cell line for its potential in retinal engineering using rotary cultures to generate three-dimensional (3D) structures. Retinal progenitors cultured alone or cocultured with retinal pigment epithelial cells form aggregates. The aggregate size increases between days 1 and 10. The cells grown as a 3D culture rotary system, which promotes cell–cell interaction, retain a spectrum of differentiation capability. Photoreceptor differentiation in these cultures is confirmed by significant upregulation of rhodopsin and AaNat, an enzyme implicated in melatonin synthesis (immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis). Photoreceptor induction and differentiation is further attested to by the upregulation of rod transcription factor Nrl, Nr2e3, expression of interstitial retinal binding protein, and rhodopsin kinase by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Differentiation toward other cell lineages is confirmed by the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in amacrine cells, thy 1.1 expression in ganglion cells and calbindin, and GNB3 expression in cone cells. The capability of retinal progenitors to give rise to several retinal cell types when grown as aggregated cells in rotary culture offers hope that progenitor stem cells under appropriate culture conditions will be valuable to engineer retinal constructs, which could be further tested for their transplant potential. The fidelity with which this multipotential cell

  14. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed

  15. Cell cycle regulation of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Sha; Chen, Chen; Cheng, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The highly regulated process of blood production is achieved through the hierarchical organization of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subsets and their progenies, which differ in self-renewal and differentiation potential. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that cell cycle is tightly controlled by the complex interplay between extrinsic cues and intrinsic regulatory pathways involved in HSC self-renewal and differentiation. Deregulation of these cellular programs may transform HSCs or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into disease-initiating stem cells, and can result in hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemia. While previous studies have shown roles for some cell cycle regulators and related signaling pathways in HSCs and HPCs, a more complete picture regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying cell cycle regulation in HSCs or HPCs is lacking. Based on accumulated studies in this field, the present review introduces the basic components of the cell cycle machinery and discusses their major cellular networks that regulate the dormancy and cell cycle progression of HSCs. Knowledge on this topic would help researchers and clinicians to better understand the pathogenesis of relevant blood disorders and to develop new strategies for therapeutic manipulation of HSCs.

  16. A Progenitor Cell Expressing Transcription Factor RORγt Generates All Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Scoville, Steven D; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L; Zhang, Michael H; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xiaoli; Keller, Karen A; Hughes, Tiffany; Chen, Luxi; Cheng, Stephanie; Bergin, Stephen M; Mao, Hsiaoyin C; McClory, Susan; Yu, Jianhua; Carson, William E; Caligiuri, Michael A; Freud, Aharon G

    2016-05-17

    The current model of murine innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development holds that mouse ILCs are derived downstream of the common lymphoid progenitor through lineage-restricted progenitors. However, corresponding lineage-restricted progenitors in humans have yet to be discovered. Here we identified a progenitor population in human secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs) that expressed the transcription factor RORγt and was unique in its ability to generate all known ILC subsets, including natural killer (NK) cells, but not other leukocyte populations. In contrast to murine fate-mapping data, which indicate that only ILC3s express Rorγt, these human progenitor cells as well as human peripheral blood NK cells and all mature ILC populations expressed RORγt. Thus, all human ILCs can be generated through an RORγt(+) developmental pathway from a common progenitor in SLTs. These findings help establish the developmental signals and pathways involved in human ILC development.

  17. Imparting regenerative capacity to limbs by progenitor cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gufa; Chen, Ying; Slack, Jonathan M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The frog Xenopus can normally regenerate its limbs at early developmental stages but loses the ability during metamorphosis. This behavior provides a potential gain-of-function model for measures that can enhance limb regeneration. Here we show that frog limbs can be caused to form multidigit regenerates after receiving transplants of larval limb progenitor cells. It is necessary to activate Wnt/β -catenin signaling in the cells, and to add Sonic hedgehog, FGF10 and thymosin β4. These factors promote survival and growth of the grafted cells and also provide pattern information. The eventual regenerates are not composed solely of donor tissue; the host cells also make a substantial contribution despite their lack of regeneration-competence. Cells from adult frog legs or from regenerating tadpole tails do not promote limb regeneration, demonstrating the necessity for limb progenitor cells. These findings have obvious implications for the development of a technology to promote limb regeneration in mammals. PMID:23273877

  18. Flow cytometric data analysis of circulating progenitor cell stability.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Ernestine A; Mou, Liping; Hayek, Salim S; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Waller, Edmund K

    2017-02-01

    A recent publication by Mekonnen et al. demonstrated that among women with non-obstructive coronary artery disease, higher levels of circulating progenitor cells in the blood (CPC), were associated with impaired coronary flow reserve [1]. We performed a quality control assessment of the stability of circulating blood progenitor cells in blood samples stored at 4 °C, to determine the time period during which blood samples can be analyzed and yield consistent data for progenitor cell content. Healthy volunteers (n=6) were recruited and underwent phlebotomy, and blood was stored in EDTA tubes at 4 °C. Flow cytometry was performed to quantitate progenitor cell subsets at 0-4 h, 24 h, and 48 h post phlebotomy. All processed samples were fixed with 1% Paraformaldehyde and 1,000,000 total data events were collected. We found no significant differences in PC data for both CD34+ (P=0.68 for one-way ANOVA) and CD34+/CD133+ (P=0.74 for one-way ANOVA).

  19. Endothelial cells are progenitors of cardiac pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Adams, Susanne; Eilken, Hanna; Stehling, Martin; Corada, Monica; Dejana, Elisabetta; Zhou, Bin; Adams, Ralf H.

    2016-01-01

    Mural cells of the vessel wall, namely pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, are essential for vascular integrity. The developmental sources of these cells and molecular mechanisms controlling their progenitors in the heart are only partially understood. Here we show that endocardial endothelial cells are progenitors of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in the murine embryonic heart. Endocardial cells undergo endothelial–mesenchymal transition and convert into primitive mesenchymal progenitors expressing the platelet-derived growth factor receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. These progenitors migrate into the myocardium, differentiate and assemble the wall of coronary vessels, which requires canonical Wnt signalling involving Frizzled4, β-catenin and endothelial cell-derived Wnt ligands. Our findings identify a novel and unexpected population of progenitors for coronary mural cells with potential relevance for heart function and disease conditions. PMID:27516371

  20. ENDOTHELIAL PROGENITOR CELLS AS SHUTTLE OF ANTICANCER AGENTS.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, Anna; Margheri, Francesca; Chilla', Anastasia; Biagioni, Alessio; Margheri, Giancarlo; Calorini, Lido; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2016-08-08

    Cell therapies are treatments in which stem or progenitor cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed tissues. Following their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have stimulated a worldwide interest as possible vehicles to perform an autologous cell-therapy of tumors. Taking into account the tumor-homing properties of EPCs, two different approaches to control cancer progression have been pursued by combining the cell-based therapy with gene therapy or with nanomedicine. The first one is based on the possibility to engineer EPCs to express different transgenes, the second one on the capacity of EPCs to uptake nanomaterials. Here we will review the most important progresses covering the following issues: the characterization of bona fide endothelial progenitor cells, their role in tumor vascularisation and metastasis, and preclinical data about their use in cell-based tumor therapy, considering anti-angiogenic, suicide, immune-stimulating and oncolytic virus gene-therapy. The mixed approach of EPC cell therapy and nanomedicine will be discussed in terms of plasmonic-dependent thermoablation and molecular imaging.

  1. Centroacinar Cells Are Progenitors That Contribute to Endocrine Pancreas Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Delaspre, Fabien; Beer, Rebecca L.; Rovira, Meritxell; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangliang; Gee, Stephen; Vitery, Maria del Carmen; Wheelan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with a paucity of insulin-producing β-cells. With the goal of finding therapeutic routes to treat diabetes, we aim to find molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in β-cell neogenesis and regeneration. To facilitate discovery of such mechanisms, we use a vertebrate organism where pancreatic cells readily regenerate. The larval zebrafish pancreas contains Notch-responsive progenitors that during development give rise to adult ductal, endocrine, and centroacinar cells (CACs). Adult CACs are also Notch responsive and are morphologically similar to their larval predecessors. To test our hypothesis that adult CACs are also progenitors, we took two complementary approaches: 1) We established the transcriptome for adult CACs. Using gene ontology, transgenic lines, and in situ hybridization, we found that the CAC transcriptome is enriched for progenitor markers. 2) Using lineage tracing, we demonstrated that CACs do form new endocrine cells after β-cell ablation or partial pancreatectomy. We concluded that CACs and their larval predecessors are the same cell type and represent an opportune model to study both β-cell neogenesis and β-cell regeneration. Furthermore, we show that in cftr loss-of-function mutants, there is a deficiency of larval CACs, providing a possible explanation for pancreatic complications associated with cystic fibrosis. PMID:26153247

  2. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    The childhood leukodystrophies comprise a group of hereditary disorders characterized by the absence, malformation or destruction of myelin. These disorders share common clinical, radiological and pathological features, despite their diverse molecular and genetic etiologies. Oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are the major affected cell populations, and are either structurally impaired or metabolically compromised through cell-intrinsic pathology, or are the victims of mis-accumulated toxic byproducts of metabolic derangement. In either case, glial cell replacement using implanted tissue or pluripotent stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group of non-lysosomal metabolic leukodystrophies, may all be appropriate candidates for glial progenitor cell-based treatment. Nonetheless, a variety of specific challenges remain before this therapeutic strategy can be applied to children. These include timely diagnosis, before irreparable neuronal injury has ensued; understanding the natural history of the targeted disease; defining the optimal cell phenotype for each disorder; achieving safe and scalable cellular compositions, designing age-appropriate controlled clinical trials; and for autologous therapy of genetic disorders, achieving the safe genetic editing of pluripotent stem cells. Yet these challenges notwithstanding, the promise of glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood myelin disorders offers hope to the many victims of this otherwise largely untreatable class of disease. PMID:27170209

  3. Cardiomyocyte Formation by Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multi-Myogenic Stem Cells after Transplantation into Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Akatsuka, Akira; Okada, Yoshinori; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Tono, Kayoko; Wada, Mika; Hoshi, Akio; Iwaguro, Hideki; Iwasaki, Hiroto; Oyamada, Akira; Asahara, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    Background Cellular cardiomyoplasty for myocardial infarction has been developed using various cell types. However, complete differentiation and/or trans-differentiation into cardiomyocytes have never occurred in these transplant studies, whereas functional contributions were reported. Methods and Results Skeletal muscle interstitium-derived CD34+/CD45− (Sk-34) cells were purified from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice by flowcytometory. Cardiac differentiation of Sk-34 cells was examined by in vitro clonal culture and co-culture with embryonic cardiomyocytes, and in vivo transplantation into a nude rat myocardial infarction (MI) model (left ventricle). Lower relative expression of cardiomyogenic transcription factors, such as GATA-4, Nkx2-5, Isl-1, Mef2 and Hand2, was seen in clonal cell culture. However, vigorous expression of these factors was seen on co-culture with embryonic cardiomyocytes, together with formation of gap-junctions and synchronous contraction following sphere-like colony formation. At 4 weeks after transplantation of freshly isolated Sk-34 cells, donor cells exhibited typical cardiomyocyte structure with formation of gap-junctions, as well as intercalated discs and desmosomes, between donor and recipient and/or donor and donor cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis detecting the rat and mouse genomic DNA and immunoelectron microscopy using anti-GFP revealed donor-derived cells. Transplanted Sk-34 cells were incorporated into infarcted portions of recipient muscles and contributed to cardiac reconstitution. Significant improvement in left ventricular function, as evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography and micro-tip conductance catheter, was also observed. Conclusions and Significance Skeletal muscle-derived multipotent Sk-34 cells that can give rise to skeletal and smooth muscle cells as reported previously, also give rise to cardiac muscle cells as multi-myogenic stem cells, and thus are a potential source for

  4. A Dual Mode Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Cell Stimulator Produces Acceleration of Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Rizk, Hatem; Mo, Chenglin; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Brotto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test of a dual-mode electric and magnetic biological stimulator (EM-Stim). The stimulator generates pulsing electric and magnetic fields at programmable rates and intensities. While electric and magnetic stimulators have been reported before, this is the first device that combines both modalities. The ability of the dual stimulation to target bone and muscle tissue simultaneously has the potential to improve the therapeutic treatment of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The device is fully programmable, portable and easy to use, and can run from a battery or a power supply. The device can generate magnetic fields of up to 1.6 mT and output voltages of +/−40 V. The EM-Stim accelerated myogenic differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes as evidenced by morphometric, gene expression, and protein content analyses. Currently, there are many patents concerned with the application of single electrical or magnetic stimulation, but none that combine both simultaneously. However, we applied for and obtained a provisional patent for new device to fully explore its therapeutic potential in pre-clinical models. PMID:23445453

  5. Regulation of Circulating Progenitor Cells in Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Boilson, Barry A.; Larsen, Katarina; Harbuzariu, Adriana; Delacroix, Sinny; Korinek, Josef; Froehlich, Harald; Bailey, Kent R.; Scott, Christopher G.; Shapiro, Brian P.; Boerrigter, Guido; Chen, Horng H.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.; Simari, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reductions in numbers of circulating progenitor cells (CD34+ cell subsets) have been demonstrated in patients at risk for, or in the presence of, cardiovascular disease. The mediators of these reductions remain undefined. To determine whether neurohumoral factors might regulate circulating CD34+ cell subsets in vivo, we studied complementary canine models of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Methods and Results A pacing model of severe LV dysfunction and a hypertensive renal wrap (RW) model in which dogs were randomized to receive deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) were studied. Circulating CD34+ cell subsets including hematopoietic precursor cells (HPCs:CD34+/CD45dim/VEGFR2-) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs:CD34+/CD45-/VEGFR2+) were quantified. Additionally, the effect of mineralocorticoid excess on circulating progenitor cells in normal dogs was studied. The majority of circulating CD34+ cells expressed CD45 dimly and did not express VEGFR2, consistent with an HPC phenotype. HPCs were decreased in response to pacing, and this decrease correlated with plasma aldosterone levels (Spearman Rank correlation = -0.67, p=0.03). In the RW model, administration of DOCA resulted in decreased HPCs. No changes were seen in EPCs in either model. Normal dogs treated with DOCA exhibited a decrease in HPCs in peripheral blood but not bone marrow associated with decreased telomerase activity. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that mineralocorticoid excess, either endogenous or exogenous, results in reduction in HPCs. These data suggest that mineralocorticoids may induce accelerated senescence of progenitor cells leading to their reduced survival and decline in numbers. PMID:20573992

  6. Myogenic Potential of Whole Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo for Usage in Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Giammò, Alessandro; Boido, Marina; Rustichelli, Deborah; Mareschi, Katia; Errichiello, Edoardo; Parola, Maurizio; Ferrero, Ivana; Fagioli, Franca; Vercelli, Alessandro; Carone, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the complaint of any involuntary loss of urine, is a pathological condition, which affects 30% females and 15% males over 60, often following a progressive decrease of rhabdosphincter cells due to increasing age or secondary to damage to the pelvic floor musculature, connective tissue and/or nerves. Recently, stem cell therapy has been proposed as a source for cell replacement and for trophic support to the sphincter. To develop new therapeutic strategies for urinary incontinence, we studied the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and muscle cells in vitro; thereafter, aiming at a clinical usage, we analyzed the supporting role of MSCs for muscle cells in vitro and in in vivo xenotransplantation. MSCs can express markers of the myogenic cell lineages and give rise, under specific cell culture conditions, to myotube-like structures. Nevertheless, we failed to obtain mixed myotubes both in vitro and in vivo. For in vivo transplantation, we tested a new protocol to collect human MSCs from whole bone marrow, to get larger numbers of cells. MSCs, when transplanted into the pelvic muscles close to the external urethral sphincter, survived for a long time in absence of immunosuppression, and migrated into the muscle among fibers, and towards neuromuscular endplates. Moreover, they showed low levels of cycling cells, and did not infiltrate blood vessels. We never observed formation of cell masses suggestive of tumorigenesis. Those which remained close to the injection site showed an immature phenotype, whereas those in the muscle had more elongated morphologies. Therefore, MSCs are safe and can be easily transplanted without risk of side effects in the pelvic muscles. Further studies are needed to elucidate their integration into muscle fibers, and to promote their muscular transdifferentiation either before or after transplantation. PMID:23029081

  7. DNMT3B in vitro knocking-down is able to reverse embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell phenotype through inhibition of proliferation and induction of myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Megiorni, Francesca; Camero, Simona; Ceccarelli, Simona; McDowell, Heather P; Mannarino, Olga; Marampon, Francesco; Pizer, Barry; Shukla, Rajeev; Pizzuti, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia; Clerico, Anna; Dominici, Carlo

    2016-11-29

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently observed in many human cancers, including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. To date, the expression and function of the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B in RMS have not yet been investigated. Our study show for the first time a significant up-regulation of DNMT3B levels in 14 RMS tumour samples and 4 RMS cell lines in comparison to normal skeletal muscle. Transfection of RD and TE671 cells, two in vitro models of embryonal RMS (ERMS), with a synthetic DNMT3B siRNA decreased cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, as demonstrated by the reduced expression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2, and by the concomitant up-regulation of the checkpoint regulators p21 and p27. DNMT3B depletion also impaired RB phosphorylation status and decreased migratory capacity and clonogenic potential. Interestingly, DNMT3B knock-down was able to commit ERMS cells towards myogenic terminal differentiation, as confirmed by the acquisition of a myogenic-like phenotype and by the increased expression of the myogenic markers MYOD1, Myogenin and MyHC. Finally, inhibition of MEK/ERK signalling by U0126 resulted in a reduction of DNMT3B protein, giving evidence that DNMT3B is a down-stream molecule of this oncogenic pathway.Taken together, our data indicate that altered expression of DNMT3B plays a key role in ERMS development since its silencing is able to reverse cell cancer phenotype by rescuing myogenic program. Epigenetic therapy, by targeting the DNA methylation machinery, may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against RMS.

  8. DNMT3B in vitro knocking-down is able to reverse embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell phenotype through inhibition of proliferation and induction of myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Megiorni, Francesca; Camero, Simona; Ceccarelli, Simona; McDowell, Heather P.; Mannarino, Olga; Marampon, Francesco; Pizer, Barry; Shukla, Rajeev; Pizzuti, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia; Clerico, Anna; Dominici, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently observed in many human cancers, including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. To date, the expression and function of the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B in RMS have not yet been investigated. Our study show for the first time a significant up-regulation of DNMT3B levels in 14 RMS tumour samples and 4 RMS cell lines in comparison to normal skeletal muscle. Transfection of RD and TE671 cells, two in vitro models of embryonal RMS (ERMS), with a synthetic DNMT3B siRNA decreased cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, as demonstrated by the reduced expression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2, and by the concomitant up-regulation of the checkpoint regulators p21 and p27. DNMT3B depletion also impaired RB phosphorylation status and decreased migratory capacity and clonogenic potential. Interestingly, DNMT3B knock-down was able to commit ERMS cells towards myogenic terminal differentiation, as confirmed by the acquisition of a myogenic-like phenotype and by the increased expression of the myogenic markers MYOD1, Myogenin and MyHC. Finally, inhibition of MEK/ERK signalling by U0126 resulted in a reduction of DNMT3B protein, giving evidence that DNMT3B is a down-stream molecule of this oncogenic pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that altered expression of DNMT3B plays a key role in ERMS development since its silencing is able to reverse cell cancer phenotype by rescuing myogenic program. Epigenetic therapy, by targeting the DNA methylation machinery, may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against RMS. PMID:27764816

  9. Stem/progenitor cells: a potential source of retina-specific cells for retinal repair.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yong-Yan; Feng, Dong-Fu; Pan, Dong-Chao

    2009-11-01

    Retinal injury generally results in permanent visual disturbance or even blindness. Any effort to restore vision in such condition would require replacement of the highly specialized retinal cells. Stem/progenitor cells have been proposed as a potential source of new retina-specific cells to replace those lost due to retina injury. Evidence to date suggests that continued development of stem cell therapies may ultimately lead to viable treatment options for retina injury. A wide range of stem/progenitor cells from various sources is currently being investigated for the treatment of retinal injury. This article reviews the recent achievements about stem/progenitor cell source for retinal repair.

  10. MicroRNA-146b promotes myogenic differentiation and modulates multiple gene targets in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Nidhi; Ge, Yejing; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are established as crucial modulators of skeletal myogenesis, but our knowledge about their identity and targets remains limited. In this study, we have identified microRNA-146b (miR-146b) as a novel regulator of skeletal myoblast differentiation. Following up on a previous microRNA profiling study, we establish that the expression of miR-146b is up-regulated during myoblast differentiation in vitro and muscle regeneration in vivo. Inhibition of miR-146b led to reduced myoblast differentiation, whereas overexpression of miR-146b enhanced differentiation. Computational prediction combined with gene expression information has revealed candidates for miR-146b targets in muscles. Among them, the expression of Smad4, Notch1, and Hmga2 are significantly suppressed by miR-146b overexpression in myocytes. In addition, expression levels of Smad4, Notch1 and Hmga2 are decreased during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration, inversely correlating to the levels of miR-146b. Importantly, inhibition of endogenous miR-146b prevents the down-regulation of Smad4, Notch1 and Hmga2 during differentiation. Furthermore, miR-146b directly targets the microRNA response elements (MREs) in the 3'UTR of those genes as assessed by reporter assays. Reporters with the seed regions of MREs mutated are insensitive to miR-146b, further confirming the specificity of targeting. In conclusion, miR-146b is a positive regulator of myogenic differentiation, possibly acting through multiple targets.

  11. Ovarian monocyte progenitor cells: phenotypic and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Cherry J; Sanberg, Paul R; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Haraguchi, Soichi; Lerner, Danika; Baldwin, Margi; El-Badri, Nagwa S

    2005-04-01

    Leukocytes of the macrophage lineage are abundant in the ovarian tissues and have an important function in both follicular development and regression of postovulatory follicles. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that continuous production of macrophages in the ovarian stroma is maintained by a resident population of progenitors. We established a long-term culture of ovarian follicular stromal cells from BALB/c and green fluorescent protein-transgenic (GFP-TG) C57BL/6 mice. Nonadherent cells were collected and tested for hematopoietic function in vitro and in vivo. Histological and ultrastructural analyses revealed a homogenous population of monocyte-like rounded cells. Nonadherent cells continued to proliferate in culture for several months without senescence. When plated at very low density in methylcellulose, these cells formed colonies consisting of monocyte-like cells. Ovarian monocyte-like cells reacted with CD45, CD11b, CD11c, and Ly6-Gr-1 cell surface markers. A distinct CD45low population within these cells reacted with CD117 (C-kit) surface marker, suggestive of a primitive hematopoietic progenitor. Fifty thousand nonadherent cells failed to provide radioprotection to lethally irradiated mice and thus were not considered to be equivalent to pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. Ovarian nonadherent stromal cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase but lacked embryonic cell antigens stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA-1) and Oct-4. We conclude that in the ovaries, a higher requirement for macrophages is provided by a resident stromal population of progenitors whose progeny is restricted to the production of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage.

  12. Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Differentiation of Periodontal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dangaria, Smit J.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Walker, Cameron; Druzinsky, Robert; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.

    2009-01-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a specialized connective tissue that connects the surface of the tooth root with the bony tooth socket. The healthy PDL harbors stem cell niches and extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments that facilitate periodontal regeneration. During periodontal disease, the PDL is often compromised or destroyed, reducing the life-span of the tooth. In order to explore new approaches toward the regeneration of diseased periodontal tissues, we have tested the effect of periodontal ECM signals, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and the cell adhesion peptide Arg-Gly- Asp (RGD) on the differentiation of two types of periodontal progenitor cells, PDL progenitor cells (PDLPs) and dental follicle progenitor cells (DFCs). Our studies documented that CTGF and FGF2 significantly enhanced the expression of collagens I & III, biglycan and periostin in tissue engineered regenerates after 4 weeks compared to untreated controls. Specifically, CTGF promoted mature PDL-like tissue regeneration as demonstrated by dense periostin localization in collagen fiber bundles. CTGF and FGF2 displayed synergistic effects on collagen III and biglycan gene expression, while effects on mineralization were antagonistic to each other: CTGF promoted while FGF2 inhibited mineralization in PDL cell cultures. Incorporation of RGD peptides in hydrogel matrices significantly enhanced attachment, spreading, survival and mineralization of the encapsulated DFCs, suggesting that RGD additives might promote the use of hydrogels for periodontal mineralized tissue engineering. Together, our studies have documented the effect of three key components of the periodontal ECM on the differentiation of periodontal progenitor populations. PMID:19433344

  13. Dual requirement for Pax6 in retinal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Elgart, Michael; Marquardt, Till; Remizova, Lena; Yaron, Orly; Xie, Qing; Cvekl, Ales; Ashery-Padan, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the developing central nervous system, pre-patterning of the ventricular zone into discrete neural progenitor domains is one of the predominant strategies used to produce neuronal diversity in a spatially coordinated manner. In the retina, neurogenesis proceeds in an intricate chronological and spatial sequence, yet it remains unclear whether retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) display intrinsic heterogeneity at any given time point. Here, we performed a detailed study of RPC fate upon temporally and spatially confined inactivation of Pax6. Timed genetic removal of Pax6 appeared to unmask a cryptic divergence of RPCs into qualitatively divergent progenitor pools. In the more peripheral RPCs under normal circumstances, Pax6 seemed to prevent premature activation of a photoreceptor-differentiation pathway by suppressing expression of the transcription factor Crx. More centrally, Pax6 contributed to the execution of the comprehensive potential of RPCs: Pax6 ablation resulted in the exclusive generation of amacrine interneurons. Together, these data suggest an intricate dual role for Pax6 in retinal neurogenesis, while pointing to the cryptic divergence of RPCs into distinct progenitor pools. PMID:19004853

  14. Lineage tracing of neuromesodermal progenitors reveals novel Wnt-dependent roles in trunk progenitor cell maintenance and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Garriock, Robert J; Chalamalasetty, Ravindra B; Kennedy, Mark W; Canizales, Lauren C; Lewandoski, Mark; Yamaguchi, Terry P

    2015-05-01

    In the development of the vertebrate body plan, Wnt3a is thought to promote the formation of paraxial mesodermal progenitors (PMPs) of the trunk region while suppressing neural specification. Recent lineage-tracing experiments have demonstrated that these trunk neural progenitors and PMPs derive from a common multipotent progenitor called the neuromesodermal progenitor (NMP). NMPs are known to reside in the anterior primitive streak (PS) region; however, the extent to which NMPs populate the PS and contribute to the vertebrate body plan, and the precise role that Wnt3a plays in regulating NMP self-renewal and differentiation are unclear. To address this, we used cell-specific markers (Sox2 and T) and tamoxifen-induced Cre recombinase-based lineage tracing to locate putative NMPs in vivo. We provide functional evidence for NMP location primarily in the epithelial PS, and to a lesser degree in the ingressed PS. Lineage-tracing studies in Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling pathway mutants provide genetic evidence that trunk progenitors normally fated to enter the mesodermal germ layer can be redirected towards the neural lineage. These data, combined with previous PS lineage-tracing studies, support a model that epithelial anterior PS cells are Sox2(+)T(+) multipotent NMPs and form the bulk of neural progenitors and PMPs of the posterior trunk region. Finally, we find that Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling directs trunk progenitors towards PMP fates; however, our data also suggest that Wnt3a positively supports a progenitor state for both mesodermal and neural progenitors.

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells: Exploring the pleiotropic effects of statins

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Kully; Mamas, Mamas; Butler, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Statins have become a cornerstone of risk modification for ischaemic heart disease patients. A number of studies have shown that they are effective and safe. However studies have observed an early benefit in terms of a reduction in recurrent infarct and or death after a myocardial infarction, prior to any significant change in lipid profile. Therefore, pleiotropic mechanisms, other than lowering lipid profile alone, must account for this effect. One such proposed pleiotropic mechanism is the ability of statins to augment both number and function of endothelial progenitor cells. The ability to augment repair and maintenance of a functioning endothelium may have profound beneficial effect on vascular repair and potentially a positive impact on clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. The following literature review will discuss issues surrounding endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) identification, role in vascular repair, factors affecting EPC numbers, the role of statins in current medical practice and their effects on EPC number. PMID:28163831

  16. Kinetics of circulating progenitor cell mobilization during submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Niemiro, Grace M; Parel, Justin; Beals, Joseph; van Vliet, Stephan; Paluska, Scott A; Moore, Daniel R; Burd, Nicholas A; De Lisio, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) are a heterogeneous population of stem/progenitor cells in peripheral blood that includes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs and HSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are involved in tissue repair and adaptation. CPC mobilization during exercise remains uncharacterized in young adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of CPC mobilization during and after submaximal treadmill running and their relationship to mobilization factors. Seven men [age = 25.3 ± 2.4 yr, body mass index = 23.5 ± 1.0 kg/m(2), peak O2 uptake (V̇o2peak) = 60.9 ± 2.74 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)] ran on a treadmill for 60 min at 70% V̇o2peak Blood sampling occurred before (Pre), during [20 min (20e), 40 min (40e), 60 min (60e)], and after exercise [15 min (15p), 60 min (60p), 120 min (120p)] for quantification of CPCs (CD34(+)), HSPCs (CD34(+)/CD45(low)), HSCs (CD34(+)/CD45(low)/CD38(-)), CD34(+) MSCs (CD45(-)/CD34(+)/CD31(-)/CD105(+)), CD34(-) MSCs (CD45(-)/CD34(-)/CD31(-)/CD105(+)), and EPCs (CD45(-)/CD34(+)/CD31(+)) via flow cytometry. CPC concentration increased compared with Pre at 20e and 40e (2.7- and 2.4-fold, respectively, P < 0.05). HSPCs and HSCs increased at 20e compared with 60p (2.7- and 2.8-fold, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas EPCs and both MSC populations did not change. CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12 (1.5-fold; P < 0.05) and stem cell factor (1.3-fold; P < 0.05) were increased at 40e and remained elevated postexercise. The peak increase in CPCs was positively correlated to concentration of endothelial cells during exercise with no relationship to CXCL12 and SCF. Our data show the kinetics of progenitor cell mobilization during exercise that could provide insight into cellular mediators of exercise-induced adaptations, and have implication for the use of exercise as an adjuvant therapy for CPC collection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using

  17. Regeneration and myogenic cell proliferation correlate with taurine levels in dystrophin- and MyoD-deficient muscles.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, L M; Garrett, K L; Megeney, L; Rudnicki, M A; Anderson, J E

    1998-10-01

    This study coupled proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and in situ hybridization plus autoradiography in a novel examination of different phenotypes of adult myogenesis that arise from genetic disruptions in mice. Study of muscle extracts from normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx limb and diaphragm muscles confirmed our previous findings linking taurine and muscle regeneration at the peak of damage and repair. 1H-NMR distinguished biochemical differences in regenerating muscles that were consistent with the extent of repair in three strains: mdx dystrophic mice; MyoD(-/-) mice that lack expression of the early myogenic regulatory gene MyoD; and a double-mutant mdx:MyoD(-/-) strain lacking expression of both MyoD and dystrophin. We tested the hypothesis that differences in spectra according to genotype and the regeneration phenotype are related specifically to proliferation by committed myogenic precursor cells. 1H-NMR distinguished the three mutant strains: Taurine was highest in mdx muscles, with the phenotype of most effective regeneration; lowest in MyoD(-/-) muscles, with the least effective formation of new muscle in repair, as reported previously; and intermediate in double-mutant muscles, now reported to show an intermediate repair phenotype. The early and late muscle precursors (mpcs) expressing myf5 and myogenin were examined for proliferation. Eighteen percent of mdx myf5-positive mpcs were proliferative, whereas myf5-positive mpcs did not proliferate in regenerating muscles that lacked MyoD expression. By contrast, whereas 30% of myogenin-positive mpcs were proliferative in mdx muscles, almost none were proliferative in MyoD(-/-) muscles, and 12% were proliferative in double-mutant muscles. Therefore, the extent of accumulated structural regeneration, taurine levels, and proliferation of late mpc (expressing myogenin) were congruent across genotypes. Proliferation by early mpc (expressing myf5) was inhibited by the lack of MyoD expression

  18. Proliferation control in neural stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Homem, Catarina CF; Repic, Marko; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuit function can be drastically affected by variations in the number of cells that are produced during development or by a reduction in adult cell number due to disease. Unlike many other organs, the brain is unable to compensate for such changes by increasing cell numbers or altering the size of the cells. For this reason, unique cell cycle and cell growth control mechanisms operate in the developing and adult brain. In Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian neural stem and progenitor cells these mechanisms are intricately coordinated with the developmental age and the nutritional, metabolic and hormonal state of the animal. Defects in neural stem cell proliferation that result in the generation of incorrect cell numbers or defects in neural stem cell differentiation can cause microcephaly or megalencephaly. PMID:26420377

  19. Homing and migration assays of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xi C; Li, Zhenrui; Sugimura, Rio; Ross, Jason; Zhao, Meng; Li, Linheng

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside mainly in bone marrow; however, under homeostatic and stressed conditions, HSPCs dynamically change their location-either egressing from bone marrow and getting into circulation, a process of mobilization; or coming back to the bone marrow, the homing process. How to analyze these two processes will be critical for understanding the behavior of HSPCs. Here we provide an experimental protocol to monitor and analyze homing and migration of HSPCs.

  20. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell isolation from tooth extraction sockets.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, R; Ono, M; Hara, E S; Oida, Y; Shinkawa, S; Pham, H T; Akiyama, K; Sonoyama, W; Maekawa, K; Kuboki, T

    2014-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs) are commonly used in regeneration therapy. The current primary source of BMSCs is the iliac crest; however, the procedure is associated with various burdens on the patient, including the risk of pain and infection. Hence, the possibility to collect BMSCs from other, more accessible, sources would be an attractive approach. It is well known that stem cells migrate from surrounding tissues and play important roles in wound healing. We thus hypothesized that stem/progenitor cells could be isolated from granulation tissue in the dental socket, and we subsequently collected granulation tissue from dog dental socket 3 d after tooth extraction. After enzyme digestion of the collected tissue, the cells forming colonies constituted the dental socket-derived stem/progenitor cells (dDSCs). Next, dDSCs were compared with dog BMSCs (dBMSCs) for phenotype characterization. A flow cytometric analysis showed that dDSCs were positive for CD44, CD90, and CD271 but negative for CD34 and CD45, similar to dBMSCs. dDSCs also exhibited osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation ability, similar to dBMSCs, with a higher capacity for colony formation, proliferation, and motility than dBMSCs. In addition, an in vivo ectopic bone formation assay showed that dDSCs and dBMSCs both induced hard tissue formation, although only dDSCs formed a fibrous tissue-like structure connected to the newly formed bone. Finally, we tested the ability of dDSCs to regenerate periodontal tissue in a one-wall defect model. The defects in the dDSC-transplanted group (β-TCP/PGA/dDSCs) were regenerated with cementum-like and periodontal ligament-like tissues and alveolar bone, whereas only bony tissue was observed in the control group (β-TCP/PGA). In conclusion, we identified and characterized a population of stem/progenitor cells in granulation tissue obtained from the dental socket that exhibited several characteristics similar to those

  1. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cell Isolation from Tooth Extraction Sockets

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, R.; Ono, M.; Hara, E.S.; Oida, Y.; Shinkawa, S.; Pham, H.T.; Akiyama, K.; Sonoyama, W.; Maekawa, K.; Kuboki, T.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs) are commonly used in regeneration therapy. The current primary source of BMSCs is the iliac crest; however, the procedure is associated with various burdens on the patient, including the risk of pain and infection. Hence, the possibility to collect BMSCs from other, more accessible, sources would be an attractive approach. It is well known that stem cells migrate from surrounding tissues and play important roles in wound healing. We thus hypothesized that stem/progenitor cells could be isolated from granulation tissue in the dental socket, and we subsequently collected granulation tissue from dog dental socket 3 d after tooth extraction. After enzyme digestion of the collected tissue, the cells forming colonies constituted the dental socket–derived stem/progenitor cells (dDSCs). Next, dDSCs were compared with dog BMSCs (dBMSCs) for phenotype characterization. A flow cytometric analysis showed that dDSCs were positive for CD44, CD90, and CD271 but negative for CD34 and CD45, similar to dBMSCs. dDSCs also exhibited osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation ability, similar to dBMSCs, with a higher capacity for colony formation, proliferation, and motility than dBMSCs. In addition, an in vivo ectopic bone formation assay showed that dDSCs and dBMSCs both induced hard tissue formation, although only dDSCs formed a fibrous tissue-like structure connected to the newly formed bone. Finally, we tested the ability of dDSCs to regenerate periodontal tissue in a one-wall defect model. The defects in the dDSC-transplanted group (β-TCP/PGA/dDSCs) were regenerated with cementum-like and periodontal ligament-like tissues and alveolar bone, whereas only bony tissue was observed in the control group (β-TCP/PGA). In conclusion, we identified and characterized a population of stem/progenitor cells in granulation tissue obtained from the dental socket that exhibited several characteristics similar to

  2. NLRP1 inflammasome activation induces pyroptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Seth L.; Gerlic, Motti; Metcalf, Donald; Preston, Simon; Pellegrini, Marc; O’Donnell, Joanne A.; McArthur, Kate; Baldwin, Tracey M.; Chevrier, Stephane; Nowell, Cameron J.; Cengia, Louise H.; Henley, Katya J.; Collinge, Janelle E.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Hilton, Douglas J.; Alexander, Warren S.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Croker, Ben A.

    2014-01-01

    Cytopenias are key prognostic indicators of life-threatening infection, contributing to immunosuppression and mortality. Here we define a role for Caspase-1-dependent death, known as pyroptosis, in infection-induced cytopenias by studying inflammasome activation in hematopoietic progenitor cells. The NLRP1a inflammasome is expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and its activation triggers their pyroptotic death. Active NLRP1a induced a lethal systemic inflammatory disease that was driven by Caspase-1 and IL-1β but was independent of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and ameliorated by IL-18. Surprisingly, in the absence of IL-1β-driven inflammation, active NLRP1a triggered pyroptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells resulting in leukopenia in the steady state. During periods of hematopoietic stress induced by chemotherapy or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, active NLRP1a caused prolonged cytopenia, bone marrow hypoplasia and immunosuppression. Conversely, NLRP1-deficient mice showed enhanced recovery from chemotherapy and LCMV infection, demonstrating that NLRP1 acts as a cellular sentinel to alert Caspase-1 to hematopoietic and infectious stress. PMID:23219391

  3. Analysing human neural stem cell ontogeny by consecutive isolation of Notch active neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Edri, Reuven; Yaffe, Yakey; Ziller, Michael J; Mutukula, Naresh; Volkman, Rotem; David, Eyal; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Malcov, Hagar; Levy, Carmit; Rechavi, Gideon; Gat-Viks, Irit; Meissner, Alexander; Elkabetz, Yechiel

    2015-03-23

    Decoding heterogeneity of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neural progeny is fundamental for revealing the origin of diverse progenitors, for defining their lineages, and for identifying fate determinants driving transition through distinct potencies. Here we have prospectively isolated consecutively appearing PSC-derived primary progenitors based on their Notch activation state. We first isolate early neuroepithelial cells and show their broad Notch-dependent developmental and proliferative potential. Neuroepithelial cells further yield successive Notch-dependent functional primary progenitors, from early and midneurogenic radial glia and their derived basal progenitors, to gliogenic radial glia and adult-like neural progenitors, together recapitulating hallmarks of neural stem cell (NSC) ontogeny. Gene expression profiling reveals dynamic stage-specific transcriptional patterns that may link development of distinct progenitor identities through Notch activation. Our observations provide a platform for characterization and manipulation of distinct progenitor cell types amenable for developing streamlined neural lineage specification paradigms for modelling development in health and disease.

  4. Prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells: identification, characterization, and implications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dean G; Patrawala, Lubna; Calhoun, Tammy; Bhatia, Bobby; Choy, Grace; Schneider-Broussard, Robin; Jeter, Collene

    2007-01-01

    Several solid tumors have now been shown to contain stem cell-like cells called cancer stem cells (CSC). These cells, although generally rare, appear to be highly tumorigenic and may be the cells that drive tumor formation, maintain tumor homeostasis, and mediate tumor metastasis. In this Perspective, we first provide our insight on how a CSC should be defined. We then summarize our current knowledge of stem/progenitor cells in the normal human prostate (NHP), an organ highly susceptible to hyperproliferative diseases such as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). We further review the evidence that cultured PCa cells, xenograft prostate tumors, and patient tumors may contain stem/progenitor cells. Along with our discussion, we present several methodologies that can be potentially used to identify putative tumor-reinitiating CSC. Finally, we present a hypothetical model for the hierarchical organization of human PCa cells and discuss the implications of this model in helping understand prostate carcinogenesis and design novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches.

  5. Tracking of Normal and Malignant Progenitor Cell Cycle Transit in a Defined Niche

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Gabriel; Lennon, Kathleen M.; Delos Santos, Nathaniel P.; Lambert-Fliszar, Florence; Riso, Gennarina L.; Lazzari, Elisa; Marra, Marco A.; Morris, Sheldon; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Jamieson, Catriona H. M.

    2016-01-01

    While implicated in therapeutic resistance, malignant progenitor cell cycle kinetics have been difficult to quantify in real-time. We developed an efficient lentiviral bicistronic fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator reporter (Fucci2BL) to image live single progenitors on a defined niche coupled with cell cycle gene expression analysis. We have identified key differences in cell cycle regulatory gene expression and transit times between normal and chronic myeloid leukemia progenitors that may inform cancer stem cell eradication strategies. PMID:27041210

  6. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth.

  7. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naozumi; Jin, Hong; Liu, Tianju; Chensue, Stephen W; Phan, Sem H

    2004-01-01

    The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP(+) cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP(+) cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP(+) cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP(+) cells that also express type I collagen. GFP(+) lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not alpha-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP(+) fibroblasts with TGF-beta failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells.

  8. Resident cardiac progenitor cells: at the heart of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bollini, Sveva; Smart, Nicola; Riley, Paul R

    2011-02-01

    Stem cell therapy has recently emerged as an innovative strategy over conventional cardiovascular treatments to restore cardiac function in patients affected by ischemic heart disease. Various stem cell populations have been tested and their potential for cardiac repair has been analyzed. Embryonic stem cells retain the greatest differentiation potential, but concerns persist with regard to their immunogenic and teratogenic effects. Although adult somatic stem cells are not tumourigenic and easier to use in an autologous setting, they exist in small numbers and possess reduced differentiation potential. Traditionally the heart was considered to be a post-mitotic organ; however, this dogma has recently been challenged with the identification of a reservoir of resident stem cells, defined as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). These endogenous progenitors may represent the best candidates for cardiovascular cell therapy, as they are tissue-specific, often pre-committed to a cardiac fate, and display a greater propensity to differentiate towards cardiovascular lineages. This review will focus on current research into the biology of CPCs and their regenerative potential. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  9. Migrating Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Swell Prior to Soma Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Happel, Patrick; Möller, Kerstin; Schwering, Nina K.; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the white matter is an indispensable requirement for an intact brain function. The mechanism of cell migration in general is not yet completely understood. Nevertheless, evidence is accumulating that besides the coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, a finetuned interplay of ion and water fluxes across the cell membrane is essential for cell migration. One part of a general hypothesis is that a local volume increase towards the direction of movement triggers a mechano-activated calcium influx that regulates various procedures at the rear end of a migrating cell. Here, we investigated cell volume changes of migrating OPCs using scanning ion conductance microscopy. We found that during accelerated migration OPCs undergo an increase in the frontal cell body volume. These findings are supplemented with time lapse calcium imaging data that hint an increase in calcium content the frontal part of the cell soma. PMID:23657670

  10. The Earliest Thymic T Cell Progenitors Sustain B Cell and Myeloid Lineage Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Luc, Sidinh; Luis, Tiago C.; Boukarabila, Hanane; Macaulay, Iain C.; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Lutteropp, Michael; Woll, Petter S.; Loughran, Stephen J.; Mead, Adam J.; Hultquist, Anne; Brown, John; Mizukami, Takuo; Matsuoka, Sahoko; Ferry, Helen; Anderson, Kristina; Duarte, Sara; Atkinson, Deborah; Soneji, Shamit; Domanski, Aniela; Farley, Alison; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Carella, Cintia; Patient, Roger; de Bruijn, Marella; Enver, Tariq; Nerlov, Claus; Blackburn, Clare; Godin, Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.

    2012-01-01

    The stepwise commitment from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) to T lymphocyte-restricted progenitors in the thymus represents a paradigm for understanding the requirement for distinct extrinsic cues during different stages of lineage restriction from multipotent to lineage restricted progenitors. However, the commitment stage at which progenitors migrate from the BM to the thymus remains unclear. Here we provide functional and molecular evidence at the single cell level that the earliest progenitors in the neonatal thymus possessed combined granulocyte-monocyte, T and B lymphocyte, but not megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage potential. These potentials were identical to those of thymus-seeding progenitors in the BM, which were closely related at the molecular level. These findings establish the distinct lineage-restriction stage at which the T lineage commitment transits from the BM to the remote thymus. PMID:22344248

  11. Fetal hepatic progenitors support long-term expansion of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Song; Flygare, Johan; Lodish, Harvey F

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a coculture system that establishes DLK(+) fetal hepatic progenitors as the authentic supportive cells for expansion of hematopoietic stem (HSCs) and progenitor cells. In 1-week cultures supplemented with serum and supportive cytokines, both cocultured DLK(+) fetal hepatic progenitors and their conditioned medium supported rapid expansion of hematopoietic progenitors and a small increase in HSC numbers. In 2- and 3-week cultures DLK(+) cells, but not their conditioned medium, continuously and significantly (>20-fold) expanded both hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Physical contact between HSCs and DLK(+) cells was crucial to maintaining this long-term expansion. Similar HSC expansion (approximately sevenfold) was achieved in cocultures using a serum-free, low cytokine- containing medium. In contrast, DLK(-) cells are incapable of expanding hematopoietic cells, demonstrating that hepatic progenitors are the principle supportive cells for HSC expansion in the fetal liver.

  12. Histone H3 Methyltransferase Suv39h1 Prevents Myogenic Terminal Differentiation by Repressing MEF2 Activity in Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wei; Shang, Yangyang; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2016-01-01

    The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors have been extensively studied as key transcription factors that regulate myogenic gene expression. However, few reports on the molecular mechanism that modulates chromatin remodeling during skeletal muscle differentiation are available. We reported here that the expression of the H3-K9 methyltransferase Suv39h1 was decreased during myoblast differentiation. Ectopic expression of Suv39h1 could inhibit myoblast differentiation, increasing H3-K9 methylation levels, whereas knockdown of Suv39h1 stimulated myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, Suv39h1 interacted with MEF2C directly and inhibited MEF2 transcription activity in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our studies revealed a molecular mechanism wherein Suv39h1 modulated myogenic gene expression and activation during skeletal muscle differentiation. PMID:27916793

  13. Bone marrow–derived progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naozumi; Jin, Hong; Liu, Tianju; Chensue, Stephen W.; Phan, Sem H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP+ cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP+ cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP+ cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP+ cells that also express type I collagen. GFP+ lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not α-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP+ fibroblasts with TGF-β failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell–derived factor-1α and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells. PMID:14722616

  14. The involvement of multipotential progenitor cells in Mooren's ulcer.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Gul; Ye, Juan; Kim, Jae Chan

    2005-06-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of multipotential progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of Mooren's ulcer using immunohistochemical staining techniques. Tissue specimens were collected from 3 Mooren's ulcer patients who underwent lamellar keratectomy. Immunohistochemical staining patterns were analyzed using antibodies: CD34, c-kit, STRO-1, CD45RO, VEGF and a-SMA. Strong positive CD34, c-kit and STRO-1 cells were revealed in Mooren's ulcer specimens, especially in the superficial stroma. A few weakly expressed CD34 stroma cells were seen in normal limbal cornea but no immunoreactivity for c-kit and STRO-1 could be found. CD45RO positive T cells were found to have infiltrated in Mooren's ulcer. The immunostaining pattern of VEGF and a- SMA was closely correlated with the degree of expression and the number of CD34 positive cells. Bone marrow-derived multipotential progenitor cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of Mooren's ulcer by synergizing with other factors to amplify autoimmune destructive reactions and to contribute to the regeneration process. Specific therapeutic strategies that target the role of these cells in the disease are warranted.

  15. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  16. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  17. MiR-128-2 inhibits common lymphoid progenitors from developing into progenitor B cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Chen, Huo; Fei, Xia; Tang, YuXu; Yan, Yunqiu; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jinping

    2016-04-05

    A considerable number of studies revealed that B cell development is finely regulated by transcription factors (TFs). Recent studies suggested that TFs are coordinated with microRNAs to control the development of B cells in numerous checkpoints. In the present study, we first found that miR-128-2 was differentially expressed in various immune organs and immunocytes. B cell development was inhibited in miR-128-2-overexpressed chimera and transgenic (TG) mice in bone marrow with decreased preproB, preB, proB, immature B, and recirculating B cells, as well as increased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Further experiments showed that the apoptosis of CLP decreased, but proliferation was not altered in miR-128-2-overexpressed mice. Extensive studies suggested that the inhibition of apoptosis of CLP may be caused by miR-128-2 targeting A2B and MALT1, thereby increasing the phosphorylation of ERK and P38 MAPK. Such findings have prompted future investigations on the function of miR-128-2 in lymph genesis.

  18. MiR-128-2 inhibits common lymphoid progenitors from developing into progenitor B cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huo; Fei, Xia; Tang, YuXu; Yan, Yunqiu; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of studies revealed that B cell development is finely regulated by transcription factors (TFs). Recent studies suggested that TFs are coordinated with microRNAs to control the development of B cells in numerous checkpoints. In the present study, we first found that miR-128-2 was differentially expressed in various immune organs and immunocytes. B cell development was inhibited in miR-128-2-overexpressed chimera and transgenic (TG) mice in bone marrow with decreased preproB, preB, proB, immature B, and recirculating B cells, as well as increased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Further experiments showed that the apoptosis of CLP decreased, but proliferation was not altered in miR-128-2-overexpressed mice. Extensive studies suggested that the inhibition of apoptosis of CLP may be caused by miR-128-2 targeting A2B and MALT1, thereby increasing the phosphorylation of ERK and P38 MAPK. Such findings have prompted future investigations on the function of miR-128-2 in lymph genesis. PMID:27008703

  19. Distinct FAK activities determine progenitor and mammary stem cell characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Song; Liu, Suling; Wicha, Max S.; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Mammary stem (MaSCs) and progenitor cells are important for mammary gland development and maintenance and may give rise to mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSCs). Yet there remains limited understanding of how these cells contribute to tumorigenesis. Here we show that conditional deletion of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in embryonic mammary epithelial cells (MaECs) decreases luminal progenitors (LPs) and basal MaSCs, reducing their colony-forming and regenerative potentials in a cell autonomous manner. Loss of FAK kinase activity in MaECs specifically impaired LP proliferation and alveologenesis, whereas a kinase-independent activity of FAK supported ductal invasion and basal MaSC activity. Deficiency in LPs suppressed tumorigenesis and MaCSC formation in a mouse model of breast cancer. In contrast to the general inhibitory effect of FAK attenuation, inhibitors of FAK kinase preferentially inhibited proliferation and tumorsphere formation of LP-like, but not MaSC-like, human breast cancer cells. Our findings establish distinct kinase dependent and independent activities of FAK that differentially regulate LPs and basal MaSCs. We suggest that targeting these distinct functions may tailor therapeutic strategies to address breast cancer heterogeneity more effectively. PMID:23832665

  20. Apheresis techniques for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Moog, Rainer

    2004-12-01

    The combination of effective mobilisation protocols and efficient use of apheresis machines has caused peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) transplantation to grow rapidly. The development of apheresis technology has improved over the years. Today PBSC procedures have changed towards systems to minimise operator interaction and to reduce the collection of undesired cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and platelets using functionally closed, sterile environments for PBSC collection in keeping with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Blood cell separators with continuous flow technique allow the processing of more blood than intermittent flow devices resulting in higher PBSC yields. Large volume leukapheresis with the processing of 3-4-fold donor's/patient's blood volume can increase the number of collected progenitor cells. Therefore, intermittent flow cell separators are indicated if only single vein access is available. Anticoagulant induced hypocalcaemia is an often observed side effect in long lasting PBPC harvesting and monitoring of electrolytes should be performed especially at the end of the apheresis procedure to supplement low levels of potassium, calcium or magnesium. Refinement and improvement of collection techniques continue to add to the armamentarium of current approaches for cancer and non-malignant conditions and will enable future strategies.

  1. Progressive induction of hepatocyte progenitor cells in chronically injured liver

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nishikawa, Yuji; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated epithelial cells show substantial lineage plasticity upon severe tissue injuries. In chronically injured mouse livers, part of hepatocytes become Sry-HMG box containing 9 (Sox9) (+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (−) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (+) biphenotypic hepatocytes. However, it is not clear whether all Sox9+ hepatocytes uniformly possess cellular properties as hepatocyte progenitors. Here, we examined the microarray data comparing Sox9+ hepatocytes with mature hepatocytes and identified CD24 as a novel marker for biphenotypic hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that part of Sox9+ hepatocytes near expanded ductular structures expressed CD24 in the liver injured by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-collidine (DDC) diet and by bile duct ligation. Indeed, Sox9+ hepatocytes could be separated into CD24− and CD24+ cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting. The ratio of CD24+ cells against CD24− ones in Sox9+ hepatocytes gradually increased while DDC-injury progressed and colony-forming capability mostly attributed to CD24+ cells. Although hepatocyte markers were remarkably downregulated in of Sox9+ CD24+ hepatocytes, they re-differentiated into mature hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Our current results demonstrate that the emergence of biphenotypic hepatocytes is a sequential event including the transition from CD24− and CD24+ status, which may be a crucial step for hepatocytes to acquire progenitor properties. PMID:28051157

  2. Extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin-mediated myogenic satellite cell responsiveness to transforming growth factor-beta1 during cell proliferation and differentiation Decorin and transforming growth factor-beta1 in satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuehui; McFarland, Douglas C; Velleman, Sandra G

    2008-10-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent inhibitor of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Decorin, a small proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to TGF-beta1 and modulates the activity of TGF-beta1 during muscle cell growth and development. However, its interaction with TGF-beta1 and involvement in myogenesis is not well characterized. In the present study, chicken myogenic satellite cells, myogenic precursors for muscle growth and repair, were isolated from the pectoralis major muscle and used to investigate the biological function of TGF-beta1 and decorin during myogenesis. The over-expression of decorin in satellite cells significantly increased cell proliferation, compared to the control cells. Consistent with this result, reducing decorin expression decreased cell proliferation, which suggests a decorin-mediated mechanism is involved in the regulation of myogenic satellite cell proliferation. Satellite cells over-expressing decorin were less sensitive to TGF-beta1 during proliferation, which indicates that decorin may sequester TGF-beta1 leading to increased proliferation. During satellite cell differentiation, the over-expression of decorin induced differentiation by increasing the muscle specific creatine kinase concentration. However, the addition of TGF-beta1 diminished decorin-mediated cell responsiveness to TGF-beta1 during differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that decorin induces myogenic satellite cell proliferation and differentiation by regulating cellular responsiveness to TGF-beta1. An alternative TGF-beta1-independent pathway may be involved in the regulation of satellite cells by decorin.

  3. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zirong; Jin, Guorong; Lin, Shuibin; Lin, Xiumei; Gu, Yumei; Zhu, Yujuan; Hu, Chengbin; Zhang, Qingjiong; Wu, Lizi; Shen, Huangxuan

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors and structural proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDA-II inhibited proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts. -- Abstract: CDA-II (cell differentiation agent II), isolated from healthy human urine, is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Previous studies indicated that CDA-II played important roles in the regulation of cell growth and certain differentiation processes. However, it has not been determined whether CDA-II affects skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we investigated effects of CDA-II treatment on skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation, migration and proliferation. We found that CDA-II blocked differentiation of murine myoblasts C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors, such as Myogenin and Mef2c, and structural proteins, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh3), light chain (Mylpf) and MCK. Moreover, CDA-II inhibited C1C12 cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that CDA-II inhibits growth and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, suggesting that the use of CDA-II might affect skeletal muscle functions.

  4. Mouse Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Expressing Adipogenic and Osteogenic Transcription Factors Suppress the Macrophage Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Natalie; Renna, Heather; McHugh, Lauren; Mazolkova, Katie; Crugnola, William; Evans, Jodi F

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal progenitor cell characteristics that can identify progenitor populations with specific functions in immunity are actively being investigated. Progenitors from bone marrow and adipose tissue regulate the macrophage (MΦ) inflammatory response by promoting the switch from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Conversely, mesenchymal progenitors from the mouse aorta (mAo) support and contribute to the MΦ response under inflammatory conditions. We used cell lines with purported opposing immune-regulatory function, a bone marrow derived mesenchymal progenitor cell line (D1) and a mouse aorta derived mesenchymal progenitor cell line (mAo). Their interaction and regulation of the MΦ cell response to the inflammatory mediator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was examined by coculture. As expected, D1 cells suppressed NO, TNF-α, and IL-12p70 production but MΦ phagocytic activity remained unchanged. The mAo cells enhanced NO and TNF-α production in coculture and enhanced MΦ phagocytic activity. Using flow cytometry and PCR array, we then sought to identify sets of MSC-associated genes and markers that are expressed by these progenitor populations. We have determined that immune-supportive mesenchymal progenitors highly express chondrogenic and tenogenic transcription factors while immunosuppressive mesenchymal progenitors highly express adipogenic and osteogenic transcription factors. These data will be useful for the isolation, purification, and modification of mesenchymal progenitors to be used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  5. Mouse Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Expressing Adipogenic and Osteogenic Transcription Factors Suppress the Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Natalie; Renna, Heather; McHugh, Lauren; Mazolkova, Katie; Crugnola, William

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal progenitor cell characteristics that can identify progenitor populations with specific functions in immunity are actively being investigated. Progenitors from bone marrow and adipose tissue regulate the macrophage (MΦ) inflammatory response by promoting the switch from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Conversely, mesenchymal progenitors from the mouse aorta (mAo) support and contribute to the MΦ response under inflammatory conditions. We used cell lines with purported opposing immune-regulatory function, a bone marrow derived mesenchymal progenitor cell line (D1) and a mouse aorta derived mesenchymal progenitor cell line (mAo). Their interaction and regulation of the MΦ cell response to the inflammatory mediator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was examined by coculture. As expected, D1 cells suppressed NO, TNF-α, and IL-12p70 production but MΦ phagocytic activity remained unchanged. The mAo cells enhanced NO and TNF-α production in coculture and enhanced MΦ phagocytic activity. Using flow cytometry and PCR array, we then sought to identify sets of MSC-associated genes and markers that are expressed by these progenitor populations. We have determined that immune-supportive mesenchymal progenitors highly express chondrogenic and tenogenic transcription factors while immunosuppressive mesenchymal progenitors highly express adipogenic and osteogenic transcription factors. These data will be useful for the isolation, purification, and modification of mesenchymal progenitors to be used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:28191017

  6. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis

    2013-01-01

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive “triple negative” human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2SAT transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells. PMID:24100291

  7. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  8. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Vascular Progenitor Cells Capable of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Katherine L; Obrtlikova, Petra; Alvarez, Diego F; King, Judy A; Keirstead, Susan A; Allred, Jeremy R; Kaufman, Dan S

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Previous studies have demonstrated development of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as separate cell lineages derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We demonstrate CD34+ cells isolated from differentiated hESCs function as vascular progenitor cells capable of producing both ECs and SMCs. These studies better define the developmental origin and reveal the relationship between these two cell types, as well as provide a more complete biological characterization. MATERIALS AND METHODS hESCs are co-cultured on M2-10B4 stromal cells or Wnt1 expressing M2-10B4 for 13–15 days to generate a CD34+ cell population. These cells are isolated using a magnetic antibody separation kit and cultured on fibronectin coated dishes in EC medium. To induce SMC differentiation, culture medium is changed and a morphological and phenotypic change occurs within 24–48 hours. RESULTS CD34+ vascular progenitor cells give rise to ECs and SMCs. The two populations express respective cell specific transcripts and proteins, exhibit intracellular calcium in response to various agonists, and form robust tube-like structures when co-cultured in Matrigel. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured under SMC conditions do not exhibit a change in phenotype or genotype. Wnt1 overexpressing stromal cells produced an increased number of progenitor cells. CONCLUSIONS The ability to generate large numbers of ECs and SMCs from a single vascular progenitor cell population is promising for therapeutic use to treat a variety of diseased and ischemic conditions. The step-wise differentiation outlined here is an efficient, reproducible method with potential for large scale cultures suitable for clinical applications. PMID:20067819

  9. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood do have myogenic potential, with and without differentiation induction in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Secco, Mariane; Vieira, Natássia M; Zucconi, Eder; Gollop, Thomaz R; Vainzof, Mariz; Zatz, Mayana

    2009-01-01

    The dystrophin gene, located at Xp21, codifies dystrophin, which is part of a protein complex responsible for the membrane stability of muscle cells. Its absence on muscle causes Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a severe disorder, while a defect of muscle dystrophin causes Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMB), a milder disease. The replacement of the defective muscle through stem cells transplantation is a possible future treatment for these patients. Our objective was to analyze the potential of CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood to differentiate in muscle cells and express dystrophin, in vitro. Protein expression was analyzed by Immunofluorescence, Western Blotting (WB) and Reverse Transcriptase – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). CD34+ stem cells and myoblasts from a DMD affected patient started to fuse with muscle cells immediately after co-cultures establishment. Differentiation in mature myotubes was observed after 15 days and dystrophin-positive regions were detected through Immunofluorescence analysis. However, WB or RT-PCR analysis did not detect the presence of normal dystrophin in co-cultures of CD34+ and DMD or DMB affected patients' muscle cells. In contrast, some CD34+ stem cells differentiated in dystrophin producers' muscle cells, what was observed by WB, reinforcing that this progenitor cell has the potential to originate muscle dystrophin in vitro, and not just in vivo like reported before. PMID:19144182

  10. MURC/cavin-4 Is Co-Expressed with Caveolin-3 in Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumors and Its Silencing Prevents Myogenic Differentiation in the Human Embryonal RD Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Faggi, Fiorella; Codenotti, Silvia; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Cominelli, Manuela; Chiarelli, Nicola; Colombi, Marina; Vezzoli, Marika; Monti, Eugenio; Bono, Federica; Tulipano, Giovanni; Fiorentini, Chiara; Zanola, Alessandra; Lo, Harriet P.; Parton, Robert G.; Keller, Charles; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MURC/cavin-4, a plasma membrane and Z-line associated protein exhibiting an overlapping distribution with Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) in heart and muscle tissues, may be expressed and play a role in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), an aggressive myogenic tumor affecting childhood. We found MURC/cavin-4 to be expressed, often concurrently with Cav-3, in mouse and human RMS, as demonstrated through in silico analysis of gene datasets and immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples. In vitro expression studies carried out using human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures showed that expression levels of both MURC/cavin-4 and Cav-3, while being low or undetectable during cell proliferation, became robustly increased during myogenic differentiation, as detected via semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. Furthermore, confocal microscopy analysis performed on human RD and RH30 cell lines confirmed that MURC/cavin-4 mostly marks differentiated cell elements, colocalizing at the cell surface with Cav-3 and labeling myosin heavy chain (MHC) expressing cells. Finally, MURC/cavin-4 silencing prevented the differentiation in the RD cell line, leading to morphological cell impairment characterized by depletion of myogenin, Cav-3 and MHC protein levels. Overall, our data suggest that MURC/cavin-4, especially in combination with Cav-3, may play a consistent role in the differentiation process of RMS. PMID:26086601

  11. Latent progenitor cells as potential regulators for tympanic membrane regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Lim, Ki-Taek; Tian, Chunjie; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation, in particular chronic otitis media, is one of the most common clinical problems in the world and can present with sensorineural healing loss. Here, we explored an approach for TM regeneration where the latent progenitor or stem cells within TM epithelial layers may play an important regulatory role. We showed that potential TM stem cells present highly positive staining for epithelial stem cell markers in all areas of normal TM tissue. Additionally, they are present at high levels in perforated TMs, especially in proximity to the holes, regardless of acute or chronic status, suggesting that TM stem cells may be a potential factor for TM regeneration. Our study suggests that latent TM stem cells could be potential regulators of regeneration, which provides a new insight into this clinically important process and a potential target for new therapies for chronic otitis media and other eardrum injuries.

  12. Stand-up exercise training facilitates muscle recovery from disuse atrophy by stimulating myogenic satellite cell proliferation in mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuta; Hayakawa, Kimihide; Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Inoue-Miyazu, Masumi; Murakami, Taro; Sokabe, Masahiro; Kawakami, Keisuke

    2014-11-01

    Determining the cellular and molecular recovery processes in inactivity - or unloading -induced atrophied muscles should improve rehabilitation strategies. We assessed the effects of stand-up exercise (SE) training on the recovery of atrophied skeletal muscles in male mice. Mice were trained to stand up and press an elevated lever in response to a light-tone cue preceding an electric foot shock and then subjected to tail suspension (TS) for 2 weeks to induce disuse atrophy in hind limb muscles. After release from TS, mice were divided into SE-trained (SE cues: 25 times per set, two sets per day) and non-SE-trained groups. Seven days after the training, average myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of the soleus muscle was significantly greater in the SE-trained group than in the non-SE-trained group (1843 ± 194 μm(2) vs. 1315 ± 153 μm(2)). Mean soleus muscle CSA in the SE trained group was not different from that in the CON group subjected to neither TS nor SE training (2005 ± 196 μm(2)), indicating that SE training caused nearly complete recovery from muscle atrophy. The number of myonuclei per myofiber was increased by ~60% in the SE-trained group compared with the non-SE-trained and CON groups (0.92 ± 0.03 vs. 0.57 ± 0.03 and 0.56 ± 0.11, respectively). The number of proliferating myonuclei, identified by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine staining, increased within the first few days of SE training. Thus, it is highly likely that myogenic satellite cells proliferated rapidly in atrophied muscles in response to SE training and fused with existing myofibers to reestablish muscle mass.

  13. A new avian fibroblast growth factor receptor in myogenic and chondrogenic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Monsonego, E; Marcelle, C; Hodik, V; Mett, A; Pines, M

    1994-06-01

    We studied the expression of FREK (fibroblast growth factor receptor-like embryonic kinase), a new receptor recently cloned from quail embryo, during the differentiation of skeletal muscle satellite cells and epiphyseal growth-plate chondrocytes. Although FREK mRNA was expressed in both cell types, satellite cells expressed higher levels of this mRNA than chondrocytes. FREK gene expression was found to be modulated by b-FGF in a biphasic manner: low concentrations increased expression, whereas high concentrations attenuated it. In both cell cultures, the levels of FREK mRNA declined during terminal differentiation. Moreover, retinoic acid (RA), which induces skeletal muscle satellite cells to differentiate, also caused a reduction in FREK gene expression in these cells. Induction of chondrocyte differentiation with ascorbic acid was monitored by a decrease in collagen type II gene expression and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Satellite cell differentiation was marked by morphological changes as well as by increased sarcomeric myogenin content and creatine kinase activity and changes in the expression of the regulatory muscle-specific genes, MyoD and myogenin. DNA synthesis in both cell types was stimulated by b-FGF. However, in satellite cells, the response was bell-shaped, peaking at 1 ng/ml b-FGF, whereas in chondrocytes, higher levels of b-FGF were needed. b-FGF-dependent DNA synthesis in satellite cells was decreased by RA at concentrations over 10(-7) M. The observed correlation between the level of FREK gene expression and various stages of differentiation, its modulation by b-FGF and RA, as well as the correlation between FREK gene expression and the physiological response to b-FGF, suggest that this specific FGF receptor plays an important role in muscle and cartilage cell differentiation.

  14. Regulation of Mammary Progenitor Cells by p53 and Parity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2003). 12. Ibarra , I., Erlich, Y., Muthuswamy, S. K., Sachidanandam, R. & Hannon, G. J. A role for microRNAs in maintenance of mouse mammary...supplemented with 1mM EDTA, 25mM HEPES, 1%FBS and 100u/ml Pen/Strep. The FACS data were collected using LSRII (Becton Dickinson, San Jose CA). A total...epithelial stem/progenitor cells. BREAST CANCER RES. 2009;11(2):R20. 28. Ibarra I, Erlich Y, Muthuswamy SK et al. A role for microRNAs in maintenance

  15. Impaired hematopoietic progenitor cells in trauma hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Bhoi, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is the major cause of death during trauma. Mortality due to HS is about 50%. Dysfunction of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) has been observed during severe trauma and HS. HS induces the elevation of cytokines, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), peripheral blood HPCs, and circulating catecholamines, and decreases the expression of erythropoietin receptor connected with suppression of HPCs. Impaired HPCs may lead to persistent anemia and risk of susceptibility to infection, sepsis, and MOF. There is a need to reactivate impaired HPCs during trauma hemorrhagic shock.

  16. Pannexin channels mediate the acquisition of myogenic commitment in C2C12 reserve cells promoted by P2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Manuel A; Cea, Luis A; Vega, José L; Puebla, Carlos; Vargas, Aníbal A; Shoji, Kenji F; Subiabre, Mario; Sáez, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of myoblast commitment to the myogenic linage requires rises in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Putative cell membrane pathways involved in these [Ca(2+)]i increments are P2 receptors (P2Rs) as well as connexin (Cx) and/or pannexin (Panx) hemichannels and channels (Cx HChs and Panx Chs), respectively, which are known to permeate Ca(2+). Reserve cells (RCs) are uncommitted myoblasts obtained from differentiated C2C12 cell cultures, which acquire commitment upon replating. Regarding these cells, we found that extracellular ATP increases the [Ca(2+)]i via P2Rs. Moreover, ATP increases the plasma membrane permeability to small molecules and a non-selective membrane current, both of which were inhibited by Cx HCh/Panx1Ch blockers. However, RCs exposed to divalent cation-free saline solution, which is known to activate Cx HChs (but not Panx Chs), did not enhance membrane permeability, thus ruling out the possible involvement of Cx HChs. Moreover, ATP-induced membrane permeability was inhibited with blockers of P2Rs that activate Panx Chs. In addition, exogenous ATP induced the expression of myogenic commitment and increased MyoD levels, which was prevented by the inhibition of P2Rs or knockdown of Panx1 Chs. Similarly, increases in MyoD levels induced by ATP released by RCs were inhibited by Panx Ch/Cx HCh blockers. Myogenic commitment acquisition thus requires a feed-forward mechanism mediated by extracellular ATP, P2Rs, and Panx Chs.

  17. [Stem/progenitor cells in diseases of the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2017-03-21

    Stem cells (SCs - stem cells) are characterized by plasticity and the ability to differentiate into other cell types. They are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows a broad immunomodulating, increases the number of regulatory T cells (Treg), modifies the activity of T cells, dendritic cells and NK (natural killer). Direct impact on reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. Within the respiratory tract has a number of resident stem and progenitor cells referred to as L-MSCs (lung mesenchymal stem cells) whose presence was confirmed by markers as defined in the trachea, epithelial cells and alveolar. Demonstrated the efficacy of MSCs administration in the first stage of septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS - acute respiratory distress syndrome). There was a significant stimulation of repair processes, along with an improvement in lung function. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs - embryonic stem cells) are the latest addition in the treatment of congenital and acquired diseases of the airways and lung parenchyma. In patients with sarcoidosis MSCs are obtained from umbilical cord blood (PDA - placenta-derived mesenchymal-like cells) with phenotype CD34 +, CD10 +, CD105 + and CD200 +. The results of this therapy are very encouraging, and for this reason it is taken in subsequent research centers.

  18. Transplantation of mouse fetal liver cells for analyzing the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Kristbjorn Orri; Stull, Steven W; Keller, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate through progenitor cell stages into all types of mature blood cells. Gene-targeting studies in mice have demonstrated that many genes are essential for the generation and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. For definitively analyzing the function of these cells, transplantation studies have to be performed. In this chapter, we describe methods to isolate and transplant fetal liver cells as well as how to analyze donor cell reconstitution. This protocol is tailored toward mouse models where embryonic lethality precludes analysis of adult hematopoiesis or where it is suspected that the function of fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is compromised.

  19. Progenitor Cell Self-renewal and Cyclic Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Dingli, David; Antal, Tibor; Traulsen, Arne; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic neutropenia (CN) is a rare genetic disorder where patients experience regular cycling of neutrophils and various other hematopoietic lineages. The nadir in the neutrophil count is the main source of problems due to the risk of life-threatening infections. Patients with CN benefit from G-CSF therapy although cycling persists. Mutations in the neutrophil elastase gene (ELA2) have been found in more than half of the patients with CN. However, neither the connection between phenotypic expression of ELA2 and CN nor the mechanism of cycling are known. Recently a multi-compartment model of hematopoiesis that couples stem cell replication with marrow output was proposed. In the following, we couple this model of hematopoiesis with a linear feedback mechanism via G-CSF. We propose that the phenotypic effect of ELA2 mutations leads to a reduction in self-renewal of granulocytic progenitors. The body responds by an overall relative increase of G-CSF and increasing progenitor cell self-renewal leading to cell count cycling. The model is compatible with the available experimental data and makes testable predictions. PMID:19397594

  20. Adenosine signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell emergence.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lili; Tamplin, Owen J; Chen, Michael J; Deng, Qing; Patterson, Shenia; Kim, Peter G; Durand, Ellen M; McNeil, Ashley; Green, Julie M; Matsuura, Shinobu; Ablain, Julien; Brandt, Margot K; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Huttenlocher, Anna; Daley, George Q; Ravid, Katya; Zon, Leonard I

    2015-05-04

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge from aortic endothelium via the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). The molecular mechanisms that initiate and regulate EHT remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adenosine signaling regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development in zebrafish embryos. The adenosine receptor A2b is expressed in the vascular endothelium before HSPC emergence. Elevated adenosine levels increased runx1(+)/cmyb(+) HSPCs in the dorsal aorta, whereas blocking the adenosine pathway decreased HSPCs. Knockdown of A2b adenosine receptor disrupted scl(+) hemogenic vascular endothelium and the subsequent EHT process. A2b adenosine receptor activation induced CXCL8 via cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) and mediated hematopoiesis. We further show that adenosine increased multipotent progenitors in a mouse embryonic stem cell colony-forming assay and in embryonic day 10.5 aorta-gonad-mesonephros explants. Our results demonstrate that adenosine signaling plays an evolutionary conserved role in the first steps of HSPC formation in vertebrates.

  1. Regulation of development of rat stem and progenitor Leydig cells by activin.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Wang, Y; Li, X; Liu, S; Wang, G; Lin, H; Zhu, Q; Guo, J; Chen, H; Ge, H-S; Ge, R-S

    2017-01-01

    Stem Leydig cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into adult Leydig cells via intermediate stages of progenitor and immature Leydig cells. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that the development of stem or progenitor Leydig cells depends upon locally produced growth factors. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression levels of activin type I receptor (Acvr1) and activin A receptor type II-like 1 (Acvrl1) were stem > progenitor = immature = adult Leydig cells. This indicates that their ligand activin might play an important role in stem and progenitor Leydig cell proliferation and differentiation. When seminiferous tubules were incubated with 1 or 10 ng/mL activin A for 3 days, it concentration-dependently increased EdU incorporation into stem Leydig cells by up to 20-fold. When progenitor Leydig cells were incubated with 1 or 10 ng/mL activin A for 2 days, it concentration-dependently increased (3) H-thymidine incorporation into progenitor Leydig cells by up to 200%. Real-time PCR analysis showed that activin A primarily increased Pcna expression but reduced Star, Hsd3b1, and Cyp17a1 expression levels. Activin A also significantly inhibited the basal and luteinizing hormone-stimulated androgen production. In conclusion, activin A primarily stimulates the proliferation of stem and progenitor Leydig cells, but inhibits the differentiation of stem and progenitor Leydig cells into the Leydig cell lineage in rat testis.

  2. Serum response factor p67SRF is expressed and required during myogenic differentiation of both mouse C2 and rat L6 muscle cell lines

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The 67-kD serum response factor (p67SRF) is a ubiquitous nuclear transcription factor that acts by direct binding to a consensus DNA sequence, the serum response element (SRE), present in the promoter region of numerous genes. Although p67SRF was initially implicated in the activation of mitogen-stimulated genes, the identification of a sequence similar to SRE, the CArG box motif, competent to interact with SRE binding factors in many muscle-specific genes, has led to speculation that, in addition to its function in cell proliferation, p67SRF may play a role in muscle differentiation. Indirect immunofluorescence using affinity-purified antibodies specifically directed against p67SRF reveals that this factor is constitutively expressed and localized in the nucleus of two skeletal muscle cell lines: rat L6 and mouse C2 myogenic cells during myogenic differentiation. This result was further confirmed through immunoblotting and Northern blot analysis. Furthermore, specific inhibition of p67SRF in vivo through microinjection of purified p67SRF antibodies prevented the myoblast-myotube transition and the expression of muscle-specific genes such as the protein troponin T. We further showed that anti-p67SRF injection also inhibited the expression of the myogenic factor myogenin, implying an early requirement for p67SRF in muscle differentiation. These results demonstrate that p67SRF is involved in the process of skeletal muscle differentiation. The potential action of p67SRF via CArG sequences is discussed. PMID:1522119

  3. Effect of Dexamethasone, Insulin and EGF on the Myogenic Potential on Human Endometrial Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Jalali Tehrani, Hora; Parivar, Kazem; Ai, Jafar; Kajbafzadeh, Abdolmohammad; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Human endometrium contains mesenchymal stem cells (eMSC) which have the ability to differentiate into three cell lineages and the potential in therapeutic applications. We hypothesize that using environmental induction in culture media such as dexamethasone, human recombinant insulin and human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) can differentiate endometrial stem cells into myoblast. These agents have a broad range of effects in myoblast differentiation in-vitro. We used immunohystochemistry analysis and RT –PCR to evaluate the presence of skeletal muscle - specific proteins some of which are expressed in the early stage of differentiation including myoD and Desmin which expressed at later stages of differentiation. In conclusion eMSC can differentiate in culture media which contains above mentioned factors and use for therapeutic purpose in muscular degenerative disease. PMID:25237362

  4. Spontaneous Calcium Oscillations Regulate Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, João; Rondon-Clavo, Carlos; Tugal, Derin; Korn, Justin A; Rizzi, Roberto; Padin-Iruegas, Maria Elena; Ottolenghi, Sergio; De Angelis, Antonella; Urbanek, Konrad; Iwata, Noriko; D’Amario, Domenico; Hosoda, Toru; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero; Rota, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    Rationale The adult heart possesses a pool of progenitor cells stored in myocardial niches but the mechanisms involved in the activation of this cell compartment are currently unknown. Objective Ca2+ promotes cell growth raising the possibility that changes in intracellular Ca2+ initiate division of c-kit-positive human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) and determine their fate. Methods and Results Ca2+ oscillations were identified in hCPCs and these events occurred independently from coupling with cardiomyocytes or the presence of extracellular Ca2+. These findings were confirmed in the heart of transgenic mice in which EGFP was under the control of the c-kit-promoter. Ca2+ oscillations in hCPCs were regulated by the release of Ca2+ from the ER through activation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and the re-uptake of Ca2+ by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (SERCA). IP3Rs and SERCA were highly expressed in hCPCs while ryanodine receptors were not detected. Although Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, store-operated Ca2+-channels and plasma membrane Ca2+-pump were present and functional in hCPCs, they had no direct effects on Ca2+ oscillations. Conversely, Ca2+ oscillations and their frequency markedly increased with ATP and histamine which activated purinoceptors and histamine-1 receptors highly expressed in hCPCs. Importantly, Ca2+ oscillations in hCPCs were coupled with the entry of cells into the cell cycle and BrdUrd incorporation. Induction of Ca2+ oscillations in hCPCs prior to their intramyocardial delivery to infarcted hearts was associated with enhanced engraftment and expansion of these cells promoting the generation of a large myocyte progeny. Conclusion IP3R-mediated Ca2+ mobilization control hCPC growth and their regenerative potential. PMID:19745162

  5. Pak2 regulates hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, survival and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Staser, Karl; Chitteti, Brahmananda Reddy; Park, Su-Jung; Hahn, Seongmin; Cooper, Scott; Sun, Zejin; Jiang, Li; Yang, XianLin; Yuan, Jin; Kosoff, Rachelle; Sandusky, George; Srour, Edward F.; Chernoff, Jonathan; Clapp, Wade

    2015-01-01

    p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2), a serine/threonine kinase, has been previously shown to be essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment. However, Pak2 modulation of long-term hematopoiesis and lineage commitment remain unreported. Utilizing a conditional Pak2 knock out (KO) mouse model, we found that disruption of Pak2 in HSCs induced profound leukopenia and a mild macrocytic anemia. Although loss of Pak2 in HSCs leads to less efficient short- and long-term competitive hematopoiesis than wild type (WT) cells, it does not affect HSC self-renewal per se. Pak2 disruption decreased the survival and proliferation of multi-cytokine stimulated immature progenitors. Loss of Pak2 skewed lineage differentiation toward granulocytopoiesis and monocytopoiesis in mice as evidenced by 1) a three to six-fold increase in the percentage of peripheral blood granulocytes and a significant increase in the percentage of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) in mice transplanted with Pak2-disrupted BM; 2) Pak2-disrupted BM and c-kit+ cells yielded higher numbers of more mature subsets of granulocyte-monocyte colonies and polymophonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), respectively, when cultured in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Pak2 disruption resulted respectively in decreased and increased gene expression of transcription factors JunB and c-Myc, which may suggest underlying mechanisms by which Pak2 regulates granulocyte-monocyte lineage commitment. Furthermore, Pak2 disruption led to 1) higher percentage of CD4+CD8+ double positive T cells and lower percentages of CD4+CD8− or CD4−CD8+ single positive T cells in thymus and 2) decreased numbers of mature B cells and increased numbers of Pre-Pro B cells in BM, suggesting defects in lymphopoiesis. PMID:25586960

  6. Functional genetic targeting of embryonic kidney progenitor cells ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Junttila, Sanna; Saarela, Ulla; Halt, Kimmo; Manninen, Aki; Pärssinen, Heikki; Lecca, M Rita; Brändli, André W; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Skovorodkin, Ilya; Vainio, Seppo J

    2015-05-01

    The embryonic mammalian metanephric mesenchyme (MM) is a unique tissue because it is competent to generate the nephrons in response to Wnt signaling. An ex vivo culture in which the MM is separated from the ureteric bud (UB), the natural inducer, can be used as a classic tubule induction model for studying nephrogenesis. However, technological restrictions currently prevent using this model to study the molecular genetic details before or during tubule induction. Using nephron segment-specific markers, we now show that tubule induction in the MM ex vivo also leads to the assembly of highly segmented nephrons. This induction capacity was reconstituted when MM tissue was dissociated into a cell suspension and then reaggregated (drMM) in the presence of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 7/human recombinant fibroblast growth factor 2 for 24 hours before induction. Growth factor-treated drMM also recovered the capacity for organogenesis when recombined with the UB. Cell tracking and time-lapse imaging of chimeric drMM cultures indicated that the nephron is not derived from a single progenitor cell. Furthermore, viral vector-mediated transduction of green fluorescent protein was much more efficient in dissociated MM cells than in intact mesenchyme, and the nephrogenic competence of transduced drMM progenitor cells was preserved. Moreover, drMM cells transduced with viral vectors mediating Lhx1 knockdown were excluded from the nephric tubules, whereas cells transduced with control vectors were incorporated. In summary, these techniques allow reproducible cellular and molecular examinations of the mechanisms behind nephrogenesis and kidney organogenesis in an ex vivo organ culture/organoid setting.

  7. From Here to There, Progenitor Cells and Stem Cells Are Everywhere in Lung Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Rebecca L.; Link, Patrick A.; Farkas, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy, and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially, in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Extensive research activity is exploring the lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field. PMID:27583245

  8. Potential applications for cell regulatory factors in liver progenitor cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shupe, Thomas; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2010-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplant represent the state of the art treatment for terminal liver pathologies such as cirrhosis in adults and hemochromatosis in neonates. A limited supply of transplantable organs in relationship to the demand means that many patients will succumb to disease before an organ becomes available. One promising alternative to liver transplant is therapy based on the transplant of liver progenitor cells. These cells may be derived from the patient, expanded in vitro, and transplanted back to the diseased liver. Inborn metabolic disorders represent the most attractive target for liver progenitor cell therapy, as many of these disorders may be corrected by repopulation of only a portion of the liver by healthy cells. Another potential application for liver progenitor cell therapy is the seeding of bio-artificial liver matrix. These ex vivo bioreactors may someday be used to bridge critically ill patients to other treatments. Conferring a selective growth advantage to the progenitor cell population remains an obstacle to therapy development. Understanding the molecular signaling mechanisms and micro-environmental cues that govern liver progenitor cell phenotype may someday lead to strategies for providing this selective growth advantage. The discovery of a population of cells within the bone marrow possessing the ability to differentiate into hepatocytes may provide an easily accessible source of cells for liver therapies. PMID:20851776

  9. Electrically Induced Calcium Handling in Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    For nearly a century, the heart was viewed as a terminally differentiated organ until the discovery of a resident population of cardiac stem cells known as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). It has been shown that the regenerative capacity of CPCs can be enhanced by ex vivo modification. Preconditioning CPCs could provide drastic improvements in cardiac structure and function; however, a systematic approach to determining a mechanistic basis for these modifications founded on the physiology of CPCs is lacking. We have identified a novel property of CPCs to respond to electrical stimulation by initiating intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We used confocal microscopy and intracellular calcium imaging to determine the spatiotemporal properties of the Ca2+ signal and the key proteins involved in this process using pharmacological inhibition and confocal Ca2+ imaging. Our results provide valuable insights into mechanisms to enhance the therapeutic potential in stem cells and further our understanding of human CPC physiology. PMID:27818693

  10. [Autotransplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández, J; Correale, J; Campestri, R; Koziner, B

    1999-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease exhibiting great clinical variability. For control of its primary and secondary progressive variants, treatment has met with limited success. In recent years, increasing experience has been gained with the administration of high dose chemotherapy supported by the autologous infusion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), in some instances depleted of T cells. The European and International Registry of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Autoimmune Diseases include 43 MS patients. BEAM was the most frequently used conditioning therapy. Treatment related mortality was 7%. The actuarial disease free survival and the overall projected survival at 38 months were 85% and 90% respectively. The inclusion of an increasing number of MS patients into these treatment programs and the growing submission of cases to the Registries will provide useful information to determine if the initial enthusiasm generated by this approach for the control of primary and secondary progressive forms of MS is justified.

  11. Cis-regulatory mechanisms governing stem and progenitor cell transitions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Kong, Guangyao; Gao, Xin; Chang, Yuan-I; Hewitt, Kyle J.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran; Prathibha, Rajalekshmi; Ranheim, Erik A.; Dewey, Colin N.; Zhang, Jing; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2015-01-01

    Cis-element encyclopedias provide information on phenotypic diversity and disease mechanisms. Although cis-element polymorphisms and mutations are instructive, deciphering function remains challenging. Mutation of an intronic GATA motif (+9.5) in GATA2, encoding a master regulator of hematopoiesis, underlies an immunodeficiency associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whereas an inversion relocalizes another GATA2 cis-element (−77) to the proto-oncogene EVI1, inducing EVI1 expression and AML, whether this reflects ectopic or physiological activity is unknown. We describe a mouse strain that decouples −77 function from proto-oncogene deregulation. The −77−/− mice exhibited a novel phenotypic constellation including late embryonic lethality and anemia. The −77 established a vital sector of the myeloid progenitor transcriptome, conferring multipotentiality. Unlike the +9.5−/− embryos, hematopoietic stem cell genesis was unaffected in −77−/− embryos. These results illustrate a paradigm in which cis-elements in a locus differentially control stem and progenitor cell transitions, and therefore the individual cis-element alterations cause unique and overlapping disease phenotypes. PMID:26601269

  12. No Identical "Mesenchymal Stem Cells" at Different Times and Sites: Human Committed Progenitors of Distinct Origin and Differentiation Potential Are Incorporated as Adventitial Cells in Microvessels.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Benedetto; Funari, Alessia; Remoli, Cristina; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Kogler, Gesine; Liedtke, Stefanie; Cossu, Giulio; Serafini, Marta; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tagliafico, Enrico; Tenedini, Elena; Saggio, Isabella; Robey, Pamela G; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

    2016-06-14

    A widely shared view reads that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells ("MSCs") are ubiquitous in human connective tissues, can be defined by a common in vitro phenotype, share a skeletogenic potential as assessed by in vitro differentiation assays, and coincide with ubiquitous pericytes. Using stringent in vivo differentiation assays and transcriptome analysis, we show that human cell populations from different anatomical sources, regarded as "MSCs" based on these criteria and assumptions, actually differ widely in their transcriptomic signature and in vivo differentiation potential. In contrast, they share the capacity to guide the assembly of functional microvessels in vivo, regardless of their anatomical source, or in situ identity as perivascular or circulating cells. This analysis reveals that muscle pericytes, which are not spontaneously osteochondrogenic as previously claimed, may indeed coincide with an ectopic perivascular subset of committed myogenic cells similar to satellite cells. Cord blood-derived stromal cells, on the other hand, display the unique capacity to form cartilage in vivo spontaneously, in addition to an assayable osteogenic capacity. These data suggest the need to revise current misconceptions on the origin and function of so-called "MSCs," with important applicative implications. The data also support the view that rather than a uniform class of "MSCs," different mesoderm derivatives include distinct classes of tissue-specific committed progenitors, possibly of different developmental origin.

  13. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process

    PubMed Central

    LoGuidice, Amanda; Houlihan, Alison; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix–only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in orthopedic applications

  14. Purothionin from wheat endosperm reversibly blocks myogenic differentiation of chick embryonic muscle cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kyu Bong Kwak; Young Sup Lee; Se Won Suh; Doo Bong Ha; Chin Ha Chung ); Chin Sang Chung )

    1989-08-01

    Purothionin from wheat endosperm is a cysteine-rich, basic polypeptide of about 5,000 Da, which modifies membrane permeability of cultured mammalian cells. This peptide was found to block fusion of chick embryonic muscle cells in culture but allows proliferation and alignment. A purothionin concentration of 6 {mu}m/ml was necessary for the complete prevention of myotube formation. Under similar conditions, incorporation of ({sup 35}S) methionine occurred normally but the synthesis of muscle-specific proteins including creatin kinase and acetylcholine receptor was strongly inhibited. In addition, purothionin blocked the uptake of {sup 86}Rb{sup +}, immediately after its addition to the cultured myoblasts. These results suggest that purothionin exerts its regulatory effect on the transition from proliferative to differentiative myoblasts by interfering with membrane permeability or intercellular contact and recognition, which are necessary for the initiation of muscle differentiation.

  15. Isolated rat cortical progenitor cells are maintained in division in vitro by membrane-associated factors.

    PubMed

    Temple, S; Davis, A A

    1994-04-01

    Ventricular zone cells in the developing CNS undergo extensive cell division in vivo and under certain conditions in vitro. The culture conditions that promote cell division have been studied to determine the role that contact with cell membrane associated factors play in the proliferation of these cells. Progenitor cells have been taken from the ventricular zone of developing rat cerebral cortex and placed into microwells. Small clusters of these cells can generate large numbers of neurons and non-neuronal progeny. In contrast, single progenitor cells largely cease division, approximately 90% acquiring neuron-like characteristics by 1 day in vitro. DiI-labeled, single cells from embryonic day 14 cortex plated onto clusters of unmarked progenitor cells have a significantly higher probability (approximately 3-fold) of maintaining a progenitor cell phenotype than if plated onto the plastic substratum around 100 microns away from the clusters. Contact with purified astrocytes also promotes the progenitor cell phenotype, whereas contact with meningeal fibroblasts or balb3T3 cells promotes their differentiation. Membrane homogenates from cortical astrocytes stimulate significantly more incorporation of BrdU by E14 cortical progenitor cells than membrane homogenates from meningeal fibroblasts. These data indicate that the proliferation of rat cortical progenitor cells can be maintained by cell-type specific, membrane-associated factors.

  16. Growth of connective tissue progenitor cells on microtextured polydimethylsiloxane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mata, Alvaro; Boehm, Cynthia; Fleischman, Aaron J; Muschler, George; Roy, Shuvo

    2002-12-15

    Growth of human connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs) was characterized on smooth and microtextured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. Human bone-marrow-derived cells were cultured for 9 days under conditions promoting osteoblastic differentiation on smooth PDMS surfaces and on PDMS post microtextures that were 6 microm high and 5, 10, 20, and 40 microm in diameter, respectively. Glass tissue-culture dishes were used as controls. The number of viable cells was determined, and an alkaline phosphatase stain was used as a marker for osteoblastic phenotype. CTPs attached, proliferated, and differentiated on all surfaces. Cells on the smooth PDMS and control surfaces spread and proliferated as colonies in proximity to other cells and migrated in random directions, with cell process lengths of up to 80 microm. In contrast, cells on the PDMS post microtextures grew as sparsely distributed networks of cells, with processes, occasionally up to 300 microm, that appeared to interact with the posts. Cell counts revealed that there were fewer (50%) CTPs on the smooth PDMS surface than were on the glass control surfaces. However, there were consistently more (>144%) CTPs on the PDMS post textures than on the controls. In particular, the 10-microm-in-diameter posts (268%) exhibited a significantly (p < 0.05) greater cell number than did the smooth PDMS.

  17. Fate of 3H-thymidine labelled myogenic cells in regeneration of muscle isografts.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, E; Mares, V; Stichová, J

    1976-03-05

    Intact and denervated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of 20-day-old inbred Lewis-Wistar rats were labelled with 3H-thymidine. Ninety minutes after the injection of the isotope 4.0% of the nuclei were labelled in the intact (i.e. innervated) and 9.6% in the muscles, denervated 3 days before administration of the isotope. The labelled EDL muscles were grafted into the bed of the previously removed EDL muscles of inbred animals and these isografts were studied 30 days later. In the EDL muscles, regenerated from innervated isografts only occasionally labelled endothelial cells were found whereas in the muscles regenerated from denervated isografts also parenchymal muscle nuclei were regularly labelled. The incidence of labelled nuclei in the regenerated EDL muscles was, however, about 20 times lower than in the donor EDL muscles. The presen experiments provide a direct proof of utilization of donor satelite cell nuclei for regeneration in grafted muscle tissue. With respect to the low incidence of labelled nuclei in regenerated EDL muscles, other sources of cells apparently also contribute to the regeneration process.

  18. Cell-cycle-independent transitions in temporal identity of mammalian neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Mayumi; Miyata, Takaki; Konno, Daijiro; Ueda, Hiroki R; Kasukawa, Takeya; Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Kawaguchi, Ayano

    2016-04-20

    During cerebral development, many types of neurons are sequentially generated by self-renewing progenitor cells called apical progenitors (APs). Temporal changes in AP identity are thought to be responsible for neuronal diversity; however, the mechanisms underlying such changes remain largely unknown. Here we perform single-cell transcriptome analysis of individual progenitors at different developmental stages, and identify a subset of genes whose expression changes over time but is independent of differentiation status. Surprisingly, the pattern of changes in the expression of such temporal-axis genes in APs is unaffected by cell-cycle arrest. Consistent with this, transient cell-cycle arrest of APs in vivo does not prevent descendant neurons from acquiring their correct laminar fates. Analysis of cultured APs reveals that transitions in AP gene expression are driven by both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms. These results suggest that the timing mechanisms controlling AP temporal identity function independently of cell-cycle progression and Notch activation mode.

  19. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  20. Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Aaron B; Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A J

    2014-04-08

    Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells.

  1. Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells. PMID:24706895

  2. Stem and progenitor cell alterations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Aditi; Will, Britta; Steidl, Ulrich; Verma, Amit

    2017-03-23

    Recent studies have demonstrated that myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) arise from a small population of disease-initiating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that persist and expand through conventional therapies and are major contributors to disease progression and relapse. MDS stem and progenitor cells are characterized by key founder and driver mutations and are enriched for cytogenetic alterations. Quantitative alterations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) numbers are also seen in a stage-specific manner in human MDS samples as well as in murine models of the disease. Overexpression of several markers such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), CD99, T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3, and CD123 have begun to differentiate MDS HSPCs from healthy counterparts. Overactivation of innate immune components such as Toll-like receptors, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase/tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6, IL8/CXCR2, and IL1RAP signaling pathways has been demonstrated in MDS HSPCs and is being targeted therapeutically in preclinical and early clinical studies. Other dysregulated pathways such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulinlike and EGF-like domains 1/angiopoietin-1, p21-activated kinase, microRNA 21, and transforming growth factor β are also being explored as therapeutic targets against MDS HSPCs. Taken together, these studies have demonstrated that MDS stem cells are functionally critical for the initiation, transformation, and relapse of disease and need to be targeted therapeutically for future curative strategies in MDSs.

  3. [Isolation and gene modification of amniotic fluid derived progenitor cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenmin; Fan, Shuyue; Tang, Huixiang; Gong, Zhijuan; Gong, Xiuli; Ren, Zhaorui; Zeng, Fanyi

    2014-03-01

    We established methods to isolate human amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells (hAFPCs), and analyze the ability of hAFPCs to secrete human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) after gene modification. The hAFPCs were manually isolated by selection for attachment to gelatin coated culture dish. hFIX cDNA was transfected into hAPFCs by using a lentiviral vector. The hFIX protein concentration and activity produced from hAFPCs were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and clotting assay. The isolated spindle-shaped cells showed fibroblastoid morphology after three culture passages. The doubling time in culture was 39.05 hours. Immunocytochemistry staining of the fibroblast-like cells from amniotic fluid detected expression of stem cell markers such as SSEA4 and TRA1-60. Quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 mRNAs. Transfected hAFPCs could produce and secrete hFIX into the culture medium. The observed concentration of secreted hFIX was 20.37% +/- 2.77% two days after passage, with clotting activity of 16.42% +/- 1.78%. The amount of hFIX:Ag reached a plateau of 50.35% +/- 5.42%, with clotting activity 45.34% +/- 4.67%. In conclusion, this study established method to isolate and culture amniotic fluid progenitor cells. Transfected hAFPCs can produce hFIX at stable levels in vitro, and clotting activity increases with higher hFIX concentration. Genetically engineered hAFPC are a potential method for prenatal treatment of hemophilia B.

  4. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis.

  5. Culture materials affect ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    LaIuppa, J A; McAdams, T A; Papoutsakis, E T; Miller, W M

    1997-09-05

    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells is important for applications such as cancer treatment, gene therapy, and transfusion medicine. While cell culture systems are widely used to evaluate the biocompatibility of materials for implantation, the ability of materials to support proliferation of primary human cells in cultures for reinfusion into patients has not been addressed. We screened a variety of commercially available polymer (15 types), metal (four types), and glass substrates for their ability to support expansion of hematopoietic cells when cultured under conditions that would be encountered in a clinical setting. Cultures of peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for expansion of total cells and colony-forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM; progenitors committed to the granulocyte and/or monocyte lineage). Human hematopoietic cultures in serum-free medium were found to be extremely sensitive to the substrate material. The only materials tested that supported expansion at or near the levels of polystyrene were tissue culture polystyrene, Teflon perfluoroalkoxy, Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene, cellulose acetate, titanium, new polycarbonate, and new polymethylpentene. MNC were less sensitive to the substrate materials than the primitive CD34+ progenitors, although similar trends were seen for expansion of the two cell populations on the substrates tested. CFU-GM expansion was more sensitive to substrate materials than was total cell expansion. The detrimental effects of a number of the materials on hematopoietic cultures appear to be caused by protein adsorption and/or leaching of toxins. Factors such as cleaning, sterilization, and reuse significantly affected the performance of some materials as culture substrates. We also used PB CD34+ cell cultures to examine the biocompatibility of gas-permeable cell culture and blood storage bags and several types of tubing commonly used with biomedical equipment

  6. Growth factor- and cytokine-stimulated endothelial progenitor cells in post-ischemic cerebral neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Peplow, Philip V.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells are resident in the bone marrow blood sinusoids and circulate in the peripheral circulation. They mobilize from the bone marrow after vascular injury and home to the site of injury where they differentiate into endothelial cells. Activation and mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow is induced via the production and release of endothelial progenitor cell-activating factors and includes specific growth factors and cytokines in response to peripheral tissue hypoxia such as after acute ischemic stroke or trauma. Endothelial progenitor cells migrate and home to specific sites following ischemic stroke via growth factor/cytokine gradients. Some growth factors are less stable under acidic conditions of tissue ischemia, and synthetic analogues that are stable at low pH may provide a more effective therapeutic approach for inducing endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and promoting cerebral neovascularization following ischemic stroke. PMID:25317152

  7. Hepatic progenitor cells of biliary origin with liver repopulation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boulter, Luke; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Cole, Alicia M; Hay, Trevor; Guest, Rachel V; Wojtacha, Davina; Man, Tak Yung; Mackinnon, Alison; Ridgway, Rachel A; Kendall, Timothy; Williams, Michael J; Jamieson, Thomas; Raven, Alex; Hay, David C; Iredale, John P; Clarke, Alan R; Sansom, Owen J; Forbes, Stuart J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes self renew following liver injury. Following severe injury hepatocytes are increasingly senescent, whether Hepatic Progenitor Cells (HPCs) then contribute to liver regeneration is unclear. Here, we describe a mouse model where Mdm2 is inducibly deleted in over 98% of hepatocytes, causing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence with nearly all hepatocytes expressing p21. This results in florid HPC activation, which is necessary for survival, followed by complete, functional liver reconstitution. HPCs isolated from genetically normal mice, using cell surface markers, were highly expandable and phenotypically stable in vitro. These HPCs were transplanted into adult mouse livers where hepatocyte Mdm2 was repeatedly deleted, creating a non-competitive repopulation assay. Transplanted HPCs contributed significantly to restoration of liver parenchyma, regenerating hepatocytes and biliary epithelia, highlighting their in vivo lineage potency. HPCs are therefore a potential future alternative to hepatocyte or liver transplantation for liver disease. PMID:26192438

  8. Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from dissociated monolayer and feeder-free cultured pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Bando, Yoshio; Ono, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakurako; Doi, Ayano; Araki, Toshihiro; Kato, Yosuke; Shirakawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Junji; Yoshida, Shigetaka; Sato, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons and form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. The development of therapies for demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, is a challenge because the pathogenic mechanisms of disease remain poorly understood. Primate pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes are expected to help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. Oligodendrocytes have been successfully differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. However, it is challenging to prepare large amounts of oligodendrocytes over a short amount of time because of manipulation difficulties under conventional primate pluripotent stem cell culture methods. We developed a proprietary dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system to handle pluripotent stem cell cultures. Because the dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system improves the quality and growth of primate pluripotent stem cells, these cells could potentially be differentiated into any desired functional cells and consistently cultured in large-scale conditions. In the current study, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes were generated within three months from monkey embryonic stem cells. The embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes exhibited in vitro myelinogenic potency with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Additionally, the transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiated into myelin basic protein-positive mature oligodendrocytes in the mouse corpus callosum. This preparative method was used for human induced pluripotent stem cells, which were also successfully differentiated into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes that were capable of myelinating rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, it was possible to freeze, thaw, and successfully re-culture the differentiating cells. These results showed that embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells maintained in a

  9. Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from dissociated monolayer and feeder-free cultured pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Bando, Yoshio; Ono, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakurako; Doi, Ayano; Araki, Toshihiro; Kato, Yosuke; Shirakawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Junji; Yoshida, Shigetaka; Sato, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons and form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. The development of therapies for demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, is a challenge because the pathogenic mechanisms of disease remain poorly understood. Primate pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes are expected to help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. Oligodendrocytes have been successfully differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. However, it is challenging to prepare large amounts of oligodendrocytes over a short amount of time because of manipulation difficulties under conventional primate pluripotent stem cell culture methods. We developed a proprietary dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system to handle pluripotent stem cell cultures. Because the dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system improves the quality and growth of primate pluripotent stem cells, these cells could potentially be differentiated into any desired functional cells and consistently cultured in large-scale conditions. In the current study, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes were generated within three months from monkey embryonic stem cells. The embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes exhibited in vitro myelinogenic potency with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Additionally, the transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiated into myelin basic protein-positive mature oligodendrocytes in the mouse corpus callosum. This preparative method was used for human induced pluripotent stem cells, which were also successfully differentiated into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes that were capable of myelinating rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, it was possible to freeze, thaw, and successfully re-culture the differentiating cells. These results showed that embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells maintained in a

  10. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    PubMed Central

    Fukusumi, Hayato; Shofuda, Tomoko; Bamba, Yohei; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Handa, Yukako; Okita, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masaya; Yamanaka, Shinya; Okano, Hideyuki; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2016-01-01

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB) formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi). Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes. PMID:27212953

  11. Characterization of Progenitor Cells in Pulps of Murine Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Balic, A.; Mina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The continuous growth of rodent incisors requires the presence of stem cells capable of generating ameloblasts and odontoblasts. While epithelial stem cells giving rise to ameloblasts have been well-characterized, cells giving rise to the odontoblasts in incisors have not been fully characterized. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the potential population in dental pulps of unerupted and erupted incisors that give rise to odontoblasts. We show that pulps from unerupted incisors contain a significant mesenchymal-stem-cell (MSC)-like population (cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45-, Sca-1+/CD45-) and few CD45+ cells. Our in vitro studies showed that these cells displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential, but were unable to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dental pulps from erupted incisors displayed increased percentages of CD45+ and decreased percentages of cells expressing markers of an MSC-like population. Despite these differences, pulps from erupted incisors also displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential and inability to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. These results provide evidence that continuous generation of odontoblasts and dentin on the labial and lingual sides of unerupted and erupted incisors is supported by a progenitor population and not multipotent MSCs in the dental pulp. PMID:20739699

  12. The Cavβ1a subunit regulates gene expression and suppresses myogenin in muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jackson; Pereyra, Andrea; Zhang, Tan; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-06-23

    Voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β subunits are auxiliary subunits to Cavs. Recent reports show Cavβ subunits may enter the nucleus and suggest a role in transcriptional regulation, but the physiological relevance of this localization remains unclear. We sought to define the nuclear function of Cavβ in muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). We found that Cavβ1a is expressed in proliferating MPCs, before expression of the calcium conducting subunit Cav1.1, and enters the nucleus. Loss of Cavβ1a expression impaired MPC expansion in vitro and in vivo and caused widespread changes in global gene expression, including up-regulation of myogenin. Additionally, we found that Cavβ1a localizes to the promoter region of a number of genes, preferentially at noncanonical (NC) E-box sites. Cavβ1a binds to a region of the Myog promoter containing an NC E-box, suggesting a mechanism for inhibition of myogenin gene expression. This work indicates that Cavβ1a acts as a Cav-independent regulator of gene expression in MPCs, and is required for their normal expansion during myogenic development.

  13. The Cavβ1a subunit regulates gene expression and suppresses myogenin in muscle progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jackson; Pereyra, Andrea; Zhang, Tan; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Kuan, Pei-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β subunits are auxiliary subunits to Cavs. Recent reports show Cavβ subunits may enter the nucleus and suggest a role in transcriptional regulation, but the physiological relevance of this localization remains unclear. We sought to define the nuclear function of Cavβ in muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). We found that Cavβ1a is expressed in proliferating MPCs, before expression of the calcium conducting subunit Cav1.1, and enters the nucleus. Loss of Cavβ1a expression impaired MPC expansion in vitro and in vivo and caused widespread changes in global gene expression, including up-regulation of myogenin. Additionally, we found that Cavβ1a localizes to the promoter region of a number of genes, preferentially at noncanonical (NC) E-box sites. Cavβ1a binds to a region of the Myog promoter containing an NC E-box, suggesting a mechanism for inhibition of myogenin gene expression. This work indicates that Cavβ1a acts as a Cav-independent regulator of gene expression in MPCs, and is required for their normal expansion during myogenic development. PMID:24934157

  14. Role of progenitor cell producing normal vagina by metaplasia in laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mhatre, Pravin N.; Narkhede, Hemraj R.; Pawar, P. Amol; Mhatre, P. Jyoti; Kumar, Das Dhanjit

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Host of vaginoplasty techniques have been described. None has been successful in developing normal vagina. Laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty (LPV) is performed in Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) culminating in normal vagina. AIMS: This study aims to confirm normal development of neovagina by anatomical and functional parameters of histology, cytology, and ultrasonography (USG) in LPV. To identify peritoneal progenitor cell by OCT4/SOX2 markers. To demonstrate the metaplastic conversion of peritoneum to neovagina and the progenitor cell concentration, distribution pattern. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is prospective experimental study, conducted at teaching hospital and private hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifteen women of MRKHS underwent LPV followed by histology, cytology, two-/three-dimensional USG of neovagina. Four women underwent peritoneal biopsy for identification of progenitor cells with OCT4/SOX2 markers. One patient underwent serial biopsies for 4 weeks for histology and progenitor cell immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Normal vaginal histology and cytology were apparent. USG of neovagina showed normal appearance and blood flow. Two peritoneal samples confirmed the presence of progenitor cells. Serial biopsies demonstrated the epithelial change from single to multilayer with stromal compaction and neoangiogenesis. The progenitor cells concentration and different distribution patterns were described using SOX2/OCT4 markers. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown successful peritoneal metaplastic conversion to normal vagina in LPV. The progenitor cell was identified in normal peritoneum using SOX2/OCT4 markers. The progenitor cell concentration and pattern were demonstrated at various stages of neovaginal development. PMID:28216908

  15. Liver progenitor cells-mediated liver regeneration in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Shang, Haitao; Wang, Zhijun; Song, Yuhu

    2016-05-01

    Cirrhosis is defined as the histological development of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands in response to chronic liver injury. In cirrhotic liver where hepatocytes proliferation is compromised, liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are activated and then differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, leading to the generation of regenerative nodules and functional restoration. Here, we summarize and discuss recent findings on the mechanisms underlying LPCs-mediated regeneration in liver cirrhosis. Firstly, we provide recent research on the mechanism underlying LPCs activation in severe or chronic liver injury. Secondly, we present new and exciting data on exploring the origin of LPCs, which reveal that the hepatocytes give rise to duct-like progenitors that then differentiate back into hepatocytes in chronic liver injury or liver cirrhosis. Finally, we highlight recent findings from the literature exploring the role of LPCs niche in directing the behavior and fate of LPCs. This remarkable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of LPCs-mediated regeneration in liver cirrhosis will provide a basis for translating this knowledge into clinical application.

  16. Preconditioning diabetic mesenchymal stem cells with myogenic medium increases their ability to repair diabetic heart

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy; however, the repair capability of MSCs declines with age and disease. MSCs from diabetic animals exhibit impaired survival, proliferation, and differentiation and therefore require a strategy to improve their function. The aim of the study was to develop a preconditioning strategy to augment the ability of MSCs from diabetes patients to repair the diabetic heart. Methods Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice (6 to 8 weeks) with streptozotocin injections (55 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. MSCs isolated from diabetic animals were preconditioned with medium from cardiomyocytes exposed to oxidative stress and high glucose (HG/H-CCM). Results Gene expression of VEGF, ANG-1, GATA-4, NKx2.5 MEF2c, PCNA, and eNOS was upregulated after preconditioning with HG/H-CCM, as evidenced by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Concurrently, increased AKT phosphorylation, proliferation, angiogenic ability, and reduced levels of apoptosis were observed in HG/H-CCM-preconditioned diabetic MSCs compared with nontreated controls. HG/H-CCM-preconditioned diabetic-mouse-derived MSCs (dmMSCs) were transplanted in diabetic animals and demonstrated increased homing concomitant with augmented heart function. Gene expression of angiogenic and cardiac markers was significantly upregulated in conjunction with paracrine factors (IGF-1, HGF, SDF-1, FGF-2) and, in addition, reduced fibrosis, apoptosis, and increased angiogenesis was observed in diabetic hearts 4 weeks after transplantation of preconditioned dmMSCs compared with hearts with nontreated diabetic MSCs. Conclusions Preconditioning with HG/H-CCM enhances survival, proliferation, and the angiogenic ability of dmMSCs, augmenting their ability to improve function in a diabetic heart. PMID:23706645

  17. High-density lipoprotein exerts vasculoprotection via endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Petoumenos, Vasileios; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) enhance endothelial cell repair, improve endothelial dysfunction and are a predictor for cardiovascular mortality. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels inversely correlate with cardiovascular events and have vasculoprotective effects. Here we postulate that HDL influences EPC biology. HDL and EPC were isolated according to standard procedures. Differentiation of mononuclear cells into DiLDL/lectin positive cells was enhanced after HDL treatment compared to vehicle. HDL was able to inhibit apoptosis (TUNEL assay, annexin V staining) while proliferation (BrdU incorporation) of early outgrowth colonies after extended cell cultivation (14 days) was increased. Flow chamber experiments revealed an improved adhesion of HDL pre-incubated EPC on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) compared to vehicle while HDL treatment of HCAEC prevented adhesion of inflammatory cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated an up-regulation of β2- and α4-integrins on HDL pre-incubated EPC. Blocking experiments revealed a unique role of β2-integrin in EPC adhesion. Treatment of wild-type mice with recombinant HDL after endothelial denudation resulted in enhanced re-endothelialization compared to vehicle. Finally, in patients with coronary artery disease a correlation between circulating EPC and HDL concentrations was demonstrated. We provide evidence that HDL mediates important vasculoprotective action via the improvement of function of circulating EPC. PMID:18705697

  18. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PRL2 Mediates Notch and Kit Signals in Early T Cell Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michihiro; Nabinger, Sarah C; Bai, Yunpeng; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Yao, Chonghua; Dong, Yuanshu; Zhang, Lujuan; Rodriguez, Sonia; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Pear, Warren S; Carlesso, Nadia; Yoder, Mervin C; Kapur, Reuben; Kaplan, Mark H; Daniel Lacorazza, Hugo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The molecular pathways regulating lymphoid priming, fate, and development of multipotent bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that continuously feed thymic progenitors remain largely unknown. While Notch signal is indispensable for T cell specification and differentiation, the downstream effectors are not well understood. PRL2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and self-renewal, is highly expressed in murine thymocyte progenitors. Here we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL2 and receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit are critical downstream targets and effectors of the canonical Notch/RBPJ pathway in early T cell progenitors. While PRL2 deficiency resulted in moderate defects of thymopoiesis in the steady state, de novo generation of T cells from Prl2 null hematopoietic stem cells was significantly reduced following transplantation. Prl2 null HSPCs also showed impaired T cell differentiation in vitro. We found that Notch/RBPJ signaling upregulated PRL2 as well as c-Kit expression in T cell progenitors. Further, PRL2 sustains Notch-mediated c-Kit expression and enhances stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling in T cell progenitors, promoting effective DN1-DN2 transition. Thus, we have identified a critical role for PRL2 phosphatase in mediating Notch and c-Kit signals in early T cell progenitors. Stem Cells 2017;35:1053-1064.

  19. CXCL12 in early mesenchymal progenitors is required for haematopoietic stem-cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Adam; Hsu, Yen-Michael S; Day, Ryan B; Schuettpelz, Laura G; Christopher, Matthew J; Borgerding, Joshua N; Nagasawa, Takashi; Link, Daniel C

    2013-03-14

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) primarily reside in the bone marrow where signals generated by stromal cells regulate their self-renewal, proliferation and trafficking. Endosteal osteoblasts and perivascular stromal cells including endothelial cells, CXCL12-abundant reticular cells, leptin-receptor-positive stromal cells, and nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive mesenchymal progenitors have all been implicated in HSC maintenance. However, it is unclear whether specific haematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) subsets reside in distinct niches defined by the surrounding stromal cells and the regulatory molecules they produce. CXCL12 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12) regulates both HSCs and lymphoid progenitors and is expressed by all of these stromal cell populations. Here we selectively deleted Cxcl12 from candidate niche stromal cell populations and characterized the effect on HPCs. Deletion of Cxcl12 from mineralizing osteoblasts has no effect on HSCs or lymphoid progenitors. Deletion of Cxcl12 from osterix-expressing stromal cells, which include CXCL12-abundant reticular cells and osteoblasts, results in constitutive HPC mobilization and a loss of B-lymphoid progenitors, but HSC function is normal. Cxcl12 deletion from endothelial cells results in a modest loss of long-term repopulating activity. Strikingly, deletion of Cxcl12 from nestin-negative mesenchymal progenitors using Prx1-cre (Prx1 also known as Prrx1) is associated with a marked loss of HSCs, long-term repopulating activity, HSC quiescence and common lymphoid progenitors. These data suggest that osterix-expressing stromal cells comprise a distinct niche that supports B-lymphoid progenitors and retains HPCs in the bone marrow, and that expression of CXCL12 from stromal cells in the perivascular region, including endothelial cells and mesenchymal progenitors, supports HSCs.

  20. Human fetal cardiac progenitors: The role of stem cells and progenitors in the fetal and adult heart.

    PubMed

    Bulatovic, Ivana; Månsson-Broberg, Agneta; Sylvén, Christer; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik

    2016-02-01

    The human fetal heart is formed early during embryogenesis as a result of cell migrations, differentiation, and formative blood flow. It begins to beat around gestation day 22. Progenitor cells are derived from mesoderm (endocardium and myocardium), proepicardium (epicardium and coronary vessels), and neural crest (heart valves, outflow tract septation, and parasympathetic innervation). A variety of molecular disturbances in the factors regulating the specification and differentiation of these cells can cause congenital heart disease. This review explores the contribution of different cardiac progenitors to the embryonic heart development; the pathways and transcription factors guiding their expansion, migration, and functional differentiation; and the endogenous regenerative capacity of the adult heart including the plasticity of cardiomyocytes. Unfolding these mechanisms will become the basis for understanding the dynamics of specific congenital heart disease as well as a means to develop therapy for fetal as well as postnatal cardiac defects and heart failure.

  1. Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Progenitor Cells from Human Adult Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Magda M.; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Karl; Bastos, Carlos A.; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10–12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+/β-3-tubulin+ cells and TH−/β-3-tubulin+ cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH+/PNMT+). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  2. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of progenitor cells from human adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Santana, Magda M; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Klaus; Bastos, Carlos A; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10-12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells and TH(-)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH(+)/PNMT(+)). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Expression of TCR-Vβ peptides by murine bone marrow cells does not identify T-cell progenitors.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Janice L; Karsunky, Holger; Serwold, Thomas; Papathanasiou, Peter; Weissman, Irving L; O'Neill, Helen C

    2015-08-01

    Germline transcription has been described for both immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes, raising questions of their functional significance during haematopoiesis. Previously, an immature murine T-cell line was shown to bind antibody to TCR-Vβ8.2 in absence of anti-Cβ antibody binding, and an equivalent cell subset was also identified in the mesenteric lymph node. Here, we investigate whether germline transcription and cell surface Vβ8.2 expression could therefore represent a potential marker of T-cell progenitors. Cells with the TCR phenotype of Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) are found in several lymphoid sites, and among the lineage-negative (Lin(-)) fraction of hematopoietic progenitors in bone marrow (BM). Cell surface marker analysis of these cells identified subsets reflecting common lymphoid progenitors, common myeloid progenitors and multipotential progenitors. To assess whether the Lin(-) Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) BM subset contains hematopoietic progenitors, cells were sorted and adoptively transferred into sub-lethally irradiated recipients. No T-cell or myeloid progeny were detected following introduction of cells via the intrathymic or intravenous routes. However, B-cell development was detected in spleen. This pattern of restricted in vivo reconstitution disputes Lin(-) Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) BM cells as committed T-cell progenitors, but raises the possibility of progenitors with potential for B-cell development.

  4. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of cultured myogenic C2C12 cells with scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tylko, G; Karasiński, J; Wróblewski, R; Roomans, G M; Kilarski, W M

    2000-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the elemental content of myogenic C2C12 cultured cells was studied by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) with scanning (SEM EPXMA) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM EPXMA). The best plastic substrate for growing cells was Thermanox. For STEM EPXMA, a Formvar film coated with carbon was found to be suitable substrate. The cells examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy showed great heterogeneity in their elemental content in comparison with the cells examined in the scanning electron microscope despite of an almost identical preparation procedure for EPXMA. Nevertheless the K/Na ratios obtained from both methods of EPXMA were very close (4.1 and 4.3). We conclude that the observed discrepancy in the elemental content obtained by the two methods may be due to differences in instrumentation and this must be taken into account when planning a comparative study.

  5. Tbx16 regulates hox gene activation in mesodermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Payumo, Alexander Y.; McQuade, Lindsey E.; Walker, Whitney J.; Yamazoe, Sayumi; Chen, James K.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor T-box 16 (Tbx16/Spadetail) is an essential regulator of paraxial mesoderm development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs) fail to differentiate into trunk somites in tbx16 mutants and instead accumulate within the tailbud in an immature state. The mechanisms by which Tbx16 controls mesoderm patterning have remained enigmatic, and we describe here the application of photoactivatable morpholino oligonucleotides to determine the Tbx16 transcriptome in MPCs. We identify 124 Tbx16-regulated genes that are expressed in zebrafish gastrulae, including several developmental signaling proteins and regulators of gastrulation, myogenesis, and somitogenesis. Unexpectedly, we observe that loss of Tbx16 function precociously activates posterior hox genes in MPCs, and overexpression of a single posterior hox gene is sufficient to disrupt MPC migration. Our studies support a model in which Tbx16 regulates the timing of collinear hox gene activation to coordinate the anterior-posterior fates and positions of paraxial MPCs. PMID:27376691

  6. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Physiology and Metabolic Plasticity in Brain Angiogenesis and Blood-Brain Barrier Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Malinovskaya, Natalia A.; Komleva, Yulia K.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Morgun, Andrey V.; Shuvaev, Anton N.; Panina, Yulia A.; Boitsova, Elizaveta B.; Salmina, Alla B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB) development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons). Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies. PMID:27990124

  7. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein alters endothelial progenitor cell populations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A; Liu, Lingjuan; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Xie, Xiaoyun; Hao, Hong; Liu, Jason Z; He, Guanglong; Cowan, Peter J; Cui, Lianqun; Zhu, Hua; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-06-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemia. Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are important to preventing atherosclerosis, and significantly decreased in hyperlipidemia. This study was to demonstrate ox-LDL and hyperlipidemia could exhibit similar effect on EPC population and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production in BM and blood was significantly increased in male C57BL/6 mice with intravenous ox-LDL treatment, and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout mice with 4-month high-fat diet. ROS formation was effectively blocked with overexpression of antioxidant enzymes or N-acetylcysteine treatment. In hyperlipidemic and ox-LDL-treated mice, c-Kit(+)/CD31(+) cell number in BM and blood, and Sca-1(+)/Flk-1(+) cell number in blood, not in BM, were significantly decreased, which were not affected by inhibiting ROS production, while blood CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) cell number was significantly increased that was prevented with reduced ROS formation. However, blood CD34(+)/CD133(+) cell number increased in ox-LDL-treated mice, while decreased in hyperlipidemic mice. These data suggested that ox-LDL produced significant changes in BM and blood EPC populations similar (but not identical) to chronic hyperlipidemia with predominantly ROS-independent mechanism(s).

  8. Transdifferentiation of human endothelial progenitors into smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, HaYeun; Atchison, Leigh; Chen, Zaozao; Chakraborty, Syandan; Jung, Youngmee; Truskey, George A; Christoforou, Nicolas; Leong, Kam W

    2016-04-01

    Access to smooth muscle cells (SMC) would create opportunities for tissue engineering, drug testing, and disease modeling. Herein we report the direct conversion of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) by induced expression of MYOCD. The EPC undergo a cytoskeletal rearrangement resembling that of mesenchymal cells within 3 days post initiation of MYOCD expression. By day 7, the reprogrammed cells show upregulation of smooth muscle markers ACTA2, MYH11, and TAGLN by qRT-PCR and ACTA2 and MYH11 expression by immunofluorescence. By two weeks, they resemble umbilical artery SMC in microarray gene expression analysis. The iSMC, in contrast to EPC control, show calcium transients in response to phenylephrine stimulation and a contractility an order of magnitude higher than that of EPC as determined by traction force microscopy. Tissue-engineered blood vessels constructed using iSMC show functionality with respect to flow- and drug-mediated vasodilation and vasoconstriction.

  9. Stem and progenitor cell-mediated tumor selective gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Aboody, K S; Najbauer, J; Danks, M K

    2008-05-01

    The poor prognosis for patients with aggressive or metastatic tumors and the toxic side effects of currently available treatments necessitate the development of more effective tumor-selective therapies. Stem/progenitor cells display inherent tumor-tropic properties that can be exploited for targeted delivery of anticancer genes to invasive and metastatic tumors. Therapeutic genes that have been inserted into stem cells and delivered to tumors with high selectivity include prodrug-activating enzymes (cytosine deaminase, carboxylesterase, thymidine kinase), interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IL-23), interferon-beta, apoptosis-promoting genes (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and metalloproteinases (PEX). We and others have demonstrated that neural and mesenchymal stem cells can deliver therapeutic genes to elicit a significant antitumor response in animal models of intracranial glioma, medulloblastoma, melanoma brain metastasis, disseminated neuroblastoma and breast cancer lung metastasis. Most studies reported reduction in tumor volume (up to 90%) and increased survival of tumor-bearing animals. Complete cures have also been achieved (90% disease-free survival for >1 year of mice bearing disseminated neuroblastoma tumors). As we learn more about the biology of stem cells and the molecular mechanisms that mediate their tumor-tropism and we identify efficacious gene products for specific tumor types, the clinical utility of cell-based delivery strategies becomes increasingly evident.

  10. Prolonged Mitosis of Neural Progenitors Alters Cell Fate in the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; McMahon, John J; Miller, Emily E; Lennox, Ashley L; Suzuki, Aussie; Salmon, Edward; Silver, Debra L

    2016-01-06

    Embryonic neocortical development depends on balanced production of progenitors and neurons. Genetic mutations disrupting progenitor mitosis frequently impair neurogenesis; however, the link between altered mitosis and cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that prolonged mitosis of radial glial progenitors directly alters neuronal fate specification and progeny viability. Live imaging of progenitors from a neurogenesis mutant, Magoh(+/-), reveals that mitotic delay significantly correlates with preferential production of neurons instead of progenitors, as well as apoptotic progeny. Independently, two pharmacological approaches reveal a causal relationship between mitotic delay and progeny fate. As mitotic duration increases, progenitors produce substantially more apoptotic progeny or neurons. We show that apoptosis, but not differentiation, is p53 dependent, demonstrating that these are distinct outcomes of mitotic delay. Together our findings reveal that prolonged mitosis is sufficient to alter fates of radial glia progeny and define a new paradigm to understand how mitosis perturbations underlie brain size disorders such as microcephaly.

  11. Thymus-autonomous T cell development in the absence of progenitor import.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vera C; Ruggiero, Eliana; Schlenner, Susan M; Madan, Vikas; Schmidt, Manfred; Fink, Pamela J; von Kalle, Christof; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2012-07-30

    Thymus function is thought to depend on a steady supply of T cell progenitors from the bone marrow. The notion that the thymus lacks progenitors with self-renewal capacity is based on thymus transplantation experiments in which host-derived thymocytes replaced thymus-resident cells within 4 wk. Thymus grafting into T cell-deficient mice resulted in a wave of T cell export from the thymus, followed by colonization of the thymus by host-derived progenitors, and cessation of T cell development. Compound Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-)Kit(W/Wv) mutants lack competitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and are devoid of T cell progenitors. In this study, using this strain as recipients for wild-type thymus grafts, we noticed thymus-autonomous T cell development lasting several months. However, we found no evidence for export of donor HSCs from thymus to bone marrow. A diverse T cell antigen receptor repertoire in progenitor-deprived thymus grafts implied that many thymocytes were capable of self-renewal. Although the process was most efficient in Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-)Kit(W/Wv) hosts, γ(c)-mediated signals alone played a key role in the competition between thymus-resident and bone marrow-derived progenitors. Hence, the turnover of each generation of thymocytes is not only based on short life span but is also driven via expulsion of resident thymocytes by fresh progenitors entering the thymus.

  12. Low- and high-LET radiation drives clonal expansion of lung progenitor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Farin, Alicia M; Manzo, Nicholas D; Kirsch, David G; Stripp, Barry R

    2015-01-01

    Abundant populations of epithelial progenitor cells maintain the epithelium along the proximal-to-distal axis of the airway. Exposure of lung tissue to ionizing radiation leads to tissue remodeling and potential cancer initiation or progression. However, little is known about the effects of ionizing radiation on airway epithelial progenitor cells. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation exposure will alter the behavior of airway epithelial progenitor cells in a radiation dose- and quality-dependent manner. To address this hypothesis, we cultured primary airway epithelial cells isolated from mice exposed to various doses of 320 kVp X ray or 600 MeV/nucleon (56)Fe ions in a 3D epithelial-fibroblast co-culture system. Colony-forming efficiency of the airway epithelial progenitor cells was assessed at culture day 14. In vivo clonogenic and proliferative potentials of airway epithelial progenitor cells were measured after exposure to ionizing radiation by lineage tracing and IdU incorporation. Exposure to both X rays and (56)Fe resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the ability of epithelial progenitors to form colonies in vitro. In vivo evidence for increased clonogenic expansion of epithelial progenitors was observed after exposure to both X rays and (56)Fe. Interestingly, we found no significant increase in the epithelial proliferative index, indicating that ionizing radiation does not promote increased turnover of the airway epithelium. Therefore, we propose a model in which radiation induces a dose-dependent decrease in the pool of available progenitor cells, leaving fewer progenitors able to maintain the airway long-term. This work provides novel insights into the effects of ionizing radiation exposure on airway epithelial progenitor cell behavior.

  13. TNF alpha inhibits myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells through NF-κB activation and impairment of IGF-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Yang, S T; Wang, J J; Zhou, J; Xing, S S; Shen, C C; Wang, X X; Yue, Y X; Song, J; Chen, M; Wei, Y Y; Zhou, Q P; Dai, T; Song, Y H

    2015-03-20

    Cachexia or muscle wasting is a common condition that occurs in many chronic diseases. The wasting conditions are characterized by increased levels of TNF-α which was also known as cachectin in the past. But how TNF-α exerts its cachetic effects remains controversial. To clarify this issue, we investigated the impact of TNF-α on C2C12 cell myogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that myotube formation was completely inhibited by TNF-α when added to differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. The inhibitory effect of TNF-α on differentiation was accompanied by activation of NF-κB and down regulation of myogenin and Akt. Importantly, TNF-α's effect on differentiation was abolished when IGF-1 was added to the culture. IGF-1 treatment also inhibited NF-κB reporter activity and restored Akt levels. Our data suggest that TNF-α inhibits myogenic differentiation through NF-κB activation and impairment of IGF-1 signaling pathway. The reversal of TNF-α induced inhibition of myogenesis by IGF-1 may have significant therapeutic potential.

  14. Creatine Prevents the Structural and Functional Damage to Mitochondria in Myogenic, Oxidatively Stressed C2C12 Cells and Restores Their Differentiation Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Guescini, Michele; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Vallorani, Luciana; Diaz, Anna Rita; Canonico, Barbara; Luchetti, Francesca; Papa, Stefano; Battistelli, Michela; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Romanello, Vanina; Sandri, Marco; Stocchi, Vilberto; Ciacci, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is a nutritional supplement promoting a number of health benefits. Indeed Cr has been shown to be beneficial in disease-induced muscle atrophy, improve rehabilitation, and afford mild antioxidant activity. The beneficial effects are likely to derive from pleiotropic interactions. In accord with this notion, we previously demonstrated that multiple pleiotropic effects, including preservation of mitochondrial damage, account for the capacity of Cr to prevent the differentiation arrest caused by oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts. Given the importance of mitochondria in supporting the myogenic process, here we further explored the protective effects of Cr on the structure, function, and networking of these organelles in C2C12 cells differentiating under oxidative stressing conditions; the effects on the energy sensor AMPK, on PGC-1α, which is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and its downstream effector Tfam were also investigated. Our results indicate that damage to mitochondria is crucial in the differentiation imbalance caused by oxidative stress and that the Cr-prevention of these injuries is invariably associated with the recovery of the normal myogenic capacity. We also found that Cr activates AMPK and induces an upregulation of PGC-1α expression, two events which are likely to contribute to the protection of mitochondrial quality and function. PMID:27610211

  15. Ex vivo expansion of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Ann; Delaney, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Despite progress in our understanding of the growth factors that support the progressive maturation of the various cell lineages of the hematopoietic system, less is known about factors that govern the self-renewal of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and our ability to expand human HSPC numbers ex vivo remains limited. Interest in stem cell expansion has been heightened by the increasing importance of HSCs in the treatment of both malignant and nonmalignant diseases, as well as their use in gene therapy. To date, most attempts to ex vivo expand HSPCs have used hematopoietic growth factors but have not achieved clinically relevant effects. More recent approaches, including our studies in which activation of the Notch signaling pathway has enabled a clinically relevant ex vivo expansion of HSPCs, have led to renewed interest in this arena. Here we briefly review early attempts at ex vivo expansion by cytokine stimulation followed by an examination of our studies investigating the role of Notch signaling in HSPC self-renewal. We will also review other recently developed approaches for ex vivo expansion, primarily focused on the more extensively studied cord blood–derived stem cell. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges still facing this field. PMID:21436068

  16. A Transcriptomic Signature of Mouse Liver Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Low, Jasmine; Miyajima, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Darlington, Gretchen J.; Ochsner, Scott; Zhu, Cornelia; Whelan, James; Callus, Bernard A.

    2016-01-01

    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) can proliferate extensively, are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and contribute to liver regeneration. The presence of LPCs, however, often accompanies liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), indicating that they may be a cancer stem cell. Understanding LPC biology and establishing a sensitive, rapid, and reliable method to detect their presence in the liver will assist diagnosis and facilitate monitoring of treatment outcomes in patients with liver pathologies. A transcriptomic meta-analysis of over 400 microarrays was undertaken to compare LPC lines against datasets of muscle and embryonic stem cell lines, embryonic and developed liver (DL), and HCC. Three gene clusters distinguishing LPCs from other liver cell types were identified. Pathways overrepresented in these clusters denote the proliferative nature of LPCs and their association with HCC. Our analysis also revealed 26 novel markers, LPC markers, including Mcm2 and Ltbp3, and eight known LPC markers, including M2pk and Ncam. These markers specified the presence of LPCs in pathological liver tissue by qPCR and correlated with LPC abundance determined using immunohistochemistry. These results showcase the value of global transcript profiling to identify pathways and markers that may be used to detect LPCs in injured or diseased liver. PMID:27777588

  17. Epigenomic Reprogramming of Adult Cardiomyocyte-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Zhong, Jiang F; Qiu, Hongyu; Robb MacLellan, W.; Marbán, Eduardo; Wang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    It has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes (ACMs) are terminally-differentiated and are unable to proliferate. Recently, using a bi-transgenic ACM fate mapping mouse model and an in vitro culture system, we demonstrated that adult mouse cardiomyocytes were able to dedifferentiate into cardiac progenitor-like cells (CPCs). However, little is known about the molecular basis of their intrinsic cellular plasticity. Here we integrate single-cell transcriptome and whole-genome DNA methylation analyses to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and cell cycle reentry of mouse ACMs. Compared to parental cardiomyocytes, dedifferentiated mouse cardiomyocyte-derived CPCs (mCPCs) display epigenomic reprogramming with many differentially-methylated regions, both hypermethylated and hypomethylated, across the entire genome. Correlated well with the methylome, our transcriptomic data showed that the genes encoding cardiac structure and function proteins are remarkably down-regulated in mCPCs, while those for cell cycle, proliferation, and stemness are significantly up-regulated. In addition, implantation of mCPCs into infarcted mouse myocardium improves cardiac function with augmented left ventricular ejection fraction. Our study demonstrates that the cellular plasticity of mammalian cardiomyocytes is the result of a well-orchestrated epigenomic reprogramming and a subsequent global transcriptomic alteration. PMID:26657817

  18. [Bone and Stem Cells. Bone marrow microenvironment niches for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    In bone marrow, the special microenvironments known as niches control proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) . However, the identity and functions of the niches has been a subject of longstanding debate. Although it has been reported previously that osteoblasts lining the bone surface act as HSC niches, their precise role in HSC maintenance remains unclear. On the other hand, the adipo-osteogenic progenitors with long processes, termed CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, which preferentially express the chemokine CXCL12, stem cell factor (SCF) , leptin receptor and PDGF receptor-β were identified in the bone marrow. Recent studies revealed that endothelial cells of bone marrow vascular sinuses and CAR cells provided niches for HSCs. The identity and functions of various other candidate HSC niche cells, including nestin-expressing cells and Schwann cells would also be discussed in this review.

  19. Time-lapse live imaging of clonally related neural progenitor cells in the developing zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiqiang; Wagle, Mahendra; Guo, Su

    2011-04-06

    Precise patterns of division, migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells are crucial for proper brain development and function. To understand the behavior of neural progenitor cells in the complex in vivo environment, time-lapse live imaging of neural progenitor cells in an intact brain is critically required. In this video, we exploit the unique features of zebrafish embryos to visualize the development of forebrain neural progenitor cells in vivo. We use electroporation to genetically and sparsely label individual neural progenitor cells. Briefly, DNA constructs coding for fluorescent markers were injected into the forebrain ventricle of 22 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos and electric pulses were delivered immediately. Six hours later, the electroporated zebrafish embryos were mounted with low melting point agarose in glass bottom culture dishes. Fluorescently labeled neural progenitor cells were then imaged for 36 hours with fixed intervals under a confocal microscope using water dipping objective lens. The present method provides a way to gain insights into the in vivo development of forebrain neural progenitor cells and can be applied to other parts of the central nervous system of the zebrafish embryo.

  20. The influence of electric fields on hippocampal neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Carlos Atico; Fleury, Asha T; Tormos, Christian J; Petruk, Vadim; Chawla, Sagar; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2010-12-01

    The differentiation and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) depend on various in vivo environmental factors or cues, which may include an endogenous electrical field (EF), as observed during nervous system development and repair. In this study, we investigate the morphologic, phenotypic, and mitotic alterations of adult hippocampal NPCs that occur when exposed to two EFs of estimated endogenous strengths. NPCs treated with a 437 mV/mm direct current (DC) EF aligned perpendicularly to the EF vector and had a greater tendency to differentiate into neurons, but not into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, compared to controls. Furthermore, NPC process growth was promoted perpendicularly and inhibited anodally in the 437 mV/mm DC EF. Yet fewer cells were observed in the DC EF, which in part was due to a decrease in cell viability. The other EF applied was a 46 mV/mm alternating current (AC) EF. However, the 46 mV/mm AC EF showed no major differences in alignment or differentiation, compared to control conditions. For both EF treatments, the percent of mitotic cells during the last 14 h of the experiment were statistically similar to controls. Reported here, to our knowledge, is the first evidence of adult NPC differentiation affected in an EF in vitro. Further investigation and application of EFs on stem cells is warranted to elucidate the utility of EFs to control phenotypic behavior. With progress, the use of EFs may be engineered to control differentiation and target the growth of transplanted cells in a stem cell-based therapy to treat nervous system disorders.

  1. B-myb is an essential regulator of hematopoietic stem cell and myeloid progenitor cell development

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stacey J.; Ma’ayan, Avi; Lieu, Yen K.; John, Premila; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Chen, Edward Y.; Duan, Qiaonan; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Reddy, E. Premkumar

    2014-01-01

    The B-myb (MYBL2) gene is a member of the MYB family of transcription factors and is involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and maintenance of genomic integrity. However, its function during adult development and hematopoiesis is unknown. We show here that conditional inactivation of B-myb in vivo results in depletion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, leading to profound reductions in mature lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid cells. This defect is autonomous to the bone marrow and is first evident in stem cells, which accumulate in the S and G2/M phases. B-myb inactivation also causes defects in the myeloid progenitor compartment, consisting of depletion of common myeloid progenitors but relative sparing of granulocyte–macrophage progenitors. Microarray studies indicate that B-myb–null LSK+ cells differentially express genes that direct myeloid lineage development and commitment, suggesting that B-myb is a key player in controlling cell fate. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that B-myb is essential for HSC and progenitor maintenance and survival during hematopoiesis. PMID:24516162

  2. B-myb is an essential regulator of hematopoietic stem cell and myeloid progenitor cell development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stacey J; Ma'ayan, Avi; Lieu, Yen K; John, Premila; Reddy, M V Ramana; Chen, Edward Y; Duan, Qiaonan; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2014-02-25

    The B-myb (MYBL2) gene is a member of the MYB family of transcription factors and is involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and maintenance of genomic integrity. However, its function during adult development and hematopoiesis is unknown. We show here that conditional inactivation of B-myb in vivo results in depletion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, leading to profound reductions in mature lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid cells. This defect is autonomous to the bone marrow and is first evident in stem cells, which accumulate in the S and G2/M phases. B-myb inactivation also causes defects in the myeloid progenitor compartment, consisting of depletion of common myeloid progenitors but relative sparing of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Microarray studies indicate that B-myb-null LSK(+) cells differentially express genes that direct myeloid lineage development and commitment, suggesting that B-myb is a key player in controlling cell fate. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that B-myb is essential for HSC and progenitor maintenance and survival during hematopoiesis.

  3. Therapeutic Roles of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells in Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Lin, Yu-cheng; Rui, Yun-feng; Xu, Hong-liang; Chen, Hui; Wang, Chen; Teng, Gao-jun

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a tendon disorder characterized by activity-related pain, local edema, focal tenderness to palpation, and decreased strength in the affected area. Tendinopathy is prevalent in both athletes and the general population, highlighting the need to elucidate the pathogenesis of this disorder. Current treatments of tendinopathy are both conservative and symptomatic. The discovery of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) and erroneous differentiation of TSPCs have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. In this review, we firstly present the histopathological characteristics of tendinopathy and explore the cellular and molecular cues in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Current evidence of the depletion of the stem cell pool and altered TSPCs fate in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy has been presented. The potential regulatory factors for either tenogenic or nontenogenic differentiation of TSPCs are also summarized. The regulation of endogenous TSPCs or supplementation with exogenous TSPCs as therapeutic targets for the treatment of tendinopathy is proposed. Therefore, inhibiting the erroneous differentiation of TSPCs and regulating the differentiation of TSPCs into tendon cells might be important areas of future research and could provide new clinical treatments for tendinopathy. The current evidence suggests that TSPCs are promising therapeutic targets for the management of tendinopathy. PMID:27195010

  4. The Biliary Epithelium Gives Rise to Liver Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Affò, Silvia; Coll, Mar; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Millán, Cristina; Blaya, Delia; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Rentero, Carles; José Lozano, Juan; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Solar, Myriam; Arroyo, Vicente; Caballería, Joan; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Enrich, Carlos; Ginès, Pere; Bataller, Ramon; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Severe liver diseases are characterized by expansion of liver progenitor cells (LPC), which correlates with disease severity. However, the origin and role of LPC in liver physiology and in hepatic injury remains a contentious topic. We found that ductular reaction cells in human cirrhotic livers express hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1β). However, HNF1β expression was not present in newly generated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-positive hepatocytes. In order to investigate the role of HNF1β- expressing cells we used a tamoxifen-inducible Hnf1βCreER/R26RYfp/LacZ mouse to lineage-trace Hnf1β+ biliary duct cells and to assess their contribution to LPC expansion and hepatocyte generation. Lineage tracing demonstrated no contribution of HNF1β+ cells to hepatocytes during liver homeostasis in healthy mice or after loss of liver mass. After acute acetaminophen or carbon tetrachloride injury no contribution of HNF1β+ cells to hepatocyte was detected. We next assessed the contribution of Hnf1β+ -derived cells following two liver injury models with LPC expansion, a diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidin (DDC)-diet and a choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented (CDE)-diet. The contribution of Hnf1β+ cells to liver regeneration was dependent on the liver injury model. While no contribution was observed after DDC-diet treatment, mice fed with a CDE-diet showed a small population of hepatocytes derived from Hnf1β+ cells that were expanded to 1.86% of total hepatocytes after injury recovery. Genome-wide expression profile of Hnf1β+ -derived cells from the DDC and CDE models indicated that no contribution of LPC to hepatocytes was associated with LPC expression of genes related to telomere maintenance, inflammation, and chemokine signaling pathways. Conclusion HNF1β+ biliary duct cells are the origin of LPC. HNF1β+ cells do not contribute to hepatocyte turnover in the healthy liver, but after certain liver injury, they can differentiate to

  5. Hepatic progenitor cell resistance to TGF-{beta}1's proliferative and apoptotic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J. Brian; Rice, Lisa; Sadiq, Tim; Brittain, Evan; Song, Lujun; Wang Jian; Gerber, David A. . E-mail: David_Gerber@med.unc.edu

    2005-04-01

    The success of hepatocellular therapies using stem or progenitor cell populations is dependent upon multiple factors including the donor cell, microenvironment, and etiology of the liver injury. The following experiments investigated the impact of TGF-{beta}1 on a previously described population of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC). The majority of the hepatic progenitor cells were resistant to endogenously produced TGF-{beta}1's proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects unlike more well-differentiated cellular populations (e.g., mature hepatocytes). Surprisingly, in vitro TGF-{beta}1 supplementation significantly inhibited de novo hepatic progenitor cell colony formation possibly via an indirect mechanism(s). Therefore despite the HPC's direct resistance to supplemental TGF-{beta}1, this cytokine's inhibitory effect on colony formation could have a potential negative impact on the use of these cells as a therapy for patients with liver disease.

  6. Pharmacologically active microcarriers for endothelial progenitor cell support and survival.

    PubMed

    Musilli, Claudia; Karam, Jean-Pierre; Paccosi, Sara; Muscari, Claudio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Parenti, Astrid

    2012-08-01

    The regenerative potential of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based therapies is limited due to poor cell viability and minimal retention following application. Neovascularization can be improved by means of scaffolds supporting EPCs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether human early EPCs (eEPCs) could be efficiently cultured on pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs), made with poly(d,l-lactic-coglycolic acid) and coated with adhesion/extracellular matrix molecules. They may serve as a support for stem cells and may be used as cell carriers providing a controlled delivery of active protein such as the angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). eEPC adhesion to fibronectin-coated PAMs (FN-PAMs) was assessed by means of microscopic evaluation and by means of Alamar blue assay. Phospho ERK(1/2) and PARP-1 expression was measured by means of Western blot to assess the survival effects of FN-PAMs releasing VEGF-A (FN-VEGF-PAMs). The Alamar blue assay or a modified Boyden chamber assay was employed to assess proliferative or migratory capacity, respectively. Our data indicate that eEPCs were able to adhere to empty FN-PAMs within a few hours. FN-VEGF-PAMs increased the ability of eEPCs to adhere to them and strongly supported endothelial-like phenotype and cell survival. Moreover, the release of VEGF-A by FN-PAMs stimulated in vitro HUVEC migration and proliferation. These data strongly support the use of PAMs for supporting eEPC growth and survival and for stimulating resident mature human endothelial cells.

  7. Adult retinal pigment epithelium cells express neural progenitor properties and the neuronal precursor protein doublecortin.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Maren; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Aigner, Ludwig

    2005-04-08

    The adult mammalian retina is devoid of any detectable neurogenesis. However, different cell types have been suggested to potentially act as neural progenitors in the adult mammalian retina in vitro, such as ciliary body (CB), Muller glia, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. In rodents and humans, strong evidence for neural stem or progenitor properties exists only for CB-derived cells, but not for other retinal cell types. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of adult rat CB- and RPE-derived cells suggesting that the two cell types share certain neural progenitor properties in vitro. CB and RPE cells expressed neural progenitor markers such as Nestin, Flk-1, Hes1, and Musashi. They proliferated under adherent and neurosphere conditions and showed limited self-renewal. Moreover, they differentiated into neuronal and glial cells based on the expression of differentiation markers such as the young neuronal marker beta-III tubulin and the glial and progenitor markers GFAP and NG2. Expression of beta-III tubulin was found in cells with neuronal and non-neuronal morphology. A subpopulation of RPE- and CB-derived progenitor cells expressed the neurogenesis-specific protein doublecortin (DCX). Interestingly, DCX expression defined a beta-III tubulin-positive CB and RPE fraction with a distinct neuronal morphology. In summary, the data suggest that RPE cells share with CB cells the potential to de-differentiate into a cell type with neural progenitor-like identity. In addition, DCX expression might define the neuronal-differentiating RPE- and CB-derived progenitor population.

  8. Heterogeneity of neural progenitor cells revealed by enhancers in the nestin gene

    PubMed Central

    Yaworsky, Paul J.; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Using transgenic embryos, we have identified two distinct CNS progenitor cell-specific enhancers, each requiring the cooperation of at least two independent regulatory sites, within the second intron of the rat nestin gene. One enhancer is active throughout the developing CNS while the other is specifically active in the ventral midbrain. These experiments demonstrate that neural progenitor cells in the midbrain constitute a unique subpopulation based upon their ability to activate the midbrain regulatory elements. Our finding of differential enhancer activity from a gene encoding a structural protein reveals a previously unrecognized diversity in neural progenitor cell populations. PMID:9917366

  9. Differences among myeloproliferative disorders in the behavior of their restricted progenitor cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Croizat, H; Amato, D; McLeod, D L; Eskinazi, D; Axelrad, A A

    1983-09-01

    We have studied the behavior in culture of circulating restricted hemopoietic progenitor cells from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), polycythemia vera (PV), and essential thrombocytopenia (ET). We have found differences in circulating granulocyte-macrophage, erythroid, and megakaryocytic progenitors that appear to be specific for these chronic myeloproliferative disorders. In IMF, most affected were granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-C), which circulated in increased numbers and were heterogeneous in their sensitivity to the regulatory factor(s) present in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated T-lymphocyte conditioned medium (CM). Most CFU-C were either highly sensitive to, or independent from, stimulatory factors, while others showed normal sensitivity. In some IMF patients, circulating megakaryocytic progenitors (CFU-M) were present that were capable of giving rise to colonies in the absence of added CM or erythropoietin (EPO). In PV, we confirmed the presence of circulating erythroid progenitor cells that give rise to colonies in culture without the addition of EPO. The number of circulating CFU-C was normal and they responded normally to CM. In ET, failure to detect 7-day circulating restricted progenitor cells was a common observation; the level of other circulating restricted progenitors was in the low normal range. Thus, despite certain common features, including a primary lesion at the level of the pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell, the myeloproliferative disorders differ with respect to the behavior in culture of their circulating restricted progenitor cells. These results have led us to postulate a second regulatory lesion in the pluripotential stem cell that differs in these disorders and is expressed at the level of the respective restricted progenitor cells.

  10. A Stem Cell Niche for Intermediate Progenitor Cells of the Embryonic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kriegstein, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The excitatory neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex arise from asymmetric divisions of radial glial cells in the ventricular zone and symmetric division of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the embryonic cortex. Little is known about the microenvironment in which IPCs divide or whether a stem cell niche exists in the SVZ of the embryonic cortex. Recent evidence suggests that vasculature may provide a niche for adult stem cells but its role in development is less clear. We have investigated the vasculature in the embryonic cortex during neurogenesis and find that IPCs are spatially and temporally associated with blood vessels during cortical development. Intermediate progenitors mimic the pattern of capillaries suggesting patterns of angiogenesis and neurogenesis are coordinated during development. More importantly, we find that IPCs divide near blood vessel branch points suggesting that cerebral vasculature establishes a stem cell niche for intermediate progenitors in the SVZ. These data provide novel evidence for the presence of a neurogenic niche for intermediate progenitors in the embryonic SVZ and suggest blood vessels are important for proper patterning of neurogenesis. PMID:19346271

  11. Umbilical Cord Blood Circulating Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Are Decreased in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Gumina, Diane L; Black, Claudine P; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Winn, Virginia D; Baker, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria. Mothers with PE are known to develop endothelial dysfunction, but its effect on infants has been understudied, as newborns are often asymptomatic. Recent studies indicate that infants born from preeclamptic pregnancies develop endothelial dysfunction including higher blood pressure during childhood and an increased risk of stroke later in life. We hypothesize that PE reduces the number and function of fetal angiogenic progenitor cells and may contribute to this increased risk. We quantified 2 distinct types of angiogenic progenitors, pro-angiogenic circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), from the umbilical cord blood of preeclamptic pregnancies and normotensive controls. Pro-angiogenic and nonangiogenic CPCs were enumerated via flow cytometry and ECFCs by cell culture. Additionally, we studied the growth, migration, and tube formation of ECFCs from PE and gestational age-matched normotensive control pregnancies. We found that PE resulted in decreased cord blood pro-angiogenic CPCs and ECFCs. Nonangiogenic CPCs were also decreased. Preeclamptic ECFCs demonstrated decreased growth and migration but formed tube-like structures in vitro similar to controls. Our results suggest that the preeclamptic environment alters the number and function of angiogenic progenitor cells and may increase the risk of later vascular disease.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition improves proliferation and engraftment of myogenic cells in dystrophic muscle of mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Sajedah M; Shin, Jonghyun; Ogura, Yuji; Li, Hong; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) caused by loss of cytoskeletal protein dystrophin is a devastating disorder of skeletal muscle. Primary deficiency of dystrophin leads to several secondary pathological changes including fiber degeneration and regeneration, extracellular matrix breakdown, inflammation, and fibrosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of extracellular proteases that are involved in tissue remodeling, inflammation, and development of interstitial fibrosis in many disease states. We have recently reported that the inhibition of MMP-9 improves myopathy and augments myofiber regeneration in mdx mice (a mouse model of DMD). However, the mechanisms by which MMP-9 regulates disease progression in mdx mice remain less understood. In this report, we demonstrate that the inhibition of MMP-9 augments the proliferation of satellite cells in dystrophic muscle. MMP-9 inhibition also causes significant reduction in percentage of M1 macrophages with concomitant increase in the proportion of promyogenic M2 macrophages in mdx mice. Moreover, inhibition of MMP-9 increases the expression of Notch ligands and receptors, and Notch target genes in skeletal muscle of mdx mice. Furthermore, our results show that while MMP-9 inhibition augments the expression of components of canonical Wnt signaling, it reduces the expression of genes whose products are involved in activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling in mdx mice. Finally, the inhibition of MMP-9 was found to dramatically improve the engraftment of transplanted myoblasts in skeletal muscle of mdx mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the inhibition of MMP-9 is a promising approach to stimulate myofiber regeneration and improving engraftment of muscle progenitor cells in dystrophic muscle.

  13. Defining the Recruitment of Reactive Stroma Progenitor Cells to the Tumor Microenvironment of Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0059 TITLE: Defining the Recruitment of Reactive Stroma Progenitor Cells to the Tumor Microenvironment of Human...2008 - 6 Jan 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defining the Recruitment of Reactive Stroma Progenitor Cells to the Tumor Microenvironment of Human...Symposium on Stem Cells , Cancer, and Aging in Singapore RESEARCH EXPERIENCE 2001 Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary and Critical

  14. Novel therapeutic approach to counter the recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells to tumors.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Luis R

    2006-11-01

    Evaluation of: Shaked Y, Ciarrocchi A, Franco M et al. Therapy-induced acute recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells to tumors. Science 313, 1785-1787 (2006). Recently gathered evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells can contribute to tumor angiogenesis and the growth of certain tumors. The paper under evaluation presents a novel therapeutic approach that disrupts the recruitment of these cells by tumors, therefore facilitating the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents.

  15. Ascl3 marks adult progenitor cells of the mouse salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Rugel-Stahl, Anastasia; Elliot, Marilyn; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    The Ascl3 transcription factor marks a subset of salivary gland duct cells present in the three major salivary glands of the mouse. In vivo, these cells generate both duct and secretory acinar cell descendants. Here, we have analyzed whether Ascl3-expressing cells retain this multipotent lineage potential in adult glands. Cells isolated from mouse salivary glands were cultured in vitro as non-adherent spheres. Lineage tracing of the Ascl3-expressing cells within the spheres demonstrates that Ascl3+ cells isolated from adult glands remain multipotent, generating both duct and acinar cell types in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the progenitor cells characterized by Keratin 5 expression are an independent population from Ascl3+ progenitor cells. We conclude that the Ascl3+ cells are intermediate lineage-restricted progenitor cells of the adult salivary glands. PMID:22370009

  16. Unipotent, Atoh1+ progenitors maintain the Merkel cell population in embryonic and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Wright, Margaret C; Reed-Geaghan, Erin G; Bolock, Alexa M; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio; Maricich, Stephen M

    2015-02-02

    Resident progenitor cells in mammalian skin generate new cells as a part of tissue homeostasis. We sought to identify the progenitors of Merkel cells, a unique skin cell type that plays critical roles in mechanosensation. We found that some Atoh1-expressing cells in the hairy skin and whisker follicles are mitotically active at embryonic and postnatal ages. Genetic fate-mapping revealed that these Atoh1-expressing cells give rise solely to Merkel cells. Furthermore, selective ablation of Atoh1(+) skin cells in adult mice led to a permanent reduction in Merkel cell numbers, demonstrating that other stem cell populations are incapable of producing Merkel cells. These data identify a novel, unipotent progenitor population in the skin that gives rise to Merkel cells both during development and adulthood.

  17. Adult human liver mesenchymal progenitor cells express phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Baruteau, Julien; Nyabi, Omar; Najimi, Mustapha; Fauvart, Maarten; Sokal, Etienne

    2014-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most prevalent inherited metabolic diseases and is accountable for a severe encephalopathy by progressive intoxication of the brain by phenylalanine. This results from an ineffective L-phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme (PAH) due to a mutated phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Neonatal screening programs allow an early dietetic treatment with restrictive phenylalanine intake. This diet prevents most of the neuropsychological disabilities but remains challenging for lifelong compliance. Adult-derived human liver progenitor cells (ADHLPC) are a pool of precursors that can differentiate into hepatocytes. We aim to study PAH expression and PAH activity in a differenciated ADHLPC. ADHLPC were isolated from human hepatocyte primary culture of two different donors and differenciated under specific culture conditions. We demonstrated the high expression of PAH and a large increase of PAH activity in differenciated LPC. The age of the donor, the cellular viability after liver digestion and cryopreservation affects PAH activity. ADHLPC might therefore be considered as a suitable source for cell therapy in PKU.

  18. CD34+ circulating progenitor cells after different training programs.

    PubMed

    Niño, O; Balague, N; Aragones, D; Blasi, J; Alamo, J M; Corral, L; Javierre, C; Miguel, M; Viscor, G; Ventura, J L

    2015-04-01

    Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) are bone marrow-derived cells that are mobilized into the circulation. While exercise is a powerful mediator of hematopoiesis, CPC levels increase, and reports of their activation after different types of exercise are contradictory. Moreover, few studies have compared the possible effects of different training programs on CPC concentrations. 43 physically active healthy male subjects (age 22±2.4 years) were assigned to 4 different training groups: aerobic, resistance, mixed and control. Except for the control group, all participants trained for 6 weeks. Peripheral blood samples were collected through an antecubital vein, and CPC CD34(+) was analyzed on different days: pre-training, post-training, and 3 weeks after finishing the training period. While no significant differences in CPC were observed either within or between the different training groups, there was a tendency towards higher values post-training and large intra- and intergroup dispersion. We detected an inverse linear relationship between pre-training values and % of CPC changes post-training (p<0.001). In the CPC values 3 weeks after training this inverse relationship was maintained, though to a lower extent (p<0.001). No changes in CPC CD34(+) were detected after 6 weeks of different training groups, or after 3 weeks of follow-up.

  19. Muscle progenitor cell regenerative capacity in the torn rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gretchen A; Farris, Ashley L; Sato, Eugene; Gibbons, Michael; Lane, John G; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2015-03-01

    Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears affect a large portion of the population and result in substantial upper extremity impairment, shoulder weakness, pain, and limited range of motion. Regardless of surgical or conservative treatment, persistent atrophic muscle changes limit functional restoration and may contribute to surgical failure. We hypothesized that deficits in the skeletal muscle progenitor (SMP) cell pool could contribute to poor muscle recovery following tendon repair. Biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing arthroscopic RC surgery. The SMP population was quantified, isolated, and assayed in culture for its ability to proliferate and fuse in vitro and in vivo. The SMP population was larger in muscles from cuffs with partial tears compared with no tears or full thickness tears. However, SMPs from muscles in the partial tear group also exhibited reduced proliferative ability. Cells from all cuff states were able to fuse robustly in culture and engraft when injected into injured mouse muscle, suggesting that when given the correct signals, SMPs are capable of contributing to muscle hypertrophy and regeneration regardless of tear severity. The fact that this does not appear to happen in vivo helps focus future therapeutic targets for promoting muscle recovery following rotator cuff repairs and may help improve clinical outcomes.

  20. Neural stem/progenitor cells in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Tincer, Gizem; Mashkaryan, Violeta; Bhattarai, Prabesh; Kizil, Caghan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and a worldwide health challenge. Different therapeutic approaches are being developed to reverse or slow the loss of affected neurons. Another plausible therapeutic way that may complement the studies is to increase the survival of existing neurons by mobilizing the existing neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) — i.e. “induce their plasticity” — to regenerate lost neurons despite the existing pathology and unfavorable environment. However, there is controversy about how NSPCs are affected by the unfavorable toxic environment during AD. In this review, we will discuss the use of stem cells in neurodegenerative diseases and in particular how NSPCs affect the AD pathology and how neurodegeneration affects NSPCs. In the end of this review, we will discuss how zebrafish as a useful model organism with extensive regenerative ability in the brain might help to address the molecular programs needed for NSPCs to respond to neurodegeneration by enhanced neurogenesis. PMID:27505014

  1. Distal airway epithelial progenitor cells are radiosensitive to High-LET radiation

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Alicia M.; Konda, Bindu; Kirsch, David G.; Stripp, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation occurs in a variety of situations, including charged particle radiotherapy, radiological accidents, and space travel. However, the extent of normal tissue injury in the lungs following high-LET radiation exposure is unknown. Here we show that exposure to high-LET radiation led to a prolonged loss of in vitro colony forming ability by airway epithelial progenitor cells. Furthermore, exposure to high-LET radiation induced clonal expansion of a subset of progenitor cells in the distal airway epithelium. Clonal expansion following high-LET radiation exposure was correlated with elevated progenitor cell apoptosis, persistent γ-H2AX foci, and defects in mitotic progression of distal airway progenitors. We discovered that the effects of high-LET radiation exposure on progenitor cells occur in a p53-dependent manner. These data show that high-LET radiation depletes the distal airway progenitor pool by inducing cell death and loss of progenitor function, leading to clonal expansion. Importantly, high-LET radiation induces greater long-term damage to normal lung tissue than the relative equivalent dose of low-LET γ-rays, which has implications in therapeutic development and risk assessment. PMID:27659946

  2. Myogenic-specific ablation of Fgfr1 impairs FGF2-mediated proliferation of satellite cells at the myofiber niche but does not abolish the capacity for muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Danoviz, Maria E.; Phelps, Michael; Stuelsatz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are Pax7+ myogenic stem cells that reside between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. In mature muscles, SCs are typically quiescent, but can be activated in response to muscle injury. Depending on the magnitude of tissue trauma, SCs may divide minimally to repair subtle damage within individual myofibers or produce a larger progeny pool that forms new myofibers in cases of overt muscle injury. SC transition through proliferation, differentiation and renewal is governed by the molecular blueprint of the cells as well as by the extracellular milieu at the SC niche. In particular, the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in regulating SCs during growth and aging is well recognized. Of the several FGFs shown to affect SCs, FGF1, FGF2, and FGF6 proteins have been documented in adult skeletal muscle. These prototypic paracrine FGFs transmit their mitogenic effect through the FGFRs, which are transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors. Using the mouse model, we show here that of the four Fgfr genes, only Fgfr1 and Fgfr4 are expressed at relatively high levels in quiescent SCs and their proliferating progeny. To further investigate the role of FGFR1 in adult myogenesis, we have employed a genetic (Cre/loxP) approach for myogenic-specific (MyoDCre-driven) ablation of Fgfr1. Neither muscle histology nor muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced injury were overtly affected in Fgfr1-ablated mice. This suggests that FGFR1 is not obligatory for SC performance in this acute muscle trauma model, where compensatory growth factor/cytokine regulatory cascades may exist. However, the SC mitogenic response to FGF2 is drastically repressed in isolated myofibers prepared from Fgfr1-ablated mice. Collectively, our study indicates that FGFR1 is important for FGF-mediated proliferation of SCs and its mitogenic role is not compensated by FGFR4 that is also highly expressed in SCs. PMID:26074812

  3. Redox Regulation of Stem/Progenitor Cells and Bone Marrow Niche

    PubMed Central

    Urao, Norifumi; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived stem and progenitor cell functions including self-renewal, differentiation, survival, migration, proliferation and mobilization are regulated by unique cell-intrinsic signals and -extrinsic signals provided by their microenvironment, also termed the ‘niche’. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), play important roles in regulating stem and progenitor cell function in various physiologic and pathologic responses. The low level of H2O2 in quiescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) contributes to maintain their stemness, whereas a higher level of H2O2 within HSCs or their niche promotes differentiation, proliferation, migration, and survival of HSCs or stem/progenitor cells. Major sources of ROS are NADPH oxidase and mitochondria. In response to ischemic injury, ROS derived from NADPH oxidase are increased in the BM microenvironment, which is required for hypoxia and HIF1α expression and expansion throughout the BM. This, in turn, promotes progenitor cell expansion and mobilization from BM, leading to reparative neovascularization and tissue repair. In pathophysiological states such as aging, atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension and diabetes, excess amounts of ROS create an inflammatory and oxidative microenvironment, which induces cell damage and apoptosis of stem and progenitor cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of how ROS regulate the functions of stem and progenitor cells and their niche in physiological and pathological conditions will lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23085514

  4. Characterization of nonmalignant and malignant prostatic stem/progenitor cells by Hoechst side population method.

    PubMed

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2009-01-01

    Recent technical progress in the field of cancer stem/progenitor cell research revealed that these malignant cells may provide critical roles for primary tumor growth, metastases at distant tissues and organs, treatment resistance, and disease relapse. The precise molecular oncogenic events that frequently occur in cancer stem/progenitor cells and their early progenies during the early and late stages of cancer progression as well as their contribution to the treatment resistance and disease recurrence remain poorly defined. This lack of information on the deregulated gene products that may be involved in the malignant transformation of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells into highly tumorigenic and/or migrating cancer stem/progenitor cells emphasizes the urgent need to perform future investigations. Toward this direction, we describe in this book chapter the characterization of nonmalignant and malignant prostatic stem/progenitor cells from well-established cell lines by Hoechst side population method. This novel approach should help to establish novel in vitro and in vivo models of human cancer stem/progenitor cell mimicking more closely the genetic and phenotypic changes occurring during the different stages of prostate carcinogenesis and disease progression in clinical settings. Of therapeutic interest, the identification of new biomarkers and molecular targets specific to these prostatic cancer-initiating cells should also help to develop more effective diagnostic and prognostic tests and chemopreventive and therapeutic treatments for the patients diagnosed at early and late stages of disease progression.

  5. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  6. Hematopoietic progenitor cell regulation by CD4+CD25+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Urbieta, Maite; Barao, Isabel; Jones, Monica; Jurecic, Roland; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Blazar, Bruce R; Murphy, William J; Levy, Robert B

    2010-06-10

    CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) possess the capacity to modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. We hypothesized that Tregs could regulate hematopoiesis based on cytokine effector molecules they can produce. The studies here demonstrate that Tregs can affect the differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells. In vitro findings demonstrated the ability of Tregs to inhibit the differentiation of interleukin-3 (IL-3)/stem cell factor (colony-forming unit [CFU]-IL3)-driven progenitor cells. Inhibitory effects were mediated by a pathway requiring cell-cell contact, major histocompatibility complex class II expression on marrow cells, and transforming growth factor-beta. Importantly, depletion of Tregs in situ resulted in enhanced CFU-IL3 levels after bone marrow transplantation. Cotransplantation of CD4(+)FoxP3(+)(gfp) Tregs together with bone marrow was found to diminish CFU-IL3 responses after transplantation. To address the consequence of transplanted Tregs on differentiated progeny from these CFU 2 weeks after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, peripheral blood complete blood counts were performed and examined for polymorphonuclear leukocyte content. Recipients of cotransplanted Tregs exhibited diminished neutrophil counts. Together, these findings illustrate that both recipient and donor Tregs can influence hematopoietic progenitor cell activity after transplantation and that these cells can alter responses outside the adaptive and innate immune systems.

  7. Stem cells, progenitor cells, and lineage decisions in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E; Russell, Darryl L; Robertson, Sarah A; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2015-02-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic.

  8. Stem Cells, Progenitor Cells, and Lineage Decisions in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Russell, Darryl L.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic. PMID:25541635

  9. Role of NADPH Oxidase-4 in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Nora Y.; Ranjan, Amaresh K.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Dusting, Greg J.; Peshavariya, Hitesh M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) display a unique ability to promote angiogenesis and restore endothelial function in injured blood vessels. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) serves as a signaling molecule and promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as protecting against cell death. However, the role of NOX4 in EPC function is not completely understood. Methods: EPCs were isolated from human saphenous vein and mammary artery discarded during bypass surgery. NOX4 gene and protein expression in EPCs were measured by real time-PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. NOX4 gene expression was inhibited using an adenoviral vector expressing human NOX4 shRNA (Ad-NOX4i). H2O2 production was measured by Amplex red assay. EPC migration was evaluated using a transwell migration assay. EPC proliferation and viability were measured using trypan blue counts. Results: Inhibition of NOX4 using Ad-NOX4i reduced Nox4 gene and protein expression as well as H2O2 formation in EPCs. Inhibition of NOX4-derived H2O2 decreased both proliferation and migration of EPCs. Interestingly, pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) decreased NOX4 expression and reduced survival of EPCs. However, the survival of EPCs was further diminished by TNF-α in NOX4-knockdown cells, suggesting that NOX4 has a protective role in EPCs. Conclusion: These findings suggest that NOX4-type NADPH oxidase is important for proliferation and migration functions of EPCs and protects against pro-inflammatory cytokine induced EPC death. These properties of NOX4 may facilitate the efficient function of EPCs which is vital for successful neovascularization. PMID:28386230

  10. Endothelial progenitor cells and asymmetric dimethylarginine after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Teplan, Vladimír; Mahrová, Andrea; Králová-Lesná, Ivana; Racek, Jaroslav; Valkovský, Ivo; Štollová, Milena

    2015-03-01

    Levels of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) are elevated and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) decreased in patients undergoing renal transplantation (Tx) and may contribute to cardiovascular complications. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated ADMA and decreased EPC can be positively influenced with regular physical exercise early after Tx. Blood samples for analysis of ADMA and EPC were obtained from randomly selected 64 patients after Tx who agreed to participate in a supervised aerobic exercise program for 6 months (group I). Samples were collected before the training began, 1 month after surgery (with stabilized renal function), and at 6 months after initiation. Sixty-two age, sex, human leukocyte antigens (HLA) typing, duration of previous dialysis, history of cardiovascular disease, and immunosupression regimen-matched transplant patients who did not exercise regularly were examined as controls (group II). There were no differences in ADMA levels and EPC count between both groups before the training program began. After 6 months of exercise, ADMA concentration in the group I decreased (3.50 ± 0.45 vs. 2.11 ± 0.35 μmol/L; P < .01) and was also lower comparing with group II (2.11 ± 0.23 vs. 3.25 ± 0.35 μmol/L; P < .01). In the same period, EPC cells increased from 2.085 ± 650 cells/mL versus 3.991 ± 560 cells/mL, P < .01 in group I; but in group II, changes were nonsignificant (P = .11). Blood lipids, HbA1c, insulin, and systolic blood pressure were also affected by the training program. Elevated ADMA level and decreased EPC count were significantly influenced by early regular exercise in patients after Tx.

  11. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Curtis J.; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E.; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N.; Clambey, Eric T.; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J.; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A.; DeGregori, James

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRASV12, or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRASV12-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation — a common feature of aging — has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis. PMID:26551682

  12. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression decreases the survival and myogenic differentiation of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Croci, Stefania; Landuzzi, Lorena; Astolfi, Annalisa; Nicoletti, Giordano; Rosolen, Angelo; Sartori, Francesca; Follo, Matilde Y; Oliver, Noelynn; De Giovanni, Carla; Nanni, Patrizia; Lollini, Pier-Luigi

    2004-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a cysteine-rich protein of the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of genes, emerged from a microarray screen of genes expressed by human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma of childhood deriving from skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CTGF in rhabdomyosarcoma. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells of the embryonal (RD/12, RD/18, CCA) and the alveolar histotype (RMZ-RC2, SJ-RH4, SJ-RH30), rhabdomyosarcoma tumor specimens, and normal skeletal muscle cells expressed CTGF. To determine the function of CTGF, we treated rhabdomyosarcoma cells with a CTGF antisense oligonucleotide or with a CTGF small interfering RNA (siRNA). Both treatments inhibited rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth, suggesting the existence of a new autocrine loop based on CTGF. CTGF antisense oligonucleotide-mediated growth inhibition was specifically due to a significant increase in apoptosis, whereas cell proliferation was unchanged. CTGF antisense oligonucleotide induced a strong decrease in the level of myogenic differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells, whereas the addition of recombinant CTGF significantly increased the proportion of myosin-positive cells. CTGF emerges as a survival and differentiation factor and could be a new therapeutic target in human rhabdomyosarcoma.

  13. G protein-coupled receptor signaling through Gq and JNK negatively regulates neural progenitor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Norikazu; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Sato, Maiko; Nishimura, Akiyuki; Yamauchi, Junji; Kurose, Hitoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In the early development of the central nervous system, neural progenitor cells divide in an asymmetric manner and migrate along the radial glia cells. The radial migration is an important process for the proper lamination of the cerebral cortex. Recently, a new mode of the radial migration was found at the intermediate zone where the neural progenitor cells become multipolar and reduce the migration rate. However, the regulatory signals for the radial migration are unknown. Using the migration assay in vitro, we examined how neural progenitor cell migration is regulated. Neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic mouse telencephalon migrated on laminin-coated dishes. Endothelin (ET)-1 inhibited the neural progenitor cell migration. This ET-1 effect was blocked by BQ788, a specific inhibitor of the ETB receptor, and by the expression of a carboxyl-terminal peptide of Gαq but not Gαi. The expression of constitutively active mutant of Gαq, GαqR183C, inhibited the migration of neural progenitor cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of ET-1 was suppressed by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 and the expression of the JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, a specific inhibitor of the JNK pathway. Using the slice culture system of embryonic brain, we demonstrated that ET-1 and the constitutively active mutant of Gαq caused the retention of the neural progenitor cells in the intermediate zone and JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1 abrogated the effect of ET-1. These results indicated that G protein-coupled receptor signaling negatively regulates neural progenitor cell migration through Gq and JNK. PMID:16116085

  14. Immortalization and Characterization of Lineage-restricted Neuronal Progenitor Cells Derived From the Procine Olfactory Bulb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crucial aspects in the development of in vitro neuropathogenic disease model systems are the identification, characterization, and continuous mitotic expansion of cultured neuronal cells. To facilitate long-term cultivation, we immortalized cultured porcine olfactory neuronally restricted progenitor...

  15. Earmuff restricts progenitor cell potential by attenuating the competence to respond to self-renewal factors

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Derek H.; Komori, Hideyuki; Grbac, Daniel; Chen, Keng; Koe, Chwee Tat; Wang, Hongyan; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Despite expressing stem cell self-renewal factors, intermediate progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential, which allows them to give rise exclusively to differentiated progeny rather than stem cell progeny. Failure to restrict the developmental potential can allow intermediate progenitor cells to revert into aberrant stem cells that might contribute to tumorigenesis. Insight into stable restriction of the developmental potential in intermediate progenitor cells could improve our understanding of the development and growth of tumors, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Intermediate neural progenitors (INPs), generated by type II neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in fly larval brains, provide an in vivo model for investigating the mechanisms that stably restrict the developmental potential of intermediate progenitor cells. Here, we report that the transcriptional repressor protein Earmuff (Erm) functions temporally after Brain tumor (Brat) and Numb to restrict the developmental potential of uncommitted (immature) INPs. Consistently, endogenous Erm is detected in immature INPs but undetectable in INPs. Erm-dependent restriction of the developmental potential in immature INPs leads to attenuated competence to respond to all known neuroblast self-renewal factors in INPs. We also identified that the BAP chromatin-remodeling complex probably functions cooperatively with Erm to restrict the developmental potential of immature INPs. Together, these data led us to conclude that the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism stably restricts the developmental potential of immature INPs by attenuating their genomic responses to stem cell self-renewal factors. We propose that restriction of developmental potential by the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism functionally distinguishes intermediate progenitor cells from stem cells, ensuring the generation of differentiated cells and preventing the formation of progenitor cell-derived tumor-initiating stem cells. PMID

  16. Immediate differentiation of neuronal cells from stem/progenitor-like cells in the avian iris tissues.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Tamami; Fujihara, Ai; Royall, Lars; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Kosaka, Mitsuko; Araki, Masasuke

    2014-06-01

    A simple culture method that was recently developed in our laboratory was applied to the chick iris tissues to characterize neural stem/progenitor-like cells. Iris tissue is a non-neuronal tissue and does not contain any neuronal cells. In the present study we isolated iris tissues from chick embryos just prior to hatching. The isolated iris pigmented epithelium (IPE) or the stroma was embedded in Matrigel and cultured in Dulbecco's MEM supplemented with either fetal bovine serum or the synthetic serum replacement solution B27. Within 24 h of culture, elongated cells with long processes extended out from the explants of both tissues and were positively stained for various neuronal markers such as transitin, Tuj-1 and acetylated tubulin. After a longer culture period, cells positive for photoreceptor markers like rhodopsin, iodopsin and visinin were found, suggesting that the iris tissues contain retinal stem/progenitor-like cells. Several growth factors were examined to determine their effects on neuronal differentiation. EGF was shown to dramatically enhance neuronal cell differentiation, particularly the elongation of neuronal fibers. The addition of exogenous FGF2, however, did not show any positive effects on neuronal differentiation, although FGF signaling inhibitor, SU5402, suppressed neuronal differentiation. The results show that neuronal stem/progenitor-like cells can differentiate into neuronal cells immediately after they are transferred into an appropriate environment. This process did not require any exogenous factors, suggesting that neural stem/progenitor-like cells are simply suppressed from neuronal differentiation within the tissue, and isolation from the tissue releases the cells from the suppression mechanism.

  17. Arsenic and fluoride induce neural progenitor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; Gimeno-Alcañiz, J V; Martín-Ibañez, R; Canals, J M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2011-06-24

    The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of inorganic arsenic (As) and its metabolites on the viability of the neural progenitor cell (NPC) line C17.2, in order to evaluate cellular mechanisms involved in As developmental neurotoxicity. Moreover, we analyzed the effects of the coexposure to As and fluoride (F), a situation to which some populations are commonly exposed. Our results show that NPCs are not susceptible to pentavalent As species [arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid] and F alone. However, the trivalent metabolites of arsenate [arsenite, monomethylarsonous acid, and dimethylarsinous acid] are toxic at concentrations below 1 mg/l, and this susceptibility increases when there is coexposure with F (≥ 5 mg/l). Arsenite triggers apoptosis after 24 h of exposure, whereas monomethylarsonous acid produces necrosis at very short times (2 h). Arsenite leads to an increase in intracellular Ca levels and generation of reactive oxygen species, which may cause a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and consequent activation of caspases. A slight activation of calpain also takes place, which might favor activation of the mitochondrial pathway or might activate other pathways. The treatment with some antioxidants such as quercetin and α-tocopherol shows only a partial reduction of the cytotoxicity.

  18. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Microvascular Complications: Friends or Foes?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cai-Guo; Zhang, Ning; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Ma, Yan; Yang, Long-Yan; Feng, Ying-Mei; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Despite being featured as metabolic disorder, diabetic patients are largely affected by hyperglycemia-induced vascular abnormality. Accumulated evidence has confirmed the beneficial effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in coronary heart disease. However, antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment is the main therapy for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, indicating the uncertain role of EPCs in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular disease. In this review, we first illustrate how hyperglycemia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in EPCs, which exerts deleterious impact on their number and function. We then discuss how abnormal angiogenesis develops in eyes and kidneys under diabetes condition, focusing on “VEGF uncoupling with nitric oxide” and “competitive angiopoietin 1/angiopoietin 2” mechanisms that are shared in both organs. Next, we dissect the nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular complications. After we overview the current EPCs-related strategies, we point out new EPCs-associated options for future exploration. Ultimately, we hope that this review would uncover the mysterious nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular disease for therapeutics. PMID:27313624

  19. Progenitor Cells for Arterial Repair: Incremental Advancements towards Therapeutic Reality

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Trevor; Jung, Richard G.; Motazedian, Pouya; Di Santo, Pietro; Ramirez, F. Daniel; Russo, Juan J.; Labinaz, Alisha; Yousef, Altayyeb; Anantharam, Brijesh; Pourdjabbar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Coronary revascularization remains the standard treatment for obstructive coronary artery disease and can be accomplished by either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Considerable advances have rendered PCI the most common form of revascularization and improved clinical outcomes. However, numerous challenges to modern PCI remain, namely, in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis, underscoring the importance of understanding the vessel wall response to injury to identify targets for intervention. Among recent promising discoveries, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have garnered considerable interest given an increasing appreciation of their role in vascular homeostasis and their ability to promote vascular repair after stent placement. Circulating EPC numbers have been inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk, while administration of EPCs in humans has demonstrated improved clinical outcomes. Despite these encouraging results, however, advancing EPCs as a therapeutic modality has been hampered by a fundamental roadblock: what constitutes an EPC? We review current definitions and sources of EPCs as well as the proposed mechanisms of EPC-mediated vascular repair. Additionally, we discuss the current state of EPCs as therapeutic agents, focusing on endogenous augmentation and transplantation. PMID:28232850

  20. Hyperoxia, Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization, and Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic foot disease is a major health problem, which affects 15% of the 200 million patients with diabetes worldwide. Diminished peripheral blood flow and decreased local neovascularization are critical factors that contribute to the delayed or nonhealing wounds in these patients. The correction of impaired local angiogenesis may be a key component in developing therapeutic protocols for treating chronic wounds of the lower extremity and diabetic foot ulcers. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the key cellular effectors of postnatal neovascularization and play a central role in wound healing, but their circulating and wound-level numbers are decreased in diabetes, implicating an abnormality in EPC mobilization and homing mechanisms. The deficiency in EPC mobilization is presumably due to impairment of eNOS-NO cascade in bone marrow (BM). Hyperoxia, induced by a clinically relevant hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) protocol, can significantly enhance the mobilization of EPCs from the BM into peripheral blood. However, increased circulating EPCs failed to reach to wound tissues. This is partly a result of downregulated production of SDF-1α in local wound lesions with diabetes. Administration of exogenous SDF-1α into wounds reversed the EPC homing impairment and, with hyperoxia, synergistically enhanced EPC mobilization, homing, neovascularization, and wound healing. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10, 1869–1882. PMID:18627349

  1. Cross Talk with Hematopoietic Cells Regulates the Endothelial Progenitor Cell Differentiation of CD34 Positive Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Jung, Seok-Yun; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kang, Song-Hwa; Yoo, So-Young; Hong, Jong-Kyu; Park, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Sun-Jin; Kim, Hwi-Gon; Asahara, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the crucial role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vascular regeneration, the specific interactions between EPCs and hematopoietic cells remain unclear. Methods In EPC colony forming assays, we first demonstrated that the formation of EPC colonies was drastically increased in the coculture of CD34+ and CD34− cells, and determined the optimal concentrations of CD34+ cells and CD34− cells for spindle-shaped EPC differentiation. Results Functionally, the coculture of CD34+ and CD34− cells resulted in a significant enhancement of adhesion, tube formation, and migration capacity compared with culture of CD34+ cells alone. Furthermore, blood flow recovery and capillary formation were remarkably increased by the coculture of CD34+ and CD34− cells in a murine hind-limb ischemia model. To elucidate further the role of hematopoietic cells in EPC differentiation, we isolated different populations of hematopoietic cells. T lymphocytes (CD3+) markedly accelerated the early EPC status of CD34+ cells, while macrophages (CD11b+) or megakaryocytes (CD41+) specifically promoted large EPC colonies. Conclusion Our results suggest that specific populations of hematopoietic cells play a role in the EPC differentiation of CD34+ cells, a finding that may aid in the development of a novel cell therapy strategy to overcome the quantitative and qualitative limitations of EPC therapy. PMID:25166961

  2. Nanotopography Induced Human Bone Marrow Mesangiogenic Progenitor Cells (MPCs) to Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) Transition

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, Sara; Montali, Marina; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Meucci, Sandro; Parchi, Paolo D.; Barachini, Serena; Panvini, Francesca M.; Pacini, Simone; Petrini, Iacopo; Cecchini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Mesangiogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) are a very peculiar population of cells present in the human adult bone marrow, only recently discovered and characterized. Owing to their differentiation potential, MPCs can be considered progenitors for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and for this reason they potentially represent a promising cell population to apply for skeletal tissue regeneration applications. Here, we evaluate the effects of surface nanotopography on MPCs, considering the possibility that this specific physical stimulus alone can trigger MPC differentiation toward the mesenchymal lineage. In particular, we exploit nanogratings to deliver a mechanical, directional stimulus by contact interaction to promote cell morphological polarization and stretching. Following this interaction, we study the MPC-MSC transition by i. analyzing the change in cell morphotype by immunostaining of the key cell-adhesion structures and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and ii. quantifying the expression of cell-phenotype characterizing markers by flow cytometry. We demonstrate that the MPC mesengenic differentiation can be induced by the solely interaction with the NGs, in absence of any other external, chemical stimulus. This aspect is of particular interest in the case of multipotent progenitors as MPCs that, retaining both mesengenic and angiogenic potential, possess a high clinical appeal. PMID:28066765

  3. Tunneling nanotubes mediate the transfer of stem cell marker CD133 between hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Doreen; Scheinpflug, Julia; Karbanová, Jana; Freund, Daniel; Bornhäuser, Martin; Corbeil, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Deciphering all mechanisms of intercellular communication used by hematopoietic progenitors is important, not only for basic stem cell research, but also in view of their therapeutic relevance. Here, we investigated whether these cells can produce the thin F-actin-based plasma membrane protrusions referred to as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), which are known to bridge cells over long distances without contact with the substratum and transfer cargo molecules along them in various biological processes. We found that human primary CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors and leukemic KG1a cells develop such structures upon culture on primary mesenchymal stromal cells or specific extracellular-matrix-based substrata. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that cell dislodgement is the primary mechanism responsible for TNT biogenesis. Surprisingly, we found that, among various cluster of differentiation (CD) markers, only the stem cell antigen CD133 is transferred between cells. It is selectively and directionally transported along the surface of TNTs in small clusters, such as cytoplasmic phospho-myosin light chain 2, suggesting that the latter actin motor protein might be implicated in this process. Our data provide new insights into the biology of hematopoietic progenitors that can contribute to our understanding of all facets of intercellular communication in the bone marrow microenvironment under healthy or cancerous conditions.

  4. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  5. Repurposing Treprostinil for Enhancing Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Zahra; Bergmayr, Christian; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Javaheri, Tahereh; Themanns, Madeleine; Pham, Ha T. T.; Strohmaier, Wolfgang; Sexl, Veronika; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Gs-coupled receptors enhances engraftment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). We tested the hypothesis that treprostinil, a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, can be repurposed to improve hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Murine and human HSPCs were isolated from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood, respectively. Prostanoid receptor agonists and the combination thereof with forskolin were tested for their capacity to stimulate [3H]cAMP accumulation in HSPCs. Three independent approaches were employed to verify the ability of agonist-activated HSPCs to reconstitute the bone marrow in lethally irradiated recipient mice. The underlying mechanism was explored in cellular migration assays and by blocking C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Among several prostanoid agonists tested in combination with forskolin, treprostinil was most efficacious in raising intracellular cAMP levels in murine and human HPSCs. Injection of murine and human HSPCs, which had been pretreated with treprostinil and forskolin, enhanced survival of lethally irradiated recipient mice. Survival was further improved if recipient mice were subcutaneously administered treprostinil (0.15 mg kg−1 8 h−1) for 10 days. This regimen also reduced the number of HSPCs required to rescue lethally irradiated mice. Enhanced survival of recipient mice was causally related to treprostinil-enhanced CXCR4-dependent migration of HSPCs. Treprostinil stimulates the engraftment of human and murine hematopoietic stem cells without impairing their capacity for self-renewal. The investigated dose range corresponds to the dose approved for human use. Hence, these findings may be readily translated into a clinical application. PMID:26989084

  6. Hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization for autologous transplantation – a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Salvino, Marco Aurélio; Ruiz, Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    The use of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous support of hematopoietic progenitor cells is an effective strategy to treat various hematologic neoplasms, such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells are the main source of support for autologous transplants, and collection of an adequate number of hematopoietic progenitor cells is a critical step in the autologous transplant procedure. Traditional strategies, based on the use of growth factors with or without chemotherapy, have limitations even when remobilizations are performed. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is the most widely used agent for progenitor cell mobilization. The association of plerixafor, a C-X-C Chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) inhibitor, to granulocyte colony stimulating factor generates rapid mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. A literature review was performed of randomized studies comparing different mobilization schemes in the treatment of multiple myeloma and lymphomas to analyze their limitations and effectiveness in hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization for autologous transplant. This analysis showed that the addition of plerixafor to granulocyte colony stimulating factor is well tolerated and results in a greater proportion of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas or multiple myeloma reaching optimal CD34+ cell collections with a smaller number of apheresis compared the use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor alone. PMID:26969772

  7. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments†

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Petersen, Ole W.

    2010-01-01

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell–cell versus cell–ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages. PMID:20023793

  8. Mutually exclusive signaling signatures define the hepatic and pancreatic progenitor cell lineage divergence

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Seguel, Elisa; Mah, Nancy; Naumann, Heike; Pongrac, Igor M.; Cerdá-Esteban, Nuria; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Wang, Yongbo; Chen, Wei; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Spagnoli, Francesca M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how distinct cell types arise from multipotent progenitor cells is a major quest in stem cell biology. The liver and pancreas share many aspects of their early development and possibly originate from a common progenitor. However, how liver and pancreas cells diverge from a common endoderm progenitor population and adopt specific fates remains elusive. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we defined the molecular identity of liver and pancreas progenitors that were isolated from the mouse embryo at two time points, spanning the period when the lineage decision is made. The integration of temporal and spatial gene expression profiles unveiled mutually exclusive signaling signatures in hepatic and pancreatic progenitors. Importantly, we identified the noncanonical Wnt pathway as a potential developmental regulator of this fate decision and capable of inducing the pancreas program in endoderm and liver cells. Our study offers an unprecedented view of gene expression programs in liver and pancreas progenitors and forms the basis for formulating lineage-reprogramming strategies to convert adult hepatic cells into pancreatic cells. PMID:24013505

  9. Brief report: reconstruction of joint hyaline cartilage by autologous progenitor cells derived from ear elastic cartilage.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Shinji; Takebe, Takanori; Kan, Hiroomi; Yabuki, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Ik, Lee Jeong; Maegawa, Jiro; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    In healthy joints, hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of bones provides cushioning due to its unique mechanical properties. However, because of its limited regenerative capacity, age- and sports-related injuries to this tissue may lead to degenerative arthropathies, prompting researchers to investigate a variety of cell sources. We recently succeeded in isolating human cartilage progenitor cells from ear elastic cartilage. Human cartilage progenitor cells have high chondrogenic and proliferative potential to form elastic cartilage with long-term tissue maintenance. However, it is unknown whether ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells can be used to reconstruct hyaline cartilage, which has different mechanical and histological properties from elastic cartilage. In our efforts to develop foundational technologies for joint hyaline cartilage repair and reconstruction, we conducted this study to obtain an answer to this question. We created an experimental canine model of knee joint cartilage damage, transplanted ear-derived autologous cartilage progenitor cells. The reconstructed cartilage was rich in proteoglycans and showed unique histological characteristics similar to joint hyaline cartilage. In addition, mechanical properties of the reconstructed tissues were higher than those of ear cartilage and equal to those of joint hyaline cartilage. This study suggested that joint hyaline cartilage was reconstructed from ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells. It also demonstrated that ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells, which can be harvested by a minimally invasive method, would be useful for reconstructing joint hyaline cartilage in patients with degenerative arthropathies.

  10. Directing migration of endothelial progenitor cells with applied DC electric fields.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Qin, Lu; Reid, Brian; Pu, Jin; Hara, Takahiko; Zhao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Naturally-occurring, endogenous electric fields (EFs) have been detected at skin wounds, damaged tissue sites and vasculature. Applied EFs guide migration of many types of cells, including endothelial cells to migrate directionally. Homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to an injury site is important for repair of vasculature and also for angiogenesis. However, it has not been reported whether EPCs respond to applied EFs. Aiming to explore the possibility to use electric stimulation to regulate the progenitor cells and angiogenesis, we tested the effects of direct-current (DC) EFs on EPCs. We first used immunofluorescence to confirm the expression of endothelial progenitor markers in three lines of EPCs. We then cultured the progenitor cells in EFs. Using time-lapse video microscopy, we demonstrated that an applied DC EF directs migration of the EPCs toward the cathode. The progenitor cells also align and elongate in an EF. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor signaling completely abolished the EF-induced directional migration of the progenitor cells. We conclude that EFs are an effective signal that guides EPC migration through VEGF receptor signaling in vitro. Applied EFs may be used to control behaviors of EPCs in tissue engineering, in homing of EPCs to wounds and to an injury site in the vasculature.

  11. A myogenic precursor cell that could contribute to regeneration in zebrafish and its similarity to the satellite cell.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Ashley L; Gurevich, David B; Currie, Peter D

    2013-09-01

    The cellular basis for mammalian muscle regeneration has been an area of intense investigation over recent decades. The consensus is that a specialized self-renewing stem cell, termed the satellite cell, plays a major role during the process of regeneration in amniotes. How broadly this mechanism is deployed within the vertebrate phylogeny remains an open question. A lack of information on the role of cells analogous to the satellite cell in other vertebrate systems is even more unexpected given the fact that satellite cells were first designated in frogs. An intriguing aspect of this debate is that a number of amphibia and many fish species exhibit epimorphic regenerative processes in specific tissues, whereby regeneration occurs by the dedifferentiation of the damaged tissue, without deploying specialized stem cell populations analogous to satellite cells. Hence, it is feasible that a cellular process completely distinct from that deployed during mammalian muscle regeneration could operate in species capable of epimorphic regeneration. In this minireview, we examine the evidence for the broad phylogenetic distribution of satellite cells. We conclude that, in the vertebrates examined so far, epimorphosis does not appear to be deployed during muscle regeneration, and that analogous cells expressing similar marker genes to satellite cells appear to be deployed during the regenerative process. However, the functional definition of these cells as self-renewing muscle stem cells remains a final hurdle to the definition of the satellite cell as a generic vertebrate cell type.

  12. Use of spleen organ cultures to monitor hemopoietic progenitor cell regeneration following irradiation and marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    von Melchner, H.; Metcalf, D.; Mandel, T.E.

    1980-11-01

    After lethal irradiation of C57BL mice followed by the injection of 10/sup 7/ marrow cells, total cellularity and progenitor cell levels exceeded pretreatment levels within 12 days in the spleen, but regeneration remained incomplete in the marrow. The exceptional regenerative capacity of progenitor populations in the spleen was observed in organ cultures of spleen slices prepared 24 h after irradiation and transplantation, excluding continuous repopulation from the marrow as a significant factor in splenic regeneration.

  13. Asymmetric cell division of stem and progenitor cells during homeostasis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, Sandra; Lerner, Robin G; Petritsch, Claudia

    2014-02-01

    Stem and progenitor cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and produce differentiated progeny. A fine balance between these processes is achieved through controlled asymmetric divisions and is necessary to generate cellular diversity during development and to maintain adult tissue homeostasis. Disruption of this balance may result in premature depletion of the stem/progenitor cell pool, or abnormal growth. In many tissues, including the brain, dysregulated asymmetric divisions are associated with cancer. Whether there is a causal relationship between asymmetric cell division defects and cancer initiation is as yet not known. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate asymmetric cell divisions in the neural lineage and discuss the potential connections between this regulatory machinery and cancer.

  14. Establishment of Immortalized Human Erythroid Progenitor Cell Lines Able to Produce Enucleated Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Ryo; Suda, Noriko; Sudo, Kazuhiro; Miharada, Kenichi; Hiroyama, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Kenzaburo; Nakamura, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs. PMID:23533656

  15. Cryopreservation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells for therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Watt, Suzanne M; Austin, Eric; Armitage, Sue

    2007-01-01

    the Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registry. In this chapter, we describe several protocols that we have used to cryopreserve these different sources of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, keeping in mind that the protocols may vary among transplant processing centers.

  16. Cardiac muscle plasticity in adult and embryo by heart-derived progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hidemasa; Chi, Xuan; Bradfute, Steven B; Mishina, Yuji; Pocius, Jennifer; Michael, Lloyd H; Behringer, Richard R; Schwartz, Robert J; Entman, Mark L; Schneider, Michael D

    2004-05-01

    The evidence of cardiomyocyte proliferation in damaged heart implied cardiac regeneration might occur by resident or extra cardiac stem cells. However, the specification and origin of these cells remain unknown. Here, we report using fluorescence-activated cell sorting that cardiac progenitor cells resided in adult heart and colocalized with small capillary vessels, within the stem cell antigen (Sca-1) population expressing high telomerase activity. Notably, hematopoietic stem cells capable of efflux Hoechst 33342, termed side population cells, also were identified within the heart-derived cells. The cardiac progenitor cells (CD45(-)/CD34(-)) express neither cardiac muscle nor endothelial cell markers at an undifferentiated stage. The exposure of 5-azacytidine induced cardiac differentiation, which depends, in part, on Bmpr1a, a type IA receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). The capability of adult Sca1(+) cells to adopt a cardiac muscle in embryogenesis was substantiated by blastocyst injection, using progenitors from the adult hearts of transgenic mice that harbor a bacterial artificial chromosome expressing GFP via the Nkx-2.5 locus. Intravenously injected progenitors, shortly after ischemic/reperfusion, homed and functionally differentiated 3.5% of total left ventricle in the host myocardium. Differentiation included both fusion-independent and fusion-associated components, proved by the Cre/loxP donor/recipient system. Our studies suggest that endogenous cardiac progenitors reside in the adult heart, regenerate cardiomyocytes functionally, and integrate into the existing heart circuitry.

  17. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in Chinese patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-jun; Zhu, Ding-liang; Yang, Guo-yuan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hai-ya; Ji, Kai-da; Lu, Yi-ming; Gao, Ping-jin

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that a mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) occurs after acute cerebrovascular diseases, we evaluated the number of EPCs in the process of acute stroke. A total of 203 individuals were examined, including 100 patients with ischemic strokes, 36 patients with hemorrhagic strokes and 67 healthy controls. Ninety-eight patients were observed at days 1, 7, 14 and 28 after acute stroke. Circulating EPCs were defined by the surface markers CD133/KDR and analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were determined by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry using the N high sensitivity CRP Reagent. Patients with acute stroke had lower numbers of EPCs (0.037+/-0.001/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) vs. 0.06+/-0.002/100 PMNCs, P<0.05) and higher levels of serum hs-CRP (1.99 vs. 0.03 mg per 100 ml, P<0.05) than control subjects after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. There were no differences in EPCs counts or serum hs-CRP levels between patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. In univariate analyses, BMI, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (T-cho), blood glucose and hs-CRP (P<0.001) were inversely correlated with EPCs counts. Multivariate analyses showed SBP and total cholesterol as independent predictors of EPCs levels. The number of EPCs gradually increased at day 7 after acute onset, remained elevated at day 14; and returned to baseline by day 28. Our results suggest a possible contribution of circulating EPCs in acute stroke. SBP and total cholesterol are independent factors of reduced EPCs numbers. A transient early increment of EPCs may result from the mobilization of EPCs in response to stroke stress.

  18. Role of JAK3 in myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jang, You-Na; Lee, Il Jae; Park, Myong Chul; Baik, Eun Joo

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is regulated by transcription factors, including members of the myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) family and many signaling pathways. The JAK1 and JAK2 pathways are known to each have different effects on myoblast proliferation and differentiation; however, the role of JAK3 in myoblast differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of JAK3 inhibition on myogenic differentiation in the C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line. During myogenic differentiation, treatment with the JAK3 inhibitor WHIp154 significantly increased the number of MHC-positive multinucleated myotubes and the expressions of myosin heavy chain (MHC), myogenin (MGN), MyoD, and myogenic enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). Knockdown of the JAK3 gene using siJAK3 also significantly increased MHC, MGN and MyoD mRNA expressions as well as insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene expression. During differentiation, JAK3 was initially activated and later decreased. Differentiation decreased STAT1, which was further decreased by WHIp154. In contrast, STAT3 gradually was elevated during differentiation, and was increased by JAK3 inhibition. Moreover, we found that up-regulation of AKT activity and down-regulation of ERK activity cooperated to accelerate myogenic differentiation. Taken together, these data indicate that JAK3 inhibition potently facilitates myoblast differentiation through antagonistic STAT1/STAT3 activities. Additionally, JAK3 inhibition induced precocious differentiation and played important roles for terminal differentiation, including fusion, which is involved with regulation of AKT and ERK pathways.

  19. Cell-cycle-independent transitions in temporal identity of mammalian neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Mayumi; Miyata, Takaki; Konno, Daijiro; Ueda, Hiroki R.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Kawaguchi, Ayano

    2016-01-01

    During cerebral development, many types of neurons are sequentially generated by self-renewing progenitor cells called apical progenitors (APs). Temporal changes in AP identity are thought to be responsible for neuronal diversity; however, the mechanisms underlying such changes remain largely unknown. Here we perform single-cell transcriptome analysis of individual progenitors at different developmental stages, and identify a subset of genes whose expression changes over time but is independent of differentiation status. Surprisingly, the pattern of changes in the expression of such temporal-axis genes in APs is unaffected by cell-cycle arrest. Consistent with this, transient cell-cycle arrest of APs in vivo does not prevent descendant neurons from acquiring their correct laminar fates. Analysis of cultured APs reveals that transitions in AP gene expression are driven by both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms. These results suggest that the timing mechanisms controlling AP temporal identity function independently of cell-cycle progression and Notch activation mode. PMID:27094546

  20. The role of circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells, fibrocytes, in promoting pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Strieter, Robert M; Keeley, Ellen C; Burdick, Marie D; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-01-01

    The resident fibroblast has been traditionally viewed as the primary cell involved in promoting pulmonary fibrosis. However, contemporary findings now support the concept of a circulating cell (fibrocyte) that also contributes to pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of cell surface markers related to leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells and fibroblasts. Fibrocytes are unique in that they are capable of differentiating into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, as well as adipocytes. In this review, we present data supporting the critical role these cells play in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 10 represses premature cell differentiation during establishment of the intestinal progenitor niche.

    PubMed

    Nyeng, Pia; Bjerke, Maureen Ann; Norgaard, Gitte Anker; Qu, Xiaoling; Kobberup, Sune; Jensen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Spatio-temporal regulation of the balance between cell renewal and cell differentiation is of vital importance for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factor signaling relayed from the mesenchyme to the epithelium is necessary for progenitor maintenance during organogenesis of most endoderm-derived organs, but it is still ambiguous whether the signal is exclusively mitogenic. Furthermore, the downstream mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to elucidate these questions we performed a complementary analysis of fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10), gain-of-function and loss-of-function in the embryonic mouse duodenum, where the progenitor niche is clearly defined and differentiation proceeds in a spatially organized manner. In agreement with a role in progenitor maintenance, FGF10 is expressed in the duodenal mesenchyme during early development while the cognate receptor FGFR2b is expressed in the epithelial progenitor niche. Fgf10 gain-of-function in the epithelium leads to spatial expansion of the progenitor niche and repression of cell differentiation, while loss-of-function results in premature cell differentiation and subsequent epithelial hypoplasia. We conclude that FGF10 mediated mesenchymal-to-epithelial signaling maintains the progenitor niche in the embryonic duodenum primarily by repressing cell differentiation, rather than through mitogenic signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FGF10-signaling targets include ETS-family transcription factors, which have previously been shown to regulate epithelial maturation and tumor progression.

  2. Poised Regeneration of Zebrafish Melanocytes Involves Direct Differentiation and Concurrent Replenishment of Tissue-Resident Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Sharanya; Kasheta, Melissa; Ceol, Craig J

    2015-06-22

    Efficient regeneration following injury is critical for maintaining tissue function and enabling organismal survival. Cells reconstituting damaged tissue are often generated from resident stem or progenitor cells or from cells that have dedifferentiated and become proliferative. While lineage-tracing studies have defined cellular sources of regeneration in many tissues, the process by which these cells execute the regenerative process is largely obscure. Here, we have identified tissue-resident progenitor cells that mediate regeneration of zebrafish stripe melanocytes and defined how these cells reconstitute pigmentation. Nearly all regeneration melanocytes arise through direct differentiation of progenitor cells. Wnt signaling is activated prior to differentiation, and inhibition of Wnt signaling impairs regeneration. Additional progenitors divide symmetrically to sustain the pool of progenitor cells. Combining direct differentiation with symmetric progenitor divisions may serve as a means to rapidly repair injured tissue while preserving the capacity to regenerate.

  3. Lineage tracing of resident tendon progenitor cells during growth and natural healing.

    PubMed

    Dyment, Nathaniel A; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Matthews, Brya G; Li, Yingcui; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rowe, David W

    2014-01-01

    Unlike during embryogenesis, the identity of tissue resident progenitor cells that contribute to postnatal tendon growth and natural healing is poorly characterized. Therefore, we utilized 1) an inducible Cre driven by alpha smooth muscle actin (SMACreERT2), that identifies mesenchymal progenitors, 2) a constitutively active Cre driven by growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5Cre), a critical regulator of joint condensation, in combination with 3) an Ai9 Cre reporter to permanently label SMA9 and GDF5-9 populations and their progeny. In growing mice, SMA9+ cells were found in peritendinous structures and scleraxis-positive (ScxGFP+) cells within the tendon midsubstance and myotendinous junction. The progenitors within the tendon midsubstance were transiently labeled as they displayed a 4-fold expansion from day 2 to day 21 but reduced to baseline levels by day 70. SMA9+ cells were not found within tendon entheses or ligaments in the knee, suggesting a different origin. In contrast to the SMA9 population, GDF5-9+ cells extended from the bone through the enthesis and into a portion of the tendon midsubstance. GDF5-9+ cells were also found throughout the length of the ligaments, indicating a significant variation in the progenitors that contribute to tendons and ligaments. Following tendon injury, SMA9+ paratenon cells were the main contributors to the healing response. SMA9+ cells extended over the defect space at 1 week and differentiated into ScxGFP+ cells at 2 weeks, which coincided with increased collagen signal in the paratenon bridge. Thus, SMA9-labeled cells represent a unique progenitor source that contributes to the tendon midsubstance, paratenon, and myotendinous junction during growth and natural healing, while GDF5 progenitors contribute to tendon enthesis and ligament development. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the expansion and differentiation of these progenitors may prove crucial to improving future repair strategies.

  4. Aristaless Related Homeobox Gene, Arx, Is Implicated in Mouse Fetal Leydig Cell Differentiation Possibly through Expressing in the Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyabayashi, Kanako; Katoh-Fukui, Yuko; Ogawa, Hidesato; Baba, Takashi; Shima, Yuichi; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Kitamura, Kunio; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou

    2013-01-01

    Development of the testis begins with the expression of the SRY gene in pre-Sertoli cells. Soon after, testis cords containing Sertoli and germ cells are formed and fetal Leydig cells subsequently develop in the interstitial space. Studies using knockout mice have indicated that multiple genes encoding growth factors and transcription factors are implicated in fetal Leydig cell differentiation. Previously, we demonstrated that the Arx gene is implicated in this process. However, how ARX regulates Leydig cell differentiation remained unknown. In this study, we examined Arx KO testes and revealed that fetal Leydig cell numbers largely decrease throughout the fetal life. Since our study shows that fetal Leydig cells rarely proliferate, this decrease in the KO testes is thought to be due to defects of fetal Leydig progenitor cells. In sexually indifferent fetal gonads of wild type, ARX was expressed in the coelomic epithelial cells and cells underneath the epithelium as well as cells at the gonad-mesonephros border, both of which have been described to contain progenitors of fetal Leydig cells. After testis differentiation, ARX was expressed in a large population of the interstitial cells but not in fetal Leydig cells, raising the possibility that ARX-positive cells contain fetal Leydig progenitor cells. When examining marker gene expression, we observed cells as if they were differentiating into fetal Leydig cells from the progenitor cells. Based on these results, we propose that ARX acts as a positive factor for differentiation of fetal Leydig cells through functioning at the progenitor stage. PMID:23840809

  5. Development and specification of cerebellar stem and progenitor cells in zebrafish: from embryo to adult

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Teleost fish display widespread post-embryonic neurogenesis originating from many different proliferative niches that are distributed along the brain axis. During the development of the central nervous system (CNS) different cell types are produced in a strict temporal order from increasingly committed progenitors. However, it is not known whether diverse neural stem and progenitor cell types with restricted potential or stem cells with broad potential are maintained in the teleost fish brain. Results To study the diversity and output of neural stem and progenitor cell populations in the zebrafish brain the cerebellum was used as a model brain region, because of its well-known architecture and development. Transgenic zebrafish lines, in vivo imaging and molecular markers were used to follow and quantify how the proliferative activity and output of cerebellar progenitor populations progress. This analysis revealed that the proliferative activity and progenitor marker expression declines in juvenile zebrafish before they reach sexual maturity. Furthermore, this correlated with the diminished repertoire of cell types produced in the adult. The stem and progenitor cells derived from the upper rhombic lip were maintained into adulthood and they actively produced granule cells. Ventricular zone derived progenitor cells were largely quiescent in the adult cerebellum and produced a very limited number of glia and inhibitory inter-neurons. No Purkinje or Eurydendroid cells were produced in fish older than 3 months. This suggests that cerebellar cell types are produced in a strict temporal order from distinct pools of increasingly committed stem and progenitor cells. Conclusions Our results in the zebrafish cerebellum show that neural stem and progenitor cell types are specified and they produce distinct cell lineages and sub-types of brain cells. We propose that only specific subtypes of brain cells are continuously produced throughout life in the teleost fish

  6. The emerging biology of muscle stem cells: implications for cell-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Bentzinger, C Florian; Wang, Yu Xin; von Maltzahn, Julia; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2013-03-01

    Cell-based therapies for degenerative diseases of the musculature remain on the verge of feasibility. Myogenic cells are relatively abundant, accessible, and typically harbor significant proliferative potential ex vivo. However, their use for therapeutic intervention is limited due to several critical aspects of their complex biology. Recent insights based on mouse models have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the function of myogenic progenitors significantly. Moreover, the discovery of atypical myogenic cell types with the ability to cross the blood-muscle barrier has opened exciting new therapeutic avenues. In this paper, we outline the major problems that are currently associated with the manipulation of myogenic cells and discuss promising strategies to overcome these obstacles.

  7. Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells in the Embryonic Mouse Submandibular Gland

    PubMed Central

    Lombaert, Isabelle. M.A.; Hoffman, Matthew. P.

    2012-01-01

    Salivary gland organogenesis involves the specification, maintenance, lineage commitment, and differentiation of epithelial stem/progenitor cells. Identifying how stem/progenitor cells are directed along a series of cell fate decisions to form a functional salivary gland will be necessary for future stem cell regenerative therapy. The identification of stem/progenitor cells within the salivary gland has focused on their role in postnatal glands and little is known about them in embryonic glands. Here, we have reviewed the information available for other developing organ systems and used it to determine whether similar cell populations exist in the mouse submandibular gland. Additionally, using growth factors that influence salivary gland epithelial morphogenesis during development, we have taken a simple experimental approach asking whether any of these growth factors influence early developmental lineages within the salivary epithelium on a transcriptional level. These preliminary findings show that salivary epithelial stem/progenitor populations exist within the gland, and that growth factors that are reported to control epithelial morphogenesis may also impact cell fate decisions. Further investigation of the signaling networks that influence stem/progenitor cell behavior will allow us to hypothesize how we might induce autologous stem cells to regenerate damaged salivary tissue in a therapeutic context. PMID:20428013

  8. Isolation of Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells from the Aganglionic Gut of Patients with Hirschsprung's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David J; Bethell, George S; Shukla, Rajeev; Kenny, Simon E; Edgar, David H

    2015-01-01

    Enteric nervous system progenitor cells isolated from postnatal human gut and cultured as neurospheres can then be transplanted into aganglionic gut to restore normal patterns of contractility. These progenitor cells may be of future use to treat patients with Hirschprung's disease, a congenital condition characterized by hindgut dysmotility due to the lack of enteric nervous system ganglia. Here we demonstrate that progenitor cells can also be isolated from aganglionic gut removed during corrective surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. Although the enteric nervous system marker calretinin is not expressed in the aganglionic gut region, de novo expression is initiated in cultured neurosphere cells isolated from aganglionic Hirschsprung bowel. Furthermore, expression of the neural markers NOS, VIP and GFAP also increased during culture of aganglionic gut neurospheres which we show can be transplantation into cultured embryonic mouse gut explants to restore a normal frequency of contractility. To determine the origin of the progenitor cells in aganglionic region, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to demonstrate that only p75-positive neural crest-derived cells present in the thickened nerve trunks characteristic of the aganglionic region of Hirschsprung gut gave rise to neurons in culture. The derivation of enteric nervous system progenitors in the aganglionic gut region of Hirschprung's patients not only means that this tissue is a potential source of cells for future autologous transplantation, but it also raises the possibility of inducing the differentiation of these endogenous cells in situ to compensate for the aganglionosis.

  9. Regenerative medicine for the kidney: renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Akito; Nakasatomi, Masao; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    The kidney has the capacity for regeneration and repair after a variety of insults. Over the past few decades, factors that promote repair of the injured kidney have been extensively investigated. By using kidney injury animal models, the role of intrinsic and extrinsic growth factors, transcription factors, and extracellular matrix in this process has been examined. The identification of renal stem cells in the adult kidney as well as in the embryonic kidney is an active area of research. Cell populations expressing putative stem cell markers or possessing stem cell properties have been found in the tubules, interstitium, and glomeruli of the normal kidney. Cell therapies with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have been highly effective for the treatment of acute or chronic renal failure in animals. Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are also utilized for the construction of artificial kidneys or renal components. In this review, we highlight the advances in regenerative medicine for the kidney from the perspective of renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapies and discuss the issues to be solved to realize regenerative therapy for kidney diseases in humans.

  10. Neuronal expression of pathological tau accelerates oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ossola, Bernardino; Zhao, Chao; Compston, Alastair; Pluchino, Stefano; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation is an important therapeutic target to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously reported hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule‐associated protein tau in MS lesions, suggesting its involvement in axonal degeneration. However, the influence of pathological tau‐induced axonal damage on the potential for remyelination is unknown. Therefore, we investigated OPC differentiation in human P301S tau (P301S‐htau) transgenic mice, both in vitro and in vivo following focal demyelination. In 2‐month‐old P301S‐htau mice, which show hyperphosphorylated tau in neurons, we found atrophic axons in the spinal cord in the absence of prominent axonal degeneration. These signs of early axonal damage were associated with microgliosis and an upregulation of IL‐1β and TNFα. Following in vivo focal white matter demyelination we found that OPCs differentiated more efficiently in P301S‐htau mice than wild type (Wt) mice. We also found an increased level of myelin basic protein within the lesions, which however did not translate into increased remyelination due to higher susceptibility of P301S‐htau axons to demyelination‐induced degeneration compared to Wt axons. In vitro experiments confirmed higher differentiation capacity of OPCs from P301S‐htau mice compared with Wt mice‐derived OPCs. Because the OPCs from P301S‐htau mice do not ectopically express the transgene, and when isolated from newborn mice behave like Wt mice‐derived OPCs, we infer that their enhanced differentiation capacity must have been acquired through microenvironmental priming. Our data suggest the intriguing concept that damaged axons may signal to OPCs and promote their differentiation in the attempt at rescue by remyelination. GLIA 2016;64:457–471 PMID:26576485

  11. Dysregulation of Vascular Endothelial Progenitor Cells Lung-Homing in Subjects with COPD.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brittany M; Manzoor, Fizza; Beaudin, Suzanne; Kjarsgaard, Melanie; Nair, Parameswaran; Gauvreau, Gail M; Sehmi, Roma

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by fixed airflow limitation and progressive decline of lung function and punctuated by occasional exacerbations. The disease pathogenesis may involve activation of the bone marrow stimulating mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. We investigated the hypothesis that lower circulating numbers of vascular endothelial progenitor cells (VEPCs) are a consequence of increased lung-sequestration in COPD. Nonatopic, current or ex-smokers with diagnosed COPD and nonatopic, nonsmoking normal controls were enrolled. Blood and induced sputum extracted primitive hemopoietic progenitors (HPCs) and VEPC were enumerated by flow cytometry. Migration and adhesive responses to fibronectin were assessed. In sputum, VEPC numbers were significantly greater in COPD compared to normal controls. In blood, VEPCs were significantly lower in COPD versus normal controls. There were no differences in HPC levels between the two groups in either compartment. Functionally, there was a greater migrational responsiveness of progenitors from COPD subjects to stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1α) compared to normal controls. This was associated with greater numbers of CXCR4(+) progenitors in sputum from COPD. Increased migrational responsiveness of progenitor cells may promote lung-homing of VEPC in COPD which may disrupt maintenance and repair of the airways and contribute to COPD disease pathogenesis.

  12. The synergistic effect of surface topography and sustained release of TGF-β1 on myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moghadasi Boroujeni, Samaneh; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Vakilian, Saeid; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza; Soleimani, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    A combination of topographical cues and controlled release of biochemical factors is a potential platform in controlling stem cells differentiation. In this study the synergistic effect of nanotopography and sustained release of biofunctional transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) on differentiation of human Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hWJ-derived UC-MSCs) toward myogenic lineage was investigated. In order to achieve a sustained release of TGF-β1, this factor was encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles. Afterwards the aligned composite mats were fabricated using poly-ɛ-caprolacton (PCL) containing TGF-β1-loaded chitosan nanoparticles and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). The nanofiber topography notably up-regulated the expressions of calponin1 and SM22α compared with tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). Moreover, the combination of nanofiber topography and sustained TGF-β1release resulted in more significant enhancement of SMC marker, in particular smooth muscle α-actin (ASMA) expression, compared with bolus delivery despite lower amounts of TGF-β1 (>10 times lower). Additionally, immunofluorescence staining showed that ASMA and desmin were expressed at higher intensity in cells exposed to controlled TGF-β1 delivery rather than bolus delivery. These results demonstrated the importance of combined effect of topography and drug delivery in directing stem cell fate and the potential of such biofunctional scaffolds for cell transplantation applications in bladder tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1610-1621, 2016.

  13. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations Alter the Activity of Adipose Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeve, Daniel; Millay, Douglas P; Seo, Jin; Graff, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicate that muscle, in a non-autonomous manner, regulates adipose progenitor homeostasis, highlighting a role for muscle-derived secreted factors. These findings support a humoral link between skeletal muscle and adipose progenitors and indicate that manipulation of adipose stem cell function may help address obesity and diabetes.

  14. Shaping our minds: stem and progenitor cell diversity in the mammalian neocortex.

    PubMed

    Franco, Santos J; Müller, Ulrich

    2013-01-09

    The neural circuits of the mammalian neocortex are crucial for perception, complex thought, cognition, and consciousness. This circuitry is assembled from many different neuronal subtypes with divergent properties and functions. Here, we review recent studies that have begun to clarify the mechanisms of cell-type specification in the neocortex, focusing on the lineage relationships between neocortical progenitors and subclasses of excitatory projection neurons. These studies reveal an unanticipated diversity in the progenitor pool that requires a revised view of prevailing models of cell-type specification in the neocortex. We propose a "sequential progenitor-diversification model" that integrates current knowledge to explain how projection neuron diversity is achieved by mechanisms acting on proliferating progenitors and their postmitotic offspring. We discuss the implications of this model for our understanding of brain evolution and pathological states of the neocortex.

  15. Prethymic CD34+ progenitors capable of developing into T cells are not committed to the T cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Blom, B; Res, P; Noteboom, E; Weijer, K; Spits, H

    1997-04-15

    Progenitor cells that seed the fetal thymus are derived from the fetal liver and the bone marrow. These cells migrate through the fetal blood to the thymus. In this work, we address which peripheral progenitor cells have the potential to become T cells and whether these progenitor cells are already committed to the T cell lineage. All CD34+CD38- precursor cells, regardless of their origin, are able to develop into T cells in a hybrid human/mouse fetal thymic organ culture. Previously, we found that the more differentiated CD34+CD38+ progenitor cells from fetal liver cannot develop into T cells. In this work, we show that CD34+CD38+ cells from fetal bone marrow and cord blood are capable of T cell development. In spite of the T cell-developing potential, we did not detect rearrangements of TCR-delta or TCR-beta loci in any of the CD34+ peripheral precursors. CD34+ fetal bone marrow cell subpopulations express pre-TCR-alpha. However, we could not detect expression of pT alpha or of recombination-activating gene 1 in CD34+ cord blood cells. Since cord blood CD34+ cells should contain the direct progenitors of the CD34+ thymocytes, our data do not support the notion that in humans commitment to the T cell lineage occurs before the cells migrate into the thymus.

  16. Second heart field cardiac progenitor cells in the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Francou, Alexandre; Saint-Michel, Edouard; Mesbah, Karim; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Rana, M Sameer; Christoffels, Vincent M; Kelly, Robert G

    2013-04-01

    At the end of the first week of mouse gestation, cardiomyocyte differentiation initiates in the cardiac crescent to give rise to the linear heart tube. The heart tube subsequently elongates by addition of cardiac progenitor cells from adjacent pharyngeal mesoderm to the growing arterial and venous poles. These progenitor cells, termed the second heart field, originate in splanchnic mesoderm medial to cells of the cardiac crescent and are patterned into anterior and posterior domains adjacent to the arterial and venous poles of the heart, respectively. Perturbation of second heart field cell deployment results in a spectrum of congenital heart anomalies including conotruncal and atrial septal defects seen in human patients. Here, we briefly review current knowledge of how the properties of second heart field cells are controlled by a network of transcriptional regulators and intercellular signaling pathways. Focus will be on 1) the regulation of cardiac progenitor cell proliferation in pharyngeal mesoderm, 2) the control of progressive progenitor cell differentiation and 3) the patterning of cardiac progenitor cells in the dorsal pericardial wall. Coordination of these three processes in the early embryo drives progressive heart tube elongation during cardiac morphogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction.

  17. Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells for Tissue-Engineered Solutions to Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Jacot, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic patches and fixed grafts currently used in the repair of congenital heart defects are nonliving, noncontractile, and not electrically responsive, leading to increased risk of complication, reoperation, and sudden cardiac death. Studies suggest that tissue-engineered patches made from living, functional cells could grow with the patient, facilitate healing, and help recover cardiac function. In this paper, we review the research into possible sources of cardiomyocytes and other cardiac cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, umbilical cord blood cells, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, and cardiac progenitor cells. Each cell source has advantages, but also has technical hurdles to overcome, including heterogeneity, functional maturity, immunogenicity, and pathogenicity. Additionally, biomaterials used as patch materials will need to attract and support desired cells and induce minimal immune responses. PMID:26379417

  18. Differential development of progenitor activity for three B-cell lineages.

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, A B; Stall, A M; Adams, S; Herzenberg, L A; Herzenberg, L A

    1992-01-01

    Cell-transfer studies presented here distinguish three murine B cell lineages: conventional B cells, which develop late and are continually replenished from progenitors in adult bone marrow; Ly-1 B cells (B-1a), which develop early and maintain their numbers by self-replenishment; and Ly-1B "sister" (B-1b) cells, which share many of the properties of Ly-1 B cells, including self-replenishment and feedback regulation of development but can also readily develop from progenitors in adult bone marrow. The sequential emergence of these lineages, the time at which their progenitors function during ontogeny, and the distinctions among their repertoires and functions suggest that evolution has created a layered immune system in which the immune response potential of each successive lineage is adapted to its particular niche. Images PMID:1565622

  19. Combinatorial human progenitor cell transplantation optimizes islet regeneration through secretion of paracrine factors.

    PubMed

    Bell, Gillian I; Meschino, Michael T; Hughes-Large, Jennifer M; Broughton, Heather C; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Hess, David A

    2012-07-20

    Transplanted human bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) progenitor cells activate islet-regenerative or revascularization programs depending on the progenitor subtypes administered. Using purification of multiple progenitor subtypes based on a conserved stem cell function, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity (ALDH(hi)), we have recently shown that transplantation of BM-derived ALDH(hi) progenitors improved systemic hyperglycemia and augmented insulin secretion by increasing islet-associated proliferation and vascularization, without increasing islet number. Conversely, transplantation of culture-expanded multipotent-stromal cells (MSCs) derived from BM ALDH(hi) cells augmented total beta cell mass via formation of beta cell clusters associated with the ductal epithelium, without sustained islet vascularization. To identify paracrine effectors produced by islet-regenerative MSCs, culture-expanded BM ALDH(hi) MSCs were transplanted into streptozotocin-treated nonobese diabetic/severe combine immune deficient (SCID) mice and segregated into islet-regenerative versus nonregenerative cohorts based on hyperglycemia reduction, and subsequently compared for differential production of mRNA and secreted proteins. Regenerative MSCs showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteases, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating ligands, and downstream effectors of Wnt signaling. Regenerative MSC supernatant also contained increased levels of pro-angiogenic versus pro-inflammatory cytokines, and augmented the expansion of ductal epithelial but not beta cells in vitro. Conversely, co-culture with UCB ALDH(hi) cells induced beta cell but not ductal epithelial cell proliferation. Sequential transplantation of MSCs followed by UCB ALDH(hi) cells improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance by increasing beta cell mass associated with the ductal epithelium and by augmenting intra-islet capillary densities. Thus, combinatorial human progenitor cell

  20. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Tamai, Miho; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. {yields} Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. {yields} PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  1. ETV5 regulates sertoli cell chemokines involved in mouse stem/progenitor spermatogonia maintenance.

    PubMed

    Simon, Liz; Ekman, Gail C; Garcia, Thomas; Carnes, Kay; Zhang, Zhen; Murphy, Theresa; Murphy, Kenneth M; Hess, Rex A; Cooke, Paul S; Hofmann, Marie-Claude

    2010-10-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells are the only stem cells in the body that transmit genetic information to offspring. Although growth factors responsible for self-renewal of these cells are known, the factors and mechanisms that attract and physically maintain these cells within their microenvironment are poorly understood. Mice with targeted disruption of Ets variant gene 5 (Etv5) show total loss of stem/progenitor spermatogonia following the first wave of spermatogenesis, resulting in a Sertoli cell-only phenotype and aspermia. Microarray analysis of primary Sertoli cells from Etv5 knockout (Etv5(-/-)) versus wild-type (WT) mice revealed significant decreases in expression of several chemokines. Chemotaxis assays demonstrated that migration of stem/progenitor spermatogonia toward Etv5(-/-) Sertoli cells was significantly decreased compared to migration toward WT Sertoli cells. Interestingly, differentiating spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids were not chemoattracted by WT Sertoli cells, whereas stem/progenitor spermatogonia showed a high and significant chemotactic index. Rescue assays using recombinant chemokines indicated that C-C-motif ligand 9 (CCL9) facilitates Sertoli cell chemoattraction of stem/progenitor spermatogonia, which express C-C-receptor type 1 (CCR1). In addition, there is protein-DNA interaction between ETV5 and Ccl9, suggesting that ETV5 might be a direct regulator of Ccl9 expression. Taken together, our data show for the first time that Sertoli cells are chemoattractive for stem/progenitor spermatogonia, and that production of specific chemokines is regulated by ETV5. Therefore, changes in chemokine production and consequent decreases in chemoattraction by Etv5(-/-) Sertoli cells helps to explain stem/progenitor spermatogonia loss in Etv5(-/-) mice.

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells Derived from Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wetsel, Rick A.; Wang, Dachun; Calame, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from preimplantation blastocysts and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated from somatic cell sources are pluripotent and capable of indefinite expansion in vitro. They provide a possible unlimited source of cells that could be differentiated into lung progenitor cells for potential clinical use in pulmonary regenerative medicine. Because of inherent difficulties in deriving endodermal cells from undifferentiated cell cultures, applications using lung epithelial cells derived from ES and iPS cells have lagged behind similar efforts devoted to other tissues, such as the heart and spinal cord. However, during the past several years, significant advances in culture, differentiation, and purification protocols, as well as in bioengineering methodologies, have fueled enthusiasm for the development of stem cell–based lung therapeutics. This article provides an overview of recent research achievements and discusses future technical challenges that must be met before the promise of stem cell applications for lung disease can be realized. PMID:21226612

  3. Characterization of Interstitial Cajal Progenitors Cells and Their Changes in Hirschsprung’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Yong-Chang; Jiang, Wei-Fang; Yang, Cissy; Zou, Gang-Ming; Kong, Yu; Cai, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are critical to gastrointestinal motility. The phenotypes of ICC progenitors have been observed in the mouse gut, but whether they exist in the human colon and what abnormal changes in their quantity and ultrastructure are present in Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) colon remains uncertain. In this study, we collected the surgical resection of colons, both proximal and narrow segments, from HSCR patients and normal controls. First, we identified the progenitor of ICC in normal adult colon using immunofluorescent localization techniques with laser confocal microscopy. Next, the progenitors were sorted to observe their morphology. We further applied flow cytometry to examine the content of ICC progenitors in these fresh samples. The ultrastructural changes in the narrow and proximal parts of the HSCR colon were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and were compared with the normal adult colon. The presumed early progenitor (c-KitlowCD34+Igf1r+) and committed progenitor (c-Kit+CD34+Igf1r+) of ICC exist in adult normal colon as well as in the narrow and proximal parts of the HSCR colon. However, the proportions of mature, early and committed progenitors of ICC were dramatically reduced in the narrow segment of the HSCR colon. The proportions of mature and committed progenitors of ICC in the proximal segment of the HSCR colon were lower than in the adult normal colon. Ultrastructurally, ICC, enteric nerves, and smooth muscle in the narrow segment of the HSCR colon showed severe injury, including swollen vacuola or ted mitochondria, disappearance of mitochondrial cristae, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesiculation and degranulation, and disappearance of the caveolae on the ICC membrane surface. The contents of ICC and its progenitors in the narrow part of the HSCR colon were significantly decreased than those of adult colon, which may be associated with HSCR pathogenesis. PMID:24475076

  4. Generation of an expandable intermediate mesoderm restricted progenitor cell line from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathan; Richter, Jenna; Cutts, Josh; Bush, Kevin T; Trujillo, Cleber; Nigam, Sanjay K; Gaasterland, Terry; Brafman, David; Willert, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering entered a new era with the development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which are capable of unlimited expansion whilst retaining the potential to differentiate into all mature cell populations. However, these cells harbor significant risks, including tumor formation upon transplantation. One way to mitigate this risk is to develop expandable progenitor cell populations with restricted differentiation potential. Here, we used a cellular microarray technology to identify a defined and optimized culture condition that supports the derivation and propagation of a cell population with mesodermal properties. This cell population, referred to as intermediate mesodermal progenitor (IMP) cells, is capable of unlimited expansion, lacks tumor formation potential, and, upon appropriate stimulation, readily acquires properties of a sub-population of kidney cells. Interestingly, IMP cells fail to differentiate into other mesodermally-derived tissues, including blood and heart, suggesting that these cells are restricted to an intermediate mesodermal fate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08413.001 PMID:26554899

  5. [A technique of rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells intravitreal transplant to rats].

    PubMed

    Bian, Hui; Fan, Yao-Dong; Guo, Li-Yun; Yu, Hua-Lin

    2012-02-01

    To investigate a simple and effective intraocular xenotransplant technique of rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells to rats, mechanical injury was induced in the rat's right retina. And the GFP-labeled rhesus monkey neural progenitor cells suspension was slowly injected into the vitreous space of the right injured and left control eye. Confocal image suggested that the xenografted cells survived in both the injured and control eye, meanwhile the cells integrated in the injured right retina. The results demonstrated that intravitreal xenotransplant could be adopted as a simple and reliable method.

  6. miR-18a counteracts AKT and ERK activation to inhibit the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuyan; Zhang, Zhenwu; Li, Yunchao; Zhao, Yicheng; Zhai, Wenjun; Yang, Lin; Kong, Delin; Wu, Chunyan; Chen, Zhenbao; Teng, Chun-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Activation of endogenous stem/progenitor cells to repair injured tissues is an ideal option for disease treatment. However, adult pancreatic progenitor cells remain in a quiescent state in vivo. Thus, it is difficult to stimulate proliferation and differentiation in these progenitor cells, and the cause remains elusive. miR-17-92 cluster miRNAs are highly conserved in mammals and are expressed in multiple tissue stem/progenitor cells, but their role in pancreatic progenitor cells are less well known. In the present study, we demonstrate that miR-18a, but not the other members of the miR-17-92 gene cluster, inhibits the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells in vitro and ex vivo. miR-18a inhibits proliferation of adult pancreatic progenitor cells through arresting the cell cycle at G1 stage, indicating that miR-18a plays a role in keeping the adult pancreatic progenitor cells in quiescence. miR-18a inhibits pancreatic progenitor proliferation by targeting the gene expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9 (Nedd9), and cyclin dependent kinase 19 (CDK19), as well as by suppressing activation of the proliferation-related signaling pathways phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). PMID:28332553

  7. Developmental profiling of postnatal dentate gyrus progenitors provides evidence for dynamic cell-autonomous regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Jennifer A.; Yang, Cui-Ping; Kernie, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the most prominent regions in the postnatal mammalian brain where neurogenesis continues throughout life. There is tremendous speculation regarding the potential implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, though it remains unclear to what extent this ability becomes attenuated during normal aging, and what genetic changes in the progenitor population ensue over time. Using defined elements of the nestin promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse that reliably labels neural stem and early progenitors with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using a combination of immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, we characterized the progenitor cells within the dentate gyrus and created a developmental profile from postnatal day 7 (P7) until 6 months of age. In addition, we demonstrate that the proliferative potential of these progenitors is controlled at least in part by cell-autonomous cues. Finally, in order to identify what may underlie these differences, we performed stem cell-specific microarrays on GFP-expressing sorted cells from isolated P7 and postnatal day 28 (P28) dentate gyrus. We identified several differentially expressed genes that may underlie the functional differences that we observe in neurosphere assays from sorted cells and differentiation assays at these different ages. These data suggest that neural progenitors from the dentate gyrus are differentially regulated by cell-autonomous factors that change over time. PMID:20014381

  8. Endothelin-1 supports clonal derivation and expansion of cardiovascular progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soh, Boon-Seng; Ng, Shi-Yan; Wu, Hao; Buac, Kristina; Park, Joo-Hye C; Lian, Xiaojun; Xu, Jiejia; Foo, Kylie S; Felldin, Ulrika; He, Xiaobing; Nichane, Massimo; Yang, Henry; Bu, Lei; Li, Ronald A; Lim, Bing; Chien, Kenneth R

    2016-03-08

    Coronary arteriogenesis is a central step in cardiogenesis, requiring coordinated generation and integration of endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cells. At present, it is unclear whether the cell fate programme of cardiac progenitors to generate complex muscular or vascular structures is entirely cell autonomous. Here we demonstrate the intrinsic ability of vascular progenitors to develop and self-organize into cardiac tissues by clonally isolating and expanding second heart field cardiovascular progenitors using WNT3A and endothelin-1 (EDN1) human recombinant proteins. Progenitor clones undergo long-term expansion and differentiate primarily into endothelial and smooth muscle cell lineages in vitro, and contribute extensively to coronary-like vessels in vivo, forming a functional human-mouse chimeric circulatory system. Our study identifies EDN1 as a key factor towards the generation and clonal derivation of ISL1(+) vascular intermediates, and demonstrates the intrinsic cell-autonomous nature of these progenitors to differentiate and self-organize into functional vasculatures in vivo.

  9. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression. PMID:21521500

  10. EMT Involved in Migration of Stem/Progenitor Cells for Pituitary Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration are important processes in embryonic development of many tissues as well as oncogenesis. The pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue and recent studies indicate that Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells actively migrate and develop this tissue during embryogenesis. Notably, although migration activity of stem/progenitor cells in the postnatal period seems to be reduced compared to that in the embryonic period, it is hypothesized that stem/progenitor cells in the adult pituitary re-migrate from their microenvironment niche to contribute to the regeneration system. Therefore, elucidation of EMT in the pituitary stem/progenitor cells will promote understanding of pituitary development and regeneration, as well as diseases such as pituitary adenoma. In this review, so as to gain more insights into the mechanisms of pituitary development and regeneration, we summarize the EMT in the pituitary by focusing on the migration of pituitary stem/progenitor cells during both embryonic and postnatal organogenesis. PMID:27058562

  11. Induction of Excess Centrosomes in Neural Progenitor Cells during the Development of Radiation-Induced Microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Mikio; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Kato, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Junya; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2016-01-01

    The embryonic brain is one of the tissues most vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In this study, we showed that ionizing radiation induces apoptosis in the neural progenitors of the mouse cerebral cortex, and that the surviving progenitor cells subsequently develop a considerable amount of supernumerary centrosomes. When mouse embryos at Day 13.5 were exposed to γ-rays, brains sizes were reduced markedly in a dose-dependent manner, and these size reductions persisted until birth. Immunostaining with caspase-3 antibodies showed that apoptosis occurred in 35% and 40% of neural progenitor cells at 4 h after exposure to 1 and 2 Gy, respectively, and this was accompanied by a disruption of the apical layer in which mitotic spindles were positioned in unirradiated mice. At 24 h after 1 Gy irradiation, the apoptotic cells were completely eliminated and proliferation was restored to a level similar to that of unirradiated cells, but numerous spindles were localized outside the apical layer. Similarly, abnormal cytokinesis, which included multipolar division and centrosome clustering, was observed in 19% and 24% of the surviving neural progenitor cells at 48 h after irradiation with 1 and 2 Gy, respectively. Because these cytokinesis aberrations derived from excess centrosomes result in growth delay and mitotic catastrophe-mediated cell elimination, our findings suggest that, in addition to apoptosis at an early stage of radiation exposure, radiation-induced centrosome overduplication could contribute to the depletion of neural progenitors and thereby lead to microcephaly. PMID:27367050

  12. MicroRNA-9 controls a migratory mechanism in human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Nobuko

    2010-04-02

    MicroRNAs play roles in developmental switching; however, their roles in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) is poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Delaloy et al. (2010) report that proliferation and migration choices in hNPCs are regulated by miR-9.

  13. Changes in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) mRNA levels can account fully for changes in DHFR synthesis rates during terminal differentiation in a highly amplified myogenic cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, E E; Merrill, G F

    1991-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme is preferentially synthesized in proliferative cells. A mouse muscle cell line resistant to 300 microM methotrexate was developed to investigate the molecular levels at which DHFR is down-regulated during myogenic withdrawal from the cell cycle. H- alpha R300T cells contained 540 copies of the endogenous DHFR gene and overexpressed DHFR mRNA and DHFR protein. Despite DHFR gene amplification, the cells remained diploid. As H- alpha R300T myoblasts withdrew from the cell cycle and committed to terminal differentiation, DHFR mRNA levels and DHFR synthesis rates decreased with closely matched kinetics. After 15 to 24 h, committed cells contained 5% the proliferative level of DHFR mRNA (80 molecules per committed cell) and synthesized DHFR protein at 6% the proliferative rate. At no point during the commitment process did the decrease in DHFR synthesis rate exceed the decrease in DHFR message. The decrease in DHFR mRNA levels during commitment was sufficient to account fully for the decrease in rates of DHFR synthesis. Furthermore, DHFR mRNA remained polysomal, and the average number of ribosomes per message remained constant (five to six ribosomes per DHFR mRNA). The constancy of polysome size, along with the uniform rate of DHFR synthesis per message, indicated that DHFR mRNA was efficiently translated in postreplicative cells. The results support a model wherein replication-dependent changes in DHFR synthesis rates are determined exclusively by changes in DHFR mRNA levels. Images PMID:2046674

  14. α7nAChR is expressed in satellite cells at different myogenic status during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhi-Ling; Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiao-Yong; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Min; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Guan, Da-Wei

    2015-12-01

    Recent study has reported that α7 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is expressed in regenerated multinucleated myotubes. But the distribution of α7nAChR in satellite cells in different myogenic status is unknown. A preliminary study on the dynamic distribution of α7nAChR in satellite cells was performed by double indirect immunofluorescent procedures during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats. An animal model of skeletal muscle contusion was established in 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 17 and 21 days after injury, respectively (five rats in each posttraumatic interval). Five rats were employed as control. In normal muscle specimens, weak immunoreactivity for α7nAChR was detected in a few satellite cells (considered as quiescent). α7nAChR-positive signals were observed in proliferated and differentiated satellite cells and regenerated multinucleated myotubes in the wounded areas. By morphometric analysis, the average number of α7nAChR+/Pax7+ and α7nAChR+/MyoD+ cells climaxed at 5 days post-injury. The average number of α7nAChR+/myogenin+ cells was significantly increased from 3 to 9 days post-injury as compared with other posttraumatic intervals. The protein level of α7nAChR maximized at 9 days post-injury, which implies that α7nAChR was associated with the satellite cells status. Our observations on expression of α7nAChR in satellite cells from quiescence to myotube formation suggest that α7nAChR may be involved in muscle regeneration by regulating satellite cell status.

  15. Use of long-term human marrow cultures to demonstrate progenitor cell precursors in marrow treated with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide

    SciTech Connect

    Winton, E.F.; Colenda, K.W.

    1987-07-01

    The continued retrieval of progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM) from human long-term marrow cultures (LTMC) is not uncommonly used as evidence that proliferation and differentiation are occurring in more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these cultures. Alternatively, the continued presence of progenitors in LTMC could be the result of survival and/or limited self-renewal of progenitor cells present when the culture was initiated, and such progenitors would have little relevance to the parent HSC. The following studies were designed to determine the relative contributions of precursors of progenitor cells to the total progenitor cells present in LTMC using a two-stage regeneration model. The adherent layer in LTMC was established over 3 weeks, irradiated (875 rad) to permanently eliminate resident hematopoietic cells, and recharged with autologous cryo-preserved marrow that was either treated or not treated (control) with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC, 100 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The 4-HC-treated marrow contained no progenitor cells, yet based on clinical autologous bone marrow transplant experience, has intact HSC. Within 1-3 weeks, progenitor cells reappeared in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow, and were preferentially located in the adherent layer. By 2-6 weeks, the number of progenitor cells in the adherent layer of LTMC recharged with 4-HC marrow was equivalent to control LTMC. The progenitors regenerating in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow appear to originate from precursors of progenitor cells, perhaps HSC. We propose this model may be useful in elucidating cellular and molecular correlates of progenitor cell regeneration from precursors.

  16. Progenitor Cell Mobilization by Gamma-tocotrienol: A Promising Radiation Countermeasure

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K.; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O.; Verma, Amit; Newman, Victoria L.; Wise, Stephen Y.; Romaine, Patricia L.P.; Berg, Allison N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews studies of progenitor mobilization with gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), a tocol under advanced development as a radiation countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS). GT3 protects mice against high doses of ionizing radiation and induces high levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). GT3‐induced G-CSF in conjunction with AMD3100 (a chemokine receptor antagonist clinically used to improve the yield of mobilized progenitors) mobilizes progenitors; these mobilized progenitors mitigate injury when infused to mice exposed to acute, high-dose ionizing radiation. The administration of a G-CSF antibody to GT3‐injected donor mice abrogated the radiomitigative efficacy of blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in irradiated recipient mice. The efficacy of GT3‐injected donor mice blood or PBMC was comparable to a recently published article involving blood or mononuclear cells obtained from mice injected with G-CSF. The injected progenitors were found to localize in various tissues of irradiated hosts. The authors demonstrate the efficacy of a bridging therapy in a preclinical animal model that allows the lymphohematopoietic system of severely immunocompromised mice to recover. This suggests that GT3 is a highly effective agent for radioprotection and mobilizing progenitors with significant therapeutic potential. Therefore, GT3 may be considered for further translational development and ultimately for use in humans. PMID:27356050

  17. Ultrastructural evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in adult mouse myocardium and adult human cardiospheres.

    PubMed

    Barile, Lucio; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres) that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34⁺ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an "off-the-shelf" product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  18. Dextran induces differentiation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Syotaro; Masuda, Haruchika; Akimaru, Hiroshi; Shizuno, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Ando, Joji; Asahara, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the differentiation process from circulation to adhesion has not been clarified because circulating EPCs rarely attached to dishes in EPC cultures previously. Here we investigated whether immature circulating EPCs differentiate into mature adhesive EPCs in response to dextran. When floating‐circulating EPCs derived from ex vivo expanded human cord blood were cultured with 5% and 10% dextran, they attached to fibronectin‐coated dishes and grew exponentially. The bioactivities of adhesion, proliferation, migration, tube formation, and differentiated type of EPC colony formation increased in EPCs exposed to dextran. The surface protein expression rate of the endothelial markers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)‐R1/2, VE‐cadherin, Tie2, ICAM1, VCAM1, and integrin αv/β3 increased in EPCs exposed to dextran. The mRNA levels of VEGF‐R1/2, VE‐cadherin, Tie2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, MMP9, and VEGF increased in EPCs treated with dextran. Those of endothelium‐related transcription factors ID1/2, FOXM1, HEY1, SMAD1, FOSL1, NFkB1, NRF2, HIF1A, EPAS1 increased in dextran‐treated EPCs; however, those of hematopoietic‐ and antiangiogenic‐related transcription factors TAL1, RUNX1, c‐MYB, GATA1/2, ERG, FOXH1, HHEX, SMAD2/3 decreased in dextran‐exposed EPCs. Inhibitor analysis showed that PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 signal transduction pathways are involved in the differentiation in response to dextran. In conclusion, dextran induces differentiation of circulating EPCs in terms of adhesion, migration, proliferation, and vasculogenesis. The differentiation mechanism in response to dextran is regulated by multiple signal transductions including PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These findings indicate that dextran is an effective treatment for EPCs in regenerative medicines. PMID:24760515

  19. Retinoid signaling in control of progenitor cell differentiation during mouse development

    PubMed Central

    Duester, Gregg

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) serves as a ligand for nuclear RA receptors that control differentiation of progenitor cells important for vertebrate development. Genetic studies in mouse embryos deficient for RA-generating enzymes have been invaluable for deciphering RA function. RA first begins to act during early organogenesis when RA generated in trunk mesoderm begins to function as a diffusible signal controlling progenitor cell differentiation. In neuroectoderm, RA functions as an instructive signal to stimulate neuronal differentiation of progenitor cells in the hindbrain and spinal cord. RA is not required for early neuronal differentiation of the forebrain, but at later stages RA stimulates neuronal differentiation in forebrain basal ganglia. RA also acts as a permissive signal for differentiation by repressing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in differentiated cells as they emerge from progenitor populations in the caudal progenitor zone and second heart field. In addition, RA signaling stimulates differentiation of spermatogonial germ cells and induces meiosis in male but not female gonads. A more complete understanding of the normal functions of RA signaling during development will guide efforts to use RA as a differentiation agent for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23973941

  20. Nucleic Acid Encoding A Lectin-Derived Progenitor Cell Preservation Factor

    DOEpatents

    Colucci, M. Gabriella; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Moore, Jeffrey G.

    2001-10-30

    The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes a protein that is effective to preserve progenitor cells, such as hematopoietic progenitor cells. The nucleic acid comprises a sequence defined by SEQ ID NO:1, a homolog thereof, or a fragment thereof. The encoded protein has an amino acid sequence that comprises a sequence defined by SEQ ID NO:2, a homolog thereof, or a fragment thereof that contains an amino acid sequence TNNVLQVT. Methods of using the encoded protein for preserving progenitor cells in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo are also described. The invention, therefore, include methods such as myeloablation therapies for cancer treatment wherein myeloid reconstitution is facilitated by means of the specified protein. Other therapeutic utilities are also enabled through the invention, for example, expanding progenitor cell populations ex vivo to increase chances of engraftation, improving conditions for transporting and storing progenitor cells, and facilitating gene therapy to treat and cure a broad range of life-threatening hematologic diseases.

  1. The skin: a home to multiple classes of epithelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaohong; Owens, David M.

    2013-01-01

    To maintain homeostasis in the adult skin, epithelial keratinocyte stem cells are thought to divide infrequently giving rise to short-lived (transit amplifying) cells that undergo a limited number of cell divisions and ultimately terminal differentiation. This model for the epidermal stem cell niche has increased in complexity by the multiple putative progenitor keratinocyte populations that have recently been identified in distinct regions of the interfollicular epidermis and hair follicle appendages. Under normal conditions, these progenitor populations are long-lived and able to sustain the cellular input to certain epidermal structures including the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous gland. Other putative epithelial progenitors derived from the hair follicle possess high in vitro proliferative capacity and are able to regenerate skin, hair and sebaceous lineages in transplantation studies. These new findings present the cutaneous epithelium as a highly compartmentalized structure potentially maintained by multiple classes of progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the implications of these new putative epithelial progenitor populations and their potential to be influenced by external stimuli for skin homeostasis and carcinogenesis. PMID:18491239

  2. Retinoid signaling in control of progenitor cell differentiation during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Duester, Gregg

    2013-12-01

    The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) serves as a ligand for nuclear RA receptors that control differentiation of progenitor cells important for vertebrate development. Genetic studies in mouse embryos deficient for RA-generating enzymes have been invaluable for deciphering RA function. RA first begins to act during early organogenesis when RA generated in trunk mesoderm begins to function as a diffusible signal controlling progenitor cell differentiation. In neuroectoderm, RA functions as an instructive signal to stimulate neuronal differentiation of progenitor cells in the hindbrain and spinal cord. RA is not required for early neuronal differentiation of the forebrain, but at later stages RA stimulates neuronal differentiation in forebrain basal ganglia. RA also acts as a permissive signal for differentiation by repressing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in differentiated cells as they emerge from progenitor populations in the caudal progenitor zone and second heart field. In addition, RA signaling stimulates differentiation of spermatogonial germ cells and induces meiosis in male but not female gonads. A more complete understanding of the normal functions of RA signaling during development will guide efforts to use RA as a differentiation agent for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Presenilin-1 regulates neural progenitor cell differentiation in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Gadadhar, Archana; Marr, Robert; Lazarov, Orly

    2011-01-01

    Presenilin-1 (PS1) is the catalytic core of the aspartyl protease γ-secretase. Previous genetic studies using germ-line deletion of PS1 and conditional knockout mice demonstrated that PS1 plays an essential role in neuronal differentiation during neural development, but it remained unclear whether PS1 plays a similar role in neurogenesis in the adult brain. Here we show that neural progenitor cells infected with lentiviral vectors expressing short interfering RNA (siRNA) for the exclusive knockdown of PS1 in the neurogenic microenvironments, exhibit a dramatic enhancement of cell differentiation. Infected cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, suggesting that multipotentiality of neural progenitor cells is not affected by reduced levels of PS1. Neurosphere cultures treated with γ-secretase inhibitors exhibit a similar phenotype of enhanced cell differentiation, suggesting that PS1 function in neural progenitor cells is γ-secretase-dependent. Neurospheres infected with lentiviral vectors expressing siRNA for the targeting of PS1 differentiated even in the presence of the proliferation factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), suggesting that PS1 dominates EFG and bFGF signaling pathways. Reduction of PS1 expression in neural progenitor cells was accompanied by a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and β-catenin expression level, suggesting that they are downstream essential transducers of PS1 signaling in adult neural progenitor cells. These findings suggest a physiological role for PS1 in adult neurogenesis, and a potential target for the manipulation of neural progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:21325529

  4. Transplantation of neural progenitors enhances production of endogenous cells in the impaired brain.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shaanan, T L; Ben-Hur, T; Yanai, J

    2008-02-01

    Grafting of neural progenitors has been shown to reverse a wide variety of neurobehavioral defects. While their role of replacing injured cells and restoring damaged circuitries has been shown, it is widely accepted that this cannot be the only mechanism, as therapy can occur even when an insufficient number of transplanted cells are found. We hypothesized that one major mechanism by which transplanted neural progenitors exert their therapeutic effect is by enhancing endogenous cells production. Consequently, in an allographic model of transplantation, prenatally heroin-exposed genetically heterogeneous (HS) mice were made defective in their hippocampal neurobehavioral function by exposing their mothers to heroin (10 mg kg(-1) heroin on gestation days 9-18). Hippocampal damage was confirmed by deficient performance in the Morris maze (P<0.009), and decreased production of endogenous cells in the dentate gyrus by 39% was observed. On postnatal day 35, they received an HS-derived neural progenitors transplant followed by repeated bromodeoxyuridine injections. The transplant returned endogenous cells production to normal levels (P<0.006) and reversed the behavioral defects (P<0.03), despite the fact that only 0.0334% of the transplanted neural progenitors survived and that they differentiated mainly to astrocytes. An immunological study demonstrated the presence of macrophages and T cells as a possible explanation for the paucity of the transplanted cells. This study suggests one mechanism for the therapeutic action of neural progenitors, the enhancement of the production of endogenous cells, pointing to future clinical applications in this direction by use of neural progenitors or by analogous cell-inducing techniques.

  5. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells from Bone Marrow Differentiate into Chondrocyte-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lele; Weng, Yimin; Shui, Xiaolong; Fang, Wenlai; Zhang, Erge; Pan, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering has great potential for treating chondral and osteochondral injuries. Efficient seed cells are the key to cartilage tissue engineering. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) have greater differentiation ability than other bone-marrow stem cells, and thus may be candidate seed cells. We attempted to differentiate MAPCs into chondrocyte-like cells to evaluate their suitability as seed cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Toluidine blue and Alcian blue staining suggested that glycosaminoglycan was expressed in differentiated cells. Immunofluorostaining indicated that differentiated human MAPCs (hMAPCs) expressed collagen II. Based on these results, we concluded that bone-marrow-derived hMAPCs could differentiate into chondrocyte-like cells in vitro.

  6. Cell signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex: Links to stem/progenitor biology and neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Penny, Morgan K; Finco, Isabella; Hammer, Gary D

    2017-04-15

    The adrenal cortex is a dynamic tissue responsible for the synthesis of steroid hormones, including mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens in humans. Advances have been made in understanding the role of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cell populations in cortex homeostasis and self-renewal. Recently, large molecular profiling studies of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) have given insights into proteins and signaling pathways involved in normal tissue homeostasis that become dysregulated in cancer. These data provide an impetus to examine the cellular pathways implicated in adrenocortical disease and study connections, or lack thereof, between adrenal homeostasis and tumorigenesis, with a particular focus on stem and progenitor cell pathways. In this review, we discuss evidence for stem/progenitor cells in the adrenal cortex, proteins and signaling pathways that may regulate these cells, and the role these proteins play in pathologic and neoplastic conditions. In turn, we also examine common perturbations in adrenocortical tumors (ACT) and how these proteins and pathways may be involved in adrenal homeostasis.

  7. Physiology of Continuous Bone Marrow Culture Derived Permanent Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    capable of differentiating to mature neutrophillic granulocytes and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells . Several T- cell lines including K45, JURKAT...CEM, K230 have been screened for produc- tion of Interleukin-3 by assay of supernatant from cell lines for proliferation of mouse IL-3 dependent...hematopoietic progeni- tor cell lines Lines 45 and 230 produce low levels of activity. "In contrast, IL-2 (T- cell growth factor) dependent human T- cell

  8. Proliferation of myogenic stem cells in human skeletal muscle in response to low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Aagaard, Per; Bech, Rune Dueholm; Nygaard, Tobias; Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Wernbom, Mathias; Suetta, Charlotte; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2012-09-01

    Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction has been shown to elicit substantial increases in muscle mass and muscle strength; however, the effect on myogenic stem cells (MSCs) and myonuclei number remains unexplored. Ten male subjects (22.8 ± 2.3 years)performed four sets of knee extensor exercise (20% 1RM) to concentric failure during bloodflow restriction (BFR) of the proximal thigh (100 mmHg), while eight work-matched controls(21.9 ± 3.0 years) trained without BFR (control, CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 days. Maximal isometric knee extensor strength (MVC) was examined pre- and post-training, while muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline (Pre), after 8 days intervention(Mid8) and 3 (Post3) and 10 days (Post10) post training to examine changes in myofibre area (MFA), MSC and myonuclei number. MVC increased by 7.1% (Post5) and 10.6% (Post12)(P <0.001) with BFR training, while type I and II MFA increased by 38% (Mid8), 35 – 37%(Post3) and 31 – 32% (Post10) (P <0.001). MSCs per myofibre increased with BFR training from 0.10 ± 0.01 (Pre) to 0.38 ± 0.02 (Mid8), 0.36 ± 0.04 (Post3) and 0.25 ± 0.02 (Post10) (P <0.001). Likewise, myonuclei per myofibre increased from 2.49 ± 0.07 (Pre) to 3.30 ± 0.22(Mid8), 3.20 ± 0.16 (Post3) and 3.11 ± 0.11 (Post10), (P<0.01). Although MFA increased in CON at Mid8, it returned to baseline at Post3. No changes in MSC or myonuclei number were observed in CON. This study is the first to show that short-term low-load resistance exercise performed with partial blood flow restriction leads to marked proliferation of myogenic stem cells and resulting myonuclei addition in human skeletal muscle, which is accompanied by substantial myofibre hypertrophy.

  9. Assessment of Drug Sensitivity in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells from Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Katherine L B; Finn, Laura E; Smith, B Douglas; Hess, Allan D; Foran, James M; Karp, Judith E; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2017-03-01

    Current understanding suggests that malignant stem and progenitor cells must be reduced or eliminated for prolonged remissions in myeloid neoplasms such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Multicolor flow cytometry has been widely used to distinguish stem and myeloid progenitor cells from other populations in normal and malignant bone marrow. In this study, we present a method for assessing drug sensitivity in MDS and AML patient hematopoietic stem and myeloid progenitor cell populations ex vivo using the investigational Nedd8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 and standard-of-care agent cytarabine as examples. Utilizing a multicolor flow cytometry antibody panel for identification of hematopoietic stem cells, multipotent progenitors, common myeloid progenitors, granulocyte-monocyte progenitors, and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors present in mononuclear cell fractions isolated from bone marrow aspirates, we compare stem and progenitor cell counts after treatment for 24 hours with drug versus diluent. We demonstrate that MLN4924 exerts a cytotoxic effect on MDS and AML stem and progenitor cell populations, whereas cytarabine has more limited effects. Further application of this method for evaluating drug effects on these populations ex vivo and in vivo may inform rational design and selection of therapies in the clinical setting. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:840-850.

  10. Embryonic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reside in Muscle before Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuka; Inoue-Yokoo, Tomoko; Kulkeaw, Kasem; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Shirasawa, Senji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Sugiyama, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    In mice, hematopoietic cells home to bone marrow from fetal liver prenatally. To elucidate mechanisms underlying homing, we performed immunohistochemistry with the hematopoietic cell marker c-Kit, and observed c-Kit(+) cells localized inside muscle surrounding bone after 14.5 days post coitum. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD45(+) c-Kit(+) hematopoietic cells were more abundant in muscle than in bone marrow between 14.5 and 17.5 days post coitum, peaking at 16.5 days post coitum. CD45(+) c-Kit(+) cells in muscle at 16.5 days post coitum exhibited higher expression of Gata2, among several hematopoietic genes, than did fetal liver or bone marrow cells. Colony formation assays revealed that muscle hematopoietic cells possess hematopoietic progenitor activity. Furthermore, exo utero transplantation revealed that fetal liver hematopoietic progenitor cells home to muscle and then to BM. Our findings demonstrate that hematopoietic progenitor cell homing occurs earlier than previously reported and that hematopoietic progenitor cells reside in muscle tissue before bone marrow hematopoiesis occurs during mouse embryogenesis.

  11. Concise review: Kidney stem/progenitor cells: differentiate, sort out, or reprogram?

    PubMed

    Pleniceanu, Oren; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Dekel, Benjamin

    2010-09-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is defined as the inability of the kidneys to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood. ESRD progresses from earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and occurs when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is below 15 ml/minute/1.73 m(2). CKD and ESRD are dramatically rising due to increasing aging population, population demographics, and the growing rate of diabetes and hypertension. Identification of multipotential stem/progenitor populations in mammalian tissues is important for therapeutic applications and for understanding developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Progenitor populations are ideal targets for gene therapy, cell transplantation, and tissue engineering. The demand for kidney progenitors is increasing due to severe shortage of donor organs. Because dialysis and transplantation are currently the only successful therapies for ESRD, cell therapy offers an alternative approach for kidney diseases. However, this approach may be relevant only in earlier stages of CKD, when kidney function and histology are still preserved, allowing for the integration of cells and/or for their paracrine effects, but not when small and fibrotic end-stage kidneys develop. Although blood- and bone marrow-derived stem cells hold a therapeutic promise, they are devoid of nephrogenic potential, emphasizing the need to seek kidney stem cells beyond known extrarenal sources. Moreover, controversies regarding the existence of a true adult kidney stem cell highlight the importance of studying cell-based therapies using pluripotent cells, progenitor cells from fetal kidney, or dedifferentiated/reprogrammed adult kidney cells.

  12. Human primordial germ cell-derived progenitors give rise to neurons and glia in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yincheng; Chen, Bin; Tao, Minfang

    2009-12-18

    We derived a cell population from cultured human primordial germ cells from early human embryos. The derivates, termed embryoid body-derived (EBD) cells, displayed an extensive capacity for proliferation and expressed a panel of markers in all three germ layers. Interestingly, EBD cells were also positive for markers of neural stem/progenitor cells, such as nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. When these cells were transplanted into the brain cavities of fetal sheep and postnatal NOD-SCID mice or nerve-degenerated tibialis anterior muscles, they readily gave rise to neurons or glial cells. To our knowledge, our data are the first to demonstrate that EBD cells can undergo further neurogenesis under suitable environments in vivo. Hence, with the abilities of extensive expansion, self-renewal, and differentiation, EBD cells may provide a useful donor source for neural stem/progenitor cells to be used in cell-replacement therapies for diseases of the nervous system.

  13. A Novel Selectable Islet 1 Positive Progenitor Cell Reprogrammed to Expandable and Functional Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth C; Huang, Chien-Ling; Sawhney, Neha; Govindarajan, Kalaimathi; Clover, Anthony J P; Martin, Kenneth; Browne, Tara C; Whelan, Derek; Kumar, Arun H S; Mackrill, John J; Wang, Shaohua; Schmeckpeper, Jeffrey; Stocca, Alessia; Pierce, William G; Leblond, Anne-Laure; Cai, Liquan; O'Sullivan, Donnchadh M; Buneker, Chirlei K; Choi, Janet; MacSharry, John; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Russell, Stephen J; Caplice, Noel M

    2016-05-01

    Disorders affecting smooth muscle structure/function may require technologies that can generate large scale, differentiated and contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC) suitable for cell therapy. To date no clonal precursor population that provides large numbers of differentiated SMC in culture has been identified in a rodent. Identification of such cells may also enhance insight into progenitor cell fate decisions and the relationship between smooth muscle precursors and disease states that implicate differentiated SMC.  In this study, we used classic clonal expansion techniques to identify novel self-renewing Islet 1 (Isl-1) positive primitive progenitor cells (PPC) within rat bone marrow that exhibited canonical stem cell markers and preferential differentiation towards a smooth muscle-like fate. We subsequently used molecular tagging to select Isl-1 positive clonal populations from expanded and de novo marrow cell populations. We refer to these previously undescribed cells as the PPC given its stem cell marker profile, and robust self-renewal capacity. PPC could be directly converted into induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) using single transcription factor (Kruppel-like factor 4) knockdown or transactivator (myocardin) overexpression in contrast to three control cells (HEK 293, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) where such induction was not possible. iSMC exhibited immuno- and cytoskeletal-phenotype, calcium signaling profile and contractile responses similar to bona fide SMC. Passaged iSMC could be expanded to a scale sufficient for large scale tissue replacement.  PPC and reprogramed iSMC so derived may offer future opportunities to investigate molecular, structure/function and cell-based replacement therapy approaches to diverse cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary diseases that have as their basis smooth muscle cell functional aberrancy or numerical loss. Stem Cells 2016;34:1354-1368.

  14. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore,