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Sample records for myopitae hymenoptera pteromalidae

  1. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bi...

  2. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Assays were conducted by varying e...

  3. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  4. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a potential natural enemy of corn-infesting Ulidiidae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A four-species complex of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) are primary sweet corn pests in Florida. Few natural enemies of these flies are known. The pupal parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was discovered in a laboratory colony of Euxesta eluta Loew (Dipte...

  5. An update on the diversity of Wolbachia in Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections of Wolbachia bacteria have the potential to improve the efficacy of their host insects as biological control agents. Results of an earlier study documented numerous cases of such infections in a beneficial guild of wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitic on pest flies affecting lives...

  6. Revision of the Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan

    2015-06-09

    The Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker, 1843 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are revised. Four previously described Afrotropical species are recognized as valid and redescribed: N. africanus Subba Rao, 1973, N. garouae (Risbec, 1956) comb. nov. (transferred from Bruchobius Ashmead), N. kitegaensis (Risbec, 1957) and N. seyrigi (Risbec, 1952) comb. nov. (from Habrocytus Thomson). In addition, the Mediterranean species N. tenuicornis Bouček, 1970 is recorded for the first time from the Afrotropical region, and 21 species are described as new: N. aequus sp. nov., N. awi sp. nov., N. brevicephalus sp. nov., N. breviclava sp. nov., N. caloramans sp. nov., N. draco sp. nov., N. erebus sp. nov., N. foritempus sp. nov., N. gibber sp. nov., N. gracilis sp. nov., N. incombo sp. nov., N. ingens sp. nov., N. longissimus sp. nov., N. maliarphae sp. nov., N. mustatai sp. nov., N. pilosus sp. nov., N. pleuralis sp. nov., N. polaszeki sp. nov., N. prinslooi sp. nov., N. rotundus sp. nov., and N. sunabron sp. nov. Three extralimital species from North Africa are included in the key: N. cerasiops (Masi, 1922), N. guyoni (Giraud, 1869), and N. obscurus (Masi, 1922). Lectotypes are designated for N. cerasiops, N. kitegaensis and N. seyrigi. The subgenus Picroscytoides Masi is placed in synonymy with Norbanus s.s. syn. nov. Host records are given for several new species, including some economically important pests of maize, sorghum or rice.

  7. Review of south temperate New World Coelocybinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Heydon, Steven L

    2014-01-16

    The Coelocybinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) of the southern parts of the New World are reviewed. Ariasina Heydon n. gen. is described for Ar. adusta Heydon n. sp. and Ar. gigas Heydon n. sp. Other new species described are Ambogaster karooi Heydon n. sp., Lanthanomyia bockleri Heydon n. sp. and L. pardos Heydon n. sp. Updated information on distributional records, new host plant information, and a key to all included genera and species of the Coelocybinae of Chile and Argentina are presented. 

  8. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  9. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate: A female-produced pheromone component of the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of house flies Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male e...

  10. The effect of linear distance on the parasitism of house fly hosts (Diptera: Muscidae) by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  11. A fungal-like organism associated with a wasp (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Dominican amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2012-05-01

    A fungal-like organism emerging from a parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Dominican amber is characterized. The fossil consists of a white sclerotium-like formation in the wasp's abdomen and a flattened clava-like structure with an ovoid terminus emerging from the sclerotium-like formation. The ovoid terminus bears a protruding elliptical appendix. The fossil, which is characterized by its small size, somatic configuration, pteromalid host and presence in Dominican amber, cannot be placed with assurance in any extant fungal group at this time.

  12. Phylogeny of pteromalid parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): initial evidence from four protein-coding nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Christopher A; Regier, Jerome C; Mitter, Charles

    2007-11-01

    Chalcidoidea (approximately 22,000 described species) is the most ecologically diverse superfamily of parasitic Hymenoptera and plays a major role in the biological control of insect pests. However, phylogenetic relationships both within and between chalcidoid families have been poorly understood, particularly for the large family Pteromalidae and relatives. Forty-two taxa, broadly representing Chalcidoidea but concentrated in the 'pteromalid lineage,' were sequenced for 4620 bp of protein-coding sequence from four nuclear genes for which we present new primers. These are: CAD (1719 bp) DDC (708 bp), enolase (1149 bp), and PEPCK (1044 bp). The combined data set was analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Statistical significance of the apparent non-monophyly of some taxonomic groups on our trees was evaluated using the approximately unbiased test of Shimodaira [Shimodaira, H. 2002. An approximately unbiased test of phylogenetic tree selection. Syst. Biol. 51(3), 492-508]. In accord with previous studies, we find moderate to strong support for monophyly of Chalcidoidea, a sister-group relationship of Mymaridae to the remainder of Chalcidoidea, and a relatively basal placement of Encarsia (Aphelinidae) within the latter. The 'pteromalid lineage' of families is generally recovered as monophyletic, but the hypothesis of monophyly for Pteromalidae, which appear paraphyletic with respect to all other families sampled in that lineage, is decisively rejected (P < 10(-14)). Within Pteromalidae, monophyly was strongly supported for nearly all tribes represented by multiple exemplars, and for two subfamilies. All other multiply-represented subfamilies appeared para- or polyphyletic in our trees, although monophyly was significantly rejected only for Miscogasterinae, Ormocerinae, and Colotrechninae. The limited resolution obtained in the analyses presented here reinforces the idea that reconstruction of pteromalid phylogeny is a difficult problem

  13. Antennal sensory receptors of Pteromalus puparum female (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a gregarious pupal endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Dweck, Hany K M

    2009-12-01

    The external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Pteromalus puparum females (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is described using scanning electron microscopy. The antennae of P. puparum females are geniculate in shape, formed from a large, cylindrical scape with a basal radicel fitting into the antennal socket, a shorter, barrel-shaped pedicel and a flagellum composed of 12 subsegments. Eight morphologically distinct types of sensilla were found on the female antennae. These are: nonporous sensilla trichodea types 1 and 2, which are putative mechanosensilla, nonporous sensilla chaetica, which may function as proprioceptors, uniporous sensilla trichodea types 3 and 4, which are presumably contact chemosensilla, basiconic capitate peg sensilla, which probably function in thermo-hygro reception, multiporous sensilla trichodea, and multiporous sensilla placodea which are all presumed to be olfactory sensilla.

  14. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Treesearch

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  15. Comparison of the olfactory preferences of four species of filth fly pupal parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for hosts in equine and bovine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  16. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  17. Review of the Iranian Pteromalinae with spiculated antennae, and description of a new species of Norbanus Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Lotfalizadeh, Hossein

    2015-09-09

    Based on recently collected Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), 13 species were identified from genera of Pteromalinae that are characterized in part by the female clava being distinctly acuminate or apically bearing a narrow spicula. Included are two species of Callitula Spinola, three species of Homoporus Thomson, seven species of Norbanus Walker, and one species of Rhaphitelus Walker. One new species, Norbanus rasplusi n. sp., is described and six species are newly recorded from Iran: Homoporus subniger (Walker), Norbanus calabrus (Masi), N. cerasiops (Masi), N. meridionalis (Masi), N. obscurus (Masi) and N. scabriculus (Nees).

  18. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, C J; Johnson, D M; Kaufman, P E; Boohene, C K

    2014-12-01

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) using house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Muscidifurax raptor had a significant impact on M. raptorellus when hosts were limiting in sequential parasitism tests. Fewer than six M. raptorellus adult progeny emerged from groups of 50 fly pupae that were parasitized by M. raptor at the same time or when M. raptor parasitism preceded M. raptorellus by 48 h, respectively, compared with 42-55 M. raptorellus progeny produced when this species was tested alone. Production of M. raptor was significantly lower when parasitism by this species was preceded by M. raptorellus (25) than when M. raptor was tested alone (43). When the two species parasitized hosts at the same time in different proportions at low host:parasitoid densities (5:1), M. raptorellus produced 13 progeny per parent female when it was the sole species present and fewer than two when M. raptor was present. No negative impact of M. raptorellus on M. raptor was observed. Neither species had a substantial effect on the success of the other at higher host:parasitoid densities. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Proteomic analysis of the venom from the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Fang, Qi; Wang, Lei; Hu, Cui; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-09-01

    Parasitoid venom is a complex mixture of active substances with diversified biological functions. Because of its range of activities, venom is an important resource with respect to potential application in agriculture and medicine. Only a limited number of peptides, proteins, and enzymes have been identified and characterized from parasitoid venom. Here we describe a proteomic analysis of the venom from the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Venom resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis yielded 56 protein spots with major proteins in the pI range 4-7 and molecular mass range of 25-66.2 kDa. The amino acid sequences of the proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Several venom proteins such as calreticulin, venom acid phosphatase, serine protease, arginine kinase, serine protease homolog, aminotransferase-like venom protein, and heat shock protein 70, were identified in silico based on their amino acid sequences. The full-length cDNAs of calreticulin and arginine kinase were cloned. Calreticulin showed 62% identity with calreticulin in the venom of Cotesia rubecula. Arginine kinase showed a high level of sequence identity (92%) with its counterpart in the venom of Cyphononyx dorsalis. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of calreticulin and arginine kinase were developmentally changed, suggesting a possible correlation with the oviposition process. This study contributes to our appreciation of a parasitoid wasp venom composition.

  20. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  1. Characterization and biochemical analyses of venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; Uckan, Fevzi; Ergin, Ekrem

    2006-01-01

    During parasitism, the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) induces a developmental arrest in host pupae that is sustained until the fly is either consumed by developing larvae or the onset of death. Bioassays using fluids collected from the female reproductive system (calyx, alkaline gland, acid gland, and venom reservoir) indicated that the venom gland and venom reservoir are the sources of the arrestant and inducer(s) of death. Infrared spectroscopic analyses revealed that crude venom is acidic and composed of amines, peptides, and proteins, which apparently are not glycosylated. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) confirmed the proteinaceous nature of venom and that it is composed mostly of mid to high molecular weight proteins in the range of 13 to 200.5 kilodaltons (kDa). Ammonium sulfate precipitation and centrifugal size exclusion membranes were used to isolate venom proteins. SDS-PAGE protein profiles of the isolated venom fractions displaying biological activity suggest that multiple proteins contribute to arresting host development and eliciting death. Additionally, HPLC fractionation coupled with use of several internal standards implied that two of the low molecular weight proteins were apamin and histamine. However, in vitro assays using BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells contradict the presence of these agents.

  2. Morphology and ultrastructure of the venom apparatus in the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ye, Gong-Yin; Hu, Cui

    2008-10-01

    The venom apparatus of the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was studied with light and electron microscope and was subjected to the electrophoretic and immunohistochemical analyses. Typically its venom apparatus consists of an unbranched venom gland and a venom reservoir, which is associated with a Dufour gland. The venom gland is lined by a series of secretory units. Each secretory unit comprises a secretory cell and a duct cell. The secretory cell is associated with an end apparatus to collect its secretions into the gland lumen. Secretory cells in the venom gland are characterized by extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum and numerous electron-dense vesicles in the distal and middle parts. They also exhibit several secretory granules and vacuoles. The venom reservoir presents three distinct regions: an external layer, composed by numerous fine muscle fibers; an internal layer, represented by epithelial cell with large nucleus; and an intima portion, represented by thin and uniform organization. The morphological aspect of numerous well-developed organelles responsible for protein generation observed is in agreement with the electrophoretic and immunohistochemical results which reveal that the rich proteinaceous components are present in the venom gland and venom reservoir. The venom proteins are first mainly produced in the secretory unit of venom gland, then drained to the lumen through the end apparatus, and are finally collected and stored in the venom reservoir.

  3. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  4. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases.

  5. Pheomelanin in the secondary sexual characters of male parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Jorge García, Alberto; Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence and distribution of eumelanin and pheomelanin, the most prevalent biological pigments, has been rarely investigated in insects. Particularly yellowish to brownish body parts, which in many vertebrates are associated with pheomelanin, are visible in many insects but their chemical nature was rarely examined to a similar detail. Here, by using Dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis, we found both eumelanin and pheomelanin in different body parts of male parasitoid wasps of three species of the genus Mesopolobus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), which are known to have species-specific spots and coloured stripes on the legs and/or antennae which are displayed to females during courtship. We found a strong eumelanin signal in the antennal clava of all studied Mesopolobus species and in the circular black spot or callosity and the triangular black projection on the outer apical angle of the typically expanded middle tibia of Mesopolobus tibialis and Mesopolobus xanthocerus. Eumelanin was also the predominant pigment in the black thorax of Mesopolobus and other members of the family. Pheomelanin, on the other hand, was detected as predominant only in certain body parts of M. tibialis and M. xanthocerus, precisely in a very narrow, longitudinal brownish stripe on the middle femur and, only in M. tibialis, in a brownish oval-longitudinal stripe on the middle tibia. The two melanin types co-occurred in most pigmented areas, but more often one is clearly predominant relative to the other, according to the variation of Raman signal intensity of their signature peaks. A further tibial yellowish-orange stripe present in both these species did not include melanins of any type. Pheomelanin, could be more widespread than previously known in insects. A convergent evolution of melanin-based male sexual ornaments between vertebrates (e.g. bird feathers) and wasps can be suggested, opening to a new line of comparative evolutionary studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Superparasitism in laboratory rearing of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F

    2012-02-01

    The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions.

  7. Attraction of Dibrachys cavus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to its host frass volatiles.

    PubMed

    Chuche, Julien; Xuéreb, Anne; Thiéry, Denis

    2006-12-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a polyphagous insect able to develop on grapes and wild plants. We tested the hypothesis that the parasitoid Dibrachys cavus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) uses the larval frass in its host search. A two-armed olfactometer was used to measure the attractiveness of L. botrana larvae, their silk, or their frass after larvae were fed on different host plants. Frass of three Lepidoptera (L. botrana, Eupoecillia ambiguella, Sphinx ligustri) and one Orthoptera (Chorthippus brunneus) was assayed, but only L. botrana was used to test an effect of the larval host plant (two grape cultivars and three other plant species) to D. cavus females. Larvae without frass did not attract D. cavus whatever their origin, but their frass was attractive at a dose of 2-3 days equivalent of larval frass production. The silk produced by a single larva (L. botrana) was not attractive to D. cavus. The parasitoid was most attracted to the odor of S. ligustri; the frass of L. botrana was more attractive than that of E. ambiguella, irrespective of the species on which D. cavus had been reared. There was no difference in attractiveness of frass collected from L. botrana raised on food containing different plants. Chemical extracts using five different polarity solvents (acetone, dichloromethane, hexane, methanol, and water) differed in attractiveness to D. cavus. Water and dichloromethane were the most attractive. This suggests that a complex volatile signal made from intermediate to polar volatiles may be involved in attraction. D. cavus used frass to discriminate between different potential host species. Our results revealed that the larval food of L. botrana did not modify frass attractiveness, but that the moth species did.

  8. Scanning electron microscopy studies of antennal sensilla of Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2008-07-01

    Pteromalus cerealellae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is an ectoparasitoid of several insect pests of stored products. In order to provide requisite background information to support our ongoing research on its host location mechanisms, we examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of this parasitoid using scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of male and female P. cerealellae are geniculate in shape, approximately 1300mum in length, and consist of 15 antennomeres. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in both sexes, including four types of the highly abundant and widely distributed sensilla trichodea (types I, II and IV are aporous while type III is multiporous), basiconic capitate peg sensilla, coeloconic sensilla, chaetica sensilla, and the most conspicuous plate-like placoid sensilla. Detailed examination of sensilla morphological features including pore presence and numbers suggest that the multiporous type III sensilla trichodea and the multiporous placoid sensilla may play a role in olfaction, whereas the uniporous chaetica sensilla may function as contact chemoreceptors. The types I and II sensilla trichodea are presumably mechanosensory, while the type IV sensilla trichodea may function as proprioceptors. The basiconic capitate peg sensilla and coeloconic sensilla probably function in thermo-hygro reception. Although the shape, structure, and size of antennae of males and female were basically similar, major differences were recorded between the sexes in the distribution of some sensilla types. The type II sensilla trichodea and the multiporous placoid sensilla are relatively more abundant in females, whereas males have greater number of the multiporous type III sensilla trichodea than females. These results are discussed in relation to the possible roles of the sensilla types in the host location behavior of P. cerealellae.

  9. Revision of the Oriental species of Apsilocera Bouček (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with description of twelve new species.

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental species of Apsilocera Bouček, 1956 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are revised and the limits of the genus are reevaluated. Bulolosa Bouček, 1990 and Kratinka Bouček, 1988 are treated as synonyms of Apsilocera, syn. n. Bulolosa bidens Bouček and Kratinka brevis Bouček are transferred to Apsilocera as A. bidens (Bouček) and A. brevis (Bouček) comb. n., respectively. Twelve new species (all Mitroiu & van Achterberg) are described in Apsilocera: A. acuticristata sp. n., A. bicristata sp. n., A. cornuta sp. n., A. dentata sp. n., A. dupla sp. n., A. elongata sp. n., A. fulvipennis sp. n., A. longicornis sp. n., A. maculata sp. n., A. obtusicristata sp. n., A. palliclava sp. n., and A. tuberculata sp. n. An illustrated key to the females and males of Oriental species is provided.

  10. Linear Dispersal of the Filth Fly Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Parasitism of Hosts at Increasing Distances

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, Erika T.; Geden, Christopher J.; Leppla, Norman C.

    2015-01-01

    Release of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents for house flies and stable flies in livestock confinements has had variable success. In part, this may reflect a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal distance to be used between parasitoid release stations. In the current study, we assessed the effect of linear distance on host parasitism by the wasp Spalangia cameroni Perkins. In open fields at distances ranging from 1 m to 60 m from a central point, house fly puparia were placed in a mixture of pine shavings soiled with equine manure, urine, and alfalfa hay. Releases of S. cameroni then were made using a 5:1 host: parasitoid ratio. Host pupae were parasitized at all distances, with the highest rate of total parasitism (68.9%) recorded ≤ 5 m from the release site. Analyses of results using non-linear and linear models suggest that S. cameroni should be released in close proximity to host development areas. Additionally, releases may not be suitable in pasture situations where long-distance flight is required for control. However, further testing is needed to examine the effect of density-dependent dispersal and diffusion of S. cameroni. PMID:26061882

  11. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae.

  12. Offspring production and self-superparasitism in the solitary ectoparasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in relation to host abundance.

    PubMed

    Böckmann, E A; Tormos, J; Beitia, F; Fischer, K

    2012-04-01

    Parasitoid fitness strongly depends on the availability and quality of hosts, which provide all resources required for larval development. Several factors, such as host size and previous parasitation, may affect host quality. Because self-superparasitism induces competition among a female's offspring, it should only occur if there is an imperfect recognition of self-parasitized hosts or if there is a fitness advantage to self-superparasitism. Against this background, we investigated self-superparasitism and offspring production in Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in relation to the abundance of a novel host, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Individual pairs of parasitoids were provided with either two (low host abundance) or ten (high host abundance) pupae per day. Under high host abundance, lifetime fecundity (number of eggs laid), offspring number, number of pupae parasitized and hosts killed were greater than under low host abundance, whereas the number of eggs per host was lower; and the proportion of hosts that did not produce offspring tended to be lower. The latter suggests the occurrence of ovicide, when hosts are scarce due to an at least imperfect recognition of previously self-parasitized hosts. Offspring production per parasitized pupa was higher when hosts were scarce and levels of self-superparasitism high, suggesting the existence of beneficial effects of self-superparasitism.

  13. Linear Dispersal of the Filth Fly Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Parasitism of Hosts at Increasing Distances.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, Erika T; Geden, Christopher J; Leppla, Norman C

    2015-01-01

    Release of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents for house flies and stable flies in livestock confinements has had variable success. In part, this may reflect a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal distance to be used between parasitoid release stations. In the current study, we assessed the effect of linear distance on host parasitism by the wasp Spalangia cameroni Perkins. In open fields at distances ranging from 1 m to 60 m from a central point, house fly puparia were placed in a mixture of pine shavings soiled with equine manure, urine, and alfalfa hay. Releases of S. cameroni then were made using a 5:1 host: parasitoid ratio. Host pupae were parasitized at all distances, with the highest rate of total parasitism (68.9%) recorded ≤ 5 m from the release site. Analyses of results using non-linear and linear models suggest that S. cameroni should be released in close proximity to host development areas. Additionally, releases may not be suitable in pasture situations where long-distance flight is required for control. However, further testing is needed to examine the effect of density-dependent dispersal and diffusion of S. cameroni.

  14. The preimaginal phases and development of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D; Fernández, Severiano

    2009-10-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae) using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is granulated, and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The labrum of the first instar larva does not have sensilla, and the second to fourth instar larvae have setae on the head. The mature larva is characterized by the position and number of the integumental differentiations (sensilla and setae). On completion of larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. As for the adult, the mandibles of the pupae are toothed. Five larval instars are recorded, based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles in combination with characters such as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was 18-20 days for males and 21-23 days for females at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 relative humidity, and a 16L:8D photoperiod. The results show that the eggs and different larval instars of this parasitoid can be unambiguously identified only by scanning electron microscope.

  15. Molecular approaches identify known species, reveal cryptic species and verify host specificity of Chinese Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei-Jiao; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Li, Yan-Wei; Niu, Li-Ming; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Shan; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Philotrypesis, a major component of the fig wasp community (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is a model taxon for studying male fighting and mating behaviour. Its extreme sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism render species identification uncertain and in-depth research on its ecology, behaviour and other evolutionary topics challenging. The fig wasps' enclosed habitat within the syconia makes their mating behaviour inaccessible, to the extent of matching conspecific females and males. In this study, we combine morphological and molecular analyses to identify species of Philotrypesis sampled from south China and to associate their extraordinarily dimorphic genders and labile male morphologies. Morphological evaluations of females identify 22 species and 28 male morphs. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 data detect 21 species using females, and 15 species among the males. Most of the males match the species as delimited by females. Both markers reveal cryptic species in P. quadrisetosa on Ficus vasculosa. Most species of wasps live on one species of fig but three species co-occur in two hosts (F. microcarpa and F. benjamina), which indicates host switching.

  16. Attraction of the Larval Parasitoid Spintherus dubius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Feces Volatiles from the Adult Apion Weevil Host.

    PubMed

    Faraone, N; Svensson, G P; Anderbrant, O

    2017-01-01

    The behavioral response of the larval parasitoid Spintherus dubius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to volatile compounds derived from its Apion weevil hosts was investigated in two-choice bioassays. Odor source candidates were the larval and adult stages of weevils, clover flowers, and feces from adult weevils. Despite S. dubius being a larval parasitoid, the odor of weevil larvae isolated from the clover flowers was not attractive to female parasitoids. Surprisingly, S. dubius females were instead attracted by the odor from the feces of adult weevils. The female parasitoids were similarly attracted to the feces produced by the two main hosts, the red clover weevil (A. trifolii) and the white clover weevil (A. fulvipes). Chemical analysis of the volatile composition of feces produced by the two hosts revealed qualitatively similar odor profiles, correlating with the observed attraction by the parasitoid towards both odor sources. Some of the identified volatile compounds are commonly present in clover plant headspace fractions and may function as a kairomone to facilitate orientation by S. dubius to Apion-infested clover flowers. Larval and adult weevils were not attractive for parasitoid females, whereas, for the white clover weevil-plant association, infested flowers were highly attractive. These data show the use by the clover weevil parasitoid of an alternative source of olfactory information for locating its host.

  17. The presence of Notanisus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in North America and revision of the oulmesiensis species group.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary A P

    2015-04-22

    The presence and distribution of two species of Notanisus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in North America is reported. Notanisus sexramosus (Erdős), originally described from Hungary and previously reported from Maryland, USA, is recorded also from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania based on a male and macropterous and brachypterous females. Males of Notanisus are shown to have two types of flagellar structure, ramose and pedicellate, and diagnostic features are given for the previously unknown males of N. clavatus Bouček to differentiate these from those of N. sexramosus and N. versicolor Walker. Five other species are newly described, Notanisus kansensis n. sp. based on a female from Nebraska, USA, and four species from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula--Notanisus brevipetiolus n. sp. based on two females from Uganda and Zambia, Notanisus longipetiolus n. sp. based on a female from Zimbabwe and a female and two males from Mozambique, Notanisus vanharteni n. sp. based on a female and several males from United Arab Emirates, and Notanisus yemenensis n. sp. based on a female and male from Yemen. The latter five species are included with the Palaearctic species N. oulmesiensis (Delucchi) and N. gracilis (Yang) in the oulmesiensis species group, defined by the presence of reduced stigmal and postmarginal veins in both sexes. The seven oulmesiensis-group species are differentiated in a key and all treated species are illustrated through macrophotography. Monophyly and relationships of Notanisus within Cleonymini are discussed, including features that indicate it could be paraphyletic relative to Callocleonymus Masi.

  18. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  19. The preimaginal stages and development of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D

    2009-01-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae), using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is smooth and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The immature larvae are similar to the mature larva, differing mainly in the size of the head capsule and mandibles. The mature larva displays tubercules on the body segments as well as a pleurostoma and superior and inferior mandibular processes. On completion of its larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. The mandibles of the pupa, as for the adult, are toothed. Three larval instars are recorded based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles and head capsules, in combination with such characters as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. There are significant positive correlations between mandible length and width of larval head capsule with the number of instars, thus indicating that the mandible length and width of larval capsule are good predictors of the number of instars in this parasitoid. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was approximately 33-34 days for females and approximately 28-29 days for males at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 RH and a L16:D8 photoperiod. Our results show that the eggs and different instars of S. cameroni can be unambiguously identified only by SEM. Therefore, characterization of the immature stages of Spalangia species using SEM should be done before subsequent routine identifications using a binocular microscope or stereomicroscope.

  20. Effects of prior experience on host selection and host utilization by two populations of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Mukti N; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-10-01

    The effect of adult learning through an oviposition and host feeding experience was studied in two populations of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), in choice and no-choice experiments in the laboratory using last instars of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L., and lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), as hosts. In choice experiments, 20 wheat kernels infested by rice weevil and 20 by lesser grain borer were placed randomly in petri dish (15 by 100 mm) arenas. In no-choice experiments, 10 host-infested wheat kernels, either with rice weevils or with lesser grain borers, were mixed thoroughly in 500 g of uninfested wheat placed in a 0.945-liter glass jar (75 by 170 mm) arenas. A. calandrae females from a laboratory and field populations that were experienced with host larvae or naïve were introduced singly into each experimental arena and allowed to sting and oviposit for 24 h. An oviposition experience with rice weevil or lesser grain borer had a stronger effect on host preference in choice experiments compared with experiments with naïve wasps. Host-finding and parasitism rates were increased by prior experience with rice weevils in no-choice experiments. A. calandrae females clearly preferred rice weevil larvae for parasitization over larvae of lesser grain borer regardless of parasitoid population or prior experience. Also, A. calandrae females chose rice weevil larvae for producing female progeny and lesser grain borer for male progeny in choice experiments. The implications of the results of this study are discussed in relation to host preference and the selection of parasitoid populations for biological control programs in stored grains.

  1. Parasitoids of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with description of a new species of Agiommatus Crawford, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from India with notes on biology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M

    2016-07-01

    In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Karnataka and Goa, India, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis.

  2. Species-diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphism and sequence-tagged site markers for the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Niehuis, O; Judson, A K; Werren, J H; Hunter, W B; Dang, P M; Dowd, S E; Grillenberger, B; Beukeboom, L W; Gadau, J

    2007-08-01

    Wasps of the genus Nasonia are important biological control agents of house flies and related filth flies, which are major vectors of human pathogens. Species of Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are not easily differentiated from one another by morphological characters, and molecular markers for their reliable identification have been missing so far. Here, we report eight single-nucleotide polymorphism and three sequence-tagged site markers derived from expressed sequenced tag libraries for the two closely related and regionally sympatric species N. giraulti and N. vitripennis. We studied variation of these markers in natural populations of the two species, and we mapped them in the Nasonia genome. The markers are species-diagnostic and evenly spread over all five chromosomes. They are ideal for rapid species identification and hybrid recognition, and they can be used to map economically relevant quantitative trait loci in the Nasonia genome.

  3. Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival, Development, and Oviposition Rates of the Pupal Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-08-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d(-1)), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies.

  4. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Live and Freeze-killed House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to determine if the reduced suitability of freeze-killed pupae for Pteromalidae, particularly Spalangia cameroni Perkins, is due to freezing, freezing duration or the type of freezer utilized. Processing pupae through freezing had a considerably greater negative effect on ...

  5. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Live and Freeze-killed House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to determine if the reduced suitability of freeze-killed pupae for Pteromalidae, particularly Spalangia cameroni Perkins, is due to freezing, freezing duration or the type of freezer utilized. Processing pupae through freezing had a considerably greater negative effect on ...

  6. Comparison of the Olfactory Preferences of Four of Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoid Species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Hosts in Equine and Bovine Manure.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J

    2015-10-01

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids, primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), can be purchased for biological control of these flies. However, little is known about the host-habitat preferences associated with host-seeking by these parasitoids. The preferences of two Spalangia and two Muscidifurax species to odors associated with house fly hosts in equine and bovine manure were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from manure without developing flies, third-instar house flies in manure, and fly host puparia in manure were evaluated. In choice tests, S. cameroni and S. endius were strongly attracted to odor associated with equine manure against clean air. Although S. cameroni was attracted to all bovine manure-containing treatments against clean air, S. endius was only attracted to the bovine manure with third-instar flies. There were no significant differences between the Spalangia species in odor responses. Neither Muscidifurax species were attracted to equine manure treatments and were only attracted to the bovine manure with puparia over clean air. In manure comparison studies, bovine treatments with developing flies were more attractive than the equivalent equine treatments to both Muscidifurax species The data suggest that coexistence between the competing pteromalid parasitoids might be promoted by different host-seeking behaviors. Additionally, manure preferences may indicate parasitoid suitability for releases on different livestock and equine facilities.

  7. Sperm production and mating potential of males after a cold shock on pupae of the parasitoid wasp Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Lacoume, Sandrine; Bressac, Christophe; Chevrier, Claude

    2007-10-01

    For ectothermic species, temperature is a key environmental factor influencing several aspects of their physiology and ecology, acting particularly on reproduction. To measure the consequences of a severe thermal stress during development on male reproduction, a cold shock (1h at -18 degrees C) was tested on Dinarmus basalis pupae. D. basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a parasitoid wasp in which sperm management in both male and female is of prime importance. After a cold shock, developmental success was reduced, with a quarter of cold-shocked males not emerging correctly. The stress effects were estimated at the level of sperm stock in seminal vesicles of males at different ages and on the ability of 2-day-old males to access females in single and multiple mating and in male-male competition. Cold-shocked males had a reduced sperm stock compared to control males and this difference persisted with age. The rate of sperm production was similar in both groups. The consequences of a cold shock on male reproductive ability were perceptible in multiple mating and male-male competition but not in single mating. Cold-shocked males were at a disadvantage, inseminating fewer females and copulating less frequently. Finally, male pupae of D. basalis were able to withstand severe temperature stresses and their reproductive functions were partially preserved.

  8. Host suitability of house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), pupae killed by high or low temperature treatment for a parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kohei; Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Arakawa, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i) heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii) freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to -80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at -20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at -80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at -80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at -80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage.

  9. Biocontrol potential of Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at low temperatures: reproduction and parasitoid-induced mortality.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lise Stengård

    2007-06-01

    Lariophagus distinguendus Forster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) has been suggested as a biological control agent against the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), in grain stores. Information on the effect of low temperatures prevailing in grain stores is necessary to be able to predict the potential of this parasitoid against S. granarius in temperate regions, where grain is cooled with ambient air to achieve safe storage conditions. The influence of constant temperatures of 16, 18, and 20 degrees C on life table parameters and parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was investigated in the laboratory. L. distinguendus is able to develop and reproduce at temperatures as low as 16 degrees C. The intrinsic rate of natural increase, rm, was 0.0182, 0.0222, and 0.0792 d(-1) at 16, 18, and 20 degrees C, respectively. The proportion of hosts killed due to parasitoid-induced mortality was highest at 20 degrees C. At this temperature, it amounted to 70% of the total mortality exerted by the parasitoid; at 18 and 16'C, it was 57 and 42% of the total, respectively. L. distinguendus is a promising biocontrol agent for grain stores in temperate regions because it is able to develop and reproduce at temperatures down to 16 degrees C; its development is quicker than that of its host, estimated from the literature; and it kills many hosts in addition to those used for reproduction.

  10. Two new fossil genera and species of Cerocephalinae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae), including the first record from the Eocene.

    PubMed

    Bläser, Marcel; Krogmann, Lars; Peters, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    Cerocephalinae (Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps characterized by a number of derived diagnostic features. Their hosts are endophytic beetles. So far, 43 species of Cerocephalinae have been described, including one fossil species from the Miocene. In this study, we add two new genera and species from Baltic and Dominican amber to the fossil record. Tenuicornus dominicus gen. et sp. n. is the second genus described from Dominican amber, and Pteropilosa lailarabanorum gen. et sp. n., described from Baltic amber, represents the oldest record of the subfamily, pushing the minimum age of Cerocephalinae back to the Eocene. Diagnostic characters of both species are discussed in comparison with other Cerocephalinae. An updated key to extant and fossil Cerocephalinae is presented.

  11. Suitability of five species of stored-product insects as hosts for development and reproduction of the parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Mukti N; Phillips, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the ability of two populations of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), to parasitize and develop on late instars of five different stored-product insects that typically complete their development inside seeds of grain or legume species or other dry commodity. The host species were the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.); cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory in a no-choice design by using petri dishes (15 by 100 mm) as experimental arenas with 20 host larvae. A. calandrae females from populations originating in Georgia (GA) and Oklahoma (OK) were introduced singly into experimental arenas and allowed to sting and oviposit for 24 h. Parasitism by the OK population was greater than that for the GA population across all hosts. However, no or very low parasitism was found on Angoumois grain moth for either population in this experiment. The highest number of parasitoid progeny was recorded on cowpea weevil (15.9) followed by rice weevil (11.5) and cigarette beetle (10.8) for the OK population. A similar trend was observed in the GA population. The highest proportion of female progeny was produced on cowpea weevil (73.0%) by the OK population. Conversely, a higher proportion of female progeny was produced on rice weevil (64.6%) by the GA population than produced by the OK population. Parasitoid adults were significantly larger and heavier when they developed on cowpea weevil irrespective of parasitoid population. The possible application of these results for biological control of stored-product insects is discussed.

  12. Comparative venom toxicity between Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) toward the hemocytes of their natural hosts, non-target insects and cultured insect cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Cai, Jun; Hu, Cui

    2005-09-01

    Crude venoms from two parasitoid species, Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were assayed for biological activities toward hemocytes from two species of their natural hosts and eight species of their non-natural hosts as well as two lines of cultured Lepidoptera cells, respectively. By inhibiting the spreading and viability of insect hemocytes, the venom from P. puparum displayed significantly higher activities toward plasmatocytes and granular cells from both larvae and pupae of two natural hosts, Pieris rapae and Papilio xuthus, and lower activity toward those from Spodoptera litura, Musca domestica and Sarcophaga peregrina. However, no effect was found towards any type of hemocytes from other five insects tested, namely, Ectropis oblique, Galleria mellonella, Sesamia inferens, Bombyx mori and Parnara guttata. In contrast, the venom from N. vitripennis showed a narrower range of targeted insects. It appeared to have highly adverse effects on the spreading and viability of plasmatocytes and granular cells only from the natural hosts, M. domestica and S. peregrina, little toxicity to cells from P. rapae and P. xuthus, and no effect on any of the other insects tested. Pteromalus puparum venom also apparently presented a high ability to block the spreading of Tn-5B1-4 cells derived from Trichoplusia ni, and high cytotoxicity to the cells and Ha cells derived from Helicoverpa armigera. Nasonia vitripennis venom, however, only had a marked lethal effect to Ha cells. In addition, the possibility that the host range of a defined parasitoid could be assessed using our method of treating hemocytes from candidate insects with venom in vitro, and the potential of our venoms tested in the development of bio-insecticides, insect-resistant transgenic plants, are discussed.

  13. Review of Hyperimerus (Pteromalidae: Asaphinae) in North America, with redescription of Hyperimerus corvus (Girault)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North American species Hyperimerus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reviewed. Hyperimerus corvus Girault is redescribed, a lectotype designated, and the male is described for the first time. Hyperimerus pusillus (Walker) is also briefly redescribed and range extension is proposed. Notes on extralimit...

  14. Pushing the limits – two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Pteromalus briani sp. n. and Pteromalus janstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalus briani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglais urticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalus janstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world. PMID:26261432

  15. Pushing the limits - two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology.

    PubMed

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Two new species, Pteromalusbriani sp. n. and Pteromalusjanstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalusbriani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessaatalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglaisurticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalusjanstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world.

  16. Males mate guard in absentia through extended effects of postcopulatory courtship in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    King, B H; Fischer, C R

    2005-12-01

    The proximal mechanisms leading to monandry have been little studied in most insect orders, including Hymenoptera. In the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius, mated females are less attractive (less often mounted) than virgins and are unreceptive (unlikely to allow copulation). Which aspects of mating are responsible was tested by observing male responses toward females whose mating had been interrupted at various stages. All females were allowed to receive precopulatory courtship and to open their genital aperture to copulate. Then some were interrupted before copulation, some after copulation but before postcopulatory courtship, and some were allowed to complete postcopulatory courtship. Females that had copulated were not less attractive than females that had not. In contrast, females that had received postcopulatory courtship were clearly both less attractive and less receptive. Thus, postcopulatory courtship functions as extended mate guarding, by making the female less attractive and less receptive to subsequent males even after the original male is no longer present. The effect of postcopulatory courtship on female attractiveness was persistent but imperfect: when males were presented sequentially to mated females, most but not all males retreated without mounting, and a female could repulse more than twenty males in succession.

  17. Review of the world species of Spaniopus Walker, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), with description of a new species from the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Tselikh, Ekaterina

    2015-12-15

    The species of Spaniopus Walker, 1833 (Pteromalidae) are reviewed. A new species from the Russian Far East, S. belokobylskiji sp. nov., is described and illustrated. Redescriptions and illustrations of all available types of Spaniopus species are provided. A key for the identification of the twelve known species of Spaniopus is given. Five species, Spaniopus fulvicornis Bouček, S. japonicus Kamijo, S. nigriceps Kamijo, S. sasacolae Kamijo and S. varicornis Bouček are recorded from Russia for the first time.

  18. Hyperparasitism in a Generalist Ectoparasitic Pupal Parasitoid, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), on Its Own Conspecifics: When the Lack of Resource Lead to Cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; He, Zhang; Ji, Xiao-Li; Tang, Si-Ting; Hu, Hao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperparasitism is a normal behavior of parasitoids, which often happens among species. Conspecific hyperparasitism, such as some kinds of heteronomous hyperparasitic behaviors, has been only reported in some species belonging to Aphelinidae. In this article, the conspecific hyperparasitism of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae) is reported, with Drosophila puparia as hosts. Hosts were exposed to P. vindemmiae females twice to parasitism with nine, twelve, and fifteen day intervals between the two exposures. None of the infested hosts emerged more than one offspring, and emergence of parasitoid offspring occurred in two obvious events, synchronously with the exposure time intervals, which suggested that offspring emerging during the first and second events would come from the primary and secondary parasitoids, respectively, and the inference with the developmental duration of offspring also indicated this. With two P. vindemmiae strains that could be identified by a simple sequence repeat marker, the above speculation of the origin of those offspring emerging during the two events was confirmed. Dissection of hosts exposed twice revealed a cannibalism behavior of larvae from the secondary foundresses on the primary conspecific pupae. Our results suggested a conspecific hyperparasitism behavior of the secondary parasitoids on the primary conspecifics. Measures showed a reduced body size for the adults from the conspecific hyperparasitism. Foundresses from the conspecific hyperparasitism had less fitness variables than those from primary parasitism, with shorter longevity, less life time fecundity, lower values of infestation degree, and lower success rate of parasitism. However, when the parasitoids from the conspecific hyperparasitism met healthy Drosophila puparia, their offspring would recover to normal size. Frequency of the conspecific hyperparasitism behavior enhanced with the decreasing of proportion of healthy hosts in the oviposition patch. The

  19. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on live house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) pupae and pupae killed by heat shock, irradiation, and cold.

    PubMed

    Geden, C J; Kaufman, P E

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of killed house fly (Musca domestica L) pupae for production of two economically important pupal parasitoids. Two-day-old fly pupae were subjected to heat shock treatments of varying temperatures and durations in an oven at >or=70% RH; exposure to temperatures of 55 degrees C or higher for 15 min or longer resulted in 100% mortality. Exposure to 50 degrees C resulted in 40 and 91% mortality at 15 and 60 min, respectively. All (100%) pupae placed in a -80 degrees C freezer were killed after 10-min exposure; exposure times of <5 min resulted in <21% mortality. Progeny production of Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders (Hymeoptera: Pteromalidae) from pupae killed by heat shock or 50 kR of gamma radiation was not significantly different from production on live hosts on the day when pupae were killed. Freeze-killed pupae produced 16% fewer S. cameroni than live pupae and an equivalent amount of M. raptor progeny on the day when pupae were killed. When killed pupae were stored in freezer bags at 4 degrees C for 4 mo, heat-killed, irradiated, and freeze-killed pupae remained as effective for production of M. raptor as live pupae. Production of S. cameroni on heat-killed and irradiated pupae was equal to parasitoid production on live pupae for up to 2 mo of storage, after which production on killed pupae declined to 63% of that observed with live pupae. Production of S. cameroni on freeze-killed pupae was 73-78% of production using live pupae during weeks 2-8 of storage and declined to 41 and 28% after 3 and 4 mo, respectively. Killing pupae by heat shock provides a simple and low-cost method for stockpiling high-quality hosts for mass-rearing both of these filth fly biological control agents.

  20. A genome-wide identification and classification of basic helix-loop-helix genes in the jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Yong; Wang, Xu-Hua; Tao, Xia-Fang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are highly conserved DNA-binding transcription factors of a large superfamily. Animal bHLH proteins play important regulatory roles in various developmental processes such as neurogenesis, myogenesis, heart development, and hematopoiesis. The jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis) is a good model organism of hymenoptera insects for studies of developmental and evolutionary genetics. In this study, we identified 48 bHLH genes in the genome of N. vitripennis. According to phylogenetic analysis, based on N. vitripennis bHLH (NvbHLH) motif sequences and structural domain distribution in their full-length protein sequences, the identified NvbHLH genes were classified into 36 bHLH families with 19, 12, 9, 1, 6, and 1 member(s) in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. Our classification to the identified NvbHLH family members confirms GenBank annotations for 21 of the 48 NvbHLH proteins and provides useful information for further characterization and annotation of the remaining 27 NvbHLH proteins. Compared to other insect species, N. vitripennis has the lowest number of bHLH family members. No NvbHLH members have been found in the families Net, MyoRa, and PTFa, while all other insect species have at least one member in each of the families. These data constitute a solid basis for further investigations into the functions of bHLH proteins in developmental regulation of N. vitripennis.

  1. Catolaccus grandis (Burks)(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catolaccus grandis is an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil classified initially within the genus Heterolaccus (Burks 1954). It was first introduced to the U.S. during the early 1970’s and released in experimental fields in Mississippi State, MS (Johnson et al. 1973). Researchers observed encouraging...

  2. Sperm morphology of Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Helen Pinto; Barcellos, Marcelo Silva; Reis, Aline Beatriz; Dolder, Heidi; Lino-Neto, José

    2016-05-01

    Sperm morphology of the parasitoid Muscidifurax uniraptor was investigated under light and transmission electron microscopy. M. uniraptor sperm are filiform, spiraled, approximately 150 μm in length, with a distinctive head, hooded by an extracellular sheath and a flagellum. This extracellular layer, from which many filaments radiate, measures approximately 90 nm in thickness and covers a small acrosome and the anterior nuclear region. The acrosome is composed of an acrosomal vesicle and a perforatorium with its base inserted in the nuclear tip. The nucleus is filled with homogeneously compacted chromatin. The centriolar adjunct extends towards the anterior portion in a spiral around the nucleus for 3.5 μm in length. The two mitochondrial derivatives begin exactly at the centriole adjunct base and, in cross-section, have a circular shape with equal areas that are smaller than the axoneme diameter. It is coiled, with 9 + 9 + 2 microtubules and begins from the centriole, just below the nuclear base. The axoneme is connected to the mitochondrial derivatives by two small irregularly shaped masses. Between the derivatives and the axoneme, the 'center-flagellar material' is observed. Overall, these characteristics are recognized in other Chalcidoidea, especially in the eurytomids, but together they form a set of species-specific data.

  3. Diversity, host association, and cocoon variability of reared Indian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Fernández-Triana, José L

    2014-05-22

    Nearly 3,500 specimens of microgastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were reared during caterpillar surveys undertaken in 2010-2013 across India, covering 16 States and one Union Territory (Andaman & Nicobar islands), and deposited in the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore, India. The caterpillar inventory recovered over two hundred morpho-species within 22 families of Lepidoptera and yielded 90+ morpho-species of microgastrine wasps distributed among 13 genera: Apanteles Förster, Buluka de Saeger, Cotesia Cameron, Diolcogaster Ashmead, Distatrix Mason, Dolichogenidea Viereck, Fornicia Brulle, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, Microgaster Latreille, Microplitis Förster, Neoclarkinella Rema & Narendran, Parapanteles Ashmead, and Protapanteles Ashmead. Records of hyperparasitoids are also included: Mokrzeckia menzeli Subba Rao (Pteromalidae), Pachyneuron groenlandicum (Holmgren) (Pteromalidae), Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford) (Eulophidae), Trichomalopsis thekkadiensis Sureshan & Narendran (Pteromalidae), Eurytoma sp., and Pediobius sp. (Eurytomidae). The present study adds eight new host records and provides illustrations of 40 species of wasps (including types). A comprehensive list of microgastrine genera, host caterpillar species, host plants, cocoon colour, structure and spinning pattern, and hyperparasitoids is provided. Numerous photographs of parasitized caterpillars, cocoons (number/arrangement), associated host plants, and adult wasps are also provided. The Indian species Deuterixys ruidus (Wilkinson, 1928) is transferred to the genus Cotesia based on the shape and sculpture of the first and second mediotergites: Cotesia ruidus (Wilkinson) comb. nov. Microgaster carinicollis Cameron is transferred to Microplitis, based on examination of first and second mediotergites, length of metatibia spurs, and size of metaxocoxa: Microplitis carinicollis (Cameron) stat. rev.

  4. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  5. Hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Flood, Aryn A

    2006-11-01

    The medically important groups of Hymenoptera are the Apoidea (bees), Vespoidea (wasps, hornets, and yellow jackets), and Formicidae (ants). These insects deliver their venom by stinging their victims. Bees lose their barbed stinger after stinging and die. Wasps, hornets, and yellow jackets can sting multiple times. Most deaths related to Hymenoptera stings are the result of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, causing anaphylaxis. Massive envenomations can cause death in nonallergic individuals. The estimated lethal dose is approximately 20 stings/kg in most mammals. Anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera stings are not dose dependent or related to the number of stings. Bee and wasp venoms are made up primarily of protein. Conversely, fire ant venoms are 95% alkaloids. Four possible reactions are seen after insect stings: local reactions, regional reactions, systemic anaphylactic responses, and less commonly, delayed-type hypersensitivity. Clinical signs of bee and wasp stings include erythema, edema, and pain at the sting site. Occasionally, animals develop regional reactions. Onset of life-threatening, anaphylactic signs typically occur within 10 minutes of the sting. Diagnosis of bee and wasp stings stem from a history of potential contact matched with onset of appropriate clinical signs. Treatment of uncomplicated envenomations (stings) consists of conservative therapy (antihistamines, ice or cool compresses, topical lidocaine, or corticosteroid lotions). Prompt recognition and initiation of treatment is critical in successful management of anaphylactic reactions to hymenopteran stings. Imported fire ants both bite and sting, and envenomation only occurs through the sting. Anaphylaxis after imported fire ant stings is treated similarly to anaphylactic reactions after honeybee and vespid stings. The majority of Hymenopteran stings are self-limiting events, which resolve in a few hours without treatment. Because life-threatening anaphylactic reactions can

  6. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Munro, James B.; Heraty, John M.; Burks, Roger A.; Hawks, David; Mottern, Jason; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Jansta, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with more than 23,000 species described and over 500,000 species estimated to exist. This is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a molecular analysis of 18S and 28S ribosomal gene regions for 19 families, 72 subfamilies, 343 genera and 649 species. The 56 outgroups are comprised of Ceraphronoidea and most proctotrupomorph families, including Mymarommatidae. Data alignment and the impact of ambiguous regions are explored using a secondary structure analysis and automated (MAFFT) alignments of the core and pairing regions and regions of ambiguous alignment. Both likelihood and parsimony approaches are used to analyze the data. Overall there is no impact of alignment method, and few but substantial differences between likelihood and parsimony approaches. Monophyly of Chalcidoidea and a sister group relationship between Mymaridae and the remaining Chalcidoidea is strongly supported in all analyses. Either Mymarommatoidea or Diaprioidea are the sister group of Chalcidoidea depending on the analysis. Likelihood analyses place Rotoitidae as the sister group of the remaining Chalcidoidea after Mymaridae, whereas parsimony nests them within Chalcidoidea. Some traditional family groups are supported as monophyletic (Agaonidae, Eucharitidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Leucospidae, Mymaridae, Ormyridae, Signiphoridae, Tanaostigmatidae and Trichogrammatidae). Several other families are paraphyletic (Perilampidae) or polyphyletic (Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae and Torymidae). Evolutionary scenarios discussed for Chalcidoidea include the evolution of phytophagy, egg parasitism, sternorrhynchan parasitism, hypermetamorphic development and heteronomy. PMID:22087244

  7. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Cereal Grain Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by the host's food would be the first signals used by parasitoids in the host location process and are thought to play an important role in host habitat location. In this study, the olfactory responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood), a Pteromalid wasp that parasitizes immature stages of stored-product insect pests developing inside cereal or leguminous grains, to volatiles emitted by healthy wheat grains, their hexane extracts, and different doses of three individual compounds previously identified in cereal grain odors were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer and Petri dish arena behavioral bioassays and electroantennogram recordings. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, odors from healthy wheat grains and their hexane extracts were attractive to both sexes of T. elegans. Moreover, hexane extracts elicited arresting effects in Petri dish arena. The three synthetic compounds valeraldehyde, maltol, and vanillin elicited dose-dependent responses in both male and female adult wasps confirming the capability of the peripheral olfactory systems to perceive cereal volatiles. In behavioral bioassays, different doses of vanillin were significantly attractive to both sexes. PMID:26904680

  8. Development of microsporidia-infected Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at different temperatures.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscididfurax raptor, a pupal parasitoid of house flies and other filth flies, is commonly infected with the microsporidium Nosema muscidifuracis. To determine the effects of infection on developmental time, uninfected and infected adult M. raptor were allowed to parasitize pupae of the house fly (M...

  9. Finding Prospective Mates by the Parasitoid Wasp Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Wittman, T N; Miller, K A; King, B H

    2016-10-05

    Cues from emergence sites may be predictive of mating opportunities if potential mates are slow to disperse after emergence, and particularly if emergence sites are clumped, as in the solitary parasitoid wasp Urolepis rufipes Ashmead. Males emerge before females, and the present study suggests that males may use emergence sites of conspecific males to locate mates. In choice experiments, virgin males spent more time on a male-emerged host (a host from which a male had recently emerged) than on a female-emerged host. Relative to when no host was present, virgin males also marked more in the presence of a male-emerged host, but did not mark more in the presence of a female-emerged host. Females, but not other males, are known to be attracted to male marks. Unlike for males, there was no evidence that females distinguished between male-emerged and female-emerged hosts. Virgin females preferred areas where multiple males had marked over areas where a single male had marked. Such areas had more total marks, yet marks per male did not differ between aggregated and solitary males. Thus, through his own attraction to male-emerged hosts and by marking near other males a male may find and attract females, and with no apparent increase in the cost of attraction.

  10. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Fang, L; Liu, J L; He, Z; Hu, H Y

    2015-03-13

    The parasitoid wasp Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) is a common pupal parasitoid of many fly pests that is distributed worldwide. This organism can be used for biological control in orchards or livestock farms. Identifying polymorphic microsatellite loci would be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure of the parasitoid. In the current study, based on a modified biotin-capture method, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the insect, 7 of which did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allelic number per locus varied from 3-7 (N = 30). The expected and observed heterozygosities of 10 loci ranged from 0.369-0.775 and from 0.300-0.867, respectively.

  11. Roles of ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone in vitellogenesis in an endoparasitic wasp, Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Sheng-zhang; Ye, Gong-yin; Guo, Jian-yang; Hu, Cui

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the endocrine regulation of vitellogenesis in an endoparastic wasp (Pteromalus puparum), the titers of ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone (JH) from the whole bodies are measured using the method of radioimmunoassay and GC-MS, and compared with the levels of vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA in the fat bodies, hemolymph Vg and ovarian vitellin (Vt), respectively. The results show that the ecdysteroid titer and fat body Vg mRNA level have a similar dynamics tendency, and the peak titer is at adult eclosion. The titer of JH III and ovarian Vt also have a similar dynamics tendency, and the peak titer is at 48h after eclosion. The profiles of hemolymph Vg, Vg mRNA in fat bodies and ovarian Vt, are also measured in the wasps after treated with different amounts of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE) or JH III in female pupa and adults. The results show that 20HE stimulates Vg synthesis in the fat bodies and its release into the hemolymph, and that JH III only accelerates Vg sequestration in the oocytes. Decapitation, which is believed to terminate synthesis of JH in insects, can not inhibit vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in P. puparum. Furthermore, Vg gene is expressed with a lower titer of JH and depressed by a higher titer of JH III. These studies suggest that ecdysteroids play a role in Vg synthesis and believed to be the dominant hormones in regulation of vitellogenesis in P. puparum, and JHs are not the essential factors to female reproduction in this wasp.

  12. Functional and nonfunctional female receptivity signals in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    King, B H; Dickenson, R M

    2008-06-01

    In many taxa, females signal during courtship when they are receptive. However, just because a female signals does not mean that the male responds to the signal. This study examines female signaling of receptivity (readiness to copulate) and male response in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius Walker. Females folded their antennae against their heads when they were receptive, and antennal folding has been shown to be effective in eliciting male copulation attempts in a confamilial. However, male S. endius did not respond to antennal folding: males did not contact the female's antennae during courtship, and how quickly a male attempted copulation was independent of whether or not the female had antennae. Males courted from on top of the female's abdomen and appeared to detect receptivity directly from the female's abdomen rising as her genital orifice opened. On females whose abdomens did not rise, initiation of male copulation attempts were delayed but not eliminated. Based on its current lack of function as a receptivity signal and on comparisons to published reports of mating behavior in confamilials, we hypothesize that female antennal folding at receptivity is a vestigial trait in S. endius.

  13. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable flies cause problems around horses by taking blood meals and increasing horse activity. Although this is a recognized problem, few equine studies have been conducted. Therefore scientists at the USDA-CMAVE worked cooperatively with University of Florida scientists to conduct a 26-month study ...

  14. Associative learning of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae) to methyldisulfanylmethane.

    PubMed

    Frederickx, Christine; Verheggen, François J; Brostaux, Yves; Haubruge, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Traditional methods of volatile detection used by police typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. The possibility of using parasitic wasps for detecting explosives and narcotics has been developed. Moreover, wasps are cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical detection task. We examined the ability of Nasonia vitripennis Walker to learn and respond to methyldisulfanylmethane (DMDS), a volatile discriminator of cadaver. The training aimed to form an association between an unconditioned stimulus (pupae) and the conditioned stimulus (odor source). After the training, the time spent by conditioned wasps in the DMDS chamber was measured. Statistical analysis showed that the increasing concentrations involved an increase in the time spent in the chamber containing DMDS. This study indicates that N. vitripennis can respond to DMDS, which provide further support for its development as a biological sensor.

  15. General morphology and ultrastructure of the female reproductive apparatus of Trichomalopsis shirakii crawford (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ning; Tang, Pu; Tian, Hong-Wei; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-07-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of the female reproductive system were examined for a larval-pupal parasitoid Trichomalopsis shirakii Crawford of Oulema oryzae Kuwayama using light and electron microscopes. The reproductive system includes two ovaries, two pairs of accessory glands, an unbranched venom gland, a large venom reservoir and a Dufour gland. Each ovariole contains follicles and oocytes at different stages of maturation. A fibrous layer covers the surface of mature egg. The accessory glands are made up of a layer of secretory cells surrounded by muscle fibers. In these secretory cells, numerous mitochondria, electron-dense secretory granules and vesicles filled with dense granular particles are present. These granular particles appear as virus-like particles (VLPs). The venom gland consists of a single layer of secretory cells which are organelle rich with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and vesicular organelles, a layer of duct cells and an inner intima. The reservoir consists of a muscular sheath, epidermal cells with few organelles and an intima layer. The Dufour gland has a relatively large lumen surrounded by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells which are characterized by clusters of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets. Aside from the venom, the fibrous layer coating the egg and the granular particles which may be VLPs have been discovered in our study. They may serve as one of the parasitoid-associated factors in their host-parasitoid relationship and play a role in host immune suppression. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:625-636, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Host location by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in equine associated substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control of filth flies with pupal parasitoids has become increasingly popular with horse owners (USDA 2006) but has not been evaluated on equestrian facilities. Little is known of the substrate preferences of filth fly parasitoids on equestrian facilities, but the success of release prog...

  17. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Geden, Christopher J; Tenbroeck, Saundra H

    2011-06-01

    Beginning in November 2007 and continuing until December 2009, weekly stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), surveillance was conducted at four equine facilities near Ocala, FL, by using alsynite sticky traps for adults and by searching immature developmental sites for pupae. Adult stable fly trap captures were highly variable throughout the year, ranging from 0 to 1,400 flies per trap per farm. The greatest adult stable fly activity was observed during the spring months of March and April, with weekly three-trap means of 121 and 136 flies per farm, respectively. The importance of cultural control measures was most apparent on the only farm with no reported insecticide use and the lowest stable fly trap captures, where an intense daily sanitation and composting program was conducted. A survey of on-site filth fly pupae revealed that 99.9% of all parasitoids recovered were Spalangia spp., consisting of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (56.5%), Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis (34.0%), Spalangia endius Walker (5.8%), and Spalangia nigra Latreille (3.7%). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Development of bacterial artificial chromosome library resources for parasitoid Hymenoptera (Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Torres, M C; Saski, C; Blackmon, B; Romero-Severson, J; Werren, J H

    2010-02-01

    The species of the genus Nasonia possess qualities that make them excellent candidates for genetic and genomic studies. To increase the wealth of genomic resources for the genus we constructed publicly available bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti. Libraries have 36 864 clones each, empty-vector contents of approximately 2% and average insert sizes of 113.1 and 97.7 Kb, respectively, representing 12 and 11 genome equivalents. The N. vitripennis library was used for genome sequence assembly and in efforts at positional cloning of a developmental gene. The genome assembly of N. vitripennis is currently composed on 6181 un-joined scaffolds. These BAC libraries can be used to identify and close regions between scaffolds of the genome assemblies of both species.

  19. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Cereal Grain Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Germinara, Giacinto Salvatore; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by the host's food would be the first signals used by parasitoids in the host location process and are thought to play an important role in host habitat location. In this study, the olfactory responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood), a Pteromalid wasp that parasitizes immature stages of stored-product insect pests developing inside cereal or leguminous grains, to volatiles emitted by healthy wheat grains, their hexane extracts, and different doses of three individual compounds previously identified in cereal grain odors were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer and Petri dish arena behavioral bioassays and electroantennogram recordings. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, odors from healthy wheat grains and their hexane extracts were attractive to both sexes of T. elegans. Moreover, hexane extracts elicited arresting effects in Petri dish arena. The three synthetic compounds valeraldehyde, maltol, and vanillin elicited dose-dependent responses in both male and female adult wasps confirming the capability of the peripheral olfactory systems to perceive cereal volatiles. In behavioral bioassays, different doses of vanillin were significantly attractive to both sexes.

  20. Finding Prospective Mates by the Parasitoid Wasp Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Wittman, T N; Miller, K A; King, B H

    2016-12-01

    Cues from emergence sites may be predictive of mating opportunities if potential mates are slow to disperse after emergence, and particularly if emergence sites are clumped, as in the solitary parasitoid wasp Urolepis rufipes Ashmead. Males emerge before females, and the present study suggests that males may use emergence sites of conspecific males to locate mates. In choice experiments, virgin males spent more time on a male-emerged host (a host from which a male had recently emerged) than on a female-emerged host. Relative to when no host was present, virgin males also marked more in the presence of a male-emerged host, but did not mark more in the presence of a female-emerged host. Females, but not other males, are known to be attracted to male marks. Unlike for males, there was no evidence that females distinguished between male-emerged and female-emerged hosts. Virgin females preferred areas where multiple males had marked over areas where a single male had marked. Such areas had more total marks, yet marks per male did not differ between aggregated and solitary males. Thus, through his own attraction to male-emerged hosts and by marking near other males a male may find and attract females, and with no apparent increase in the cost of attraction.

  1. Data mining cDNAs reveals three new single stranded RNA viruses in Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C S G; Hunter, W B; Ng, J; Desjardins, C A; Dang, P M; Werren, J H

    2010-02-01

    We report three novel small RNA viruses uncovered from cDNA libraries from parasitoid wasps in the genus Nasonia. The genome of this kind of virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA with a 3' poly(A), which facilitates cloning from cDNAs. Two of the viruses, NvitV-1 and NvitV-2, possess a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that associates them with the family Iflaviridae of the order Picornavirales. A third virus, NvitV-3, is most similar to the Nora virus from Drosophila. A reverse transcription-PCR method developed for NvitV-1 indicates that it is a persistent commensal infection of Nasonia.

  2. Scutellistacaerulea (Fonscolombe, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), new to New Zealand for the second time!

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    In 1921, Scutellistacaerulea was imported and released in Nelson, New Zealand, for the biological control of pest scale insects. It was thought to have failed to establish, and is therefore currently considered to be absent from the New Zealand fauna. On 17 April 2013, a live specimen was captured in the wild in Auckland.

  3. Organization, evolution and transcriptional profile of hexamerin genes of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Cristino, A S; Nunes, F M F; Barchuk, A R; Aguiar-Coelho, V M; Simões, Z L P; Bitondi, M M G

    2010-02-01

    Hexamerins and prophenoloxidases (PPOs) proteins are members of the arthropod-haemocyanin superfamily. In contrast to haemocyanin and PPO, hexamerins do not bind oxygen, but mainly play a role as storage proteins that supply amino acids for insect metamorphosis. We identified seven genes encoding hexamerins, three encoding PPOs, and one hexamerin pseudogene in the genome of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. A phylogenetic analysis of hexamerins and PPOs from this wasp and related proteins from other insect orders suggests an essentially order-specific radiation of hexamerins. Temporal and spatial transcriptional profiles of N. vitripennis hexamerins suggest that they have physiological functions other than metamorphosis, which are arguably coupled with its lifestyle.

  4. Host-habitat location by the parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, Francois J; Haubruge, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of odorant cues used during host-habitat location by the generalist parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis Walker. Nasonia vitripennis is a common parasitoid of Dipteran pupae found in association with decaying carrion. Behavioral assays were used to investigate the host-habitat searching behavior under different scenarios. First, we demonstrated N. vitripennis to be significantly attracted toward odorant cues associated with decaying meat. The biological activity of nine of the volatile molecules constituting the odor of decaying meat was tested on the searching behavior of parasitoid females through two complementary chemoecological approaches: electroantennography (EAG) and olfactometry bioassays. Butanoic acid and butan-1-ol elicited high olfactory responses, but no attraction was induced by these two chemicals. Behavioral assays showed that, among the VOCs tested, methyldisulfanylmethane (DMDS) was the only volatile chemical to induce attraction in N. vitripennis.

  5. Substrate-Borne Marking in the Parasitoid Wasp Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, J L; King, B H

    2015-06-01

    Many animals use pheromone marking as a way to identify their territory or other resources. Among insects, substrate-borne marking is frequently reported for females, which in many species make marks containing oviposition-deterring pheromone, which other females avoid. However, there are fewer reports of substrate-borne marking for males. Here, marking in males of the parasitoid wasp Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) is described. The conditions under which males mark and whether males and females respond to the males' marks were examined using behavioral observations. Males marked by dragging the tips of their abdomens across a substrate. They marked much more after mating and after consuming honey. They also marked more when with a female, irrespective of copulation, although not when with a male. Females spent more time on or near marked substrates, and males also responded to their own marks. Although males aggressively and successfully defended areas that they had marked against other males, males did not respond to another male's marks in the conspecific's absence. In contrast to males, females did not mark, either on the surface of hosts or on other surfaces, and males showed no detectable response to surfaces which females had recently occupied.

  6. Review of Dibrachys Förster from China (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Tian-Yang; Yao, Qin-Ying; Xiao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Twelve species of Dibrachys Förster are studied from China, of which four new species, Dibrachys golmudica Jiao & Xiao, sp. n., Dibrachys kunmingica Jiao & Xiao, sp. n., Dibrachys liaoi Jiao & Xiao, sp. n. and Dibrachys qinghaiensis Jiao & Xiao, sp. n., and four newly recorded species, Dibrachys braconidis (Ferrière & Faure), Dibrachys confusus (Girault), Dibrachys hians Bouček and Dibrachys maculipennis Szelényi, are reported. A key to Chinese Dibrachys and illustrations of external features of the species are provided.

  7. Attraction of the bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to host-associated olfactory cues

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; Eva M. Pettersson; Katja C. Seltmann; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to identify host location cues used by Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg), a larval/pupal parasitoid of bark beetles. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, female R. xylophagorum were attracted to infested bark (i.e., phloem, cambium, and outer corky bark tissues) removed from bolts of loblolly pine,...

  8. Review of Dibrachys Förster from China (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Tian-yang; Yao, Qin-ying; Xiao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Twelve species of Dibrachys Förster are studied from China, of which four new species, Dibrachys golmudica Jiao & Xiao, sp. n., Dibrachys kunmingica Jiao & Xiao, sp. n., Dibrachys liaoi Jiao & Xiao, sp. n. and Dibrachys qinghaiensis Jiao & Xiao, sp. n., and four newly recorded species, Dibrachys braconidis (Ferrière & Faure), Dibrachys confusus (Girault), Dibrachys hians Bouček and Dibrachys maculipennis Szelényi, are reported. A key to Chinese Dibrachys and illustrations of external features of the species are provided. PMID:28331405

  9. Saltbush-associated Asphondylia species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the Mediterranean Basin and their chalcidoid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).

    PubMed

    Dorchin, Netta; Mifsud, David; Askew, Richard

    2014-10-02

    Numerous species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been recorded from saltbush (Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex) around the world but only 11 of them belong to the large cecidomyiid genus Asphondylia. Of these, two species were described in the late 19th century from complex bud galls on Atriplex halimus in the Mediterranean Basin. In the present study Asphondylia punica is redescribed, A. conglomerata is synonymized with it, and Asphondylia scopuli is described from Atriplex lanfrancoi, an endemic plant to the Maltese Islands. Descriptions are accompanied by information about the galls and life history of the gall midges, and a review of the parasitic Hymenoptera associated with A. scopuli is provided. Four species of parasitoids were found and attributed to the families Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae, of which the pteromalid Mesopolobus melitensis is described as new.

  10. [Toxicology of Hymenoptera venoms].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom is a secretion of special poison glands of insects. It serves both as a defensive substance against aggressors, as well as weapon used to paralyze the victim during gaining food. Chemically, the venom is a mixture of biologically active substances of high-, medium-, and small molecular weight with a variety of physiological functions. Individual substances may have toxic effects on stung human contributing to certain clinical signs and symptoms of venom poisoning. In the present paper, chemical structure, physiological role and toxicity of particular components of Hymenoptera venom are described.

  11. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure) for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors. PMID:27936090

  12. The influence of pruning on wasp inhabitants of galls induced by Hemadas nubilipennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on lowbush blueberry.

    PubMed

    Hayman, David I; MacKenzie, Kenna E; Reekie, Edward G

    2003-08-01

    The efficacy of pruning methods for managing blueberry stem galls caused by the chalcid wasp, Hemadas nubilipennis (Ashmead), was studied in five commercial lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) fields in Nova Scotia, Canada, between October 1999 and May 2000. Blueberry fields were mowed in the fall, and burning treatments were subsequently applied either in the fall or the spring. Three treatments were compared: mowing only, mowing plus fall burning, and mowing plus spring burning. Galls collected from the mow plus spring-burn treatment had the least wasp emergence of the three treatments, while the total number of galls was not affected by treatment. Wasp mortality, not gall destruction, is why wasp emergence is reduced in burn treatments. More galls were located and, for the burn treatments, higher wasp emergence was seen from galls found within the leaf litter than those above it. Five co-inhabitants emerged from blueberry stem galls in this study. Three, Eurytoma solenozopheriae (Ashmead), Sycophila vacciniicola (Balduf), and Orymus vacciniicola (Ashmead) are commonly found associates. The other two, Eupelmus vesicularis (Ritzius) and Pteromalus spp., are new records for Nova Scotia. O. vacciniicola is likely an inquiline because it is the largest wasp emerging from galls, and there was a positive relationship between its emergence and that of H. nubilipennis. Larger gall size improved H. nubilipennis emergence from mow and spring-burn galls. After a field has been mowed in the fall, we recommend a spring burn to reduce gall populations and the threat of product contamination.

  13. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses.

  14. Rapidly Evolving Mitochondrial Genome and Directional Selection in Mitochondrial Genes in the Parasitic Wasp Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Werren, John H.

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mtDNA of 3 species of parasitic wasps, Nasonia vitripennis (2 strains), Nasonia giraulti, and Nasonia longicornis, including all 13 protein-coding genes and the 2 rRNAs, and found unusual patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The Nasonia mtDNA has a unique gene order compared with other insect mtDNAs due to multiple rearrangements. The mtDNAs of these wasps also show nucleotide substitution rates over 30 times faster than nuclear protein-coding genes, indicating among the highest substitution rates found in animal mitochondria (normally <10 times faster). A McDonald and Kreitman test shows that the between-species frequency of fixed replacement sites relative to silent sites is significantly higher compared with within-species polymorphisms in 2 mitochondrial genes of Nasonia, atp6 and atp8, indicating directional selection. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ka/Ks (nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rates) ratios are higher between species than within species. In contrast, cox1 shows a signature of purifying selection for amino acid sequence conservation, although rates of amino acid substitutions are still higher than for comparable insects. The mitochondrial-encoded polypeptides atp6 and atp8 both occur in F0F1ATP synthase of the electron transport chain. Because malfunction in this fundamental protein severely affects fitness, we suggest that the accelerated accumulation of replacements is due to beneficial mutations necessary to compensate mild-deleterious mutations fixed by random genetic drift or Wolbachia sweeps in the fast evolving mitochondria of Nasonia. We further propose that relatively high rates of amino acid substitution in some mitochondrial genes can be driven by a “Compensation-Draft Feedback”; increased fixation of mildly deleterious mutations results in selection for compensatory mutations, which lead to fixation of additional deleterious mutations in nonrecombining mitochondrial genomes, thus accelerating the process of amino acid substitutions. PMID:18653734

  15. The Ability of selected Pupal Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Locate Stable Fly Hosts in a Soiled Equine Bedding Substrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory evaluations assessing the ability of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Spalangia endius Walker, and Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner to locate and attack stable fly hosts in a field-collected fly-breeding substrate suggest that Spalangia spp. are more suited to successfully locate and ...

  16. Morphometric analysis and taxonomic revision of Anisopteromalus Ruschka (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) - an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Baur, Hannes; Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Timokhov, Alexander V; Gokhman, Vladimir E

    2014-10-01

    We use an integrative taxonomic approach to revise the genus Anisopteromalus. In particular, we apply multivariate ratio analysis (MRA), a rather new statistical method based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), to numerous body measurements and combine the data with those from our molecular analysis of Cytb and ITS2 genetic markers (on a subset of species) and all available published data on morphology, karyology, behaviour, host associations and geographic distribution. We demonstrate that the analysis of quantitative characters using MRA plays a major role for the integration of name-bearing types and thus for the association of taxa with names. Six species are recognized, of which two are new: A. cornis Baur sp.n. and A. quinarius Gokhman & Baur sp.n. For Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), a well-known, cosmopolitan parasitoid of stored-product pests, we have selected a neotype to foster continuity and stability in the application of this important name. The species was sometimes confused with the related A. quinariussp.n., another cosmopolitan species that is frequently encountered in similar environments. We also show that several species originally described or later put under Anisopteromalus actually belong to different genera: Cyrtoptyx camerunus (Risbec) comb.n.; Meraporus glaber (Szelényi) comb.n.; Dinarmus schwenkei (Roomi, Khan & Khan) comb.n.Neocatolaccus indicus Ayyar & Mani is confirmed as a junior synonym of Oxysychus sphenopterae (Ferrière) syn.n. and Anisopteromalus calandrae brasiliensis (Domenichini) stat.rev. must be considered as a valid but doubtful taxon. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BDFE96D3-D0F4-4012-90F5-9A087F7F5864.

  17. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caitlin E; Machtinger, Erika T; Geden, Christopher J; Kramer, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure) for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors.

  18. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, J. . E-mail: tormos@usal.es; Asis, J.D.; Frago, E.; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.; Guara, M.

    2007-03-15

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author) [Spanish] Se describen las fases de huevo y larva de T. peregrina. El huevo, como es caracteristico en los que se depositan externamente, presenta un corion ornamentado. Las larvas inmaduras exhiben peculiaridades en (a) el anillo setoso de los segmentos toracicos y abdominales, (b) la escotadura anal y (c) el tamano, y estructuras sensoriales, de la capsula cefalica. El estado de caracter mas sobresaliente presentado por la larva madura de esta especie radica en la presencia de un epistoma totalmente diferenciado. (author)

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of acid phosphatase in venom of the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-ying; Ye, Gong-yin; Hu, Cui

    2008-06-15

    The present study describes cDNA cloning, sequencing, enzyme activity determination and localization, and mRNA expression of acid phosphatase in the venom apparatus of an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum. This is the first report of cloning a venom acid phosphatase gene which has been described in parasitoid wasps. The cDNA consisted of 1378bp with 1215bp open reading frame and encoded a sequence of 405 amino acids. A 23 residues N-terminal signal peptide was followed by a short 15 residues (25-39) histidine acid phosphatases phosphohistidine signature and a long 302 residues (24-325) acid phosphatase family domain. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 32-88% identity to its counterparts from other insects. Enzyme activity was measured by using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) as substrate, and a high level of acid phosphatase activity in venom was detected. Optimal pH and temperature for this enzyme activity was 4.8 and 45 degrees C, respectively. Ultracytochemical analyses further revealed that strong enzyme activity was located in the nuclei and secretory vesicles of the venom gland secretory cells. Expression of the acid phosphatase gene was observed to be regulated at different developmental stages by RT-PCR analysis as it expressed immediately with low abundance after adult emergence, then increased to the high level at 2-4 days, followed by a drop to the low abundance after 4 days. Compared to the mRNA expression, a time-course-related enzyme activity in an individual venom apparatus was also found.

  20. The Ability of selected Pupal Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Locate Stable Fly Hosts in a Soiled Equine Bedding Substrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory evaluations assessing the ability of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Spalangia endius Walker, and Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner to locate and attack stable fly hosts in a field-collected fly-breeding substrate suggest that Spalangia spp. are more suited to successfully locate and ...

  1. Rapidly evolving mitochondrial genome and directional selection in mitochondrial genes in the parasitic wasp nasonia (hymenoptera: pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Deodoro C S G; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban; Lavrov, Dennis V; Werren, John H

    2008-10-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mtDNA of 3 species of parasitic wasps, Nasonia vitripennis (2 strains), Nasonia giraulti, and Nasonia longicornis, including all 13 protein-coding genes and the 2 rRNAs, and found unusual patterns of mitochondrial evolution. The Nasonia mtDNA has a unique gene order compared with other insect mtDNAs due to multiple rearrangements. The mtDNAs of these wasps also show nucleotide substitution rates over 30 times faster than nuclear protein-coding genes, indicating among the highest substitution rates found in animal mitochondria (normally <10 times faster). A McDonald and Kreitman test shows that the between-species frequency of fixed replacement sites relative to silent sites is significantly higher compared with within-species polymorphisms in 2 mitochondrial genes of Nasonia, atp6 and atp8, indicating directional selection. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ka/Ks (nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rates) ratios are higher between species than within species. In contrast, cox1 shows a signature of purifying selection for amino acid sequence conservation, although rates of amino acid substitutions are still higher than for comparable insects. The mitochondrial-encoded polypeptides atp6 and atp8 both occur in F0F1ATP synthase of the electron transport chain. Because malfunction in this fundamental protein severely affects fitness, we suggest that the accelerated accumulation of replacements is due to beneficial mutations necessary to compensate mild-deleterious mutations fixed by random genetic drift or Wolbachia sweeps in the fast evolving mitochondria of Nasonia. We further propose that relatively high rates of amino acid substitution in some mitochondrial genes can be driven by a "Compensation-Draft Feedback"; increased fixation of mildly deleterious mutations results in selection for compensatory mutations, which lead to fixation of additional deleterious mutations in nonrecombining mitochondrial genomes, thus accelerating the process of amino acid substitutions.

  2. Sexy Mouth Odour? Male Oral Gland Pheromone in the Grain Beetle Parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    König, Kerstin; Seeger, Lucy; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, sexual pheromones are used for the attraction of mates and as courtship signals but also enable sexual isolation between species. In the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus, male courtship behaviour consisting of wing fanning, antennal stroking of the female antenna, and head nodding stimulates female receptivity leading to copulation. Recently L. distinguendus was reported to consist of two different lineages, which are sexually isolated because males fail to elicit receptivity in foreign females. It is unclear, however, which part of the courtship behaviour triggers female receptivity and therefore could be a mechanism causing sexual isolation. Here we show that in L. distinguendus a nonvolatile male oral pheromone is essential to release the female receptivity signal. In contrast, male wing fanning and antennal contact play a minor role. Additionally, the composition of the oral pheromone depends on the developmental host and females learn the composition upon emergence from the host substrate. These results will enable more detailed work on oral sexual pheromones to answer the question of how they are involved in the speciation process of L. distinguendus and other parasitoid species, for a better understanding of the huge biodiversity in this group.

  3. The ability of selected pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate stable fly hosts in a soiled equine bedding substrate.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Geden, Christopher J; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2011-02-01

    The ability of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Spalangia endius Walker, and Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner to locate and attack stable fly hosts was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Postfeeding third-instar stable fly larvae were released and allowed to pupate in two arena types: large 4.8 liter chambers containing a field-collected, soiled equine bedding substrate; or 120-ml plastic cups containing wood chips. At the time of fly pupariation, parasitoids were released and permitted 72 h to locate and attack hosts. On average, parasitism rates of freely accessible stable fly pupae in cups were not significantly different between parasitoid species. However, parasitism rates in chambers containing either Spalangia spp. were ≈50-fold more than M. raptorellus. Additional intraspecies analysis revealed that parasitism rates both by S. cameroni and S. endius were not significantly different when pupae were freely accessible or within bedding, whereas M. raptorellus attacked significantly more pupae in cups than in the larger chambers where hosts were distributed within bedding. These results suggest that Spalangia spp. are more suited to successfully locate and attack hosts in habitats created by equine husbandry in Florida. Therefore, commercially available parasitoid mixtures containing Muscidifurax spp. may be ineffective if used as a control measure at Florida equine facilities.

  4. Pathological and ultrastructural changes in cultured cells induced by venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; Uçkan, Fevzi; Ergin, Ekrem; Keefer, Donald A

    2010-12-01

    The ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis produces a proteinaceous venom that induces death in fly hosts by non-paralytic mechanisms. Previous in vitro assays have suggested that the primary cause of cell and tissue death is oncosis, a non-programmed cell death (PCD) pathway characterized by cellular swelling and lysis. However, ultrastructural analyses of BTI-TN-5B1 cells exposed to LC(99) doses of wasp venom revealed cellular changes more consistent with apoptosis and/or non-apoptotic PCD than oncosis or necrosis: By 3h after incubation with venom, susceptible cells displayed indentations in the nuclear membranes, large nucleoli, and extensive vacuolization throughout the cytoplasm. In the vast majority of venom treated cells, annexin V bound to the plasma membrane surface within 15 min after treatment, a characteristic consistent with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the cell surface during the early stages of apoptosis. Likewise, mitochondrial transmembrane potential was depressed in cells within 15 min in venom-treated cells, an event that occurred in the absence of mitochondrial swelling or rupturing of cristae. Active caspase 3 was detected by fluorescent labeling in nearly all venom treated cells 3h after exposure to venom, and in turn, the potent caspase 3 inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK attenuated the morphological changes elicited by wasp venom and afforded protection to BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells.

  5. The leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) encapsulates its koinobiont parasitoid Halticoptera circulus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Kemmochi, T; Fujimori, S; Saito, T

    2016-06-01

    The koinobiont parasitoid Halticoptera circulus (Walker) is a potential biological control agent of leafminers, but it has only rarely been collected from the invasive leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), in Japan. To understand why this is the case, parasitism and development of H. circulus in L. trifolii was compared with parasitism and development in two indigenous leafminer species, Liriomyza chinensis Kato and Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau). There was no significant difference in parasitism rates by H. circulus in the three leafminer species and the eggs and larvae successfully developed in L. chinensis and C. horticola. However, H. circulus failed to develop in L. trifolii, where developmental stages were encapsulated by host haemocytes. This parasitoid may be a good agent to control indigenous leafminers such as L. chinensis and C. horticola but is unlikely to be useful for the biological control of the invasive L. trifolii in Japan.

  6. Venom of Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) induced endocrine changes in the hemolymph of its host, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ye, Gong-Yin; Dong, Sheng-Zhang; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2009-05-01

    Pteromalus puparum is a predominant endoparasitoid wasp of Pieris rapae. Its venom is the only active factor injected into host associated with oviposition. In this report, we explored whether the venom alone from this wasp affects the endocrine system of its host or not. We monitored the changes of hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH; only JH III detected), ecdysteroid, and juvenile hormone esterase activity (JHE) over 72 h in parasitized and venom-microinjected P. rapae pupae. Non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected P. rapae served as controls. Results showed that JH titers were significantly higher in parasitized and venom-microinjected pupae than that in control pupae during 24 to 72 h. After 12 h, JH titers were significantly promoted by parasitization and venom microinjection. JHE activities of non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected pupae were significantly higher than that of parasitized and venom-microinjected pupae, which was with a peak at 12 h (parasitized pupae) or 24 h (venom-microinjected pupae) during 6 to 48 and 12 to 36 h, respectively. The hemolymph titers of ecdysteroid in non-parasitized and PBS-microinjected pupae increased rapidly during 12 to 36 h with a peak at 36 h, and were higher than treatments before 48 h, while presenting a significant difference at 24 to 48 h between the treatments and controls. The results demonstrate that venom alone of this parasitoid wasp can disrupt its host's endocrine system.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Functional Response of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a Parasitoid of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, H; Nachman, G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of host density, temperature, and burial depths on the functional response of the synovigenic parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) were examined. Five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), six host densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 pupae per 19.64 cm(2)), and three burial depths in whole wheat grains (0, 8, and 16 cm) were used. It was demonstrated that temperature had a profound effect on the functional response, whereas burial depths of the pupae played a minor role. For all temperatures, the functional response was of type 2 with an upper asymptote that depends on the temperature. Data were fitted by a functional response model where only the maximum attack rate is temperature dependent. The model shows that the optimal temperature for S. cameroni for attacking S. calcitrans pupae is 28.6°C, where the maximum attack rate is 20.2 pupae day(-1). The lower and upper temperature thresholds for attacks were found as 8.1 and 36.6°C, respectively. The temperature range for attacks that resulted in successful parasitism was narrower, namely, 15.0 and 35.5°C. Maximum rate of successful parasitism was estimated to be 18.2 progeny day(-1) occurring at 27.9°C. The proportion of attacks resulting in successful parasitism increased steeply with temperatures >15°C and declined steeply at temperatures >30°C.

  8. Durations of immature stage development period of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) under laboratory conditions: implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Mello, Renata da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2009-01-01

    Some microhymenopterans are parasitoids of flies of forensic importance. Their parasitic habit can alter the duration of post-embryonic development of these flies, altering the postmortem interval. In order to analyze possible alterations occurring during the immature development period of Nasonia vitripennis, this study tested different quantitative associations between female parasitoids and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala, which were defined by: (a) one pupa was exposed to different numbers of female parasitoids (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9, 1:11) and (b) different numbers of pupae were exposed to one female parasitoid (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1). Analysis of variance (5% significance level) and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a tendency of prolongation of the duration of parasitoid development, both by increasing the number of female parasitoids and by increasing the number of hosts in the associations. By increasing the number of female parasitoids per host, there is a possibility of increasing the occurrence of superparasitism, leading to competition for food source, then prolonging the duration of the immature development period. Increasing the number of hosts in the associations, females may distribute their postures among the available pupae and can cause reduction of the number of eggs per host. Since these insects are gregarious, the reduction of the number of eggs may delay the offspring development.

  9. Comparison of Host-Seeking Behavior of the Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Teal, P E; Leppla, N C

    2015-04-01

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, can be purchased for biological control of house flies Musca domestica L. and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking behavior of these two species, so odors associated with house flies were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from house fly host puparia, larvae, pine-shavings bedding with horse manure, and developing flies in the pine-shavings-manure substrate were evaluated in bioassays using the two pteromalid species. In choice tests, naïve female S. cameroni were strongly attracted to odor from the substrate containing house fly larvae and secondarily from the uninfested substrate and substrate with puparia versus humidified and purified air. This species also selected the substrate with larvae versus the substrate with the house fly puparia or uninfested substrate. Muscidifurax raptor was attracted to odor from the substrate containing puparia, washed puparia, and substrate with puparia removed. The data suggest that coexistence between the two pteromalid parasitoids, S. cameroni and M. raptor, might be promoted by different host-seeking behavior.

  10. Comparison of host-seeking behavior of the filth fly pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, are often sold together for biological control of house flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking b...

  11. Morphometric analysis and taxonomic revision of Anisopteromalus Ruschka (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) – an integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes; Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Timokhov, Alexander V; Gokhman, Vladimir E

    2014-01-01

    We use an integrative taxonomic approach to revise the genus Anisopteromalus. In particular, we apply multivariate ratio analysis (MRA), a rather new statistical method based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), to numerous body measurements and combine the data with those from our molecular analysis of Cytb and ITS2 genetic markers (on a subset of species) and all available published data on morphology, karyology, behaviour, host associations and geographic distribution. We demonstrate that the analysis of quantitative characters using MRA plays a major role for the integration of name-bearing types and thus for the association of taxa with names. Six species are recognized, of which two are new: A. cornis Baur sp.n. and A. quinarius Gokhman & Baur sp.n. For Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard), a well-known, cosmopolitan parasitoid of stored-product pests, we have selected a neotype to foster continuity and stability in the application of this important name. The species was sometimes confused with the related A. quinarius sp.n., another cosmopolitan species that is frequently encountered in similar environments. We also show that several species originally described or later put under Anisopteromalus actually belong to different genera: Cyrtoptyx camerunus (Risbec) comb.n.; Meraporus glaber (Szelényi) comb.n.; Dinarmus schwenkei (Roomi, Khan & Khan) comb.n. Neocatolaccus indicus Ayyar & Mani is confirmed as a junior synonym of Oxysychus sphenopterae (Ferrière) syn.n. and Anisopteromalus calandrae brasiliensis (Domenichini) stat.rev. must be considered as a valid but doubtful taxon. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BDFE96D3-D0F4-4012-90F5-9A087F7F5864. PMID:26074661

  12. Manure preferences and postemergence learning of two filth fly parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is a crucial determinant of the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information generated from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commerciall...

  13. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M.; Unni, Deepak R.; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  14. A literature-based review of Hymenoptera Parasitica and Chrysidoidea from Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Muru, David; Madl, Michael; Jacquot, Maxime; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A review of the genera and species of Hymenoptera Parasitica and Chrysidoidea reported so far from Reunion Island is provided with host information. Data presented here is based on a review of the existing literature by the authors. The list includes: (1) 156 species of Ichneumonoidea belonging to 65 genera and 25 subfamilies (Braconidae: Agathidinae, Alysiinae, Aphidiinae, Braconinae, Charmontinae, Cheloninae, Doryctinae, Euphorinae, Gnamptodontinae, Microgastrinae, Opiinae; Ichneumonidae: Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Cryptinae, Diplazontinae, Ichneumoninae, Mesochorinae, Metopiinae, Ophioninae, Orthocentrinae, Pimplinae, Tersilochinae, Tryphoninae); (2) 121 species of Chalcidoidea belonging to 56 genera and 8 families (Agaonidae, Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Ormyridae, Pteromalidae, Signophoridae, Torymidae and Trichogrammatidae); (3) seven species of Cynipoidea (family Figitidae); (4) six species of Chrysidoidea in three families (Bethylidae, Chrysididae, Dryinidae); (5) five species of Platygastroidea (families Platygastridae and Scelionidae); (6) five species of Diaprioidea (family Diapriidae); (7) four species of Ceraphronoidae (families Ceraphronidae and Megaspilidae); and (8) two species of Evanioidea (family Evaniidae). This review records a total of 306 species. PMID:28331391

  15. Evolutionary History of the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ralph S; Krogmann, Lars; Mayer, Christoph; Donath, Alexander; Gunkel, Simon; Meusemann, Karen; Kozlov, Alexey; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Petersen, Malte; Lanfear, Robert; Diez, Patricia A; Heraty, John; Kjer, Karl M; Klopfstein, Seraina; Meier, Rudolf; Polidori, Carlo; Schmitt, Thomas; Liu, Shanlin; Zhou, Xin; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-04-03

    Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, and bees) are one of four mega-diverse insect orders, comprising more than 153,000 described and possibly up to one million undescribed extant species [1, 2]. As parasitoids, predators, and pollinators, Hymenoptera play a fundamental role in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems and are of substantial economic importance [1, 3]. To understand the diversification and key evolutionary transitions of Hymenoptera, most notably from phytophagy to parasitoidism and predation (and vice versa) and from solitary to eusocial life, we inferred the phylogeny and divergence times of all major lineages of Hymenoptera by analyzing 3,256 protein-coding genes in 173 insect species. Our analyses suggest that extant Hymenoptera started to diversify around 281 million years ago (mya). The primarily ectophytophagous sawflies are found to be monophyletic. The species-rich lineages of parasitoid wasps constitute a monophyletic group as well. The little-known, species-poor Trigonaloidea are identified as the sister group of the stinging wasps (Aculeata). Finally, we located the evolutionary root of bees within the apoid wasp family "Crabronidae." Our results reveal that the extant sawfly diversity is largely the result of a previously unrecognized major radiation of phytophagous Hymenoptera that did not lead to wood-dwelling and parasitoidism. They also confirm that all primarily parasitoid wasps are descendants of a single endophytic parasitoid ancestor that lived around 247 mya. Our findings provide the basis for a natural classification of Hymenoptera and allow for future comparative analyses of Hymenoptera, including their genomes, morphology, venoms, and parasitoid and eusocial life styles.

  16. Two mitochondrial genomes from the families Bethylidae and Mutillidae: independent rearrangement of protein-coding genes and higher-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Li, Qian; van Achterberg, Kees; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2014-08-01

    In animal mitochondrial genomes, gene arrangements are usually conserved across major lineages but might be rearranged within derived groups, and might provide valuable phylogenetic characters. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Cephalonomia gallicola (Chrysidoidea: Bethylidae) and Wallacidia oculata (Vespoidea: Mutillidae). In Cephalonomia at least 11 tRNA and 2 protein-coding genes were rearranged, which is the first report of protein-coding gene rearrangements in the Aculeata. In the Hymenoptera, three types of protein-coding gene rearrangement events occur, i.e. reversal, transposition and reverse transposition. Venturia (Ichneumonidae) had the greatest number of common intervals with the ancestral gene arrangement pattern, whereas Philotrypesis (Agaonidae) had the fewest. The most similar rearrangement patterns are shared between Nasonia (Pteromalidae) and Philotrypesis, whereas the most differentiated rearrangements occur between Cotesia (Braconidae) and Philotrypesis. It is clear that protein-coding gene rearrangements in the Hymenoptera are evolutionarily independent across the major lineages but are conserved within groups such as the Chalcidoidea. Phylogenetic analyses supported the sister-group relationship of Orrussoidea and Apocrita, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata, Vespidae and Apoidea, and the paraphyly of Vespoidea. The Evaniomorpha and phylogenetic relationships within Aculeata remain controversial, with discrepancy between analyses using protein-coding and RNA genes.

  17. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. Diptera Tachinidae and Hymenoptera Braconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain. PMID:28325964

  18. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. DipteraTachinidae and HymenopteraBraconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain.

  19. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L.; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera. PMID:25878545

  20. Intraoral Hymenoptera sting.

    PubMed

    Mader, C L

    1980-03-01

    Four days before a routine dental examination, the patient had been stung on the left side of the soft palate by a yellow jacket. The lesion was well demarcated, with a prominent area of deep red erythema approximately 1.5 cm in diameter. inside of which was a coral pink ring approximately 0.5 cm in diameter. The patient was not experiencing discomfort at the time of examination. Reactions to Hymenoptera stings usually include pain, erythema, and swelling, but, in more severe instances, extensive swelling and systemic reactions in the form of anaphylaxis or delayed allergic responses may be seen. The patient should be referred immediately to a physician or medical treatment facility for observation and treatment if necessary. If the stinger is located either periorally or intraorally, it should be carefully removed by flicking so that additional venom from the sac is not injected into the patient.

  1. Afrotropical cynipoidea (hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera.

  2. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE)

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Darren; Edney-Browne, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE). Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae). However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286), and major differences include: i) the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe); and ii) the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%). The disharmonic ‘island’ nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36%) have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60%) compared to Europe (~30%), and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950). Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour) during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment. PMID:26147445

  4. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE).

    PubMed

    Ward, Darren; Edney-Browne, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE). Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae). However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286), and major differences include: i) the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe); and ii) the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%). The disharmonic 'island' nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36%) have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60%) compared to Europe (~30%), and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950). Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour) during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment.

  5. Description of two new species of Walkerella (Pteromalidae, Otitesellinae) from China with a key to species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-cui; Peng, Yan-qiong; Yang, Da-rong

    2013-01-01

    Walkerella is an Old World genus of non-pollinating fig wasps in the subfamily Otitesellinae (Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae). It is the most widely distributed genus of the subfamily, though there has been only six known world species. This paper describes two new species associated with the host Ficus subsection Conosycea of section Urostigma, subgenus Urostigma in Xishuangbanna, China. The two new species, Walkerella nigrabdomina Ma & Yang sp. nov. and W. curtipedis Ma & Yang sp. nov., are described from specimens reared from Ficus pisocarpa and Ficus curtipes, respectively. A key to all described species of Walkerella found is provided.

  6. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Rabeling, Christian; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2013-01-01

    Female parthenogenesis, or thelytoky, is particularly common in solitary Hymenoptera. Only more recently has it become clear that many eusocial species also regularly reproduce thelytokously, and here we provide a comprehensive overview. Especially in ants, thelytoky underlies a variety of idiosyncratic life histories with unique evolutionary and ecological consequences. In all eusocial species studied, thelytoky probably has a nuclear genetic basis and the underlying cytological mechanism retains high levels of heterozygosity. This is in striking contrast to many solitary wasps, in which thelytoky is often induced by cytoplasmic bacteria and results in an immediate loss of heterozygosity. These differences are likely related to differences in haplodiploid sex determination mechanisms, which in eusocial species usually require heterozygosity for female development. At the same time, haplodiploidy might account for important preadaptations that can help explain the apparent ease with which Hymenoptera transition between sexual and asexual reproduction.

  7. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  8. Sirovena Bouček (Pteromalidae: Pireninae), a new member of the fig wasp community associated with Ficus microcarpa (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Zi; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Sirovena Bouček (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae, Pireninae) was known only from females of its type species, S. stigma Bouček, 1988. Males and host associations were both unknown. Both sexes of a second species of Sirovena, S. costallifera sp. nov., reared from Ficus microcarpa L. (Moraceae) in Yunnan, China, are described based on morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences. The males of S. costallifera show sexual dimorphism in body coloration, structure of the antennae and notauli, and body sculpture. Reliable host records of Pireninae are Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Because midges also parasitize some figs, we speculate that S. costallifera is a parasitoid of some cecidomyiid midge that attacks fig syconia. A key to differentiate the two species is provided.

  9. Coexistent anaphylaxis to Diptera and Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Freye, H B; Litwin, C

    1996-03-01

    Anaphylaxis to the bite of Diptera and specifically the bite of the Tabanidae family (horsefly) have been sparsely documented. The coexistent hypersensitivity to both the order Diptera and Hymenoptera has not been documented. We present a patient who experienced anaphylaxis to both insect species. Venom skin testing and RAST revealed sensitivity to several members of the Hymenoptera order. Prick, intradermal and RAST with whole body extracts of Tabanidae species is also documented in this patient. Twenty patients who are sensitive to Hymenoptera and have been bitten by horseflies but have had no reaction to the horsefly bite were used as controls. An anaphylactic reaction to horsefly bite has been documented in a 56-year-old white male. This patient also demonstrated evidence of anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera envenomation. In controls consisting of 20 patients with Hymenoptera sensitivity, there was no clinical history of reaction to horsefly bite despite the presence of positive prick and/or positive intradermal tests and/or positive RAST to mixed Tabanidae species extract. Skin testing to horsefly by prick and/or intradermal testing using whole body insect extract is not useful in making a diagnosis of Tabanidae hypersensitivity. RAST using Tabanidae species as antigen is similarly useless in making a diagnosis of Tabanidae hypersensitivity. In vivo and in vitro diagnosis of horsefly hypersensitivity may be achieved when the salivary gland antigen of the horsefly becomes available.

  10. Data mining cDNAs reveals three new single stranded RNA viruses in Nasonia (Hymenopetera:Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hymenopteran viruses may provide insights into colony collapse disorder in honey bees and other insect species. Three novel small RNA viruses were discovered during the genomics effort for the beneficial parasitoid of flies in the genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera). Genomics provides a great deal of inform...

  11. Transcriptomics and Identification of the Chemoreceptor Superfamily of the Pupal Parasitoid of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuping; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Dunsong; Fan, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, causes serious losses to fruit production and is one of the most economically important pests in many countries, including China, Spalangia endius Walker is a pupal parasitoid of various dipteran hosts, and may be considered a potentially important ectoparasitic pupal parasitoid of B. dorsalis. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its interaction with this host. Analysis of the S. endius transcriptome is essential to extend the resources of genetic information on this species and, to support studies on S. endius on the host B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly RNA-seq of S. endius. We obtained nearly 10 Gbp of data using a HiSeq platform, and 36319 high-quality transcripts using Trinity software. A total of 22443 (61.79%) unigenes were aligned to homologous sequences in the jewel wasp and honeybee (Apis florae) protein set from public databases. A total of 10037 protein domains were identified in 7892 S. endius transcripts using HMMER3 software. We identified expression of six gustatory receptor and 21 odorant receptor genes in the sample, with only one gene having a high expression level in each family. The other genes had a low expression level, including two genes regulated by splicing. This result may be due to the wasps being kept under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a total of 3727 SSR markers were predicted, which could facilitate the identification of polymorphisms and functional genes within wasp populations. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of S. endius and provides a large number of gene sequences for further study. PMID:24505315

  12. Impact of αAI-1 Expressed in Genetically Modified Cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Its Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lüthi, Christoph; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests. PMID:23840776

  13. Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Förster)—Past, Present, and Future: The History of a Biological Control Method Using L. distinguendus against Different Storage Pests

    PubMed Central

    Niedermayer, Steffi; Pollmann, Marie; Steidle, Johannes L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Legal requirements and consumer demands for residue-free products pose a big challenge for pest control in grain stores. One possible alternative to chemical insecticides is biological pest control with the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus against the weevils Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Dryophtoridae), and many other storage pest beetles. The use of this wasp as a biocontrol agent was already suggested in 1919 by Prof. Dr. Hase [1]. Despite many studies on host-finding and behavioral biology, the applied aspect was neglected until 1994. Nowadays the wasps are commercially available and can now even be reared on-site, facilitating their use tremendously. This review highlights the milestones in L. distinguendus research, gives insights in current studies, and ventures a glimpse into the future. PMID:27490572

  14. An interspersed refuge for Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and a biocontrol agent Macroglenes penetrans (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to manage crop resistance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A H; Lamb, R J; Wise, I L; Olfert, O O

    2004-04-01

    An interspersed refuge of susceptible plants in a resistant, spring-sown wheat crop was tested as a strategy to protect crop resistance against evolution of virulence by the wheat midge Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), and also to conserve a biocontrol agent Macroglenes penetrans(Kirby). Eight replicated field experiments were conducted using seed mixtures of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 100% or 0, 5 and 100% susceptible wheat with an agronomically similar wheat expressing the antibiotic resistance gene Sm1. The frequencies of eggs, mature larvae and parasitized larvae in susceptible and resistant wheat spikes, and midge-affected seeds in the harvest, were recorded for each plot. In susceptible wheat, insect densities and seed damage were typical of those in commercial wheat. In resistant wheat, few larvae completed development, 2% or less compared with about 80% in susceptible wheat, when larvae were sampled at maturity. This resistant wheat also deterred midge oviposition, reducing egg densities by 65% compared with susceptible wheat. The wheat midge and its parasitoid oviposited throughout the plots, and parasitism was density independent. The densities of mature midge larvae and parasitoids were in proportion to the size of the refuge. A 5% susceptible refuge produced about 41 mature larvae for each mature larva from the resistant wheat, and provided effective control of damage. An interspersed refuge of susceptible plants in resistant wheat is a promising strategy for sustaining resistance conferred by Sm1 and biocontrol of the wheat midge.

  15. Effects of host species, stage and size on the sex ratio and clutch size of the parasitoid, Dibrachys boarmiae (Walker, 1863) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, A; Gülel, A

    2011-06-01

    Effects of host species, stage and size on clutch size and sex ratio of the gregarious, idiobiont ectoparasitoid Dibrachys boarmiae were investigated at 25±2°C and 70±5% relative humidity. The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, small wax moth, Achroia grisella, and early stage solitary larvae of the endoparasitoid, Apanteles galleriae, were used as hosts. Clutch size was greatest from prepupae of the largest host, Galleria mellonella, with a mean of 40.07 offspring per host versus 14.73 and 2.93 for Achroia grisella and Apanteles galleriae, respectively. The mean clutch size from pupae was lower than from prepupae, being 17.27, 10.73 and 2.89 for Galleria mellonella, Achroia grisella and Apanteles galleriae, respectively. Within each host species and stage, heavier hosts resulted in larger clutches. The sex ratio of offspring (proportion of male) was approximately 0.20, with only minor differences among host species, stages and sizes.

  16. Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Förster)-Past, Present, and Future: The History of a Biological Control Method Using L. distinguendus against Different Storage Pests.

    PubMed

    Niedermayer, Steffi; Pollmann, Marie; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2016-08-01

    Legal requirements and consumer demands for residue-free products pose a big challenge for pest control in grain stores. One possible alternative to chemical insecticides is biological pest control with the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus against the weevils Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Dryophtoridae), and many other storage pest beetles. The use of this wasp as a biocontrol agent was already suggested in 1919 by Prof. Dr. Hase [1]. Despite many studies on host-finding and behavioral biology, the applied aspect was neglected until 1994. Nowadays the wasps are commercially available and can now even be reared on-site, facilitating their use tremendously. This review highlights the milestones in L. distinguendus research, gives insights in current studies, and ventures a glimpse into the future.

  17. Compatibility of the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Insecticides against Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) as Evaluated by a New Index.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Edwin R; King, B H

    2015-06-01

    Various insecticides for the control of the house fly Musca domestica L. were tested for compatibility with a biological control agent, the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker. Bioassays used the mode in which each organism was expected to be harmed by the insecticides, a surface contact bioassay for S. endius and a feeding bioassay for M. domestica. A Pesticide Compatibility Index (PCI) was created that allows comparison of LC50 values when the mode of exposure to a pesticide differs. First LC50 values were converted into units of prescribed dosages (LPR=LC50-to-prescribed dosage ratio). This study used dosages from labels of granular baits. PCI is the ratio of LPRbiological control agent to LPRpest. For these PCI values, order of compatibility with S. endius was spinosad>thiamethoxam>inotefuran>methomyl>imidacloprid. That spinosad was better than imidacloprid or methomyl, both for parasitoid survival and for killing flies, is consistent with conclusions from the LC50 values. Permethrin and nitenpyram were also tested, but their PCIs were not calculated. Permethrin is prescribed as a contact insecticide against flies rather than being consumed as a bait, and nitenpyram has not been formulated as a fly insecticide. Compared with the other insecticides in terms of LC50 values, permethrin was moderately toxic to S. endius but one of the most toxic for M. domestica, whereas nitenpyram was least toxic for both S. endius and the flies.

  18. Impact of αAI-1 expressed in genetically modified cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests.

  19. Individual and combined releases of Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a biological control tactic targeting house flies in dairy calf facilities.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Strong, Colleen; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2012-09-01

    The impact of commercially reared house fly parasitoids released into nine dairy calf coverall facilities were evaluated over 3 yr. Individual and equally mixed ratios of the pteromalid parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Saunders and M. raptorellus Kogan and Legner were released at a rate of 500 parasitoids per calf per week for 8 wk. Prerelease, release, and postrelease parasitism was monitored using nearly 100,000 sentinel house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae during the 3 yr study. In general, very few adult parasitoids were recovered during the prerelease period and on the no-release farms during any period. However, considerable numbers of M. raptor and M. raptorellus were recovered from sentinel pupae on respective release farms. As expected, the greatest successful parasitism occurred during release periods, with a drop during postrelease periods. High successful parasitism and uneclosed pupae on M. raptorellus release farms suggests that this parasitoid was aggressive in attacking hosts with progeny production at approximately four wasps per pupa. Solitary releases of M. raptor provided sentinel mortality between 31 and 38%, whereas sentinel mortality on M. raptorellus-release farms was double, at 59-80%. Using mixed releases of the two species, overall fly mortality was slightly lower than that observed on M. raptorellus-only farms. This study documents the advantage of releasing M. raptorellus rather than M. raptor on New York dairy calf facilities, as supported by higher parasitism rates and lower costs (35-75%) for purchase of these gregarious wasps, as 75-80% fewer parasitized pupae are needed to achieve similar adult parasitoid levels.

  20. Behavior and Survival of the Filth Fly Parasitoids Spalangia endius and Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Response to Three Granular House Fly Baits and Components.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Edwin R; King, B H

    2016-12-01

    Behaviors and mortality of two filth fly parasitoid wasps, Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes Ashmead, were tested in response to granular fly baits containing one of the three active ingredients (AI): Golden Malrin (methomyl), QuickBayt (imidacloprid), or Quikstrike (dinotefuran). Behavioral responses to each of the two components of the baits, the AIs and the fly attractant pheromone (Z)-9-tricosene, were also examined independently. Spalangia endius avoided contact with bait granules, regardless of bait type. However, when S. endius contacted bait residue, the imidacloprid bait appeared to be the least harmful of the baits for S. endius, at least in the short term. Spalangia endius was attracted to imidacloprid by itself. However, S. endius avoided (Z)-9-tricosene. In contrast to S. endius' attraction to imidacloprid, S. endius neither avoided nor was attracted to methomyl or dinotefuran. For U. rufipes, the methomyl bait appeared to be especially harmful. Urolepis rufipes avoided bait granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran but not with methomyl, died quickly in the presence of methomyl bait residue, and had a methomyl LC50 that was lower than that for S. endius The avoidance by U. rufipes of granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran appears to be related to components other than the AIs or the (Z)-9-tricosene because U. rufipes did not avoid either individually. The behavioral avoidance of the parasitoids in the present study occurred despite no exposure recently, if ever, to these pesticides.

  1. Populational parameters of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Pupae of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) treated with two strains of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. (Deuteromycetes).

    PubMed

    Lecuona, Roberto; Crespo, Diana; La Rossa, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker is an efficient controller of Dipteran pupae, such as Musca domestica L. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. is a regulator of insect populations, including these synanthropic pests. The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilizing both agents in a combined form for the biocontrol of the domestic fly. Recently formed M. domestica pupae were inoculated by immersion in conidia suspension (10(8) conidia/ml) with two strains of B. bassiana (Bb6 and Bb10). The inoculated pupae were offered to the female parasitoid. In one bioassay they were offered pupae inoculated a single day and in other, pupae inoculated the following day as well. In both bioassays non inoculated (control) pupae were offered to the parasitoids until their death. Thirty females of S. endius were used for each strain and bioassay. From the study of the parasitoid offspring, life tables were built and the reproduction net rate (R(0)) and intrinsic natural increase (r(m)) were obtained among other demographic parameters; the parasitism percentages and sex ratios were also analyzed. B. bassiana did not affect significantly the biodemography of the parasitoid when pupae were inoculated a single time. On the other hand the R0 and the rm were smaller than that of the control without the fungus when pupae were inoculated twice, although sporulation was not observed in the cadavers of S. endius.

  2. Distribution and abundance of natural parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) populations of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alvaro; Hogsette, Jerome A; Coronado, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    From September 2001 through September 2002, house fly and stable fly pupae were collected weekly from three fly habitats at the University of Florida Research dairy in northcentral Florida and evaluated for parasitism. Varying parasitism percentages were observed throughout the study but they were not affected by temperature, precipitation or fly abundance. Of the 6,222 house fly pupae and 1,660 stable fly pupae that produced either a host fly or a parasitoid, 26.9% and 26.7% were parasitized, respectively. Ten parasitoid species were recovered, with the genus Spalangia accounting for 85.7% of the total; the most common parasitoids attacking house fly and stable fly pupae were Spalangia endius Walker (33.9% and 27.3%), S. cameroni Perkins (27.9% and 40.6%), and S. nigroaenea Curtis (21.0% and 24.8%), respectively. Other parasitoids included one specimen of S. erythromera Förster and four specimens of Phygadeuon fumator Gravenhörst (Ichneumonidae). The percentage parasitism of pupae collected from bunker silos was higher than that of pupae from calf pens and open pastures. Spalangia cameroni was consistently recovered through the entire year. Spalangia nigroaenea was predominant in July, August, and September. Spalangia endius was most active from October to May with a peak of relative abundance in January.

  3. Proteome changes in the plasma of Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): effect of parasitization by the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-ying; Ye, Gong-yin; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2009-06-01

    Although the biochemical dissection of parasitoid-host interactions is becoming well characterized, the molecular knowledge concerning them is minimal. In order to understand the molecular bases of the host immune response to parasitoid attack, we explored the response of Papilio xuthus parasitized by the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum using proteomic approach. By examining the differential expression of plasma proteins in the parasitized and unparasitized host pupae by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, 16 proteins were found to vary in relation to parasitization compared with unparasitized control samples. All of them were submitted to identification by mass spectrometry coupled with a database search. The modulated proteins were found to fall into the following functional groups: humoral or cellular immunity, detoxification, energy metabolism, and others. This study contributes insights into the molecular mechanism of the relationships between parasitoids and their host insects.

  4. Impact of single-gene and dual-gene Bt broccoli on the herbivore Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and its pupal endoparasitoid Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao; Zhao, Jian-zhou; Shelton, Anthony M; Cao, Jun; Earle, Elizabeth D

    2008-08-01

    Transgenic brassica crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are being investigated as candidates for field release to control lepidopteran pests. Information on the potential impact of Bt brassica crops on pests and non-target natural enemies is needed as part of an environmental risk assessment prior to the commercial release. This first tier study provides insight into the tritrophic interactions among Bt broccoli plants, the herbivore Pieris rapae and its parasitoid Pteromalus puparum. We first evaluated the efficacy of three types of Bt broccoli plants, cry1Ac, cry1C and cry1Ac + cry1C, on different instars of P. rapae. Bt broccoli effectively controlled P. rapae larvae, although later instars were more tolerant. The efficacy of different Bt broccoli plants on P. rapae larvae was consistently cry1Ac > cry1Ac + cry1C > cry1C. When the parasitoid P. puparum developed in a P. rapae pupa (host) that had developed from Bt plant-fed older larvae, developmental time, total number and longevity of the P. puparum generated from the Bt plant-fed host were significantly affected compared with those generated from the non-Bt control plant-fed host. Simultaneously, negative effects on P. rapae pupae were found, i.e. pupal length, width and weight were significantly reduced after older P. rapae larvae fed on different Bt plants for 1 or 2 days. Cry1C toxin was detected using ELISA in P. rapae pupae after older larvae fed on cry1C broccoli. However, no Cry1C toxin was detected in newly emerged P. puparum adults developing in Bt-fed hosts. Only a trace amount of toxin was detected from entire P. puparum pupae dissected from the Bt plant-fed host. Moreover, no negative effect was found on the progeny of P. puparum developing from the Bt plant-fed host when subsequently supplied with a healthy host, P. rapae pupae. The reduced quality of the host appears to be the only reason for the observed deleterious effects on P. puparum. Our data suggest that the effects on P. puparum developing in Bt plant-fed P. rapae are mediated by host quality rather than by direct toxicity.

  5. Effect of Mutual Interference on the Ability of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Attack and Parasitize Pupae of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, H; Nachman, G

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effect of mutual interference on the attack efficiency and the rate of successful parasitism on the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Female parasitoids (2, 4, 8, 16, or 32) were exposed to 100 fly pupae during 24 h. The number of pupae that were attacked and the number successfully parasitized increased with the parasitoid density and reached a maximum of ∼70 and 50, respectively. Parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was about 20 pupae, irrespective of parasitoid density. The per capita rates of attack, successful parasitism and parasitoid-induced mortality declined monotonously with parasitoid density. Progeny sex ratio was female biased for all parasitoid densities, but declined significantly with increasing parasitoid density from ∼70% females at the lowest density to ∼60% at the highest. Mutual interference was incorporated into a functional response model to predict the attack rate and the rate of successful parasitism at different temperatures, host densities and parasitoid densities. The model explained 93.5% of the variation in the observed number of attacked pupae and 91.5% of the variation in the number of successfully parasitized pupae. The model predicts that increasing parasitoid densities will increase the percentage of killed hosts, but only up to a certain density. Above this density, a further increase in parasitoid abundance will actually lead to a decline in the percentage parasitism. These findings may have some implications for using S. cameroni in biological control against flies using inundative releases.

  6. Effects of Size and Age of the Host Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) on Production of the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Broski, Scott A; King, B H

    2017-02-01

    One method of control of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), and other filth flies is by repeated release of large numbers of pupal parasitoids such as Spalangia endius Walker. Rearing these parasitoids may be facilitated by understanding how host factors affect their production. Previous studies have examined the effects of host size and host age on parasitoid production, but have not examined the interaction between host size and host age or the effects with older females, which may be less capable of drilling tough hosts. Females were given hosts of a single size-age category (small young, small old, large young, or large old) for 2 wk. The effect of host size and of host age on parasitoid production depended on female age. On their first day of oviposition, females produced more offspring from large than from small hosts, but host age had no significant effect. The cumulative number of parasitoids produced in the first week was not significantly affected by host size or host age. However, the cumulative number of parasitoids produced over 2 wk was affected by both host size and host age, with the greatest number of parasitoids produced from small young hosts. Thus, not only are smaller hosts cheaper to produce, but these results suggest that their use may have no effect or a positive effect on the number of parasitoids that can be produced when females are ovipositing for a week or two.

  7. Behavior and Survival of the Filth Fly Parasitoids Spalangia endius and Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Response to Three Granular House Fly Baits and Components.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Edwin R; King, B H

    2016-09-30

    Behaviors and mortality of two filth fly parasitoid wasps, Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes Ashmead, were tested in response to granular fly baits containing one of the three active ingredients (AI): Golden Malrin (methomyl), QuickBayt (imidacloprid), or Quikstrike (dinotefuran). Behavioral responses to each of the two components of the baits, the AIs and the fly attractant pheromone (Z)-9-tricosene, were also examined independently. Spalangia endius avoided contact with bait granules, regardless of bait type. However, when S. endius contacted bait residue, the imidacloprid bait appeared to be the least harmful of the baits for S. endius, at least in the short term. Spalangia endius was attracted to imidacloprid by itself. However, S. endius avoided (Z)-9-tricosene. In contrast to S. endius' attraction to imidacloprid, S. endius neither avoided nor was attracted to methomyl or dinotefuran. For U. rufipes, the methomyl bait appeared to be especially harmful. Urolepis rufipes avoided bait granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran but not with methomyl, died quickly in the presence of methomyl bait residue, and had a methomyl LC50 that was lower than that for S. endius The avoidance by U. rufipes of granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran appears to be related to components other than the AIs or the (Z)-9-tricosene because U. rufipes did not avoid either individually. The behavioral avoidance of the parasitoids in the present study occurred despite no exposure recently, if ever, to these pesticides.

  8. Drilling-in and Chewing-out of Hosts by the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) When Parasitizing Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Broski, Scott A; King, B H

    2015-08-01

    Many organisms are protected from natural enemies by a tough exterior. Such protection is particularly important for immobile stages, such as pupae. The pupa of some insects is protected by a puparium, which is a shell formed from the exoskeleton of the last larval instar. However, the puparium of certain fly species is drilled through by adult females of the wasp Spalangia endius Walker. The female wasp then deposits an egg on the fly pupa within the puparium. After the wasp offspring finishes feeding on the fly pupa, it chews through the puparium to complete emergence. Despite the apparent toughness of the puparium, there was no detectable wear on the ovipositor of S. endius females even when females had been encountering fly pupae (Musca domestica L.) for weeks, and regardless of whether the pupae were large or old or both. Energy dispersive spectroscopy did not reveal any metal ions in the ovipositor's cuticle to account for this resistance against wear. Offspring of S. endius that chewed their way out of pupae also showed no detectable wear on their mandibles. Tests with a penetrometer showed that the force required to penetrate the center of a puparium was greater for larger and for older pupae; and an index of overall thickness was greater for large old pupae than for small old pupae. The lack of an effect of pupal size or age on wear may result from wasps choosing locations on the puparium that are easier to get through.

  9. Localization of intracellular calcium release in cells injured by venom from the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and dependence of calcium mobilization on G-protein activation.

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; Crawley, Timothy; Bauser, Holly

    2005-02-01

    Venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis induces cellular injury that appears to involve the release of intracellular calcium stores via the activation of phospholipase C, and culminates in oncotic death. A linkage between release of intracellular Ca2+ and oncosis has not been clearly established and was the focus of this study. When BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells were treated with suramin, an uncoupler of G-proteins, venom-induced swelling and oncotic death were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner for at least 24 h. Suramin also blocked increases in free cytosolic [Ca2+], arguing that venom induces calcium mobilization through G-protein signaling pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was predicted to be the source of intracellular calcium release, but labeling with the fluorescent probe ER-tracker revealed no indication of organelle swelling or loss of membrane integrity as would be expected if the Ca(2+)-ATPase pump was disabled by crude venom. Incubation of cell monolayers with calmodulin or nitrendipine, modulators of ER calcium release channels, neither attenuated nor augmented the effects of wasp venom. These results suggest that wasp venom stimulates calcium release from ER compartments distinct from RyRs, L-type Ca2+ channels, and the Ca(2+)-ATPase pump, or calcium is released from some other intracellular store. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential delta psi(m) appeared to precede a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ as evidenced by fluorescent microscopy using the calcium-sensitive probe fluo-4 AM. This argues that the initial insult to the cell resulting from venom elicits a rapid loss of (delta psi(m)), followed by unregulated calcium efflux from mitochondria into the cytosol. Mobilization of calcium in this fashion could stimulate cAMP formation, and subsequently promote calcium release from NAADP-sensitive stores.

  10. How host larval age, and nutrition and density of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influence control of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Schmale, I; Wäckers, F L; Cardona, C; Dorn, S

    2005-04-01

    Choice of the targeted host developmental stage, regulation of parasitoid numbers released and introduction of food supplements are operational factors with a potential to influence the level of biological control. In a closed laboratory storage system maintained over two generations of the host, the impact of these three parameters on the control potential of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis Rondani was investigated for high populations of larvae of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) feeding inside dry common bean seeds Phaseolus vulgaris. The beans were already infested with immature bruchids at the beginning of the storage period to simulate harvest conditions, characterized in a previous study. Treatments resulted in a reduction of 48-75% of the bruchid population within 16 weeks of storage. The best timing of parasitoid release was at the simulated harvest, as later releases reduced the bruchid population only by about half this percentage. Host feeding is postulated to be the key factor involved in the observed difference. The effect of increasing the number of parasitoids strongly depended on host age and food supplement. Addition of vials with honey had no direct effect on the bruchid population or on the parasitoid progeny. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for biological control are discussed.

  11. Impacts of extended laboratory rearing on female fitness in Florida colonies of the parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with an analysis of wolbachia strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spalangia cameroni is used as a biological control agent of filth flies. These parasitoids are reared commercially, but little is known about the impact of colony age on host-seeking and life history parameters. Host-seeking in equine shavings and manure was analyzed with two colony ages established...

  12. Hymenoptera venom allergy in humans.

    PubMed

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Reactions to Hymenoptera stings may appear as local or systemic responses. According to European data, the incidence of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in the general population is 0.3-7.5%, with the value being 0.3-0.8% in children and 14-43% in beekeepers. The most common systemic allergic (anaphylactic) reactions are caused by honeybees (Apis mellifera), and certain species of wasps in the family Vespidae. Severe generalized immediate-type allergic (anaphylactic) reactions to insect stings are of the highest clinical importance. They affect skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and cardiovascular system. The classification of severity of anaphylactic reaction following insect stings is based on the 4-grade Mueller scale. Crucial in patomechanism of anaphylaxis are specific IgE antibodies directed against the components of the venom, which mediate the activation of mast cells, the main effector cells of anaphylaxis. Therapeutic management in insect venom allergy should be considered in the context of prophylaxis, intervention in case symptoms develop, prevention in the form of venom specific immunotherapy (VIT). There are two steps of VIT 1. Initial dose venom immunotherapy (given according to four protocols which differ the time to reach the maintenance dose) 2. Maintenance dose VIT, usually equal 100 µg. Standard treatment time should span 3-5 years. The main mechanisms of immune tolerance that are initiated by VIT are associated with: 1. a decreased reactivity of effector cells, 2. expansion of T regulatory lymphocytes with IL-10 expression. Therapeutic effectiveness amounts to 90-100% in wasp venom allergy and approximately 80% in bee venom allergy.

  13. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  14. Semiochemicals From Fungal Associates of Bark Beetles May Mediate Host Location Behavior of Parasitoids

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; C. Wayne Berisford

    2004-01-01

    In laboratory olfactometer bioassays, females of two hymenopteran parasitoid species, Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Spathius pallidus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), were attracted to odors from bark or bolts of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., colonized by bluestain fungi (genus ...

  15. Human sting of Cephalonomia gallicola (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Yong; Shin, Chang-Seob; Sim, Seobo; Park, Jung-Won; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-12-01

    Hymenoptera stings can cause serious injury to humans. We report the clinical findings of 6 cases of Hymenoptera stings. All patients developed painful erythematous papules at the sting sites and had a past history of parasitoid wasp sting. This is the first clinical report of the parasitoid wasp, Cephalonomia gallicola, causing human stings in Korea.

  16. Human Sting of Cephalonomia gallicola (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Yong; Shin, Chang-Seob; Sim, Seobo; Park, Jung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Hymenoptera stings can cause serious injury to humans. We report the clinical findings of 6 cases of Hymenoptera stings. All patients developed painful erythematous papules at the sting sites and had a past history of parasitoid wasp sting. This is the first clinical report of the parasitoid wasp, Cephalonomia gallicola, causing human stings in Korea. PMID:25548422

  17. Seasonal abundance of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China

    Treesearch

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao; Liwen Song; Qingshu Luan; Ruozhong Jin; Changqi Gao

    2007-01-01

    The seasonal abundance and population dynamics of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were studied on ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  18. Review of the Chinese Leucospidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin-hai; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Yue, Qi; Xu, Zai-fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese fauna of the family Leucospidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) is reviewed and illustrated for the first time. Twelve species of Leucospis Fabricius, 1775 are recorded; of which two species are new to science: Leucospis aequidentata sp. n. and Leucospis shaanxiensis sp. n. and one species is reported new for China: Leucospis intermedia Illiger, 1807. An identification key to Chinese species is included. A lectotype is designated for Leucospis aurantiaca Shestakov, 1923. PMID:28331388

  19. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, 'Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)' comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe.

  20. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  1. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, ‘Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)’ comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. PMID:25859127

  2. Atopy and systemic reactions to hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, J; Vervloet, D; Charpin, D

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate whether atopy is a risk factor for systemic reactions to hymenoptera stings, we compared the atopic status of two groups of subjects. The first group included 93 patients (59 males), mean (+/- SD) age: 42.3 +/- 17.2 yrs with a history of anaphylactic reactions to hymenoptera stings. The second was a control group of 712 subjects (379 males), mean (+/- SD) age: 42.0 +/- 9.6 years recruited at a public health care center. The protocol included a standardized questionnaire about symptoms suggestive of atopy, i.e. medical diagnosis of asthma, perennial rhinitis or hay fever, and skin tests to common aeroallergens, i.e. house dust mites, cat danders, and grass pollens. The percentage of subjects with atopic symptoms was comparable in the two groups (32.2% for the patient group and 28.5% for the control group). Similarly, 22.6% of patients and 36.8% of controls exhibited at least one positive skin prick test. Lastly, 15.1% of patients and 18.5% of controls (a nonsignificant difference) had at least one symptom of atopy and at least one positive skin test. These findings show that atopy is not a risk factor for systemic reactions to hymenoptera stings.

  3. Climate changes and Hymenoptera venom allergy: are there some connections?

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Stefano; Turillazzi, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    This review aims to update the world status of the main allergenic stinging Hymenoptera. In this review, we consider the problems that social Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) could represent in the nearest future for human health in different parts of the world. Distribution and consistency of allergenic species including venomous insects are interested by accelerated dynamics caused by climate changes and globalization. Owing to the expansion of ranges of native species and colonization of invasive ones, even in the uncertainty of present available models, new challenges presented by stinging Hymenoptera should be expected in the future.

  4. A new Tanaostigmodes Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Tanaostigmatidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perioto, N W; Lara, R I R

    2013-05-01

    Tanaostigmodes horacioi sp. nov. Perioto & Lara (Hymenoptera, Tanaostigmatidae) from Brazil is described and illustrated. T. horacioi is the second included species in the insculptus species group of Tanaostigmodes Ashmead, 1896. A key to species of the insculptus group is provided.

  5. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rousse, D.

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp.(Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters. PMID:19537971

  6. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rousse, D

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp. (Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters.

  7. Revision of the Palaearctic species of Eupelmus (Eupelmus) Dalman (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary A P; Fusu, Lucian

    2016-02-17

    One hundred-four extant species of Eupelmus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae: Eupelminae) are recognized from the Palaearctic region, of which 76 species of E. (Eupelmus) are recognized following a revision of the Palaearctic fauna of the subgenus. The following 25 species are described as new: E. (Eupelmus) adustus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) angustifrons Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) bicolor Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) brachypterus Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) brachystylus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) brachyurus Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) fasciatus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) gelechiphagus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) hayei Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) infimbriatus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) iris Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) kamijoi Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) lanceolatus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) luteipes Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) magdalenae Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) mehrnejadi Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) melanostylus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) punctatifrons Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) setosus Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) tanystylus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) tetrazostus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) vanharteni Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) weilli Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) xenium Fusu & Gibson n. sp., and E. (Eupelmus) zebra Fusu & Gibson n. sp. Of previously described species of Eupelmus, 17 are newly assigned to E. (Eupelmus), 10 to E. (Episolindelia Girault), and 8 to E. (Macroneura Walker). Formally transferred to E. (Macroneura) from Macroneura are E. (M.) algiricus (Kalina 1981), E. (M.) coleophorae (Kalina 1981), E. (M.) impennis (Nikol'skaya 1952), E. (M.) longicornis (Kalina 1981), E. (M.) pleuratus (Kalina 1981) and E. (M.) sugonyaevi (Kalina 1981) n. combs. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) kalinai Gibson & Fusu n. name is given to replace E. (Eupelmus) algiricus Kalina 1988, a

  8. Presence of Wolbachia in three hymenopteran species: Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), and Dahlbominus fuscipennis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Pistone, Dario; Bione, Alessandro; Epis, Sara; Pajoro, Massimo; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bandi, Claudio; Sassera, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Sawflies are important pests of various plant species. Diprion pini (L.) and Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) are two of the most important sawfly pests in Italy, and both species are parasitized by the hymenopteran parasitoid Dahlbominus fuscipennis (Zetterstedt). Bacterial endosymbionts are currently studied for their high potential in strategies of biocontrol in a number of insect species. In this study, we investigated the presence of symbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia and Cardinium) in the three species of hymenoptera mentioned earlier, both in wild and laboratory populations. Although all samples were negative for the presence of Cardinium, 100% prevalence for Wolbachia was detected, as all examined individuals resulted to be PCR positive. Furthermore, 16S rDNA and ftsZ gene sequencing indicated that all individuals from the three hymenopteran species are infected by a single Wolbachia strain. Additionally, we report the presence of gynandromorphic individuals in D. pini, both in wild and laboratory-reared populations. Heat treatments on D. pini colonies removed the Wolbachia symbionts, but they also prevented the development of adults.

  9. [Allergy to hymenoptera venoms in children].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F; Abbal, M; Brémont, F; Dutau, G

    1999-01-01

    Incidence of hymenoptera venom allergy in children is about 0.4 to 0.8%. Clinical features usually range from urticaria to anaphylaxis. Fatal reactions can occur but with less frequency than in adults. Allergologic investigations must be performed in children with systemic or generalized reactions after hymenoptera stings, which may lead to venom immunotherapy. Venom immunotherapy is well reported, but protocols differ according to the authors: ultra-rush in 3 h, accelerated in 3 to 5 days and semi-rush in 2 to 8 weeks. Results are always excellent (90 to 100%). We report our experience with 91 children receiving venom immunotherapy. Clinical history and positivity of skin tests indicated immunotherapy. Clinical symptoms were anaphylaxis (15.3%), serious reaction (37.3%) strong reaction (34%), and mild reaction (7.6%). Changes in immunological parameters revealed wide individual variations, not differing from data in the literature, with no correlation with evolution of immunotherapy. Venom immunotherapy appeared with good tolerability in children, whatever the protocol used.

  10. Specific immunotherapy using Hymenoptera venom: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Alexandra Sayuri; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto Marcondes; Galvão, Clóvis Eduardo Santos; Kalil, Jorge; Castro, Fabio Fernandes Morato

    2010-01-01

    The only effective treatment for patients who have severe reactions after Hymenoptera stings is venom immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to review the literature to assess the effects of venom immunotherapy among patients presenting severe reactions after Hymenoptera stings. Randomized controlled trials in the worldwide literature were reviewed. The manuscript was produced in the Discipline of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Randomized controlled trials involving venom immunotherapy versus placebo or only patient follow-up were evaluated. The risk of systemic reactions after specific immunotherapy was evaluated by calculating odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals. 2,273 abstracts were identified by the keywords search. Only four studies were included in this review. The chi-square test for heterogeneity showed that two studies were homogeneous and could be included in a meta-analysis. By combining the two studies, the odds ratio became significant: 0.29 (0.10-0.87). However, analysis on the severity of the reactions after immunotherapy showed that the benefits may not be so significant because the reactions were mostly similar to or milder than the original reaction. Specific immunotherapy should be recommended for adults and children with moderate to severe reactions, but there is no need to prescribe it for children with skin reactions alone, especially if the exposure is very sporadic. On the other hand, the risk-benefit relation should always be assessed in each case.

  11. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-01-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  12. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-10-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  13. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-16

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898.

  14. Component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera allergy.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Amérigo, D; Ruiz-León, B; Boni, E; Alfaya-Arias, T; Álvarez-Mon, M; Barbarroja-Escudero, J; González-de-Olano, D; Moreno-Aguilar, C; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M; Sánchez-González, M J; Sánchez-Morillas, L; Vega-Castro, A

    2017-07-21

    Component-resolved diagnosis based on the use of well-defined, properly characterised and purified natural and recombinant allergens constitutes a new approach in the diagnosis of venom allergy. Prospective readers may benefit from an up-to-date review on the allergens. The best characterised venom is that of Apis mellifera, whose main allergens are phospholipase A2 (Api m1), hyaluronidase (Api m2) and melittin (Api m4). Additionally, in recent years, new allergens of Vespula vulgaris have been identified and include phospholipase A1 (Ves v1), hyaluronidase (Ves v2) and antigen 5 (Ves v5). Polistes species are becoming an increasing cause of allergy in Europe, although only few allergens have been identified in this venom. In this review, we evaluate the current knowledge about molecular diagnosis in hymenoptera venom allergy. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Hymenoptera Allergy and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Lombardo, Carla; Zanotti, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) can be diagnosed in patients with recurrent, severe symptoms from mast cell (MC)-derived mediators, which are transiently increased in serum and are attenuated by mediator-targeting drugs. When KIT-mutated, clonal MC are detected in these patients, a diagnosis of primary MCAS can be made. Severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom (HV) represent the most common form of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis are predominantly males and do not have skin lesions in the majority of cases, and anaphylaxis is characterized by hypotension and syncope in the absence of urticaria and angioedema. A normal value of tryptase (≤11.4 ng/ml) in these patients does not exclude a diagnosis of mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis have to undergo lifelong venom immunotherapy, in order to prevent further potentially fatal severe reactions.

  16. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  17. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  18. Subforaminal bridges in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a focus on Chalcidoidea.

    PubMed

    Burks, R A; Heraty, J M

    2015-03-01

    Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution.

  19. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera. PMID:22259288

  20. Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-19

    AND SUBTITLE Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ) Control 6. AUTHOR(S) David F. Williams...TARGETING: REDUCED PESTICIDE USE STRATEGY FOR PHARAOH’S ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE ) CONTROL DAVID F. WILLIAMS, RICHARD J. BRENNER AND DAVID MILNE...space may benefit from this method of control. This Precision targeting - reduced pesticide use strategy for Pharaoh’s ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

  1. Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The results of a survey of Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise traps and a canopy trap. Selec...

  2. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with an estimated 500,000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a cladistic analysis of both morphological and molecular data. A total of 233 morphological characters were scored for 300 taxa and 265 genera, a...

  3. Geographic spread of Strumigenys silvestrii (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetine)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strumigenys silvestrii is a tiny dacetine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini), apparently from South America, that has spread to the southern US and the West Indies. Strumigenys silvestrii has recently been found for the first time in the Old World, from the island of Madeira, mainland Portugal,...

  4. Revision of the Asychis species group of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    APHELINUS (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a genus of parasitoid wasps that has a long history of use in biological control programs against aphids. Past research shows that the classification of APHELINUS is greatly complicated by lack of comprehensive literature and the existence of cryptic species c...

  5. New records of parasitoids of Aculeate Hymenoptera in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    J.A. Torres; R.R. Snelling; M. Canals

    2000-01-01

    There are few reports of parasitoids of Aculeate Hymenoptera for Puerto Rico (Wolcott, 1948). Parasitoids are potentially significant control agents of other insect species, and iti important to know their distribution and hosts . The parasitic species reported here have not previously been recorded from Puerto Rico. These parasitoids were collected or reared during...

  6. A review of Trachusoides Michener and Griswold (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although Megachile (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are well-known for their diverse nesting habits, records of the genus nesting in live plants are rare and unknown in the North America. Here, we report the widespread Megachile (Megachile) montivaga Cresson, 1878 nesting in live thistle (Cirsium neomexi...

  7. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  8. Revision of the world species of Xeris Costa (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)

    Treesearch

    Henri Goulet; Caroline Boudreault; Nathan M. Schiff

    2015-01-01

    Xeris is one of ten extant genera of Siricidae known as as woodwasps or horntails. They are important wood-boring Hymenoptera from the Northern Hemisphere. Adults and larvae of Xeris are often intercepted at ports and are consequently of concern as potential alien invasive species. The genus consists of 16 species with eight in...

  9. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  10. Power over reproduction in social hymenoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Madeleine; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2003-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory has been very successful in predicting and explaining much of the observed variation in the reproductive characteristics of insect societies. For example, the theory correctly predicts sex-ratio biasing by workers in relation to the queen's mating frequency. However, within an insect society there are typically multiple reproductive optima, each corresponding to the interest of different individual(s) or parties of interest. When multiple optima occur, which party's interests prevail? Presumably, the interests of the party with the greatest 'power'; the ability to do or act. This article focuses on factors that influence power over colony reproduction. In particular, we seek to identify the principles that may cause different parties of interest to have greater or lesser power. In doing this, we discuss power from two different angles. On the one hand, we discuss general factors based upon non-idiosyncratic biological features (e.g. information, access to and ability to process food) that are likely to be important to all social Hymenoptera. On the other hand, we discuss idiosyncratic factors that depend upon the biology of a taxon at any hierarchical level. We propose that a better understanding of the diversity of reproductive characteristics of insect societies will come from combining inclusive fitness theory with a wide range of other factors that affect relative power in a conflict situation. PMID:14561330

  11. Checklist of Turkish Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Beyarslan, Ahmet; Fischer, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    The Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species recorded from Turkey until the end of 2011 are listed, the present total number being 182. Changes with respect to the previous Turkish fauna are briefly annotated and the distributions for all the species in each of the 68 biogeographical provinces of Turkey are presented. After the publication of our previous fauna, 174 species have been recorded as new to Turkey. Of these, 105 species are distributed only in Asian Turkey and ten species are distributed only in European Turkey, while 73 species occur in both. The presented checklist covers synonyms, zoogeographical region(s), hosts, host plants of the host species and parasitoid data for the species. In total, 182 species belonging to ten genera are reported for Turkey. The number of species of each genus is represented by: Atormus van Achterberg, 1997: one; Biosteres Foerster, 1862: 17; Bitomus Szépligeti, 1910: three; Diachasma Foerster, 1862: one; Diachasmimorpha Viereck, 1913: one; Eurytenes Foerster, 1862: three; Indiopius Fischer, 1966: three; Opius Wesmael, 1835: 151, Psyttalia Walker, 1860: one; Sternaulopius Fischer, 1965: one.

  12. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  13. A hymenopterist’s guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) and its associated applications. These...

  14. Revision of the species of Jaliscoa Bouček within a review of the identity, relationships and membership of Jaliscoa, Catolaccus Thomson, Eurydinoteloides Girault, Lyrcus Walker and Trimeromicrus Gahan (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary A P

    2013-02-05

    The limits of Lyrcus Walker (1842), Catolaccus Thomson (1878), Eurydinoteloides Girault (1913a), Trimeromicrus Gahan (1914), and Jaliscoa Bouček (1993) are re-evaluated and redefined to better reflect observed distribution of morphological features. Nine of 13 New World species of Catolaccus are transferred to other genera and photographs of the primary type specimens are given to assist future recognition. New features are provided to assist identification of the remaining four Nearctic species of Catolaccus and these are compared to European species, with the observation that C. kansensis (Girault 1917c) could be a junior synonym of C. crassiceps (Masi 1911). Trimeromicrus is removed from synonymy under Lyrcus for the single species T. maculatus Gahan (1914) rev. comb. Newly synonymized under Lyrcus is the Australasian genus Neocylus Bouček (1988) n. syn. Ten species are newly transferred to Lyrcus-L. nigraeneus (Girault 1915) n. comb. (from Neocylus), L. helice (Walker 1843) n. comb. and L. cyaneus (Girault 1911) n. comb. (from Catolaccus), and L. albiclavus (Girault 1917c) n. comb., L. capitis (Burks 1955) n. comb., L. chalcis (Burks 1955) n. comb., L. coeliodis (Ashmead 1896) n. comb., L. deuterus (Crawford 1911) n. comb., L. nigroaeneus (Ashmead 1894a)n. comb. and L. rosaecolis (Burks 1955) n. comb. (from Zatropis Crawford 1908). Catolaccus pallipes Ashmead (1894b) is newly transferred to Pteromalus Swederus (1795) as Pteromalus pallipes (Ashmead) n. comb. and Catolaccus fragariae Rohwer (1934) to Lariophagus Crawford (1909) as Lariophagus fragariae (Rohwer) n. comb. Nine species are newly transferred to Eurydinoteloides-E. tepicensis (Ashmead 1895) n. comb. (from Catolaccus), E. dymnus (Walker 1847) n. comb., E. hermeas (Walker 1847) n. comb., E. incerta (Ashmead 1893) n. comb., E. orontas (Walker 1847) n. comb., E. perdubia (Girault 1916) n. comb., E. platensis (De Santis in De Santis et al. 1979) n. comb. and E. timaea (Walker 1847)n. comb. (from Lyrcus), and E. eudubia (Özdikmen 2011) n. comb. (from Spintherus Thomson 1878). Four species are newly transferred to Jaliscoa-J. grandis (Burks 1954) n. comb. and J. hunteri (Crawford 1908) n. comb. (from Catolaccus), and J. townsendi (Crawford 1912) n. comb. and J. vulgaris (Ashmead 1894b) n. comb. (from Pteromalus). The species of Jaliscoa are revised to include J. nudipennis Bouček 1993, J. bouceki n. sp., J. hunteri and J. vulgaris. Re-established in synonymy under J. hunteri is J. townsendi n. comb. One new species of Pteromalus, P. grisselli n. sp., is described as an egg predator in the egg sacs of Dictyna coloradensi Chamberlin (Araneae: Dictynidae) and compared to Catolaccus species and other pteromalids that are predators of spider eggs. Lectotypes are designated for Pteromalus helice Walker (1843), Catolaccus pallipes Ashmead (1894b) and Catolaccus vulgaris Ashmead (1894b). Diagnoses are given to differentiate Catolaccus, Eurydinoteloides, Jaliscoa, Lyrcus and Trimeromicrus from each other, and more extensive descriptions given to help differentiate these genera from other Pteromalinae. Morphological features are illustrated through macrophotography and scanning electron photomicrography.

  15. Allometric ecological distributions in a local community of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The present paper describes basic ecological distributions in a community of beech forest Hymenoptera. It shows that the species diversity-body weight and the density-body weight distributions give rise to a new distribution that relates total community biomass to species diversity. For Hymenoptera this distribution follows a power function with a slope of 1.3. Combining this relation with the species-area and the individuals-area relations resulted in two other distributions that relate community biomass to area and individual numbers. It appeared that population densities decrease when computed over larger areas. The biomass-species diversity relation offers a new and simple way to estimate total community biomass from samples. The possible implications of this distribution to the productivity-diversity debate are discussed.

  16. Four new species of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Myartseva, Svetlana Nikolaevna; Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique; Coronado-Blanco, Juana María

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Encarsia Förster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Mexico are described--E. albata Myartseva sp. n. (State of Nuevo León), E. barracas Myartseva sp. n. (State of Baja California Sur), E. chichenitza Myartseva sp. n. (State of Yucatán) and E. elenae Myartseva sp. n. (State of Tamaulipas). A key to the species of Encarsia in Mexico published in 2012 is modified to include the newly described species.

  17. A taxonomic study of Ooctonus (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hai-Feng; Jin, Xiang-Xiang; Li, Cheng-De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of Ooctonus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang Province, China, are reviewed. One species, Ooctonus huberi sp. n., is described as new, and four species, Ooctonus orientalis Doutt, Ooctonus saturn Triapitsyn, Ooctonus sublaevis Förster and Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday are reported as new to China. A key to the females of the 10 described Chinese species is given. All the specimens are deposited in the insect collections of Northeast Forestry University, China. PMID:25685015

  18. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobas hibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  19. Dual olfactory pathway in Hymenoptera: evolutionary insights from comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wolfgang; Zube, Christina

    2011-07-01

    In the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and carpenter ant (Camponotus floridanus) the antennal lobe output is connected to higher brain centers by a dual olfactory pathway. Two major sets of uniglomerular projection neurons innervate glomeruli from two antennal-lobe hemispheres and project via a medial and a lateral antennal-lobe protocerebral tract in opposite sequence to the mushroom bodies and lateral horn. Comparison across insects suggests that the lateral projection neuron tract represents a special feature of Hymenoptera. We hypothesize that this promotes advanced olfactory processing associated with chemical communication, orientation and social interactions. To test whether a dual olfactory pathway is restricted to social Hymenoptera, we labeled the antennal lobe output tracts in selected species using fluorescent tracing and confocal imaging. Our results show that a dual pathway from the antennal lobe to the mushroom bodies is present in social bees, basal and advanced ants, solitary wasps, and in one of two investigated species of sawflies. This indicates that a dual olfactory pathway is not restricted to social species and may have evolved in basal Hymenoptera. We suggest that associated advances in olfactory processing represent a preadaptation for life styles with high demands on olfactory discrimination like parasitoism, central place foraging, and sociality.

  20. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens.

    PubMed

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-07-09

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  1. Recombination, chromosome number and eusociality in the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ross, L; Blackmon, H; Lorite, P; Gokhman, V E; Hardy, N B

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinarily high rates of recombination have been observed in some eusocial species. The most popular explanation is that increased recombination increases genetic variation among workers, which in turn increases colony performance, for example by increasing parasite resistance. However, support for the generality of higher recombination rates among eusocial organisms remains weak, due to low sample size and a lack of phylogenetic independence of observations. Recombination rate, although difficult to measure directly, is correlated with chromosome number. As predicted, several authors have noted that chromosome numbers are higher among the eusocial species of Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here, we present a formal comparative analysis of karyotype data from 1567 species of Hymenoptera. Contrary to earlier studies, we find no evidence for an absolute difference between chromosome number in eusocial and solitary species of Hymenoptera. However, we find support for an increased rate of chromosome number change in eusocial taxa. We show that among eusocial taxa colony size is able to explain some of the variation in chromosome number: intermediate-sized colonies have more chromosomes than those that are either very small or very large. However, we were unable to detect effects of a number of other colony characteristics predicted to affect recombination rate - including colony relatedness and caste number. Taken together, our results support the view that a eusocial lifestyle has led to variable selection pressure for increased recombination rates, but that identifying the factors contributing to this variable selection will require further theoretical and empirical effort.

  2. A case of anaphylaxis: horse-fly or hymenoptera sting?

    PubMed

    Quercia, O; Emiliani, F; Foschi, F G; Stefanini, G F

    2009-10-01

    In literature it has been described a high risk of systemic reaction after blood-sucking Dyptera bites, like mosquitoes and horsefly, in people sensitive to hymenoptera. A 51 year old man, allergic to hymenoptera venom and with a history of i.v. reaction after Mueller, who has been treated with Vespula sp. ITS for the last 3 years, was stung by a yellow, black and green insect on the neck. Five minutes after the bite, he suffered generalized hitching and urticaria, oral cavity and lower limbs paresthesia, followed by lost of consciousness. At the Emergency Room he was successfully treated with adrenaline, intravenous antihistamines and corticosteroid. The description of the insect as well as the lack of the sting on the site suggested a wasp as the culprit. By studying one of these insect that has been captured by the patient, it turned out it wasn't a Vespula, but a horsefly, the Tabanus bovinus, which resembles Hymenoptera. Skin prick test and RAST for Tabanus confirmed the allergology diagnosis. In conclusion, also Tabanus bovines can cause systemic reaction up to anaphylactic shock.

  3. Analysis of Hymenoptera stings reported to the Illinois Poison Center.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lee S; Modi, Pinal; Liang, Shile; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Although there is some detailed research on anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera venom, there continues to be little epidemiological data about the distribution, trend, and factors associated with the occurrence of Hymenoptera envenomations in humans. We describe characteristics of persons suffering Hymenoptera stings from bees, wasps, and hornets as reported to the Illinois Poison Center, and assess seasonal, climatologic, and time trends of calls for envenomations between 2002 and 2007. Mean daily temperature and mean daily atmospheric pressure were positively associated with envenomations, whereas wind speed was negatively associated with envenomations. We also observed a significant increase in calls for envenomations on summer holidays (P < 0.001). In addition, our findings showed that the number of calls for envenomations declined by nearly half after 2005 (P < 0.001) compared with previous years. Our findings indicate that the decline in bees, wasps, and hornets may be widespread, affecting both wild and commercial populations, and that the decline appears to have been rapid and sustained in recent years. Poison center data are a valuable resource for the surveillance of poisoning in humans, but our findings show that the data can be used to monitor changes in nonhuman species.

  4. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:26184309

  5. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  6. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  7. Fecundity and longevity of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens in response to irradiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae...

  8. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  9. Context dependent stridulatory responses of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to social, prey, and disturbance stimuli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    By increasing the speed of stridulatory movements and the rates of stridulation pulses, individuals and groups of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) produce graded stridulatory responses to increasingly excitatory stimuli ranging from social interactions within a nest to prey items placed ...

  10. First occurrence of the goldspotted oak borer parasitoid, Calosota elongata (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), in California

    Treesearch

    Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Yigen Chen; Micheal I. Jones; Robert C. Venette; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Calosota elongata Gibson (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a gregarious, ectoparasitic larval parasitoid that was described recently (Gibson 2010) in association with the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse [now considered to be Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)] in its native...

  11. Two genera of Braconinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in China, with descriptions of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Xue-Xin; Wu, Hong; He, Jun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two genera, namely Dolabraulax Quicke and Scutibracon Quicke of Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China are studied for the first time, and four new species, namely Dolabraulax jigongshanus Wang & Chen, sp. n., Dolabraulax flavus Wang & Chen, sp. n., Dolabraulax brevivena Wang & Chen, sp. n. and Scutibracon fujianensis Wang & Chen, sp. n. are fully described and illustrated. The examined specimens are deposited in the Parasitic Hymenoptera Collection, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (ZJUH). PMID:21594015

  12. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  13. Taxonomic and functional responses to fire and post-fire management of a Mediterranean hymenoptera community.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  14. A review of the subfamily Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Samira; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Rakhshani, Ehsan

    2015-06-17

    Specimens of the subfamily Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were collected in northern Iran during 2010-2011 with a series of Malaise traps. Twelve species belonging to three genera (Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838, Heterogamus Wesmael, 1838 and Clinocentrus Haliday, 1833) were identified, with one genus (Heterogamus) and seven species new for the fauna of Iran. An updated checklist of the genera and species of the subfamily Rogadinae is included. A total of 26 species belonging to four genera are listed for Iran after correction for misidentifications. A key to the genera and the species of Rogadinae known from Iran is provided.

  15. Generic key and catalogue of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Huber, John T; Martínez, Humberto Quiroz

    2017-04-12

    The Mexican genera of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are keyed in English and Spanish, and a catalogue of species occurring in Mexico is presented. Thirty-six genera, including 79 named species in 20 of the genera, are reported. These are mentioned in about 100 publications either as original species descriptions or as publications that specifically mention species and/or specimens from Mexico. In the catalogue, species distributions by state are given based on literature records, and collection data are compiled from about 3630 specimens examined in eight collections in Canada, Mexico and USA. Host are listed for specimens reared mainly in Mexico. A few extralimital host records are also given.

  16. Functional characterization of transcriptional regulatory elements of three highly expressed constitutive genes in the jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) serves as an easily reared parasitoid that is providing an ever increasing malleable model for examining the biology and genetics of Hymenoptera. In order to conduct genetic transformations, it is preferable to have native highl...

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new tRNA arrangement in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Hong, Eui Jeong; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed of an identical tandem repeat consisting of six 100-bp copies and one 96-bp copy. A total of 315 bp of intergenic spacer sequence was spread over 23 regions. An alignment of the spacer sequences in ants was largely feasible among congeneric species, and there was substantial sequence divergence, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for congeneric species. The A/T contents at the first and second codon positions of protein-coding genes (PCGs) were similar for ant species, including C. atrox (73.9% vs. 72.3%, on average). With increased taxon sampling among hymenopteran superfamilies, differences in the divergence rates (i.e., the non-synonymous substitution rates) between the suborders Symphyta and Apocrita were detected, consistent with previous results. The C. atrox mt genome had a unique gene arrangement, trnI-trnM-trnQ, at the A+T-rich region and ND2 junction (underline indicates inverted gene). This may have originated from a tandem duplication of trnM-trnI, resulting in trnM-trnI-trnM-trnI-trnQ, and the subsequent loss of the first trnM and second trnI, resulting in trnI-trnM-trnQ.

  18. Antennal Sensilla in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm’s bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp. PMID:25843589

  19. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    PubMed Central

    van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Driessen, Gerard; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding, homozygous diploid and sterile males occur which form a genetic burden for a population. We review life history and genetical traits that may overcome the disadvantages of single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD). Behavioural adaptations to avoid matings between relatives include active dispersal from natal patches and mating preferences for non-relatives. In non-social species, temporal and spatial segregation of male and female offspring reduces the burden of sl-CSD. In social species, diploid males are produced at the expense of workers and female reproductives. In some social species, diploid males and diploid male producing queens are killed by workers. Diploid male production may have played a role in the evolution or maintenance of polygyny (multiple queens) and polyandry (multiple mating). Some forms of thelytoky (parthenogenetic female production) increase homozygosity and are therefore incompatible with sl-CSD. We discuss a number of hypothetical adaptations to sl-CSD which should be considered in future studies of this insect order. PMID:16393347

  20. Antennal sensilla in the parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm's bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp.

  1. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  2. Mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica, 1985-2006.

    PubMed

    Prado, Mónica; Quirós, Damaris; Lomonte, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    To analyze mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica during 1985-2006. Records of deaths due to Hymenoptera stings in 1985-2006 were retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (National Statistics and Census Institute). Mortality rates were calculated on the basis of national population reports, as of 1 July of each year. Information for each case included age, gender, and the province in which the death occurred. In addition, reports of Hymenoptera sting accidents received by the Centro Nacional de Intoxicaciones (National Poison Center, CNI) in 1995-2006 were obtained to assess exposure to these insects. Over the 22-year period analyzed, 52 fatalities due to Hymenoptera stings were recorded. Annual mortality rates varied from 0-1.73 per 1 million inhabitants, with a mean of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.93). The majority of deaths occurred in males (88.5%), representing a male to female ratio of 7.7:1. A predominance of fatalities was observed in the elderly (50 years of age and older), as well as in children less than 10 years of age. The province with the highest mortality rate was Guanacaste. The CNI documented 1,591 reports of Hymenoptera stings (mostly by bees) in 1995-2006, resulting in an annual average of 133 cases, with only a slight predominance of males over females (1.4:1). Stings by Hymenoptera, mostly by bees, constitute a frequent occurrence in Costa Rica that can be life-threatening in a small proportion of cases, most often in males and the elderly. The annual number of fatalities fluctuated from 0-6, averaging 2.4 deaths per year. Awareness should be raised not only among the general population, but also among health care personnel that should consider this risk in the clinical management of patients stung by Hymenoptera.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Taeniogonalos taihorina (Bischoff) (Hymenoptera: Trigonalyidae) reveals a novel gene rearrangement pattern in the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Ling; Li, Qian; Gu, Yun; Shi, Bao-Cai; van Achterberg, Cees; Wei, Shu-Jun; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2014-06-10

    The family Trigonalyidae is considered to be one of the most basal lineages in the suborder Apocrita of Hymenoptera. Here, we determine the first complete mitochondrial genome of the Trigonalyidae, from the species Taeniogonalos taihorina (Bischoff, 1914). This mitochondrial genome is 15,927bp long, with a high A+T-content of 84.60%. It contains all of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The orders and directions of all genes are different from those of previously reported hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Eight tRNA genes, three protein-coding genes and the A+T-rich region were rearranged, with the dominant gene rearrangement events being translocation and local inversion. The arrangements of three tRNA clusters, trnY-trnM-trnI-trnQ, trnW-trnL2-trnC, and trnH-trnA-trnR-trnN-trnS-trnE-trnF, and the position of the cox1 gene, are novel to the Hymenoptera, even the insects. Six long intergenic spacers are present in the genome. The secondary structures of the RNA genes are normal, except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairing is absent.

  4. Analysis of multiparasitism by Eupelmus vuilleti (Craw) (Eupelmidae) and Dinarmus basalis (Rond) (Pteromalidae) in the presence of one of their common hosts, Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic) (Coleoptera Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Leveque, Laurent; Monge, Jean-Paul; Rojas-Rousse, Danielle; Van Alebeek, Franz; Huignard, Jacques

    1993-05-01

    Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic) is a tropical beetle (Coleoptera Bruchidae) that develops during the larval and pupal stages in the seeds of a legume Vigna unguiculata (Walp). Two species of Hymenoptera, Dinarmus basalis (Rond) and Eupelmus vuilleti (Craw), solitary ectoparasitoids of the larvae and pupae of B. atrolineatus, were introduced successively in the presence of their hosts, varying the interval between the two introductions. When D. basalis females were introduced 24 h, 3 days or 7 days after E. vuilleti, multiparasitism was low. The females had low fecundity, and their eggs were not distributed randomly over the different available hosts. When E. vuilleti females were introduced second, they oviposited on the different hosts availabe and did not avoid multiparasitism. The presence of hosts already parasitised by D. basalis increased the reproduction of E. vuilleti, and the fecundity of the females was higher than in control batches with E. vuilleti alone. E. vuilleti seems capable of detecting the ovipositor shafts drilled by the D. basalis females, and by introducing its own ovipositors killing the D. basalis eggs or larvae. When interspecific competition was occurring the number of E. vuilleti adults emerging from the seeds was no different from that observed in control batches with E. vuilleti alone, and there were always fewer D. basalis adults than in control batches (D. basalis alone). This interspecific competition reduces the influence of the two parasitoids in the biological control of bruchid populations.

  5. Clonal mast cell disorders in patients with severe Hymenoptera venom allergy and normal serum tryptase levels.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Roberta; Lombardo, Carla; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Caimmi, Cristian; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; De Matteis, Giovanna; Perbellini, Omar; Rossini, Maurizio; Schena, Donatella; Busa, Moira; Marcotulli, Maria Cinzia; Bilò, Maria Beatrice; Franchini, Maurizio; Marchi, Giovanni; Simioni, Livio; Bonadonna, Patrizia

    2015-07-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is a clonal mast cell (MC) disease that can lead to potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions caused by excessive MC mediator release. The prevalence of mastocytosis in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy is high, and thus the disease should be suspected in patients with severe reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings and increased serum basal tryptase (SBT) levels. We sought to evaluate the presence of clonal MC disorders in patients seen at our mastocytosis center with Hymenoptera sting-induced anaphylaxis, documented hypotension, absence of urticaria pigmentosa, and normal SBT levels. Twenty-two patients with Hymenoptera sting-induced anaphylaxis, without skin lesions, and with tryptase levels of less than 11.4 ng/mL underwent bone marrow evaluation. Bone mineral density was assessed in those patients with ascertained mastocytosis. In 16 of 22 patients, a diagnosis of indolent mastocytosis could be established, and 1 patient had a monoclonal MC activation syndrome. Patients with mastocytosis had higher SBT levels (P = .03) but only rarely had angioedema/urticaria associated with hypotension (P = .004). The absence of urticaria or angioedema in severe reactions to Hymenoptera stings with hypotension might represent the most relevant factor in identifying patients with mastocytosis, regardless of their serum tryptase levels. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking, Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) with a summary of African Eurytoma spp. biology and species checklist

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected galls induced on Erythrina spp. by Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), in Tanzania, Ghana, and South Africa. It is compared to a closely related African species. W...

  7. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-09-21

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available.

  8. Revision of the Paridris nephtaspecies group (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Paridris nephta group is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, 14 of which are new: Paridris atroxTalamas, sp. n.(Yunnan Province, China), Paridris bununTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris ferusTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris kagemonoTalamas, sp. n.(Japan), Paridris minatorTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris mystaxTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris nephta(Kozlov) (Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Far Eastern Russia), Paridris nilakaTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris reptilisTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris rugulosusTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Vietnam), Paridris solarisTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand, Vietnam), Paridris teresTalamas, sp. n.(Vietnam), Paridris toketokiTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris verrucosusTalamas, sp. n.(Guangdong Province, China), Paridris yakTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand). PMID:22140338

  9. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-06-19

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided.

  10. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  11. Sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera support inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Bourke, A F G

    2015-11-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are a function of the relatedness asymmetry (relative relatedness to females and males) of the individuals controlling sex allocation. In monogynous ants (with one queen per colony), assuming worker control, the theory therefore predicts female-biased sex investment ratios, as found in natural populations. Recently, E.O. Wilson and M.A. Nowak criticized this explanation and presented an alternative hypothesis. The Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis proposes that, in monogynous ants, there is selection for a 1 : 1 numerical sex ratio to avoid males remaining unmated, which, given queens exceed males in size, results in a female-biased sex investment ratio. The hypothesis also asserts that, contrary to inclusive fitness theory, queens not workers control sex allocation and queen-worker conflict over sex allocation is absent. Here, I argue that the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis is flawed because it contradicts Fisher's sex ratio theory, which shows that selection on sex ratio does not maximize the number of mated offspring and that the sex ratio proposed by the hypothesis is not an equilibrium for the queen. In addition, the hypothesis is not supported by empirical evidence, as it fails to explain 'split' (bimodal) sex ratios or data showing queen and worker control and ongoing queen-worker conflict. By contrast, these phenomena match predictions of inclusive fitness theory. Hence, the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis fails both as an alternative hypothesis for sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera and as a critique of inclusive fitness theory.

  12. Venom immunotherapy in patients with mastocytosis and hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    González-de-Olano, David; Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Vega, Arantza; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2011-05-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is typically suspected in patients with cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). In recent years, the presence of clonal mast cells (MCs) in a subset of patients with systemic symptoms associated with MC activation in the absence of CM has been reported and termed monoclonal MC activation syndromes or clonal systemic MC activation syndromes. In these cases, bone marrow (BM) MC numbers are usually lower than in SM with CM, there are no detectable BM MC aggregates, and serum baseline tryptase is often <20 µg/l; thus, diagnosis of SM in these patients should be based on careful evaluation of other minor WHO criteria for SM in reference centers, where highly sensitive techniques for immunophenotypic analysis and investigation of KIT mutations on fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified BM MCs are routinely performed. The prevalence of hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) among SM patients is higher than among the normal population and it has been reported to be approximately 5%. In SM patients with IgE-mediated HVA, venom immunotherapy is safe and effective and it should be prescribed lifelong. Severe adverse reactions to hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy have been associated with increased serum baseline tryptase; however, presence of clonal MC has not been ruled out in most reports and thus both SM and clonal MC activation syndrome might be underdiagnosed in such patients. In fact, clonal BM MC appears to be a relevant risk factor for both HVA and severe reactions to venom immunotherapy, while the increase in serum baseline tryptase by itself should be considered as a powerful surrogate marker for anaphylaxis. The Spanish Network on Mastocytosis has developed a scoring system based on patient gender, the clinical symptoms observed during anaphylaxis and serum baseline tryptase to predict for the presence of both MC clonality and SM among individuals who suffer from anaphylaxis.

  13. Adaptive evolution of vertebrate-type cryptochrome in the ancestors of Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Gu, Hai-Feng; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-02-23

    One of the most mysterious aspects of insect clock mechanisms is that some insects, including Hymenoptera and Tribolium, only express a vertebrate-type cryptochrome (cry2). It is unknown whether or not cry2 underwent adaptive evolution in these insects. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cry2 from a fig pollinator species, Ceratosolen solmsi (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae), and examined the molecular evolution and daily expression of this gene. Our results suggest that cry2 underwent positive selection in the branch leading to hymenopteran insects. The function of CRY2 might have been fixed since undergoing natural selection in the ancestor of Hymenoptera. Male pollinators showed stronger rhythmicity in the host figs, which reflect an adaptation to their life cycles.

  14. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  15. Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Toletone, Alessandra; Voltolini, Susanna; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Dini, Guglielmo; Bignardi, Donatella; Minale, Paola; Massa, Emanuela; Troise, Costantino; Durando, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives. To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. Methods. Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. These were graded according to standard systems in patients at the first episode, and after re-stings, during VIT. Results. One-hundred and 8four out of the 202 patients referred had a complete data set. In 32 (17.4%) patients, the allergic reaction occurred during work activities performed outdoor. Of these, 31.2% previously stung by hymenoptera at work, and receiving VIT, were re-stung during occupational activity. The grades of reaction developed under VIT treatment resulted clinically less severe than of those occurred at the first sting (p-value = 0.031). Conclusion. Our findings confirmed the clinical relevance of HVA, and described its occupational features in outdoor workers with sensitization, stressing the importance of an early identification and proper management of the professional categories recognized at high risk of hymenoptera stings. The Occupational Physician should be supported by other specialists to recommend appropriate diagnostic procedures and the prescription of VIT, which resulted an effective treatment for the prevention of episodes of severe reactions in workers with a proven HVA. PMID:27924689

  16. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Hymenoptera venom allergy in mastocytosis patients.

    PubMed

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Golden, David B K

    2014-05-01

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article aims to answer the most important clinical questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment of insect venom allergy in mastocytosis patients. Total avoidance of Hymenoptera is not feasible, and there is no preventive pharmacologic treatment available, although venom immunotherapy reduces the risk of subsequent systemic reactions.

  17. A new species of Holotachysphex de Beaumont, 1940 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Crabronidae) from Iran with identification key to species.

    PubMed

    Schmid-Egger, Christian; Fallahzadeh, Majid; Khosroabadi, Mahdi; Ljubomirov, Toshko

    2016-09-19

    Holotachysphex iraniensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Crabronidae) from southern Iran is described. A revised key to the world species of Holotachysphex is provided. A red form of H. mochii from Jordan is described.

  18. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  19. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  20. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  1. Acute exposure to low dose radiation disrupts reproduction and shortens survival of Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera Formicidae)queens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), was studied to determine...

  2. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  3. Biting the bullet: revisionary notes on the Oraseminae of the Old World (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eucharitidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twelve genera of Oraseminae (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) are recognized in the Old World. The genus Orasema is now considered as found only in the New World, and the Old World species, previously treated as species groups, are now treated as distinct genera. Nine new genera are proposed: Australosema...

  4. The Hymenopterous Poison Apparatus. X. Morphological and Behavioral Changes in Atta texana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Treesearch

    Henry R. Hermann; John C. Moser; Allen N. Hunt

    1970-01-01

    Atta texana (Buckley) and other members of this genus no longer utilize the 8th and 9th gonapophyses as part of their defensive system. Although the sclerites that comprise the stinging apparatus in most aculeate Hymenoptera are present in the species, they seem to function only in the deposition of trail pheromones. A mechanical and chemical defense...

  5. Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachile)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (fiv...

  6. Field evaluations of emamectin benzoate for control of birch leafminer (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in Interior Alaska

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Roger E. Burnside; Christopher J. Hayes; Mark E. Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Ambermarked birch leafminer, Profenusa thomsoni (Konow) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), is an exotic, invasive pest of urban and wildland birch, Betula spp., in portions of North America. Extensive defoliation of ornamental birch in Alaska requires that suitable control measures be evaluated and developed. Based on previous work, we evaluated the...

  7. Utilizing Descriptive Statements from the Biodiversity Heritage Library to Expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Katja C.; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the ‘Proofer’, as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction. PMID:23441153

  8. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  9. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru. PMID:21594146

  10. Stiff upper lip: Labrum deformity and functionality in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In hyper-diverse groups such as Hymenoptera, a variety of structures with different, complementary functions are used for feeding. Although the function of the parts such as the mandibles is obvious, the use of others, like the labrum, is more difficult to discern. Here, we discuss the labrum’s func...

  11. Cell position during larval development affects postdiapause development in Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is the primary pollinator of alfalfa in the northwestern United States and western Canada and provides pollination services for onion, carrot, hybrid canola, various legumes and other specialty crops. Female M. rotundata are gregarious, nest in ca...

  12. [Prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in veterinary medicine students from Monterey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Monsiváis Toscano, Gina; Gallardo Martínez, Gabriela; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Galindo Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The reported prevalence of allergic systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom occur in up to 3.3% and large local reactions occur in 17% in the general population. To investigate the prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in a group of veterinary medicine students from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A transverse and observational study was done with 64 students of veterinary medicine. We conducted a questionnaire about the students' history of insect allergy and atopy. Skin test with allergenic extracts of bee and ant were practiced to all subjects. We performed aeroallergen skin prick test to the subjets with suspected atopy. Students age ranged from 17 to 25 years (mean 20.2) and 37 were males. Twenty students (31.3%) had clinical history of atopy and positive skin tests to aeroallergens. On the other hand, 5 students (7.8%), including 2 atopic, had suffered large local reactions, but none of them had suffered systemic reactions. Bee and ant skin tests were positive in 15.6% and 31.3% of the students respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy between atopic and non atopic subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the frequency of atopy in subjects with positive skin tests for bee and ant was 50%. The prevalence of large local reactions and hymenoptera sensitization found in this group was similar to that found in other epidemiologic studies.

  13. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  14. The similarity and appropriate usage of three honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) datasets for longitudinal studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have experienced profound fluctuations, especially declines, in the past few decades. Long-term datasets on honey bees are needed to identify the most important environmental and cultural factors associated with these changes. While a few suc...

  15. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  16. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Katja C; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction.

  17. Stenonartonia tekoraava sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae), a new member of a typical Amazonian mimicry ring.

    PubMed

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R

    2014-09-03

    Stenonartonia tekoraava sp. nov., a new species of potter wasp is described from central Amazonia. By size and color pattern, this species falls into the typically Amazonian mimicry ring of the social wasp Polybia liliacea (Fabricius) [Vespidae: Polistinae]. Comments are made on the Müllerian mimicry rings as a common phenomenon in Hymenoptera and particularly in the family Vespidae. 

  18. Cuticular Lipids of Female Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees mainly consisted of hydrocarbons....

  19. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  20. Multiple mechanisms underlie displacement of solitary Hawaiian Hymenoptera by an invasive social wasp.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E E; Holway, D A

    2010-11-01

    Variation in invasion success may result from the divergent evolutionary histories of introduced species compared to those of native taxa. The vulnerability of native biotas to ecological disruption may be especially great on oceanic islands invaded by continental species with unique ecological traits. In part because Hawaii lacks native eusocial insects, social invaders may threaten endemic taxa that are ecologically similar but solitary. Using a combination of field manipulations, molecular analyses, physiological data, and behavioral assays, we identify the mechanisms underlying the displacement of two genera of native solitary Hymenoptera in Hawaii by a social continental invader, the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica). Experimental removal of V. pensylvanica colonies resulted in increased densities of native Hymenoptera. Endemic Hylaeus bees directly suffer through predation by yellowjackets, and perhaps as a consequence, avoid floral resources occupied by V. pensylvanica. Native Nesodynerus wasps also avoid V. pensylvanica but are negatively affected by yellowjackets not through predation, but through exploitative competition for caterpillar prey. Displacement of native solitary Hymenoptera may be heightened by the ability of V. pensylvanica to prey upon and scavenge honey bees and to rob their honey stores, resources unavailable to endemic bees and wasps because of their specialized niches. Our study provides a unique example of an ecologically generalized social invader that restructures native assemblages of solitary Hymenoptera by interacting with endemic taxa on multiple trophic levels.

  1. Developing Methods to Evaluate Reproduction Rates of Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) in Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The black imported fire ants Solenopsis richteri Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a major economic pest that has spread throughout United State. A great deal of interest exists in the potential for augmentative biological control agents in an effort to control its spread and reduce the damage prod...

  2. Prewinter Management Affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Prepupal Physiology and Adult Emergence and Survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is widely used as a pollinator for production of alfalfa seed, and populations of these bees can be maintained by alfalfa seed growers or can be purchased from mostly Canadian bee providers. Megachile rotundata raised i...

  3. The genus Polystenus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) in China, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pu; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Chen, Xue-xin; Hagedorn, Henry

    2014-05-15

    The species of Polystenus Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) from China are revised, and four species are recognized. Two new species, P. brevitergum sp nov. and P. taiwanus sp nov., are described and illustrated. A key to all species of the genus Polystenus is provided.

  4. First record of Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea) for the fauna of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Edmardash, Yusuf A

    2015-06-26

    The family Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea) is recorded for the first time for the Egyptian fauna, with one species, Foenatopus bisignatus Aguiar & Jennings, 2010. A single specimen was collected among Acacia raddiana trees infested with Agrilus roscidus Kiesenwetter (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), which represents a likely new host record.

  5. A revision of the Indian species of Oligosita Walker (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Begum, Salma; Anis, Shoeba Binte; Khan, Mohd Talib

    2015-06-19

    The Indian species of the genus Oligosita Walker, 1851 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are revised. One new species, Oligosita aseta Begum & Anis, sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from Kerala, India. A key to the 16 Indian species of the genus is also given.

  6. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. The current protocol for rearing T. ...

  7. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  8. Injection of emamectin benzoate protects paper birch from birch leafminer (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) for two field seasons

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Roger E. Burnside; Mark E. Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Ambermarked birch leafminer, Profenusa thomsoni (Konow) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), is an exotic, invasive pest of urban and wildland birch. We initiated a study near Fairbanks, Alaska to determine the efficacy of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge®, Arborjet Inc., Woburn, MA) for control of P. thomsoni on paper...

  9. Ephuta icema Casal, 1969 and its host Auplopus subaurarius Dreisbach, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae, Pompilidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cambra, Roberto A; Buschini, Maria Luisa Tunes; Arias, Diomedes Quintero; Brozoski, Fanciele; Lustosa, Priscila Rudiak

    2017-05-29

    The male and female of Ephuta icema Casal, 1969 are reared from the host Auplopus subaurarius Dreisbach, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) that allow to unit both sexes for this mutillid and describe hitherto unknown male. A review of all the previous host records for the genus Ephuta Say, 1836 is given.

  10. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  11. Genetic differentiation of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) from East and Southeast Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aims to clarify genetic differentiation of the Drosophila parasitoid Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera; Figitidae; Eucoilinae) based on the nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and three nuclear DNA regions, the inter-transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) ...

  12. Increasing trophic complexity influences aphid attendance by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and predation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species that are involved in multitrophic interactions are affected by the trophic levels that are above and below them in both indirect and direct ways. In this experiment, interactions among ants (Formica montana Wheeler; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), aphids (Myzus persicae [Sulzer]; Hemiptera: Aphidi...

  13. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Ivich. Fraser

    2010-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T....

  14. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R.; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  15. First description of the karyotype of a eucharitid wasp (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eucharitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Igor Silva; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Costa, Marco Antonio; Mariano, Cléa Santos Ferreira; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The haploid karyotype of Kapala sp. (Eucharitidae), a parasite of the Neotropical ant Dinoponera lucida Emery, 1901 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), is reported for the first time. It consists of four metacentric chromosomes. Chromosomes in the family Eucharitidae were unknown so far; therefore, our results confirm that multiple parallel chromosomal fusions have taken place in several lineages within the superfamily Chalcidoidea. PMID:26753077

  16. Suitability and Accessibility of Immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Treesearch

    Michael Ulyshen; Jian Duan; Leah Bauer; Ivich Fraser

    2010-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T. planipennisi involves presenting the wasps with...

  17. The world species of Balcha Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), parasitoids of wood-boring beetles

    Treesearch

    Gary A. P. Gibson

    2005-01-01

    The world species of Balcha Walker (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) are revised, keyed and illustrated. Sixteen species are recognized, including two that are newly classified in the genus, B. reticulata (Nikol?skaya) n. comb. and B. splendida (Girault) n. comb., and eight that are described as new, B. \\i>...

  18. First record of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla obscurior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is an old world genus of omnivorous ants native to Africa and Asia. The genus Cardiocondyla includes several common tramp species that have spread globally with human commerce. A single alate female C. obscurior Wheeler was collected by J. M. Stro...

  19. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  20. Paridris kieffer of the new world (hymenoptera, platygastroidea, platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Talamas, Elijah J; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F

    2012-01-01

    Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina), Paridris gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia), Paridris invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo), Paridris isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic), Paridris lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico), Paridris minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba), Paridris nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica), Paridris pallipes (Ashmead)(southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo), Paridris psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela), Paridris saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica), Paridris soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela). Paridris brevipennis Fouts, Paridris laeviceps (Ashmead), and Paridris nigricornis (Fouts) are treated as junior synonyms of Paridris pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead.

  1. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Taekul, Charuwat; Johnson, Norman F.; Masner, Lubomír; Polaszek, Andrew; Rajmohana K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae) is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe); and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam). Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia); Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa); Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa); and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia). PMID:21594118

  2. Safety evaluation of eleven insecticides to Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Song, Min; Qi, Suzhen; Wang, Chengju

    2013-02-01

    The safety of 11 pesticides (indoxacarb, chlorfluazuron, azadirachtin, methoxyfenozide, rotenone, spinosad, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and triazophos) to Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in this study. The acute toxicity to the adults was investigated using dry-film method. The influences of the pesticides on both parasitic ability and different developmental stages were studied using corn leaves residual method, rice moth egg card dipping method, and T. nubilale parasitized rice moth egg dipping method. Results showed that methoxyfenozide, azadirachtin, and indoxacarb were safe for the whole life cycle of T. nubilale. Chlorfluazuron, rotenone, and acetamiprid had different levels of impacts on different developmental stages, and they should be chosen to be used according to their safety time with reduced exposure levels. Rotenone was safe for the adults but it was harmful to the other stages, whose dosage should be reduced when it was used. Acetamiprid could be applied during the pupae stage. Finally, to avoid large kill, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, triazophos, and imidacloprid should not be used as they were not safe for any development stage of T. nubilale.

  3. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Clarke, Jessica; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2010-10-07

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches.

  4. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches. PMID:20929580

  5. DNA Extraction from Museum Specimens of Parasitic Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jeremy C.; Mills, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    At the same time that molecular researchers are improving techniques to extract DNA from museum specimens, this increased demand for access to museum specimens has created tension between the need to preserve specimens for maintaining collections and morphological research and the desire to conduct molecular analyses. To address these concerns, we examined the suitability of non-invasive DNA extraction techniques on three species of parasitic Hymenoptera (Braconidae), and test the effects of body size (parasitoid species), age (time since collection), and DNA concentration from each extract on the probability of amplifying meaningful fragments of two commonly used genetic loci. We found that age was a significant factor for determining the probability of success for sequencing both 28S and COI fragments. While the size of the braconid parasitoids significantly affected the total amount of extracted DNA, neither size nor DNA concentration were significant factors for the amplification of either gene region. We also tested several primer combinations of various lengths, but were unable to amplify fragments longer than ∼150 base pairs. These short fragments of 28S and COI were however sufficient for species identification, and for the discovery of within species genetic variation. PMID:23077493

  6. Ficus (Moraceae) and fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anthony; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jer; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-12-01

    Although Ficus-associated wasp fauna have been extensively researched in Australasia, information on these fauna in Taiwan is not well accessible to scientists worldwide. In this study, we compiled records on the Ficus flora of Taiwan and its associated wasp fauna. Initial agronomic research reports on Ficus were published in Japanese in 1917, followed by reports on applied biochemistry, taxonomy, and phenology in Chinese. On the basis of the phenological knowledge of 15 species of the Ficus flora of Taiwan, recent research has examined the pollinating and nonpollinating agaonid and chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Updating records according to the current nomenclature revealed that there are 30 taxa (27 species) of native or naturalized Ficus with an unusually high proportion of dioecious species (78%). Four species were observed to exhibit mutualism with more than one pollinating wasp species, and 18 of the 27 Ficus species were reported with nonpollinating wasp species. The number of nonpollinating wasp species associated with specific Ficus species ranges from zero (F. pumila) to 24 (F. microcarpa). Approximately half of the Taiwanese fig tree species have been studied with basic information on phenology and biology described in peer-reviewed journals or theses. This review provides a solid basis for future in-depth comparative studies. This summary of knowledge will encourage and facilitate continuing research on the pollination dynamics of Ficus and the associated insect fauna in Taiwan.

  7. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

    PubMed

    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Antonova, Vera; Radchenko, Alexander G.; Atanasova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements. PMID:21594018

  9. Reproductive Biology of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, X-L; Huang, Z-Y; Li, J; Yang, Z-D; Yang, X-H; Lu, W

    2017-03-14

    Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an invasive pest in Eucalyptus plantations around the world. The successful colonization of L. invasa is possibly related to its reproductive biology. The objective of this study was to examine the reproductive biology of L. invasa. In Guangxi Province, the sex ratio (proportion of female, 0.99) of L. invasa was female-dominant throughout the year based on natural and artificial infestation. This result was similar to the ratios observed for other geographic populations in China, including those in Fujian (0.99), Guangdong (0.98), Hainan (0.95), Jiangxi (0.96), and Sichuan (0.99). The offspring sex ratio favored females. A large number of females emerged from the galls produced by females, with few males found. Galls on the petioles and midribs of Eucalyptus plants could be caused by newly emerged females with mature eggs. The lengths of the ovariole, spermatheca, common oviduct, and reproductive glands did not differ among L. invasa females, but their lateral oviducts showed differences from 0 to 42 h after emergence, indicating that this insect is proovigenic. These results could explain why L. invasa populations can rapidly increase in invaded areas.

  10. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina), Paridris gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia), Paridris invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo), Paridris isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic), Paridris lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico), Paridris minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba), Paridris nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica), Paridris pallipes (Ashmead)(southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo), Paridris psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela), Paridris saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica), Paridris soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela). Paridris brevipennis Fouts, Paridris laeviceps (Ashmead), and Paridris nigricornis (Fouts) are treated as junior synonyms of Paridris pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead. PMID:23226959

  11. New records of chalcidid (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) pupal parasitoids from India

    PubMed Central

    Kanagarajan, Rasappan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Chalcidids are one of the most important parasitoids of pupae of agriculturally important pests belonging to orders like Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Such an important group has not been studied consistently by any team of workers from any country apart from the notable contributions by Boucek, Steffan, Delvare and Narendran. (Boucek 1988, Steffan 1973, Delvare 1992 and Narendran 1989). On a personal note, Dr. John S Noyes of Natural History Museum London agrees with this view as expressed with the second author and hence we felt that we can initiate further work on this group within India. We currently hold hundreds of unidentified specimens of this family in our department collection confirming that we will have much work to do over a long period of time. New information New distribution records of Chalcididae from Andhra Pradesh (Brachymeria megaspila, B. minuta, Dirhinus anthracia and D. auratus), Bihar (B. podagrica, B. excarinata, B. hearseyi, D. anthracia, D. auratus, D. pilifer, Epitranus erythrogaster and Psilochalcis carinigena), Karnataka (B. apicicornis), Manipur (B. euploeae, D. auratus and E. erythrogaster), Mizoram (B. euploeae and D. anthracia), Nagaland (B. euploeae), Himachal Pradesh (B. alternipes), and Tamil Nadu (B. apicicornis, D. anthracia, D. deplanatus, D. pilifer, D. bakeri, E. observator, E. elongatulus, P. keralensis and P. soudanensis) and union territories Andaman & Nicobar Islands (B. podagrica, B. excarinata, E. erythrogaster and P. carinigena) and Pudhucherry (B. albicrus, D. anthracia, D. auratus, E. erythrogaster and P. kerelensis) are documented from the unidentified material mentioned above. PMID:26929709

  12. Maternal Care in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring. PMID:23251468

  13. Maternal care in the parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring.

  14. Checklist of Braconinae species of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Beyarslan, Ahmet

    2014-04-17

    The Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species recorded from Turkey are listed, the present total number being 195. Changes with respect to the previous Turkish fauna are briefly annotated and the distributions for all the species in each of the 68 biogeographical provinces are presented. After the publication of our previous fauna, 173 species have been recorded as new to Turkey. Of these, 96 species are distributed only in Asian Turkey and 14 species are distributed only in European Turkey, while 85 species occure in both. The presented checklist covers synonyms, zoogeographical region(s), hosts, host plants of host species and parasitoid data for the species.        In total, 195 species belonging 9 genera are reported for the studied regions of Turkey. The number of species of each genus is represented by: Atanycolus Foester, 1862: 4, Baryproctus Ashmead, 1900: 1, Bracon Fabricius, 1804: 149, Ceratobracon Telenga, 1936: 1, Coeloides Wesmael,1838: 2, Glyptomorpha Holmgren, 1868: 7, Iphiaulax Foerster, 1862: 9, Pseudovipio Szépligeti, 1896: 9, Vipio Latreille, 1804: 13 species. Bracon (Asiabracon) amaculatus Beyarslan, 1988 is synonymized with B. (A.) quadrimaculatus Telenga, 1936. 

  15. Diversity in bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) community in "campos rupestres", Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Pereira, Vivane; Santos, Gilberto M M

    2006-01-01

    Hymenoptera such as bees and social wasps are regular floral visitors in "campos rupestres" vegetation. A community of bees and social wasps was studied during floral visitation in an area of "campos rupestres", at Chapada Diamantina, BA, Brazil, from September 2001 to April 2002. The community was described in relation to diversity, evenness, and dominance rank, considering the individuals abundance (H' = 2.14/ J' = 0.55) and biomass (H' = 2.34/ J' = 0.60). Thirty nine bee (588 individuals/ 15.742 g) and 11 social wasp species (52 individuals/ 2.156 g) were collected, being the first report of social wasps for the Brazilian "campos rupestres". The main species regarding number of individuals were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Apis mellifera L., Frieseomelitta francoi (Moure), and Bombus brevivillus Franklin. About 48% of the species were represented by a single individual. There was an inversion in the dominance rank when the species biomass was considered. B. brevivillus, A. mellifera, T spinipes, and other species represented by 15 individuals or less, such as the social wasps Synoeca cyanea (Olivier), Polistes canadensis (L.) and Myschocyttarus drewseni (Saussure), and the bees Eufriesea nigrohirta (Friese), Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Megachile (Pseudocentron) sp.l were the predominant species. The use of biomass in diversity analysis permitted to detect differences in the relative contribution of species in hierarchy dominance. The comparison between bee faunas from different areas indicates a large similarity of the sampled fauna in Palmeiras (Bahia State) with neighboring ecosystems, although with low values of similarity.

  16. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    PubMed

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P < .001). Atopy was more common in children (P = .01), whereas cardiovascular comorbidities were present almost exclusively in adults (P = .001). In the bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kUA/L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kUA/L) compared with adults (5.10 kUA/L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kUA/L) (P < .001). Specific IgE levels for culprit insect venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P < .001). In adults, intradermal tests revealed higher sensitivity, accompanied by larger area of skin reactions, regardless of type of venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy: Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gunter J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham; Mosbech, Holger; Bilò, M Beatrice; Akdis, Cezmi A; Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Gawlik, Radoslaw; Jakob, Thilo; Kosnik, Mitja; Lange, Joanna; Mingomataj, Ervin; Mitsias, Dimitris I; Ollert, Markus; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Pfaar, Oliver; Pitsios, Constantinos; Pravettoni, Valerio; Ruëff, Franziska; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Agache, Ioana; Angier, Elizabeth; Arasi, Stefania; Calderón, Moises A; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Halken, Susanne; Jutel, Marek; Lau, Susanne; Pajno, Giovanni B; van Ree, Ronald; Ryan, Dermot; Spranger, Otto; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Dhami, Sangeeta; Zaman, Hadar; Sheikh, Aziz; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-07-27

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction following a honeybee, vespid or ant sting. Systemic allergic sting reactions have been reported in up to 7.5% of adults and up to 3.4% of children. They can be mild and restricted to the skin or moderate-to-severe with a risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis. Patients should carry an emergency kit containing an adrenaline autoinjector, H1 -antihistamines, and corticosteroids depending on the severity of their previous sting reaction(s). The only treatment to prevent further systemic sting reactions is venom immunotherapy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Venom Immunotherapy as part of the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy initiative. The guideline aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of venom immunotherapy, has been informed by a formal systematic review and meta-analysis and produced using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) approach. The process included representation from a range of stakeholders. Venom immunotherapy is indicated in venom allergic children and adults to prevent further moderate to severe systemic sting reactions. Venom immunotherapy is also recommended in adults with only generalized skin reactions as it results in significant improvements in quality of life compared to carrying an adrenaline auto-injector. This guideline aims to give practical advice on performing venom immunotherapy. Key sections cover general considerations before initiating venom immunotherapy, evidence-based clinical recommendations, risk factors for adverse events and for relapse of systemic sting reaction, and a summary of gaps in the evidence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests).

  19. Revision of the Malagasy genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) are revised: 42 species are recognized, of which two were previously named and are redescribed: Trichoteleia afo Talamas, sp. n., Trichoteleia albidipes Kieffer, Trichoteleia bicolor Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia bidentata Talamas sp. n.; Trichoteleia carinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia cincta Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia delilah Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia eburata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia echinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia fisheri Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia funesta Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia halterata Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia hemlyae Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia irwini Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia janus Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia jiro Talamas, sp. n.; T. ketrona Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia levii Talamas & Johnson, sp. n.; Trichoteleia longiventris Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia minima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia nify Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia oculea Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia orona Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia parvipennis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia pauliani (Risbec); Trichoteleia picturata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prolixa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia quazii Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia ravaka Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia rugifrons Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia solocis Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia sphaerica Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia subtilis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tahotra Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia takariva Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tezitra Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tigris Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tonsa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia warreni Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia xantrox Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia zuparkoi Talamas & Masner, sp. n. A neotype is designated for Trichoteleia albidipes and a lectotype is designated for Trichoteleia pauliani. PMID

  20. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  1. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae).

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Johnston, J Spencer; Small, Chiyedza; Rajwani, Roma; Hanrahan, Shawn J; Govind, Shubha

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) and Leptopilina victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979)(n = 9), whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the Leptopilina heterotoma clade. Like Leptopilina boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for Ganaspis xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insectcommunities.

  2. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gokhman, Vladimir E.; Johnston, J. Spencer; Small, Chiyedza; Rajwani, Roma; Hanrahan, Shawn J.; Govind, Shubha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) and Leptopilina victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979)(n = 9), whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the Leptopilina heterotoma clade. Like Leptopilina boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for Ganaspis xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insectcommunities. PMID:24260630

  3. Thermoperiodism Synchronizes Emergence in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, Ian S; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2016-02-01

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have limited to no exposure to photoperiodic cues in order to regulate important circadian functions. Therefore, various thermoperiod regimes were used to characterize the possible role of thermoperiodism in synchronizing M. rotundata adult emergence. Adult emergence was monitored using a microprocessor-controlled event logger. Incubating bees under constant 29°C and darkness resulted in an arhythmic adult emergence pattern. Exposing developing M. rotundata to a thermoperiod synchronized emergence to the beginning of the thermophase and decreased the total number of days required for all adults to emerge. The amplitude of the thermoperiod regulated the timing of peak emergence in relationship to the increase in temperature. A thermoperiod amplitude of only 2°C was sufficient to synchronize peak adult emergence to take place during the rise in temperature. Increasing the amplitude of the thermoperiod to 4 or 8°C caused a positively correlated shift in peak emergence to later in the thermophase. Brood stored under constant 29°C and darkness for different durations (May or June early in the growing season or July or August late in the growing season) or under a fluctuating thermal regime (base temperature of 6°C and daily 1-h pulse of 20°C until September or November) maintained their capacity for entraining emergence timing by thermoperiodism.

  4. Revision of the Malagasy genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Talamas, Elijah J; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F

    2011-02-16

    The species of the genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) are revised: 42 species are recognized, of which two were previously named and are redescribed: Trichoteleia afo Talamas, sp. n., Trichoteleia albidipes Kieffer, Trichoteleia bicolor Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia bidentata Talamas sp. n.; Trichoteleia carinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia cincta Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia delilah Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia eburata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia echinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia fisheri Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia funesta Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia halterata Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia hemlyae Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia irwini Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia janus Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia jiro Talamas, sp. n.; T. ketrona Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia levii Talamas & Johnson, sp. n.; Trichoteleia longiventris Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia minima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia nify Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia oculea Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia orona Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia parvipennis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia pauliani (Risbec); Trichoteleia picturata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prolixa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia quazii Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia ravaka Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia rugifrons Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia solocis Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia sphaerica Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia subtilis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tahotra Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia takariva Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tezitra Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tigris Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tonsa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia warreni Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia xantrox Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia zuparkoi Talamas & Masner, sp. n. A neotype is designated for Trichoteleia albidipes and a lectotype is designated for Trichoteleia pauliani.

  5. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy - also a matter of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Blank, Simon

    2017-06-12

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms by injecting increasing venom doses over years. This venom-specific immunotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated. However, component-resolved information about the venoms has increased in the last years. This knowledge is not only able to improve diagnostics as basis for an accurate therapy, but was additionally used to create tools which enable the analysis of therapeutic venom extracts on a molecular level. Therefore, during the last decade the detailed knowledge of the allergen composition of hymenoptera venoms has substantially improved diagnosis and therapy of venom allergy. This review focuses on state of the art diagnostic and therapeutic options as well as on novel directions trying to improve therapy.

  6. Impact of Insecticides Used in Soybean Crops to the Egg Parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Zirondi Filho, D M

    2017-08-19

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible side effects of insecticides used in soybean crops on pupae and adults of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) under laboratory conditions. The protocol was adapted from standard methodology stablished by the Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms Working Group of the International Organization for Biological and integrated Control (IOBC) for Trichogramma cacoeciae (Marchal) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). All tested benzoylureas, diacylhydrazines, diamides and spinosins as well as pyrethroid beta-cyfluthrin were harmless to T. podisi pupae and adults, and therefore, can be used in IPM without damage to this biological control agent. The tested organophosphate, pyrethroids (except beta-cyfluthrin) and its combinations with either neonicotinoids or diamides triggered deleterious effects on at least one of the life stages of the parasitoid and should, whenever possible, be replaced by other insecticides more selective to natural enemies.

  7. Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M T; Ewan, P W; Diwakar, L; Durham, S R; Frew, A J; Leech, S C; Nasser, S M

    2011-09-01

    This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and pediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic tests, natural history of hymenoptera venom allergy and guidance on undertaking venom immunotherapy (VIT). There are also separate sections on children, elevated baseline tryptase and mastocytosis and mechanisms underlying VIT. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Hymenoptera Venom Immunotherapy: Tolerance and Efficacy of an Ultrarush Protocol versus a Rush and a Slow Conventional Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patella, Vincenzo; Florio, Giovanni; Giuliano, Ada; Oricchio, Carmine; Spadaro, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni; Genovese, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Various venom immunotherapy (VIT) protocols are available for Hymenoptera allergy. Although adverse reactions (ADRs) to VIT are widely reported, controlled trials are still needed. We conducted a randomized prospective study to evaluate ADRs and the efficacy of three VIT regimens. Methods. 76 patients with Hymenoptera allergy, aged 16–76 years, were randomized to receive an ultrarush protocol (group A: 27 patients), a rush protocol (group B: 25), or a slow protocol (group C: 24). Aqueous venom extract was used in incremental phase and an adsorbed depot in maintenance phase. ADRs and accidental Hymenoptera stings during VIT were used to evaluate efficacy. Results. During incremental treatment, ADRs occurred in 1.99%, 3.7%, and 3.9% of patients in groups A, B, and C, and in 0.99%, 1.46%, and 2.7%, respectively, during maintenance. ADRs were significantly fewer in group A (incremental + maintenance phase) than in group C (1.29% versus 3.2%; P = 0.013). Reactions to accidental Hymenoptera stings did not differ among groups (1.1%, 1.2%, and 1.1%). Conclusion. Ultrarush was as effective as the rush and slow protocols and was associated with a low incidence of reactions to stings. This study indicates that ultrarush VIT is a valid therapeutic option for Hymenoptera allergy. PMID:22693521

  9. Cold storage of adult Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Mymaridae: Hymenoptera) and effects on maternal and progeny fitness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT Storage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) adults at 2, 5, and 10°C showed that these parasitoids do not survive at 2°C for 5 d, and exposure to 5 and 10°C shortens their lifespan. The LT50 (i.e., length of storage time for 50% wasp survival) at 5°C was 14 d ...

  10. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-05-31

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given.

  11. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Else, George R.; Bolton, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish aculeate Hymenoptera (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea) is revised. Species distribution is summarised for all species at the level of country (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Isle of Man). New information The 601 native species represent an increase of 25 on the 1978 checklist, comprising mostly new discoveries. This increase is nearly balanced by the 23 species now presumed to be extinct in Britain and Ireland. PMID:27226757

  12. Revision of the genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Carrón, Nilo F. Ortiz de Zugasti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is revised and two new species are described: Paralipsis tibiator van Achterberg & Ortiz de Zugasti, sp. n. from Spain and Paralipsis planus van Achterberg, sp. n. from the Netherlands. Some biological notes are supplied for Paralipsis tibiator sp. n. A key to the four known species is added and all species are illustrated. PMID:27551220

  13. The description of Alloxysta chinensis, a new Charipinae species from China (Hymenoptera, Figitidae).

    PubMed

    Fülöp, Dávid; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja; Pénzes, Zsolt; Melika, George

    2013-01-01

    A new figitid species, Alloxysta chinensis Fülöp & Mikó sp nova, based on females, is described from China and South Korea. The functional morphology and the phylogenetic implication of some anatomical structures frequently used in Charipinae and the validity of the genus Carvercharips is discussed. This manuscript is the first of its kind linking descriptive terminology to Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology classes, which provides persistent links to definitions for terms used within this manuscript.

  14. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

    PubMed

    Kaltenpoth, Martin; Showers Corneli, Patrice; Dunn, Diane M; Weiss, Robert B; Strohm, Erhard; Seger, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae), and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes). Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of Apocrita is unlikely

  15. Four new species of Andricus Hartig oak gallwasp from Turkey (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini).

    PubMed

    Mutun, Serap; Dinç, Serdar; Bozsó, Miklós; Melika, George

    2014-01-31

    Four new species of oak gallwasps, Andricus ahmeti, A. anatolicus, A. bakrachus and A. turcicus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) are described from Turkey. All four species are known only from asexual females and induce galls on twigs and young shoots on Q. infectoria, Q. macranthera and Q. petraea. Data on the diagnosis, distribution and biology of the four new species are given. Andricus stonei and Aphelonyx kordestanica are listed for the first time for the Turkish oak gallwasp fauna.

  16. Checklist of Iranian Encyrtids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) with Descriptions of New Species

    PubMed Central

    Fallahzadeh, Majid; Japoshvili, George

    2010-01-01

    A list of Iranian Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) is given for the first time. It includes 93 species representing 32 genera. Host information from Iran and distributional data are also provided. Three genera and 7 species are first recorded from Iran. New host records are provided for three species. Two new species, Gyranusoidea iranica sp. n. and Microterys iranicus sp. n., are described and diagnostic characters are provided for them. PMID:20672988

  17. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço de; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  18. Are the TTAGG and TTAGGG telomeric repeats phylogenetically conserved in aculeate Hymenoptera?

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Bardella, Vanessa B; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C; Lucena, Daercio A A; Almeida, Eduardo A B

    2017-09-27

    Despite the (TTAGG)n telomeric repeat supposed being the ancestral DNA motif of telomeres in insects, it was repeatedly lost within some insect orders. Notably, parasitoid hymenopterans and the social wasp Metapolybia decorata (Gribodo) lack the (TTAGG)n sequence, but in other representatives of Hymenoptera, this motif was noticed, such as different ant species and the honeybee. These findings raise the question of whether the insect telomeric repeat is or not phylogenetically predominant in Hymenoptera. Thus, we evaluated the occurrence of both the (TTAGG)n sequence and the vertebrate telomere sequence (TTAGGG)n using dot-blotting hybridization in 25 aculeate species of Hymenoptera. Our results revealed the absence of (TTAGG)n sequence in all tested species, elevating the number of hymenopteran families lacking this telomeric sequence to 13 out of the 15 tested families so far. The (TTAGGG)n was not observed in any tested species. Based on our data and compiled information, we suggest that the (TTAGG)n sequence was putatively lost in the ancestor of Apocrita with at least two subsequent independent regains (in Formicidae and Apidae).

  19. Expressed sequence tags reveal Proctotrupomorpha (minus Chalcidoidea) as sister to Aculeata (Hymenoptera: Insecta).

    PubMed

    Sharanowski, Barbara J; Robbertse, Barbara; Walker, John; Voss, S Randal; Yoder, Ryan; Spatafora, Joseph; Sharkey, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Hymenoptera is one of the most diverse groups of animals on the planet and have vital importance for ecosystem function as pollinators and parasitoids. Higher-level relationships among Hymenoptera have been notoriously difficult to resolve with both morphological and traditional molecular approaches. Here we examined the utility of expressed sequence tags for resolving relationships among hymenopteran superfamilies. Transcripts were assembled for 6 disparate Hymenopteran taxa with additional sequences added from public databases for a final dataset of 24 genes for 16 taxa and over 10 kb of sequence data. The concatenated dataset recovered a robust and well-supported topology demonstrating the monophyly of Holometabola, Hymenoptera, Apocrita, Aculeata, Ichneumonoidea, and a sister relationship between the two most closely related proctotrupomorphs in the dataset (Cynipoidea+Proctotrupoidea). The data strongly supported a sister relationship between Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha, contrary to previously proposed hypotheses. Additionally there was strong evidence indicating Ichneumonoidea as sister to Aculeata+Proctotrupomorpha. These relationships were robust to missing data, nucleotide composition biases, low taxonomic sampling, and conflicting signal across gene trees. There was also strong evidence indicating that Chalcidoidea is not contained within Proctotrupomorpha. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2015-08-12

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution.

  1. Tolerated sting challenge in patients on Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy improves health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Koschel, D S; Schmies, M; Weber, C Nink; Höffken, G; Balck, F

    2014-01-01

    Sting challenge with a live insect remains the best test for proving the efficacy of immunotherapy in Hymenoptera allergy. We studied the impact of tolerated sting challenge on quality of life. In this prospective study, data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by consenting patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy on venom immunotherapy before and after a sting challenge. The study population comprised 100 adult patients (82 with yellow jacket allergy and 18 with honeybee allergy) who participated between September 2009 and November 2010. After the sting challenge, the score on the Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire revealed a statistically significant improvement (mean [SD] change, 0.73 [0.98]; P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94). This improvement was independent of the patients' gender and age and the severity of the initial anaphylactic reaction. A statistically significant improvement was documented in 2 subgroups of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (physical functioning, mean change, -5.78 [25.23]; P = .038; 95% CI, -11.22 to -0.34; vitality, mean change -4.29 [12.49]; P =.002; 95% CI, -7.02 to -1.57). Sting challenge results in a significant improvement in disease-specific quality of life and subgroups of general quality of life in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom receiving established venom immunotherapy.

  2. In vitro diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy and further development of component resolved diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Ebo, Didier G; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; de Graaf, Dirk C; Bridts, Chris H; De Clerck, Luc S; Sabato, Vito

    2014-03-01

    For most people Hymenoptera stings result in transient and bothersome local inflammatory responses characterized by pain, itching, redness and swelling. In contrast, for those presenting an IgE-mediated allergic reaction, a re-sting may cause life-threatening reactions. In such patients, correct diagnosis is an absolute prerequisite for effective management, i.e. venom-specific immunotherapy. Generally, identification of the offending insect involves a detailed history along with quantification of venom-specific IgE antibodies and venom skin tests. Unfortunately, due to uncertainties associated with both tests, correct diagnosis is not always straightforward. This review summarizes the potentials and limitations of the various in vitro tests that are currently being used in the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Particular attention is paid to the potential of novel cellular tests such as basophil activation tests and component-resolved diagnosis with recombinant venom allergens in the diagnostic approach of patients with difficult diagnosis, i.e. cases in whom traditional venom specific IgE and skin tests yield equivocal or negative results. Finally, this review also covers the recent discoveries in the field of proteome research of Hymenoptera venoms and the selection of cell types for recombinant allergens production.

  3. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  4. "It stings a bit but it cleans well": venoms of Hymenoptera and their antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Sébastien J M

    2013-02-01

    Venoms from Hymenoptera display a wide range of functions and biological roles. These notably include manipulation of the host, capture of prey and defense against competitors and predators thanks to endocrine and immune systems disruptors, neurotoxic, cytolytic and pain-inducing venom components. Recent works indicate that many hymenopteran species, whatever their life style, have also evolved a venom with properties which enable it to regulate microbial infections, both in stinging and stung animals. In contrast to biting insects and their salivary glands, stinging Hymenoptera seem to constitute an under-exploited ecological niche for agents of vector-borne disease. Few parasitic or mutualistic microorganisms have been reported to be hosted by venom-producing organs or to be transmitted to stung animals. This may result from the presence of potent antimicrobial molecules in venoms, histological features of venom apparatuses and selective effects of venoms on immune defenses of targeted organisms. The present paper reviews for the first time the venom antimicrobial potential of solitary and social Hymenoptera in molecular, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives.

  5. Bacterial associates of seed-parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Megastigmus).

    PubMed

    Paulson, Amber R; von Aderkas, Patrick; Perlman, Steve J

    2014-09-25

    The success of herbivorous insects has been shaped largely by their association with microbes. Seed parasitism is an insect feeding strategy involving intimate contact and manipulation of a plant host. Little is known about the microbial associates of seed-parasitic insects. We characterized the bacterial symbionts of Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), a lineage of seed-parasitic chalcid wasps, with the goal of identifying microbes that might play an important role in aiding development within seeds, including supplementing insect nutrition or manipulating host trees. We screened multiple populations of seven species for common facultative inherited symbionts. We also performed culture independent surveys of larvae, pupae, and adults of M. spermotrophus using 454 pyrosequencing. This major pest of Douglas-fir is the best-studied Megastigmus, and was previously shown to manipulate its tree host into redirecting resources towards unfertilized ovules. Douglas-fir ovules and the parasitoid Eurytoma sp. were also surveyed using pyrosequencing to help elucidate possible transmission mechanisms of the microbial associates of M. spermotrophus. Three wasp species harboured Rickettsia; two of these also harboured Wolbachia. Males and females were infected at similar frequencies, suggesting that these bacteria do not distort sex ratios. The M. spermotrophus microbiome is dominated by five bacterial OTUs, including lineages commonly found in other insect microbiomes and in environmental samples. The bacterial community associated with M. spermotrophus remained constant throughout wasp development and was dominated by a single OTU - a strain of Ralstonia, in the Betaproteobacteria, comprising over 55% of all bacterial OTUs from Megastigmus samples. This strain was also present in unparasitized ovules. This is the first report of Ralstonia being an abundant and potentially important member of an insect microbiome, although other closely-related Betaproteobacteria, such as

  6. Molecular phylogenetics of ponerine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have revolutionized our understanding of how these ecologically dominant organisms diversified, but detailed phylogenies are lacking for most major ant subfamilies. I report the results of the first detailed phylogenetic study of the ant subfamily Ponerinae, a diverse cosmopolitan lineage whose properties make it an attractive model system for investigating social and ecological evolution in ants. Molecular sequence data were obtained from four nuclear genes (wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin, rudimentary [CAD], 28S rDNA; total of ~3.3 kb) for 86 ponerine taxa, representing all three ponerine tribes, 22 of the 28 currently recognized genera, and 14 of the 18 informal subgenera of Pachycondyla, a heterogeneous grouping whose monophyly is doubtful on morphological grounds. Phylogenetic reconstructions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the monophyly of Ponerinae and tribe Platythyreini, but fail to support the monophyly of the large tribe Ponerini due to its inclusion of the unusual genus Thaumatomyrmex. Pachycondyla is inferred to be broadly non-monophyletic. Numerous novel generic and suprageneric relationships are inferred within Ponerini, which was found to consist of four major multi-generic clades (the Ponera, Pachycondyla, Plectroctena and Odontomachus genus groups) plus the single genera Hypoponera and Harpegnathos. Uncertainty remains in some regions of the phylogeny, including at the base of Ponerini, possibly reflecting rapid radiation. Divergence dating using a Bayesian relaxed clock method estimates an origin for stem Ponerinae in the upper Cretaceous, a major burst of diversification near the K/T boundary, and a rich and continual history of diversification during the Cenozoic. These results fail to support the predictions of the "dynastic-succession hypothesis" previously developed to explain the high species diversity of Ponerinae. Though model

  7. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  8. Two new species of the genus Ficobracon van Achterberg and Weiblen (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China, expanding its host range.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pan; Li, Zi; Van Achterberg, Cees; Feng, Gui; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Syconia of figs (Moraceae: Ficus spp.) harbour many wasp species, mostly belonging to several genera of chalcidoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). In contrast, only two genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) with a few known species are found in syconia belonging to the subgenus Urostigma. The braconid fig wasps have an infrequent occurrence with low population density and are rarely encountered. Two new species, Ficobracon rhiknosus sp. nov. from figs of the subgenus Urostigma, and F. codonatus sp. nov. from figs of the subgenus Sycidium are described. Our previous experiments firmly support the suggestion that the Ficobracon species are parasitoids of non-pollinating chalcidoid fig wasps in the syconia.

  9. Evidence For A Sex Pheromone in Bark Beetle Parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan

    2002-01-01

    Male Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exhibited courtship and mating behaviors including wing fanning, antennation, mounting, and copulation attempts when exposed to glass bulb decoys coated with a whole-body extract of females in hexane, acetone, or methanol. Activity of extract-treated decoys declined gradually over...

  10. Effect of host decoys on the ability of the parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and Spalangia cameroni to parasitize house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pteromalid pupal parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are commonly released on livestock farms for management of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). To be effective, parasitoids must be able to locate live host puparia in co...

  11. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

  12. Powdered sugar shake to monitor and oxalic acid treatments to control varroa mites (Parasitiformes: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective monitoring and alternative strategies to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann (Parasitiformes: Varroidae), (varroa) are crucial for determining when to apply effective treatments to honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies. Using simpl...

  13. Oviposition behavior and survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, on hosts exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina ...

  14. Influence of temperature on the reproductive and developmental biology of Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for biological control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ontsira mellipes Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a North American parasitoid that develops on the invasive pest, Anoplophora glabripennis (Moltschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under laboratory conditions, and is currently being considered as a potential new-association biocontrol agent. In ...

  15. Tanzawana flavomaculata (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), a new genus and species of parasitoid of Fagineura crenativora (Tenthredinidae, Nematinae), a serious pest of beech tree.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Taniwaki, Tooru; Kasparyan, Dmitri

    2015-11-10

    We describe a new genus, and a new species, of parasitoid--Tanzawana flavomaculata Watanabe & Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae)--based on material collected in Honshu, Japan. As T. flavomaculata is found on Fagineura crenativora Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2000 (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a serious pest of beech tree, this parasitoid is an important natural enemy of F. crenativora that can be used for the biological control of this pest.

  16. Establishing Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), the introduced egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer, in Michigan ash stands

    Treesearch

    Toby Petrice; F. William Ravlin; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2016-01-01

    The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is one of four parasitoid species from northeast Asia being released in regions of North America as part of a biological control program to manage the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (Bauer et al...

  17. Discovery of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a larval ectoparasitoid of citrus longhorned beetle in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, which belongs to the Spathius exarator species group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) was found as an ectoparasitoid of the first- and second-instar larvae of the citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Förster), from Gwangneung, Pocheon, Kore...

  18. Origin and phylogeography of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera : Cephidae): implications for pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    he wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage by this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are not very effective and uncertainties regarding its origin and i...

  19. Review of species of the genus Adelurola Strand, 1928, with a key to species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Yari, Zahra; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ehsan Rakhshani; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The alysiine genus Adelurola Strand, 1928 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is revised. Illustrated re-descriptions and a key to all known species of this genus are given. The following new combination is proposed: Dapsilarthra eurys (Chen & Wu, 1994), comb. n. Adelurola amplidens (Fischer, 1966) and Adelurola asiatica Telenga, 1935 are recorded for the first time from Iran and Kyrgyzstan, respectively. PMID:27047244

  20. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  1. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  2. Detection and identification of Amylostereum areolatum (Russulales: Amylostereaceae) in the mycangia of Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricaidae) in central Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Jeremy Allison; James Meeker; Wood Johnson; Douglas Streett; M. Catherine Aime; Christopher Carlton

    2014-01-01

    The woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) has become established in North America. A primary tactic for the management of S. noctilio in the southern hemisphere has been the development of a biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. This nematode has a bicyclic life cycle including a...

  3. Two New Species of Egg Parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) of Wood-Boring Beetle Pests from China

    Treesearch

    Yanzhou Zhang; Dawei Huang; Tonghai Zhao; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2005-01-01

    Oobius agrili sp.n. and Avetianella xystrocerae sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from China. Morphological characters of the new species are illustrated. O. agrili is an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and A....

  4. Description of a new genus and three species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir; Devi, O K Rema; Srinivasa, Y B

    2014-06-10

    A new genus of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), Noyesencyrtus Singh gen. nov. (type species N. brachyoculus Singh sp. nov.), associated with insects inhabiting fruiting bodies of wood-decaying fungi, and two new species, Psyllaephagus kundapurensis Singh sp. nov. and Ooencyrtus hayatii Singh sp. nov., are described from the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

  5. The use of root plates for nesting sites by Anthophora abrupta (Hymenoptera: Apidae) may be common within forested habitats

    Treesearch

    Joshua W. Campbell; Cynthia C. Viguiera; Patrick Viguiera; John E. Hartgerink; Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2017-01-01

    This is the first reported use of root plates by Anthophora abrupta Say (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Previous reported nesting sites were vertical riverbanks and several man-made clay structures. Root plates in forested habitats may be the preferred nesting site for A. abrupta.

  6. Description of two techniques to increase efficiency in processing and curating minute arthropods, with special reference to parasitic Hymenoptera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe and illustrate two techniques for enhancing curatorial and processing efficiency as it pertains to parasitic Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea, Cynipoidea). These techniques were developed in response not only to the massive number of parasitoids that have been acquired through our and others’ ...

  7. Antennal olfactory responsiveness of the Texas leaf cutting ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to trail pheromone and its two alarm substances

    Treesearch

    N.A. Andryszak; Thomas L. Payne; J.C. Dickens; John C. Moser; R.W. Fisher

    1990-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from major workers, queens, and males of the Texas leaf cutting, Atta texana (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in response to serial dilutions of two alarm substances, 2-heptanone and 4-methyl-3-heptanone, and its trial phermone, 4-methylpyrrole-2-carbonxylate. The lower EAG threshold for major workers...

  8. Conserving natural enemies with flowering plants: estimating floral attractiveness to parasitic Hymenoptera and attractions relationship to flower and plant morphology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic Hymenoptera. Various native, introduced/established and cultivated potted plants-in-flower were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted seasonally w...

  9. Distribution of 18S rDNA sites and absence of the canonical TTAGG insect telomeric repeat in parasitoid Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Anokhin, Boris A; Kuznetsova, Valentina G

    2014-08-01

    Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal, whereas those of I. amphibolus and Eu. compressa carried three and two rDNA clusters respectively. In addition, three rDNA sites were visualized in the aneuploid female of T. bedeguaris. The number of rDNA clusters in parasitoid Hymenoptera generally correlates to the chromosome number. Apart from the overwhelming majority of the studied species of aculeate Hymenoptera, no hybridization signals were obtained from FISH with the telomeric (TTAGG)n probe in the examined parasitoid species. These data suggest absence of the canonical (TTAGG)n insect telomeric motif in the Ichneumonoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea, and perhaps in parasitoid Hymenoptera in general.

  10. European hornet (Vespa crabro) sting: a new risk factor for life-threatening reaction in hymenoptera allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Antonicelli, L; Bilò, M B; Napoli, G; Farabollini, B; Bonifazi, F

    2003-06-01

    Severity of a previous reaction, adult age, male gender and honeybee sting are risk factors for severe systemic reactions after hymenoptera stings. The aim of the study was to assess the association between the Vespa crabro sting and severe systemic reactions. One hundred fifty seven hymenoptera allergic patients with a positive case history for systemic reactions were selected on the basis of unequivocal identification of the stinging insect. In 97 patients the culprit insect was Vespula spp., in 35 was Vespa crabro in the remaining 25 patients was Apis mellifera. The relative risk for a life-threatening reactions after a sting was evaluated for each hymenoptera species. While the percentage of life-threatening reactions was similar both in Apis mellifera (24%) and in Vespula spp. Allergic patients groups (27.8%), a very high prevalence (81.2%) was documented in Vespa crabro allergic patients group. The relative risk for life-threatening reactions after a Vespa crabro sting was about three times higher (RR = 2.74--CI 95% 1.93-3.89--R < 0.0001) than it was for a honeybee or yellow jacket sting. The increase of the risk for life-threatening reactions after a Vespa crabro sting was independent from the age of patients. Vespa crabro sting seems to be a new risk factor for life-threatening reactions after hymenoptera sting.

  11. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  12. The effect of photobleaching on bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) setae color and its implications for studying aging and behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies of foraging ecology and plant-pollinator interactions benefit from a number of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) characteristics including morphometric measurements, natural history and age. Historically, bee age has been estimated using measurements of wing wear and integument color change. Wing w...

  13. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  14. Solenopsis invicta virus (sinv-1) infection and insecticide interactions in the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlling invasive species is a growing concern; however, pesticides can be detrimental for non-target organisms. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has aggressively invaded approximately 138 million ha in the USA and causes over $6 billion in damage and ...

  15. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  16. Comparative Performance of Two Mite-Resistant Stocks of Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama Beekeeping Operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared to that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor ...

  17. A chemical lure for stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is used as a kairomone by Astata occidentalis (Hymenoptera: sphecidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The digger wasp Astata occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is a predator of pentatomid stink bugs (Hemiptera). In the states of Washington and Georgia, adult females were consistently captured in the field in traps baited with lures that included methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, a comp...

  18. Review of the genus Metopheltes Uchida, 1932 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with description of a new species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Reshchikov, Alexey; van Achterberg, Kees

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Metopheltes Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), Metopheltesclypeoarmatus sp. n. is described from Vietnam. Metopheltespetiolaris Uchida, 1932 is recorded for the first time from the Russian Far East. The other previously described species are also illustrated and discussed.

  19. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  20. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  1. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera:Buprestidae)

    Treesearch

    Jian J. Duan; Craig B. Oppel; Michael D. Ulyshen; Leah S. Bauer; Jonathan. LeLito

    2011-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in the United States as a biocontrol agent of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental time of immature stages, adult...

  2. An epidemiological survey of hymenoptera venom allergy in the Spanish paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cañavate, A; Tabar, A I; Eseverri, J L; Martín, F; Pedemonte-Marco, C

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom are infrequent in paediatric patients. A study was made to determine the incidence of this pathology in children, based on an epidemiological survey targeted to all members of the SEICAP (Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia Pediátrica/Spanish Society of Paediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergy), and designed to collect the data on patients under 17 years of age diagnosed with hymenoptera venom allergy. The data corresponding to 175 patients (135 males) were collected. The mean age was 9.9 ± 3.6 years. Seventeen percent (32 patients) were the offspring of beekeepers, and 68.9% had experienced previous stings. The causal insect was Apis melifera, implicated in 55 cases, followed by Polistes dominulus (33 cases). In 151 patients (83.9%) the condition consisted of a local reaction. The most frequent systemic response was urticaria and angio-oedema. Fourteen patients suffered anaphylactic shock. The diagnosis was based on skin test (intradermal and prick) and/or specific IgE testing. Three treatment categories were established: (a) prevention and educational measures; (b) symptomatic treatment with oral antihistamines as well as self-injectable adrenalin; and (c) immunotherapy. In this context, 135 patients underwent immunotherapy with a mean duration of 3.5 ± 1.7 years (range 2-5 years) - with excellent tolerance. The starting regimen was predominantly conventional (92 patients). The results of this survey show hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom to be infrequent in paediatrics, though with a strong impact upon patient quality of life. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate data, localisation of the sting, grade of anaphylaxis and therapy of hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Braun, Christian Tasso; Mikula, Mirko; Ricklin, Meret Elisabeth; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Helbling, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    International epidemiological studies indicate that around 1-7% of the population respond with an allergic reaction to a hymenoptera sting, which is frequently associated with admission to an emergency department. This retrospective study included patients admitted between 2009 and 2013 to an emergency department after a hymenoptera sting. In all, 86 (60.1%) men and 57 (39.9%) women were included in the study. The mean age was 43 years, with a range from 19 to 84 years. The most common localisations of a sting were the head (n = 33; 22.5%), the hands (n = 32; 21.9%) and the arms (n = 26; 17.8%). In women, we recorded significantly more stings in distal extremities (p = 0.033) and in men stings in the rump and head were most frequent. Local swellings were observed in 67.1% (n = 96) of patients and 34.3% (n = 49) patients exhibited an anaphylactic reaction. Of these, 21.7% (n = 31) suffered from a grade I, 6.3% (n = 9) grade II, 4.2% (n = 6) grade III and 2.1% (n = 3) grade IV anaphylactic reactions. 46% (66) of the patients were given antihistamines, 45% (64) intravenous glucocorticoids and only 12.5% (16) epinephrine. Most stings were recorded on days without rainfall (p = 0.013), with more hours of sunshine (p = 0.001), low relative humidity (p = 0.006), with mean air pressure above 954.3 hPa and on days with mean temperature above 24.2 °C (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the most hymenoptera stings induced local swelling only; severe reactions were rare. The most dangerous stings are enoral and result from inattentive drinking. Epinephrine was rarely used in anaphylactic reactions.

  4. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  5. Review of Afrotropical Cryptopimpla Taschenberg (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Banchinae), with description of nine new species

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Terry Reynolds; van Noort, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical banchine fauna (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) comprises 12 genera. One of these, Cryptopimpla Taschenberg, 1863, is a predominately northern hemisphere genus represented by 47 described species of which only one is known from the Afrotropical region. We describe nine new species of this rare Afrotropical genus: Cryptopimpla elongatus sp. n., Cryptopimpla fernkloofensis sp. n., Cryptopimpla goci sp. n., Cryptopimpla hantami sp. n., Cryptopimpla kogelbergensis sp. n., Cryptopimpla neili sp. n., Cryptopimpla onyxi sp. n., Cryptopimpla parslactis sp. n., and Cryptopimpla zwarti sp. n. All the Afrotropical species are only known from South Africa. Online interactive Lucid keys to the nine Cryptopimpla species are available at: http://www.waspweb.org. PMID:28138289

  6. Five new species of Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Luis Felipe Ventura; Dias, Angélica Maria Penteado

    2015-12-10

    Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a cosmopolitan genus with around 340 species described, all koinobiont endoparasitoids of Coleoptera or Lepidoptera larvae, and several of its hosts are pest insects. Previously to this work only two species were described from Brazil, M. eaclidis Muesebeck and M. townsendi Muesebeck. Five new species of Meteorus are here described: M. atlanticus n. sp., M. ferruginosus n. sp., M. itatiaiensis n. sp., M. monoceros n. sp., and M. strigatus n. sp. Three species are recorded for the first time from Brazil: M. jerodi Aguirre & Shaw, M. laphygmae Viereck and M. megalops Zitani.

  7. Utility of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Vachová, Martina; Panzner, Petr; Malkusová, Ivana; Hanzlíková, Jana; Vlas, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    A diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy is based on clinical history and the results of skin tests and/or laboratory methods. To analyze the utility of available laboratory tests in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Ninety-five patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy with a history of bee (35) or wasp (60) anaphylactic sting reaction and positive skin test with bee or wasp venom were included in this analysis. Specific immunoglobulin E (to bee venom extract, wasp venom extract, available recombinant molecules, and a basophil activation test with venom extracts were assessed in all the patients. Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using standard threshold values; then, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compute optimal threshold values. Also, statistical analysis of the utility of different combinations of laboratory tests was performed. The optimal threshold values were revealed to be the following: 1.0 kIU/L for bee venom extract (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 100%), 0.35 kIU/L for rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 68.57%; specificity, 100%), 1.22 kIU/L for wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 88.33%; specificity, 95.45%), 0.7 kIU/L for rVes v 5 (sensitivity, 86.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 1.0 kIU/L for rVes v 1 (sensitivity, 56.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 6.5% for basophil activation test with bee venom extract (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 95.45%), and 4.5% for basophil activation test with wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 91.53%; specificity, 95.45%). The best test combinations were found to be the following: bee venom extract plus rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 95.45%) in bee and either wasp venom extract plus rVes v 5, or rVes v 5 plus rVes v 1 (both sensitivity, 98.33%; specificity, 95.45%) in patients with wasp venom allergy. Our analysis confirmed that currently used laboratory tests represent effective tools in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Moreover, our probabilistic approach offered another

  8. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  9. Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belokobylskij, Sergey A; Falcó-Garí, Jose Vicente; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher diversity than the Font Roja and Torrevieja. Also, the structure of the Aspilota-group community was analysed. PMID:25197232

  10. Mexican species of the genus Exenterus Hartig (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) reared from diprionid hosts.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique; Khalaim, Andrey I

    2015-11-24

    Two new species of the tryphonine genus Exenterus from Mexico, E. durangensis Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov. and E. sehuerachicus Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., are described. Both species belong to the group of Exenterus species characterized by the unusually short, depressed tarsi. Exenterus durangensis was reared from the sawfly Zadiprion falsus Smith and E. sehuerachicus from Neodiprion autumnalis Smith (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). This is the first record of the genus Exenterus as a parasitoid of these hosts. An identification key to separate the two Mexican species of Exenterus is provided.

  11. Estimation of postmortem interval based on colony development time for Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Goff, M L; Win, B H

    1997-11-01

    The postmortem interval for a set of human remains discovered inside a metal tool box was estimated using the development time required for a stratiomyid fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Hermetia illucens, in combination with the time required to establish a colony of the ant Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) capable of producing alate (winged) reproductives. This analysis resulted in a postmortem interval estimate of 14 + months, with a period of 14-18 months being the most probable time interval. The victim had been missing for approximately 18 months.

  12. Influence of rough handling on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nest establishment in commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Cory A; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2011-06-01

    Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) can be used to pollinate fruit trees. Populations are sometimes difficult to sustain because some female bees fail to establish at provided nesting sites. We address the hypothesis that rough handling of overwintered O. lignaria results in decreased establishment. We tested this by shaking (200 rpm for 2 min) overwintering bees as a proxy for rough handling. Bees were then released in an orchard, and nest establishment of shaken and unshaken bees was recorded. There was no significant difference in the proportion of shaken and unshaken females that nested, indicating that rough handling of overwintering bees does not discourage nest establishment.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian honey bee, Apis cerena cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae).

    PubMed

    Chhakchhuak, Liansangmawii; De Mandal, Surajit; Sanga, Zothan; Lalnunmawii, Esther; Lalhruaitluanga, H; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Sudalaimuthu, Naganeeswaran; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitogenome of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae) was sequenced using Illumina NextSeq500 platform and found to be 15 831 bp long. The mitogenome contains 37 genes (13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs) and a control region. The base composition is biased towards A-T (83.9%). The control region is 498 bp long with polyT stretch and poly [TA (A)]n-like stretch. The phylogenetic tree constructed using concatenated PCGs showed that A. cerana cerana clustered with other cavity nesting Apis species.

  14. Transgenic cry1C(⁎) gene rough rice line T1C-19 does not change the host preferences of the non-target stored product pest, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and its parasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Yan, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-10-01

    Rough rice grains are often stored for extended periods before they are used or consumed. However, during storage, the rough rice is vulnerable to insect infestation, resulting in significant economic loss. Previous studies have shown that volatiles cues, physical characteristics, and taste chemicals on the grains could be the important key behavior factors for storage insect pests to locate the hosts and select oviposition sites. It is also well known that the transgenic Bt rough rice line T1C-19, which expresses a cry1C(⁎) gene has a high resistance to Lepidoptera pests. However, there were no evidences to show the consequences of host preference for non-target insect pests after growing Bt transgenic rice. In this study, the potential key factors of Bt rough rice were investigated for their impacts on the behaviors of non-target pest lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica, the main weevil pest of grain and its parasitic wasps Anisopteromalus calandrae, the natural enemy of the beetle. Both electronic nose and electronic tongue analyses showed that the parameters of Bt rough rice were analogous to those of the non-Bt rough rice. The volatile profiles of Bt and non-Bt rough rice examined by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were similar. For most volatile compounds, there were no significantly quantitative differences in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The densities of sclereids and trichomes on the rough rice husk surface were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The non-target pest, R. dominica, and its parasitoid wasp, A. calandrae, were attracted to both rough rice and could not distinguish the transgenic T1C-19 from the isogenic rough rice. These results demonstrated that Bt rough rice has no negative impacts on the host preference behaviors of non-target stored product pest R. dominica and its parasitoid A. calandrae.

  15. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    PubMed

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  16. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    PubMed Central

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015–2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  17. Antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of the web-spinning sawfly Acantholyda posticalis Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiujie; Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiangbo; Wang, Hongbin; Shen, Gengchen; Zhang, Haijun

    2013-07-01

    Acantholyda posticalis (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) is an important pine pest with a world-wide distribution. To clarify the olfactory receptive mechanism of A. posticalis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the morphology, ultrastructure, and distribution of antennal sensilla of adults from two sites in China. The antennae were filiform, and the flagella comprised 32-35 flagellomeres. Six sensillum types were found. Sensilla chaetica were straight setae with sharply pointed tips and without dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla trichodea were characterized by a parallel-grooved wall and one terminal pore and were innervated by four dendrites at the base. Sensilla basiconica I possessed longitudinally grooved surfaces and multiple terminal pores, with five dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla basiconica II not only had a distinct terminal pore but also had numerous tiny wall pores and many dendritic branches within the sensillum lymph. Sensilla coeloconica had deep longitudinal grooves, one terminal pore and six dendrites, while sensilla campaniformia were thick-walled with a terminal opening and sensory nerve bundles in the lumen. Sensilla chaetica and s. trichodea were most abundant and distributed over the entire antennae, while s. basiconica I and II, s. coeloconica, and s. campaniformia were restricted to the ventral flagellar surfaces. Although the shape and structure of antennae were similar in males and females, females had significantly longer antennae than males, and males had significantly more s. basiconica I than females. We compared the morphology and structure of these sensilla to other Hymenoptera and discussed their possible functions.

  18. Decrease of IgE-dependent platelet activation in Hymenoptera hypersensitivity after specific rush desensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Tsicopoulos, A; Tonnel, A B; Wallaert, B; Joseph, M; Ameisen, J C; Ramon, P; Dessaint, J P; Capron, A

    1988-01-01

    A receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE on human platelets has been recently described, which mediated an IgE-dependent activation in the presence of specific allergen. We investigated the allergen-induced activation of platelets from patients with Hymenoptera hypersensitivity before and after specific rush desensitization. Nineteen patients with a history of anaphylactic reactions were included (15 sensitive to yellow-jacket and four to honey-bee venom), fourteen/nineteen having experienced severe life-threatening systemic reactions and 5/19 large local reactions. All showed positive skin tests and high values of specific IgE. By comparison to the baseline results obtained before desensitization, a significant decrease of platelet activation (76.8% inhibition) after rush desensitization was observed. In the case of two polysensitized patients, after Hymenoptera venom desensitization alone, platelets not only lost their reactivity to venom but also towards the other allergen. This modulation of the IgE-dependent platelet reactivity during desensitization offers therefore a new approach for the study of allergen-induced desensitization. PMID:3383448

  19. Decrease of IgE-dependent platelet activation in Hymenoptera hypersensitivity after specific rush desensitization.

    PubMed

    Tsicopoulos, A; Tonnel, A B; Wallaert, B; Joseph, M; Ameisen, J C; Ramon, P; Dessaint, J P; Capron, A

    1988-03-01

    A receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE on human platelets has been recently described, which mediated an IgE-dependent activation in the presence of specific allergen. We investigated the allergen-induced activation of platelets from patients with Hymenoptera hypersensitivity before and after specific rush desensitization. Nineteen patients with a history of anaphylactic reactions were included (15 sensitive to yellow-jacket and four to honey-bee venom), fourteen/nineteen having experienced severe life-threatening systemic reactions and 5/19 large local reactions. All showed positive skin tests and high values of specific IgE. By comparison to the baseline results obtained before desensitization, a significant decrease of platelet activation (76.8% inhibition) after rush desensitization was observed. In the case of two polysensitized patients, after Hymenoptera venom desensitization alone, platelets not only lost their reactivity to venom but also towards the other allergen. This modulation of the IgE-dependent platelet reactivity during desensitization offers therefore a new approach for the study of allergen-induced desensitization.

  20. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Daniel S.; Gomes, Tiago M.F.F.; Loreto, Elgion L.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced) and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea), suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny. PMID:27648767

  1. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wayne B

    2010-02-01

    A media for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and modified Hert-Hunter 70 media. Cell culture systems for bees solves an impasse that has hindered efforts to isolate and screen pathogens which may be influencing or causing colony collapse disorder of bees. Multiple life stages of maturing larvae to early pupae were used to successfully establish cell cultures from the tissues of the head, thorax, and abdomen. Multiple cell types were observed which included free-floating suspensions, fibroblast-like, and epithelia-like monolayers. The final culture medium, WH2, was originally developed for hemipterans, Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and leafhopper, Homalodisca vitripennis cell cultures but has been shown to work for a diverse range of insect species such as bees. Bee cell cultures had various doubling times at 21-23 degrees C ranging from 9-15 d. Deformed wing virus was detected in the primary explanted tissues, which tested negative by rt-PCR for Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir bee virus, acute bee paralysis virus, and black queen cell virus. Culture inoculation with IAPV from an isolate from Florida field samples, was detectable in cell cultures after two subcultures. Cell culture from hymenoptera species, such as bees, greatly advances the approaches available to the field of study on colony collapse disorders.

  2. Induction of Specific Immunotherapy with Hymenoptera Venoms Using Ultrarush Regimen in Children: Safety and Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Köhli-Wiesner, Alice; Stahlberger, Lisbeth; Bieli, Christian; Stricker, Tamar; Lauener, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective. Ultrarush induction for specific venom immunotherapy has been shown to be reliable and efficacious in adults. In this study its safety and tolerance in children was evaluated. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 102 ultrarush desensitizations carried out between 1997 and 2005 in 94 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Diagnosis and selection for immunotherapy were according to recommendations of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Systemic adverse reactions (SARs) were described using the classification of H. L. Mueller. Results. All patients reached the cumulative dose of 111.1 μg hymenoptera venom within 210 minutes. Six patients (6%) had allergic reactions grade I; 2 patients (2%) grade II and 5 patients (5%) grade III. Three patients (3%) showed unclassified reactions. SARs did not occur in the 15 patients aged 4 to 8 years and they were significantly more frequent in girls (29%) compared with boys (12%) (P = 0.034, multivariant analysis) and in bee venom extract treated patients (20%) compared to those treated with wasp venom extract (8%) (OR 0.33, 95% Cl 0.07–1.25). Conclusion. Initiation of specific immunotherapy by ultrarush regimen is safe and well tolerated in children and should be considered for treating children with allergy to hymenoptera venom. PMID:21804830

  3. Linkage analysis of sex determination in Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, A K; Strand, M R; Black, W C; Antolin, M F

    2000-01-01

    To test whether sex determination in the parasitic wasp Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is based upon a single locus or multiple loci, a linkage map was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The map includes 71 RAPD markers and one phenotypic marker, blonde. Sex was scored in a manner consistent with segregation of a single "sex locus" under complementary sex determination (CSD), which is common in haplodiploid Hymenoptera. Under haplodiploidy, males arise from unfertilized haploid eggs and females develop from fertilized diploid eggs. With CSD, females are heterozygous at the sex locus; diploids that are homozygous at the sex locus become diploid males, which are usually inviable or sterile. Ten linkage groups were formed at a minimum LOD of 3.0, with one small linkage group that included the sex locus. To locate other putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sex determination, sex was also treated as a binary threshold character. Several QTL were found after conducting permutation tests on the data, including one on linkage group I that corresponds to the major sex locus. One other QTL of smaller effect had a segregation pattern opposite to that expected under CSD, while another putative QTL showed a female-specific pattern consistent with either a sex-differentiating gene or a sex-specific deleterious mutation. Comparisons are made between this study and the in-depth studies on sex determination and sex differentiation in the closely related B. hebetor. PMID:10628981

  4. Linkage analysis of sex determination in Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Holloway, A K; Strand, M R; Black, W C; Antolin, M F

    2000-01-01

    To test whether sex determination in the parasitic wasp Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is based upon a single locus or multiple loci, a linkage map was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The map includes 71 RAPD markers and one phenotypic marker, blonde. Sex was scored in a manner consistent with segregation of a single "sex locus" under complementary sex determination (CSD), which is common in haplodiploid Hymenoptera. Under haplodiploidy, males arise from unfertilized haploid eggs and females develop from fertilized diploid eggs. With CSD, females are heterozygous at the sex locus; diploids that are homozygous at the sex locus become diploid males, which are usually inviable or sterile. Ten linkage groups were formed at a minimum LOD of 3.0, with one small linkage group that included the sex locus. To locate other putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sex determination, sex was also treated as a binary threshold character. Several QTL were found after conducting permutation tests on the data, including one on linkage group I that corresponds to the major sex locus. One other QTL of smaller effect had a segregation pattern opposite to that expected under CSD, while another putative QTL showed a female-specific pattern consistent with either a sex-differentiating gene or a sex-specific deleterious mutation. Comparisons are made between this study and the in-depth studies on sex determination and sex differentiation in the closely related B. hebetor.

  5. A new cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Adachi-Hagimori, Tetsuya; Miura, Kazuki; Stouthamer, Richard

    2008-12-07

    Vertically transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium and Rickettsia, modify host reproduction in several ways to facilitate their own spread. One such modification results in parthenogenesis induction, where males, which are unable to transmit the bacteria, are not produced. In Hymenoptera, the mechanism of diploidization due to Wolbachia infection, known as gamete duplication, is a post-meiotic modification. During gamete duplication, the meiotic mechanism is normal, but in the first mitosis the anaphase is aborted. The two haploid sets of chromosomes do not separate and thus result in a single nucleus containing two identical sets of haploid chromosomes. Here, we outline an alternative cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera. During female gamete formation in Rickettsia-infected Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitoids, meiotic cells undergo only a single equational division followed by the expulsion of a single polar body. This absence of meiotic recombination and reduction corresponds well with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females. We conclude that diploidy in N. formosa is maintained through a functionally apomictic cloning mechanism that differs entirely from the mechanism induced by Wolbachia.

  6. Assessment of potential fumigants to control Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    White, Joseph B; Park, Yong-Lak; West, Todd P; Tobin, Patrick C

    2009-12-01

    With the recent decline of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), there is a need for alternative or supplemental crop pollinators, such as Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, O. cornifrons propagation could be impeded by a cleptoparasitic mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker. We investigated the effects of formic acid and wintergreen oil on mortality of C. krombeini hypopi and O. cornifrons adults by determining the lethal concentration of each compound on each species. On average, >4.8 and >1.8 h were required to cause mortality in O. cornifrons adults when <2,473.5 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil was applied as a fumigant, respectively. When the two chemicals were directly applied to the exoskeleton of O. cornifrons adults, 353.4 ppm of wintergreen oil caused bee mortality within 10 min; however, no mortality was found with any formic acid application attempted. Mortality of C. krombeini hypopi occurred 5 and 10 min after application of >176.7 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil, respectively. Estimates of LC50 for C. krombeini hypopi treated with formic acid and wintergreen oil were 54.3 and 271.3 ppm, respectively. This study showed that C. krombeini could be controlled effectively without inducing O. cornifrons adult mortality based on concentration and duration of fumigation.

  7. The evolution of heat shock protein sequences, cis-regulatory elements, and expression profiles in the eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Andrew D; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Cahan, Sara Helms

    2016-01-19

    The eusocial Hymenoptera have radiated across a wide range of thermal environments, exposing them to significant physiological stressors. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of three families of Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp40), the primary molecular chaperones protecting against thermal damage, across 12 Hymenopteran species and four other insect orders. We also predicted and tested for thermal inducibility of eight Hsps from the presence of cis-regulatory heat shock elements (HSEs). We tested whether Hsp induction patterns in ants were associated with different thermal environments. We found evidence for duplications, losses, and cis-regulatory changes in two of the three gene families. One member of the Hsp90 gene family, hsp83, duplicated basally in the Hymenoptera, with shifts in HSE motifs in the novel copy. Both copies were retained in bees, but ants retained only the novel HSE copy. For Hsp70, Hymenoptera lack the primary heat-inducible orthologue from Drosophila melanogaster and instead induce the cognate form, hsc70-4, which also underwent an early duplication. Episodic diversifying selection was detected along the branch predating the duplication of hsc70-4 and continued along one of the paralogue branches after duplication. Four out of eight Hsp genes were heat-inducible and matched the predictions based on presence of conserved HSEs. For the inducible homologues, the more thermally tolerant species, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, had greater Hsp basal expression and induction in response to heat stress than did the less thermally tolerant species, Aphaenogaster picea. Furthermore, there was no trade-off between basal expression and induction. Our results highlight the unique evolutionary history of Hsps in eusocial Hymenoptera, which has been shaped by gains, losses, and changes in cis-regulation. Ants, and most likely other Hymenoptera, utilize lineage-specific heat inducible Hsps, whose expression patterns are associated with adaptive

  8. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. PMID:19613877

  9. Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Stefano; D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Illuminati, Ilenia; Makri, Elena; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-01-01

    In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings. An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. All patients had clinical history and allergy testing (skin tests and/or specific IgE) indicative of allergy to venom of only one kind of Hymenoptera. Of the 81 patient with LLRs, 53 were followed-up for 3 years by annual control visits, while the 396 patients with SR were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 396 patients with an SR, only 17 (4.2 %) had had a previous LLR as debut of allergy, after an history of normal local reactions to Hymenoptera stings. All the 81 patients with a history of only LLRs had previously had at least two LLRs, with an overall number of 238 stings and no SR. Among the 53 patients who were prospectively evaluated we found that 31 of them (58.3 %) were restung by the same type of insect, with an overall number of 59 stings, presenting only LLRs and no SR. Our findings confirm that patients with repeated LLRs to stings had no risk of SR, while a single LLR does not exclude such risk. This has to be considered in the management of patients with LLRs.

  10. Three new species and new distributional data for five rare species of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Li, Cheng-de

    2016-03-15

    Eight species of Aphelinus Dalman (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) from China are reviewed. Three species, A. pseudonepalensis sp. nov., A. truncaticlavus sp. nov. and A. maculigaster sp. nov. are newly described, four species, A. meghalayanus Hayat, A. huberi Hayat, A. sharpae Hayat, and A. maculatus Yasnosh are reported as new to China, and A. asychis Walker is newly reported from Tibet, China. A key to the Chinese species of Aphelinus based on females is given.

  11. Recombinant phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom for improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Seismann, Henning; Blank, Simon; Cifuentes, Liliana; Braren, Ingke; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Grunwald, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Spillner, Edzard

    2010-04-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Proper diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivities. Although non-glycosylated marker allergens would facilitate the identification of the culprit venom, the major allergen phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom (YJV) remained unavailable so far. Expression of Ves v 1 as wild type and enzymatically inactivated mutant and Ves v 5 in insect cells yielded soluble proteins that were purified via affinity chromatography. Functionality of the recombinant allergens was assessed by enzymatic and biophysical analyses as well as basophil activation tests. Diagnostic relevance was addressed by ELISA-based analyses of sera of YJV-sensitized patients. Both major allergens Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 could be produced in insect cells in secreted soluble form. The recombinant proteins exhibited their particular biochemical and functional characteristics and were capable for activation of human basophils. Assessment of IgE reactivity of sera of YJV-sensitized and double-sensitized patients emphasised the relevance of Ves v 1 in hymenoptera venom allergy. In contrast to the use of singular molecules the combined use of both molecules enabled a reliable assignment of sensitisation to YJV for more than 90% of double-sensitised patients. The recombinant availability of Ves v 1 from yellow jacket venom will contribute to a more detailed understanding of the molecular and allergological mechanisms of insect venoms and may provide a valuable tool for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy.

  12. Recombinant phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom for improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Proper diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivities. Although non-glycosylated marker allergens would facilitate the identification of the culprit venom, the major allergen phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom (YJV) remained unavailable so far. Methods Expression of Ves v 1 as wild type and enzymatically inactivated mutant and Ves v 5 in insect cells yielded soluble proteins that were purified via affinity chromatography. Functionality of the recombinant allergens was assessed by enzymatic and biophysical analyses as well as basophil activation tests. Diagnostic relevance was addressed by ELISA-based analyses of sera of YJV-sensitized patients. Results Both major allergens Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 could be produced in insect cells in secreted soluble form. The recombinant proteins exhibited their particular biochemical and functional characteristics and were capable for activation of human basophils. Assessment of IgE reactivity of sera of YJV-sensitized and double-sensitized patients emphasised the relevance of Ves v 1 in hymenoptera venom allergy. In contrast to the use of singular molecules the combined use of both molecules enabled a reliable assignment of sensitisation to YJV for more than 90% of double-sensitised patients. Conclusions The recombinant availability of Ves v 1 from yellow jacket venom will contribute to a more detailed understanding of the molecular and allergological mechanisms of insect venoms and may provide a valuable tool for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy. PMID:20359368

  13. Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) from the Palaearctic Region and new records of species from China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junli; Kula, Robert R; Wharton, Robert A; Chen, Jiahua

    2015-05-14

    Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae), T. gymnonotum Yao sp. n., T. similis Yao sp. n., T. areolata Yao sp. n., and T. lineata Yao sp. n., are described from the Palaearctic Region of China, and T. chors Belokobylskij is newly recorded from China. Significant range extensions are given for T. bicolor (Nees von Esenbeck), T. gracilicornis (Nees von Esenbeck), and T. mitis Stelfox. A key to the Palaearctic species of Tanycarpa is provided.

  14. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526

  15. The genus Trachionus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) new for China, with description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qian; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Jiang-Li; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The genus Trachionus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini) is reported for the first time from China. The genus is represented by four new species from Shaanxi province (NW China), which are described and illustrated. An identification key to the species in China is presented, a key to the genera of the Trachionus group and notes on the relationships with other Palaearctic species are added.

  16. A review of unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankita; Shaw, Mark; Cardinal, Sophie; Fernandez-Triana, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength are reviewed. One new species, Cotesia trabalae sp. n. is described from India and compared with Cotesia pistrinariae (Wilkinson) from Africa, the only other species sharing the same character of all the described species worldwide. The generic placement of these two species, based on molecular and morphological analyses as well as parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27110207

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy: comparative study between specific IgE, western blot and allergen leukocyte stimulation (CAST).

    PubMed

    Santos, M C Pereira; Carlos, M L Palma; Pedro, E; Carlos, A G Palma

    2002-01-01

    Allergy to hymenoptera venom is a classical IgE mediated disease with a potentially fatal course. Specific venom immunotherapy (SIT) is the most effective mean of treating this serious condition, after the diagnosis has been clearly established by a clinical history, in-vivo and in vitro tests. We have evaluated the usefulness of a cellular test (CAST) which is a recently developed ELISA method based on the evaluation of sulfidoleukotriene secretion by leukocytes stimulated with specific antigen. We also evaluated the correlation of CAST with skin tests, specific IgE (sIgE) and western blot for sIgE for hymenoptera venom sIgE. We have included in this study 14 patients, with a clinical history suggestive of hymenoptera venom allergy. None of them had previously been subjected to immunotherapy. A good correlation was obtained between skin tests, sIgE and western blot. However, there was no correlation between these methods and CAST. We conclude that the positivity of CAST method raises some questions about other mechanisms, which maybe non-IgE dependent. Although the number of patients in this study is quite small, the immunoblot analysis may be a valuable additional method in insect venom allergy.

  18. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area—volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area—volume ratios. PMID:28384308

  19. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  20. Multiple paternity or multiple queens: two routes to greater intracolonial genetic diversity in the eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W; Oldroyd, B P

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the evolution of multiple mating by females (polyandry) is an important question in behavioural ecology. Most leading explanations for polyandry by social insect queens are based upon a postulated fitness benefit from increased intracolonial genetic diversity, which also arises when colonies are headed by multiple queens (polygyny). An indirect test of the genetic diversity hypotheses is therefore provided by the relationship between polyandry and polygyny across species, which should be negative if the genetic diversity hypotheses are correct. Here, we conduct a powerful comparative investigation of the relationship between polyandry and polygyny for 241 species of eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). We find a clear and significant negative relationship between polyandry and polygyny after controlling for phylogeny. These results strongly suggest that fitness benefits resulting from increased intracolonial genetic diversity have played an important role in the evolution of polyandry, and possibly polygyny, in social insects.

  1. Two new species of Prionomastix Mayr (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) with a key to Indian species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Species of Prionomastix Mayr were not known from India when Manickavasagam and Rameshkumar 2011 and Rameshkumar and Poorani 2015 misidentified a new species as P. siccarius. Now it is corrected by explaining the characters as to why it is new and not P. siccarius along with another new species. As we have one another new species, P. orientialis, described by Rameshkumar and Poorani 2015 our two new species are compared with P. orientalis also. New information Two new species of Prionomastix Mayr (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), one from Bihar state and the other from Tamil Nadu state, India, are described viz., P. tamilnadensis sp. nov and P. biharensis sp. nov. and a key to all known Indian species is provided. PMID:27563277

  2. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps.

  3. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment

    PubMed Central

    Bertone, Matthew A.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Seltmann, Katja C.; Balhoff, James P.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group’s anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process. Database URL: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/hao/2012-07-18/arthropod-mappings.obo PMID:23303300

  4. Parasitoids of the eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Huang, Zong-You; Dong, Dan; Guo, Chun-Hui; Li, Jun; Yang, Zhen-De; Yang, Xiu-Hao; Lu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) is an invasive pest in Eucalyptus plantations throughout the world. Potential biological control agents for L. invasa were investigated in the Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Sichuan provinces of China, where Eucalyptus spp. have been severely damaged by the eucalyptus gall wasp. Three hymenopteran parasitoids of L. invasa were identified: Quadrastichus mendeli Kim & La Salle (Eulophidae), Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu (Eulophidae), and Megastigmus viggianii Narendran & Sureshan (Torymidae); M. viggianii is newly recorded in China. The percentages of parasitization by Q. mendeli, A. causalis, and M. viggianii were 2.96%–19.53%, 2.30%–26.38%, and 24.93%, respectively. The longevity and body length of females were significantly greater than for males in A. causalis and M. viggianii. No males of Q. mendeli were found in China. These parasitoids could be used as biological agents for L. invasa in China. PMID:28000590

  5. A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Patricia L; Kawada, Ricardo; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and Evaniscus rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under Evaniscus rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented with Evaniscus tibialis and Evaniscus rafaeli as sister to the remaining Evaniscus species. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other relevant biomedical ontologies are employed to create semantic phenotype statements in Entity-Quality (EQ) format for species descriptions. This approach is an early effort to formalize species descriptions and to make descriptive data available to other domains.

  6. Revision of the Palaearctic Gasteruption assectator aggregate, with special reference to Sweden (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Niklas; van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic species of the Gasteruption assectator aggregate (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae) are revised and three species are recognised. Two species are re-instated: Gasteruption boreale (Thomson, 1883), stat. n. and Gasteruption nigritarse (Thomson, 1883), stat. n., and both are excluded from the synonymy with Gasteruption assectator (Linnaeus, 1758). The general distribution of both species is given for Europe and in detail for Sweden. A key to the valid Palaearctic species of the Gasteruption assectator aggregate is given; key characters and primary types are illustrated. Four new synonyms are listed: Foenus fumipennis Thomson, 1883, Trichofoenus breviterebrae Watanabe, 1934, and Gasteruption margotae Madl, 1987, are synonymized with Gasteruption boreale (Thomson, 1883) and Gasteruption brevicauda Kieffer, 1904, with Gasteruption undulatum (Abeille de Perrin, 1879). PMID:27667942

  7. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera) if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses. PMID:24891824

  8. Larvae of Ixodiphagus wasps (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra Santos, Marcos Antônio; de Macedo, Lucia Oliveira; de Souza, Islanne Barbosa; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2017-03-21

    The biological control of ticks represents an alternative method to the chemical control, given its ecological-friendly approach. Amongst the alternatives, the use of parasitoids of the genus Ixodiphagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to document and molecularly characterize Ixodiphagus wasps in ticks from a tropical region of Brazil. From October 2015 to March 2016, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (n=1814) were collected from naturally infested dogs and Ixodiphagus larvae were detected by microscopic examination. In addition, adult wasps were obtained in the laboratory. Larvae and adults were molecularly identified as Ixodiphagus hookeri. These findings suggest that this type of parasitism deserves to be studied in local tick populations, in order to elucidate the role of these wasps as a potential alternative to chemical tick control.

  9. A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Patricia L.; Kawada, Ricardo; Balhoff, James P.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and Evaniscus rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under Evaniscus rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented with Evaniscus tibialis and Evaniscus rafaeli as sister to the remaining Evaniscus species. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other relevant biomedical ontologies are employed to create semantic phenotype statements in Entity-Quality (EQ) format for species descriptions. This approach is an early effort to formalize species descriptions and to make descriptive data available to other domains. PMID:23166458

  10. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Matthew A; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Seltmann, Katja C; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group's anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process.

  11. Changes in follicular cells architecture during vitellogenin transport in the ovary of social Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ronnau, Milton; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Gonçlaves, Wagner Gonzaga; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Vitellogenins are the major yolk proteins, synthesized in the fat body, released into the hemolymph and captured by the developing oocytes, but the mechanisms by which these proteins cross the follicular cell layer are still poorly understood. This study describes the actin distribution in follicular cells during vitellogenin transport to the oocyte in social Hymenoptera represented by bees Apis mellifera and Melipona quadrifasciata, the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga and the ant Pachycondyla curvinodis. In oocytic chambers of vitellogenic follicles, vitellogenin was found within the follicular cells, perivitelline space and oocyte, indicating a transcellular route from the hemolymph to the perivitelline space. The cortical actin cytoskeleton in follicular cells underwent reorganization during transport of vitellogenin across this epithelium suggesting that in the ovary of social hymenopterans, vitellogenin delivery to oocytes requires a dynamic cytoskeletal rearrangement of actin filaments in the follicular cells.

  12. Wolbachia Infections Responsible for Thelytoky in Dryinid Wasps. The Case of Gonatopus bonaerensis Virla (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae).

    PubMed

    Espinosa, M S; Virla, E G; Cuozzo, S

    2017-08-01

    We studied the occurrence of Wolbachia in the parasitoid Gonatopus bonaerensis Virla (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). In order to verify the existence of natural infections in the parasitoid, a field survey was conducted. Identification of Wolbachia was performed on the basis of 16S rDNA, wsp_F1, and wsp_R1-sequences. After the detection of the bacteria, infected specimens of G. bonaerensis were treated with a solution of tetracycline. In Tucumán, parasitoids hold Wolbachia endosymbiont, which seems to control the wasp's reproduction in the nature turning it into thelytokous. The symbiont was identified as the Wolbachia sp. wRi strain. The cure of infected unfertilized females determined the normal arrhenotokous parthenogenesis and the production of male offspring. As a consequence of this procedure, the male of G. bonaerensis is described for the first time.

  13. Lymphocyte-mediated regulation of platelet activation during desensitization in patients with hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Ledru, E; Pestel, J; Tsicopoulos, A; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A

    1988-01-01

    T cells from peripheral blood of hymenoptera sensitive patients were studied before and after venom desensitization. Before treatment, T cells showed a variable but higher proliferative response to allergen than T cells of treated patients or controls. While before desensitization, T cell products, specifically released after in vitro allergen stimulation, were able to amplify the IgE-dependent platelet activity, we showed that after treatment of the same patients, T cell products strongly reduced platelet activation. Considering the modifications in platelet activation previously observed in patients treated by specific immunotherapy, the present results suggest that, through a modification of T cell reactivity to allergen, T cell functions are modulated by desensitization, and emphasize the involvement of T cell products in the desensitization mechanisms. PMID:3263227

  14. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera) on aphids (Hemiptera) infesting citrus in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Satar, Serdar; Satar, Gül; Karacaoğlu, Mehmet; Uygun, Nedim; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2014-01-01

    The aphids, aphid parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids found in citrus orchards, the parasitoids' and hyperparasitoids' seasonal abundance, and the plant-aphid-parasitoid relationships in Hatay, Osmaniye, Adana, and Mersin provinces of the east Mediterranean region of Turkey are presented in the present 2-yr study. Aphidius colemani Viereck, Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday), and Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) were encountered as the most common parasitoids among 10 identified aphidiine and aphelinid taxa on different citrus species. Hyperparasitoids belonging to the genera Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis, Asaphes, Pachyneuron, Syrphophagus, and Dendrocerus are reported for the first time emerging from aphids feeding on citrus in Turkey. Among them, Asaphes spp., Pachyneuron spp., and Syrphophagus spp. were recorded as the most common ones. Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. were recorded as main hosts for the aphid parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. [Round Table: Urticaria caused by arthropod bites and stings (excluding Hymenoptera)].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Molero, M I

    1999-01-01

    Adverse reactions to arthropod bites (hymenoptera excluded) can be faced with systemic reactions and local reaction. Among the numerous families of arthropods the species most commonly responsible are mosquitoes,. flea, horsefly and tick. In this article we explain the characteristics of reaction caused by arthropods and the mechanisms proposed. An IgE mechanism is incriminated in severe anaphylactic reactions. Various mechanisms have been proposed for local reactions. In order to know the incidence of sensitization and cross-reactivity with other arthropods, we have done a study where we have found that 31% of patients with reaction to mosquito bite had sensitization to Aedes communis and 53% of this group also had sensitization to other arthropods, probably due to a cross-reactivity.

  16. Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants.

  17. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  18. Rampant host switching and multiple female body colour transitions in Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z-F; Huang, D-W; Chen, L-L; Zhen, W-Q; Fu, Y-G; Peng, Z-Q

    2006-07-01

    Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and their associated fig waSPS (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea and Agaonidae) have attracted much attention and have been used as a model system for many studies. Fig waSPS belonging to the genus Philotrypesis are very common in most figs but their taxonomy, ecology and biology are currently poorly explored. A previous study on African Philotrypesis showed that their host association is phylogenetically conserved at subsection level. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny with extended sampling from seven sections of figs. Our study suggested that the diversification of Philotrypesis is less constrained by host figs. Host switching is rampant between figs at species level and even at section level. We also investigated the evolution of the body colour forms in female Philotrypesis. Our study first suggested that female body colour is not evolutionarily stable and that there have been multiple transitions. Possible mechanisms for multiple colour transitions are expected to be determined in the near future.

  19. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  20. A review of the New World species of the parasitoid wasp Iconella (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Triana, José L.; Cardinal, Sophie; Whitfield, James B.; Winnie Hallwachs; Smith, M. Alex; Janzenr, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of Iconella (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) are revised. Iconella andydeansi Fernández-Triana, sp. n., Iconella canadensis Fernández-Triana, sp. n., and Iconella jayjayrodriguezae Fernández-Triana, sp. n., are described as new. Iconella isolata (Muesebeck, 1955), stat. r., previously considered as a subspecies of Iconella etiellae (Viereck, 1911), is here elevated to species rank. All species have different, well defined geographic distributions and hosts. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous hardcopy versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, host records (mostly Lepidoptera: Crambidae and Pyralidae), and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. Phylogenetic analyses of the barcoding region of COI indicate the possibility that Iconella is not monophyletic and that the New World species may not form a monophyletic group; more data is needed to resolve this issue. PMID:23950690

  1. Occurrence of Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Whittle, Alice; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Wall, Richard; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Natural enemies of ticks include the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the occurrence of I. hookeri DNA in a community of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Rhipicephalus turanicus). From May 2010 to March 2012, ticks were collected monthly by dragging and flagging, identified, and 481 adults and 305 nymphs screened molecularly for infection with I. hookeri. Of the samples tested (n=786), 3.1% (n=25) were positive for I. hookeri DNA, 7.2% (n=22) in nymphs and 0.6% (n=3) in adults. I. hookeri DNA was only detected in I. ricinus. This study shows that I. hookeri infests I. ricinus in southern Italy, with nymphs being the main developmental stage affected by this wasp.

  2. Histamine-immunoreactive local neurons in the antennal lobes of the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Reisenman, Carolina E.; Paulk, Angelique C.; Nighorn, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Neural networks receive input which is transformed before being sent as output to higher centers of processing. These transformations are often mediated by local interneurons (LNs) that influence output based on activity across the network. In primary olfactory centers, the LNs that mediate these lateral interactions are extremely diverse. For instance, the antennal lobes (ALs) of bumble bees possess both GABA and histamine-immunoreactive (HA-ir) LNs, and both are neurotransmitters associated with fast forms of inhibition. Although the GABAergic network of the AL has been extensively studied, we sought to examine the anatomical features of the HA-ir LNs in relation to the other cellular elements of the bumble bee AL. As a population, HA-ir LNs densely innervate the glomerular core while sparsely arborizing in the outer glomerular rind, overlapping with the terminals of olfactory receptor neurons. Individual fills of HA-ir LNs revealed heavy arborization of the outer ring of a single “principal” glomerulus and sparse arborization in the core of other glomeruli. In contrast, projection neurons, and GABA-immunoreactive LNs project throughout the glomerular volume. To provide insight as to the selective pressures that resulted in the evolution of HA-ir LNs, we determined the phylogenetic distribution of HA-ir LNs in the AL. HA-ir LNs were present in all but the most basal hymenopteran examined, although there were significant morphological differences between major groups within the Hymenoptera. The ALs of other insect taxa examined lacked HA-ir LNs, suggesting that this population of LNs arose within the Hymenoptera and underwent extensive morphological modification. PMID:20533353

  3. A Semantic Model for Species Description Applied to the Ensign Wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) of New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Balhoff, James P.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Mullins, Patricia L.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic descriptions are unparalleled sources of knowledge of life's phenotypic diversity. As natural language prose, these data sets are largely refractory to computation and integration with other sources of phenotypic data. By formalizing taxonomic descriptions using ontology-based semantic representation, we aim to increase the reusability and computability of taxonomists' primary data. Here, we present a revision of the ensign wasp (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) fauna of New Caledonia using this new model for species description. Descriptive matrices, specimen data, and taxonomic nomenclature are gathered in a unified Web-based application, mx, then exported as both traditional taxonomic treatments and semantic statements using the OWL Web Ontology Language. Character:character-state combinations are then annotated following the entity–quality phenotype model, originally developed to represent mutant model organism phenotype data; concepts of anatomy are drawn from the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and linked to phenotype descriptors from the Phenotypic Quality Ontology. The resulting set of semantic statements is provided in Resource Description Framework format. Applying the model to real data, that is, specimens, taxonomic names, diagnoses, descriptions, and redescriptions, provides us with a foundation to discuss limitations and potential benefits such as automated data integration and reasoner-driven queries. Four species of ensign wasp are now known to occur in New Caledonia: Szepligetella levipetiolata, Szepligetella deercreeki Deans and Mikó sp. nov., Szepligetella irwini Deans and Mikó sp. nov., and the nearly cosmopolitan Evania appendigaster. A fifth species, Szepligetella sericea, including Szepligetella impressa, syn. nov., has not yet been collected in New Caledonia but can be found on islands throughout the Pacific and so is included in the diagnostic key. [Biodiversity informatics; Evaniidae; New Caledonia; new species; ontology; semantic

  4. Sensitization to Hymenoptera venoms is common, but systemic sting reactions are rare.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gunter J; Kranzelbinder, Bettina; Schuster, Christian; Sturm, Eva M; Bokanovic, Danijela; Vollmann, Jutta; Crailsheim, Karl; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Aberer, Werner

    2014-06-01

    Sensitization to Hymenoptera venom without systemic sting reactions (SSRs) is commonly observed in the general population. Clinical relevance for a future sting has not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of these debatable sensitizations with deliberate sting challenges and to monitor serologic changes for up to 2 years. One hundred thirty-one challenges with bees and wasps were performed in 94 subjects with a hitherto irrelevant sensitization. The clinical outcome was recorded, and results of specific IgE (sIgE) determinations, skin tests, and basophil activation tests were correlated to the sting reaction. sIgE levels were monitored in reactors and nonreactors after 3 hours, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 1 year. Only 5 (5.3%) patients had SSRs, but 41 (43.6%) had large local reactions (LLRs) after the sting. Compared with the general population, there was a 9.5-fold higher risk for LLRs but not for SSRs. Three hours after the sting, sIgE levels slightly decreased, but none of the 94 subjects' results turned negative. After 1 week, sIgE levels already increased, increasing up to 3.5-fold (range, 0.2- to 34.0-fold) baseline levels after 4 weeks. To assess the clinical relevance of this increase, we randomly selected 18 patients for a re-sting. Again, 50% had an LLR, but none had an SSR. Although sensitization to Hymenoptera venoms was common, the risk of SSRs in sensitized subjects was low in our study. The sIgE level increase after the sting was not an indicator for conversion into symptomatic sensitization. Currently available tests were not able to distinguish between asymptomatic sensitization, LLRs, and SSRs. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecological constraints related to foraging are expected to affect the evolution of morphological traits relevant to food capture, manipulation and transport. Females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera vary in their food load manipulation ability. Bees and social wasps modulate the amount of food taken per foraging trip (in terms of e.g. number of pollen grains or parts of prey), while solitary wasps carry exclusively entire prey items. We hypothesized that the foraging constraints acting on females of the latter species, imposed by the upper limit to the load size they are able to transport in flight, should promote the evolution of a greater load-lifting capacity and manoeuvrability, specifically in terms of greater flight muscle to body mass ratio and lower wing loading. Results Our comparative study of 28 species confirms that, accounting for shared ancestry, female flight muscle ratio was significantly higher and wing loading lower in species taking entire prey compared to those that are able to modulate load size. Body mass had no effect on flight muscle ratio, though it strongly and negatively co-varied with wing loading. Across species, flight muscle ratio and wing loading were negatively correlated, suggesting coevolution of these traits. Conclusions Natural selection has led to the coevolution of resource load manipulation ability and morphological traits affecting flying ability with additional loads in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera. Release from load-carrying constraints related to foraging, which took place with the evolution of food load manipulation ability, has selected against the maintenance of a powerful flight apparatus. This could be the case since investment in flight muscles may have to be traded against other life-history traits, such as reproductive investment. PMID:23805850

  6. Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Carlo; Crottini, Angelica; Della Venezia, Lidia; Selfa, Jesús; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2013-06-28

    Ecological constraints related to foraging are expected to affect the evolution of morphological traits relevant to food capture, manipulation and transport. Females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera vary in their food load manipulation ability. Bees and social wasps modulate the amount of food taken per foraging trip (in terms of e.g. number of pollen grains or parts of prey), while solitary wasps carry exclusively entire prey items. We hypothesized that the foraging constraints acting on females of the latter species, imposed by the upper limit to the load size they are able to transport in flight, should promote the evolution of a greater load-lifting capacity and manoeuvrability, specifically in terms of greater flight muscle to body mass ratio and lower wing loading. Our comparative study of 28 species confirms that, accounting for shared ancestry, female flight muscle ratio was significantly higher and wing loading lower in species taking entire prey compared to those that are able to modulate load size. Body mass had no effect on flight muscle ratio, though it strongly and negatively co-varied with wing loading. Across species, flight muscle ratio and wing loading were negatively correlated, suggesting coevolution of these traits. Natural selection has led to the coevolution of resource load manipulation ability and morphological traits affecting flying ability with additional loads in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera. Release from load-carrying constraints related to foraging, which took place with the evolution of food load manipulation ability, has selected against the maintenance of a powerful flight apparatus. This could be the case since investment in flight muscles may have to be traded against other life-history traits, such as reproductive investment.

  7. A semantic model for species description applied to the ensign wasps (hymenoptera: evaniidae) of New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Balhoff, James P; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Mullins, Patricia L; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic descriptions are unparalleled sources of knowledge of life's phenotypic diversity. As natural language prose, these data sets are largely refractory to computation and integration with other sources of phenotypic data. By formalizing taxonomic descriptions using ontology-based semantic representation, we aim to increase the reusability and computability of taxonomists' primary data. Here, we present a revision of the ensign wasp (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) fauna of New Caledonia using this new model for species description. Descriptive matrices, specimen data, and taxonomic nomenclature are gathered in a unified Web-based application, mx, then exported as both traditional taxonomic treatments and semantic statements using the OWL Web Ontology Language. Character:character-state combinations are then annotated following the entity-quality phenotype model, originally developed to represent mutant model organism phenotype data; concepts of anatomy are drawn from the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and linked to phenotype descriptors from the Phenotypic Quality Ontology. The resulting set of semantic statements is provided in Resource Description Framework format. Applying the model to real data, that is, specimens, taxonomic names, diagnoses, descriptions, and redescriptions, provides us with a foundation to discuss limitations and potential benefits such as automated data integration and reasoner-driven queries. Four species of ensign wasp are now known to occur in New Caledonia: Szepligetella levipetiolata, Szepligetella deercreeki Deans and Mikó sp. nov., Szepligetella irwini Deans and Mikó sp. nov., and the nearly cosmopolitan Evania appendigaster. A fifth species, Szepligetella sericea, including Szepligetella impressa, syn. nov., has not yet been collected in New Caledonia but can be found on islands throughout the Pacific and so is included in the diagnostic key.

  8. Population structure and survival in a solitary wasp (Microbembex cubana: Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Nyssoninae).

    PubMed

    Toft, C A

    1987-09-01

    This paper documents population structure in a solitary wasp, Microbembex cubana (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Nyssoninae), on a small (15 km(2)) Bahamian island. A relatively isolated portion of this population was studied April-June 1985. The population comprised small aggregations of territorial males and nesting females. Individuals of both sexes were with rare exceptions faithful to a "home" aggregation during their one- to two-month adult lifespans, conducting all reproductive activities there. Individuals from different aggregations, however, mixed daily during these activities: feeding on nectar, hunting for provisions and retiring to clustered sleeping burrows. Significant variation occurred among the nine breeding aggregations in size, density, sex-ratio (which was on average 2:1 in favor of males) and survival (which was 0.93-0.99 per individual/per day and which was not higher for females than for males). Aggregations retained the same characteristics for longer than the life expectancies of individuals in them.Factors affecting reproductive success and survivorship in M. cubana are complex: they are apparently only partially overlapping between males and females and subject to spatial variation. Patterns in the data suggest several hypotheses about how behavior, morphology and habitat interact to shape population processes. I propose that aggregations arise and are characterized by considerable behavioral inertia because individual M. cubana use conspecifics as sources of information on resource quality. Because M. cubana occurs in secondary habitats, individuals retain flexibility in responding to better opportunities for reproduction, but this population exhibits more viscosity than reported for other ground-nesting solitary Hymenoptera.

  9. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded

    PubMed Central

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  10. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded.

    PubMed

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  11. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera); two species were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North Ame...

  12. Two new species of mites of the genera Petalomium Cross and Caesarodispus Mahunka (acari: Heterostigmata:Neopygmephoridae, Microdispidae) associated with Solenopsis Invicta Buren (hymenoptera: Formicdae) from the U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Alexandr A. Khaustov; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites, Petalomium hofstetteri n. sp.(Neopygmephoridae) and Caesarodispus klepzigi n. sp. (Microdispidae), associated with the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are described from Louisiana, U.S.A.

  13. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  14. Target enrichment of ultraconserved elements from arthropods provides a genomic perspective on relationships among Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Faircloth, Brant C; Branstetter, Michael G; White, Noor D; Brady, Seán G

    2015-05-01

    Gaining a genomic perspective on phylogeny requires the collection of data from many putatively independent loci across the genome. Among insects, an increasingly common approach to collecting this class of data involves transcriptome sequencing, because few insects have high-quality genome sequences available; assembling new genomes remains a limiting factor; the transcribed portion of the genome is a reasonable, reduced subset of the genome to target; and the data collected from transcribed portions of the genome are similar in composition to the types of data with which biologists have traditionally worked (e.g. exons). However, molecular techniques requiring RNA as a template, including transcriptome sequencing, are limited to using very high-quality source materials, which are often unavailable from a large proportion of biologically important insect samples. Recent research suggests that DNA-based target enrichment of conserved genomic elements offers another path to collecting phylogenomic data across insect taxa, provided that conserved elements are present in and can be collected from insect genomes. Here, we identify a large set (n = 1510) of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) shared among the insect order Hymenoptera. We used in silico analyses to show that these loci accurately reconstruct relationships among genome-enabled hymenoptera, and we designed a set of RNA baits (n = 2749) for enriching these loci that researchers can use with DNA templates extracted from a variety of sources. We used our UCE bait set to enrich an average of 721 UCE loci from 30 hymenopteran taxa, and we used these UCE loci to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships spanning very old (≥220 Ma) to very young (≤1 Ma) divergences among hymenopteran lineages. In contrast to a recent study addressing hymenopteran phylogeny using transcriptome data, we found ants to be sister to all remaining aculeate lineages with complete support, although this result could be explained by

  15. The role of selected soil fauna as predators of Apethymus abdominalis Lep. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in oak forests in the District Caiuti, Romania

    Treesearch

    C. Ciornei; N. Popa; L. Ciuca; C. Rang

    2003-01-01

    The present study was initiated in 2001 in the oak forests from Trotus valley (Forest District Caiucti - Bacau, Romania) which were heavily infested by oak sawflies Apethymus abdominalis Lep. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), in order to understand better the role of soil-inhabitating predators in population regulation of this pest.

  16. The genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with an emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (...

  17. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  18. A new species of Oozetetes De Santis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae) from Colombia with an updated key for the bucheri species-group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Benavides, A Lucia; Serna, Francisco; Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-02-26

    Oozetetes lucidus sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is described from Colombia, South America, and through macrophotography compared with all described species in the bucheri species-group of Oozetetes De Santis. An illustrated key modified from Gibson (2004) is provided to distinguish females of the six described species of this group.

  19. Taxonomic and behavioral components of faunal comparisons over time: The bees of Boulder County past and present (Colorado, USA) (Hymenoptera: Anthophila)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historical and recent studies of Boulder County, Colorado (USA) bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) illustrate the potential and the pitfalls of using comparative collection data to evaluate faunal composition and change over time. A compilation of bee records from Boulder Co., CO (USA) (Scott et al., 2...

  20. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  1. A new species of Pediobius (hymenoptera: eulophidae) parasitizing Chyliza apicalis (Diptera: Psilidae) in ash trees attacked by Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Treesearch

    Michael W. Gates; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Michael E. Schauff

    2005-01-01

    Pediobius chylizae, spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described as new and illustrated. This parasitoid has been reared from the puparia of Chyliza apicalis Loew (Diptera: Psilidae) collected from under the bark of ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus spp.) dying after attack by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleptera: Buprestidae), an invasive...

  2. Molecular markers discriminate closely related species, Encarsia diaspidicola and E. berlesei (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Biocontrol candidate agents for white peach scale in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozetti (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), is a serious economic pest of papaya in Hawaii. The endoparasitoid Encarsia diaspidicola Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was imported from Samoa into quarantine in Hawaii to be evaluated for potential r...

  3. New host record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid of Microdon sp. larvae associated with the ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The host of Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) is newly reported as Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a genus of obligatory myrmecophilous fly that predates ant brood, in this case Camponotus sp. aff. textor, in southern Mexico. The biology of Microdon spp. is reported as is that o...

  4. First discovery of the family Tanaostigmatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from China with a description of a new gall-making species utilizing kudzu leaves

    Treesearch

    Yang Zhong-qi; Sun Jiang-hua; James P. Pitts

    2004-01-01

    A new species of Tanaostigmodes (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae) is described from China- Tanaostigmodes puerariae sp. nov. This is the first record of this family in China. This new species has potential as a biological control agent for control of kudzu, Pueraria lobate, in the U.S., because its...

  5. The Basophil Activation Test Is Not a Useful Screening Tool for Hymenoptera Venom-Related Anaphylaxis in Patients with Systemic Mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Mark J A; Schreurs, Marco W J; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; van Daele, Paul L A; Hermans, Maud A W

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients are at a high risk for anaphylaxis, with Hymenoptera as the main culprit. A screening instrument to identify which patients are sensitized to Hymenoptera before they experience anaphylaxis would therefore be of great value. The basophil activation test (BAT) is proposed as a possible tool for diagnosing Hymenoptera venom-related allergy (HVA), especially in patients in whom conventional allergy tests yield contradictory results. We included outpatients with SM, according to WHO criteria, from September 2011 to January 2012. Next, to obtain various clinical data including intradermal test results, specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) measurements and BAT were performed. We included 29 patients, 9 of whom had a history of HVA and 4 of whom had experienced anaphylaxis due to other triggers. Sixteen patients had no history of anaphylaxis. sIgE was detected in 6 patients with HVA and in 2 patients with anaphylaxis due to other triggers. The BAT was positive in only 1 patient, in whom the skin test and sIgE were also positive. Compared to patients with skin lesions, those without skin lesions had significantly more anaphylaxis and sIgE to Hymenoptera. During a 3-year follow-up, no one experienced new anaphylactic episodes. The BAT is not a reliable tool for randomly screening SM patients for HVA. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

    Treesearch

    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  7. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France

    Treesearch

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques

    1991-01-01

    The within-cone distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, infesting Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] cones from north-central France was compared with that in samples from California. Results indicate that the mid-region of cones was more intensively...

  8. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  9. A new species and additional records of the genus Collyria Schiødte, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yurtcan, Murat; Kolarov, Janko

    2015-07-09

    A new species, Collyria pronotalis Yurtcan and Kolarov sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Collyriinae), from Turkey is described and illustrated. A key for identification of the species of Collyria Schiødte, 1839 is provided. Moreover, additional records are reported for Collyria coxator (Villers, 1789) from Turkey.

  10. Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Te...

  11. Biological Control of Fenusa pusilla (Birch Leafminer) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in the Northeastern United States: A thirty-four year perspective on efficacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parasitoid releases against Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in eastern North America began in 1974, with releases in eastern Canada, followed by others in the Middle Atlantic States and New England. Of four parasitoids released, only one – the ichneumonid Lathrolestes nigri...

  12. Comparison of the host searching and oviposition behaviors of the tephtitid (Diptera) parasitoids Aganaspis pelleranoi and Odontosema anastrephae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, Eucoilinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared the host-searching and oviposition behaviors of two Neotropical figitid parasitoids (Hymenoptera) that exploit the same resource: ripe fruit infested by fruit fly larvae (Tephritidae) that have fallen to the ground. Sexually mature Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes) and Odontosema anastreph...

  13. Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Treesearch

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Michael D. Ulyshen; Juli R. Gould; Roy. Van Driesche

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). To measure parasitism by

  14. Test of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone to protect trap trees for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from attacks by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Kevin Dodds; Daniel Miller

    2010-01-01

    Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an invasive woodwasp, currently established in northeastern North America. In other regions of the world, stressed trap trees are used to monitor populations of S. noctilio and to provide inoculation points for the biological control nematode Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. However, the operational use of trap trees for S....

  15. Brachymeria koehleri (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a Hyperparasitoid of Lespesia melloi (Diptera: Tachinidae) Pupae in Thagona tibialis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Caterpillars in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hyperparasitoids use the offspring of other parasitoids for their development, which can reduce the efficiency of biological control. The aim of this study was to present the first report of hyperparasitoidism by Brachymeria koehleri Blanchard, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in pupae of Lespesia s...

  16. Taxonomic and behavioral composition of an island fauna: A survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) on Martha’s Vineyard (Dukes County, Massachusetts, USA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An intensive survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) on Martha’s Vineyard, the largest offshore island in Massachusetts, USA, was conducted mostly from 2010-2011 at over 60 sites across the island’s six towns. We document 181 bee species in 31 genera and six families, and historical record...

  17. Effects of venom immunotherapy on serum level of CCL5/RANTES in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Glück, Joanna; Jawor, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Venom immunotherapy is a recommended treatment of insect allergy with still the mechanism not being completely understood. We decided to assess the serum CCL5/RANTES level in patients who experienced severe anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera venom and to find out changes in the course of immunotherapy. Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women, mean age: 31.91 ± 7.63 years) with history of anaphylactic reaction after insect sting were included into the study. Diagnosis was made according to sIgE and skin tests. All of them were enrolled into rush venom immunotherapy with bee or wasp venom extracts (Pharmalgen, ALK-Abello, Horsholm, Denmark). Serum levels of CCL5/RANTES were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). CCL5/RANTES serum concentration are higher in insect venom allergic patients than in healthy controls (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 387.27 ± 85.11 pg/ml). Serum concentration of CCL5/RANTES in insect venom allergic patient was significantly reduced in the course of allergen immunotherapy already after 6 days of vaccination (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 567.32 ± 92.16 pg/ml). CCL5/RANTES serum doesn't correlate with specific IgE. Chemokine CCL5/RANTES participates in allergic inflammation induced by Hymenoptera venom allergens. Specific immunotherapy reduces chemokine CCL5/RANTES serum level already after initial days of venom immunotherapy.

  18. A total-evidence approach to dating with fossils, applied to the early radiation of the hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P

    2012-12-01

    Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.].

  19. A Total-Evidence Approach to Dating with Fossils, Applied to the Early Radiation of the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L.; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:22723471

  20. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  1. Regional species richness of families and the distribution of abundance and rarity in a local community of forest Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2005-09-01

    Recent investigations about the relationship between the number of species of taxonomic lineages and regional patterns of species abundances gave indecisive results. Here, it is shown that mean densities of species of a species-rich community of forest Hymenoptera (673 species out of 25 families) were positively related to the number of European species per family. The fraction of abundant species per family declined and the fraction of rare species increased with species richness. Species rich families contained relatively more species, which were present in only one study year (occasional species), and relatively fewer species present during the whole study period (frequent species).

  2. Two new Aprostocetus species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), fortuitous parasitoids of invasive eulophid gall inducers (Tetrastichinae) on Eucalyptus and Erythrina.

    PubMed

    Yang, Man-Miao; Lin, Yu-Che; Wu, Yaojun; Fisher, Nicole; Saimanee, Titiporn; Sangtongpraow, Benjakhun; Zhu, Chaodong; Chiu, William Chien-Hsien; La Salle, John

    2014-08-01

    Two closely related new species of Aprostocetus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) are described as fortuitous parasitoids of invasive gall inducers in two other genera of Tetrastichinae, Leptocybe Fisher & LaSalle and Quadrastichus Girault. Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu is a parasitoid of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle on Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) in China and Thailand, and A. felix La Salle, Yang & Lin is a parasitoid of Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim on Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) in Taiwan. Epitetrastichus nigriventris Girault, 1913 is removed from synonymy from Aprostocetus gala (Walker), and treated as the valid species A. nigriventris (Girault). 

  3. Compression fossil Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) from Kishenehn oil shales, with description of two new genera and review of Tertiary amber genera

    PubMed Central

    Huber, John T.; Greenwalt, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Compression fossils of three genera and six species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are described from 46 million year old Kishenehn oil shales in Montana, USA. Two new genera are described: Eoeustochus Huber, gen. n., with two included species, Eoeustochus kishenehn Huber (type species) and Eoeustochus borchersi Huber, sp. n., and Eoanaphes, gen. n., with Eoanaphes stethynioides Huber, sp. n. Three new species of Gonatocerus are also described, Gonatocerus greenwalti Huber, sp. n. , Gonatocerus kootenai Huber, sp. n., and Gonatocerus rasnitsyni Huber, sp. n. Previously described amber fossil genera are discussed and five genera in Baltic amber are tentatively recorded as fossils: Anagroidea, Camptoptera, Dorya, Eustochus, and Mimalaptus. PMID:22259294

  4. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  5. A new species of the genus Asthenara Förster, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Mexico with identification key.

    PubMed

    Reshchikov, Alexey

    2016-08-19

    The genus Asthenara Förster, 1869, belonging to the tribe Pionini of the subfamily Ctenopelmatinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), comprises eight described species (Yu et al. 2012). Two of them are distributed in the Palaearctic Region, and six in the Neotropical region. One Neotropical species is known from Costa Rica (Gauld et al. 1997), the remaining five from Mexico (Kasparyan 2006). Kasparyan (2006) provided a key to the species from the Mexico. To date, no species of the genus have been described from Nearctic region or south of Costa Rica. In this article a new species belonging to Asthenara, collected in the Mexican state of Jalisco is described.

  6. First Occurrence of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Parasitizing Eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dudczak, A C; Querino, R B; Foerster, M R; Foerster, L A

    2017-08-01

    The occurrence of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is described for the first time parasitizing eggs of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Lapa, Paraná, Brazil. This parasitoid was successfully kept in the laboratory on eggs of the velvetbean caterpillar; previously, this species was mainly associated with forest and fruit trees environments, although snap beans and other annual crops were also recorded as hosting lepidopteran eggs parasitized by T. bruni. This is the sixth Trichogramma species recorded parasitizing eggs of A. gemmatalis on soybeans in Brazil.

  7. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Rakhshani, Ehsan; Kazemzadeh, Sedigheh; Starý, Petr; Barahoei, Hossein; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Ćetković, Aleksandar; Popović, Anđelka; Bodlah, Lmran; Tomanović, Željko

    2012-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of northeastern Iran were studied in this paper. A total of 29 species are keyed and illustrated with line drawings. The aphidiines presented in this work have been reared from 42 aphid host taxa occurring on 49 plant taxa from a total of 33 sampling sites. Sixty-six aphidiine-aphid-plant associations are presented. Trioxys metacarpalis sp. nov. from Chaitaphis tenuicaudata Nevsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Kochia scoparia, is described. The species diversity based on the comparative faunistic analysis is discussed.

  8. Discovery of the genus Formosiepyris Terayama, (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) in Vietnam, with a description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Tsujii, Kentaro; Mita, Toshiharu; Terayama, Mamoru; Pham, Hong Thai; Okajima, Shûji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Formosiepyris vietnamensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is described based on material collected from Da Lat, southern Vietnam. This is the first record of Formosiepyris Terayama from Vietnam. The new species can be distinguished from other Formosiepyris species by a narrow and rounded clypeus; a mandible with three teeth; a second metasomal tergite having small, sparsely distributed punctures and smooth interspaces, except for anterior 2/5, which is microreticulate; and a head length : width aspect ratio of 10 : 11. A key to the Oriental species of Formosiepyris is provided. PMID:26155069

  9. Compression fossil Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) from Kishenehn oil shales, with description of two new genera and review of Tertiary amber genera.

    PubMed

    Huber, John T; Greenwalt, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Compression fossils of three genera and six species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are described from 46 million year old Kishenehn oil shales in Montana, USA. Two new genera are described: Eoeustochus Huber, gen. n., with two included species, Eoeustochus kishenehn Huber (type species) and Eoeustochus borchersi Huber, sp. n., and Eoanaphes, gen. n., with Eoanaphes stethynioides Huber, sp. n. Three new species of Gonatocerus are also described, Gonatocerus greenwalti Huber, sp. n. , Gonatocerus kootenai Huber, sp. n., and Gonatocerus rasnitsyni Huber, sp. n. Previously described amber fossil genera are discussed and five genera in Baltic amber are tentatively recorded as fossils: Anagroidea, Camptoptera, Dorya, Eustochus, and Mimalaptus.

  10. The persistence toxicity of three insecticides against adult of a thelytokous parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae).

    PubMed

    Sabahi, Q; Rasekh, A; Sangaki, A H; Garjan, A Sheikhi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of three insecticides on three day-old L. fabarum females (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), the parasitoid of Aphis fabae, an experiment was carried out using IOBC/wprs method. Persistence toxicity of insecticides has been evaluated in the semifield condition. The trials were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replicates and an untreated check. The insecticides abamectin 1.8 EC, imidacloprid 350 SC, and pymetrozine 25 WP were used at recommended field rates. The insecticides were applied on broad bean foliage using a hand sprayer, until run-off. Contact toxicity of semi field-aged residues of insecticides on adult parasitoids was evaluated using the cage-method. The mortality of adult parasitoid, after 24 h contact with 1-day old residues of abamectin, imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 53, 90 and 57%, respectively. After 5 days the effect of residues decreased so that the adult mortality diminished to 28, 77 and 18% for mentioned above insecticides. 16-day old residues lead to 9, 22 and 14%; and 30-day old residues lead to 0, 3 and 1% mortality for these insecticides, respectively. Based on this study, abamectin and pymetrozine with persistence less than 5 d are classified as short lived (Class A) and imidacloprid with persistence between 5 to 15d, classified as slightly persistent (Class B) compounds.

  11. Baby Killers: Documentation and Evolution of Scuttle Fly (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitism of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Brood

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian V.; Hash, John M.; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. New information We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest. In another remarkable example, footage from the Soltis Center, near Peñas Blancas in Costa Rica, shows adult females of an unidentified species of the Apocephalus grandipalpus Borgmeier group mounting Pheidole Westwood brood upside-down and ovipositing while the brood are being transported by workers. Analysis of evolutionary relationships (in preparation) among Apocephalus Coquillett species shows that this is a newly derived behavior within the genus, as the A. grandipalpus group arises within a group of adult ant parasitoids. In contrast, relationships of Ceratoconus Borgmeier have not been studied, and the lifestyles of the other species in the genus are largely unknown. PMID:28325980

  12. Compatibility of endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) protected stages with five selected insecticides.

    PubMed

    Medina, P; Morales, J J; Budia, F; Adan, A; Del Estal, P; Viñuela, E

    2007-12-01

    Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid that emerges from the parasitization of economically important noctuid pests. H. didymator also is considered one of the most important native biocontrol agents of noctuids in Spain. Side effects of five insecticides with very different modes of action (fipronil, imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide, pymetrozine, and triflumuron) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain were evaluated on H. didymator parasitizing Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae and pupae of the endoparasitoid. Parasitized larvae were topically treated or ingested treated artificial diet. Parasitoid cocoons were topically treated. Host mortality when parasitized larvae were treated, as well as further development of the parasitoid surviving (e.g., percentage of cocoons spun, adult emergence, hosts attacked, and numbered progeny) were determined. Toxicity after treatment of parasitized larvae differed depending on the mode of exposure and insecticide. Fipronil was always highly toxic; imidacloprid killed all host insects by ingestion, but it was less toxic to both host and parasitoids, when administered topically; natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide and triflumuron showed differing degrees of toxicity, and pymetrozine was harmless. Parasitoid cocoons provided effective protection against all the insecticides, except fipronil.

  13. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  14. Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, M.A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Clarke-Harris, D.

    2007-03-15

    These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)

  15. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  16. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation.

  17. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa incubated at room temperature from drones exposed to miticides.

    PubMed

    Burley, Lisa M; Fell, Richard D; Saacke, Richard G

    2008-08-01

    We conducted research to examine the potential impacts ofcoumaphos, fluvalinate, and Apilife VAR (Thymol) on drone honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), sperm viability over time. Drones were reared in colonies that had been treated with each miticide by using the dose recommended on the label. Drones from each miticide treatment were collected, and semen samples were pooled. The pooled samples from each treatment were subdivided and analyzed for periods of up to 6 wk. Random samples were taken from each treatment (n = 6 pools) over the 6-wk period. Sperm viability was measured using dual-fluorescent staining techniques. The exposure of drones to coumaphos during development and sexual maturation significantly reduced sperm viability for all 6 wk. Sperm viability significantly decreased from the initial sample to week 1 in control colonies, and a significant decrease in sperm viability was observed from week 5 to week 6 in all treatments and control. The potential impacts of these results on queen performance and failure are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of apicultural characteristics of first-year colonies initiated from packaged honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Strange, James P; Calderone, Nicholas W

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of six named types of package honey bees, Apis mellifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from four commercial producers. We examined the effects of levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, the endoparasitic mite Acarapis woodi (Rennie), the gut parasite Nosema (species not determined) in samples from bees in 48 packages, and levels of adult drones in the same packages on corresponding levels of those same traits in the fall in colonies that developed from those 48 packages. After package installation, we measured the rate of queen failure, the removal of freeze-killed brood (an assay to assess hygienic behavior), varroa-sensitive hygiene, and short-term weight gain in all colonies. We examined the correlations among these traits and the effect of initial package conditions and package-type on the expression of these traits. In general, differences among sources were not significant, except that we did observe significant differences in the proportion of mite infected worker brood in the fall. There was no significant difference in weight gain in colonies established from nosema-infected packages versus those established from noninfected packages. Freeze-killed hygienic behavior and varroa-sensitive hygienic behavior were positively correlated, suggesting that both traits could be selected simultaneously. Neither trait was correlated with colony weight gain, suggesting that both traits could be selected without compromising honey production.

  19. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  20. The Effects of Colony Structure and Resource Abundance on Food Dispersal in Tapinoma sessile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    VanWeelden, M. T.; Bennett, G.; Buczkowski, G.

    2015-01-01

    The odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), exhibits a high degree of variation in colony spatial structure which may have direct and indirect effects on foraging. Protein marking and mark–release–recapture techniques were utilized to examine the effect of colony spatial structure on food dispersal. Sucrose water spiked with rabbit IgG protein was presented to colonies with varying spatial configurations in laboratory and field experiments. In monodomous lab colonies, the rate and extent of food dispersal was rapid due to a decrease in foraging area. In polydomous colonies, food dispersal was slower because conspecifics were forced to forage and share food over longer distances. However, over time, food was present in all extremities of the colony. Experiments conducted in the field produced similar results, with nests in close proximity to food yielding higher percentages of workers scoring positive for the marker. However, the percentage of workers possessing the marker decreased over time. Results from this study provide experimental data on mechanisms of food dispersal in monodomous and polydomous colonies of ants, and may be important for increasing the efficacy of management strategies against T. sessile and other pest ant species. PMID:25688088

  1. Microbial composition of spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis) across their geographic range.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Manuela Oliveira; Bueno, Odair Correa; Moreau, Corrie Saux

    2017-04-05

    Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools, this study explores the microbial community of >80 species of Polyrhachis distributed across the Old World and compares the microbiota of samples and related hosts across different biogeographic locations and in the context of their phylogenetic history. The predominant bacteria across samples were Enterobacteriaceae (Blochmannia - with likely many new strains), followed by Wolbachia (with multiple strains), Lactobacillus, Thiotrichaceae, Acinetobacter, Nocardia, Sodalis, and others. We recovered some exclusive strains of Enterobacteriaceae as specific to some subgenera of Polyrhachis, corroborating the idea of coevolution between host and bacteria for this bacterial group. Our correlation results (partial mantel and mantel tests) found that host phylogeny can influence the overall bacterial community, but that geographic location had no effect. Our work is revealing important aspects of the biology of hosts in structuring the diversity and abundance of these host-associated bacterial communities including the role of host phylogeny and shared evolutionary history.

  2. The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.

    PubMed

    Taeger, Andreas; París, Mercedes; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2014-04-16

    The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) housed in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, were examined. Lectotypes are designated and illustrated for the following 32 nominal taxa (preserved in the MNCN collection if not stated otherwise): Tenthredo acutiscutis Konow, 1908; Tenthredo aericeps Konow, 1907; Allantus albipectus Konow, 1907; Athalia bolivari Dusmet, 1896; Tristactus punctatus var. candidatus Konow, 1899; Tenthredo capistrata Konow, 1907; Megalodontes capitalatus Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo casta Konow, 1908; Clydostomus cestatus Konow, 1908; Miocephala chalybea Konow, 1907 (coll. SDEI); Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907; Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945 (coll. NHRS); Allantus dusmeti Konow, 1894 (coll. SDEI); Megalodontes dusmeti Enslin, 1914 (coll. ZSM); Megalodontes escalerai Konow, 1899; Tenthredo flavitarsis Konow, 1908; Sciopteryx galerita Konow, 1907; Tenthredo habenata Konow, 1907; Allantus inguinalis Konow, 1908; Clydostomus merceti Konow, 1908; Megalodontes merceti Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo mordax Konow, 1908; Megalodontes mundus Konow, 1904; Tenthredo nimbata Konow, 1906; Tenthredo oculissima Konow, 1907; Peus pannulosus Konow, 1907; Tenthredo podagrica Konow, 1907; Arge segmentaria var. rufiventris Konow, 1899; Tenthredo rugiceps Konow, 1908; Tenthredo segrega Konow, 1908; Peus splendidus Konow 1907; Tenthredo suta Konow, 1906. Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907, is considered to be a valid species. New synonymy is proposed for Tenthredo (Metallopeus) cupreiceps (Konow, 1907), comb. nov., spec. rev. (=Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.; =Metallopeus inermis Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.). 

  3. Selectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on adults of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Rossoni, Camila; Loureiro, Elisângela De Souza; Pereira, Fabricio Fagundes; Kassab, Samir Oliveira; Costa, Daniele Perassa; Barbosa, Rogério Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mortality patterns and interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and parasitoids is important to improve insect biological control programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879) Sorokin, 1833 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, 1912 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on adults of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with biological insecticides Biometha WP Plus (M. anisopliae), Biovéria G (B. bassiana), Boverril WP (B. bassiana), Metarril WP (M. anisopliae), and Metie WP (M. anisopliae) at concentrations of 1 x 10(9) conidia (con).mL(-1), 5 x 10(9) con.ml(-1), and 10 x 10(9) con.ml(-1). In the experimental, 10 females of C. flavipes were packed in disposable cups capped with a contact surface (filter paper, 9 cm2) treated with commercial product. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 16 treatments and five replicates of 10 females each. Mortality was assessed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exposition (HAE) of the products. In general, B. bassiana and M. anisopliae in the concentrations of 1 x 10(9) con.ml(-1), 5 x 10(9) con.ml(-1), and 10 x 10(9) con.ml(-1) can't affect C. flavipes females because the peak of mortality in treatments with bioinsecticides was similar to the control and this demonstrated the selectivity of fungi B. bassiana and M. anisopliae on C. flavipes females.

  4. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2009-12-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam. After 2 h, the number of fipronil-treated ants unable to walk out of test arenas did not differ from control ants. Median lethal time (LT50) after topical treatment was lowest in the bifenthrin treatment, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and then fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with topically treated ant corpses serving as donors. There was low to moderate horizontal activity in bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr treatments, with no temperature effect in bifenthrin treatments and a positive temperature effect in chlorfenapyr treatments. Mortality in the fipronil treatments was highest and was positively correlated with temperature. Thiamethoxam treatments did not differ from controls at 10 degrees C, but mortality increased with temperature. To evaluate contact activity, either all of 20% of the ants in a cohort were exposed to insecticide-treated pine needles. In both tests, mortality was highest in fipronil and bifenthrin treatments, followed by thiamethoxam, with lowest mortality in chlorfenapyr treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control. Mortality data suggest that lack of recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  5. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2010-06-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Both immobilization and mortality occurred most quickly with bifenthrin, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with three ratios of topically treated donor ant corpses to live recipients (5, 10, or 20% donors). Bifenthrin had the greatest horizontal activity of the chemicals tested. For chlorfenapyr, the only treatments having higher mortality than controls were the highest percentage donors at either 10 or 30 degrees C. Horizontal activity of fipronil was temperature dependent only with the highest proportion of donors and was lower than that ofbifenthrin but higher than that of chlorfenapyr or thiamethoxam. Mean mortality due to thiamethoxam was similar to that with chlorfenapyr. Significant mortality occurred in all of the 20 and 30 degrees C thiamethoxam treatments, but none of the 10 degrees C treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control bridge. Mortality data suggest that a reduction in recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  6. Autophagy and apoptosis coordinate physiological cell death in larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zacarin, Elaine C M Silva

    2007-01-01

    Larval salivary glands of bees provide a good model for the study of hormone-induced programmed cell death in Hymenoptera because they have a well-defined secretory cycle with a peak of secretory activity phase, prior to cocoon spinning, and a degenerative phase, after the cocoon spinning. Our findings demonstrate that there is a relationship between apoptosis and autophagy during physiological cell death in these larval salivary glands, that adds evidence to the hypothesis of overlap in the regulation pathways of both types of programmed cell death. Features of autophagy include cytoplasm vacuolation, acid phosphatase activity, presence of autophagic vacuoles and multi-lamellar structures, as well as a delay in the collapse of many nuclei. Features of apoptosis include bleb formation in the cytoplasm and nuclei, with release of parts of the cytoplasm into the lumen, chromatin compaction, and DNA and nucleolar fragmentation. We propose a model for programmed cell death in larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera where autophagy and apoptosis function cooperatively for a more efficient degeneration of the gland secretory cells.

  7. Interactions Among Latitude, Nematode Parasitization, and Female Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Jessica A; Chase, Kevin D; Galligan, Larry D; Riggins, John J; Stephen, Fred M

    2016-12-01

    Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an innocuous pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to eastern North America, utilizing dead or dying pine trees as hosts. Although S. nigricornis F. does not cause economic damage, a closely related species, Sirex noctilio, was discovered in New York in 2004 and has continually spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, threatening the multi-billion-dollar pine timber industry of the southeastern United States and raising interest about potential interactions with native woodwasps and associated mortality agents. A non-sterilizing strain of the biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae), was introduced along with S. noctilio but is not inhibiting the spread or establishment of S. noctilio A North American congener, Deladenus proximus Bedding, has been recently isolated from S. noctilio and shows promise as a biological control agent. To better understand the potential of D. proximus as a control agent for S. noctilio, we measured and dissected nearly 1,200 S. nigricornis females from Arkansas and Mississippi and evaluated differences among collection location with regard to nematode virulence, woodwasp body size, and egg load. Body size and egg load were related to collection location, and nematode infestation resulted in significantly smaller females who produced significantly fewer eggs. Female woodwasps, especially those collected in Arkansas, were often fully sterilized by nematodes, and a higher percent sterilization was inversely related to body size and fewer eggs. We propose field studies to test the nematode's ability to sterilize S. noctilio in the northeastern United States.

  8. Interactions Among Latitude, Nematode Parasitization, and Female Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Jessica A; Chase, Kevin D; Galligan, Larry D; Riggins, John J; Stephen, Fred M

    2016-09-02

    Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an innocuous pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to eastern North America, utilizing dead or dying pine trees as hosts. Although S. nigricornis F. does not cause economic damage, a closely related species, Sirex noctilio, was discovered in New York in 2004 and has continually spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, threatening the multi-billion-dollar pine timber industry of the southeastern United States and raising interest about potential interactions with native woodwasps and associated mortality agents. A non-sterilizing strain of the biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae), was introduced along with S. noctilio but is not inhibiting the spread or establishment of S. noctilio A North American congener, Deladenus proximus Bedding, has been recently isolated from S. noctilio and shows promise as a biological control agent. To better understand the potential of D. proximus as a control agent for S. noctilio, we measured and dissected nearly 1,200 S. nigricornis females from Arkansas and Mississippi and evaluated differences among collection location with regard to nematode virulence, woodwasp body size, and egg load. Body size and egg load were related to collection location, and nematode infestation resulted in significantly smaller females who produced significantly fewer eggs. Female woodwasps, especially those collected in Arkansas, were often fully sterilized by nematodes, and a higher percent sterilization was inversely related to body size and fewer eggs. We propose field studies to test the nematode's ability to sterilize S. noctilio in the northeastern United States.

  9. Kin-selected conflict in the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, A. F.; Ratnieks, F. L.

    2001-01-01

    Kin selection theory predicts conflict in social Hymenoptera between the queen and workers over male parentage because each party is more closely related to its own male offspring. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris support kin selection theory but others arguably do not. We present a novel hypothesis for how conflict over male parentage should unfold in B. terrestris colonies. We propose that workers delay laying eggs until they possess information showing that egg laying suits their kin-selected interests. In colonies where queens start to lay haploid eggs early, we hypothesize that this occurs when workers detect the presence of queen-produced male brood in the brood's larval stage. In colonies where queens start to lay haploid eggs late, we hypothesize that it occurs when workers detect a signal from the queen to female larvae to commence development as queens. Our hypothesis accounts for previously unexplained aspects of the timing of reproductive events in B. terrestris, provides ultimate explanations for the results of a recent study of mechanisms underlying queen-worker conflict and helps explain this species' characteristic bimodal (split) sex ratios. Therefore, kin selection theory potentially provides a good explanation for reproductive patterns in B. terrestris. PMID:11270430

  10. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shell, Wyatt A; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata's distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator.

  11. Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Groth, M Z; Loeck, A E; Nörnberg, S D; Bernardi, D; Nava, D E

    2016-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg-larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg-adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase.

  12. Highly effective bacterial agents against Cimbex quadrimaculatus (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): isolation of bacteria and their insecticidal activities.

    PubMed

    Cakici, Filiz Ozkan; Ozgen, İnanc; Bolu, Halil; Erbas, Zeynep; Demirbağ, Zihni; Demir, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    Cimbex quadrimaculatus (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) is one of the serious pests of almonds in Turkey and worldwide. Since there is no effective control application against this pest, it has been a serious problem up to now. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective bacterium that can be utilized as a biocontrol agent against C. quadrimaculatus in pest management. We isolated seven bacteria from dead and live C. quadrimaculatus larvae, and evaluated the larvicidal potency of all isolates on the respective pest. Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular properties (partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene), the isolates were identified to be Bacillus safensis (CQ1), Bacillus subtilis (CQ2), Bacillus tequilensis (CQ3), Enterobacter sp. (CQ4), Kurthia gibsonii (CQ5), Staphylococcus sp. (CQ6) and Staphylococcus sciuri (CQ7). The results of the larvicidal activities of these isolates indicated that the mortality value obtained from all treatments changed from 58 to 100 %, and reached 100 % with B. safensis (CQ1) and B. subtilis (CQ2) on the 3rd instar larvae within 10 days of application of 1.89 × 10(9) cfu/mL bacterial concentration at 25 °C under laboratory conditions. Findings from this study indicate that these isolates appear to be a promising biocontrol agent for C. quadrimaculatus.

  13. Evolution of the insect desaturase gene family with an emphasis on social Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Helmkampf, Martin; Cash, Elizabeth; Gadau, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Desaturase genes are essential for biological processes, including lipid metabolism, cell signaling, and membrane fluidity regulation. Insect desaturases are particularly interesting for their role in chemical communication, and potential contribution to speciation, symbioses, and sociality. Here, we describe the acyl-CoA desaturase gene families of 15 insects, with a focus on social Hymenoptera. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that the insect desaturases represent an ancient gene family characterized by eight subfamilies that differ strongly in their degree of conservation and frequency of gene gain and loss. Analyses of genomic organization showed that five of these subfamilies are represented in a highly microsyntenic region conserved across holometabolous insect taxa, indicating an ancestral expansion during early insect evolution. In three subfamilies, ants exhibit particularly large expansions of genes. Despite these expansions, however, selection analyses showed that desaturase genes in all insect lineages are predominantly undergoing strong purifying selection. Finally, for three expanded subfamilies, we show that ants exhibit variation in gene expression between species, and more importantly, between sexes and castes within species. This suggests functional differentiation of these genes and a role in the regulation of reproductive division of labor in ants. The dynamic pattern of gene gain and loss of acyl-CoA desaturases in ants may reflect changes in response to ecological diversification and an increased demand for chemical signal variability. This may provide an example of how gene family expansions can contribute to lineage-specific adaptations through structural and regulatory changes acting in concert to produce new adaptive phenotypes.

  14. Five new species of Disepyris Kieffer, 1905 (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), with emended generic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongok; Azevedo, Celso O

    2014-12-24

    Five new species of Disepyris Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are described and illustrated: D. kenyaensis Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov. (Kenya), D. fessus Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov., D. mongoliaensis Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov., D. prolatatus Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov. (Mongolia), D. niveus Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov. (United Arab Emirates) and the genus is first recorded from Yemen, based on a female of D. guigliae (Benoit). The diagnosis of Disepyris is emended by a combination of following characteristics: head with palpal formula 6:3; ventral surface of antennal flagellomeres III-XI with one pair of parallel basiconic sensillae; clypeus with median lobe distinctly wider than lateral lobe; eyes with sparse, very minute hairs; occipital carina present; mesonotum with notauli weakly carinate, present on anterior half of mesoscutum, median area without transverse foveolate or punctate groove; propodeal spiracle present antero-dorsally on propodeal disc, lateral surface of propodeum strigate; forewing without postmarginal vein, long radial flexion line present, medial flexion line divided into two apical lines. Legs polished without sculpture, appressed pubescence absent; mesotibia with sparse, short spines on apical half; hind basitarsus with one row of comb ventrally.

  15. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Wyatt A.; Rehan, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata’s distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. PMID:27324584

  16. Formal nomenclature and description of cryptic species of the Encyrtus sasakii complex (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qing-Song; Qiao, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Ai-Bing; Yu, Fang; Wang, Xu-Bo; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    With the recent development of molecular approaches to species delimitation, a growing number of cryptic species have been discovered in what had previously been thought to be single morpho-species. Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have greatly enhanced our knowledge of taxonomy, but taxonomy remains incomplete and needs a formal species nomenclature and description to facilitate its use in other scientific fields. A previous study using DNA barcoding, geometric morphometrics and mating tests revealed at least two cryptic species in the Encyrtus sasakii complex. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). To describe these two new species formally (Encyrtus eulecaniumiae sp. nov. and Encyrtus rhodococcusiae sp. nov.), a detailed morphometric study of Encyrtus spp. was performed in addition to the molecular analysis and evaluation of biological data. Morphometric analyses, a multivariate ratio analysis (MRA) and a geometric morphometric analysis (GMA) revealed a great number of differences between the species, but reliable characteristics were not observed for diagnosing the cryptic species. We thus diagnosed these three Encyrtus species on the basis of the characteristics that resulted from genetic markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear 28S rRNA) and biological data. A formal nomenclature and description of cryptic species was provided on the basis of an integrated taxonomy. PMID:27698441

  17. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

    PubMed Central

    Biewer, Matthias; Schlesinger, Francisca; Hasselmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd) acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem) gene, a transformer (tra) ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2) sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx) as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway. PMID:25914717

  18. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area.

  19. Characteristics of honey bee and non-Apis bee (Hymenoptera) farms in Canada.

    PubMed

    Daly, Z; Melhim, A; Weersink, A

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a farm-level, Canada-wide analysis of Canadian bee farms in 2006; this article is the first report to distinguish between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) farms and non-Apis bee (Hymenoptera) farms. Farms are characterized according to bee species, bee stocks, and whether the farm makes 50% or more of gross sales from bee-related activities. Farm characteristics, including bee stocks, gross sales, capital investments, land base, specialization, location, and operator demographics, are reported for the different farm types and sizes. Non-Apis bee farms are revealed to be a nontrivial part of the Canadian bee industry: 21.2% of Canadian bee farms have non-Apis bees and 16.6% have exclusively non-Apis bees. Important differences between honey bee farms and non-Apis bee farms also are found. These differences include the more land-intensive nature of non-Apis bee farms and the finding that non-Apis bee farms have greater diversity in terms of their primary commodity, even at higher bee stock levels.

  20. Toxicological and histopathological effects of boric acid on Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Simone; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C M; Decio, Pâmela; Malaspina, Osmar; Bueno, Fabiana C; Bueno, Odair C

    2010-06-01

    The current study compared the toxicity of different concentrations of boric acid in adult workers of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with toxicological bioassays, and examining the dose-dependent and time-dependent histopathological changes, of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and postpharyngeal glands. Our results revealed the importance of conducting toxicological bioassays combined with morphological analyses of the organs of ants chronically exposed to insecticides used in commercial ant baits. In vitro bioassays showed that boric acid significantly decreases the survivorship of workers regardless of concentration, whereas the morphological data suggested progressive dose-dependent and time-dependent changes in the organs examined, which were evident in the midgut. The midgut is the first organ to be affected, followed by the postpharyngeal gland and Malpighian tubules. This sequence is in agreement with the absorption pathway of this chemical compound in the midgut, its transference to the hemolymph, possibly reaching the postpharyngeal glands, and excretion by the Malpighian tubules. These progressive changes might be due to the cumulative and delayed effect of boric acid. Our findings provide important information for the understanding of the action of boric acid in ant baits in direct and indirect target organs.